WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer risk epidemiologic

  1. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  2. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  3. Pancreatic cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejs, Guenter J

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas has an incidence of approximately 10 per 100,000 population per year. This number pertains to Europe, North America and parts of South America (Argentina). Men are more often afflicted than women (female:male ratio of about 1:1.5, though reports vary). There has been a very small but steady increase in the incidence over the last 50 years. Unfortunately, numbers for incidence and mortality are still practically identical for this cancer. The peak of incidence is between 60 and 80 years of age. In absolute numbers, there are 8,000 cases diagnosed annually in Germany, and 33,000 in the US. Pancreatic cancer at pancreatic cancer include high-fat diet, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, hereditary pancreatitis, family history of pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In chronic pancreatitis, the risk for pancreatic cancer is increased 20-fold, in hereditary pancreatitis it is 60-fold higher than in the general population. In a kindred with 2 first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer, the risk for pancreatic cancer for other members of that kindred is 7-fold higher.

  4. Epidemiology, risk and outcomes of venous thromboembolism in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falanga, A; Russo, L

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is associated with a fourfold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk of VTE varies according to the type of malignancy (i. e. pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, lymphoma) and its disease stage and individual factors (i. e. sex, race, age, previous VTE history, immobilization, obesity). Preventing cancer-associated VTE is important because it represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In order to identify cancer patient at particularly high risk, who need thromboprophylaxis, risk prediction models have become available and are under validation. These models include clinical risk factors, but also begin to incorporate biological markers. The major American and European scientific societies have issued their recommendations to guide the management of VTE in patients with cancer. In this review the principal aspects of epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of cancer-associated VTE are summarized.

  5. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Siegel Scott; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.

    2011-01-01

    Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) we...

  6. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Lipworth

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth1,2, Robert E Tarone1,2, Lars Lund2,3, Joseph K McLaughlin1,21International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Medicine (JKM, RET and Preventive Medicine (LL, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Urology, Viborg Hospital, Viborg, DenmarkAbstract: Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches

  7. Ionizing radiation and cancer risk: evidence from epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, E

    1998-11-01

    Epidemiological studies provide the primary data on the carcinogenic effects of radiation in humans. Much of what is known has come from studies of the atomic bomb survivors, and to a lesser extent from patients receiving radiotherapy. These studies demonstrate that exposure to moderate to high doses of radiation increases the risk of cancer in most organs. For all solid cancers combined, cancers of the thyroid, breast and lung, and leukemia, risk estimates are fairly precise, and associations have been found at relatively low doses (bomb survivors, a linear-quadratic dose response seems to fit the data better than a pure linear model. Radiation does not act entirely in isolation. It can interact with other carcinogens, e.g. tobacco or chemotherapeutic agents, and with host factors such as age at exposure, gender or reproductive history. Interactions with medical interventions or with certain heritable mutations have also been suggested. While the studies of high-dose exposures are essential for understanding the overall biological consequences of radiation exposure, the public is more concerned about the long-term health effects from protracted exposures at low doses. Unfortunately, the inherent limitations of epidemiology make it extremely difficult to directly quantify health risks from these exposures. While most epidemiological data are compatible with linear extrapolations from exposures at high doses or high dose rates, they cannot entirely exclude other possibilities. As the field of epidemiology advances, understanding more about the health effects of prolonged and low-dose exposures will be the next challenge. PMID:9806607

  8. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Mukhtiar; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif; Sultana, Sabira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death among all cancers and is the 4th most common cancer in the world. The number of deaths due to gastric cancer is about 800,000 annually. Gastric cancer is more common in men as compared to women and is 3rd most common cancer after colorectal and breast cancers in women. A progressive rise in the incidence rate has been observed in females over the last 5 years. The highest incidence of stomach cancer is in China, South America and Eastern Europe. The incidence of gastric cancer has 20 fold variation worldwide. Global variation is linked by two factors which play important role in developing gastric cancer. One is infection with Helicobacter pylori and the 2nd is diet. South Asia is a region with low risk, despite a high prevalence of H.pylori. Gastric carcinoma is common in southern region of India. Gastric cancer is more readily treated if diagnosed early. This study aims to provide awareness about gastric cancer as well as an updated knowledge about risk factors and epidemiology of gastric cancer in Pakistan.

  9. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Siegel Scott

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (methylene chloride is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers, focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21. These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure, with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements.

  10. An epidemiologic risk prediction model for ovarian cancer in Europe : The EPIC study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, K; Huesing, A.; Fortner, R. T.; Tjonneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Dossus, L; Chang-Claude, J; Bergmann, M.; A. Steffen; Bamia, C.; Trichopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A; Palli, D; Mattiello, A; Agnoli, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer has a high case-fatality ratio, largely due to late diagnosis. Epidemiologic risk prediction models could help identify women at increased risk who may benefit from targeted prevention measures, such as screening or chemopreventive agents. Methods: We built an ovarian cancer risk prediction model with epidemiologic risk factors from 202 206 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results: Older age at menopause, longer durati...

  11. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of glucosinolat

  12. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Boushey, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the incidence, mortality, and survival rates for colorectal cancer are reviewed, with attention paid to regional variations and changes over time. A concise overview of known risk factors associated with colorectal cancer is provided, including familial and hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  13. High-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: Definition and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Porten, SP; Cooperberg, MR

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer represents a large majority of patients diagnosed with this disease. Precise definition and risk stratification are paramount in this group as high-risk patients have higher rates of progression and mortality and may benefit from early identification and aggressive treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The mainstay definitions of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer are based on grade and stage. Recently, efforts have been made to incorporate ...

  14. Can traditional epidemiology detect cancer risks caused by occupational exposure to pesticides?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgellis, A. [Environmental Illness Research Center, Huddinge (Sweden); Kolmodin-Hedman, B. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health Sciences; Kouretas, D. [Thessaly Univ. , Pedion Areos, Volos (Greece). School of Agriculture

    1999-06-01

    In order to investigate the possible relationship between cancer and occupational exposure to pesticides, the authors reviewed the latest literature of the epidemiological studies in this area coming to the conclusion that, while several studies indicate a link between certain pesticides and certain tumors, this information is still insufficient, and further research on the health consequence of exposure to pesticides is needed. Moreover, provided there is a risk, it is often too limited to be detected by available epidemiological techniques. Therefore, in addition to the epidemiological studies, the development of new biology, gene technology and medical biotechnology methods may significantly enhance the specificity of the epidemiological studies. Thus, the fusion of molecular biology and epidemiology into molecular epidemiology may provide more specific methods for monitoring the occupational dependent carcinogenic risk of individuals and groups.

  15. Epidemiological studies of oats consumption and risk of cancer and overall mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Thies, Frank; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    A review of epidemiological studies on the intake of oats and oat-based products and its effect on the risk of chronic disease and deaths was performed. Seven studies were identified of cancer risk (two each on prostate and colorectal cancer, and one each on pancreatic, breast and endometrial cancer), and one study on overall mortality. With the exception of a case-control study of pancreatic cancer, all studies were of cohort design: five studies were based on a single cohort from Denmark. The results of most cohort studies suggest a weak protective effect of a high intake of oats on cancer risk (relative risks in the order of 0·9). Potential limitations of the studies are dietary exposure misclassification, low statistical power because of limited exposure contrast and residual confounding. Despite the evidence from experimental and mechanistic studies of a protective effect of oats intake on CVD and diabetes, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on these conditions.

  16. An epidemiologic risk prediction model for ovarian cancer in Europe : The EPIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, K.; Huesing, A.; Fortner, R. T.; Tjonneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Dossus, L.; Chang-Claude, J.; Bergmann, M.; Steffen, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopoulos, D.; Trichopoulou, A.; Palli, D.; Mattiello, A.; Agnoli, C.; Tumino, R.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; Peeters, P. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as); Gram, I. T.; Weiderpass, E.; Sanchez-Cantalejo, E.; Chirlaque, M-D; Duell, E. J.; Ardanaz, E.; Idahl, A.; Lundin, E.; Khaw, K-T; Travis, R. C.; Merritt, M. A.; Gunter, M. J.; Riboli, E.; Ferrari, P.; Terry, K.; Cramer, D.; Kaaks, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer has a high case-fatality ratio, largely due to late diagnosis. Epidemiologic risk prediction models could help identify women at increased risk who may benefit from targeted prevention measures, such as screening or chemopreventive agents. Methods: We built an ovarian canc

  17. Low Dose Radiation Cancer Risks: Epidemiological and Toxicological Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David G. Hoel, PhD

    2012-04-19

    The basic purpose of this one year research grant was to extend the two stage clonal expansion model (TSCE) of carcinogenesis to exposures other than the usual single acute exposure. The two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis incorporates the biological process of carcinogenesis, which involves two mutations and the clonal proliferation of the intermediate cells, in a stochastic, mathematical way. The current TSCE model serves a general purpose of acute exposure models but requires numerical computation of both the survival and hazard functions. The primary objective of this research project was to develop the analytical expressions for the survival function and the hazard function of the occurrence of the first cancer cell for acute, continuous and multiple exposure cases within the framework of the piece-wise constant parameter two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis. For acute exposure and multiple exposures of acute series, it is either only allowed to have the first mutation rate vary with the dose, or to have all the parameters be dose dependent; for multiple exposures of continuous exposures, all the parameters are allowed to vary with the dose. With these analytical functions, it becomes easy to evaluate the risks of cancer and allows one to deal with the various exposure patterns in cancer risk assessment. A second objective was to apply the TSCE model with varing continuous exposures from the cancer studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs. Using step functions to estimate the retention functions of the pulmonary exposure of plutonium the multiple exposure versions of the TSCE model was to be used to estimate the beagle dog lung cancer risks. The mathematical equations of the multiple exposure versions of the TSCE model were developed. A draft manuscript which is attached provides the results of this mathematical work. The application work using the beagle dog data from plutonium exposure has not been completed due to the fact

  18. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Cui; Xinxin Liu; Yalan Tian; Chen Xie; Qianwen Li; Han Cui; Changqing Sun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990...

  19. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk : individual participant meta-analysis of 52 epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gapstur, S. M.; Patel, A. V.; Banks, E.; Dal Maso, L.; Talamini, R.; Chetrit, A.; Hirsh-Yechezkel, G.; Lubin, F.; Sadetzki, S.; Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Cairns, B.; Crossley, B.; Gaitskell, K.; Goodill, A.; Green, J.; Hermon, C.; Key, T.; Moser, K.; Reeves, G.; Sitas, F.; Collins, R.; Peto, R.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Lee, N.; Marchbanks, P.; Ory, H. W.; Peterson, H. B.; Wingo, P. A.; Martin, N.; Silpisornkosol, S.; Theetranont, C.; Boosiri, B.; Chutivongse, S.; Jimakorn, P.; Virutamasen, P.; Wongsrichanalai, C.; Goodman, M. T.; Lidegaard, O.; Kjaer, S. K.; Morch, L. S.; Kjaer, S. K.; Tjonneland, A.; Byers, T.; Rohan, T.; Mosgaard, B.; Vessey, M.; Yeates, D.; Freudenheim, J. L.; Titus, L. J.; Chang-Claude, J.; Kaaks, R.; Anderson, K. E.; Lazovich, D.; Robien, K.; Hampton, J.; Newcomb, P. A.; Rossing, M. A.; Thomas, D. B.; Weiss, N. S.; Lokkegaard, E.; Riboli, E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Cramer, D.; Hankinson, S. E.; Tamimi, R. M.; Tworoger, S. S.; Franceschi, S.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Adami, H. O.; Magnusson, C.; Riman, T.; Weiderpass, E.; Wolk, A.; Schouten, L. J.; van den Brandt, P. A.; Chantarakul, N.; Koetsawang, S.; Rachawat, D.; Palli, D.; Black, A.; Brinton, L. A.; Freedman, D. M.; Hartge, P.; Hsing, A. W.; Jnr, J. V. Lacey; Lissowska, J.; Hoover, R. N.; Schairer, C.; Babb, C.; Urban, M.; Graff-Iversen, S.; Selmer, R.; Bain, C. J.; Green, A. C.; Purdie, D. M.; Siskind, V.; Webb, P. M.; Moysich, K.; McCann, S. E.; Hannaford, P.; Kay, C.; Binns, C. W.; Lee, A. H.; Zhang, M.; Ness, R. B.; Nasca, P.; Coogan, P. F.; Palmer, J. R.; Rosenberg, L.; Whittemore, A.; Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Tzonou, A.; Dabancens, A.; Martinez, L.; Molina, R.; Salas, O.; Lurie, G.; Carney, M. E.; Wilkens, L. R.; Hartman, L.; Manjer, J.; Olsson, H.; Kumle, M.; Grisso, J. A.; Morgan, M.; Wheeler, J. E.; Edwards, R. P.; Kelley, J. L.; Modugno, F.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Casagrande, J.; Pike, M. C.; Wu, A. H.; Canfell, K.; Miller, A. B.; Gram, I. T.; Lund, E.; McGowan, L.; Shu, X. O.; Zheng, W.; Farley, T. M. M.; Holck, S.; Meirik, O.; Risch, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on

  20. Bladder cancer risk in painters: a review of the epidemiological evidence, 1989-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Cristina; Pira, Enrico; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2005-11-01

    Epidemiological studies on the potential association between painting and the risk of bladder cancer published after the Monograph of the International Agency for Research on Cancer N. 47 of 1989 have been systematically reviewed. These included four cohort studies on the incidence of bladder cancer among painters, with a pooled relative risk (RR) of 1.10 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.03-1.18), based on 893 cases observed. The corresponding summary RR from four cohort studies on mortality was 1.23 (95% CI 1.11-1.37), based on 370 deaths. The pooled RR from 14 case-control studies and a pooled-analysis of other 11 case-control studies was 1.35 (95% CI 1.19-1.53), based on 465 cases exposed. Overall, the RR from all epidemiological studies was 1.17 (95% 1.11-1.27). Thus, recent epidemiological evidence indicates a moderate excess risk for bladder cancer in painters. Some studies, however, suggested that any such risk would have been greater for exposures in the distant past. Open issues for interpretation include residual confounding by social class and tobacco smoking, and understanding the time-risk relation. In particular, the potential residual risk related to exposure over the last two to three decades remains to be defined. PMID:16184465

  1. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies.

  2. Global epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Newell Johnson

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Globacan [2002] database from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, shows 400,318 cases of oral and pharyngeal [excluding nasopharynx] cancer in the world annually, and 221,917 deaths.

  3. Development of cancer risk estimates from epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation risk estimates may be made for an increase in mortality from, or for an increase in incidence of, particular types of disease. For both endpoints, two numerical systems of risk expression are used: the absolute risk system (usually the excess deaths or cases per million persons per year per rad), and the relative risk system (usually excess deaths or cases per year per rad expressed as a percentage of those normally expected). Risks may be calculated for specific age groups or for a general population. An alternative in both risk systems is the estimation of cumulative of lifetime risk rather than annual risk (e.g. in excess deaths per million per rad over a specified long period including the remainder of lifespan). The derivation of both absolute and relative risks is illustrated by examples. The effects on risk estimates of latent period, follow-up time, age at exposure and age standardization within dose groups are illustrated. The dependence of the projected cumulative (lifetime) risk on the adoption of a constant absolute risk or constant relative risk is noted. The use of life-table data in the adjustment of cumulative risk for normal mortality following single or annual doses is briefly discussed

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  5. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hae Jin; Youn, Chang Ho; Kim, Hyo Min; Cho, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Geon Ho; Lee, Won Kee

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary magnesium and the risk of overall cancer using a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Review through November 2012. All the articles searched were independently reviewed by 3 authors based on predetermined selection criterion. A total of 13 epidemiologic studies, 6 case-control studies, and 7 prospective cohort studies involving 1,236,004 participants were included in the final analysis. When all studies were pooled, the relative risk (RR) of overall cancer for the highest level of dietary magnesium intake was 0.801 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.664-0.966) compared with the lowest level of dietary magnesium intake. In subgroup meta-analyses by study design, there was a significant inverse association between dietary magnesium and the risk of cancer in case-control studies (RR = 0.663, 95% CI: 0.475-0.925), whereas there was no significant association in prospective cohort studies (RR = 0.888, 95% CI: 0.745-1.060). Furthermore, there was a significant preventive effect of dietary magnesium for colorectal cancer (RR = 0.775, 95% CI: 0.655-0.919), but not for other cancer. Our meta-analysis showed that higher dietary magnesium intake seems to have a protective effect for cancer, especially colorectal cancer and in females.

  6. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  7. Choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanwen; Li, Xiao; Ren, Anjing; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Zhu, Lingjun; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A number of human and animal in vitro or in vivo studies have investigated the relationship between dietary choline and betaine and cancer risk, suggesting that choline and betaine consumption may be protective for cancer. There are also a few epidemiologic studies exploring this relationship, however, with inconsistent conclusions. The PubMed and Embase were searched, from their inception to March 2016, to identify relevant studies and we brought 11 articles into this meta-analysis eventually. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of cancer for the highest versus the lowest range were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97) for choline consumption only, 0.86 (95%CI, 0.76 to 0.97) for betaine consumption only and 0.60 (95%CI, 0.40 to 0.90) for choline plus betaine consumption, respectively. Significant protective effect of dietary choline and betaine for cancer was observed when stratified by study design, location, cancer type, publication year, sex and quality score of study. An increment of 100 mg/day of choline plus betaine intake helped reduce cancer incidence by 11% (0.89, 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.92) through a dose-response analysis. To conclude, choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer incidence in this meta-analysis, but further studies are warranted to verify the results. PMID:27759060

  8. Soy intake and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrom, Suhaila; Idris, Nik Ruzni Nik

    2016-06-01

    The impact of soy intake on breast cancer risk has been investigated extensively. However, these studies reported conflicting results. The objective of this study is to perform comprehensive review and updated meta-analysis on the association between soy intake and breast cancer risk and to identify significant factors which may contribute to the inconsistencies of results of the individual studies. Based on reviews of existing meta-analysis, we identified four main factors which contributed to the inconsistencies of results of individual studies on the association of soy intake and breast cancer risk namely; region, menopausal status of the patients, soy type and study design. Accordingly, we performed an updated meta-analysis of 57 studies grouped by the identified factors. Pooled ORs of studies carried out in Asian countries suggested that soy isoflavones consumption was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer among both pre and postmenopausal women (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74 for premenopausal women; OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.52-0.75 for postmenopausal women). However, pooled OR of studies carried out in Western countries shows that there is no statistically significant association between soy intake and breast cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.03). Our study suggests that soy food intake is associated with significantly reduced risk of breast cancer for women in Asian but not in Western countries. Further epidemiological studies need to be conducted with more comprehensive information about the dietary intake and relative exposure among the women in these two different regions.

  9. Flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

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    Chang Hui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested the chemopreventive effects of flavonoids on carcinogenesis. Yet numbers of epidemiologic studies assessing dietary flavonoids and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. The association between flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, etc. and the risk of breast cancer lacks systematic analysis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass (except isoflavones and the risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. DESIGN: We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published before July 1(st, 2012, using Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED. Summary relative risks (RR were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. All analyses were performed using STATA version 10.0. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included, involving 9 513 cases and 181 906 controls, six of which were prospective cohort studies, and six were case-control studies. We calculated the summary RRs of breast cancer risk for the highest vs lowest categories of each flavonoid subclass respectively. The risk of breast cancer significantly decreased in women with high intake of flavonols (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98 and flavones (RR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.76-0.91 compared with that in those with low intake of flavonols and flavones. However, no significant association of flavan-3-ols (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.02, flavanones (summary RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03, anthocyanins (summary RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.08 or total flavonoids (summary RR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, summary RRs of 3 case-control studies stratified by menopausal status suggested flavonols, flavones or flavan-3-ols intake is associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal while not in pre-menopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests the intake of flavonols

  10. Isoforms of thyroxine-binding globulin as a model for molecular epidemiology of human cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The novel field of molecular epidemiology of human cancer risk has added a new branch to classical epidemiology by providing a direct link between human cancer and carcinogen exposure. It was estimated that about 80% of cancers are due to environmental factors. The blood proteins are almost certainly targets for modification in human cancer, and their identification and characterization will be of primary importance in the development of the new and rapidly evolving field of molecular epidemiology. Among blood proteins that are altered in human cancer, TBG occupies a special place because the level of human blood TBG is the most sensitive to intensification of biosynthesis and proliferation processes in organisms in different types of cancer. The increase of TBG concentration in cancer can be result from both activation of TBG biosynthesis in liver or altering of post translation glycosylation that prolongs protein survival time. The molecular basis for the change in the properties of TBG in cancer is unknown. These distinctive changes could have important consequences for the function of TBG in cancer and may help to develop more precise markers for monitoring pathological progression in this disease. Considerable variability and subtlety can occur in the carbohydrate composition and structure of serum glycoproteins in disease. This can be either as a major change, such as an increase in the number of oligosaccharide branches at a particular glycosylation site or as a minor change such as the addition of an extra fucose or sialic acid residue. Increased fucosylation has also been reported for transferrin and alpha-fetoprotein in liver cancer; thyroglobulin in thyroid cancer, IgG in myeloma, haptoglobin in ovarian cancer. The last own studies have shown that in clinically healthy teenagers born in Khojniki (137 Cs 185-555 kBq/m), we have found an unusual thyroid profile exhibiting increased levels of total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), and thyroxine

  11. Green tea consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

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    Zheng Ping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea has shown the role of chemoprevention for cancer. Recently, several studies suggested that green tea intake may have effect on esophageal cancer risk, whereas the results were inconsistent. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of all English and Chinese language studies of green tea consumption and esophageal cancer risk indexed in Medline, Embase, the Science Citation Index, the Chinese Biomedical Database and Wanfang Data from 1980 to June 2012. After reviewing each study, extracting data, and evaluating heterogeneity (Chi-square-based Q test and Ι2 and publication bias (Begg and Egger test, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking esophageal cancer risk. Pooled relative risk (RR or odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the fixed- or random-effect models. Results Ten eligible epidemiologic studies including 33731 participants and 3557 cases for esophageal cancer were included. Eight of which were case–control studies, and two were cohort studies. Overall, there were no association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking risk of esophageal cancer (High: highest vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.02. Medium: drinker vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.03. Low: lowest vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.08. When stratified analyses according to study design (case–control and cohort studies, country (China and Japan, participates source (population-based and hospital-based case–control, and gender (female and male, there were significant association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking risk of esophageal cancer among female (High: RR/OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.54. Medium: RR/OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.66. Low: RR/OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.79, but not the others. Conclusions We did not found significant

  12. Epidemiologic evidence of cancer risk in textile industry workers: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fedeli, Ugo; Fadda, Emanuela; Milan, Giovanni; Lange, John H

    2002-05-01

    A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies for textile industry workers was undertaken in an attempt to evaluate whether the cancer risk varies within the textile industry in relation to the job held or the textile fiber used. We combined studies published up until 1990, when an ad hoc IARC Monograph was issued, and those published after 1990 with the aim of appreciating evidence of reversing trends in cancer risk. Observed and expected cases reported in the original studies were summed up and the totals were divided to obtain a pooled relative risk (PRR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated with a fixed-effect model. We calculated a chi-square test (chi2) of heterogeneity among studies. When PRR and chi2 were both significant, PRR and CI were calculated with a random-effect model and the source of heterogeneity was investigated. Lung cancer risk was around 0.4 in the first study on cotton workers published in 1936, around 0.7 in subsequent studies, mostly published in the 1970s and 1980s, and around 1.0 in the last studies published in the 1990s. Papers published in the 1970s and 1980s produced consistent risk estimates for lung cancer risk, which was significantly lower than 1.0 in workers exposed to cotton (PRR = 0.77; CI = 0.69-0.86) and wool dust (0.71; 0.50-0.92), as well as in carders and fiber preparers (0.73; 0.54-0.91), weavers (0.71; 0.56-0.85), and spinners and weavers (0.78; 0.66-0.91). Lung cancer PRRs did not significantly deviate from 1.0 in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and in dyers. Increased PRRs were found for sinonasal cancer in workers exposed to cotton dust, and in workers involved in spinning or weaving (4.14; 1.80-6.49). PRR was 1.46 (1.10-1.82) for cancer of the digestive system in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and 1.34 (1.10-1.59) for colorectal cancer in spinners and weavers. The increased bladder cancer PRR in dyers (1.39; 1.07-1.71) is generally attributed to textile dye exposure. In studies

  13. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

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    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology Study in Xuanwei: the Relationship among
Coal Type, Genotype and Lung Cancer Risk

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    Jihua LI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that the lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei County, China was among the highest in the country and has been associated with exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This risk may be modified by variation in genetic polymorphisms and coal subtypes. Our objective was to use molecular epidemiological techniques to investigate the relationship among genetic polymorphisms, coal subtype and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei County. Methods On the basis of two population-based case-control studies in residents of Xuanwei County, China, questionnaires covering demographic information, smoking history, family and personal medical history, and information on other variables were administered and buccal cells and sputum samples were collected separately from each subject enrolled to extract DNA. GST superfamily, AKR1C3 superfamily, OGG1 superfamily and other genotype were scanned by useing PCR method. ORs and 95%CIs were used to estimate the association between genotypes, coal subtypes and lung cancer risk factors by conditional Logistic regression using Statistical Analysis Software. Results Compared with subjects who using smokeless coal or wood, smoky coal use was statistically significantly associated with lung cancer risk (OR=7.7, 95%CI: 4.5-13.3. There was marked heterogeneity in risk estimates for specific subtypes of smoky coal. Estimates were highest for coal from the Laibin (OR=24.8, Longtan (OR=11.6 and Baoshan (OR=6.0 coal types, and lower for coal from other types; the risk within the same subtype of coal in male and female were similar. The GSTM1-null genotype, the AKR1C3 (Ex1-70C>G, OGG1 (Ex6-315C>G genotypes were closely associated with increased risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei County, and their odds ratios (95%CI were 2.3 (1.3-4.2, 1.8 (1.0-3.5 and 1.9 (1.1-3.3, respectively. Compared to subjects who with GSTM1-positive and used less than

  15. Consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces risk of pancreatic cancer: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Wu, Lang; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Xu, Xin; Ji, Chao; Gong, Ting-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Observational studies have reported inconsistent results on the association between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We carried out a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to summarize available evidence. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases for relevant studies published until the end of January 2015. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to estimate the summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A total of 15 case-control studies, eight prospective studies, and one pooled analysis fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The summary RR for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.73 (95% CI=0.53-1.00) for fruit and vegetables, 0.73 (95% CI=0.63-0.84) for fruit, and 0.76 (95% CI=0.69-0.83) for vegetables, with significant heterogeneities (I=70.5, 55.7, and 43.0%, respectively). Inverse associations were observed in the stratified analysis by study design, although the results of prospective studies showed borderline significance, with corresponding RR=0.90 (95% CI=0.77-1.05) for fruit and vegetable intake, 0.93 (95% CI=0.83-1.03) for fruit intake, and 0.89 (95% CI=0.80-1.00) for vegetable intake. Besides, significant inverse associations were observed in the majority of other subgroup analyses by study quality, geographic location, exposure assessment method, and adjustment for potential confounders. Findings from the present meta-analysis support that fruit and vegetable intake is associated inversely with the risk of pancreatic cancer. However, study design may play a key role in the observed magnitude of the aforementioned association. Future well-designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  16. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  17. Overview of epidemiologic studies of radiation and cancer risk based on medical series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation for medical reasons have made important contributions to understanding of the relationship between such radiation and subsequent cancer risk. In this paper the strengths and limitations of medical studies are considered and their future potential usefulness is discussed. Studies may be broadly classified into two types, namely, those of individuals exposed for therapeutic purposes such as the study of ankylosing spondylytics and those of individuals exposed for diagnostic or examination purposes such as those of tuberculosis patients routinely examined by chest fluoroscopy. In general, studies of therapeutic exposures tend to involve high doses of radiation given at high dose rates and in a relatively small number of fractions, whereas studies of diagnostic exposures tend to involve relatively low doses, low dose rates and many fractions. However, these generalizations are not always true: for example, in the fluoroscopy studies some patients received doses to organs such as breast and lung which were substantially higher than those experienced in the atomic bomb survivors study and in a study of Israeli children treated with radiation for tinea capitis the average thyroid dose was reported to be low, and only about 0.09 gray. These studies illustrate one of the most important advantages of medical series, namely the variety of such studies in terms of the characteristics of the radiation involved (linear energy transfer characteristics, dose range, dose rate, and fractionation), the organs exposed and hence potentially at risk, and the characteristics of those exposed to such radiation

  18. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52-0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = -0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case-control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer.

  19. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk: A systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Menelaos eZafrakas; Grigorios eGrimbizis; Anna eTimologou; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2014-01-01

    Background: A possible etiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer has been repeatedly reported in the literature. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate published epidemiological data on this issue. Review Methods: We conducted an extensive search of the literature in MEDLINE, of articles ever published until February 2014, using the key-words endometriosis and ovarian and one of the following terms in the title: cancer or malignancy or malignant or tumor or tumour or neopla...

  20. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Several epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and bladder cancer risk and the results were varied. Thus, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of studies exclusively dedicated to the relationship between the 3 most commonly used analgesics and bladder cancer risk. METHODS: A systematic literature search up to November 2012 was performed in PubMed database for 3 categories of analgesics: acetaminophen, aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Seventeen studies (8 cohort and 9 case-control studies, involving a total of 10,618 bladder cancer cases, were contributed to the analysis. We found that acetaminophen (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-1.17 and aspirin (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91-1.14 were not associated with bladder cancer risk. Although non-aspirin NSAIDs was statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer among case-control studies (but not cohort studies, the overall risk was not statistically significant (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.73-1.05. Furthermore, we also found that non-aspirin NSAIDs use was significantly associated with a 43% reduction in bladder cancer risk among nonsmokers (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.76, but not among current smokers. CONCLUSION: The results of our meta-analysis suggest that there is no association between use of acetaminophen, aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs and bladder cancer risk. However, non-aspirin NSAIDs use might be associated with a reduction in risk of bladder cancer for nonsmokers.

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consumption, smoking, gastritis, stomach ulcer, gastrectomy, stomach polyposis, positive family history for gastric cancer, pernicious anemia and blood type A. Diet rich in vegetables and fruits, and reduced salt intake can prevent 65-75% of gastric cancer cases among nonsmokers. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection can also reduce the incidence of this malignant disease. .

  2. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines. PMID:26667337

  3. The nuclear industry and the risk of cancer in the Manche district - Cancer epidemiology and nuclear industry in the Manche district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposed a summarized version and a full version of a study on cancer epidemiology in the Manche district in which are located four nuclear sites of different nature and with different potential risks: the Flamanville nuclear plant (with the EPR under construction), the La Hague Areva nuclear fuel processing plant, the Manche storage site, and the Cherbourg arsenal. It describes the missions of the two cancer registries regarding the Manche region population (the general cancer registry for the Manche district, and the specialized registry of hematologic malignancies for the Basse-Normandie region), discusses the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident, presents the levels of the various basic indicators of cancer epidemiology survey (share of cancers in global mortality and factors of risk cancer, radio-induced cancers), compares cancer occurrence in the Manche district and in France and outlines some peculiarities of cancer occurrence in the Manche district, comments the cartography of cancer occurrence in the Manche district over the 1999-2010 period (solid cancers, hematologic malignancies)

  4. Review of salt consumption and stomach cancer risk:Epidemiological and biological evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qin Wang; Paul D Terry; Hong Yan

    2009-01-01

    Stomach cancer is still the fourth most common cancer; thus, it remains an important public health burden worldwide, especially in developing countries. The remarkable geographic variations in the rates of stomach cancer indicate that dietary factors, including a range of food groups to which salt and/or nitrates have been added, may affect stomach cancer risk. In this paper, we review the results from ecologic, case-control and cohort studies on the relationship between salt or salted foods and stomach cancer risk. The majority of ecological studies indicated that the average salt intake in each population was closely correlated with gastric cancer mortality. Most casecontrol studies showed similar results, indicating a moderate to high increase in risk for the highest level of salt or salted food consumption. The overall results from cohort studies are not totally consistent, but are suggestive of a moderate direct association. Since salt intake has been correlated with Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection, it is possible that these two factors may synergize to promote the development of stomach cancer. Additionally, salt may also cause stomach cancer through directly damaging gastric mucus, improving temporary epithelial proliferation and the incidence of endogenous mutations, and inducing hypergastrinemia that leads to eventual parietal cell loss and progression to gastric cancer. Based on the considerable evidence from ecological, case-control and cohort studies worldwide and the mechanistic plausibility, limitation on salt and salted food consumption is a practical strategy for preventing gastric cancer.

  5. [Exposure to CT scans in childhood and long-term cancer risk: A review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysson, Hélène; Journy, Neige; Roué, Tristan; Ducou-Lepointe, Hubert; Etard, Cécile; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2016-02-01

    Amongst medical exams requiring ionizing radiation, computed tomography (CT) scans are used more frequently, including in children. These CT examinations are associated with absorbed doses that are much higher than those associated with conventional radiology. In comparison to adults, children have a greater sensitivity to radiation and a longer life span with more years at cancer risks. Five epidemiological studies on cancer risks after CT scan exposure during childhood were published between 2012 and 2015. The results of these studies are consistent and show an increase of cancer risks in children who have been exposed to several CT scans. However, methodological limits due to indication bias, retrospective assessment of radiation exposure from CT scans and lack of statistical power are to be taken into consideration. International projects such as EPI-CT (Epidemiological study to quantify risks for pediatric computerized tomography and to optimize dose), with a focus on dosimetric reconstruction and minimization of bias will provide more precise results. In the meantime, available results reinforce the necessity of justification and optimization of doses.

  6. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk: A systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos eZafrakas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A possible etiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer has been repeatedly reported in the literature. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate published epidemiological data on this issue. Review Methods: We conducted an extensive search of the literature in MEDLINE, of articles ever published until February 2014, using the key-words endometriosis and ovarian and one of the following terms in the title: cancer or malignancy or malignant or tumor or tumour or neoplasia or neoplasm or transformation. Retrieved papers were checked for further relevant publications. Results: Overall, our search yielded one prospective cohort study, ten retrospective cohort and five case-control studies. A meta-analysis of these studies was not considered to be appropriate, due to differences in data reporting, study design and adjustment for confounding factors. Limitations: The main limitation of studies found, with one exception, was the lack of operative confirmation of endometriosis. Conclusions: An association of endometriosis with clear-cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer was a consistent finding in most studies. On the other hand, existing epidemiological evidence linking endometriosis with ovarian cancer is insufficient to change current clinical practice. Prospective cohort studies, with prior laparoscopic confirmation, localization and staging of endometriosis are needed, in order to further clarify this issue.

  7. An epidemiological model for prediction of endometrial cancer risk in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsing, Anika; Dossus, Laure; Ferrari, Pietro; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Katsoulis, Michalis; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T.; Ardanaz, Eva; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Allen, Naomi E.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the fourth most frequent cancer in women in Europe, and as its incidence is increasing, prevention strategies gain further pertinence. Risk prediction models can be a useful tool for identifying women likely to benefit from targeted prevention measures. On the basis of dat

  8. Workshop on The Epidemiology of the ATM Gene: Impact on Breast Cancer Risk and Treatment, Present Status and Future Focus, Lillehammer, Norway, 29 June 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) heterozygosity in cancer is uncertain. In vitro studies of cells from ATM heterozygotes provide strong evidence of radiation sensitivity. Some, but not all, clinical studies suggest an increased risk of breast cancer among ATM gene carriers, and this risk may be greater among those exposed to radiation. This possible excess risk of breast cancer associated with ATM heterozygosity constitutes the basis for several genetic epidemiological studies designed to clarify the role that the ATM gene plays in the etiology of breast and other cancers. The primary focus of this international, multidisciplinary, National Cancer Institute-sponsored workshop was to discuss ongoing and planned epidemiologic studies aimed at understanding the complexities of the ATM gene and its role in carcinogenesis. The invited participants were from diverse disciplines including molecular and clinical genetics, radiation biology and physics, epidemiology, biostatistics, pathology, and medicine. In the present meeting report, the aims of each project are described

  9. Red and processed meat intake is associated with higher gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcheng Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat was concluded as a limited-suggestive risk factor of gastric cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund. However, recent epidemiological studies have yielded inconclusive results. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013 for both cohort and case-control studies which assessed the association between red and/or processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled by random-effect or fixed-effect models. RESULTS: Twelve cohort and thirty case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between both red (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22-1.73 and processed (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.26-1.65 meat intake and gastric cancer risk generally. Positive findings were also existed in the items of beef (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.57, bacon (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17-1.61, ham (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00-2.06, and sausage (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16-1.52. When conducted by study design, the association was significant in case-control studies (RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.33-1.99 but not in cohort studies (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.90-1.17 for red meat. Increased relative risks were seen in high-quality, adenocarcinoma, cardia and European-population studies for red meat. And most subgroup analysis confirmed the significant association between processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat contributes to increased gastric cancer risk. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association, especially for red meat.

  10. Radon and risk of cancer: epidemiological studies after occupational and domestic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of cancer risk after exposure to radon is mainly based on the results of uranium miners follow-up. A cohort study on the French uranium miners has demonstrated an excess of lung cancer and of larynx cancer mortality. A linear dose-response relationship has been described between the excess relative risk of lung cancer and the cumulative exposure to radon (Poisson regression). This study has contributed to a joint analysis of 11 cohorts of miners, the aim being a more precise evaluation of the different factors able to influence the dose-response relationship between radon and lung cancer mortality. These factors are: age at first exposure, attained age, time since exposure, the pattern of exposure over time and tobacco consumption. The extrapolation of the risk for the general public from the risk estimated after occupational exposure, has to be considered by taking in account several remarks: uranium miners are exposed, beside radon, to two other radiological components, gamma rays and long lived uranium dust, and to other substances specific of the mines, which are absent in the domestic environment but may with radon have an effect on the lung cancer risk. It was impossible to estimate directly, from these uranium miners data, the risk linked to radon for non-smokers and for female population. A case control-study is currently be carrying out in the French hospitals, in order to estimate the risk of lung cancer linked to the last 30 years of radon exposure in the dwellings. (author). 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Endometriosis and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zafrakas, Menelaos; Grimbizis, Grigorios; Timologou, Anna; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2014-01-01

    Background: A possible etiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer has been repeatedly reported in the literature. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate published epidemiological data on this issue. Review Methods: We conducted an extensive search of the literature in MEDLINE, of articles ever published until February 2014, using the key-words “endometriosis” and “ovarian” and one of the following terms in the title: “cancer” or “malignancy” or “malignant” or “tumor” o...

  12. Indoor radon and risk of lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the present study was to establish whether high radon concentrations in dwellings in Finland had increased the risk of lung cancer. Previous studies had shown an association between the α-active radon daughters and elevated lung cancer risk among miners. Convincing evidence of the risk among the general population exposed to radon indoors was, however, lacking. A descriptive analysis was first conducted in an area in southern Finland with high indoor radon exposure. In 18 rural municipalities this analysis yielded no significant correlation between the average radon exposure and incidence of male lung cancer. A case-control study within a cohort of the same rural population was then designed. The data included 238 male cases of lung cancer diagnosed in 1980-85 and 434 controls (390 smokers and 44 nonsmokers) from the male population. Radon exposure was measured, when possible, in all the dwellings occupied by a case or control in 1950-1975. Measurements were available for the total 25-year period, or for a proportion of it, for 164 cases and 334 controls; for the rest only estimates were available. In spite of the fact that the controls were mainly selected among smokers, the amount smoked still appeared to be the most important lung cancer risk factor in the data, the risk increasing linearly with the quantity of cigarettes smoked in a lifetime. The risk of lung cancer was not associated with the radon exposure level when the whole data were studied. In heavy smokers, however, a positive though not significant, effect on the risk from radon exposure was found. In the range of uncertainty the findings do not conflict with most of those observed among miners or the general population so far. (orig.)

  13. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking and risk of a contralateral breast cancer: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, J.A.; Bernstein, L.; Largent, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Study (1985-2001), the roles of alcohol and smoking were examined in 708 women with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (cases) compared with 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). Cases and controls aged less than 55 years at first breast cancer diagnosis were identified from 5...... population-based cancer registries in the United States and Denmark. Controls were matched to cases on birth year, diagnosis year, registry region, and race and countermatched on radiation treatment. Risk factor information was collected by telephone interview. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were...... to asynchronous contralateral breast cancer. In this, the largest study of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer to date, alcohol is a risk factor for the disease, as it is for a first primary breast cancer Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4/15...

  14. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  15. Cancer risks in workers exposed to radiofrequency and microwave radiation: an epidemiologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations can penetrate human tissue as and exert various bioeffects at relatively low field power densities. In workers exposed occupationally to RF/MW, radiation development of various functional abnormalities of neural, immune, or cardiovascular systems is also possible. Experimental investigations revealed the possibility of epigenetic activity of certain MW exposures, but there exist single epidemiological studies which indicate increased mortality of neoplasms in workers exposed to microwave radiation. As an example, the multi year study of cancer morbidity in Polish military personnel are presented. Despite of the reported increased morbidity of haematopoietic and lymphatic neoplasms, it was not possible to confirm the causal link of the morbidity with exposure to MW radiation

  16. Obesity and liver cancer risk. An evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increased interest in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, its common co-morbid condition, obesity, has recently attracted much attention as a risk factor for liver cancer. Recent studies also suggest that obesity may play a role in the development of liver cancer in alcoholic cirrhosis or viral hepatitis and in the general population. We systematically reviewed epidemiologic studies on overweight/obesity and liver cancer among Japanese populations. Original data were obtained by searching the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Ichushi databases, complemented by manual searches. The evaluation was performed in terms of the magnitude of association in each study and the strength of evidence ('convincing', 'probable', 'possible' or 'insufficient'), together with biologic plausibility. Among nine cohort studies identified, five (four on patients with chronic liver disease and one on local residents) reported a weak to strong positive association, while four (one on patients with hepatitis B and three on local residents) found no association [summary relative risk for one unit increase in body mass index (kg/m2) 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.10]. All three case-control studies identified (two on cirrhotic patients and one on atomic bomb survivors) reported a strong positive association (summary relative risk 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.53). Overall, the summary relative risk was estimated at 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.20), and overweight/obese individuals had a relative risk of 1.74 (95% confidence interval 1.33-2.28) compared with those who had normal/low weight. We conclude that overweight or obesity 'probably' increases the risk of primary liver cancer, to a moderate degree, among the Japanese population. (author)

  17. Study of epidemiological risk of lung cancer in Mexico due indoor radon exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles, A.; Espinosa, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this work the lifetime relative risks (LRR) of lung cancer due to exposure to indoor 222Rn on the Mexican population is calculated. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer (LC), because that, to calculate the number of cases of LC due to exposure to 222Rn is necessary considers the number of cases of LC for smoking cigarette. The lung cancer mortality rates published by the "Secretaría de Salud" (SSA), the mexican population data published by the "Consejo Nacional de Población" (CONAPO), smoking data in the mexican population, published by the "Comisión Nacional Contra las Adicciones" (CONADIC), the "Organización Panamericana de la Salud" (OPS) and indoor 222Rn concentrations in Mexico published in several recent studies are used. To calculate the lifetime relative risks (LRR) for different segments of the Mexican population, firstly the Excess Relative Risk (ERR) is calculated using the method developed by the BEIR VI committee and subsequently modified by the USEPA and published in the report "EPA Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes". The excess relative risks were then used to calculate the corresponding lifetime relative risks, again using the method developed by the BEIR VI committee. The lifetime relative risks for Mexican male and female eversmokers and Mexican male and female never-smokers were calculated for radon concentrations spanning the range found in recent studies of indoor radon concentrations in Mexico. The lifetime relative risks of lung cancer induced by lifetime exposure to the mexican average indoor radon concentration were estimated to be 1.44 and 1.40 for never-smokers mexican females and males respectively, and 1.19 and 1.17 for ever-smokers Mexican females and males respectively. The Mexican population LRR values obtained in relation to the USA and Canada LRR published values in ever-smokers for both gender are similar with differences less than 4%, in case of never-smokers in relation with Canada

  18. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  19. Potential cancer risk associated to CT scan. State of the art of epidemiological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, Marie-Odile; Baysson, Neige Joumy Helene; Jacob, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Lab. of Epidemiology

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) scans in paediatric population raises the question of a possible health impact of ionizing radiation exposure associated with CT scans. Material and methods: Two large cohort studies have been recently published that assessed the risk of cancer related to CT examinations of children and young adults. Methodology and results of these studies are presented. Results: The UK cohort included over 176,000 young people, who underwent one or more CT scans between 1985 and 2002. The Australian study compared the risk of cancer and leukaemia in a population of 680,000 young people exposed to CT scans between 1985 and 2005 to non-exposed similar age people. Both studies showed a significant dose-response relation between exposure to CT and leukaemia or brain tumour risks. These results are consistent with predictions from A-bomb survivors' data. However, uncertainties in dosimetric estimation and potential bias linked to underlying medical conditions should be considered. Conclusion and perspectives: Further studies with more accurate dosimetry and assessment of potential bias and uncertainties are needed. Ongoing national studies and the European collaborative EPI-CT study will help to better understand the relation between low level radiation exposure and cancer and to support recommendations for patients'' radiation protection. (orig.)

  20. Potential cancer risk associated to CT scan. State of the art of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) scans in paediatric population raises the question of a possible health impact of ionizing radiation exposure associated with CT scans. Material and methods: Two large cohort studies have been recently published that assessed the risk of cancer related to CT examinations of children and young adults. Methodology and results of these studies are presented. Results: The UK cohort included over 176,000 young people, who underwent one or more CT scans between 1985 and 2002. The Australian study compared the risk of cancer and leukaemia in a population of 680,000 young people exposed to CT scans between 1985 and 2005 to non-exposed similar age people. Both studies showed a significant dose-response relation between exposure to CT and leukaemia or brain tumour risks. These results are consistent with predictions from A-bomb survivors' data. However, uncertainties in dosimetric estimation and potential bias linked to underlying medical conditions should be considered. Conclusion and perspectives: Further studies with more accurate dosimetry and assessment of potential bias and uncertainties are needed. Ongoing national studies and the European collaborative EPI-CT study will help to better understand the relation between low level radiation exposure and cancer and to support recommendations for patients'' radiation protection. (orig.)

  1. Collinearity diagnosis for a relative risk regression analysis: an application to assessment of diet-cancer relationship in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Y

    1992-07-01

    In epidemiologic studies, two forms of collinear relationships between the intake of major nutrients, high correlations, and the relative homogeneity of the diet, can yield unstable and not easily interpreted regression estimates for the effect of diet on disease risk. This paper presents tools for assessing the magnitude and source of the corresponding collinear relationships among the estimated coefficients for relative risk regression models. I show how to extend three tools (condition indices, variance decomposition proportions, and standard inflation factors) for diagnosing collinearity in standard regression models to likelihood and partial likelihood estimation for logistic and proportional hazards models. This extension is based on the analogue role of the information matrix in such analyses and the cross-product matrix in the standard linear model. I apply the methodology to relative risk models that relate crude intakes (on the log scale) and nutrient densities to breast cancer cases in the NHANES-I follow-up study. The three diagnostic tools provide complementary evidence of the existence of a strong collinearity in all models that is due largely to homogeneity of the population with respect to our risk scale for the crude intakes. The analysis suggests that the non-significant relative risks for the crude intakes in these models may be due to their involvement in collinear relationships, while the nonsignificant relative risks for the nutrient densities are far less affected by multicollinearity.

  2. Theoretical epidemiology applied to health physics: estimation of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect estimation of low-dose radiation hazards is possible using the multihit model of carcinogenesis. This model is based on cancer incidence data collected over many decades on tens of millions of people. Available data on human radiation effects can be introduced into the modeling process without the requirement that these data precisely define the model to be used. This reduction in the information demanded from the limited data on human radiation effects allows a more rational approach to estimation of low-dose radiation hazards and helps to focus attention on research directed towards understanding the process of carcinogenesis, rather than on repeating human or animal experiments that cannot provide sufficient data to resolve the low-dose estimation problem. Assessment of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer provides an excellent example of the utility of multihit modeling procedures

  3. Epidemiologic perspective on immune-surveillance in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Daniel William; Olivera J. Finn

    2011-01-01

    Common “themes” in epidemiology related to cancer risk beg a comprehensive mechanistic explanation. As people age, risk for cancer increases. Obesity and smoking increase the risk for many types of cancer. History of febrile childhood diseases lowers the risk for melanomas, leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and ovarian cancer. Increasing number of ovulatory cycles uninterrupted by pregnancies correlate positively with breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer risk while pregnancies and bre...

  4. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  5. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  6. Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundal R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rajveer Hundal, Eldon A Shaffer Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Abstract: Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%-95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the

  7. Genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden throughout the world, yet the etiology of prostate cancer is poorly understood. Evidence has accumulated supporting the existence of a hereditary form of this disease. Improved understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the development and progression of prostate cancer would be a major advance for improved prevention, detection and treatment strategies. This thesis evaluates different aspects of the genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer. In ...

  8. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  9. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  10. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rajesh P; Mathur, Garima; Mhatre, Sharayu; Yeole, B B

    2011-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer. PubMed was used as a search platform using key words such as "stomach cancer, treatment, clinical characteristics, stomach cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination with Boolean operators OR, AND". Most of the reported studies on gastric cancer from India are case report or case series and few are case-control studies. Indian studies on this topic are limited and have observed H. pylori infection, salted tea, pickled food, rice intake, spicy food, soda (additive of food), tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for gastric cancer. More research is required to understand the etiology, develop suitable screening test, to demarcate high-risk population and to develop and evaluate the effect of primary prevention programs. PMID:21731209

  11. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P Dikshit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer. PubMed was used as a search platform using key words such as "stomach cancer, treatment, clinical characteristics, stomach cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination with Boolean operators OR, AND". Most of the reported studies on gastric cancer from India are case report or case series and few are case-control studies. Indian studies on this topic are limited and have observed H. pylori infection, salted tea, pickled food, rice intake, spicy food, soda (additive of food, tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for gastric cancer. More research is required to understand the etiology, develop suitable screening test, to demarcate high-risk population and to develop and evaluate the effect of primary prevention programs.

  12. Epidemiology of cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E K

    1985-12-01

    Some information on cancer in Malaysia are available, and its epidemiology is described. There is a need for systematic and coordinated collection of cancer statistics which are essential to patient management, cancer control programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. The decision of the Ministry of Health to introduce National Cancer Registry and to encourage epidemiological studies, which will ultimately lead to the utilization of data and introduction of control and preventive activities for cancers are positive steps in the right direction. Meanwhile, curative and palliative treatment is available from the existing hospital facilities, and preventive activities such as actions on smoking and health will be continued until such time when a comprehensive prevention and control programme for cancers in the country is evolved.

  13. Breast cancer epidemiology according to recognized breast cancer risk factors in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann Michael F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidisciplinary attempts to understand the etiology of breast cancer are expanding to increasingly include new potential markers of disease risk. Those efforts may have maximal scientific and practical influence if new findings are placed in context of the well-understood lifestyle and reproductive risk factors or existing risk prediction models for breast cancer. We therefore evaluated known risk factors for breast cancer in a cancer screening trial that does not have breast cancer as a study endpoint but is large enough to provide numerous analytic opportunities for breast cancer. Methods We evaluated risk factors for breast cancer (N = 2085 among 70,575 women who were randomized in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Using Poisson regression, we calculated adjusted relative risks [RRs, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs] for lifestyle and reproductive factors during an average of 5 years of follow-up from date of randomization. Results As expected, increasing age, nulliparity, positive family history of breast cancer, and use of menopausal hormone therapy were positively associated with breast cancer. Later age at menarche (16 years or older vs. 2 35 or more vs. 18.5–24.9: RR = 1.21, 95% CI, 1.02–1.43] was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer. Conclusion The ongoing PLCO trial offers continued opportunities for new breast cancer investigations, but these analyses suggest that the associations between breast cancer and age at menarche, age at menopause, and obesity might be changing as the underlying demographics of these factors change. Clinical Trials Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00002540.

  14. Micronutrients and cancer aetiology: the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T

    1994-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur most commonly in poor countries and, therefore, are most likely to be associated with cancers common in these countries. Epidemiological studies are hampered by inaccurate measurement of micronutrient intake and by the correlations between intakes of many nutrients. The strongest evidence for a protective effect of micronutrients is for oesophageal cancer. The identity of the micronutrients is not certain, but may include retinol, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and Zn; alcohol, smoking and dietary nitrosamines increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. For stomach cancer there is good evidence that fruit and vegetables are protective. The protective effect of these foods might be largely due to ascorbic acid, but other nutrients and non-nutrients may also be important; the risk for stomach cancer is increased by salt, some types of preserved foods, and by infection of the stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The risk for lung cancer appears to be reduced by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, but it is not clear which agents are responsible and the major cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Diet is probably the major determinant of the risk for colo-rectal cancer; there is evidence that fruit and vegetables and fibre reduce risk and that meat and animal fat increase risk, but there is no convincing evidence that these relationships are mediated by micronutrients. The risk for cervical cancer is inversely related to fruit and vegetable consumption and, therefore, to consumption of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, but the major cause of this cancer is human papillomavirus and it is not yet clear whether the dietary associations indicate a true protective effect or whether they are due to confounding by other variables. The evidence that micronutrients are important in the aetiology of either breast cancer or prostate cancer is weak, but the possible roles of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol in prostate

  15. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  16. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a foc

  17. [The epidemiology of pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gábor; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2010-10-31

    Pancreatic cancer is a relatively uncommon tumor, but even with early diagnosis, mortality rates are high, explaining why this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. There are no screening tests for early detection of pancreatic cancer. It is more common in men than women and is predominantly a disease of elderly people. There is wide variation in the incidence of pancreatic cancer around the world, suggesting that environmental factors are important in the pathogenesis. Smoking is the major known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, while dietary factors seem to be less important. Other possible risk factors include chronic pancreatitis, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Numerous inherited germ line mutations are associated with pancreatic cancer. Of these, hereditary pancreatitis confers the greatest risk, while BRCA2 mutations are the commonest inherited disorder. Polymorphisms in genes that control detoxification of environmental carcinogens and metabolic pathways may alter the risk of pancreatic cancer.

  18. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2012 Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  19. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2014 Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  20. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2013 Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  1. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2015 Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  2. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selikoff, I J

    1974-12-01

    Some 99,000 new cases of cancer of the colon are expected next year, an incidence rate higher than that for both cancer of the lung and cancer of the breast. Evidence from geographic pathology suggests that some environmental factors play a strong role in its etiology. Data obtained in the 1959 survey of one million people by the American Cancer Society and followed since, has failed to show correlation with any of the large number of factors listed. It is suggested that the etiology is one of multiple factors. The synergistic effect of exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking in the production of bronchogenic carcinoma is demonstrated by data on cohorts of insulation workers. There was also a modest increase in the number of deaths from gastrointestinal cancer in asbestos workers, but smoking did not seem to act in synergistic fashion at that site, except perhaps in the esophagus. Deaths from cancer occurred almost entirely after a period of 20 years or more from initial exposure. The death rate from cancer tended to increase with duration of exposure, but a distinct rise over the expected was seen in those who had been exposed less than one year to amosite dust. PMID:4470947

  3. Epidemiological studies of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindborg, J J

    1977-06-01

    The FDI has shown considerable interest in the oral cancer and has in recent years arranged three symposia on the subject. The incidence of oral cancer shows marked geographic differences mostly depending upon environmental factors. In the present paper the epidemiology of oral cancer is illustrated by the relative frequency to total number of cancers and incidence rates from a number of countries. Canada has the highest rate of cancer of the vermilion border, which is extremely rare among dark-skinned people. Even within one country differences may be found, a fact which is illustrated by findings from Czechoslovakia and India. In most of the studies dealing with the etiology of oral cancer tobacco usage in its various forms is shown to be the outstanding factor.

  4. Pleiotropic and sex-specific effects of cancer GWAS SNPs on melanoma risk in the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology (PAGE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Kocarnik

    Full Text Available Several regions of the genome show pleiotropic associations with multiple cancers. We sought to evaluate whether 181 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with various cancers in genome-wide association studies were also associated with melanoma risk.We evaluated 2,131 melanoma cases and 20,353 controls from three studies in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE study (EAGLE-BioVU, MEC, WHI and two collaborating studies (HPFS, NHS. Overall and sex-stratified analyses were performed across studies.We observed statistically significant associations with melanoma for two lung cancer SNPs in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus (Bonferroni-corrected p2.8e-4.We provide confirmatory evidence of pleiotropic associations with melanoma for two SNPs previously associated with lung cancer, and provide suggestive evidence for a male-specific association with melanoma for prostate cancer variant rs12418451. This SNP is located near TPCN2, an ion transport gene containing SNPs which have been previously associated with hair pigmentation but not melanoma risk. Previous evidence provides biological plausibility for this association, and suggests a complex interplay between ion transport, pigmentation, and melanoma risk that may vary by sex. If confirmed, these pleiotropic relationships may help elucidate shared molecular pathways between cancers and related phenotypes.

  5. Vitamin D and cancer: an overview on epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez Mena, José Manuel; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a rapidly increasing number of studies have investigated the relationship of vitamin D with total cancer and site-specific cancer obtaining diverse findings. In this chapter we provide an overview of epidemiological studies of vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D serum levels and vitamin D associated polymorphisms in relation to total and site-specific cancer risk. Overall, epidemiological evidence for total cancer is inconclusive. However, a large number of studies support a relationship of vitamin D with colorectal cancer and to a lesser extent with breast cancer. Findings are inconsistent for other cancers including all other gastrointestinal cancers and prostate cancer. Different vitamin D associated polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated to colorectal, breast and prostate cancer risk.

  6. Epidemiology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytynia, Kristen B.; Dahlstrom, Kristina R.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is increasing in incidence in epidemic proportion. This site specific increase in incidence is due to an increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related squamous cell carcinoma, while the incidence of tobacco related squamous cell carcinoma is decreasing. In particular, the incidence of HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increased among middle aged white men, and sexual behavior is a risk factor. HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma represents a growing etiologically distinct subset of head and neck cancers with unique epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics that differ from those of HPV-unassociated cancers. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HPV-related OPSCC, the prevalence of oral/oropharyngeal HPV infection, and efforts aimed at reducing the incidence of HPV-related OPSCC. PMID:24461628

  7. Quantification of lung cancer risk after low radon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiological and experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a radioactive gas produced during the decay of uranium 238 that is present in soil. It was classified as a human lung carcinogen in 1988, based on evidence both from animal studies and from human studies of miners with high levels of radon exposure. Radon is present everywhere; therefore the quantification of the risk associated with exposure to it is a key public health issue. The project aimed to analyse the risk associated with radon inhalation at low doses and at low rates of exposure. It involved researchers from three different fields: epidemiology, animal experiments and mechanistic modelling and provided a unique opportunity to study the influence of dose rate, mainly in the range of low daily exposures over long periods, by analysing in parallel results from both animal and epidemiological studies. The project comprised 6 work packages (W.P.). Firstly, the partners involved in epidemiology and animal experiments worked on the validation and the analysis of the data. Secondly, the data from W.P.1 and W.P.4 were transferred to the partners involved in W.P.5 for the application of mechanistic models. In the final step a synthesis of the results was prepared. (N.C)

  8. Quantification of lung cancer risk after low radon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiological and experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timarche, M

    2004-03-15

    Radon is a radioactive gas produced during the decay of uranium 238 that is present in soil. It was classified as a human lung carcinogen in 1988, based on evidence both from animal studies and from human studies of miners with high levels of radon exposure. Radon is present everywhere; therefore the quantification of the risk associated with exposure to it is a key public health issue. The project aimed to analyse the risk associated with radon inhalation at low doses and at low rates of exposure. It involved researchers from three different fields: epidemiology, animal experiments and mechanistic modelling and provided a unique opportunity to study the influence of dose rate, mainly in the range of low daily exposures over long periods, by analysing in parallel results from both animal and epidemiological studies. The project comprised 6 work packages (W.P.). Firstly, the partners involved in epidemiology and animal experiments worked on the validation and the analysis of the data. Secondly, the data from W.P.1 and W.P.4 were transferred to the partners involved in W.P.5 for the application of mechanistic models. In the final step a synthesis of the results was prepared. (N.C)

  9. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shogo

    2002-01-01

    Findings in epidemiological studies of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer have been inconsistent: many studies have yielded a positive relationship, whereas several studies have shown no relationship. The inconsistency arises because of the occurrence of seroreversion during the period between the time that H. pylori exerts a carcinogenic effect and the time of blood sampling. When this seroreversion is taken into account, there is an epidemiologically positive association between H. pylori status and the risk for gastric cancer. In addition to the epidemiological evidence, experimental studies using Mongolian gerbils have shown that H. pylori infection elevates the risk for gastric cancer. It is concluded that H. pylori is a causal factor for gastric cancer. In the creation of preventive strategies against gastric cancer by the eradication of H. pylori, determination of the time at which H. pylori plays a role as a carcinogen is important. Three hypotheses have been proposed in regard to this timing: that H. pylori infection in childhood or the teenage years acts as a factor that produces precancerous lesions with irreversible damage in the gastric mucosa, that in adulthood it acts as an initiator, and also in adulthood, that it acts as a promoter. As these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, the extent to which each hypothesis plays a part in explaining gastric carcinogenesis should be evaluated. Only a small proportion of subjects infected with H. pylori have gastric cancer during their lifetime. Interleukin-1 polymorphism, a host factor, and CagA, a virulence factor of H. pylori, are suspected to be risk factors for gastric cancer in subjects with H. pylori infection. Dietary factors, especially vitamin C, and patterns of precancerous lesions also seem to influence the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer. H. pylori seems to reduce the risk for esophageal and for some gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. This finding, as

  10. Female Breast Cancer: Epidemiological And Clinical Study Of Some Risk Factors Among Egyptian Females- Multi Clinics Study

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. El-Moselhy; M. A. S. Ahmed*; A. M. Abdel-Fattah

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted on 390 female breast cancer patients and an equal number of females as controls. The patients were attending some University and Teaching Hospitals in Cairo and Assuit. Ninety of them were newly operated. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to carry out this research. The aim of the study was to describe the sociodemographic, characteristics and clinical features of female breast cancer and to determine its risk factors among Egyptian women. A...

  11. Gastric Cancer Epidemiology in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon; Park, Sohee

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer has been the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Korea although the age-standardized mortality and incidence has decreased gradually during last two decades. Helicobacter pylori infection and cigarette smoking are well-established risk factors, and the role of dietary factors, such as salted foods, fresh vegetables and fruits, soy foods, and processed or grilled meats on gastric carcinogenesis has been suggested. In this review, we review national and international gastric cancer...

  12. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Mudit Verma; Mukesh Verma; Payal Patel

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high ris...

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance.

  14. Female Breast Cancer: Epidemiological And Clinical Study Of Some Risk Factors Among Egyptian Females- Multi Clinics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. El-Moselhy; M. A. S. Ahmed*; A. M. Abdel-Fattah

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 390 female breast cancer patients and an equal number of females as controls. The patients were attending some University and Teaching Hospitals in Cairo and Assuit. Ninety of them were newly operated. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to carry out this research. The aim of the study was to describe the sociodemographic, characteristics and clinical features of female breast cancer and to determine its risk factors among Egyptian women. All the patients and the controls had undergone physical examinations. Laboratory investigations were done for the newly operated patients and their controls. The most important characteristics of breast cancer patients were breast mass as the main presenting symptom (92.1% and treated by modified radical mastectomy (77.2%. Low means level of serum vitamin D and high levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride were found more among the patients. Age at first full term pregnancy 30 years, age at menopause 45 years, pregnancy termination and/or abortion and never married were important gynaecological and reproductive risk factors (OR=4.44, 3.14, 2.84 and 2.67, respectively. Also, exposure to radiation and/or environmental factors, history of benign breast disease and alcohol use were important associated risk factors (OR=5.05, 4.63 and 4.10, respectively. Moreover, the sister as the nearest female relative with breast cancer, total number of female relatives with breast cancer 2 and relative(s age at diagnosis <50 years were important family history risk factors (OR=9.19, 8.84 and 7.91, respectively. Lastly, high consumption of canned foods, fat rich foods and low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables were important dietary risk factors (OR=3.39, 1.76 and 1.51, respectively.

  15. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of lung cancer in Japan: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Megumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Wakai, Kenji; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Katanoda, Kota

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systematic evaluation of the association between secondhand smoke exposure and lung cancer in Japan has yet to be conducted. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between secondhand smoke and lung cancer in Japanese non-smokers. Methods Relevant studies were collected from the MEDLINE and Ichushi Web databases using a combination of search terms and Medical Subject Headings. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risks or odds ratios were extracted to calculate pooled risk estimates. This procedure was performed independently by at least two authors. Stratified analyses were carried out according to study design, publication year, and whether or not potential confounding variables were accounted for. The presence of publication bias was assessed via funnel plots. Results We identified four cohort studies and five case-control studies. Quantitative synthesis was conducted only for secondhand smoke exposure in the home during adulthood. Of the 12 populations included in meta-analysis, positive secondhand smoke exposure-lung cancer associations were observed in 11, whereas an inverse association was found in the remaining 1. The pooled relative risk of lung cancer associated with secondhand smoke exposure was 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.10–1.48). We found no evidence of publication bias, and a significant association remained even when potentially missing studies were included (pooled relative risk: 1.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.09–1.46). The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, including by study design, publication year, and when adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusions Secondhand smoke exposure in the home during adulthood results in a statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer. PMID:27511987

  16. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  17. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  18. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  19. Usefulness and reliability of available epidemiological study results in assessments of radiation-related risks of cancer. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinomas occurring in the thyroid gland as a result of radiation generally affect the papillary and, to a slightly lesser extent, follicular parts of this organ, while the available body of evidence hardly gives any indications of anaplastic and medullary neoplasms. Radiation has, however, mostly been associated with multicentric tumours. Among the survivors of the nuclear assaults on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there are no known cases of anaplastic carcinomas of the thyroid. The papillary carcinoma, which is the prevailing type of neoplasm after radiation exposure, has less malignant potential than the follicular one and is encountered in all age groups. Malignant carcinomas of the thyroid are predominantly found in the middle and high age groups. It was calculated that high Gy doses and dose efficiencies are associated in children with a risk coefficient of 2.5 in 104 person-years. This rate is only half as high for adults. Studies performed on relevant cohorts point to latency periods of at least five years. Individuals exposed to radiation are believed to be at a forty-year or even life-long risk of developing cancer. The cancer risk can best be described on the basis of a linear dose-effect relationship. The mortality rate calculated for cancer of the thyroid amounts to approx. 10% of the morbidity rate. The carcinogenic potential of iodine-131 in the thyroid is only one-third as great as that associated with external radiation of high dose efficiency. (orig./MG)

  20. The Complexities of Epidemiology and Prevention of Gastrointestinal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Haq

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer epidemiology and prevention is one of the most well studied fields today. The more we can understand about the incidence and pathogenesis of this disease, the better we will be able to prevent it. Effective prevention strategies can decrease the mortality rate of cancer significantly; this is why it is important to delineate the underlying causes. It has been well recognized that genetic mutations, sporadic or hereditary, may lead to increased chance of tumorigenesis. Detecting genetic mutations can lead to the identification of high-risk individuals with hereditary cancer syndromes, which may assist in devising prevention strategies. Further, environmental factors are known to play important roles in epidemiology and suggest prevention tools that could be implemented to reduce cancer incidence and subsequent cancer-associated morbidity and mortality. Chemoprevention has been tried in colon cancer and is finding new advancements in other carcinomas as well. Out of many environmental cancer preventive agents, the most notable developments are the identification of the role of vitamins E, vitamin D and folic acid. Increased consumption of these vitamins has shown to be inversely correlated with cancer risk. This review will highlight important aspects of cancer epidemiology in the most aggressive carcinomas of the gastrointestinal system focusing on colorectal adenocarcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Additionally, some of the well-known and evolving aspects of epidemiology of colorectal and pancreatic cancer along with current and new prevention strategies will also be reviewed.

  1. Dietary Flavonols Intake and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal cancer (EC and gastric cancer (GC are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Many studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonols intake and the risk of EC and GC, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, we conducted a systematic analysis of relevant population-based studies to assess the association and derive a more precise estimation. Methods: The Cochrane, PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify articles published through January 2016 that met the predetermined inclusion criterion. Twelve studies involving 4593 patients and 519,378 controls were included. Results: The summary odds ratios (ORs of EC, GC and the two combined were respectively 0.88 (95% CI: 0.73–1.08, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70–0.91 and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74–0.92 for the highest category of dietary flavonols intake compared with the lowest. No significant heterogeneities were observed in these studies. Further analysis showed that the pooled ORs of EC and GC for cohort, population-based case-control and hospital-based case-control studies were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.61–1.34, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.72–1.18, 0.68 (95% CI: 0.38–1.24 and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.65–1.06, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.45–1.59, 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56–0.88. The subgroup analyses revealed a significant association of flavonol intake with a reduced risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma but not gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Moreover, significant inverse associations of flavonol intake with GC risk were observed in women but not in men, in smokers but not in nonsmokers, in European populations but not in American populations. Similarly, a significant inverse association of flavonols intake with EC risk was also observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Conclusion: High intake of dietary flavonols is significantly related to a reduced risk of GC, especially in women and smokers.

  2. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh P Dikshit; Garima Mathur; Sharayu Mhatre; Yeole, B. B.

    2011-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer...

  3. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  4. Gastric cancer - clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Link, Alexander; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) ranks fifth for cancer incidence and second for cancer deaths. Epidemiological data showed that survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and patients with pernicious anemia etiologically linked to autoimmune gastritis are at increased risk of GC. Screening of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease by means of pepsinogen (PG) I and PG I/II detected autoimmune gastritis with oxyntic gastric atrophy in one of four patients and may be recommended for GC prevention purposes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer reported a positive association between consumption of processed meet and increased GC risk. A new GC risk prediction model based on biological markers, age, gender, smoking status, family history of GC, and consumption of highly salted food showed good predictive performance, and might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programs. A novel GC classification based on gene expression of primary resected cancers correlated with clinicopathological features. Noncoding RNA for GC screening remains the focus of multiple studies. Patients with early GC undergoing endoscopic resection are more likely to develop metachronous lesions than patients undergoing surgery and endoscopic surveillance is warranted in this special cohort. The addition of gastrectomy to chemotherapy did not improve survival of patients with advanced GC and a single noncurable factor. Apatinib, a novel oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved the median overall survival of patients with advanced GC and progressive disease after two or more lines of prior chemotherapy of nearly 3 months. PMID:27531538

  5. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shalu Jain; Sunita Saxena; Anup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Data from national cancer registries shows that incidence of certain cancers are on rise in India. The cancers which are showing significant increase in incidence rates include prostate, mouth and kidney among male population, corpus uteri, breast and thyroid among female population and lung cancer in both male and female populations. In the present review article we have focused on epidemiology of prostate cancer in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence, survival, and mortality etc. The ...

  6. Nitrosamine and related food intake and gastric and oesophageal cancer risk: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paula Jakszyn; Carlos Alberto González

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake and gastric cancer (GC), between meat and processed meat intake, GC and oesophageal cancer (OC), and between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC.METHODS: In this article we reviewed all the published cohort and case-control studies from 1985-2005, and analyzed the relationship between nitrosamine and nitrite intake and the most important related food intake (meat and processed meat, preserved vegetables and fish, smoked foods and beer drinking) and GC or OC risk.Sixty-one studies, 11 cohorts and 50 case-control studies were included.RESULTS: Evidence from case-control studies supported an association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake with GC but evidence was insufficient in relation to OC. A high proportion of case-control studies found a positive association with meat intake for both tumours (11 of 16 studies on GC and 11 of 18 studies on OC). A relatively large number of case-control studies showed quite consistent results supporting a positive association between processed meat intake and GC and OC risk (10 of 14 studies on GC and 8 of 9 studies on OC).Almost all the case-control studies found a positive and significant association between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC. The evidence regarding OC was more limited. Overall the evidence from cohort studies was insufficient or more inconsistent than that from case-control studies.CONCLUSION: The available evidence supports a positive association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake and GC, between meat and processed meat intake and GC and OC, and between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC, but is not conclusive.

  7. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Pirie, K.;

    2012-01-01

    Background Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected w...

  8. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer in Japan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; He, Yutong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Qiao, Youlin; Ueda, Junko; Wei, Wenqiang; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987-2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk.

  9. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  10. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  11. The role of diet in cancer: the epidemiologic link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Chajes, Veronique; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Diet is an important modifiable risk factor for cancer. Adequate diet modification may play a key role in reducing the incidence of some cancers. A growing body of epidemiological evidence suggested links of some nutritional exposures with individual cancers. This review updates and summarises the existing data on diet related factors for cancer prevention, evaluated in 2007 by World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and identifies the areas where more research is needed. Mechanisms of action of nutrients are discussed. For cancer prevention, more apparent association pertains to the role of foods from plant origin, processed meat products and alcohol. There is a lack of evidence to clarify the relationship of dairy and cereal products, different types of carbohydrates, micronutrients naturally found in foods vs supplements, industrial trans-fats, food preparation and handling techniques and dietary patterns and cancer, in order to implement safe cancer prevention strategies. PMID:27557384

  12. The epidemiology and molecular mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Rosalyn D; Gallagher, Emily J; Scheinman, Eyal J; Damouni, Rawan; LeRoith, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity is associated with increasing rates of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological studies have reported that these conditions are linked to increased rates of cancer incidence and mortality. Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and the development of dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and ultimately type 2 diabetes. Although many metabolic abnormalities occur with obesity and type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia appear to be central to these conditions and may contribute to dyslipidemia and altered levels of circulating estrogens and androgens. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological and molecular links between obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, and how hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia may contribute to cancer development. We will discuss how these metabolic abnormalities may interact with estrogen signaling in breast cancer growth. Finally, we will discuss the effects of type 2 diabetes medications on cancer risk. PMID:23810003

  13. Genetics and epidemiology, congenital anomalies and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, J.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    Many of the basic statistical methods used in epidemiology - regression, analysis of variance, and estimation of relative risk, for example - originally were developed for the genetic analysis of biometric data. The familiarity that many geneticists have with this methodology has helped geneticists to understand and accept genetic epidemiology as a scientific discipline. It worth noting, however, that most of the work in genetic epidemiology during the past decade has been devoted to linkage and other family studies, rather than to population-based investigations of the type that characterize much of mainstream epidemiology. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Biologically based epidemiological studies of electric power and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.G. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Use of electricity is a hallmark of the industrialization process, but there has been no suspicion that electricity could increase the risk of cancer. Recently, however, a number of epidemiologic studies have suggested that electromagnetic fields (EMF) may do just that. Although few cancer experiments have been done yet, there are a number of biological effects of EMF reported in the literature that might provide bases for designing cancer experiments and epidemiologic studies. These include effects of EMF on: (a) DNA transcription and translation, (b) calcium balance in cells, and (c) pineal production of melatonin. Alterations in DNA transcription and translation could have pleiotropic effects. Disruption of calcium homeostasis has many implications including oncogene activation, promotional activity via protein kinases and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and increasing oxidative stress. Reduction of melatonin suggests a possible increased risk of cancers of hormone-dependent tissues such as breast and prostate. The idea that a cancer-causing agent must either be an initiator or a promoter should be discarded; indeed, the phenomenologic meaning of these two terms has become confused with imputed mechanistic necessity in recent years. Agents that affect division of normal cells or of fully transformed cells can play an important role in clinical cancer development quite apart from initiation or promotion. Epidemiologic studies of EMF and cancer should attempt to take account of other products of electric power (e.g., light at night) or factors associated with occupational EMF exposure (e.g., toxic chemicals) that may increase cancer risk and therefore act as cofactors or confounders. Epidemiology and laboratory studies should act synergistically in determining if there is a problem and identifying mitigation strategies if needed. 84 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Renal cell cancer among African Americans: an epidemiologic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipworth Loren

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Incidence rates for renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease. This excess dates back to the 1970s, despite less access among blacks to imaging procedures in the past. In contrast, mortality rates for this cancer have been virtually identical among blacks and whites since the early 1990s, despite the fact that nephrectomy rates, regardless of stage, are lower among blacks than among whites. These observations suggest that renal cell cancer may be a less aggressive tumor in blacks. We have reviewed the epidemiology of renal cell cancer, with emphasis on factors which may potentially play a role in the observed differences in incidence and mortality patterns of renal cell cancer among blacks and whites. To date, the factors most consistently, albeit modestly, associated with increased renal cell cancer risk in epidemiologic studies among whites - obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking - likely account for less than half of these cancers, and there is virtually no epidemiologic evidence in the literature pertaining to their association with renal cell cancer among blacks. There is a long overdue need for detailed etiologic cohort and case-control studies of renal cell cancer among blacks, as they now represent the population at highest risk in the United States. In particular, investigation of the influence on renal cell cancer development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, both of which occur substantially more frequently among blacks, is warranted, as well as investigations into the biology and natural history of this cancer among blacks.

  16. The epidemiology of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, C R; Bertesteanu, S V G; Mirea, D; Grigore, Raluca; lonescu, Diana; Popescu, B

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century the hypopharynx and the cervical esophagus cancer represents a major issue for all countries of the world. The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer deals with the spread of the disease in the human population with regard to sex, age, profession, time and space, as well as risk factors that contribute to these phenomena. The main goal is to investigate the causes and the factors involved in the development of the tumors at the pharyngoesophageal junction, knowledge that contributes to the latest therapeutic assessment through interdisciplinary collaboration (E.N.T. surgeon, general surgeon, radiation oncologist, chemotherapist, and nutritionist). The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer includes three major areas of interest: descriptive (the study of the spread in mass population), analytical (the study of causal risk factors on the disease) and experimental (that verifies by experiments on animals the prior identified hypothesis). PMID:21254737

  17. 口腔癌相关危险因素的流行病学调查分析%Epidemiologic study of risk factors of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅锦业; 高静; 郑家伟; 张志愿; 钟来平; 项永兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:进行口腔癌相关危险因素的流行病学调查,为口腔癌的预防提供依据.方法:采用流行病学问卷调查方法,在国内8个城市进行多中心大样本病例-对照研究.调查内容主要包括个人基本情况、全身疾病和口腔疾病史、口腔卫生习惯、吸烟与被动吸烟、饮用水及常用的饮料情况、运动及劳动情况、家族史等7个方面.采用SAS 8.2软件包对数据进行t检验或x2检验,采用Logistic回归分析各因素与罹患口腔癌的关系.结果:经常参加运动、饮用牛奶、饮用水处理、高血压、口腔白斑、不良修复体、吸烟史、戒烟史、吸有过滤嘴烟等在病例组和对照组之间有显著差异(P<0.05).吸烟时间越长、吸烟量越大,危险度越高(OR分别为3.57、4.78).运动、饮用牛奶及饮用水处理可降低口腔癌的危险(OR分别为0.48,0.48和0.53).结论:吸烟是口腔癌发生的重要因素,吸过滤嘴烟不能降低口腔癌的发生;运动、饮用牛奶及饮用水处理可降低口腔癌的发生.%PURPOSE: To explore the risk factors of oral cancer in order to provide evidence for oral cancer prevention. METHODS: Epidemiologic questionnaire was used for case-control study in 8 major cities of China. The questionnaire consisted of 7 parts which included essential individual status, systemic and oral diseases, oral hygiene habits, smoking and passive smoking, water and drinks in common usage, sports and labor, family history. SAS8.2 software package was used for data analysis. Student's t test or Chi-square test was used for evaluation of homogeneity between the groups. Logistic regression was used for analyzing the relationship between the factors and oral cancer. RESULTS: Sports, drinking milk and processed water, hypertension, leukoplakia, ill-fitted prosthesis, smoking, smoking cessation and smoking with filter were significanT1y different between the groups (P<0.05). Starting to smoke before 20 years old

  18. Epidemiological review of laryngeal cancer: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laryngeal cancer is one of the 10 leading causes of cancer in Indian men. The association of laryngeal cancer and tobacco smoking is well-established, but the peculiarities such as wide variation of disease distribution and survival, role of tobacco chewing, indoor air pollution, and dietary factors in laryngeal cancer causation needs to be understood. In this study, we review the descriptive and observational epidemiology of laryngeal cancer in India. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of science electronic database was searched from January 1995 to December 2013, using the using keywords "laryngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination like OR, AND." Two authors independently selected studies published in English and conducted in India. A total of 15 studies were found to be relevant and eligible for this review. Results: In India, laryngeal cancer contributes to approximately 3-6% of all cancers in men. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cancer larynx in males varies widely among registries, highest is 8.18 per 100,000 in Kamprup Urban District and the lowest is 1.26 per 100,000 in Nagaland. The 5-year survival for laryngeal cancer in India is approximately 28%. Indian studies show tobacco, alcohol, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution, spicy food, and nonvegetarian diet as risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Conclusion: There is wide regional variation in the incidence of laryngeal cancer in India. Survival rates of laryngeal carcinoma are much lower as compared to other Asian countries. Studies conducted in India to identify important risk factors of laryngeal cancer are very limited, especially on diet and indoor air pollution. Hence, more research is required for identifying the etiological factors and development of scientifically sound laryngeal cancer prevention programs.

  19. Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harmesh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking, asthma in the family seasonal variation etc. Statistical analysis: percentages

  20. Occupation, occupational exposure to solvents and breast cancer analyse of two epidemiological breast cancer studies in male and women

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Sara

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the occupation and of occupational exposures to petroleum and chlorinated solvents using the data of two epidemiological studies on occupational risk factors of breast cancers in men and in women. Unlike female breast cancer (50,000 new cases per year inFrance), cancer of male breast cancer is a rare disease (

  1. Risk, Characteristics, and Prognosis of Breast Cancer after Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-Rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  2. Cancer epidemiology in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that there were over 10 million new cancer cases in 2000, 5.4 million of them occurring in the developing countries (Parkin et al, 2001). The marked geographical variation in cancer occurrence results in differing therapeutic priorities: North America has more new cancer cases than South-Central Asia, but there are more deaths from cancer in South-Central Asia, reflecting a different pattern of cancer rather than differences in prognosis. Prediction of future trends is difficult, but the impact of population increase and ageing will be significant, with an expected 63% increase in the population of the less developed countries in 50 years. Four sites of cancer namely breast, cervix, colorectal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are reviewed, looking at their present and possible future importance in the context of developing countries and their aetiology

  3. Q&A: Muin Khoury on cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Rose, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    Muin J. Khoury, MD, PhD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office of Public Health Genomics and head of the National Cancer Institute's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, talks about challenges and opportunities in cancer epidemiology research and efforts in the epidemiology community to transform the field.

  4. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  5. Descriptive Epidemiology of Female Breast Cancer in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KexinChen; MinHe; ShufenDong; JifangWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe trends in the changes of incidence and mortality of female breast cancer patients in Tianjin, and evaluate the effect of these trends on prevention. METHODS A method of descriptive epidemiology was used to comprehensively study the status of female breast cancer in Tianjin. RESULTS From 1981 to 2000, the incidence rate of breast cancer in Tianjin had been increasing at the speed of 1.8 % annually, whereas the peak of the age-adjusted incidence and mortality rate expressed a mild declining trend. Follow-up study indicated that 3 and 5-year survival rates improved in various degrees. CONCLUSION Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer are very important to both increasing survival and lowering mortality from breast cancer. Preventive efforts should be promoted for women who are at high risk for breast cancer.

  6. Molecular epidemiology, and possible real-world applications in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidemi; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction, a key idea in molecular epidemiology, has enabled the development of personalized medicine. This concept includes personalized prevention. While genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic susceptibility loci in breast cancer risk, however, the application of this knowledge to practical prevention is still underway. Here, we briefly review the history of molecular epidemiology and its progress in breast cancer epidemiology. We then introduce our experience with the trial combination of GWAS-identified loci and well-established lifestyle and reproductive risk factors in the risk prediction of breast cancer. Finally, we report our exploration of the cumulative risk of breast cancer based on this risk prediction model as a potential tool for individual risk communication, including genetic risk factors and gene-environment interaction with obesity.

  7. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data. PMID:25866582

  8. Selection in reported epidemiological risks: an empirical assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini K Kavvoura

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies may be subject to selective reporting, but empirical evidence thereof is limited. We empirically evaluated the extent of selection of significant results and large effect sizes in a large sample of recent articles. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated 389 articles of epidemiological studies that reported, in their respective abstracts, at least one relative risk for a continuous risk factor in contrasts based on median, tertile, quartile, or quintile categorizations. We examined the proportion and correlates of reporting statistically significant and nonsignificant results in the abstract and whether the magnitude of the relative risks presented (coined to be consistently > or =1.00 differs depending on the type of contrast used for the risk factor. In 342 articles (87.9%, > or =1 statistically significant relative risk was reported in the abstract, while only 169 articles (43.4% reported > or =1 statistically nonsignificant relative risk in the abstract. Reporting of statistically significant results was more common with structured abstracts, and was less common in US-based studies and in cancer outcomes. Among 50 randomly selected articles in which the full text was examined, a median of nine (interquartile range 5-16 statistically significant and six (interquartile range 3-16 statistically nonsignificant relative risks were presented (p = 0.25. Paradoxically, the smallest presented relative risks were based on the contrasts of extreme quintiles; on average, the relative risk magnitude was 1.41-, 1.42-, and 1.36-fold larger in contrasts of extreme quartiles, extreme tertiles, and above-versus-below median values, respectively (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Published epidemiological investigations almost universally highlight significant associations between risk factors and outcomes. For continuous risk factors, investigators selectively present contrasts between more extreme groups, when relative risks are

  9. Lung cancer risk factors among women

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of female lung cancer in developed countries has been increasing since 1950 and particularly in France where the cigarettes consumption has also increased. Since 1980, a growing number of epidemiological surveys have pinpointed the risk of female lung cancer related to smoking. Consecutively, a debate on gender differences in lung cancer risk has appeared, but still in progress nowadays. The reproductive factors could explain these differences. In order to have recent and reliab...

  10. Epidemiology of cancer from exposure to arylamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Vineis, P

    1994-01-01

    Occupational exposure to arylamines such as benzidine, 2-naphthylamine, and 4-aminobiphenyl is associated with exceptionally elevated risks of bladder cancer (up to 100-fold or more). In one plant, all 15 workers involved in distilling naphthylamine developed bladder cancer, suggesting that for high levels of exposure to potent carcinogens individual susceptibility is irrelevant. More recently, exposure to other arylamines also has been suggested to increase the risk of bladder cancer in huma...

  11. Epidemiology and prevention of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenfels, Albert B; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2004-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an uncommon tumor, but because the mortality rate approaches 100%, this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States it is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer mortality; in Japan it ranks as the fifth commonest cause of death from cancer. Smoking is the major known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, accounting for approximately 25-30% of all cases. Some of the time-dependent changes in the frequency of pancreatic cancer can be explained by smoking trends. Aggressive public health measures to control smoking would substantially reduce the burden of pancreatic cancer. Dietary factors are less important for pancreatic cancer than for other digestive tract tumors, but consumption of a diet with adequate quantities of fruits and vegetables, plus control of calories either by dietary measures or by exercise will help to prevent this lethal tumor. There are more than a dozen inherited germline mutations that increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Of these, hereditary pancreatitis confers the greatest risk, while BRCA2 mutations are the commonest inherited disorder. In addition to germline defects, there are several common polymorphisms in genes that control detoxification of environmental carcinogens that may alter the risk of pancreatic cancer. More research will be needed in this area, to explain and to clarify the interaction between genes and environmental factors.

  12. The epidemiology of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, CR; Bertesteanu, SVG; Mirea, D; Grigore, R; Ionescu, D.; Popescu, B

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer represents a major issue for all countries of the world. The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer deals with the spread of the disease in human population in regards to sex, age, profession, time and space, as well as risk factors that contribute to these phenomena. The main goal is to investigate the causes and the factors involved in the development of the tumors at the pharyngo–esophagea...

  13. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  14. Epidemiology of cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresanta, J L

    1992-09-01

    Malignant neoplasms are responsible for more than half a million deaths annually and 22.5% of all deaths in the United States. Cancer is the second leading cause of death overall and the leading cause of death among Americans aged 35-64. Within the next decade it may become the leading cause of death. Cancers of digestive and respiratory organs are responsible for 53% of all cancer deaths. Certain subgroups are at elevated risk for various cancers. For example, sun-sensitive or excessively sun-exposed young white adults, young black women, and elderly patients are at increased risk for cutaneous melanoma, breast cancer, and colon cancer, respectively. Black men have the greatest risk for both lung cancer and cancer of the prostate. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and solid tumors of the brain and nervous system are the most frequent forms of malignancy occurring among children less than or equal to 14 years. Office screening is the traditional method for identifying cancer victims as early as possible. A suitable screening test should be rapid, simple, inexpensive, and impose minimal discomfort. There must be a window of opportunity available to identify the cancer during a detectable preclinical phase, and therapeutic modalities must be available to alter progression. An office screening test for cancer may have any one of four outcomes, and three of them are bad. False negatives are the worst adverse outcome because cancer remains undetected despite screening. An epidemic of lung cancer, caused by cigarette smoking, is occurring in all race and sex groups. If Americans stopped smoking, 87% of lung cancer deaths could be prevented. Tobacco abuse also is a major risk factor for cancer of the esophagus, larynx, and oral cavity. Cigarette smoking is a contributing factor for cancer of the bladder, kidney, and pancreas, and it has been associated with both cervical cancer and cancer of the stomach. Smoking and smokeless tobacco cessation endorsements, messages, and

  15. Relative and absolute risk in epidemiology and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health risk from ionizing radiation commonly is expressed in two forms: (1) the relative risk, which is the percentage increase in natural disease rate and (2) the absolute or attributable risk which represents the difference between the natural rate and the rate associated with the agent in question. Relative risk estimates for ionizing radiation generally are higher than those expressed as the absolute risk. This raises the question of which risk estimator is the most appropriate under different conditions. The absolute risk has generally been used for radiation risk assessment, although mathematical combinations such as the arithmetic or geometric mean of both the absolute and relative risks, have also been used. Combinations of the two risk estimators are not valid because the absolute and relative risk are not independent variables. Both human epidemiologic studies and animal experimental data can be found to illustrate the functional relationship between the natural cancer risk and the risk associated with radiation. This implies that the radiation risk estimate derived from one population may not be appropriate for predictions in another population, unless it is adjusted for the difference in the natural disease incidence between the two populations

  16. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular...

  17. Epidemiological data and radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of several major epidemiology studies on populations with particular exposure to ionizing radiation should become available during the first years of the 21. century. These studies are expected to provide answers to a number of questions concerning public health and radiation protection. Most of the populations concerned were accidentally exposed to radiation in ex-USSR or elsewhere or in a nuclear industrial context. The results will complete and test information on risk coming from studies among survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, particularly studies on the effects of low dose exposure and prolonged low-dose exposure, of different types of radiation, and environmental and host-related factors which could modify the risk of radiation-induced effects. These studies are thus important to assess the currently accepted scientific evidence on radiation protection for workers and the general population. In addition, supplementary information on radiation protection could be provided by formal comparisons and analyses combining data from populations with different types of exposure. Finally, in order to provide pertinent information for public health and radiation protection, future epidemiology studies should be targeted and designed to answer specific questions, concerning, for example, the risk for specific populations (children, patients, people with genetic predisposition). An integrated approach, combining epidemiology and studies on the mechanisms of radiation induction should provide particularly pertinent information. (author)

  18. [Epidemiological data and radiation risk estimates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E

    2002-01-01

    The results of several major epidemiology studies on populations with particular exposure to ionizing radiation should become available during the first years of the 21(st) century. These studies are expected to provide answers to a number of questions concerning public health and radiation protection. Most of the populations concerned were accidentally exposed to radiation in ex-USSR or elsewhere or in a nuclear industrial context. The results will complete and test information on risk coming from studies among survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, particularly studies on the effects of low dose exposure and prolonged low-dose exposure, of different types of radiation, and environmental and host-related factors which could modify the risk of radiation-induced effects. These studies are thus important to assess the currently accepted scientific evidence on radiation protection for workers and the general population. In addition, supplementary information on radiation protection could be provided by formal comparisons and analyses combining data from populations with different types of exposure. Finally, in order to provide pertinent information for public health and radiation protection, future epidemiology studies should be targeted and designed to answer specific questions, concerning, for example, the risk for specific populations (children, patients, people with genetic predisposition). An integrated approach, combining epidemiology and studies on the mechanisms of radiation induction should provide particularly pertinent information. PMID:11938114

  19. The epidemiology of Her-2/ neu and P53 in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstein Jonine L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is an etiologically heterogeneous disease with marked geographical variations. Joint consideration of the relationship between specific molecular alterations and known or suspected epidemiologic risk factors for this disease should help distinguish subgroups of women that are at elevated risk of developing breast cancer. In this article, we present a comprehensive literature review of the etiologic and prognostic roles of Her-2/neu and P53 among women. In addition, we discuss the advantages and limitations of using biomarkers in epidemiological studies. We conclude that more research is needed to understand the complex relationships between genetic alterations and etiologic risk factors for breast cancer.

  20. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  1. Cancer precursors epidemiology, detection, and prevention

    CERN Document Server

    Rohan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of cancer causation have come from epidemiologic and laboratory research, particularly over the past two decades. These developments have included a broadening interest in the critical events that take place during the early stages of the dynamic multistep process leading to - vasive cancer. Increasingly, cancer epidemiologists are pursuing research into the origins and natural history of premalignant lesions, including intermediate or surrogate endpoints, a trend - celerated by the development of molecular technologies that are revolutionizing our understanding of the transformation of normal to malignant cells. There seems little doubt that this emerging knowledge will provide further insights not only into carcinogenic processes, but also into more sensitive methods of early detection and more effective means of prevention. In this book, Drs. Franco and Rohan have succeeded in prep- ing a comprehensive, timely, and critical review of the substantial progress that has ...

  2. Publication of new results from the INWORKS epidemiological study about the risk of cancer among nuclear industry workers chronically exposed to low ionizing radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this cohort study, 308297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17?957 were due to solid cancers. Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality from all solid cancers (47% (18% to 79%)), and within each country. The estimated association over the dose range of 0-100 mGy was similar in magnitude to that obtained over the entire dose range but less precise. Smoking and occupational asbestos exposure are potential confounders; however, exclusion of deaths from lung cancer and pleural cancer did not affect the estimated association. Despite substantial efforts to characterise the performance of the radiation dosimeters used, the possibility of measurement error remains. The study provides a direct estimate of the association between protracted low dose exposure to ionising radiation and solid cancer mortality. Although high dose rate exposures are thought to be more dangerous than low dose rate exposures, the risk per unit of radiation dose for cancer among radiation workers was similar to estimates derived from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Quantifying the cancer risks associated with protracted radiation exposures can help strengthen the foundation for radiation protection standards

  3. Epidemiologic study of breast cancer in a-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case-control study was made on female breast cancer cases and their matched controls in the Life Span Study sample. The index cases were detected during 1958-69 among the 251 breast cancer cases ascertained originally by McGregor et al. The purpose of this study was to define the epidemiologic risk factors of breast cancer among Japanese women, to test for radiation effects in the presence of other risk factors, and to search for interactions. The survey was conducted by interview at home visits for those residing in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki areas, and by mail survey for others. The interview was carried out by several trained interviewers. Information concerning suspected risk factors of breast cancer, such as familial history, education, age at menarche and menopause, marital history, reproductive history, history of breast feeding, etc., was collected for both index cases and controls. Out of 183 original pairs, analysis was made on 164 pairs with available information for both the index and control, using the method of matched samples described by Mantel and Haenszel. There was enhancement of risk for those exposed to high radiation dose (100 rad or more). Although most major results were similar to those of previous studies, a significant increase of risk was observed among those under one of the following conditions: actual duration of marriage was less than 10 years; number of pregnancies was two or less; and age at delivery of first live born child was 27 or over. These factors had a mutual interrelationship and cases with two or more of these risk factors showed higher risk than those with one. Additive interrelationship was demonstrated between radiation dose and these marital or reproductive risk factors in elevating the relative risk of breast cancer. (author)

  4. Epidemiological studies of esophageal cancer in the era of genome-wide association studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Hui; Wang; Yuan; Liu; Bo; Wang; Yi-Xuan; He; Ye-Xian; Fang; Yong-Ping; Yan

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer(EC) caused about 395000 deaths in 2010. China has the most cases of EC and EC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC) is the predominant histologic type(90%-95%), while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma(EAC) remains extremely low in China. Traditional epidemiological studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for EC. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed that susceptibility to EC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Of all the risk factors for EC, some are associated with the risk of ESCC and others with the risk of EAC. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in the process for EC are unclear. The advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies bring a great opportunity for researchers to explore and identify the details of those risk factors or susceptibility genes involved inthe process of EC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era to the era of genome wide association studies(GWAS). Here we review the epidemiological studies of EC(especially ESCC) in the era of GWAS, and provide an overview of the general risk factors and those genomic variants(genes, SNPs, miRNAs, proteins) involved in the process of ESCC.

  5. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  6. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Ning LI; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for...

  7. The epidemiology of diabetes and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Friis, Søren

    2014-10-01

    The literature on cancer occurrence in persons with diabetes has almost invariably been concerned with relative measures. In this paper, we briefly review this, but the aim is to quantify the absolute occurrence of diabetes and cancer in the population in order to give a fuller picture, which also includes the competing mortality risk. Overall, we find that some 35 % of the population will have a diagnosis of diabetes in their lifetime, 44 % a diagnosis of cancer, and about 15 % will have both diagnoses. The impact of differing mortality between persons with and without diabetes is illustrated by the fact that a person without diabetes at age 50 has a smaller lifetime risk of cancer than a person aged 50 with diabetes. Thus, the differences in cancer occurrence between persons with and without diabetes are of quantitatively smaller importance than the differences in mortality.

  8. Comparative epidemiology of gastric cancer between Japan and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingsong Lin; Junko Ueda; Shogo Kikuchi; Yukari Totsuka; Wen-Qiang Wei; You-Lin Qiao; Manami Inoue

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the similarities and differences in gastric cancer epidemiology between Japan and China. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed database was performed. The relevant literature published in China was also been cited. Data on incidence and mortality rates in 2008 were obtained from the Cancer Mondial database, published by International Agency for Research on Cancer at http://www-dep.iarc.fr/.RESULTS: Gastric cancer remains a significant public health burden in both Japan and China. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization is high in the adult populations of both countries. Accumulating evidence from intervention studies in both countries has shown the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication in reducing gastric cancer incidence. There are differences, however, in many aspects of gastric cancer, including patterns of incidence and mortality, trends in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, H. pylori strains, the magnitude of risk of gastric cancer related to H. pylori infection, and associations with dietary habits. Compared with China, Japan has seen a more rapid decline in H. pylori infection among adolescents. While Japanese cohort studies have dominated the literature concerning the associations between gastric cancer and dietary habits, numerous case-control studies in China suggest a positive association between a high intake of preserved fish and vegetables and gastric cancer risk. There is a need for a multidisciplinary research approach to understand the interactions between various strains of H. pylori, host factors, and other lifestyle and environmental factors in gastric carcinogenesis in both countries.CONCLUSION: The shared high incidence of gastric cancer and high prevalence of H. pylori, as well as differences in many aspects of gastric cancer, provide an excellent opportunity to establish Sino-Japanese collaborations.

  9. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Letašiová Silvia; Medveďová Alžbeta; Šovčíková Andrea; Dušinská Mária; Volkovová Katarína; Mosoiu Claudia; Bartonová Alena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment publish...

  10. Consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büchner, F.L.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Kampman, E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent associations between vegetables and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer. We therefore investigated the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Inve

  11. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  12. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  13. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.F. Young

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Here we review the relationship of vitamins to PC risk. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin A, retinoids, several B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed these vitamins may have anti-PC properties, whether they can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of PC in humans remains to be intensively studied subjects. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of vitamins on PC prevention and/or treatment.

  14. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies....... Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with

  15. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Europe and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiy Opeyemi Abdulrahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer continues to remain the most lethal malignancy in women across the world. This study reviews some of the epidemiological similarities and differences in breast cancer between white European women and black African women with the aim of optimising care for women with breast malignancy across the world. The incidence of breast cancer is lower among African women than their European counterparts. Majority of women in Europe are postmenopausal when they present with breast cancer; however, the peak incidence among African women is in the premenopausal period. Ductal carcinoma is the commonest type of breast cancer among women in Africa and Europe. However, medullary and mucinous carcinomas are more common in Africa than in Europe. While European women usually present at an early stage especially with the advent of screening, African women generally present late for treatment resulting in lower survival rates. There should be more research at the molecular level among African women to identify genetic factors that may contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer. There should also be improvement in the health care system in Africa in order to optimise care for women with breast cancer.

  16. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  17. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors can affect a person’s chance of getting cancer of the pancreas. Most of these are risk factors for exocrine ... Chronic pancreatitis, a long-term inflammation of the pancreas, is linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (especially in smokers), but most people with pancreatitis ...

  18. Association between Soy Isoflavone Intake and Breast Cancer Risk for Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Meinan Chen; Yanhua Rao; Yi Zheng; Shiqing Wei; Ye Li; Tong Guo; Ping Yin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conclusions drawn from meta-analyses on the association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk for pre- and post-menopausal women are not fully consistent. These meta-analyses did not explore the influence of different study designs on the pooled results on the basis of distinguishing between pre- and post-menopausal women. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of 35 studies which reported results of association between soy isoflavone intak...

  19. Diagnostics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank T

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Main risk factors include advanced age, family history, male sex, and lifestyle factors. Screening can reduce incidence and death from colorectal cancer. Therefore, prevention and early detection are crucial in order to detect and remove pre-neoplastic adenomas and to detect cancers at early stages. Colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood tests are established tools for screening. Newer fecal immunochemical tests reveal higher sensitivities for advanced adenoma and cancer than guaiac-based hemoccult tests. Molecular stool and blood tests as well as virtual colonoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy are promising new developments so far not established as routine instruments for the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy is the method of choice for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and for adenoma removal. Prognosis is essentially dependent on the tumor stage at the time of the initial diagnosis. Proper staging based on imaging prior to therapy is a prerequisite. In rectal cancer, local staging is an essential requirement for the identification of appropriate candidates for neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:27493942

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiubo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PC (pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates have been increasing year by year worldwide, and this review has analyzed the most recent incidence and mortality data for pancreatic cancer occurrence in China. Several possible risk factors have been discussed here, involving known established risk factors and novel possible risk factors. The development of this cancer is a stepwise progression through intraepithelial neoplasia to carcinoma. Though early and accurate diagnosis is promising based on a combination of recent techniques including tumor markers and imaging modalities, lacking early clinical symptoms makes the diagnosis late. Correct staging is critical because treatment is generally based on this parameter. Treatment options have improved throughout the last decades. However, surgical excision remains the primary therapy and efficacy of conventional chemoradiotherapy for PC is limited. Recently, some novel new therapies have been developed and will be applied in clinics soon. This review will provide an overview of pancreatic cancer, including an understanding of the developments and controversies.

  1. Dietary acrylamide intake and brain cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, which is present in several heat-treatedfood s. In epidemiologic studies, positive associations with endometrial, ovarian, and renal cell cancer risk have been observed. The incidence of central nervous system tumors was increased upon acrylamid

  2. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  3. SU-D-16A-01: A Novel Method to Estimate Normal Tissue Dose for Radiotherapy Patients to Support Epidemiologic Studies of Second Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patient cohort of second cancer study often involves radiotherapy patients with no radiological images available: We developed methods to construct a realistic surrogate anatomy by using computational human phantoms. We tested this phantom images both in a commercial treatment planning system (Eclipse) and a custom Monte Carlo (MC) transport code. Methods: We used a reference adult male phantom defined by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The hybrid phantom which was originally developed in Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) and polygon mesh format was converted into more common medical imaging format. Electron density was calculated from the material composition of the organs and tissues and then converted into DICOM format. The DICOM images were imported into the Eclipse system for treatment planning, and then the resulting DICOM-RT files were imported into the MC code for MC-based dose calculation. Normal tissue doses were calculation in Eclipse and MC code for an illustrative prostate treatment case and compared to each other. Results: DICOM images were generated from the adult male reference phantom. Densities and volumes of selected organs between the original phantom and ones represented within Eclipse showed good agreements, less than 0.6%. Mean dose from Eclipse and MC code match less than 7%, whereas maximum and minimum doses were different up to 45%. Conclusion: The methods established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support epidemiological studies of second cancer in cancer survivors treated by radiotherapy. We also work on implementing body size-dependent computational phantoms to better represent patient's anatomy when the height and weight of patients are available

  4. SU-D-16A-01: A Novel Method to Estimate Normal Tissue Dose for Radiotherapy Patients to Support Epidemiologic Studies of Second Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jung, J; Pelletier, C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Kim, J [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Patient cohort of second cancer study often involves radiotherapy patients with no radiological images available: We developed methods to construct a realistic surrogate anatomy by using computational human phantoms. We tested this phantom images both in a commercial treatment planning system (Eclipse) and a custom Monte Carlo (MC) transport code. Methods: We used a reference adult male phantom defined by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The hybrid phantom which was originally developed in Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) and polygon mesh format was converted into more common medical imaging format. Electron density was calculated from the material composition of the organs and tissues and then converted into DICOM format. The DICOM images were imported into the Eclipse system for treatment planning, and then the resulting DICOM-RT files were imported into the MC code for MC-based dose calculation. Normal tissue doses were calculation in Eclipse and MC code for an illustrative prostate treatment case and compared to each other. Results: DICOM images were generated from the adult male reference phantom. Densities and volumes of selected organs between the original phantom and ones represented within Eclipse showed good agreements, less than 0.6%. Mean dose from Eclipse and MC code match less than 7%, whereas maximum and minimum doses were different up to 45%. Conclusion: The methods established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support epidemiological studies of second cancer in cancer survivors treated by radiotherapy. We also work on implementing body size-dependent computational phantoms to better represent patient's anatomy when the height and weight of patients are available.

  5. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs.Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infec¬tions in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in sponta¬neous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  6. The selection and use of control groups in epidemiologic studies of radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are based on epidemiologic studies of humans exposed to high doses of radiation. A critical feature of such studies is the selection of an appropriate control group. This report presents a detailed examination of the principles underlying the selection and use of control groups in such epidemiologic studies. It is concluded that the cohort study is the preferred design, because of the rarity of exposure to high levels of radiation in the general population and because the cohort design is less susceptible to bias. This report also assesses potential bias in current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer due to inappropriate choice and use of control groups. Detailed summaries are presented for those epidemiologic studies on which the BEIR IV risk estimates are based. It is concluded that confounding is by far the major potential concern. Bias is probably negligible in risk estimates for breast cancer. For lung cancer, risk estimates may be underestimated by about 30 percent for males and 10 percent for females due to confounding of smoking and radiation exposure. For leukemia and cancers of the thyroid and bone, the absence of established non-radiation risk factors with a high prevalence in the population under study suggests that there is unlikely to be any substantial confounding radiation risk estimates. Finally, lifetime excess mortality risks have been estimated for several of the cancers of interest following exposure to radiation based on Canadian age-, sex- and cause-specific mortality rates. It is concluded that errors in measurement exposure, uncertainty in extrapolating the results of high dose studies to low doses and low dose rates, and sampling variation in the epidemiologic studies contribute far more to uncertainty in current risk estimates than do any biases in the epidemiologic studies introduced by inappropriate selection and use of control groups. (161 refs., 19 tabs.)

  7. Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Northwest Iran: 2003-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Firouz Amani; Mohammad Sadrkabir; Saeid Sadeghieh Ahari; Saeid Barzghari; Abbas Yazdanbod; Ahmad Sabzevari; Moghgan Hadavi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the world and the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. This study aims to assess the epidemiology of gastric cancer in Ardabil Province, Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed on 1056 patients with gastric cancer registered in the Ardabil Cancer Registry. Data were collected by a checklist and analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS version 19. Results: Out of 1056 cas...

  8. Main clinical epidemiological features of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 95 patients with lung cancer, discharged from Neumology Service at 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January, 2008 to December, 2008 in order to identify the main clinical epidemiological features of the aforementioned disease. A malignancy predominance among men aged between 56 and 65 years old, belonging to urban areas and being heavy smoker (out of 30 cigarettes per day over 30 years ), was found. Those affected without a confirmed histological type and IV clinical stage epidermoid carcinoma were predominant. Most of them had the opportunity to be treated. Increasing and intensifying health promotion and disease prevention campaigns were recommended so as to achieve the population to avoid or quit the smoking habit. (author)

  9. Cervical cancer risk factors in Liangshan with epidemiological studies%凉山州妇女宫颈癌危险因素的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅琪; 龚勋; 马燕; 罗连英; 廖国芳

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨凉山州妇女宫颈癌的危险因素.方法:采用回顾性流行病学问卷调查的形式,对80例住院患者进行临床流行病学调查,调查内容包括一般资料、既往病史、性行为和生育史、避孕史及吸烟史、生活习惯等,并以年龄、民族、居住地等为匹配条件选择对照组.结果:居住地、受教育程度、经济收入、孕次、食用腌制食品、被动吸烟、性生活后阴道冲洗等变量进入回归模型.结论:社会经济地位、多孕次、性生活卫生等因素与罹患宫颈癌有关.%Objective : To explore the cervical cancer risk factors in Liangshan , China. Methods : A retrospective epidemiological survey for 80 hospitalized paients was performed . Epidemiological survey included general information,past medical history, sexual and reproductive history, contraceptive history and smoking history, habits and so on. Results:The place of residence, education level, income, pregnancies, eating pickled foods, passive smoking, vaginal douching after sex and other variables were risk factor. Conclusion: The socio - economic status, number of pregnancies, sexual health and other factors are risk factors of cervical cancer.

  10. Perinatal epidemiological risk factors for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobić, Mirna Vuković; Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna Čerkez

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the impact of the potential perinatal epidemiological factors on preeclampsia development was assessed. This clinical study included 55 pregnant women with preeclampsia and control group of 50 healthy pregnant women. Positive family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or thromboembolic disease was recorded in 50% of women with preeclampsia versus 28% of control group women. Positive personal history of this disease was recorded in 15% of women with preeclampsia, whereas all control group women had negative personal history of preeclampsia. Dietary habits, i.e. the intake of meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, coffee and alcohol drinks were similar in the two groups, without statistically significant differences. The women with preeclampsia and control women reported comparable habits; there was no difference in the consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, coffee and alcohol, smoking, use of folate and oral hormonal contraception before pregnancy, or in physical activity as the potential risk factors for preeclampsia in current pregnancy. However, personal and family history of vascular disease proved to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of preeclampsia, emphasizing the need of lifestyle and dietary modifications with healthy dietary habits, while avoiding adverse habits in pregnancy.

  11. Body fatness as a cause of cancer: epidemiologic clues to biologic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Tim; Sedjo, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Carrying excess body fat is a leading cause of cancer. Epidemiologic evidence gives strong clues about the mechanisms that link excess adiposity to risk for several cancer sites. For postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer, the hyper-estrogenic state that is induced by excess body fatness is the likely cause. For esophageal cancer and gallbladder cancer, chronic local inflammation induced by acid reflux and gallstones is the likely cause, and for liver cancer, local inflammation induced by hepatic fatty infiltration is the likely cause. However, for several other cancers known to be associated with excess adiposity, including cancers of the colon, pancreas, ovary, kidney, and prostate, specific causes are not known. Possible candidates include elevated systemic or local tissue inflammation induced by adiposity and effects of the elevated levels of leptin, insulin, IGFs, and depressed immune function that are seen with excess adiposity. There is growing evidence that intentional weight loss not only reduces circulating levels of cancer-associated factors but that it also reduces cancer incidence and recurrence. Better research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link excess body fat to cancer risk as well as to understand the amount of weight loss needed for substantial cancer risk reduction. Finally, as we develop better understanding of the mediators of the effects of excess body fatness on cancer risk, we should identify pharmacologic interventions that target those mediators so that they can be used to complement weight loss in order to reduce cancer risk. PMID:25870250

  12. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  13. Thyroid cancer in Belarus: the epidemiological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting in 1990, an increasing number of children were diagnosed as suffering from thyroid cancer in regions close to the Chernobyl nuclear accident site, and this increase is continuing. But still today, doubts about the significance of this increase are being voiced. Using data from the Belarus epidemiological cancer registration system up to 1994, the geographic distribution, time and cohort trends, age distribution and other characteristics of this epidemic are reviewed. Results show that the geographic distribution is similar to that of iodine-131 following the accident; that when looking at cohorts of children born in the same years incidence has steadily increased since 1990; and that deviations from this pattern might be explained by active case finding.The most likely interpretation of these results is that of a causal association with radiation exposure related to the Chernobyl accident, but possible modifying factors should be examined closely. The most likely future course of the epidemic is an increasing number of cases among those exposed in childhood, and public health measures should take this into account

  14. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, S.; Grooters, H.G.; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kampman, E.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Vries, E. de; Wigger, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 com

  15. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  16. Epidemiology and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemanns, Peter; Soergel, Phillip; Hertel, Hermann; Jentschke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The new German S3 guideline 'Prevention of Cervical Cancer' published in 2016 is based on the latest available evidence about cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical precancer. Large randomized controlled trials indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening may provide better protection against cervical cancer than cytology alone through improved detection of premalignant disease in the first screening round prior to progression. Therefore, women aged 30 years and older should preferably be screened with HPV testing every 3-5 years (cytology alone every 2 years is an acceptable alternative). Co-testing is not recommended. Screening should start at 25 years using cytology alone every 2 years. The preferred triage test after a positive HPV screening test is cytology. Women positive for HPV 16 and HPV 18 should receive immediate colposcopy. Another alternative triage method is p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology. The mean yearly participation rate in Germany is between 45 and 50%. Offering devices for HPV self-sampling has the potential to increase participation rates in those women who are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. Regarding primary prevention, the 9-valent vaccine may provide protection against up to 85% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 and 90% of cervical cancer, and is available in Europe as a 2-dose schedule from May 2016. PMID:27614953

  17. Epidemiology and biology of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, W M; Janicek, M F; Mirhashemi, R

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide, cancer of the cervix is the second leading cause of cancer death in women: each year, an estimated 500,000 cases are newly diagnosed. Among populations, there are large differences in incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer: these reflect the influence of environmental factors, screening Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and treatment of pre-invasive lesions. The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, and 51 have been recovered from more than 95% of cervical cancers. We have made great strides in understanding the molecular mechanism of oncogenesis of this virus, focusing on the action of the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins. These oncoproteins function by inactivating cell cycle regulators p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb), thus providing the initial event in progression to malignancy. Cervical cancers develop from precursor lesions, which are termed squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and are graded as high or low, depending on the degree of disruption of epithelial differentiation. Viral production occurs in low-grade lesions and is restricted to basal cells. In carcinomas, viral DNA is found integrated into the host genome, but no viral production is seen. The well-defined pre-invasive stages, as well as the viral factors involved at the molecular level, make cervical carcinoma a good model for investigating immune therapeutic alternatives or adjuvants to standard treatments. PMID:10225296

  18. Introduction: Epidemiologic research and prevention of occupational cancer in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Boffetta, P.; Kogevinas, M.

    1999-01-01

    Research on occupational cancer epidemiology has been an important area of occupational health in Europe since the early studies were conducted in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and 1960s. During the last decade, occupational cancer research in Europe has gained an international dimension and become increasingly interdisciplinary in nature. At present, occupational exposures might be responsible for 13 to 18% of lung cancers, 2 to 10% of bladder cancers, and 2 to 8% of laryngeal cancers in E...

  19. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  20. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  1. Epidemiology of lung cancer; Epidemiologie des Bronchialkarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Krebsepidemiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Lung cancer is by far the most common form of cancer worldwide and in Germany is now ''only'' still the commonest cause of death from cancer. The most important single risk factor is smoking but in selected population groups, for example in the professional area, other factors can also play a role which cannot be ignored and open up a corresponding potential for prevention. Effective early detection procedures are at present unknown. The most promising, however, is multislice computed tomography (MSCT) which for this reason is presently being tested for effectiveness in several large research projects. The results are not expected for some years. Until then the early detection of lung cancer with MSCT cannot be considered suitable for routine use but can only be justified within the framework of research studies. (orig.) [German] Lungenkrebs ist weltweit die bei weitem haeufigste Krebsart, in Deutschland aber mittlerweile ''nur'' noch die haeufigste Krebstodesursache. Der bedeutendste Einzelrisikofaktor ist das Rauchen, doch koennen in ausgewaehlten Bevoelkerungsgruppen, z. B. im beruflichen Bereich, auch andere Faktoren eine nicht zu vernachlaessigende Rolle spielen und ein entsprechendes Praeventionspotenzial eroeffnen. Wirksame Frueherkennungsverfahren sind derzeit nicht bekannt. Als aussichtsreich gilt aber die Mehrschichtcomputertomographie (MSCT), die daher gegenwaertig in mehreren grossen Forschungsvorhaben auf ihre Effektivitaet ueberprueft wird. Ergebnisse werden in einigen Jahren erwartet. Bis dahin ist Lungenkrebsfrueherkennung mit MSCT nicht fuer die Routineanwendung geeignet, sondern ausschliesslich im Rahmen von Studien zu rechtfertigen. (orig.)

  2. Alcohol drinking and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Allen, Naomi E.; Dossus, Laure; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Schuetze, Madlen; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oustoglou, Erifili; Barbitsioti, Antonia; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Galasso, Rocco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Sanchez, Soledad; Duell, Eric J.; Molina-Montes, Esther; Arriola, Larraitz; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Lundin, Eva; Idahl, Annika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Wark, Petra A.; Norat, Teresa; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Alcohol intake may adversely affect the concentrations of endogenous sex hormones, and thus increase the risk of endometrial cancer. However, epidemiologic studies have provided conflicting results. Therefore, we investigated the association between alcohol intake and endometrial cancer ris

  3. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Grooters, Hilda G; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A Sandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kampman, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Peeters, Petra H M; de Vries, Esther; Wigger, Stefan; Kiemeney, L A L M Bart

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 common types of cancer. The test provides an estimate of individual risk of a specific type of cancer and gives specific lifestyle advice that could lower that risk. This paper describes the development of the test, how it works, and its strengths and limitations.

  4. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer; Epidemiologie kolorektaler Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Colorectal tumors are among the most frequently encountered forms of cancer worldwide. With approximately 57,000 new cases every year, they represent the most frequent type of cancer in Germany, ranking before breast cancer (approximately 46,000) and lung cancer (approximately 37,000). Although global incidence is on the rise, in Germany it is only increasing among men, but not among women. The mortality rate (approximately 26,500 deaths annually) in Germany has declined among men for about the past 10 years and among women for about the past 20 years.The most important risk factors are familial history of colorectal and other tumors as well as lifestyle factors such as nutrition, obesity, inactivity,and smoking.Lifestyle-related risks offer a broad area for implementing primary preventive measures, which have not yet been adequately exhausted. Several proven (fecal occult blood test) and probably effective (endoscopic) methods are available for secondary prevention. Consistent encouragement of these possibilities for prevention could reduce incidence and mortality substantially and render colorectal tumors less frequent. (orig.) [German] Kolorektale Tumoren gehoeren weltweit zu den haeufigsten Krebsarten und sind mit jaehrlich ca.57000 Neuerkrankungsfaellen vor Brustkrebs (ca. 46000) und Lungenkrebs (ca. 37000) die haeufigste Krebsart in Deutschland.Waehrend die Inzidenz weltweit steigt, nimmt sie in Deutschland nur bei Maennern,nicht aber bei Frauen zu.Die Mortalitaet (jaehrlich ca.26500 Todesfaelle) geht hierzulande bei Maennern seit ca.10 Jahren, bei Frauen seit ca.20 Jahren zurueck. Die bedeutendsten Risikofaktoren sind familiaere Vorgeschichte an kolorektalen und anderen Tumoren sowie Lebensstilfaktoren wie Ernaehrung, Uebergewicht,Bewegungsmangel und Rauchen.Die lebensstilbedingten Risiken bieten breiten Raum fuer primaere Praevention, der bisher nur unzureichend ausgeschoepft ist.Auch fuer sekundaere Praevention stehen mehrere nachgewiesenermassen (Test auf

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew MC

    2014-08-01

    accumulation in hereditary hemochromatosis and dietary iron overload in the Black African population and membranous obstruction of the inferior cava cause the tumor in a few countries. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, epidemiology, risk factors

  6. Epidemiological evidence on environmental tobacco smoke and cancers other than lung or breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter N; Thornton, Alison J; Hamling, Janette S

    2016-10-01

    We reviewed 87 epidemiological studies relating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure to risk of cancer other than lung or breast in never smoking adults. This updates a 2002 review which also considered breast cancer. Meta-analysis showed no significant relationship with ETS for nasopharynx cancer, head and neck cancer, various digestive cancers (stomach, rectum, colorectal, liver, pancreas), or cancers of endometrium, ovary, bladder and brain. For some cancers (including oesophagus, colon, gall bladder and lymphoma) more limited data did not suggest a relationship. An increased cervix cancer risk (RR 1.58, 95%CI 1.29-1.93, n = 17 independent estimates), reducing to 1.29 (95%CI 1.01-1.65) after restriction to five estimates adjusting for HPV infection or sexual activity suggests a causal relationship, as do associations with nasosinus cancer observed in 2002 (no new studies since), and less so kidney cancer (RR 1.33, 95%CI 1.04-1.70, n = 6). A weaker association with total cancer (RR 1.13, 95%CI 1.03-1.35, n = 19) based on heterogeneous data is inconclusive. Inadequate confounder control, recall bias, publication bias, and occasional reports of implausibly large RRs in individual studies contribute to our conclusion that the epidemiological evidence does not convincingly demonstrate that ETS exposure causes any of the cancers studied. PMID:27321059

  7. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Helen; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: cancer epidemiology;complications;Canada;epidemiology;Evaluation;Female;Genital Diseases,Female;Humans;Incidence;lifestyle modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Papillomaviridae;Papillomavirus Infections;Risk Factors;Uterine Cervical Neoplasms;virology.

  8. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Europe and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiy Opeyemi Abdulrahman; Ganiyu Adebisi Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to remain the most lethal malignancy in women across the world. This study reviews some of the epidemiological similarities and differences in breast cancer between white European women and black African women with the aim of optimising care for women with breast malignancy across the world. The incidence of breast cancer is lower among African women than their European counterparts. Majority of women in Europe are postmenopausal when they present with breast cancer; h...

  9. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingsheng Wang; Xiaoping Lin

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer incidence has increased rapidly in China over the last 20 years, especially in females. Among the 183 registered worldwide populations, lung cancer incidence in males was ranked as the 73rd, 74th, 127th and 23rd respectively for Shanghai, Tianjin, Qidong and Hong Kong, and in females the 52nd, 13th, 102nd and 23rd. The sex ratio (M/F) ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 for most areas. The ratio of squamous/ adenocarcinoma was 2.01 in males and 0.67 in females in Tianjin, 0.97 and 0.28 in Hong Kong, 1.00 and 0.61 in the US white population and 1.18 and 0.49 in US blacks. Much research on risk factors have been conducted and documented including the following: genetic predisposition/polymorphism, smoking/coal soot and DNA adduct, cytochrome p450-1A1 (CYP1A1), glutathione S-transferase-M (GST-M), viral infection/HPV infection, high background radiation, family history, tobacco consumption, mental health, prior lung diseases, coal soot indoor air pollution, cooking fume indoor air pollution, hormones, diet, occupational exposure, outdoor air pollution, socioeconomic level/education, alcohol consumption and their interactions(addition/synergy). Based on current information we should carefully devise a plan to control lung cancer that can be put into practice.

  10. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies 1-4

    OpenAIRE

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Plant polyphenols, a large group of natural antioxidants, are serious candidates in explanations of the protective effects of vegetables and fruits against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies are useful for evaluation of the human health effects of long-term exposure to physiologic concentrations of polyphenols, but reliable data on polyphenol contents of foods are still scarce. The aim of this review is to summarize available epidemiologic data on the health effects of ...

  11. Aging and cancer in Uruguay: epidemiology and health screenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to estimates by the UICC 2020 the annual number of new cases cancer worldwide will reach 20 million, of which 14 occur in developing countries, which must address the problem with little human and material resources. This increase, in particular the care burden will weigh in countries development, is the result, among other factors, the transition patterns epidemiological, accompanied by an increase in life expectancy at birth. This determines the prevalence of chronic and degenerative diseases within which highlights the cardiovascular and oncological diseases. In Uruguay, the life expectancy at birth has increased from 45 in 1900-75 to end of the century. In parallel we are witnessing a progressive aging of the population, with an increasing proportion of older age groups. taking population aged 65 or more, it represented 4.5% in 1908 and reached 21.2% in 2000 Similarly, cancer mortality has increased percentage, in 2001 representing 23.8% of total deaths. Depending on age, analyzed the increased risk of developing or dying from cancer in Uruguay and its impact is weighted mortality of seven locations more frequent. For each of these locations the percentage of deaths in the population of 65 or more years is as follows: lung 60.9%, breast 60.3%, prostate 91.4%, colorecto 78.3%, 72.3% stomach, esophagus 70.3%, 72.2% pancreas, averaging 69.4% overall. Some etiopathogenic aspects and care projections are discussed this onco-geriatric problems.

  12. The role of androgens and polymorphisms in the androgen receptor in the epidemiology of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testosterone binds to the androgen receptor in target tissue to mediate its effects. Variations in testosterone levels and androgen receptor activity may play a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Here, we review the epidemiologic evidence linking endogenous testosterone to breast cancer risk. Paradoxically, results from observational studies that have examined polymorphisms in the androgen receptor suggest that the low-activity androgen receptor increases breast cancer risk. We review the quality of this evidence and conclude with a discussion of how the androgen receptor and testosterone results coincide

  13. Epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Zamir Ali; Akram, Muhammad; Asif, H M; Sultana, Sabira; Khan, Asmatullah

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is more common in men over the age of 65 years. There are 15% cases with positive family history of prostate cancer Worldwide. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death among the U.S. men. Prostate cancer incidence is strongly related to age with the highest rates in older man. Globally millions of people are suffering from this disease. This study aims to provide awareness about prostate cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

  14. Apolipoproteins, lipids and risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Talha; Almgren, Peter; Shiffman, Dov; Stocks, Tanja; Orho-Melander, Marju; Manjer, Jonas; Melander, Olle

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiological evidence for an obesity-cancer association is solid, whereas the association between obesity-associated lipoprotein levels and cancer is less evident. We investigated circulating levels of Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and association to risk of overall cancer and common cancer forms. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, enrolled 17,035 women and 11,063 men (1991-1996). Incident cancer cases were ascertained by record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry until end of follow-up, January 1, 2012. Baseline serum levels of ApoA1 and ApoB were analyzed for the entire cohort and HDL-C and LDL-C levels in 5,281 participants. Hazard ratios, with 95% confidence interval, were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards analysis. In the entire cohort, none of the exposures were related to overall cancer risk (HRadj ApoA1 = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.95,1.01; HRadj ApoB = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.98-1.04). Among men, ApoB was positively associated with cancer risk (HRadj ApoB = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.01,1.10). Female breast cancer risk was inversely associated with ApoB (HRadj = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86,0.99). Among both genders, ApoA1 was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (HRadj = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.80,0.97), whereas high ApoB increased lung cancer risk (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.99,1.18). Colorectal cancer risk was increased with high ApoB (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01,1.16) among both genders. Apolipoprotein levels were not associated with prostate cancer incidence. Circulating levels of apolipoproteins are associated with overall cancer risk in men and across both genders with breast, lung and colorectal cancer risk. Validation of these findings may facilitate future primary prevention strategies for cancer. PMID:26804063

  15. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  16. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  17. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Female Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Seon-Hee Yim; Yeun-Jun Chung

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is still a leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The incidence of lung cancer in developed countries started to decrease mainly due to global anti-smoking campaigns. However, the incidence of lung cancer in women has been increasing in recent decades for various reasons. Furthermore, since the screening of lung cancer is not as yet very effective, clinically applicable molecular markers for early diagnosis are much required. Lung cancer in women appears to have differenc...

  19. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  20. Epidemiology and early diagnosis of primary liver cancer in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, F.S.; Shen, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in different areas in China have revealed several outstanding risk factors of PLC, i.e., HBV infection, pollution of drinking water, contamination of food by AFB1 and/or nitrosamines, and family predisposition. Accordingly, a program of HBV vaccination, improved supply of drinking water, better preservation and storage of food, and possibly chemoprevention for high-risk populations should be effective preventive measures. Studies have shown that frequent AFP screening in high-risk populations is highly recommended to detect early cases of PLC. According to research in Qidong, careful follow-up of the dynamic changes of AFP in individuals with persistent low levels of positive AFP is important for distinguishing other conditions from true PLC. Newer means for the localization of small-size PLC (under 5 cm), such as type B ultrasonography, nuclide scanning, computerized tomography, and hepatoangiography, represent remarkable progress in improving markedly the success of surgery and hence the survival rate of PLC patients. The advances in knowledge of PLC have been encouraging. Although much work remains to be done on the etiological agents and the mechanism of oncogenesis, it is time that larger scale control measures be put into effect in high-incidence areas to discover if one of the most common cancers in the world can be controlled. 62 references.

  1. Endometriosis and breast cancer: A survey of the epidemiological studies

    OpenAIRE

    PONTIKAKI, A.; SIFAKIS, S.; Spandidos, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Recent reviews have demonstrated the connection between endometriosis and breast cancer, which represents the most frequently diagnosed female cancer and the most common cause of cancer-related mortality among women worldwide. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of available published epidemiological studies indicating the asso...

  2. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  3. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  4. Metabolites of tobacco smoking and colorectal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Amanda J.; Boca, Simina; Freedman, Neal D.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Sinha, Rashmi; Sampson, Joshua N.; Moore, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report inconsistent and modest associations between smoking and colorectal cancer. Serum hydroxycotinine captures smoking behavior and metabolic variation, and is associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of incident colorectal cancer, supporting a role for tobacco in this malignancy.

  5. Cancer risks among residents of Manitoba Indian reserves, 1970-79

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study of malignant neoplasms among residents of Indian reserves in Manitoba from 1970 to 1979 based on the Manitoba Cancer Registry revealed an unusual pattern. There was a greater risk for kidney cancer in both sexes and for gallbladder and invasive cervical cancer in women. The risk was reduced, however, for cancer of the lung in men and of the breast in women, cancers with a high incidence in the general Canadian population. Overall the risk for cancer was lower...

  6. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer Risk: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Rong Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no change in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic men. A recent pooled analysis, including 5 prospective studies from the USA, showed that the summary hazard ratio (95% confidence interval for women was 1.19 (0.84–1.69 and was 0.96 (0.65–1.42 for men. Therefore, the results are controversial and the association between diabetes and thyroid cancer is probably weak. Further studies are necessary to confirm their relationship. Proposed mechanisms for such a possible link between diabetes and thyroid cancer include elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, insulin, glucose and triglycerides, insulin resistance, obesity, vitamin D deficiency, and antidiabetic medications such as insulin or sulfonylureas.

  7. Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Northwest Iran: 2003-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouz Amani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the world and the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. This study aims to assess the epidemiology of gastric cancer in Ardabil Province, Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed on 1056 patients with gastric cancer registered in the Ardabil Cancer Registry. Data were collected by a checklist and analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS version 19. Results: Out of 1056 cases, 37% were smokers and 80.9% were illiterate. There were 73.1% male cases. Adenocarcinoma was the most common (89.5% type of cancer and prevalent in males. The tumors were mostly located in the gastric cardia. Most cases were from rural areas. Conclusion: Results showed that the incidence of gastric cancer in Ardabil Province was higher in males compared to females. Compared to the country standards the incidence of gastric cancer was higher.

  8. Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies: The pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Ritz, J.; Albanes, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Bernstein, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cho, E.; Colditz, G.A.; Folsom, A.R.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Shore, R.; Virtanen, M.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Hunter, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within

  9. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies 1-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Plant polyphenols, a large group of natural antioxidants, are serious candidates in explanations of the protective effects of vegetables and fruits against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies are useful for evaluation of the human health effects of long-term exposure to physiol

  10. PCOS and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Issat; Artur J Jakimiuk

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical ...

  11. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Bohîlțea, RE; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, LC

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women’s genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometria...

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption and breast cancer in women: from epidemiology to mechanisms and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Philip J; Zakhari, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk in women. Understanding the mechanistic basis of this relationship has important implications for women's health and breast cancer prevention. In this commentary, we focus on some recent epidemiologic studies linking moderate alcohol consumption to breast cancer risk and place the results of those studies within the framework of our current understanding of the temporal and mechanistic basis of human carcinogenesis. This analysis supports the hypothesis that alcohol acts as a weak cumulative breast carcinogen and may also be a tumor promoter. We discuss the implications of these mechanisms for the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related breast cancer and present some considerations for future studies. Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health and recently been associated with healthy aging. Therefore, a better understanding of how moderate alcohol consumption impacts breast cancer risk will allow women to make better informed decisions about the risks and benefits of alcohol consumption in the context of their overall health and at different stages of their life. Such mechanistic information is also important for the development of rational clinical interventions to reduce ethanol-related breast cancer mortality.

  13. Recent changes in bacteremia in patients with cancer: a systematic review of epidemiology and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montassier, E; Batard, E; Gastinne, T; Potel, G; de La Cochetière, M F

    2013-07-01

    Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complication in patients with cancer. Significant changes in the spectrum of microorganisms isolated from blood culture have been reported in cancer patients over the past years. The aim of our systematic review was to inventory the recent trends in epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of microorganisms causing bacteremia in cancer patients. Data for this review was identified by searches of Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Library for indexed articles and abstracts published in English since 2008. The principal search terms were: "antimicrobial resistance", "bacteremia", "bacterial epidemiology", "bloodstream infection", "cancer patients", "carbapenem resistance", "Escherichia coli resistance", "extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli", "febrile neutropenia", "fluoroquinolone resistance", "neutropenic cancer patient", "vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus", and "multidrug resistance". Boolean operators (NOT, AND, OR) were also used in succession to narrow and widen the search. Altogether, 27 articles were selected to be analyzed in the review. We found that Gram-negative bacteria were the most frequent pathogen isolated, particularly in studies with minimal use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Another important trend is the extensive emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains associated with increased risk of morbidity, mortality and cost. This increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance has been reported in Gram-negative bacteria as well as in Gram-positive bacteria. This exhaustive review, reporting the recent findings in epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of bacteremia in cancer patients, highlights the necessity of local continuous surveillance of bacteremia and stringent enforcement of antibiotic stewardship programs in cancer patients. PMID:23354675

  14. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were...... carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure-response data because of the limited number of studies available. RESULTS: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI...

  15. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know before using this tool: The Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool was designed for use by doctors and other health providers with their patients. If you are not a health ... your personal risk of colorectal cancer. (Colorectal cancer is another way ...

  16. Anaplastic thyroid cancer Irish epidemiology and novel chemotherapeutic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, James Paul

    2009-01-01

    This body of work was conducted over a four year period. Within this timeframe we have conducted a National Epidemiology project, established a National Head and Neck Cancer database and completed Oncology laboratory investigations. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive endocrine disease in nature. Within the thyroid gland a heterogeneous group of neoplasms may develop. These can range from well differentiated tumours with an excellent prognosis, to ATC tumours which prese...

  17. The changing epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer histology.

    OpenAIRE

    Wynder, E. L.; Muscat, J E

    1995-01-01

    In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies demonstrated that lung cancer is causatively associated with cigarette smoking, a finding subsequently confirmed by the Royal College of Physicians in London, the U.S. Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. Although cigarette consumption has gradually decreased in the United States from a high of about 3800 cigarettes per adult per year in 1965 to about 2800 cigarettes in 1993, death from lung cancer has reached a high among ...

  18. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  19. Shared genetics underlying epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yi; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Painter, Jodie N;

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between endometriosis and certain histotypes of ovarian cancer, including clear cell, low-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas. We aimed to determine whether the observed associations might be due to shared genetic aetiology. To address t...

  20. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  1. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; ZHAO, HAITAO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of...

  2. Geographic information system for Long Island: An epidemiologic systems approach to identify environmental breast cancer risks on Long Island. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    BNL is developing and implementing the project ``Geographic Information System (GIS) for Long Island`` to address the potential relationship of environmental and occupational exposures to breast cancer etiology on Long Island. The project is divided into two major phases: The four month-feasibility project (Phase 1), and the major development and implementation project (Phase 2). This report summarizes the work completed in the four month Phase 1 Project, ``Feasibility of a Geographic Information System for Long Island.`` It provides the baseline information needed to further define and prioritize the scope of work for subsequent tasks. Phase 2 will build upon this foundation to develop an operational GIS for the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP).

  3. Geographic information system for Long Island: An epidemiologic systems approach to identify environmental breast cancer risks on Long Island. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNL is developing and implementing the project ''Geographic Information System (GIS) for Long Island'' to address the potential relationship of environmental and occupational exposures to breast cancer etiology on Long Island. The project is divided into two major phases: The four month-feasibility project (Phase 1), and the major development and implementation project (Phase 2). This report summarizes the work completed in the four month Phase 1 Project, ''Feasibility of a Geographic Information System for Long Island.'' It provides the baseline information needed to further define and prioritize the scope of work for subsequent tasks. Phase 2 will build upon this foundation to develop an operational GIS for the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

  4. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk On This Page Why is ... over age 40 use some type of hair dye ( 1 ). Modern hair dyes are classified as permanent (or oxidative), semipermanent, ...

  5. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aswathy Sreedevi, Reshma Javed, Avani Dinesh Community Medicine, AIMS, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India Abstract: Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This paper attempts to review the available knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pattern of cervical cancer; types of HPV (human papilloma virus prevalent among cervical cancer patients and among women in general, high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-positive women; and the role of the national program on cancer in control efforts. The peak age of incidence of cervical cancer is 55–59 years, and a considerable proportion of women report in the late stages of disease. Specific types of oncogenic HPV-16, 18 have been identified in patients with cervical cancer. Other epidemiological risk factors are early age at marriage, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, and lack of awareness. A multipronged approach is necessary which can target areas of high prevalence identified by registries with a combination of behavior change communication exercises and routine early screening with VIA. Sensitizing the people of the area, including menfolk, is necessary to increase uptake levels. Vaccination against types 16 and 18 can also be undertaken after taking into confidence all stakeholders, including the parents of adolescent girls. Preventing and treating cervical cancer and reducing the burden are possible by targeting resources to the areas with high prevalence. Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV, screening, prevention, epidemiology, India

  6. Chromosomal aberration frequency in lymphocytes predicts the risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Norppa, Hannu; Ceppi, Marcello;

    2008-01-01

    incidence and/or mortality for an average of 10.1 years; 368 cancer deaths and 675 incident cancer cases were observed. Subjects were classified within each laboratory according to tertiles of CA frequency. The relative risk (RR) of cancer was increased for subjects in the medium [RR = 1.31, 95% confidence...... for stomach cancer [RR(medium) = 1.17 (95% CI = 0.37-3.70), RR(high) = 3.13 (95% CI = 1.17-8.39)]. Exposure to carcinogens did not modify the effect of CA levels on overall cancer risk. These results reinforce the evidence of a link between CA frequency and cancer risk and provide novel information......Mechanistic evidence linking chromosomal aberration (CA) to early stages of cancer has been recently supported by the results of epidemiological studies that associated CA frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy individuals to future cancer incidence. To overcome the limitations of single...

  7. Nutrition and cancer: Review of epidemiological studies and clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Demosthenes Panagiotakos; Georgia Georgiou; Niki Kontou

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors of cancer include unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, various genetic and environmental factors. Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases with increased incidence; moreover, 80% of gastrointestinal, breast and prostate cancers are attributed to unhealthy eating habits. Many surveys have investigated the role of diet in cancer prevention. Here we summarized current knowledge about dietary factors associated with cancer incidence. There ...

  8. 2. Molecular Biology as a Tool in Cancer Epidemiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@There can be little doubt that we are entering a new era in our understanding of the origins of human cancer. Unfortunately from the point of view of the cancer epidemiology community, some of the more recent advances in the molecular biology of cancer (once fully assimilated) will tend to make the talk of the up-to-date cancer epidemiologist a great deal less straightforward than many of us had previously envisaged it to be, There may still be a few cancers that will prove to result from only a few distinctive types of mutation in a relatively small number of genes, but I strongly suspect that the great majority of human cancers that we wish to study will prove to have their origins in a complex set of DNA changes whose precise

  9. Epidemiology of gastroenterologic cancer in Henan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Bang Lu; Xi-Bin Sun; Di-Xin Dai; Shi-Kuan Zhu; Qiu-Ling Chang; Shu-Zheng Liu; Wen-Jie Duan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the mortality rates of gastroenterologic cancers for the period between 1974 and 1999, in Henan Province, China and its epidemiologic features.METHODS: Information on death of patients with cancer was provided by the county-city registries. Population data were provided by the local police bureau. All the deaths of cancer registered were classified according to the threedigit rubric of the ICD-9. Cancer mortality rates reported herein were age-adjusted, using the world population as standard and weighted piecewise linear regression analysis.RESULTS: Total cancer age-adjusted mortality rates were 195.91 per 100 000 for males and 124.36 per 100 000 for females between 1996 and 1998. During the period of 19741999, a remarkable decrease took place in esophageal carcinoma, stomach cancer remained essentially stable and liver cancer, a moderate increase. Colorectal cancer was slightly increased over the last two decades.CONCLUSION: The population-based cancer registry can give an accurate picture of cancer in Henan Province, by providing a set of analyses of selected cancer mortality data as a source of reference for researchers in cancer, public health and health care services.

  10. Epidemiological trends of hormone-related cancers in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadnik, Vesna; Krajc, Mateja

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of hormone-related cancers tends to be higher in the developed world than in other countries. In Slovenia, six hormone-related cancers (breast, ovarian, endometrial, prostate, testicular, and thyroid) account for a quarter of all cancers. Their incidence goes up each year, breast and prostate cancer in particular. The age at diagnosis is not decreasing for any of the analysed cancer types. The risk of breast cancer is higher in the western part of the country, but no differences in geographical distribution have been observed for other hormone-related cancers. Furthermore, areas polluted with endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect hormone balance such as PCBs, dioxins, heavy metals, and pesticides, do not seem to involve a greater cancer risk. We know little about how many cancers can be associated with endocrine disruptors, as there are too few reliable exposure studies to support an association. PMID:27331295

  11. The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and women cancer: the epidemiological evidences and putative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Kyong Hye; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Ku, Bon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a chronic disease increasing rapidly worldwide, is well established as an important risk factor for various types of cancer. Although many factors impact the development of T2DM and cancer including sex, age, ethnicity, obesity, diet, physical activity levels, and environmental exposure, many epidemiological and experimental studies are gradually contributing to knowledge regarding the interrelationship between DM and cancer. The insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and chronic inflammation associated with diabetes mellitus are all associated strongly with cancer. The changes in bioavailable ovarian steroid hormone that occur in diabetes mellitus (the increasing levels of estrogen and androgen and the decreasing level of progesterone) are also considered potentially carcinogenic conditions for the breast, endometrium, and ovaries in women. In addition, the interaction among insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and ovarian steroid hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, could act synergistically during cancer development. Here, we review the cancer-related mechanisms in T2DM, the epidemiological evidence linking T2DM and cancers in women, and the role of antidiabetic medication in these cancers.

  12. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  13. Epidemiology and risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameez, Mohammed H; Mayberry, John F

    2015-03-01

    The highest incidence and prevalence of Barrett's oesophagus is in western countries. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and hiatus hernia, increasing age and use of oral bisphosphonates. This article discusses the significance of these findings. PMID:25761802

  14. Genetic-epidemiological evidence for the role of acetaldehyde in cancers related to alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C J Peter

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking increases the risk for a number of cancers. Currently, the highest risk (Group 1) concerns oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast, as assessed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Alcohol and other beverage constituents, their metabolic effects, and alcohol-related unhealthy lifestyles have been suggested as etiological factors. The aim of the present survey is to evaluate the carcinogenic role of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers, with special emphasis on the genetic-epidemiological evidence. Acetaldehyde, as a constituent of alcoholic beverages, and microbial and endogenous alcohol oxidation well explain why alcohol-related cancers primarily occur in the digestive tracts and other tissues with active alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Genetic-epidemiological research has brought compelling evidence for the causality of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers. Thus, IARC recently categorized alcohol-drinking-related acetaldehyde to Group 1 for head and neck and esophageal cancers. This is probably just the tip of the iceberg, since more recent epidemiological studies have also shown significant positive associations between the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 (rs671)*2 allele (encoding inactive enzyme causing high acetaldehyde elevations) and gastric, colorectal, lung, and hepatocellular cancers. However, a number of the current studies lack the appropriate matching or stratification of alcohol drinking in the case-control comparisons, which has led to erroneous interpretations of the data. Future studies should consider these aspects more thoroughly. The polymorphism phenotypes (flushing and nausea) may provide valuable tools for future successful health education in the prevention of alcohol-drinking-related cancers.

  15. Epidemiology of cancer in Mazandaran province 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Norouzi Nejad1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 11 April, 2009 ; Accepted 8 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Cancer is the second most common cause of death in developed countries and third in less developed countries. The incidence of the different histological types of cancer varies greatly between various populations and is attributed to occupational, social, cultural, racial, and geographic influences. The objective of this study was to determine and register all cases of cancer among population of Mazandaran province, during the year of .Materials and methods: Characteristics of all registered malignancies were obtained from records in histopathology and radiology clinical, hospitals and deaths certificated in Mazandaran using the International Classification of Disease (ICD, with data being analyzed using ASR, Excel and spss soft ware.Results: A total of . patients with cancers were found during this study. These, .. were males and . (.% females. Age standardized rate (ASR for all cancers in males and females were 1. and . Respectively. The most common malignancies among females were breast (. skin (., colon and rectum cancers (..In men, stomach (42.41, skin (. and esophagus (. were the most common cancers respectively. Infiltrating duct carcinoma, was the most common histopathological types of tumors (69. in breast cancer. The most common morphology in stomach cancer was adenocarcinoma, (..Conclusion: Distribution of malignant disorders in our population is different from other regions. Therefore, it appears necessary to have a valid health policy for prevention. Consequently, it is necessary to have a valid health policy for prevention and control of this problem.Key words: J Mazand Univ Med

  16. Colorectal cancer, diabetes and survival: epidemiological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanders, M M J; Vissers, P A J; Haak, H R; van de Poll-Franse, L V

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with pre-existing diabetes have significantly lower rates of overall survival compared with patients without diabetes. Against this backdrop, the American Diabetes Association and American Cancer Society in 2010 reviewed the scientific literature concerning diabetes and cancer. One of the key issues identified for further investigation was the need for a better understanding of whether diabetes influences cancer prognosis above and beyond the prognosis conferred by each disease state independently. Whether the worsened survival of CRC patients with diabetes could be explained by less favourable patient-, tumour- and treatment-related characteristics has also been evaluated in numerous recent studies. However, as most studies did not account for all the various potential confounders, such as cancer stage, comorbidities and body mass index (BMI) in their analyses, the current evidence for the association between diabetes and survival in CRC patients remains inconclusive. Nevertheless, based on multiple examples in the literature, the present review demonstrates that diabetes affects the presentation of CRC as well as its treatment and outcome, which may then result in lower overall rates of survival in patients with, compared to those without, diabetes. PMID:24507584

  17. The status of current epidemiological knowledge of radiocarcinogenecity: other, miscellaneous cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently available epidemiological data indicate low or intermediate levels of sensitivity for radiation-induced cancers of most tissues and organ systems other than lung, thyroid and female breast, and leukaemia. However, the estimated risks for these ''other, miscellaneous'' cancers may reflect deficiencies in the data as a result of small study populations, insufficient population dose to detect an effect, uncertainties in dosimetry or the confounding or modifying effects of unknown or unevaluated risk factors. Additional information is necessary to improve existing risk estimates for the malignancies in the other, miscellaneous category. This may be obtained by continued follow-up of the populations currently under study, application of new and developing molecular technologies to identify and quantify radiation exposures for individuals, and pooled or parallel analyses of multiple populations. Cancers of the following tissues are briefly discussed:- digestive system, genito-urinary system, brain or central nervous system, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, bone and skin. (Author)

  18. Coffee and cancer: a review of epidemiological studies, 1990-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, A; La Vecchia, C

    2000-08-01

    Epidemiological studies on the relation between coffee consumption and cancer risk have been mainly focused on cancers of the urinary bladder, pancreas and colorectum. The relation between coffee and bladder cancer is controversial, despite a large number of studies published over the last three decades. In most studies, the risk tends to be higher in coffee drinkers than in those who do not drink coffee, but the excess risk is generally moderate and is neither dose- nor duration-related. Thus, a strong association between coffee drinking and bladder cancer can be excluded, although it is still unclear whether the weak association is causal or nonspecific and due to some bias or confounding. For pancreatic cancer, a possible association with coffee consumption has been postulated in a large case-control study published in 1981; since then, however, most studies have shown no substantial association, and overall evidence suggests that coffee is not materially related to pancreatic cancer risk. Overall evidence on the coffee-colorectal cancer relation suggests an inverse association, since most case-control studies found odds ratios below unity, particularly for colon cancer. The pattern of risk is less clear for cohort studies. A plausible biological explanation has been given in terms of coffee-related reduction of bile acids and neutral sterol secretion in the colon. For other cancer sites, including oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, liver, breast, ovary, kidney and lymphoid neoplasms, the relation of coffee drinking with cancer risk has been less extensively investigated, but the evidence is largely reassuring. PMID:10958327

  19. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of cancer-associated thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, S; Pasi, J

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in patients with malignant disease. First recognised by Bouillard in 1823 and later described by Trousseau in 1844, multiple studies have since provided considerable evidence for a clinical association between VTE and cancer. Across all cancers, the risk for VTE is elevated 7-fold; in certain malignancies, the risk for VTE may be increased up to 28-fold. Venous thromboembolism is the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer; a...

  20. Epidemiologic studies of the human microbiome and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vogtmann, Emily; Goedert, James J.

    2016-01-01

    The human microbiome, which includes the collective genome of all bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses found in and on the human body, is altered in many diseases and may substantially affect cancer risk. Previously detected associations of individual bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), periodontal disease, and inflammation with specific cancers have motivated studies considering the association between the human microbiome and cancer risk. This short review summarises microbiome...

  1. Epidemiological-molecular evidence of metabolic reprogramming on proliferation, autophagy and cell signaling in pancreas cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søreide, Kjetil; Sund, Malin

    2015-01-28

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest human cancers with little progress made in survival over the past decades, and 5-year survival usually below 5%. Despite this dismal scenario, progresses have been made in understanding of the underlying tumor biology through among other definition of precursor lesions, delineation of molecular pathways, and advances in genome-wide technology. Further, exploring the relationship between epidemiological risk factors involving metabolic features to that of an altered cancer metabolism may provide the foundation for new therapies. Here we explore how nutrients and caloric intake may influence the KRAS-driven ductal carcinogenesis through mediators of metabolic stress, including autophagy in presence of TP53, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptors (RAGE) and ligands (HMGB1), as well as glutamine pathways, among others. Effective understanding the cancer metabolism mechanisms in pancreatic cancer may propose new ways of prevention and treatment. PMID:24704294

  2. Religion and reduced cancer risk: what is the explanation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Andreas; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Ross, Lone;

    2008-01-01

    40 years. In the studies in which adjustment was made only for age and sex, reductions were observed in the risks for lifestyle-associated cancers, i.e. those associated with tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity and reproductive factors. In the studies in which adjustment......Several studies of members of Christian religious communities have shown significantly lower risks for certain cancers amongst members than in the general population. We identified 17 epidemiological studies of the risk for cancer amongst members of Christian communities published during the past...... was also made for healthy habits, no reduction in risk for cancer was observed. We conclude that the most important factor in the correlation between membership in a religious Christian community and risk for cancer is the healthy lifestyle inherent in religious practice in these communities...

  3. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  6. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  15. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    OpenAIRE

    Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associat...

  16. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    OpenAIRE

    Alkatout I; Schubert M; Garbrecht N; Weigel MT; Jonat W; Mundhenke C; Günther V

    2015-01-01

    Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated a...

  17. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes : A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; Heikkilae, Paeivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van 't Veer, Laura J.; Van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M. S.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Doerk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menendez Rodriguez, Primitiva; Zamora, Pilar; Bentez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yang, Show-Lin; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gorski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collee, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkaes, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Paeivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Orsted, David Dynnes; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P. E. A.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35 568 invasive breast cancer case patients f

  18. Lung cancer risk in relation to dietary acrylamide intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background : Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is present in several heat-treated foods. In epidemiological studies, positive associations between dietary acrylamide intake and the risks of endometrial, ovarian, estrogen receptor-positive breast, and renal cell cancers have been observe

  19. [Environmental epidemiology of cancer in Puerto Rico: 1987-1988].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerame Vivas, M J

    1991-06-01

    An epidemiological analysis on cancer was run for the years 1987 and 1988 and for each municipal jurisdiction in Puerto Rico. Areas of pronounced incidence were examined on the basis of possible environmental cause-and-effect relationships. The cancer data examined were based on first diagnoses for cancer of all types, respiratory cancer and leukemia. The municipality of Cataño was salient in most incidences. Cataño lies downwind from the largest metropolitan urban center in Puerto Rico (population density 9,559 inhabitants per square mile), from the largest number of industries for the island, from past and present uncontrolled non-compliance air emissions, from the largest number of vehicles, and is surrounded by wetlands. Also salient were other municipalities of historical or current heavy industrial emission activity with lenient or non-existent environmental controls. PMID:1930477

  20. Global epidemiology of hysterectomy: possible impact on gynecological cancer rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Rositch, Anne; Kahlert, Johnny Abildgaard;

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that hysterectomy is the most common surgical procedure worldwide in gynecology, national reporting of the incidence rate of gynecological cancers rarely removes the proportion no longer at risk of the disease from the population-at-risk-denominator (ie. women who have had...... of gynecological cancer incidence rates, performed via removing the proportion of hysterectomized or oophorectomized women from the population-at-risk-denominator, the impact of prevention strategies may be masked or misinterpreted. Furthermore, since national cervical cancer screening guidelines are at least...

  1. Cancer risks in thyroid cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, P.; Holm, L E; Lundell, G.; Bjelkengren, G.; Larsson, L. G.; Lindberg, S.; Tennvall, J.; Wicklund, H.; Boice, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Cancer risks were studied in 834 thyroid cancer patients given 131I (4,551 MBq, average) and in 1,121 patients treated by other means in Sweden between 1950 and 1975. Record-linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register identified 99 new cancers more than 2 years after 131I therapy [standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.75] vs 122 (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.88-1.42) in patients not receiving 131I. In females treated with 131I overall SIR was 1.45 (95% CI 1.14-1....

  2. Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in Jordan from 1996 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Fayez Nimri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer has varied from 2 per 100,000 in Europe to 21 per 100,000 in the Hawaiian Chinese population and is 2-3 fold more common in females. Middle East Cancer Consortium figures from 1996-2001 have recorded different age standardized incidence rates that ranged from 2 per 100,000 inEgypt to 7.5 per 100,000 among Israeli Jews. In Jordan the age standardized incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 3 per 100,000 during that period. This study aimed to define the incidence of thyroid cancer in Jordan and to explore the epidemiological char-acteristics of patients and tumors. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study that utilized data reported to the Jordan Cancer Registry during 1996-2008. Results: The incidence rate in Jordan varied during the period from 1996 to 2008; however the recorded rate (2.6 per 100,000 in 1996 and 2008 was similar. The incidence rate was higher among Jordanian females. Age specific incidence rate and age standardized incidence rate were parallel during the study period with no peaks. The most common morphological type of thyroid cancer in Jordan was papillarycarcinoma (76%. The average annual incidence during the study period was highest (3.3 per 100,000 in Amman and (2.2 per 100,000 in Jarash governorates. Conclusion: The results of our study are consistent with international studies. The incidence of thyroid cancer in Jordan is not high when compared with other countries. The high incidence of thyroid cancer in Amman and Jarash governorates in comparisonto the incidence in other governorates needs further assessment.

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARDIOESOPHAGEAL CANCER AND STOMACH CANCER IN ALTAY REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarev, A.; Shoyhet, Ya; Nechunaev, V.; Panasjan, A.; Tsyvkina, V.

    2007-01-01

    The article summarizes analytical results of morbidity and mortality of stomach cancer and cardioesophageal cancer in Altay region in comparison with Russian indices since 1990 to 2005. Downtrend of morbidity is registered morbidity was reduced on 10.000 (16 %) since 1990. At the same time specific increase of cardioesophageal cancer is registered including Altay region. Morbidity of cardioesophageal cancer is increased twice in Altay region. Different types of adenocarcinoma dominated (92 %)...

  4. Nutrition and cancer: Review of epidemiological studies and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Panagiotakos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors of cancer include unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, various genetic and environmental factors. Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases with increased incidence; moreover, 80% of gastrointestinal, breast and prostate cancers are attributed to unhealthy eating habits. Many surveys have investigated the role of diet in cancer prevention. Here we summarized current knowledge about dietary factors associated with cancer incidence. There is a strong correlation of the protective effect of fruits and vegetables with colon cancer and the negative effect of red meat and the protective effect of milk on colorectal cancer. High alcohol consumption is related to higher incidence of mouth and esophageal cancers, with hot drinks playing a role in mouth or even gastrointestinal cancers. High fat consumption seems to play a negative role in colorectal cancer, where sugar and salt might be negatively related to stomach cancer. Beyond nutrition, physical inactivity and body fat seems to play an important role in cancer, where there are strong evidence that the first protects against colorectal cancer and the second increases the incidence of breast cancer after menopause. Data for the role of micronutrients, vitamins and minerals lead to the suggestion that dietary supplements should be avoided and all nutritional needs should be covered through a well balanced diet.

  5. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ni; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Yawei; Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Tongzhang; Dai, Min

    2011-01-01

    Background. Despite an increase in the number of molecular epidemiological studies conducted in recent years to evaluate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and risk of bladder cancer, the studies remain inconclusive.

  6. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  7. [Shift work and risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch

    2014-01-20

    Shift and night work are among the most frequent occupational exposures. Such work schedules involve exposure to light-at-night, which may reduce normal nocturnal melatonin production, create circadian rhythm disruption, sleep deprivation and unhealthy lifestyle. There is strong experimental evidence that light-at-night and circadian disruption may increase the risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases. There is emerging, but limited epidemiologic evidence that night shift work may increase breast cancer and certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24629681

  8. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health.

  9. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health. PMID:26700034

  10. Using epidemiology and neurotoxicology to reduce risks to young workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlman, Diane S; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ismail, Ahmed; Saddik, Basema

    2012-08-01

    Children around the world are working in hazardous or unsafe conditions and they are at risk to injury through manual labor and susceptible to poisoning due to chemical exposures in the work place. Because of their behavior and the developmental changes occurring throughout childhood and adolescence children are more vulnerable to injury. Often children work because of economic necessity, coming from families living in extreme poverty, with poor housing conditions, unsafe water supplies, poor sanitation, and inadequate food supplies making them even more vulnerable to poor developmental outcomes. This presents a multifaceted problem that can be challenging to address. Although many studies have examined occupational risks among adults very few studies have examined the impact of these risks on children. This paper reflects a summary of the talks from the symposium "Using Epidemiology and Neurotoxicology to Reduce Risks to Young Workers" presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association Meeting and the 11th International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health in Xi'an China in June 2011. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that children are exposed to various neurotoxicants, show increased symptoms and health problems and are working in hazardous conditions with minimal safety restrictions. Other studies have identified neurotoxicology effects in children from occupational exposures. Prevention methods have potential for reducing risks to young workers short of eliminating child labor and should be addressed to multiple stakeholders, parents, employers and children.

  11. Epidemiologic differences in esophageal cancer between Asian and Western populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Ze Zhang; Guang-Fu Jin; Hong-Bing Shen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common cancer worldwide and has a poor prognosis.The incidence of esophageal squamous cell cancer has been decreasing,whereas the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing rapidly,particularly in Western men.Squamous cell cancer continues to be the major type of esophageal cancer in Asia,and the main risk factors include tobacco smoking,alcohol consumption,hot beverage drinking,and poor nutrition.In contrast,esophageal adenocarcinoma predominately affects the whites,and the risk factors include smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.In addition,Asians and Caucasians may have different susceptibilities to esophageal cancer due to different heritage backgrounds.However,comparison studies between these two populations are limited and need to be addressed in the near future.Ethnic differences should he taken into account in preventive and clinical practices.

  12. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  13. Radiation dosimetry for epidemiology lung cancer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung doses have been calculated for 999 workers whose primary exposure was to airborne uranium during the period 1943 to 1947. Internal dose calculations were needed because the major exposure potential was to airborne uranium and because no external monitoring data exists. The lung dose estimates process was divided into two phases: estimation of the uranium intake and calculation of the internal dose. The intake information required included the number of hours worked and the concentration, chemical and physical forms of uranium. These factors were determined through researching historical documents including plant process descriptions, personnel records, operations records, monitoring records, etc. Additional information was also gained through interviews of former plant workers. Job titles and department codes were used to relate uranium exposure conditions to a given individual. Lung doses were estimated using internal dose models developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This system takes into account both particle size and solubility class. Results show that some workers may have received doses as high as 74 rads or 740 rems if a quality factor of 10 is used. The results of this study have been used in a lung cancer case control study to be reported at this conference

  14. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, C.E. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Active and passive smoking and risk of ovarian cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, J. A.; Odunuga, O. O.; Rodabaugh, K J; Reid, M.E.; Menezes, R. J.; Moysich, K B

    2009-01-01

    Cancer epidemiologyCancer type:ovarian cancerStudy design:case-controlStudy size:434 cases, 868 controlsDescription of cohort(s) studied:434 women with promary epithelial ovarian, peritoneal, fallopian tube cancer, 868 women randomly selectedExposure(s) evaluated:ETSConfounders controlled for:smoking habitsImpact on risk: nonsmokers with ETS EXPOSURE, OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.47-0.99Current smokers with ETS exposure, OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.34-0.9Never smokres with ETS exposure, OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.1-1.48, P=...

  17. Epidemiology of cancers among adolescents and young adults from a tertiary cancer center in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Randeep Singh; Rashmi Shirali; Sonali Chatterjee; Arun Adhana; Ramandeep Singh Arora

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is increasingly an area of focus, there is a paucity of clinical and epidemiological data from developing countries. Our objective was to analyze the geographical distribution, sex ratio, histology, and disease patterns of cancers in AYA. Materials and Methods: All patients aged 15-29 years with the diagnosis of cancer who were registered with two hospitals in New Delhi during a 12-month period from January 2014...

  18. Aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and acetaminophen use and risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabert, Britton; Ness, Roberta B; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of several malignancies. Epidemiologic studies analyzing aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and acetaminophen use and ovarian cancer risk have been inconclusive. METHODS: We analyzed pooled data from 12 ...

  19. Epidemiología y factores de riesgo de carcinoma hepatocelular Epidemiology and risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Navas Navas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer primario de hígado es en el mundo la quinta neoplasia más común en hombres y la octava en mujeres, con gran impacto debido a su alta mortalidad, ya que representa la tercera causa de mortalidad relacionada con cáncer en población masculina. Se ha descrito una fuerte asociación con factores de riesgo como las hepatitis virales crónicas, las hepatopatías de origen genético, el consumo de alcohol, el tabaquismo y enfermedades metabólicas, entre otras. En este artículo se analizan publicaciones originales y de revisión en las que se evalúan dichos factores y su asociación con el carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC. Además, se recopila información actualizada sobre datos epidemiológicos por regiones del mundo. Primary liver cancer is the 5th neoplasia more common among men and 8th among women worldwide. It has a great impact because of its high mortality; Liver cancer ranks third amongst the causes of cancer-related deaths in men. It has been associated with some risk factors as chronic viral hepatitis, genetic liver disease, intake of alcohol, use of tobacco, metabolic disease and others. This document corresponds to a review of original papers of evaluation of those factors and its association with liver cancer and also reviewed articles. Additionally, updated epidemiological information of liver cancer worldwide is included.

  20. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Tovar-Guzmán

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  1. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar-Guzmán Víctor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  2. Analysis of oral cancer epidemiology in the US reveals state-specific trends: implications for oral cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditmyer Marcia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downward trends have been observed in oral cancer incidence and mortality in the US over the past 30 years; however, these declines are not uniform within this population. Several studies have now demonstrated an increase in the incidence and mortality from oral cancers among certain demographic groups, which may have resulted from increased risks or risk behaviors. This study examines the underlying data that comprise these trends, to identify specific populations that may be at greater risk for morbidity and mortality from oral cancers. Methods Oral cancer incidence and mortality data analyzed for this study were generated using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER program. Results While oral cancer incidence and mortality rates have been declining over the past thirty years, these declines have reversed in the past five years among some demographic groups, including black females and white males. Sorting of these data by state revealed that eight states exhibited increasing rates of oral cancer deaths, Nevada, North Carolina, Iowa, Ohio, Maine, Idaho, North Dakota, and Wyoming, in stark contrast to the national downward trend. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of data from these states revealed increasing rates of oral cancer among older white males, also contrary to the overall trends observed at the national level. Conclusion These results signify that, despite the declining long-term trends in oral cancer incidence and mortality nationally, localized geographic areas exist where the incidence and mortality from oral cancers have been increasing. These areas represent sites where public health education and prevention efforts may be focused to target these specific populations in an effort to improve health outcomes and reduce disparities within these populations.

  3. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  4. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  5. Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

    2008-08-01

    Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the

  6. Gene-environment interaction and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2016-01-19

    Hereditary, genetic factors as well as lifestyle and environmental factors, for example, parity and body mass index, predict breast cancer development. Gene-environment interaction studies may help to identify subgroups of women at high-risk of breast cancer and can be leveraged to discover new genetic risk factors. A few interesting results in studies including over 30,000 breast cancer cases and healthy controls indicate that such interactions exist. Explorative gene-environment interaction studies aiming to identify new genetic or environmental factors are scarce and still underpowered. Gene-environment interactions might be stronger for rare genetic variants, but data are lacking. Ongoing initiatives to genotype larger sample sets in combination with comprehensive epidemiologic databases will provide further opportunities to study gene-environment interactions in breast cancer. However, based on the available evidence, we conclude that associations between the common genetic variants known today and breast cancer risk are only weakly modified by environmental factors, if at all.

  7. Work stress and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Theorell, Töres;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.......To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers....

  8. Epidemiologic studies of particulate matter and lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ge Li; Xiang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in air pollution, especially in China. European and American researchers conducted several cohort-based studies to examine the potential relationship between PM and lung cancer and found a positive association between PM and lung cancer mortality. In contrast, the results regarding PM and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. Most of the previous studies had limitations such as misclassification of PM exposure and residual confounders, diminishing the impact of their findings. In addition, prospective studies on this topic are very limited in Chinese populations. This is an important problem because China has one of the highest concentrations of PM in the world and has had an increased mortality risk due to lung cancer. In this context, more prospective studies in Chinese populations are warranted to investigate the relationship between PM and lung cancer.

  9. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Thai Do; Möhner Sabine; Heinemann Lothar AJ; Dinger Juergen C; Assmann Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis...

  10. Mortality and cancer risk related to primary sclerosing cholangitis in a Swedish population-based cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valle, Maria Benito; Bjornsson, Einar; Lindkvist, Bjorn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Population-based studies on the epidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are sparse. Aims: To investigate mortality and risk of cancer, and to identify risk factors for hepatobiliary cancer and the combined end-point liver related death or liver transplantation (OLT) in a pop

  11. Increased risk of breast cancer following different regimens of hormone replacement therapy frequently used in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer following hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether different treatment regimens or the androgenecity of progestins influence the risk of breast cancer differently. The Danish Nurse Cohort...

  12. Suicide During Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Orsolini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide and infanticide have been considered relatively rare events during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e. postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc. have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk and protective factors and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behaviour during the pregnancy and postpartum period.

  13. Suicide during Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Vecchiotti, Roberta; Tomasetti, Carmine; Iasevoli, Felice; Fornaro, Michele; De Berardis, Domenico; Perna, Giampaolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Bellantuono, Cesario

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide has been considered a relatively rare event during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e., postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc.) have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers' mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors, and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk factors, and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behavior during the pregnancy and postpartum period. Practical recommendations have been provided as well. PMID:27570512

  14. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries. PMID:27165207

  15. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjisavvas Andreas; Loizidou Maria A; Middleton Nicos; Michael Thalia; Papachristoforou Rena; Kakouri Eleni; Daniel Maria; Papadopoulos Panayiotis; Malas Simon; Marcou Yiola; Kyriacou Kyriacos

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigati...

  16. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  17. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  18. Divergent associations of height with cardiometabolic disease and cancer: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and global implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hu, Frank B; Schulze, Matthias B

    2016-05-01

    Among chronic non-communicable diseases, cardiometabolic diseases and cancer are the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although high BMI and waist circumference, as estimates of total and abdominal fat mass, are now accepted as predictors of the increasing incidence of these diseases, adult height, which also predicts mortality, has been neglected. Interestingly, increasing evidence suggests that height is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, but higher cancer risk, associations supported by mendelian randomisation studies. Understanding the complex epidemiology, biology, and pathophysiology related to height, and its association with cardiometabolic diseases and cancer, is becoming even more important because average adult height has increased substantially in many countries during recent generations. Among the mechanisms driving the increase in height and linking height with cardiometabolic diseases and cancer are insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling pathways. These pathways are thought to be activated by overnutrition, especially increased intake of milk, dairy products, and other animal proteins during different stages of child development. Limiting overnutrition during pregnancy, early childhood, and puberty would avoid not only obesity, but also accelerated growth in children-and thus might reduce risk of cancer in adulthood. PMID:26827112

  19. Evaluating shielding effectiveness for reducing space radiation cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDFs are used in significance tests for evaluating the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDFs. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are included in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the upper value of 95% confidence interval (CI) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (180d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits that are based on acceptable levels of risk. For example, the upper 95% CI exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection

  20. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (risk, however one that is mitigated effectively by shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  1. Breast cancer in Brazil: epidemiology and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio AP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adma Poliana Cecilio,1 Erika Tomie Takakura,1 Jaqueline Janaina Jumes,1 Jeane Wilhelm dos Santos,1 Ana Cristina Herrera,2 Vanessa Jacob Victorino,3 Carolina Panis11Laboratory of Inflammatory Mediators, State University o West Paraná, UNIOESTE, Campus Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil; 2Pontifícia Universidade Católica (PUC, Campus Londrina, Paraná, Brazil; 3School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University (FM-USP, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Notwithstanding the advances in tumor research, diagnosis, and treatment, breast cancer is still a challenge worldwide. This global burden of disease has been associated with population aging and the persistence of cancer-related behaviors. The number of women diagnosed with breast cancer has been estimated as increasing, especially in middle-income countries such as Brazil. Estimates from the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA point to breast cancer as the major malignant neoplasia in Brazilian women and the main cause of death from cancer in the country. This fact has been associated with increased life expectancy, urbanization, and cancer-related behaviors. Given this scenario, it is clear that there is a need for identifying and discussing which factors have substantially contributed to this growing number of cases in Brazil, including access to treatment, prevention and early diagnosis, weaknesses of the local health policy, and intrinsic genetic peculiarities of the Brazilian population. This review aims to address the role of such factors.Keywords: breast cancer, treatment, prevention, epidemiology, Brazil, cancer screening, mammograms, health policies

  2. Descriptive-epidemiological characteristics of lung cancer in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Nataša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lung cancer represents the most common malignant tumour among men, and appears more and more frequently among women in many countries worldwide. The aims of this descriptive epidemiological study were to evaluate the mortality trends of all malignant tumours and lung cancer in Central Serbia from 1990 to 1999, and to estimate the incidence, mortality and the basic demographic characteristics of lung cancer in Central Serbia in 1999. Material and methods. The source of data concerning cancer cases in 1999 was the Cancer Registry of Central Serbia, while data of the Republic Statistics Institute were used for the analysis of mortality trends for the period 1990-1999. All rates were standardized by the direct method, to the world standard population. Confidence intervals for mortality rates were assessed with 95% level of probability. Linear regression coefficient was determined by Fisher's test. Results. The mortality rates showed rising tendencies for both lung cancer (y=-1876.26+0.96x, p=0.028 for men; y=654.78U.33x, p-0.001 for women and all malignant tumours (y=-4139.88+2.15x, p=0.163 for men; y=3649.68 + 1.88x, p=0.016 for women, with statistically significant increase being observed for all trends, except all malignant tumours among men. In the year 1999, lung cancer ranked first among men and third among women, with 29.2% and 10.3% of cancer mortality respectively. The age-specific mortality rates were much higher in men in all age groups. Mortality increased with age and the highest rates were found in the age group 70-74 for both sexes. The highest incidence and mortality rates were reported in Belgrade, Moravicki and Sumadijski district. .

  3. Serum IgE and risk of pancreatic cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Sara H.; Hsu, Meier; Wiemels, Joseph L; Paige M Bracci; ZHOU, MI; Patoka, Joseph; Reisacher, William I.; Wang, Julie; Robert C Kurtz; Silverman, Debra T.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have consistently found that self-reported allergies are associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Our aim was to prospectively assess the relationship between serum IgE, a marker of allergy, and risk. This nested case-control study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) included subjects enrolled in 1994-2001 and followed through 2010. There were 283 cases of pancreatic cancer and 544 controls matched on age, gender, ra...

  4. Cancer epidemiology and control in peninsular and island South-East Asia - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Manan, Azizah Ab; Chow, Khuan Yew; Cornain, Santoso F; Devi, C R Beena; Triningsih, F X Ediati; Laudico, Adriano; Mapua, Cynthia A; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Noorwati, S; Nyunt, Kan; Othman, Nor Hayati; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Sinuraya, Evlina Suzanna; Yip, Cheng Har; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor and the Philippines constitute peninsular and island South-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity, with Chinese elements added to the basic Austromalaysian populations, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and underlying risk factors. The fact of problems are shared in common, particularly regarding increasing cancer rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of available data for cancer registration, epidemiology and control was conducted. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung, followed by the liver, colon or the prostate in the majority of cases, while breast and cervical cancers predominate in most female populations. However, there are interesting differences among the racial groups, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer, point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. A major task is persuading the general populace of the efficacy of early detection and clinical treatment. PMID:20553070

  5. Radon and lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives and strategy of an epidemiological study on the effects of exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is presented. The study is a cooperation between the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Norwegian Cancer Registry in Norway and the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom, with funding by the Norwegian Cancer Society. Measurements of radon are being made in 10,000 dwellings representing all Norwegian municipalities. The potential for detecting an effect of radon exposure by such a study in Norway is unique because: (1) Radon concentrations are high and there are large regional variations. (2) Data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry is of high quality: all cancers have been subject to compulsory reporting since 1955. These data can be broken down according to municipality, sex and age. (3) In 1964/1965 a large scale survey of smoking habits was carried out in Norway. These data can also be broken down according to municipality, sex and age, and by types of smoking and smoking rate. It is intended to examine the correlation between lung cancer incidence and geographical variation in radon levels after making allowance for smoking habits. Radon measurements were started in early 1987 and the results of the study are expected to be published in 1989. (author)

  6. HPV and Cervical Cancer Epidemiology - Current Status of HPV Vaccination in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sharmila; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Samanta, Luna; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CaCx) is the second most fatal cancer contributing to 14% of cancers in Indian females, which account for 25.4% and 26.5% of the global burden of CaCx prevalence and mortality, respectively. Persistent infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV- strains 16 and 18) is the most important risk factor for precursors of invasive CaCx. Comprehensive prevention strategies for CaCx should include screening and HPV vaccination. Three screening modalities for CaCx are cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid, and HPV testing. There is no Indian national policy on CaCx prevention, and screening of asymptomatic females against CaCx is practically non-existent. HPV vaccines can make a major breakthrough in the control of CaCx in India which has high disease load and no organized screening program. Despite the Indian Government's effort to introduce HPV vaccination in the National Immunization Program and bring down vaccine cost, challenges to implementing vaccination in India are strong such as: inadequate epidemiological evidence for disease prioritization, duration of vaccine use, parental attitudes, and vaccine acceptance. This paper reviews the current epidemiology of CaCx and HPV in India, and the current status of HPV vaccination in the country. This article stresses the need for more research in the Indian context, to evaluate interventions for CaCx and assess their applicability, success, scalability and sustainability within the constraints of the Indian health care system. PMID:27644600

  7. Suggestions for an adequate risk communication - experiences based on German epidemiological studies on childhood cancer and neighbourhood to nuclear power plants; Empfehlungen fuer eine gute Risikokommunikation - Erfahrungen anhand deutscher Studien zu Krebs bei Kindern und Wohnortnaehe zu Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaatsch, P. [Deutsches Kinderkrebsregister, Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI), Mainz (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    From the example of the German studies on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power plants general principles for adequate risk communication could be derived. It is particularly important to explain the complexity of the issue to the public in an adequate way, when dealing with topics of such an emotionally loaded nature. Some rules are required, when explaining the nature of risk to the layman, the press, politicians, or scientists from other fields. The main principle is to create a basis of trustfulness, whereupon results can be presented. In this contribution we derive general and proven specific recommendations for adequate risk communication on the basis of experiences made at the German Childhood Cancer Registry. (orig.)

  8. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may stimulate or inhibit cell growth. For example, leptin, which is more abundant in obese people, seems ... is known about the relationship between obesity and kidney cancer? Obesity has been consistently associated with renal ...

  9. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done in the lab Tests on several different rodent species, using different methods of exposure, have confirmed ... Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® Lodging Rides To ...

  10. Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas W Shammas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas W ShammasMidwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Cardiovascular Medicine, PC, Davenport, IA, USAAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is part of a global vascular problem of diffuse atherosclerosis. PAD patients die mostly of cardiac and cerebrovascular-related events and much less frequently due to obstructive disease of the lower extremities. Aggressive risk factors modification is needed to reduce cardiac mortality in PAD patients. These include smoking cessation, reduction of blood pressure to current guidelines, aggressive low density lipoprotein lowering, losing weight, controlling diabetes and the use of oral antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel. In addition to quitting smoking and exercise, cilostazol and statins have been shown to reduce claudication in patients with PAD. Patients with critical rest limb ischemia or severe progressive claudication need to be treated with revascularization to minimize the chance of limb loss, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, epidemiology, risk factors, classification

  11. Cancer risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Labrecque, Jeremy;

    2013-01-01

    .46, 5.49) and leukemia. In addition, increased risks of cancer of the vulva (SIR 3.78, 95% CI 1.52, 7.78), lung (SIR 1.30, 95% CI 1.04, 1.60), thyroid (SIR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13, 2.61) and possibly liver (SIR 1.87, 95% CI 0.97, 3.27) were suggested. However, a decreased risk was estimated for breast (SIR 0......: These data estimate only a small increased risk in SLE (versus the general population) for cancer over-all. However, there is clearly an increased risk of NHL, and cancers of the vulva, lung, thyroid, and possibly liver. It remains unclear to what extent the association with NHL is mediated by innate versus......OBJECTIVE: To update estimates of cancer risk in SLE relative to the general population. METHODS: A multisite international SLE cohort was linked with regional tumor registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected cancers. RESULTS: Across 30...

  12. Epidemiologic measures of risk as a basis for legal compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific basis for compensation of persons developing cancer who have a documented history of exposure to radiation or other carcinogens is an important legal issue. The measure Relative Attributable Risk (RAR) has been proposed as a basis for determining eligibility for compensation. The purpose of this report is to present results of an analysis of the magnitude and sources of uncertainty in the RAR measure. The range of 1/106/rad-year to 6/106/rad-year was chosen as a reasonable range of excess-risk estimates for thyroid cancer based on published estimates. The use of such a range in risk estimates produces very wide variability in RAR estimates. Uncertainty in underlying incidence levels and in dosimetry are other major factors contributing to large variability in estimated RAR levels

  13. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-based case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel art and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significartly, OR is 3.905 ( 95 % CI = 1.079 ~ 14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blood relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LOH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed. Conclusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  14. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Obieaites. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-besed case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel-Gart and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymemse chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significantly, OR is 3.905(95% CI = 1.079—14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blnod relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LDH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome abermtions were observed.Condusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  15. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer

  16. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Monfrecola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer.

  17. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella, E-mail: gafabbro@unina.it [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Triassi, Maria [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, Division of Hygiene, University of Naples Federico II Naples (Italy); Mauriello, Maria Chiara [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Torre, Guglielma [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, Division of Hygiene, University of Naples Federico II Naples (Italy); Annunziata, Maria Carmela; Vita, Valerio De; Pastore, Francesco; D’Arco, Vincenza; Monfrecola, Giuseppe [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2010-11-24

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer.

  18. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  19. Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Daniel, Carrie R; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I; George, Preethi S; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items, which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarly added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk.

  20. Cancer risk from low dose radiation depends directly on the organ mass in a general model of radiation-induced cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z W

    2014-04-01

    Current methods of evaluating radiation-induced cancer risk depend on the organ dose but not explicitly on extensive quantities such as the organ mass. However, at the same organ dose, one may expect the larger number of cells in a larger organ to lead to a higher cancer risk. Here the author introduces organ- and radiation type-specific cell cancer risk coefficients and obtains analytical relations between cancer risk and the radiation environment, which contains the dependence of cancer risk on organ masses. The excess cancer risk induced by low dose radiation for an organ is shown to be directly proportional to the organ mass. Therefore the total excess risk for all solid cancers depends directly on organ masses and consequently on body weight or size. This method is also being compared with three existing methods of evaluating the radiation-induced cancer risk, and special cases where this formulation matches each method are demonstrated. The results suggest that the direct dependence of cancer risk on organ masses needs to be checked against existing epidemiological data and, if verified, should be included in the methodology for the evaluation of radiation-induced cancer risk, in particular the individual risk. This dependence is also expected to affect the cancer risk transport from one population group to another that is different in organ mass, body weight or height. PMID:24562066

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma: current trends in worldwide epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Alpna Limaye, Roniel CabreraDivision of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common malignancy in developing countries and its incidence is on the rise in the developing world. The epidemiology of this cancer is unique since its risk factors, including hepatitis C and B, have been clearly established. The current trends in the shifting incidence of HCC in different regions of the world can be explained partly by the changing prevalence of hepatitis. Early detection offers the only hope for curative treatment for patients with HCC, hence effective screening strategies for high-risk patients is of utmost importance. Liver transplantation and surgical resection remains the cornerstone of curative treatment. But major advances in locoregional therapies and molecular-targeted therapies for the treatment of advanced HCC have occurred recently. In this review, current trends in the worldwide epidemiology, surveillance, diagnosis, standard treatments, and the emerging therapies for HCC are discussed.Keywords: liver cancer, sorafenib, hepatitis C, TACE

  2. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  3. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  4. Risk Determination for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Toki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer represents one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide and constitutes a major public health problem. Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment, the overall five-year survival remains low, thus leading the focus of medical research towards the identification and modification of potential risk factors. This year, in ASCO Annual Meeting two interesting studies were presented. Ghani et al. (abstract #e15183 sought to investigate the effect of smoking on chemotherapy response in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, while Walker et al. (abstract #4117 presented the results of their study regarding the effect of statin use in the prevention of pancreatic cancer. Both studies concluded to useful results that along with the existing literature may further stimulate medical research towards better recognition of risk factors and the application of this knowledge in the clinical practice.

  5. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  6. Epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    A case-control study of cervical cancer was conducted in Costa Rica, Co- lombia, Mexico and Panama from 1986 to 1987, to determine risk factors operating in these traditionally high-incidence areas. The study included 759 cases and 1,430 hospital and community controls, and accomplished more than 95% participation rates for both types of participants. The ma- jor risk factors identified were: detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 or 18, increasing number of livebi...

  7. Circulating Adipokines and Inflammatory Markers and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cushman, Mary; Xue, Xiaonan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Strickler, Howard D.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; Kaplan, Robert C.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Snetselaar, Linda; Wang, Dan; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. Methods: In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox modeling that included established breast cancer risk factors and previously measured estradiol and insulin levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The association between plasma CRP levels and breast cancer risk was dependent on hormone therapy (HT) use at baseline (P interaction = .003). In a model that controlled for multiple breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), estradiol, and insulin, CRP level was positively associated with breast cancer risk among HT nonusers (hazard ratio for high vs low CRP levels = 1.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 2.68, P trend = .029). None of the other adipokines were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Following inclusion of CRP, insulin, and estradiol in a multivariable model, the association of BMI with breast cancer was attenuated by 115%. Conclusion: These data indicate that CRP is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer among HT nonusers. Inflammatory mediators, together with insulin and estrogen, may play a role in the obesity–breast cancer relation. PMID:26185195

  8. Epidemiology and risk factors for infections in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, L R; Sekeres, M A; Shrestha, N K; Maciejewski, J P; Tiu, R V; Butler, R; Mossad, S B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a case-control study to describe the epidemiology and risk factors for infections requiring hospitalization in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Of 497 patients identified, 103 patients developed 201 episodes of infection. The probability of acquiring an infection 1 year from date of MDS diagnosis was 15% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12-18%). Patients developing infections had decreased survival compared to those who did not (P = 0.007). Significant risk factors for infection were higher risk MDS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.7-4.1, P < 0.0001), nadir absolute neutrophil count <500/mL (HR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7, P < 0.007), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4-4.9, P < 0.003), history of other malignancy (HR 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-3.1, P < 0.003), and autoimmune disease (HR 2.9, 95% CI = 1.4-6.0, P < 0.005). Age, nadir platelet count <20,000/mL, diabetes mellitus, and MDS treatment were not significant risk factors. Pneumonia was the most common infection, and bacteria the predominant pathogens. PMID:24010918

  9. Existing data sources in clinical epidemiology: the Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensvoll H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hilde Jensvoll,1,2 Marianne T Severinsen,3,4 Jens Hammerstrøm,5 Sigrid K Brækkan,1,2 Søren R Kristensen,4,6 Suzanne C Cannegieter,7 Kristine Blix,1,2 Anne Tjønneland,8 Frits R Rosendaal,1,7,9 Olga Dziewiecka,1 Kim Overvad,10,11 Inger Anne Næss,12 John-Bjarne Hansen1,21Department of Clinical Medicine, KG Jebsen – Thrombosis Research and Expertise Center (TREC, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, 2Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Department of Hematology, Aalborg University Hospital, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 5Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 8Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 9Department of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 10Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 11Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 12Department of Hematology, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Although venous thromboembolism (VTE is a known common complication in cancer patients, there is limited knowledge on patient-related and cancer-specific risk factors in the general population. The Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer (STAC Cohort was established by merging individual data from three large Scandinavian cohorts (The Tromsø Study, the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Here, we present the profile of the STAC cohort and provide age-specific incidence rates of VTE and cancerMethods: The STAC cohort includes 144,952 subjects aged 19–101 years

  10. Invasive fungal infections in hematology: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bassetti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Recent Italian and International epidemiological data show that invasive fungal infections (IFI, particularly aspergillosis, are still a crucial issue for patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, in the last years the epidemiology is changing, and in order to determine the real risk of a patient and in order to improve preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic measures, it’s important to identify all the factors (e.g. age, performance status, prophylaxis that play a role in the development of IFI. Immunogenetics may potentially contribute to improve diagnosis providing new therapeutic tools, but results are limited by sample size and absence of thorough functional characterization moreover lack of replication limits translation of data to the clinical practice. Regarding candidemia an Italian study showed that the overall incidence remained unchanged between 2008 and 2010 but with an increase in the number of C. albicans aand C. glabrata infections.

  11. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.

  12. Association of Body Mass Index with Chromosome Damage Levels and Lung Cancer Risk among Males

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoliang; Bai, Yansen; Wang, Suhan; Nyamathira, Samuel Mwangi; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wangzhen; Wang, Tian; Deng, Qifei; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an etiological link between body mass index (BMI) and cancer risk, but evidence supporting these observations is limited. This study aimed to investigate potential associations of BMI with chromosome damage levels and lung cancer risk. First, we recruited 1333 male workers from a coke-oven plant to examine their chromosome damage levels; and then, a cohort study of 12 052 males was used to investigate the association of BMI with lung cancer incidence. We fur...

  13. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits associated with oral contraception. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004; 190(4 Suppl):S5–22. [ ... oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1992; 80(4):708–714. [PubMed ...

  14. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  15. Myastenia and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve Pedersen, Emil; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between having non-thymoma myasthenia and the risk of extra-thymic cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: A nationwide case-control study was conducted in Denmark based on medical registries. The study included all cases with a first tim...

  16. Alcohol Intake and Breast Cancer Risk: Weighing the Overall Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Goyal, Abhishek; Terry, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to an approximate 30-50% increased risk in breast cancer. Case-control and cohort studies have consistently observed this modest increase. We highlight recent evidence from molecular epidemiologic studies and studies of intermediate markers like mammographic density that provide additional evidence that this association is real and not solely explained by factors/correlates of the exposure and outcome present in non-randomized studies. We also revi...

  17. Prospective association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Maria del Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. [br/] Objective: The objective was to investigate the prospective rela...

  18. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk ... June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk ...

  19. Epidemiological Risk Factors and Perinatal Outcomes of Congenital Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lissa Fernandes Garcia; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Crott, Gerson Claudio; Okido, Marcos Masaru; Berezowski, Aderson Tadeu; Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To identify the epidemiological risk factors for congenital anomalies (CAs) and the impact of these fetal malformations on the perinatal outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study comprised 275 women whose fetuses had CAs. Maternal variables to establish potential risk factors for each group of CA and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. The primary outcome was CA. Secondary outcomes included: fetal growth restriction (FGR); fetal distress (FD); premature rupture of membranes (PROM); oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios; preterm delivery (PTD); stillbirth; cesarean section; low birth weight; Apgar score  7, and need for assisted ventilation at birth. On the other hand, the prevalence of the other considered outcomes varied significantly among groups. Preterm delivery was significantly more frequent in gastrointestinal tract/abdominal wall defects. The stillbirth rate was increased in all CAs, mainly in isolated fetal hydrops (odds ratio [OR]: 27.13; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 2.90-253.47). Hospitalization time was higher for the urinary tract and congenital heart disease groups (p < 0.01). Neonatal death was significantly less frequent in the central nervous system anomalies group. Conclusion It was possible to identify several risk factors for CAs. Adverse perinatal outcomes were presented in all CA groups, and may differ according to the type of CA considered. PMID:27459392

  20. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third of ... at the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). "Obesity is now linked to 11 types of cancer ...

  1. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  2. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  3. Epidemiology of cancers among adolescents and young adults from a tertiary cancer center in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYAs is increasingly an area of focus, there is a paucity of clinical and epidemiological data from developing countries. Our objective was to analyze the geographical distribution, sex ratio, histology, and disease patterns of cancers in AYA. Materials and Methods: All patients aged 15-29 years with the diagnosis of cancer who were registered with two hospitals in New Delhi during a 12-month period from January 2014 to December 2014 were included. Basic demographic information on age, sex, location of stay, and nationality was available. Using cancer site and morphology codes, the cancers were grouped by the Birch classification of AYA cancers. Clinical information on disease and treatment status, was retrospectively studied. Results: There were 287 patients (57.5% male, 85.4% Indian origin registered with 54 (18.8%, 97 (33.8%, and 136 (47.4% patients in the 15-19, 20-24, and 25-29 years age groups, respectively. The three most common cancer groups were carcinomas (40.8%, lymphomas (12.9%, and leukemias (10.4%. The three most common sites in carcinomas were gastrointestinal tract (GIT, genitourinary tract, and breast. The most prevalent cancers in younger AYA (15-19 years were leukemias, lymphomas, central nervous system neoplasms, and in contrast, older AYA (25-29 years suffered mainly from GIT Carcinomas, lymphomas. The leading cancers were breast and GIT carcinomas in females and lymphomas and GIT carcinomas in males. Conclusion: The occurrence of cancer in AYA in India has been described. The distribution differs from the only previous report from India as well as the US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database, which can be attributed to a referral bias along with the factual difference in cancer etiology and genetics.

  4. Second Solid Cancers After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Studies of the Radiation Dose-Response Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Gilbert, Ethel; Curtis, Rochelle; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Morton, Lindsay; Rajaraman, Preetha; Little, Mark P. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. We reviewed the available evidence from epidemiologic studies of second solid cancers in organs that received high-dose exposure (>5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible studies with 3434 second cancer patients across 11 second solid cancers. Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ≥60 Gy. Thyroid cancer was the only exception, with evidence of a downturn after 20 Gy. Generally the excess relative risk per Gray, taking account of age and sex, was 5 to 10 times lower than the risk from acute exposures of <2 Gy among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, the magnitude of the reduction in risk varied according to the second cancer. The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques.

  5. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  6. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer among Females in Basrah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Habib, Omran; A Hameed, Lamis; A Ajeel, Narjis; Al-Hawaz, Mazin H; Al-Faddagh, Zaki A; N Nasr, Ghalib; Al-Sodani, Ali H; A Khalaf, Asaad; M Hasson, Hasson; Lname, Aida A; Abdul-Samad, Fname

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in females. Its incidence is higher in developed countries than in developing ones partly due to variation in risk exposure and partly due to better detection methods. Scattered evidence in Basrah, Iraq, suggests that breast cancer has been increasing at a significant pace in recent years. This study aimed to measure the current level of risk of breast cancer among females in Basrah and to describe the time trend over almost a decade of years. Data on breast cancer cases from all sources of cancer registration in Basrah governorate were compiled for the years 2005-2012. The data for each year were first checked separately for duplicate reporting of cases among various sources. Then the eight files were pooled together and checked again for any duplicate cases among years of registration. The final set of data contained 2,284 cases of breast cancer (2,213 female cases and 71 male cases). All patients were inhabitants of Basrah governorate at the time of diagnosis. Figures on the Basrah population were obtained from various sources including the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Planning and Developmental Collaboration and local household surveys. It was possible to have total population estimates for each year and by age and sex. The data were imported into SPSS (version 17) software. Age specific and year specific incidence rates were calculated. The age standardized incidence rate was also calculated using world population as the standard population to be 34.9 per 100,000 females. Age-wise, no case was reported among children aged less than 15 years and the incidence increased with advancing age reaching a peak of 123.8/100,000 females at the age range of 50-54 years. The time trend of the crude incidence rate showed only modest increased risk with passage of years and no age shift could be documented in this study. Breast cancer in females in Basrah is a significant health problem. The current incidence rate (crude, 23

  7. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancer, Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian; Beral, V.; Doll, R.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptives were introduced almost 50 years ago, and over 100 million women currently use them. Oral contraceptives can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the eventual public-health effects of this reduction will depend on how long the protection lasts after use ceases. We...... aimed to assess these effects. METHODS: Individual data for 23,257 women with ovarian cancer (cases) and 87,303 without ovarian cancer (controls) from 45 epidemiological studies in 21 countries were checked and analysed centrally. The relative risk of ovarian cancer in relation to oral contraceptive use...... was estimated, stratifying by study, age, parity, and hysterectomy. FINDINGS: Overall 7308 (31%) cases and 32,717 (37%) controls had ever used oral contraceptives, for average durations among users of 4.4 and 5.0 years, respectively. The median year of cancer diagnosis was 1993, when cases were aged an average...

  8. BMI, Diet and Female Reproductive Factors as Risks for Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Peterson; De, Prithwish; Robert Nuttall

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI), diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically ass...

  9. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  10. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lauretta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold. Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis.

  11. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, Rosa; Lanzolla, Giulia; Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Moretti, Costanzo

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold). Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis. PMID:27725832

  12. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer using random-effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 statistic. A total of 8 studies regarding whole grain intake were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of pancreatic cancer for those with high versus low whole grain intake was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.91; P = 0.002). There was no significant heterogeneity across these studies (I2 = 11.7%; Pheterogeneity = 0.339). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, the summary ORs of developing pancreatic cancer were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.53–0.79; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%; Pheterogeneity = 0.482) in the United States (n = 4) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63–1.43; P = 0.803; I2 = 45.6%; Pheterogeneity = 0.175) in Europe (n = 2). In the subgroup analysis by type of whole grain, the summary ORs were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60–0.87; P = .001; I2 = 0; Pheterogeneity = 0.876) for grains (n = 4) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.27–2.02; P = 0.554; I2 = 86.3%; Pheterogeneity = 0.007) for wheat (n = 2). A high intake of whole grains was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Because of the absent of more cohort studies, further prospective studies need to be conducted to ensure conclusions that are more robust. PMID:26945361

  13. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkatout I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated and occurs often in elderly women without neoplastic epithelial disorders. Histology: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignant tumor of the vulva (95%. Clinical features: Pruritus is the most common and long-lasting reported symptom of vulvar cancer, followed by vulvar bleeding, discharge, dysuria, and pain. Therapy: The gold standard for even a small invasive carcinoma of the vulva was historically radical vulvectomy with removal of the tumor with a wide margin followed by an en bloc resection of the inguinal and often the pelvic lymph nodes. Currently, a more individualized and less radical treatment is suggested: a radical wide local excision is possible in the case of localized lesions (T1. A sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy may be performed to reduce wound complications and lymphedema. Prognosis: The survival of patients with vulvar cancer is good when convenient therapy is arranged quickly after initial diagnosis. Inguinal and/or femoral node involvement is the most significant prognostic factor for survival. Keywords: vulvar cancer, HPV infection, radical vulvectomy, groin dissection, sentinel lymph node biopsy, overall survival

  14. Epidemiología del dolor por cáncer Epidemiology of cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reyes Chiquete

    2011-04-01

    therapeutic, or else to that pain associated with non-oncological diseases linked to cancer. This review represents a critical analysis of epidemiological studies on the prevalence of cancer pain in the world population. Great variations are shown in prevalence, perhaps because of methodological issues that hinder the comparison of results. In others words, by different criteria used to conceptualize and characterize cancer pain, the contrasts among the study population and data collection methods. If we add to this that there are different types of pain therapeutics and may differ from one hospital to another, the validity and consistency of the reports are limited considerably. Mexican society little known about the prevalence of cancer pain and on personal and socioeconomic bias involved in this terrible disease. Whereas existing studies in the literature, we suggest that epidemiological investigations should be conducted under strict methodological control, studying the different age groups, type of pain, intensity, oncology diagnosis, clinical stage, used anticancer therapeutics, drug therapy and nonpharmacologic analgesic; without forgetting the adjuvant drugs associated with this management.

  15. Expected lung cancer risk from radon daughter exposure in dwelllings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different concepts and approaches for the assessment of the lung cancer risk of populations from indoor exposure and its decay products are outlined. They proceed from the epidemiological data on the excess lung cancer frequency observed among Rn-exposed uranium miners and γ-exposed atomic bomb survivors, taking into account appropriate correction factors for indoor conditions. Inparticular a proportional hazard model is presented which enables an individual - and population - related risk assessment. The results lead to the conclusion that at the present time probably about 10-20% of the total observed lung cancer frequency in the Swedish population might be associated with the indoor inhalation of 222-Rn daughters. For most other countries these values are about a factor 0.5 lower. The absolute radiation risk for males is probably about a factor 2-3 higher than that for females. (Author)

  16. Dietary folate and folate vitamers and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keszei, A.P.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Heinen, M.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    An association between high intake of folate and reduced risk of cancer has been suggested by previous research. However, epidemiologic data from cohort studies regarding the relationship between dietary folate and pancreatic cancer are sparse and inconsistent. We examined the association between di

  17. Consumption of dietary fat and meat and risk of ovarian cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence that links dietary factors to ovarian cancer is conflicting, but several epidemiologic studies suggested that consumption of dietary fat and meat may increase risk of ovarian cancer. Objective: We studied associations of intakes of total fat and sources and subtypes of fat, fres

  18. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  19. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.; Schans, S.A. van de; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: Data from

  20. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the Netherla

  1. Perceptions of Cancer Risk and Cause of Cancer Risk in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Eun Young; Oh, Kyounghee; Park, Keeho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of perceived risk for cancer; to explore associations between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cancer risk; to identify perceived cause of cancer risk; and to examine the associations between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cause of cancer risk. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,009 participants aged 30-69 years, selected from a popu...

  2. Risk perception and cancer worries in families at increased risk of familial breast/ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon, Suzanne; Gold, Robin; Janisse, James; Cichon, Michelle; Tainsky, Michael A; Simon, Michael S.; Korczak, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    While families at increased risk for familial breast/ovarian cancer continue to overestimate their cancer risk with increased cancer worries about the future, few studies have examined factors that affect inherited cancer risk perception and cancer worries in both survivors and unaffected female relatives. The purpose of this study was to examine variables that may affect cancer worries and risk perceptions from a family-based perspective in a racially diverse, community-based, random sample ...

  3. Epidemiology and environmental risk in hairy cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Tamar; Polliack, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is an orphan subtype of leukaemia which constitutes less than 2% of all leukaemia's, with an incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 persons per annum. Median age at presentation is 55 years and it is 3-4 times more frequent in males. It is also more frequently encountered in whites and less in Asians, Africans and Arabs. The epidemiologic data are multi-factorial and influenced by ethnicity and geographical factors. Other reported associations relate to some environmental exposures and possible occupational factors. Smoking appears to have an inverse correlation with the development of hairy cell leukaemia, while farming and exposure to pesticides, petroleum products, diesel and ionizing radiation have also been reported to be associated with an increased risk. National and international collaborative efforts are needed in order to undertake more extensive studies involving larger patient cohorts, aiming to determine the role of occupational and environmental risk factors in the development of this rare form of chronic leukaemia.

  4. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Yang, Tian; Wu, Mengchao; Shen, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the least common form of cholangiocarcinomas, is a rare hepatobiliary malignancy that arises from the epithelial cells of the intrahepatic bile ducts. The incidence of ICC has been rising in the global scale over the last twenty years, which may reflect both a true increase and the trend of earlier detection of the disease. Other than some well recognized causative risk factors, the association between viral and metabolic factors and ICC pathogenesis has been increasingly identified recently. Surgical resection is currently the only feasible modality with a curative ability, but the resectability and curability remain low. The high invasiveness of ICC predisposes the tumors to multifocality, node metastasis and vascular invasions, leading to poor long-term survival after resection. The role of liver transplantation is controversial, while locoregional treatments and systematic therapies may provide survival benefits, especially in patients with unresectable and advanced tumors. The present review discussed the epidemiology, risk factors, surgical and multimodal management of ICCs, which mainly focused on the outcomes and factors associated with surgical treatment. PMID:26409434

  5. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  6. [The symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk: an incursion into the thinking of Boaventura de Sousa Santos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevalho, Gil; Stotz, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the concept of epidemiological risk is critically discussed. The work of Elizabeth Teixeira, who uses the ideas of Boaventura de Sousa Santos, is presented. The proposal for symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk is sketched out, defining analytical scales ranging from exteriority and distancing from the field of science to the proximity of territory and place, conceptualized on the basis of the geography of Milton Santos, in which conceptions of risk are drawn up from the perspective of the everyday routine of social existence. Questions relating to space, territoriality, subjectivity and time give meaning to a cartography of risk which is proposed as a model for epidemiological investigations.

  7. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  8. Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cancer: Epidemiology and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shmuel, Sarit; Rostoker, Ran; Scheinman, Eyal J; LeRoith, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple metabolic disorders that drive cardiovascular disease, T2D and cancer. The doubling in the number of obese adults over the past 3 decades led to the recognition of obesity as a "disease". With over 42 million children obese or overweight, this epidemic is rapidly growing worldwide. Obesity and T2D are both associated together and independently with an increased risk for cancer and a worse prognosis. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies revealed potential factors that may explain the association between obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cancer risk. Studies based on the insulin resistance MKR mice, highlighted the roe of the insulin receptor and its downstream signaling proteins in mediating hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effects. Hypercholesterolemia was also shown to promote the formation of larger tumors and enhancement in metastasis. Furthermore, the conversion of cholesterol into 27-Hydroxycholesterol was found to link high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia with cancer pathophysiology. Alteration in circulating adipokines and cytokines are commonly found in obesity and T2D. Adipokines are involved in tumor growth through multiple mechanisms including mTOR, VEGF and cyclins. In addition, adipose tissues are known to recruit and alter macrophage phenotype; these macrophages can promote cancer progression by secreting inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Better characterization on the above factors and their downstream effects is required in order to translate the current knowledge into the clinic, but more importantly is to understand which are the key factors that drive cancer in each patient. Until we reach this point, policies and activities toward healthy diets and physical activities remain the best medicine.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cancer: Epidemiology and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shmuel, Sarit; Rostoker, Ran; Scheinman, Eyal J; LeRoith, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple metabolic disorders that drive cardiovascular disease, T2D and cancer. The doubling in the number of obese adults over the past 3 decades led to the recognition of obesity as a "disease". With over 42 million children obese or overweight, this epidemic is rapidly growing worldwide. Obesity and T2D are both associated together and independently with an increased risk for cancer and a worse prognosis. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies revealed potential factors that may explain the association between obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cancer risk. Studies based on the insulin resistance MKR mice, highlighted the roe of the insulin receptor and its downstream signaling proteins in mediating hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effects. Hypercholesterolemia was also shown to promote the formation of larger tumors and enhancement in metastasis. Furthermore, the conversion of cholesterol into 27-Hydroxycholesterol was found to link high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia with cancer pathophysiology. Alteration in circulating adipokines and cytokines are commonly found in obesity and T2D. Adipokines are involved in tumor growth through multiple mechanisms including mTOR, VEGF and cyclins. In addition, adipose tissues are known to recruit and alter macrophage phenotype; these macrophages can promote cancer progression by secreting inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Better characterization on the above factors and their downstream effects is required in order to translate the current knowledge into the clinic, but more importantly is to understand which are the key factors that drive cancer in each patient. Until we reach this point, policies and activities toward healthy diets and physical activities remain the best medicine. PMID:25903410

  10. 广西肝癌高危人群队列和高发家系样本数据库的建立%Construction of the specimen bank and epidemiological database of high-risk population of liver cancer in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春燕; 黄天壬; 余家华; 张振权; 利基林; 邓伟; 叶司原; 周德南; 何振芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立肝癌高危人群队列和高发家系的血样本库和基础资料数据库.方法 在广西肝癌高发现场,选择肝癌高发年龄段常住居民进行防癌筛查和流行病学调查,其中HBsAg阳性的对象列为肝癌高危人群队列,对其定期随访和复查;根据基于人群的肿瘤登记资料和临床流行病学资料,选取肝癌高发家系并匹配相应对照家系.对所有研究对象均采集早晨空腹静脉血,进行HBsAg等生化指标检测和腹部B超检查;分离其血清、血浆和有核细胞,置于-80℃保存.所有资料按要求进行质控,并录入数据库.结果 已收集了30 000多人次的血清、血浆和有核细胞及其基础资料,并妥善保存和实行计算机动态管理.结论 建立该样本数据库,为下一步开展更深层次、高水平和高质量的广西区域性高发肿瘤基础研究、现场防控与临床研究,搭建了资源共享平台;探索和建立了一个具有先进性、科学性以及通用性等优点的数据管理系统,逐步实现了样本和资料的科学有效管理.%Objective To establish the specimen bank and epidemiological database of high-risk population of liver cancer in Guangxi. Methods In the high-risk area of liver cancer, permanent residents at high incidence age were enrolled for the anti-cancer screening and epidemiological surveys. The HBsAg-positive subjects were chosen as high-risk population cohort of liver cancer, and were regularly followed-up and reviewed. In accordance with population-based tumor registry data and clinical epidemiological data, high incidence families and the matched control families were determined. The morning fasting peripheral venous blood from these persons was collected for assessment of chemical and biological indicators, such as HBsAg. B-ultrasonography was also performed. The serum, plasma and mononuclear cells were separated and preserved under-80℃. All the information was carried out by quality control

  11. Solitary pulmonary nodule and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Part 1: epidemiology, morphological evaluation and cancer probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosmann, Marcos Pretto; Borba, Marcelle Alves; Macedo, Francisco Pires Negromonte; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima; Villarim Neto, Arthur, E-mail: mosmann@gmail.com [Liga Norte Riograndense Contra o Cancer, Natal, RN (Brazil); Lima, Kenio Costa de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude Coletiva

    2016-01-15

    Solitary pulmonary nodule corresponds to a common radiographic finding, which is frequently detected incidentally. The investigation of this entity remains complex, since characteristics of benign and malignant processes overlap in the differential diagnosis. Currently, many strategies are available to evaluate solitary pulmonary nodules with the main objective of characterizing benign lesions as best as possible, while avoiding to expose patients to the risks inherent to invasive methods, besides correctly detecting cases of lung cancer so as the potential curative treatment is not delayed. This first part of the study focuses on the epidemiology, the morphological evaluation and the methods to determine the likelihood of cancer in cases of indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodule. (author)

  12. Solitary pulmonary nodule and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Part 1: epidemiology, morphological evaluation and cancer probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solitary pulmonary nodule corresponds to a common radiographic finding, which is frequently detected incidentally. The investigation of this entity remains complex, since characteristics of benign and malignant processes overlap in the differential diagnosis. Currently, many strategies are available to evaluate solitary pulmonary nodules with the main objective of characterizing benign lesions as best as possible, while avoiding to expose patients to the risks inherent to invasive methods, besides correctly detecting cases of lung cancer so as the potential curative treatment is not delayed. This first part of the study focuses on the epidemiology, the morphological evaluation and the methods to determine the likelihood of cancer in cases of indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodule. (author)

  13. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine) and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking), and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) are well known risk

  14. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  15. Cancer Incidence - Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registries Limited-Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SEER Limited-Use cancer incidence data with associated population data. Geographic areas available are county and SEER registry. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and...

  16. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  17. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention. PMID:27251477

  18. [Cervix uteri cancer in Poland--epidemiological opening balance and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Zatoński, Witold

    2006-09-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death among young and middle-aged females. In case of some cancer sites there is a possibility of undertaking an intervention, which would diminish the risk of death--to this group belongs first of all malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri. The date of beginning first cervix uteri cancer screening in Poland is approaching, therefore presenting epidemiological opening balance and possible scenarios of changes it worthwhile. This work uses data on morbidity and mortality due to malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri cancer in Polish population. Time trends analysis was based on so-called "breakpoint" (joinpoint analysis). Cervix uteri cancer mortality trend is characterized by two breakpoints (1971 and 1993). In the period of 1963-1970 there was an increase of mortality and then after the trend reversed: percentage decline was estimated at the level of 0.8% yearly in 1971-1992 and 2.4% yearly in 1993-2002. Hypothetical scenarios of changes in cervix uteri cancer mortality show, that lack of intervention will cause mortality among Polish females at the level recorded in Finland 25 years ago. Optimistic variant would allow on diminishing mortality in Poland down to the level observed currently in Finland, in around 30 years. Implementing preventive cervix uteri cancer screening is currently the most urgent challenge of public health. If the preventive screening program will still be in the phase of plans and projects, then in 30 years time Poland will be in the point which Finland reached in the end of 1970s, and our civilizing underdevelopment will reach half a century.

  19. Cognition and Vascular Risk Factors: An Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Vicario

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an epidemiological approach to identify the negative impact of the vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia over cognition. The interesting aspect of this study was that the survey was conducted in all age groups through a voluntary call (n=1365; ≥18 years old, both sexes; age 49 ± 15 y, female 75.7%. Thus, we demonstrated that the use of a Minimum Cognitive Examination (MCE, a brief, simple, and easy managed neuropsychological evaluation, detected a greater number of people with cognitive decline surpassing to the Minimal Mental Statement Examination alone (14.5% of the participants showed MMSE ≤24, 34,6% showed dys-executive function, and 45,8% memory impairment. Out of the 4 studied RF, the only one that was not related to cognitive impairment was dyslipemia. Finally, we noted the importance of cognitive state early detection in all age groups, even in the youngest group. Acting in the middle of the life stages, we can prevent or delay the onset of a disease in adults, nowadays incurable: dementia.

  20. Upper tract urothelial carcinoma: epidemiology, high risk populations and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redrow, Grant P; Matin, Surena F

    2016-08-01

    Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare but highly morbid genitourinary malignancy. In 2014 approximately 15,000 new cases were diagnosed in the United States. It accounts for approximately 5-10% of all urothelial cell carcinomas, and 10% of renal tumors. Recent research has increased understanding of the epidemiology of this disease, including several high-risk populations. Environmental exposure to tobacco as well as aristolochic acid, and other carcinogens significantly increase the development of UTUC. Additionally, the genetic condition of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC), also known as Lynch Syndrome (LS) is linked to development of UTUC. Advances in imaging, ureteroscopy, cytological techniques and pathological recognition have allowed for improved detection of primary tumors and recurrent disease. Non-invasive imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now represent the gold standard in imaging detection and surveillance, while technological advances in ureteroscopy allow for minimally invasive approaches to obtain pathologic diagnosis anywhere within the upper tracts. This review will highlight these recent improvements to allow better understanding of who is affected by this rare and morbid disease, as well as the latest developments in detection and surveillance. PMID:27008468

  1. Radiation induced cancer risk, detriment and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommendations on radiation protection limits for workers and for the public depend mainly on the total health detriment estimated to be the result of low dose ionizing radiation exposure. This detriment includes the probability of a fatal cancer, an allowance for the morbidity due to non-fatal cancer and the probability of severe hereditary effects in succeeding generations. In a population of all ages, special effects on the fetus particularly the risk of mental retardation at defined gestational ages, should also be included. Among these components of detriment after low doses, the risk of fatal cancer is the largest and most important. The estimates of fatal cancer risk used by ICRP in the 1990 recommendations were derived almost exclusively from the study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs of 1945. How good are these estimates? Uncertainties associated with them, apart from those due to limitations in epidemiological observation and dosimetry, are principally those due to projection forward in time and extrapolation from high dose and dose rate to low dose and dose rate, each of which could after the estimate by a factor of 2 or so. Recent estimates of risk of cancer derived directly from low dose studies are specific only within very broad ranges of risk. Nevertheless, such studies are important as confirmation or otherwise of the estimates derived from the atomic bomb survivors. Recent U.S. British and Russian studies are examined in this light. (author)

  2. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process.

  3. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process. PMID:12298344

  4. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  5. Isolated Isoflavones do not affect the circulating insulin-like growth factor system in men at increased colorectal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, van J.; Lampe, J.W.; Cats, A.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, van F.E.; van't Veer, L.J.; Voskuil, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are related to increased colorectal cancer risk. A reduced colorectal cancer risk has been associated with isoflavones, which might affect the IGF-system because of their weak estrogenic activity. We conduc

  6. Isolated isoflavones do not affect the circulating insulin-like growth factor system in men at increased colorectal cancer risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, J. van; Lampe, J.W.; Cats, A.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Veer, L.J. van 't; Voskuil, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are related to increased colorectal cancer risk. A reduced colorectal cancer risk has been associated with isoflavones, which might affect the IGF-system because of their weak estrogenic activity. We conduc

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich;

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  8. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2013-10-01

    differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. Keywords: epidemiology, breast cancer, morbidity measure, public health, cancer epidemiology

  9. Adequacy of relative and absolute risk models for lifetime risk estimate of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the applicability of the relative (multiplicative) and absolute (additive) models in predicting lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer. A review of the epidemiologic literature, and a discussion of the mathematical models of carcinogenesis and their relationship to these models of lifetime risk, are included. Based on the available data, the relative risk model for the estimation of lifetime risk is preferred for non-sex-specific epithelial tumours. However, because of lack of knowledge concerning other determinants of radiation risk and of background incidence rates, considerable uncertainty in modelling lifetime risk still exists. Therefore, it is essential that follow-up of exposed cohorts be continued so that population-based estimates of lifetime risk are available

  10. When are breast cancer patients at highest risk of venous thromboembolism: a cohort study using English healthcare data

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Alex J.; West, Joe; Card, Timothy R; Crooks, Colin J; Kirwan, Cliona C; Grainge, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer patients are at increased risk of VTE, particularly in the peri-diagnosis period. However, no previous epidemiological studies have investigated the relative impact of breast cancer treatments in a time-dependent manner. We aimed to determine the impact of breast cancer stage, biology and treatment on the absolute and relative risks of VTE, using several recently linked data sources from England. Our cohort comprised 13,202 breast cancer patients from the Clinical Practice Resea...

  11. Melancholy as a risk factor for cancer: a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanou, Marianna; Tzavellas, Elias; Laios, Konstantinos; Koutsilieris, Michalis; Androutsos, George

    2016-01-01

    In antiquity, physicians related depression or melancholic humour to cancer's pathogenesis. Galen (130-201 AD), sustained that melancholy could give rise to a tumour and his theory was repeated by the Byzantine and Arab physicians. In the 19th century, malignancy and depression became synonymous and people attributed their cancer to sadness. In 1893, the London surgeon Hebert Snow (1847-1930), performed an epidemiological study in order to clarify that link. The results revealed a probable connection. His work was followed by several large scale prospective studies some of which identified depression as a risk factor for cancer where others found no association. However, a possible explanation could be given by our current knowledge in immunology: inflammation and nonspecific immune activation play a role in the pathophysiology of depression and cancer growth. PMID:27569105

  12. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  13. Evaluation of skin cancer risk for lunar and Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Methods used to estimate the probability of excess incidence of skin cancer from space radiation exposure must take into consideration the variability of dose to different areas of the body and the individual factors that may contribute to increased risk, including skin pigment and synergistic effects from combined ionizing and UV exposure. We have estimated the skin cancer risk for future lunar and Mars missions using: (1) the multiplicative risk model for transferring the Japanese survivor data to the US population, (2) epidemiological data for the increased risk for skin locations exposed to combined UV and ionizing radiation, and (3) models of space radiation environments, transport, and anatomical shielding for 5260 skin loci. We have estimated that the probability for increased skin cancer risk from solar particle events varies more than 10-fold depending on the individual and area of skin exposed. We show that a skin cancer risk greater than 1% could occur for astronauts with light skin and hair color following exposure to medium or large class solar particle events during future lunar base operations, or from exposure to galactic cosmic rays during Mars missions.

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic What causes bladder cancer? Bladder cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that changes your ... make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer. Risk factors you can change Smoking Smoking is the most ...

  15. Epidemiologic evidence for chloroprene carcinogenicity: review of study quality and its application to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John Arthur

    2009-09-01

    This article evaluates the quality and weight of evidence associated with epidemiologic studies of cancer among occupational cohorts exposed to chloroprene. The focus is on liver, lung, and lymphohematopoietic cancers, which had been increased in early studies. Literature searches identified eight morbidity/mortality studies covering seven chloroprene-exposed cohorts from six countries. These studies were summarized and their quality was assessed using the 10 criteria suggested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The limitations within this literature (primarily the early studies) included crude exposure assessment, incomplete follow-up, uncertain baseline rates, and uncontrolled confounding by factors such as smoking, drinking, and co-exposure to benzene and vinyl chloride. Four cohorts were studied by the same group of investigators, who reported no overall increased associations for any cancers. This four-cohort study was by far the most rigorous, having the most comprehensive exposure assessment and follow-up and the most detailed documentation. This study also contained the two largest cohorts, including an American cohort from Louisville, Kentucky, that ranked at or near the top for each of the 10 quality criteria. There was evidence of a strong healthy worker effect in the four-cohort study, which could have hidden small excess risks. Small increased risks were suggested by internal or company-specific analyses, but these were most likely caused by uncontrolled confounding and low baseline rates. Overall, the weight of evidence does not support any substantial link between chloroprene exposure and cancer, but inconsistencies and a lack of control for major confounders preclude drawing firmer conclusions.

  16. The changing epidemiology of Asian digestive cancers: From etiologies and incidences to preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Ying; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2015-12-01

    Digestive cancers are a major health burden in Asia. Due to the presence of similar "infection-inflammation-cancer" pathways in the carcinogenesis process, eradicating infective pathogens or attenuating relevant inflammatory signaling pathways may reduce digestive cancer incidences and improve patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to review the recent evidence regarding the epidemiology of three major digestive cancers in Asia: stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer. We focused on the incidence trends, the major etiologies, and especially the potential preventive strategies.

  17. Comparison of additive (absolute) risk projection models and multiplicative (relative) risk projection models in estimating radiation-induced lifetime cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifetime cancer risk estimates depend on risk projection models. While the increasing lengths of follow-up observation periods of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki bring about changes in cancer risk estimates, the validity of the two risk projection models, the additive risk projection model (AR) and multiplicative risk projection model (MR), comes into question. This paper compares the lifetime risk or loss of life-expectancy between the two projection models on the basis of BEIR-III report or recently published RERF report. With Japanese cancer statistics the estimates of MR were greater than those of AR, but a reversal of these results was seen when the cancer hazard function for India was used. When we investigated the validity of the two projection models using epidemiological human data and animal data, the results suggested that MR was superior to AR with respect to temporal change, but there was little evidence to support its validity. (author)

  18. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  19. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic factors through a detailed questionnaire

  20. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ORAL CANCER: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil H Agrawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is heading towards various types of non-communicable diseases, which are also known as modern epidemics. Among these modern epidemics cancer is among the ten commonest cause of mortality in developing countries including India. Oral cancer is a major problem in India and accounts for 50-70% of all the cancers diagnosed. Ninety percent (90% of oral cancers in South East Asia including India are linked to tobacco chewing and tobacco smoking. Research question: What is the profile of Oral cancer (Oral cavity cases reported in the hospital? Objective: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile associated with Oral cancer cases. Methods: Study Design: Hospital based, Cross -sectional study. Settings: Shri Siddhivinayak Ganapati Cancer Hospital, Miraj, Maharashtra. Participants and Sample size: As it is a time bound study sample size comprised of all the confirmed cases of oral cancer reported in the hospital during the study period. The study was carried out from 1st March 2005 to 28th February 2006. Study variables included demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, enquiries regarding modifiable risk factors such as tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, site involved (within oral cavity, staging, histopathological examination, treatment modality used. Data entry and statistical analysis was done using Microsoft excel. Data presented in form of percentages and proportions. Results: Out of the total 160 cases, majority of the subjects were above 40 years age. 36 (22% of subjects were young adults (below 40 years age. 125 (78% subjects were male. Most of the subjects belonged to upper lower and lower middle socio-economic scale according to modified Kuppuswamy classification. It was observed that 139 (87% cases consumed tobacco in all forms. Out of these, ninety cases consumed tobacco in chewable form. Tobacco was chewed mainly in the form of gutka. Only ten (10 female subjects chewed tobacco. No female subjects smoked. The most

  1. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 (131I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P131I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  2. [Leanness, obesity, and breast cancer risk-different impact of body weight on breast cancer risk according to women's life stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Saji, Shigehira

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies, although not all, in Western countries have reported a possible differential impact of BMI on breast cancer risk in women of various lifestages. Among premenopausal women, a number of epidemiological studies in Western populations suggested a weak inverse association between BMI and breast cancer risk. Conversely, there exists substantial evidence for a statistically significant positive association between body weight and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. The cumulative exposure to estrogen throughout a woman's life is one of the significant risk factors for breast cancer. After menopause, adipose tissue is a major source of estrogen. Therefore, an increase in body fat after menopause is one of the possible explanations for the positive association of body weight with the development of breast cancer. To evaluate the impact of body weight on the risk of breast cancer, we need to consider the role of adipose tissue in the development and differentiation of normal mammary glands. Special attention should be paid to women in their twenties and/or during their lactation periods when the development of normal mammary glands is significant. Further studies are needed to investigate the association between BMI and breast cancer risk, considering the role of body fat in the development of mammary glands.

  3. Epidemiological Study of Oral and Perioral Cancers in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Razavit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the fact that oral and perioral cancers are not included in common cancers, they are of special importance for their impact on human morbidity and life quality. Awareness of the epidemiological characteristics of oral cancers allows for enhanced planning of timely and effective treatment in order to improve patients’ life quality. The objective of the present study was to investigate the distributional patterns of oral and perioral malignancies in terms of age, gender, type, and location.Methods and Materials: 4553 oral biopsy specimens taken over 17 years (1988-2004 at the Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were studied. Among these, 283 cases included oral malignant lesions. The age, gender, location, and type of malignancy data for these cases were recorded.Results: The results of this survey showed that commoner malignant oral lesions were epithelial lesions with 175 cases (62%, salivary lesions with 48 cases (17%, and hematogenic malignancies with 23 cases (9%. Squamous cell carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, lymphoma, and osteosarcoma were the commoner malignant lesions in this area of the body. The mean age of patients was 52.2 years of old and the male to female ratio was found to be 1.3.Discussion: The present study showed that compared to the less common malignant lesions, the more common ones, i.e. epithelial and salivary lesions, show far more differences from those reported in previous studies. For example, compared to previous studies, the mean age for epithelial lesions was found to be less by one decade while the mean age for salivary gland lesions was found to be higher by one decade. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC was found to be the most common malignancy but its relative frequency was lower than that reported in previous studies. Moreover, differences were also observed in its anatomical distribution. Lip, salivary gland, and

  4. Body mass index and risk of second primary breast cancer: The WECARE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Jennifer D.; John, Esther M.; Mellemkjær, Lene; Reiner, Anne S.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Lynch, Charles F.; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Robert W Haile; Shore, Roy E.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The identification of potentially modifiable risk factors, such as body size, could allow for interventions that could help reduce the burden of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) among breast cancer survivors. Studies examining the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and CBC have yielded mixed results. From the population-based, case–control, Women's Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study, we included 511 women with CBC (cases) and 999 women with unilateral bre...

  5. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Risk of Breast Cancer in Korean Women: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Kim, Eun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer incidence by age group in Korean women are unique. This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer risk in Korean women. Methods: We searched electronic databases such as KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and RISS4U as well as PubMed for publications on Korean breast cancer patients. We also conducted manual searching based on references and citations in potential pap...

  6. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer: a contrary thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroff, Leon

    2008-01-01

    The most important unanswered question regarding postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer is whether hormone therapy initiates the growth of new breast cancers or whether the epidemiologic data reflect a hormonal impact on preexisting tumors. In this perspective I review the evidence favoring hormonal effects on preexisting tumors and suggest that exposure to combined estrogen and progestin is beneficial, causing greater differentiation and earlier detection of breast cancers.

  7. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  8. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  9. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  10. Caffeinated Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee and Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Prospective Cohort Study among US Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Katherine W.; Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson; Nicole Luisi; Raji Balasubramanian; Ayush Giri; Sturgeon, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    There is plausible biological evidence as well as epidemiologic evidence to suggest coffee consumption may lower endometrial cancer risk. We evaluated the associations between self-reported total coffee, caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee, and endometrial cancer risk using the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study Research Materials obtained from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Biological Specimen and Data Repository Coordinating Center. Our primary analyses inc...

  11. Arsenic in Drinking-Water and Risk for Cancer in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Baastrup, Rikke; Sørensen, Mette; Balstrøm, Thomas; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Larsen, Carsten Langtofte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen, which is often found in drinking-water. Epidemiologic studies have shown increased cancer risks among individuals exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water, whereas studies of the carcinogenic effect of low doses have had inconsistent results. Objective Our aim was to determine if exposure to low levels of arsenic in drinking-water in Denmark is associated with an increased risk for cancer. Methods The study was based on a prosp...

  12. ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS AND THE RISK OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER: A DOSE-RESPONSE META-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa V Bandera; Gifkins, Dina M.; Moore, Dirk F.; McCullough, Marjorie L; Lawrence H Kushi

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins may reduce cancer risk by limiting oxidative DNA damage. To summarize and quantify the current epidemiologic evidence of an association between antioxidant vitamin intake and endometrial cancer we conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. One cohort and 12 case-control studies presenting relevant risk estimates were identified by conducting bibliographical searches through June 2008. Dose-response meta-analyses were conducted for beta-carotene, vitamin C...

  13. 体力活动与结肠癌关系前瞻性研究的Meta分析%Epidemiological prospective studies on physical activities and the risk of colon cancer: a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万水; 谭玉婷; 刘大可; 高姗; 高静; 项永兵

    2010-01-01

    目的 索体力活动与结肠癌发生的病因学联系.方法 集和整理1979-2009年国内外公开发表的体力活动与结肠癌关系的队列研究文献,开展Meta分析.其中,各文献RR值的合并采用倒方差法或DerSimonian-Laird method(D-L)法,剂量-反应关系的评价采用方差加权的最小二乘法.结果 入Meta分析的文献共28篇.与低体力活动者相比,男、女性高体力活动者结肠癌RR值分别为0.75(95%CI:0.66~0.86)、0.85(95%CI:0.76~0.95).高质量文献分析显示体力活动与结肠癌,男性RR=0.74(95%CI:0.61~0.90)、女性接近统计学意义的RR=0.99(95%CI:0.95~1.02).男、女性中均未观察到明显的剂量-反应关系,趋势检验分别为P=0.142和P=0.417.结肠亚部位分析结果显示,增加体力活动与男性近端(右侧)结肠癌与远端(左侧)结肠癌发生均有关联,合并RR值分别为0.62(95%CI:0.45~0.85)和0.74(95%CI:0.56~0.99).结论 增加体力活动可以降低结肠癌发生的危险性.%Objective To explore the relationship between physical activity(PA) and the risk of colon cancer. Methods Cohort studies on physical activity and risk of colon cancer were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-medicine and Chinese Wanfang databases from January 1979 to December 2009. Results from the individual studies were synthetically combined in our study. Inverse variance weighting was used in fixed effects model and the random effects estimate was based on the DerSimonian-Laird method. Variance-weighted least squares method was used for trend test of summarized dose-response data. Results A total of 28 studies were included in our analysis. An inverse association between physical activities and the risk of colon cancer was observed with the relative risks (RR) as 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.86] in males and 0.85(95%CI: 0.76-0.95)in females, respectively. However, the findings from those documents with high quality showed significant and

  14. Dietary zinc, copper and selenium, and risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, Somdat; Spitz, Margaret R; Barrera, Stephanie L; Beaver, Shao Hua; Etzel, Carol; Forman, Michele R

    2007-03-01

    Zinc, copper and selenium are important cofactors for several enzymes that play a role in maintaining DNA integrity. However, limited epidemiologic research on these dietary trace metals and lung cancer risk is available. In an ongoing study of 1,676 incident lung cancer cases and 1,676 matched healthy controls, we studied the associations between dietary zinc, copper and selenium and lung cancer risk. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer for all subjects by increasing quartiles of dietary zinc intake were 1.0, 0.80 (0.65-0.99), 0.64 (0.51-0.81), 0.57 (0.42-0.75), respectively (p trend = 0.0004); similar results were found for men. For dietary copper, the ORs and 95% CI for all subjects were 1.0, 0.59 (0.49-0.73), 0.51 (0.41-0.64), 0.34 (0.26-0.45), respectively (p trend cancer with increased dietary zinc intake were also found for all ages, BMI > 25, current smokers, pack-years copper intake was associated with protective trends (p copper intakes are associated with reduced risk of lung cancer. Given the known limitations of case-control studies, these findings must be interpreted with caution and warrant further investigation.

  15. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M;

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  16. Space Radiation Cancer Risk Projections and Uncertainties - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Chappell, Lori J.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainties in estimating health risks from galactic cosmic rays greatly limit space mission lengths and potential risk mitigation evaluations. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure-induced death and protects against uncertainties using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. Revisions to this model for lifetime cancer risks from space radiation and new estimates of model uncertainties are described here. We review models of space environments and transport code predictions of organ exposures, and characterize uncertainties in these descriptions. We summarize recent analysis of low linear energy transfer radio-epidemiology data, including revision to Japanese A-bomb survivor dosimetry, longer follow-up of exposed cohorts, and reassessments of dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors. We compare these projections and uncertainties with earlier estimates. Current understanding of radiation quality effects and recent data on factors of relative biological effectiveness and particle track structure are reviewed. Recent radiobiology experiment results provide new information on solid cancer and leukemia risks from heavy ions. We also consider deviations from the paradigm of linearity at low doses of heavy ions motivated by non-targeted effects models. New findings and knowledge are used to revise the NASA risk projection model for space radiation cancer risks.

  17. Tea drinking and risk of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Junbao; Chen Long; Zhu Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.This study aimed to investigate whether tea consumption is related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.Methods We searched Medline,EMBASE,ISI Web of Science,and the Cochrane library for studies published up to November 2013.We used a meta-analytic approach to estimate overall odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest tea consumption categories.Results The summary OR for high versus no/almost never tea drinkers was 1.04 (95% CI:0.91-1.20),with no significant heterogeneity across studies (P=0.751;I2=0.0%).The OR was 0.99 (95% CI:0.77-1.28) in males and 1.01 (95% CI:0.79-1.29) in females.The OR was 1.07 (95% CI:0.85-1.34) in Asian studies,1.05 (95% CI:0.84-1.31) in European studies,and 0.98 (95% CI:0.72-1.34) in the US studies.The OR was 0.87 (95% CI:0.69-1.10) without adjustment for a history of diabetes and 1.16 (95% CI:0.97-0.39) after adjustment for a history of diabetes.The OR was 0.90 (95% CI:0.72-1.12) without adjustment for alcohol drinking and 1.16 (95% CI:0.96-1.39) after adjustment for alcohol drinking.The OR was 0.97 (95% CI:0.76-1.25) without adjustment for BMI and 1.07 (95% CI:0.87-1.31) after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion This systematic meta-analysis of cohort studies dose not provide quantitative evidence that tea consumption is appreciably related to the risk of pancreatic cancer,even at high doses.

  18. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  19. Arsenic in drinking water and urinary tract cancers: a systematic review of 30 years of epidemiological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic in drinking water is a public health issue affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. This review summarizes 30 years of epidemiological studies on arsenic exposure in drinking water and the risk of bladder or kidney cancer, quantifying these risks using a meta-analytical framework. Methods Forty studies met the selection criteria. Seventeen provided point estimates of arsenic concentrations in drinking water and were used in a meta-analysis of bladder cancer incidence (7 studies) and mortality (10 studies) and kidney cancer mortality (2 studies). Risk estimates for incidence and mortality were analyzed separately using Generalized Linear Models. Predicted risks for bladder cancer incidence were estimated at 10, 50 and 150 μg/L arsenic in drinking water. Bootstrap randomizations were used to assess robustness of effect size. Results Twenty-eight studies observed an association between arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer. Ten studies showed an association with kidney cancer, although of lower magnitude than that for bladder cancer. The meta-analyses showed the predicted risks for bladder cancer incidence were 2.7 [1.2–4.1]; 4.2 [2.1–6.3] and; 5.8 [2.9–8.7] for drinking water arsenic levels of 10, 50, and 150 μg/L, respectively. Bootstrapped randomizations confirmed this increased risk, but, lowering the effect size to 1.4 [0.35–4.0], 2.3 [0.59–6.4], and 3.1 [0.80–8.9]. The latter suggests that with exposures to 50 μg/L, there was an 83% probability for elevated incidence of bladder cancer; and a 74% probability for elevated mortality. For both bladder and kidney cancers, mortality rates at 150 ug/L were about 30% greater than those at 10 μg/L. Conclusion Arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased risk of bladder and kidney cancers, although at lower levels (<150 μg/L), there is uncertainty due to the increased likelihood of exposure misclassification at the lower end of the exposure curve. Meta

  20. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena; Young, Charles Y. F.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin...

  1. Appraisal of selected epidemiologic issues from studies of lung cancer among uranium and hard rock miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G R; Sever, L E

    1982-04-01

    An extensive body of published information about lung cancer among uranium miners was reviewed and diverse information, useful in identifying important issues but not in resolving them was found. Measuring exposure and response; thresholds of exposure; latency or the period from first mining experience to death; effort to predict excess risk of death, using a model; effects of smoking and radon daughter exposure on the histology of lung tumors; and the interplay of factors on the overall risk of death were all examined. The general concept of thresholds; that is, an exposure level below which risk does not increase was considered. The conclusion is that it should be possible to detect and estimate an epidemiologic threshold when the cohorts have been followed to the death of all members. Issues concerning latency in the studies of uranium miners published to date were examined. It is believed that the induction-latent period for lung cancer among uranium miners may be: as little as 10 to more than 40 years; dependent on age at which exposure begins; exposure rate; and ethnicity or smoking habits. Although suggested as factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been confirmed. The median induction-latent period appears to be in excess of the 15 years frequently cited for US uranium miner. A distinct pattern of shorter induction-latent periods with increasing age at first mining exposure is reported. The evidence for and against an unusual histologic pattern of lung cancers among uranium miners was examined. The ratio of epidermoid to small cell types was close to 1:2; the ratio in the general population is nearer 2:1. The histologic pattern warrants closer attention of pathologists and epidemiologists. (ERB) (ERB)

  2. Appraisal of selected epidemiologic issues from studies of lung cancer among uranium and hard rock miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive body of published information about lung cancer among uranium miners was reviewed and diverse information, useful in identifying important issues but not in resolving them was found. Measuring exposure and response; thresholds of exposure; latency or the period from first mining experience to death; effort to predict excess risk of death, using a model; effects of smoking and radon daughter exposure on the histology of lung tumors; and the interplay of factors on the overall risk of death were all examined. The general concept of thresholds; that is, an exposure level below which risk does not increase was considered. The conclusion is that it should be possible to detect and estimate an epidemiologic threshold when the cohorts have been followed to the death of all members. Issues concerning latency in the studies of uranium miners published to date were examined. It is believed that the induction-latent period for lung cancer among uranium miners may be: as little as 10 to more than 40 years; dependent on age at which exposure begins; exposure rate; and ethnicity or smoking habits. Although suggested as factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been confirmed. The median induction-latent period appears to be in excess of the 15 years frequently cited for US uranium miner. A distinct pattern of shorter induction-latent periods with increasing age at first mining exposure is reported. The evidence for and against an unusual histologic pattern of lung cancers among uranium miners was examined. The ratio of epidermoid to small cell types was close to 1:2; the ratio in the general population is nearer 2:1. The histologic pattern warrants closer attention of pathologists and epidemiologists. (ERB)

  3. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression was...... used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for epithelial ovarian cancer overall, and for histological types, associated with statin use. RESULTS: We observed a neutral association between ever use of statins and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.......87-1.10), and no apparent risk variation according to duration, intensity or type of statin use. Decreased ORs associated with statin use were seen for mucinous ovarian cancer (ever statin use: OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.39-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was not associated with overall risk for epithelial ovarian cancer...

  4. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthe, Emmanuelle; Berthet, Pascaline; Bardet, Stephane [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Avenue General Harris, 14076, Caen Cedex 05 (France); Henry-Amar, Michel [Service de Recherche Clinique, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Michels, Jean-Jacques [Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Rame, Jean-Pierre [Service de Chirurgie ORL, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Babin, Emmanuel [Service de Chirurgie ORL, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Icard, Philippe [Service de Chirurgie Thoracique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Samama, Guy [Service de Chirurgie Generale, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Galateau-Salle, Francoise [Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Mahoudeau, Jacques [Service d' Endocrinologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France)

    2004-05-01

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P<0.01], but not in men (SIR=1.27; P>0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P<0.001), and particularly to cancer of the kidney (SIR=7.02; P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that age above 40 years (P<0.01) and a history of previous primary cancer (P<0.001) correlated with risk. In contrast, neither cervical irradiation nor cumulative activity of {sup 131}I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  5. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer among Bahraini Women; Data from the Bahrain Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randah R. Hamadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of breast cancer among the Bahraini female population in the years 2000‒2010 and examine its health policy implications. Methods: All breast cancer cases in the Bahrain Cancer Registry from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2010 were included. Results: There were 1,005 cases, 12.7% of which were detected by screening. The overall mean age at diagnosis was 50.9 years (95% confidence interval 50.1–51.6. The age-standardised incidence rate declined from 58.2 per 100,000 in 2000 to 44.4 per 100,000 in 2010. The majority of cases were infiltrating ductal carcinoma (76.9%. Of the registered cases, 44.1% and 48.1% had an unknown grade and stage, respectively. The five-year survival rate was 63 ± 2%. Conclusion: The low percentage of cases detected by screening merits further evaluation of Bahrain’s screening programme. More effort should be made to reduce the proportion of unknown stage and grade breast cancers. Future research has to be directed towards understanding the reasons for Bahrain having the highest incidence rate of breast cancer in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

  6. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  7. Management of cancer risk from radiation: A model and a standard for handling chemical risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparsely ionizing radiation is the environmental cancer initiator which is at present best characterized with respect to the magnitude of cancer risks associated with exposure. Possibilities of estimating cancer risks from chemicals by expressing chemical doses as radiation-dose equivalents was therefore studied. This approach eliminates most of the difficulties encountered in efforts to estimate risks from experimental data. Particularly, it permits an implicit estimation, which cannot be obtained from animal studies, of the influences of promotive and cocarcinogenic factors in human populations. Chemical doses are monitored by adducts of reactive chemicals or metabolites to proteins and DNA in humans and animals. This method overcomes the low sensitivity and low specificity of disease- epidemiological studies and may be used to detect and identify cancer initiators (mutagens) of exogenous or endogenous origin. The expression of doses in a common unit, that is directly related to risk, facilitates addition of and comparisons of risks. The fact that this unit refers to radiation, a factor that is well-known to the public and to administrators, facilitates realization of the magnitude of risks and the application of the ICRP principles for regulation, particularly with regard to stochastic effects. (author)

  8. Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodutta Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined environmental epidemiologic, genomic, and bioinformatics approach to identify: exposure of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity; epidemiologic association between endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC and health effects, such as, breast cancer or endometriosis; and gene-EDC interactions and disease associations. Human exposure measurement and modeling confirmed estrogenic activity of three selected class of environmental chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, bisphenols (BPs, and phthalates. Meta-analysis showed that PCBs exposure, not Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates, increased the summary odds ratio for breast cancer and endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EDC interactions and disease associations identified several hundred genes that were altered by exposure to PCBs, phthalate or BPA. EDCs-modified genes in breast neoplasms and endometriosis are part of steroid hormone signaling and inflammation pathways. All three EDCs–PCB 153, phthalates, and BPA influenced five common genes—CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR2, FOS, and IGF1—in breast cancer as well as in endometriosis. These genes are environmentally and estrogen responsive, altered in human breast and uterine tumors and endometriosis lesions, and part of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in cancer. Our findings suggest that breast cancer and endometriosis share some common environmental and molecular risk factors.

  9. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C

    2003-09-10

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low

  10. Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-06-15

    The debate on the potential carcinogenic effect of dietary acrylamide is open. In consideration of the recent findings from large prospective investigations, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer at several sites. Up to July 2014, we identified 32 publications. We performed meta-analyses to calculate the summary relative risk (RR) of each cancer site for the highest versus lowest level of intake and for an increment of 10 µg/day of dietary acrylamide, through fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity test. Fourteen cancer sites could be examined. No meaningful associations were found for most cancers considered. The summary RRs for high versus low acrylamide intake were 0.87 for oral and pharyngeal, 1.14 for esophageal, 1.03 for stomach, 0.94 for colorectal, 0.93 for pancreatic, 1.10 for laryngeal, 0.88 for lung, 0.96 for breast, 1.06 for endometrial, 1.12 for ovarian, 1.00 for prostate, 0.93 for bladder and 1.13 for lymphoid malignancies. The RR was of borderline significance only for kidney cancer (RR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.45). All the corresponding continuous estimates ranged between 0.95 and 1.03, and none of them was significant. Among never-smokers, borderline associations with dietary acrylamide emerged for endometrial (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51) and ovarian (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00) cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies indicates that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers. A modest association for kidney cancer, and for endometrial and ovarian cancers in never smokers only, cannot be excluded.

  11. [The present state of the clinical and epidemiologic research on chemical and carcinogenic risks in the metalworking industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolatto, Pier Giorgio; Catalani, Simona

    2011-01-01

    In this report several publications on clinical-epidemiologic patterns are presented regarding chemical and oncogenic risk in the metalworking industry. Sources of information were mainly PubMed and TOXNET. As far as cancer is concerned the body of the epidemiological data is difficult to interpret, mainly due to the fact that even the most recent papers and reviews refer to past exposure to MWF. Moreover, the great number of cancer sites are hardly explainable as to the biological plausibility. However, it is likely that current problems might be overcome by the almost total elimination of PAH and some additives. Moreover, cancer risk for welders and painters should be considered according to the different techniques used. Several studies reported repeated outbreaks of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, especially in US, most probably caused by mycobacterial antigens present in water-based oils. In Italy this disease is probably misdiagnosed or underreported. Some cross-sectional studies on respiratory disease and hearing loss, caused by the interaction of noise and chemical agent (mainly solvents), provided limited information because of the nature itself of this type of studies. Dermal pathologies still affect MWF exposed workers. Some antigens present in compounds, which are now gradually substituted, have been identified for allergic dermatitis (ADC). PMID:22073667

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of breast cancer in China: incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm diagnosed amongst women worldwide and is the leading cause of female cancer death. However, breast cancer in China is not comprehensively understood compared with Westernised countries, although the 5-year prevalence statistics indicate that approximately 11 % of worldwide breast cancer occurs in China and that the incidence has increased rapidly in recent decades. This paper reviews the descriptive epidemiology of Chinese breast cancer in terms of incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence, and explores relevant factors such as age of manifestation and geographic locations. The statistics are compared with data from the Westernised world with particular emphasis on the United States and Australia. Potential causal agents responsible for differences in breast cancer epidemiology between Chinese and other populations are also explored. The need to minimise variability and discrepancies in methods of data acquisition, analysis and presentation is highlighted.

  13. Epidemiological study on risk factor of gastric cancer among Buyi population in Qiannan%黔南地区布依族居民胃癌发病危险因素病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo examine the risk factors of gastric carcinoma among Buyi population in Qannan area,and to provide reference for making effective strategy to prevent gastric carcinoma.MethodsA 1:1 matched casecontrol study was conducted among 138 new diagnosed gastric cancer patients and 138healthy physical examinees over the same period in with a questionnaire survey.ResultsUnivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the main risk factors for gastric cancer in the high-altitude region were the history of digestive system disease,family history of tumor,eating disorders,water scarcity,arsenic environmental pollution,smoking,barbecue food,fried food,high-salt diet,sulking and Helicobacter pylori(Hp)infection. Multiyariate logistic regression analyses showed that the main risk factors for gastric carcinoma in the Hp infection,family history of tumor,eating disorders,water scarcity,arsenic environmental pollution, barbecue food,fried food and high-salt diet.ConclusionThe incidence of gastric carcinoma Qannan area may correlate with Hpinfection,family history of tumor,water scarcity,arsenic environmental pollution,unhealthy dietary habit and unhealthy living habit. Specific preventive measures should be taken to control the disease according to the unique local condition.%目的:了解黔南地区布依族居民胃癌发病的相关影响因素,为制订有效的胃癌防治措施提供依据。方法2008年1月—2014年12月,按照配对病例对照研究方法,在黔南民族医学高等专科学校第二附属医院对新发胃癌布依族患者138例和同期进行体检的138名布依族健康人群进行问卷调查,分析胃癌发病的影响因素。结果多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,Hp感染、肿瘤家族史、饮食不规律、水资源缺乏、砷环境污染、烧烤食物、煎炸食品、高盐饮食是黔南地区布依族居民胃癌发生的主要危险因素。结论黔南地区布依族居民胃癌的发病与Hp感染

  14. Prospective weight change and colon cancer risk in male US health professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Christoffer;

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies are remarkably consistent, especially among men, in showing that overweight and obesity [body mass index (BMI) >25] are associated with increased risk of colon cancer. However, no prospective studies address the influence of weight change in adulthood on subsequent colon...... cancer risk. In this study, we investigated whether weight change influences colon cancer risk utilizing prospectively collected weight data. We included 46,349 men aged 40-75 participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Questionnaires including items on weight were completed every second......-year period, we documented 765 cases of colon cancer. Cumulative mean BMI >22.5 was associated with significantly increased risk of colon cancer. The short-term weight change in the prior 2 to 4 years was positively and significantly associated with risk [HR = 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1...

  15. Epidemiological and clinical profile of triple negative breast cancer at a cancer hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recent concept and the burning topic of research today. Various studies have been reported in western literature on TNBCs or the similar group of basal like cancers, all highlighting the poor prognostic features of this molecular subtype in comparison to the other types of breast cancers. However extensive data from India is lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological and clinical profile of TNBcs at our institute. Materials and Methods: Data on 171 patients of TNBCs registered at this hospital between 2005 and 2008 and followed up until December 2010 was collected and reviewed for epidemiological and clinical features. Results: The median age at presentation was 49 years (22-75 years. Sixty eight patients (40% had lump in the breast of less than 1 month duration. Fourteen (8% were nulliparous and 10 (7% patients had crossed the age of 30 years at first full-term pregnancy, 89 (52% were pre or peri-menopausal at presentation. Only 8 (5% patients had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. One hundred and six (62% patients were stage II, 26 (15% stage III, 21 (12% stage I and 18 (10% stage IV at presentation. One hundred and twenty eight patients (75% had early breast cancer eligible for surgery at presentation, 25 (15% were locally advanced and received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and 18 (10% were found to be metastatic. Modified radical mastectomy was the preferred surgical option by most patients (76% who underwent upfront surgery in our study. The pathological overall response rates (complete and partial response after NACT was 75% with complete response rate of 25% and there were no relapses in the complete responders. The median follow-up was 30 months (9-70 months. One hundred and twenty two patients (71% were alive at last follow-up, 34 (22% had relapsed, 18 (11% had died due to progressive disease. Thirty one patients (18% were lost to follow-up. Most of

  16. Association of vitamin D levels and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ong, Jue-Sheng; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro and observational epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D may play a role in cancer prevention. However, the relationship between vitamin D and ovarian cancer is uncertain, with observational studies generating conflicting findings. A potential limitation of observatio...

  17. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  18. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D; Gompel, A; Mueck, A O;

    2010-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  19. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    A markedly increased risk of cervical cancer is known in women immunosuppressed due to AIDS or therapy following organ transplantation. The aim of this review is to determine the association between other conditions affecting the immune system and the risk of cervical cancer. Patients with end...

  20. Risk assessment of cancer in relation with radon inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several experimental studies have been studied in France in the field of low exposures to radon. The animal studies confirm the increase of ling cancer risk for exposures less than 100 units of exposures. A synthesis is actually running in the frame of an European programme coordinated by the Laboratory of epidemiology from the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.). It will describe the different steps of the carcinogenesis brought into play during this chronic exposure at the level of bronchi epithelium by grouping the whole of data coming from the follow up of uranium miners and experimental studies

  1. The high prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer at autopsy: implications for epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer in the Prostate-specific Antigen-era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J

    2015-12-15

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening detects many cancers that would have otherwise gone undiagnosed. To estimate the prevalence of unsuspected prostate cancer, we reviewed 19 studies of prostate cancer discovered at autopsy among 6,024 men. Among men aged 70-79, tumor was found in 36% of Caucasians and 51% of African-Americans. This enormous prevalence, coupled with the high sensitivity of PSA screening, has led to the marked increase in the apparent incidence of prostate cancer. The impact of PSA screening on clinical practice is well-recognized, but its effect on epidemiologic research is less appreciated. Before screening, a larger proportion of incident prostate cancers had lethal potential and were diagnosed at advanced stage. However, in the PSA era, overall incident prostate cancer mainly is indolent disease, and often reflects the propensity to be screened and biopsied. Studies must therefore focus on cancers with lethal potential, and include long follow-up to accommodate the lead time induced by screening. Moreover, risk factor patterns differ markedly for potentially lethal and indolent disease, suggesting separate etiologies and distinct disease entities. Studies of total incident or indolent prostate cancer are of limited clinical utility, and the main focus of research should be on prostate cancers of lethal potential.

  2. Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2016-01-01

    More than 250,000 new cases of primary malignant brain tumors are diagnosed annually worldwide, 77% of which are gliomas. A small proportion of gliomas are caused by the inheritance of rare high-penetrance genetic variants or high-dose radiation. Since 2009, inherited genetic variants in 10 regions near eight different genes have been consistently associated with glioma risk via genome-wide association studies. Most of these variants increase glioma risk by 20-40%, but two have higher relative risks. One on chromosome 8 increases risk of IDH-mutated gliomas sixfold and another that affects TP53 function confers a 2.5-fold increased risk of glioma. Functions of some of the other risk variants are known or suspected, but future research will determine functions of other risk loci. Recent progress also has been made in defining subgroups of glioma based on acquired alterations within tumors. Allergy history has been consistently associated with reduced glioma risk, though the mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Future studies will need to be large enough so that environmental and constitutive genetic risk factors can be examined within molecularly defined, etiologically homogeneous subgroups.

  3. Tumor-based case-control studies of infection and cancer: muddling the when and where of molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    We describe the "tumor-based case-control" study as a type of epidemiologic study used to evaluate associations between infectious agents and cancer. These studies assess exposure using diseased tissues from affected individuals (i.e., evaluating tumor tissue for cancer cases), but they must utilize nondiseased tissues to assess control subjects, who do not have the disease of interest. This approach can lead to exposure misclassification in two ways. First, concerning the "when" of exposure assessment, retrospective assessment of tissues may not accurately measure exposure at the key earlier time point (i.e., during the etiologic window). Second, concerning the "where" of exposure assessment, use of different tissues in cases and controls can have different accuracy for detecting the exposure (i.e., differential exposure misclassification). We present an example concerning the association of human papillomavirus with various cancers, where tumor-based case-control studies likely overestimate risk associated with infection. In another example, we illustrate how tumor-based case-control studies of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer underestimate risk. Tumor-based case-control studies can demonstrate infection within tumor cells, providing qualitative information about disease etiology. However, measures of association calculated in tumor-based case-control studies are prone to over- or underestimating the relationship between infections and subsequent cancer risk. PMID:25063520

  4. Epidemiological study of workers at risk of internal exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a pilot-study among nuclear fuel cycle workers potentially exposed to alpha radiation. Internal exposure from inhalation of uranium compounds during uranium conversion and enrichment operations was estimated at the AREVA NC Pierrelatte plant. A plant specific semi-quantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) was elaborated for 2709 workers employed at this plant between 1960 and 2006. The JEM has permitted to estimate the exposure to uranium and 16 other categories of pollutants and to calculate individual cumulative exposure score. Numerous correlations were detected between uranium compounds exposure and exposure to other pollutants, such as asbestos, ceramic refractive fibers, TCE and so on. 1968-2005 mortality follow-up showed an increasing risk of mortality from pleural cancer, rectal cancer and lymphoma on the basis of national mortality rates. Analyses of association between cancer mortality and uranium exposure suggested an increase in mortality due to lung cancer among workers exposed to slowly soluble uranium compounds derived from natural and reprocessed uranium. However these results are not statistically significant and based on a small number of observed deaths. These results are concordant with previously reported results from other cohorts of workers potentially exposed to uranium. Experimental studies of biokinetic and action mechanism of slowly soluble uranium oxides bear the biological plausibility of the observed results. Influence of bias was reduced by taking into account of possible confounding including co-exposure to other carcinogenic pollutants and tobacco consumption in the study. Nevertheless, at this stage statistical power of analyses is too limited to obtain more conclusive results. This pilot study shows the interest and feasibility of an epidemiological investigation among workers at risk of internal exposure to uranium and other alpha emitters at the national level. It demonstrates the importance of exposure assessment for

  5. Magnetic fields and childhood cancer: an epidemiological investigation of the effects of high-voltage underground cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, K J; Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Murphy, M F G

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence of increased risks for childhood leukaemia from magnetic fields has implicated, as one source of such fields, high-voltage overhead lines. Magnetic fields are not the only factor that varies in their vicinity, complicating interpretation of any associations. Underground cables (UGCs), however, produce magnetic fields but have no other discernible effects in their vicinity. We report here the largest ever epidemiological study of high voltage UGCs, based on 52,525 cases occurring from 1962-2008, with matched birth controls. We calculated the distance of the mother's address at child's birth to the closest 275 or 400 kV ac or high-voltage dc UGC in England and Wales and the resulting magnetic fields. Few people are exposed to magnetic fields from UGCs limiting the statistical power. We found no indications of an association of risk with distance or of trend in risk with increasing magnetic field for leukaemia, and no convincing pattern of risks for any other cancer. Trend estimates for leukaemia as shown by the odds ratio (and 95% confidence interval) per unit increase in exposure were: reciprocal of distance 0.99 (0.95-1.03), magnetic field 1.01 (0.76-1.33). The absence of risk detected in relation to UGCs tends to add to the argument that any risks from overhead lines may not be caused by magnetic fields. PMID:26344172

  6. HEALTHY EATING INDEX AND OVARIAN CANCER RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, Urmila; Elisa V Bandera; Williams-King, Melony G.; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Lu, Shou-En; Faulkner, Shameka; Pulick, Katherine; Olson, Sara H.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for a role of diet on ovarian cancer prevention remains inconclusive. While many studies have evaluated individual foods and food groups, the evaluation of a comprehensive dietary quality index for predicting cancer risk has received little attention. This study investigates the association between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), which reflects adherence to the current USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New J...

  7. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood gro...... tract (mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophageal adenocarcinoma and stomach). DISCUSSION: Our study reconfirms the association between ABO blood group and cancer risk and exact underlying mechanisms involved needs further research....

  8. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, J H

    1988-01-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed amon...

  9. Serum Retinol and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Watters, Joanne L; Männistö, Satu; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-01-01

    Greater exposure to retinol (vitamin A) may prevent prostate cancer, although under some conditions it could promote cell growth and de-differentiation. The authors prospectively examined prostate cancer risk and serum retinol levels, measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, at baseline (n = 29,104) and after 3 years (n = 22,843) in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of to...

  10. [Epidemiological cancer data online: an overview of information service in Germany and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, I; Kraywinkel, K

    2014-01-01

    Finding reliable data about cancer epidemiology on the World Wide Web is not an easy task. Information is often scattered, and sources are not always clear. This article gives a short overview of the most important websites that provide reliable data for Germany and Europe. Four internet sites are presented: The German Centre for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD), the Association of Population-Based Cancer Registries in Germany (GEKID), and two different websites created by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In combination, they provide comprehensive information about the distribution of cancer in Germany and Europe. PMID:24357168

  11. Metabolic syndrome and risk of subsequent colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raluca Pais; Horatiu Silaghi; Alina Cristina Silaghi; Mihai Lucian Rusu; Dan Lucian Dumitrascu

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome and visceral obesity have an increasing prevalence and incidence in the general population. The actual prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 24% in US population and between 24.6% and 30.9% in Europe. As demonstrated by many clinical trials (NAHANES Ⅲ, INTERHART) the metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition to cardiovascular disease, individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been linked to the development of cancer, particularly to colorectal cancer.Colorectal cancer is an important public health problem; in the year 2000 there was an estimated total of 944 717 incident cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed world-wide. This association is sustained by many epidemiological studies. Recent reports suggest that individuals with metabolic syndrome have a higher risk of colon or rectal cancer. Moreover, the clusters of metabolic syndrome components increase the risk of associated cancer. The physiopathological mechanism that links metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer is mostly related to abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Population and experimental studies demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia, elevated C-peptide, elevated body mass index, high levels of insulin growth factor-1, low levels of insulin growth factor binding protein-3, high leptin levels and low adiponectin levels are all involved in carcinogenesis. Understanding the pathological mechanism that links metabolic syndrome and its components to carcinogenesis has a major clinical significance and may have profound health benefits on a number of diseases including cancer, which represents a major cause of mortality and morbidity in our societies.

  12. Chronically Alternating Light Cycles Increase Breast Cancer Risk in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dycke, Kirsten C G; Rodenburg, Wendy; van Oostrom, Conny T M; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Roenneberg, Till; van Steeg, Harry; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J

    2015-07-20

    Although epidemiological studies in shift workers and flight attendants have associated chronic circadian rhythm disturbance (CRD) with increased breast cancer risk, causal evidence for this association is lacking. Several scenarios have been proposed to contribute to the shift work-cancer connection: (1) internal desynchronization, (2) light at night (resulting in melatonin suppression), (3) sleep disruption, (4) lifestyle disturbances, and (5) decreased vitamin D levels due to lack of sunlight. The confounders inherent in human field studies are less problematic in animal studies, which are therefore a good approach to assess the causal relation between circadian disturbance and cancer. However, the experimental conditions of many of these animal studies were far from the reality of human shift workers. For example, some involved xenografts (addressing tumor growth rather than cancer initiation and/or progression), chemically induced tumor models, or continuous bright light exposure, which can lead to suppression of circadian rhythmicity. Here, we have exposed breast cancer-prone p53(R270H/+)WAPCre conditional mutant mice (in a FVB genetic background) to chronic CRD by subjecting them to a weekly alternating light-dark (LD) cycle throughout their life. Animals exposed to the weekly LD inversions showed a decrease in tumor suppression. In addition, these animals showed an increase in body weight. Importantly, this study provides the first experimental proof that CRD increases breast cancer development. Finally, our data suggest internal desynchronization and sleep disturbance as mechanisms linking shift work with cancer development and obesity. PMID:26196479

  13. Cancers in Togo from 1984 to 2008: Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of 5251 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Amégbor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods. We made a retrospective review of the epidemiological and pathological features of cancers observed from 1984 to 2008 at the laboratory of pathology of CHU-TOKOIN in Lomé, Togo. Results. During our study period, we found 5251 cases of cancers with an annual average frequency of 210 cases. The sex ratio, male/female, was 0.9 and the average age of occurring was 45.3 years. This average age was 46.9 years for men and 43.8 years for women. The most frequent cancers for men were prostate cancer (12.9%, nonmelanoma skin cancer (10.4%, and gastric cancer (10.3%. For women it was breast cancer (27.1%, cervix cancer (11.2% and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.3%. Histologically, it was carcinomas in 68.1% of the cases, sarcomas in 11% of the cases and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in 12.6% of the cases. Children cancers were primarily Burkitt lymphoma (27.9% of cases and retinoblastoma (8.5% of cases. Conclusion. This study shows that cancers are frequent in Togo and emphasizes on the necessity of having a cancer register for the prevention and the control of this disease in Togo.

  14. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer and early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the strategy for improving the poor prognosis of the pancreatic (P) cancer by its early imaging diagnosis followed by resection, based on recent findings on its high risk group. Epidemiological studies have revealed that patients with diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, intraductal papillary-mucious tumor, P cyst, familial history of P cancer, and hereditary P cancer syndrome are involved in the high risk group of P cancer. Imaging diagnosis with CT and/or endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) followed by histological confirmation for resection can be a useful approach to improve the prognosis in those high risk, asymptomatic individuals with abnormal levels of P enzyme and tumor marker, and with US findings of P ductal dilation and cyst. The guideline 2006 for P cancer by Japan Pancreas Society shows the algorithm leading to the final diagnosis for the positive high risk group: firstly, CT and/or MRCP (MR cholangiopancreatography (CP)); or, in case of uncertainty, EUS and/or ERCP (E retrograde CP) and/or PET; and finally, cytological, histological diagnosis. The newer approach proposed recently for the group is: multi detector row (MD)-CT and EUS; then cytodiagnosis guided by ERCP and/or with fine needle aspiration by EUS, also a promising early diagnosis. As well, molecular biological approaches are supposedly useful for the future diagnosis. (R.T.)

  15. Estimation of cancer risks and benefits associated with a potential increased consumption of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Richard; Johnston, Jason; Tucker, Kevin; DeSesso, John M; Keen, Carl L

    2012-12-01

    The current paper provides an analysis of the potential number of cancer cases that might be prevented if half the U.S. population increased its fruit and vegetable consumption by one serving each per day. This number is contrasted with an upper-bound estimate of concomitant cancer cases that might be theoretically attributed to the intake of pesticide residues arising from the same additional fruit and vegetable consumption. The cancer prevention estimates were derived using a published meta-analysis of nutritional epidemiology studies. The cancer risks were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods, cancer potency estimates from rodent bioassays, and pesticide residue sampling data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The resulting estimates are that approximately 20,000 cancer cases per year could be prevented by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, while up to 10 cancer cases per year could be caused by the added pesticide consumption. These estimates have significant uncertainties (e.g., potential residual confounding in the fruit and vegetable epidemiologic studies and reliance on rodent bioassays for cancer risk). However, the overwhelming difference between benefit and risk estimates provides confidence that consumers should not be concerned about cancer risks from consuming conventionally-grown fruits and vegetables.

  16. Association Between the Mediterranean Diet and Cancer Risk: A Review of Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, L.D.M.; Bach-Faig, A.; Buckland, G.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to summarize the evidence concerning the association between Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in observational epidemiological studies. All the studies that met the following criteria were reviewed: human cohort and case-control studies that examined the effe

  17. Dietary Flavonols and Flavonol-rich foods intake and the risk of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adebamowo, C.A.; Sampson, L.; Katan, M.B.; Spiegelman, D.; Willett, W.C.; Holmes, M.D.; Cho, E.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and animal studies suggest that dietary flavonols may reduce breast cancer risk but there are limited epidemiological studies. We computed flavonol intakes from dietary data collected by validated food frequency questionnaires in 1991 and 1995 from 90,630 women in the Nurses Health Study

  18. Maternal one-carbon nutrient intake and cancer risk in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary intake of one-carbon nutrients, particularly folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and choline have been linked to the risk of cancers of the colon and breast in both human and animal studies. More recently, experimental and epidemiological data have emerged to suggest t...

  19. Dietary Carotenoids and Risk of Lung Cancer in a Pooled Analysis of Seven Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Albanes, D.; Anderson, K.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.; Feskanich, D.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Hunter, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Intervention trials with supplemental β-carotene have observed either no effect or a harmful effect on lung cancer risk. Because food composition databases for specific carotenoids have only become available recently, epidemiological evidence relating usual dietary levels of these carotenoids with l

  20. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  1. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening mode...

  2. Coffee consumption and the risk of endometrial cancer: Evidence from a case-control study of female hormone-related cancers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Kaoru; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Toru; Tajima, Kazuo

    2007-03-01

    Coffee has become a popular beverage worldwide. Caffeine, a major ingredient of coffee, has been proposed to have a favorable affect on the modulation of circulating estrogen levels and therefore may be of importance in developments on hormone-related cancers. However, epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. We examined the relationship between intake of coffee and hormone-related cancer risk among Japanese women using data from the hospital-based epidemiological research program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC). In total, 2122 breast, 229 endometrial and 166 ovarian cancer cases were included, and 12 425 women, confirmed as free of cancer, were recruited as the control group. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined by multiple logistic regression analysis. A statistically significant inverse association between risk of endometrial cancer and coffee consumption was noted in Japanese women, with no clear association evident for breast and ovarian cancer risk. Compared to non-drinker, the OR of daily drinking of 1-2 cups and 3 or more cups per day for endometrial cancer were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43-0.94) and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.19-0.87), respectively, and the linear trend was also statistically significant (P cancer. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of endometrial cancer in Japanese subjects. Given the scarcity of studies of coffee intake and endometrial cancer and other hormone-dependent cancer risk, additional investigations are warranted. PMID:17270030

  3. Review of epidemiological studies on the occupational risk of tuberculosis in low-incidence areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Andreas; Nienhaus, Albert; Diel, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiological evidence for occupationally acquired tuberculosis and considers the implications for the prevention of tuberculosis. The relevant epidemiological studies were identified on the basis of the Medline data bank, starting with the year 1966. The evaluation of occupational groups with an elevated tuberculosis risk is exclusively based on epidemiologic studies of good or acceptable quality, applying clearly defined criteria of methodological quality. In summary, the available epidemiological evidence suggests that the risk of tuberculosis is elevated in the following occupational groups: hospital employees in wards with tuberculosis patients; nurses in hospitals; nurses attending HIV-positive or drug-addicted patients; pathology and laboratory workers; respiratory therapists and physiotherapists; physicians in internal medicine, anaesthesia, surgery and psychiatry; non-medical hospital personnel in housekeeping and transport work; funeral home employees, and prison employees. However, the epidemiological evidence is limited for all these occupations, with the exception of the nurses, because of the lack of methodologically adequate studies that have got the statistical power to differentiate between specific work tasks. There is a need for large population-based studies with precise definition of exposure, which should include molecular epidemiologic methods in the investigation of occupational risk factors of tuberculosis. PMID:16088290

  4. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

  5. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  6. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  7. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huncharek, Michael; Kupelnick, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the methodology of observational studies that explored an association between personal use of hair dye products and the risk of bladder cancer. METHODS: Data were pooled from epidemiological studies using a general variance-based meta-analytic method that employed confidence intervals. The outcome of interest was a summary relative risk (RRs) reflecting the risk of bladder cancer development associated with use of hair dye products vs. non-use. Sensitivity analy...

  8. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Donohoe Claire L; Doyle Suzanne L; Reynolds John V

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods: Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles...

  9. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-01-01

    had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, Saudi Cancer Registry, corpus uteri cancer, age standardized incidence rate

  10. Recommendations for Cancer Epidemiologic Research in Understudied Populations and Implications for Future Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Damali N; Lam, Tram Kim; Brignole, Katy; Ashing, Kimlin T; Blot, William J; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Chen, Jarvis T; Dignan, Mark; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matthews, Alicia; Palmer, Julie R; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J; Schootman, Mario; Vilchis, Hugo; Vu, Alexander; Srinivasan, Shobha

    2016-04-01

    Medically underserved populations in the United States continue to experience higher cancer burdens of incidence, mortality, and other cancer-related outcomes. It is imperative to understand how health inequities experienced by diverse population groups may contribute to our increasing unequal cancer burdens and disparate outcomes. The National Cancer Institute convened a diverse group of scientists to discuss research challenges and opportunities for cancer epidemiology in medically underserved and understudied populations. This report summarizes salient issues and discusses five recommendations from the group, including the next steps required to better examine and address cancer burden in the United States among our rapidly increasing diverse and understudied populations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 573-80. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CEBP FOCUS SECTION, "MULTILEVEL APPROACHES TO ADDRESSING CANCER HEALTH DISPARITIES". PMID:27196089

  11. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, Katherine J; Jaju, Prajakta D; Jaju, Prajaka D; Tang, Jean Y; Carbone, Michele; Leachman, Sancy; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic traits, such as red hair and freckling, increase melanoma risk by 2- to 3-fold. In addition, approximately 10% of melanomas are caused by inherited germline mutations that increase melanoma risk from 4- to >1000-fold. This review highlights the key genes responsible for inherited melanoma, with an emphasis on when a patient should undergo genetic testing. Many genetic syndromes associated with increased melanoma risk are also associated with an increased risk of other cancers. Identification of these high-risk patients is essential for preventive behavior reinforcement, genetic counseling, and ensuring other required cancer screenings.

  12. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Concentration and Risk of Prostate Cancer : Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, Alison J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Appleby, Paul N.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Travis, Ruth C.; Tipper, Sarah J.; Overvad, Kim; Gronbaek, Henning; Tjonneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Fons; Rinaldi, Sabina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annie; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Andarakis, George; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Argueelles, Marcial V.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larranaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Stattin, Par; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Background: High circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations have been associated with increased risk for prostate cancer in several prospective epidemiological studies. In this study, we investigate the association between circulating IGF-I concentration and risk of prostate can

  13. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  14. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:269-281, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060854

  15. Gastric cancer in Scotland: changing epidemiology, unchanging workload.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedgwick, D M; Akoh, J A; Macintyre, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the changes in incidence of and mortality from gastric cancer in Scotland between 1978 and 1987 and in the operative workload in Lothian between 1979 and 1988. DESIGN--Analysis of national incidence statistics for gastric cancer derived from the Scottish national cancer registry, deaths from gastric cancer recorded by the registrar general for Scotland, and Lothian surgical audit data. SETTING--Scotland and Lothian Health Board area. PATIENTS--Patients in Scotland with...

  16. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  17. A meta-analysis of studies of dietary fat and breast cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, N. F.; Martin, L. J.; Noffel, M.; Lockwood, G. A.; Trichler, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    There is strong evidence that breast cancer risk is influenced by environmental factors, and animal experiments and human ecological data suggest that increased dietary fat intake increases the incidence of the disease. Epidemiological evidence on the relationship of dietary fat to breast cancer from cohort and case control studies has however been inconsistent. To examine the available evidence we have carried out a meta-analysis to summarise quantitatively the large published literature on ...

  18. Menstrual Factors, Reproductive Factors 
and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yue(Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125, U.S.A.); Yin, Zhihua; Shen, Li; Wan, Yan; Zhou, Baosen

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Epidemiological studies have suggested that menstrual and reproductive factors may influence lung cancer risk, but the results are controversial. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis aiming to examine the associations of lung cancer in women with menstrual and reproductive factors. 
Methods Relevant studies were searched from PubMed database, CNKI, WANFANG DATA and VIP INFORMATION up to January 2012, with no language restrictions. References listed from selected p...

  19. Reproductive Factors, Exogenous Hormones, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the CTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunjung; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Rull, Rudolph P.; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ursin, Giske; Henderson, Katherine D.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Female steroid hormones are hypothesized to play a protective role in pancreatic cancer risk. However, results from epidemiologic studies that examined hormone-related exposures have been inconsistent. The California Teachers Study is a cohort study of female public school professionals that was established in 1995–1996. Of the 118,164 eligible study participants, 323 women were diagnosed with incident invasive pancreatic cancer through December 31, 2009. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard...

  20. Patterns of Excess Cancer Risk among the Atomic Bomb Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Donald A.

    1996-05-01

    I will indicate the major epidemiological findings regarding excess cancer among the atomic-bomb survivors, with some special attention to what can be said about low-dose risks. This will be based on 1950--90 mortality follow-up of about 87,000 survivors having individual radiation dose estimates. Of these about 50,000 had doses greater than 0.005 Sv, and the remainder serve largely as a comparison group. It is estimated that for this cohort there have been about 400 excess cancer deaths among a total of about 7800. Since there are about 37,000 subjects in the dose range .005--.20 Sv, there is substantial low-dose information in this study. The person-year-Seivert for the dose range under .20 Sv is greater than for any one of the 6 study cohorts of U.S., Canadian, and U.K. nuclear workers; and is equal to about 60% of the total for the combined cohorts. It is estimated, without linear extrapolation from higher doses, that for the RERF cohort there have been about 100 excess cancer deaths in the dose range under .20 Sv. Both the dose-response and age-time patterns of excess risk are very different for solid cancers and leukemia. One of the most important findings has been that the solid cancer (absolute) excess risk has steadily increased over the entire follow-up to date, similarly to the age-increase of the background risk. About 25% of the excess solid cancer deaths occurred in the last 5 years of the 1950--90 follow-up. On the contrary most of the excess leukemia risk occurred in the first few years following exposure. The observed dose response for solid cancers is very linear up to about 3 Sv, whereas for leukemia there is statistically significant upward curvature on that range. Very little has been proposed to explain this distinction. Although there is no hint of upward curvature or a threshold for solid cancers, the inherent difficulty of precisely estimating very small risks along with radiobiological observations that many radiation effects are nonlinear

  1. Breast cancer susceptibility variants alter risk in familial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A; McBurney, H J; Roberts, S A; Lalloo, F; Howell, A; Evans, D G; Newman, W G

    2010-12-01

    Recent candidate gene and genome wide association studies have revealed novel loci associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We evaluated the effect of these breast cancer associated variants on ovarian cancer risk in individuals with familial ovarian cancer both with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. A total of 158 unrelated white British women (54 BRCA1/2 mutation positive and 104 BRCA1/2 mutation negative) with familial ovarian cancer were genotyped for FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3 and CASP8 variants. The p.Asp302His CASP8 variant was associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk in the familial BRCA1/2 mutation negative ovarian cancer cases (P = 0.016). The synonymous TNRC9/TOX3 (Ser51) variant was present at a significantly lower frequency than in patients with familial BRCA1/2 positive breast cancer (P = 0.0002). Our results indicate that variants in CASP8 and TNRC9/TOX3 alter the risk of disease in individuals affected with familial ovarian cancer.

  2. Lifetime Number of Ovulatory Cycles and Risks of Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hannah P; Murphy, Kelsey R; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; George, Neena; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that a greater number of ovulatory cycles, cumulatively summed as lifetime number of ovulatory cycles (LOC), increases ovarian cancer risk, but there is no uniform algorithm with which to compute LOC. The association between LOC and endometrial cancer is less certain. Accordingly, we identified 14 different LOC algorithms in a literature review and calculated LOCs in the Polish Cancer Study (2001-2003). We evaluated the associations of LOC with ovarian and endometrial cancer risks using unconditional logistic regression, with and without adjustment for individual risk factors used in the LOC computations. Our analysis included 302 ovarian cancer cases with 1,356 controls and 532 endometrial cancer cases with 1,286 controls. We found a high correlation between LOC values among the combined controls (r ≥ 0.88) and identified 5 groups of similar LOC algorithms. A LOC value in the highest quartile was associated with ovarian cancer risk as computed by 2 algorithms (odds ratio (OR) = 2.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 4.62) and OR = 2.44 (95% CI: 1.22, 4.87)) and with endometrial cancer risk as computed by 1 algorithm (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.44). LOC algorithms using a core set of variables widely available in epidemiologic studies may be independently associated with risk of gynecological cancers beyond the contribution of the individual risk factors, such as ages at menopause and menarche. PMID:27190045

  3. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise and eating nutritiously can ... cancer cases, researchers said. To see whether a healthy lifestyle would result in fewer cancer cases and deaths, ...

  4. Use of disulfiram and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, G.; Friis, S.; Hallas, J.;

    2014-01-01

    disulfiram prescription using risk set sampling. Similarly, for secondary analyses, we selected case-control populations for selected tobacco-related and alcohol-related cancer types, that is, cancers of the buccal cavity, liver, lung, and colorectal cancer. Disulfiram use 1 year before cancer diagnosis......Experimental studies have indicated that disulfiram (Antabuse) has antineoplastic effects against melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the association between disulfiram use and these cancers in a nationwide register-based case-control study nested within...... ever-users (>= one prescription) of disulfiram. Cases were all Danish individuals with a histologically verified first-time diagnosis of malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected four cancer-free controls matched for age, sex, and year of first...

  5. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk.

  6. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  7. An Epidemiological Study of Risk Factors of Thyroid Nodule and Goiter in Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodule (TN and goiter are two common disorders of the thyroid. Despite their benign nature, both conditions can be associated with multiple pathologic conditions including thyroid cancer. In this study, we conducted a large-scale epidemiological study in Chinese women to identify the risk factors implicated in the occurrence of TN and goiter. We analyzed demographic data, lifestyle, medical history, body height, weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, serum glucose and lipids. In addition, thyroid ultrasonography was performed for all subjects. Our results showed that age, menopause, waist circumference, BMI, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia were associated with both TN and goiter. Furthermore, we found that the prevalence of TN was significantly affected by the medical management of hypertension. Our study suggests that postmenopausal Chinese women with advanced age, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have an increased awareness of thyroid examination in the annual physical check. Conversely, patients with TN and goiter of the same population may have a higher incidence of age- and obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  8. Epidemiology of breast cancer at the shaukat khanum memorial cancer hospital and research center, lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the demographic and clinical features of females presenting with breast malignancies at the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center (SKMCH and RC), Lahore, Pakistan. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: SKMCH and RC, Lahore, from January 2008 to December 2012. Methodology: Demographic and clinical features of female breast cancer patients, registered at SKMCH and RC, were studied. Mean values, counts, and percentages were obtained. Results: Four-thousand, three-hundred and sixty-six female breast malignancies were recorded. Nearly 80.4% of the patients belonged to Punjab. Mean age at presentation was 48.6 ± 12.2 years, at menarche was 13.2 ± 1.2 years, and at first childbirth was 23.7 ± 4.8 years. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 29.0 ± 5.7 kg/m2. In 60.1%, history of breast feeding was positive. In 55.7%, there was no history of use of any Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCP)/Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). Nearly 42.7% were postmenopausal, 85.2% had infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 49.6% had grade 3 tumor, 60.7% had stage II disease, and 37.3% were Estrogen Receptor (ER)/Progesterone Receptor (PR)+, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-. Family history of breast cancer was positive in 16.9% of the cases. Conclusion: The mean presenting age is lower than what has been recorded in the West. It may be worthwhile collating results from different institutions in order to study the epidemiology of the disease more extensively and develop cancer control and early detection programs. (author)

  9. Recent incidence and descriptive epidemiological survey of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Abid A. Ansari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number o...

  10. Epidemiology of gastric cancer and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent estimates of the world-wide incidence of cancer indicate that gastric cancer was in 1990 the second most frequent cancer in the world (after lung cancer, with about 900 000 new cases diagnosed every year. Steady declines in the rates have been observed everywhere in the last few decades, but the absolute number of new cases per year is increasing mainly because of ageing of the population. The exact causes of the decline of gastric cancer are not well understood, but must include improvements in diet, food storage (e.g., refrigeration and, possibly, the decline of Helicobacter pylori infection. Dietary modifications and, possibly, vitamin supplements remain one of the most important tool for the prevention of gastric cancer. Control of H. pylori infection, by means of eradication or immunization, is also likely to offer great potential for the prevention of this important malignancy.

  11. Greater absolute risk for all subtypes of breast cancer in the US than Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Hisani N; Beena Devi, C R; Sung, Hyuna; Tang, Tieng Swee; Rosenberg, Philip S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Sherman, Mark E; Anderson, William F; Yang, Xiaohong R

    2015-01-01

    Hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancers are relatively more common in low-risk than high-risk countries and/or populations. However, the absolute variations between these different populations are not well established given the limited number of cancer registries with incidence rate data by breast cancer subtype. We, therefore, used two unique population-based resources with molecular data to compare incidence rates for the 'intrinsic' breast cancer subtypes between a low-risk Asian population in Malaysia and high-risk non-Hispanic white population in the National Cancer Institute's surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries database (SEER 18). The intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were recapitulated with the joint expression of the HRs (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Invasive breast cancer incidence rates overall were fivefold greater in SEER 18 than in Malaysia. The majority of breast cancers were HR-positive in SEER 18 and HR-negative in Malaysia. Notwithstanding the greater relative distribution for HR-negative cancers in Malaysia, there was a greater absolute risk for all subtypes in SEER 18; incidence rates were nearly 7-fold higher for HR-positive and 2-fold higher for HR-negative cancers in SEER 18. Despite the well-established relative breast cancer differences between low-risk and high-risk countries and/or populations, there was a greater absolute risk for HR-positive and HR-negative subtypes in the US than Malaysia. Additional analytical studies are sorely needed to determine the factors responsible for the elevated risk of all subtypes of breast cancer in high-risk countries like the United States.

  12. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consum...

  13. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000842.htm Genetic testing and your cancer risk To use the sharing ... with one or more of the above About Genetic Testing You may first have a an assessment to ...

  14. Lung cancer risk at low doses of alpha particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, W; Katz, R; Zhang, C X

    1986-10-01

    A survey of inhabitant exposures arising from the inhalation of 222Rn and 220Rn progeny, and lung cancer mortality has been carried out in two adjacent areas in Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China, designated as the "high background" and the "control" area. Annual exposure rates are 0.38 working level months (WLM) per year in the high background, and 0.16 WLM/yr in the control area. In 14 yr of continuous study, from 1970 to 1983, age-adjusted mortality rates were found to be 2.7 per 10(5) living persons of all ages in the high background area, and 2.9 per 10(5) living persons in the control area. From this data, we conclude that we are unable to determine excess lung cancers over the normal fluctuations below a cumulative exposure of 15 WLM. This conclusion is supported by lung cancer mortality data from Austrian and Finnish high-background areas. A theoretical analysis of epidemiological data on human lung cancer incidence from inhaled 222Rn and 220Rn progeny, which takes into account cell killing as competitive with malignant transformation, leads to the evaluation of a risk factor which is either a linear-exponential or a quadratic-exponential function of the alpha-particle dose. Animal lung cancer data and theoretical considerations can be supplied to support either hypothesis. Thus we conclude that at our current stage of knowledge both the linear-exponential and the quadratic-exponential extrapolation to low doses seem to be equally acceptable for Rn-induced lung cancer risk, possibly suggesting a linear-quadratic transformation function with an exponential cell-killing term, or the influence of risk-modifying factors such as repair or proliferation stimuli.

  15. Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Rohrmann, Sabine; Nöthlings, Ute; Arriola, Larraitz; Gunter, Marc J; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J Ramón; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Molina-Montes, Esther; Gavrila Chervase, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay T; Wareham, Nick J; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Malm, Johan; Orho-Melander, Marju; Johansson, Mattias; Stattin, Pär; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2015-01-15

    The current epidemiologic evidence suggests that men with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be at lower risk of developing prostate cancer, but little is known about its association with stage and grade of the disease. The association between self-reported diabetes mellitus at recruitment and risk of prostate cancer was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among 139,131 eligible men, 4,531 were diagnosed with prostate cancer over an average follow-up of 12 years. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for education, smoking status, body mass index, waist circumference, and physical activity. In a subset of men without prostate cancer, the cross-sectional association between circulating concentrations of androgens and insulin-like growth factor proteins with diabetes status was also investigated using linear regression models. Compared to men with no diabetes, men with diabetes had a 26% lower risk of prostate cancer (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.86). There was no evidence that the association differed by stage (p-heterogeneity, 0.19) or grade (p-heterogeneity, 0.48) of the disease, although the numbers were small in some disease subgroups. In a subset of 626 men with hormone measurements, circulating concentrations of androstenedione, total testosterone and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-three were lower in men with diabetes compared to men without diabetes. This large European study has confirmed an inverse association between self-reported diabetes mellitus and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.

  16. Cancer risks related to electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Cardis, E; Vainio, H; Coleman, M P; Kogevinas, M; Nordberg, G; Parkin, D M; Partensky, C; Shuker, D; Tomatis, L

    1991-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has previously evaluated the cancer risks associated with fossil fuel-based industrial processes such as coal gastification and coke production, substances and mixtures such as coal tars, coal tar pitch and mineral oils, and a number of substances emitted from fossil-fuelled plants such as benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and formaldehyde. Based on these evaluations and other evidence from the literature, the carcinogenic risks to the general population and occupational groups from the fossil fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle and renewable cycles are reviewed. Cancer risks from waste disposal, accidents and misuses, and electricity distribution are also considered. No cycle appears to be totally free from cancer risk, but the quantification of the effects of such exposures (in particular of those involving potential exposure to large amounts of carcinogens, such as coal, oil and nuclear) requires the application of methods which are subject to considerable margins of error. Uncertainties due to inadequate data and unconfirmed assumptions are discussed. Cancer risks related to the operation of renewable energy sources are negligible, although there may be some risks from construction of such installations. The elements of knowledge at our disposal do not encourage any attempt toward a quantitative comparative risk assessment. However, even in the absence of an accurate quantification of risk, qualitative indication of carcinogenic hazards should lead to preventive measures.

  17. Association between Variants in Atopy-Related Immunologic Candidate Genes and Pancreatic Cancer Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cotterchio

    Full Text Available Many epidemiology studies report that atopic conditions such as allergies are associated with reduced pancreas cancer risk. The reason for this relationship is not yet understood. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between variants in atopy-related candidate genes and pancreatic cancer risk.A population-based case-control study of pancreas cancer cases diagnosed during 2011-2012 (via Ontario Cancer Registry, and controls recruited using random digit dialing utilized DNA from 179 cases and 566 controls. Following an exhaustive literature review, SNPs in 180 candidate genes were pre-screened using dbGaP pancreas cancer GWAS data; 147 SNPs in 56 allergy-related immunologic genes were retained and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odd ratio (AOR for each variant and false discovery rate was used to adjust Wald p-values for multiple testing. Subsequently, a risk allele score was derived based on statistically significant variants.18 SNPs in 14 candidate genes (CSF2, DENND1B, DPP10, FLG, IL13, IL13RA2, LRP1B, NOD1, NPSR1, ORMDL3, RORA, STAT4, TLR6, TRA were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two LRP1B SNPs remained statistically significant; for example, LRP1B rs1449477 (AA vs. CC: AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.22-0.62; p (adjusted=0.04. Furthermore, the risk allele score was associated with a significant reduction in pancreas cancer risk (p=0.0007.Preliminary findings suggest certain atopy-related variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk. Further studies are needed to replicate this, and to elucidate the biology behind the growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggesting allergies may reduce pancreatic cancer risk.

  18. Vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer are sparse. We studied the association between vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric c

  19. Response to the argument on the risk of cancer with chest CT screening. Is low-dose chest CT safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady increase in the annual number of chest CT screening has become a worldwide concern because of its associated risk of lung cancer. Epidemiological studies, however, have shown that repeated exposure to low-dose radiation does not increase the risk of lung cancer. In addition, a recent randomized controlled study on chest CT screening has shown its usefulness for reducing lung cancer mortality. We reviewed the risk of lung cancer after repeated exposure to low-dose radiation, the efficacy of chest CT screening, and device technology for reducing the irradiation dose. (author)

  20. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The