WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer risk epidemiologic

  1. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  2. Pancreatic cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejs, Guenter J

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas has an incidence of approximately 10 per 100,000 population per year. This number pertains to Europe, North America and parts of South America (Argentina). Men are more often afflicted than women (female:male ratio of about 1:1.5, though reports vary). There has been a very small but steady increase in the incidence over the last 50 years. Unfortunately, numbers for incidence and mortality are still practically identical for this cancer. The peak of incidence is between 60 and 80 years of age. In absolute numbers, there are 8,000 cases diagnosed annually in Germany, and 33,000 in the US. Pancreatic cancer at pancreatic cancer include high-fat diet, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, hereditary pancreatitis, family history of pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In chronic pancreatitis, the risk for pancreatic cancer is increased 20-fold, in hereditary pancreatitis it is 60-fold higher than in the general population. In a kindred with 2 first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer, the risk for pancreatic cancer for other members of that kindred is 7-fold higher.

  3. Epidemiology, risk and outcomes of venous thromboembolism in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falanga, A; Russo, L

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is associated with a fourfold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk of VTE varies according to the type of malignancy (i. e. pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, lymphoma) and its disease stage and individual factors (i. e. sex, race, age, previous VTE history, immobilization, obesity). Preventing cancer-associated VTE is important because it represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In order to identify cancer patient at particularly high risk, who need thromboprophylaxis, risk prediction models have become available and are under validation. These models include clinical risk factors, but also begin to incorporate biological markers. The major American and European scientific societies have issued their recommendations to guide the management of VTE in patients with cancer. In this review the principal aspects of epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of cancer-associated VTE are summarized.

  4. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Siegel Scott; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.

    2011-01-01

    Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) we...

  5. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Lipworth

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth1,2, Robert E Tarone1,2, Lars Lund2,3, Joseph K McLaughlin1,21International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Medicine (JKM, RET and Preventive Medicine (LL, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Urology, Viborg Hospital, Viborg, DenmarkAbstract: Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches

  6. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-06-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted.

  7. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Mukhtiar; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif; Sultana, Sabira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death among all cancers and is the 4th most common cancer in the world. The number of deaths due to gastric cancer is about 800,000 annually. Gastric cancer is more common in men as compared to women and is 3rd most common cancer after colorectal and breast cancers in women. A progressive rise in the incidence rate has been observed in females over the last 5 years. The highest incidence of stomach cancer is in China, South America and Eastern Europe. The incidence of gastric cancer has 20 fold variation worldwide. Global variation is linked by two factors which play important role in developing gastric cancer. One is infection with Helicobacter pylori and the 2nd is diet. South Asia is a region with low risk, despite a high prevalence of H.pylori. Gastric carcinoma is common in southern region of India. Gastric cancer is more readily treated if diagnosed early. This study aims to provide awareness about gastric cancer as well as an updated knowledge about risk factors and epidemiology of gastric cancer in Pakistan.

  8. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Siegel Scott

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (methylene chloride is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers, focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21. These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure, with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements.

  9. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of glucosinolat

  10. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking and risk of a contralateral breast cancer: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, J.A.; Bernstein, L.; Largent, J.

    2009-01-01

    Women with primary breast cancer are at increased risk of developing second primary breast cancer. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for the development of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer in women with breast cancer. In the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology St...

  11. Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashibe, Mia; Straif, Kurt; Tashkin, Donald P; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2005-04-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States and is considered by young adults to be the illicit drug with the least risk. On the other hand, marijuana smoke contains several of the same carcinogens and co-carcinogens as the tar from tobacco, raising concerns that smoking of marijuana may be a risk factor for tobacco-related cancers. We reviewed two cohort studies and 14 case-control studies with assessment of the association of marijuana use and cancer risk. In the cohort studies, increased risks of lung or colorectal cancer due to marijuana smoking were not observed, but increased risks of prostate and cervical cancers among non-tobacco smokers, as well as adult-onset glioma among tobacco and non-tobacco smokers, were observed. The 14 case-control studies included four studies on head and neck cancers, two studies on lung cancer, two studies on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, one study on anal cancer, one study on penile cancer, and four studies on childhood cancers with assessment of parental exposures. Zhang and colleagues reported that marijuana use may increase risk of head and neck cancers in a hospital-based case-control study in the United States, with dose-response relations for both frequency and duration of use. However, Rosenblatt and co-workers reported no association between oral cancer and marijuana use in a population-based case-control study. An eightfold increase in risk among marijuana users was observed in a lung cancer study in Tunisia. However, there was no assessment of the dose response, and marijuana may have been mixed with tobacco. Parental marijuana use during gestation was associated with increased risks of childhood leukemia, astrocytoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, but dose-response relations were not assessed. In summary, sufficient studies are not available to adequately evaluate marijuana impact on cancer risk. Several limitations of previous studies include possible underreporting where marijuana use is illegal, small

  12. Can traditional epidemiology detect cancer risks caused by occupational exposure to pesticides?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgellis, A. [Environmental Illness Research Center, Huddinge (Sweden); Kolmodin-Hedman, B. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Public Health Sciences; Kouretas, D. [Thessaly Univ. , Pedion Areos, Volos (Greece). School of Agriculture

    1999-06-01

    In order to investigate the possible relationship between cancer and occupational exposure to pesticides, the authors reviewed the latest literature of the epidemiological studies in this area coming to the conclusion that, while several studies indicate a link between certain pesticides and certain tumors, this information is still insufficient, and further research on the health consequence of exposure to pesticides is needed. Moreover, provided there is a risk, it is often too limited to be detected by available epidemiological techniques. Therefore, in addition to the epidemiological studies, the development of new biology, gene technology and medical biotechnology methods may significantly enhance the specificity of the epidemiological studies. Thus, the fusion of molecular biology and epidemiology into molecular epidemiology may provide more specific methods for monitoring the occupational dependent carcinogenic risk of individuals and groups.

  13. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K.; White, N.W.; Chan-Yeung, M.M. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-07-01

    In Industrialized Countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of aetiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective, while preserved foods and fatty foods are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organizations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. 135 refs.

  14. Epidemiology and risk factors of urothelial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, M.; Catto, J.W.; Dalbagni, G.; Grossman, H.B.; Herr, H.; Karakiewicz, P.; Kassouf, W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; La Vecchia, C.; Shariat, S.; Lotan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is a disease of significant morbidity and mortality. It is important to understand the risk factors of this disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, prevalence, and mortality of UBC and to review and interpret the current evidence on and impact of the r

  15. Low Dose Radiation Cancer Risks: Epidemiological and Toxicological Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David G. Hoel, PhD

    2012-04-19

    The basic purpose of this one year research grant was to extend the two stage clonal expansion model (TSCE) of carcinogenesis to exposures other than the usual single acute exposure. The two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis incorporates the biological process of carcinogenesis, which involves two mutations and the clonal proliferation of the intermediate cells, in a stochastic, mathematical way. The current TSCE model serves a general purpose of acute exposure models but requires numerical computation of both the survival and hazard functions. The primary objective of this research project was to develop the analytical expressions for the survival function and the hazard function of the occurrence of the first cancer cell for acute, continuous and multiple exposure cases within the framework of the piece-wise constant parameter two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis. For acute exposure and multiple exposures of acute series, it is either only allowed to have the first mutation rate vary with the dose, or to have all the parameters be dose dependent; for multiple exposures of continuous exposures, all the parameters are allowed to vary with the dose. With these analytical functions, it becomes easy to evaluate the risks of cancer and allows one to deal with the various exposure patterns in cancer risk assessment. A second objective was to apply the TSCE model with varing continuous exposures from the cancer studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs. Using step functions to estimate the retention functions of the pulmonary exposure of plutonium the multiple exposure versions of the TSCE model was to be used to estimate the beagle dog lung cancer risks. The mathematical equations of the multiple exposure versions of the TSCE model were developed. A draft manuscript which is attached provides the results of this mathematical work. The application work using the beagle dog data from plutonium exposure has not been completed due to the fact

  16. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  17. Trace elements and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Silvera, Stephanie A; Rohan, Thomas E

    2007-02-01

    Worldwide, there are more than 10 million new cancer cases each year, and cancer is the cause of approximately 12% of all deaths. Given this, a large number of epidemiologic studies have been undertaken to identify potential risk factors for cancer, amongst which the association with trace elements has received considerable attention. Trace elements, such as selenium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and nickel, are found naturally in the environment, and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water, and food. Trace elements are of particular interest given that the levels of exposure to them are potentially modifiable. In this review, we focus largely on the association between each of the trace elements noted above and risk of cancers of the lung, breast, colorectum, prostate, urinary bladder, and stomach. Overall, the evidence currently available appears to support an inverse association between selenium exposure and prostate cancer risk, and possibly also a reduction in risk with respect to lung cancer, although additional prospective studies are needed. There is also limited evidence for an inverse association between zinc and breast cancer, and again, prospective studies are needed to confirm this. Most studies have reported no association between selenium and risk of breast, colorectal, and stomach cancer, and between zinc and prostate cancer risk. There is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between arsenic and risk of both lung and bladder cancers, and between cadmium and lung cancer risk.

  18. Developing New Epidemiologic Tools for Investigating Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    CA66691 (Van Horn), 8/5/95 - 5/31/00, NIH/NCI, $282,943, Low-Fat High-Fiber Soy Rich Diet in Premenopausal Women Adherence and biologic response to a...0.4 Androstenedione Neutral 93.4 ± 0.4 DHA Neutral 89.9 ± 1.6 Estrone sulfate Aqueous 92.8 ± 1.5 We recently completed breast fluid estradiol...of the American Society for Preventive Oncology, Bethesda, MD, March, 2000. Gann PH, How are diet and hormonal patterns linked to breast cancer risk

  19. Interplay between mutagen sensitivity and epidemiological factors in modulatinglung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xifeng; Lin, Jie; Etzel, Carol J; Dong, Qiong; Gorlova, Olga Y; Zhang, Qing; Amos, Christopher I; Spitz, Margaret R

    2007-06-15

    Few studies have assessed mutagen sensitivity and lung cancer (LC) risk associations in the context of multiple epidemiological risk factors. We evaluated mutagen sensitivity as a susceptibility marker and explored the interplay of the genetic marker and multiple epidemiologic risk factors in modulating LC risk. This largest case-control study included 977 newly diagnosed LC patients and 977 controls, matched by age, gender, ethnicity and smoking status. Cases exhibited significantly higher mutagen sensitivity than controls in bleomycin (0.76 vs. 0.62 breaks/cell, p Mutagen sensitivity also exhibited dose-response relationship with LC risk in quartile analysis (p for trend mutagen sensitivity as a predisposition factor for LC and demonstrates the importance of assessing multiple risk factors to comprehensively assess LC risk. This new integrative approach should facilitate identification of high-risk subgroups and has important implications in LC prevention.

  20. Insulin treatment and breast cancer risk; A systematic review of in vitro, animal and epidemiological evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371740819; Ter Braak, Bas; Karlstad, Øystein; Vestergaard, Peter; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Bazelier, Marloes T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341589802; de Bruin, Marieke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/270270906; De Boer, Anthonius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346; Siezen, Christine L.E.; Van De Water, Bob; Van Der Laan, Jan Willem; Schmidt, Marjanka K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the concern has been raised that insulin analogues, especially insulin glargine, might increase risk of (breast) cancer. Many in vitro and epidemiological and some animal studies have been performed, but there is still no clarity on this issue. Objectives: The aim of this study

  1. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk : individual participant meta-analysis of 52 epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gapstur, S. M.; Patel, A. V.; Banks, E.; Dal Maso, L.; Talamini, R.; Chetrit, A.; Hirsh-Yechezkel, G.; Lubin, F.; Sadetzki, S.; Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Cairns, B.; Crossley, B.; Gaitskell, K.; Goodill, A.; Green, J.; Hermon, C.; Key, T.; Moser, K.; Reeves, G.; Sitas, F.; Collins, R.; Peto, R.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Lee, N.; Marchbanks, P.; Ory, H. W.; Peterson, H. B.; Wingo, P. A.; Martin, N.; Silpisornkosol, S.; Theetranont, C.; Boosiri, B.; Chutivongse, S.; Jimakorn, P.; Virutamasen, P.; Wongsrichanalai, C.; Goodman, M. T.; Lidegaard, O.; Kjaer, S. K.; Morch, L. S.; Kjaer, S. K.; Tjonneland, A.; Byers, T.; Rohan, T.; Mosgaard, B.; Vessey, M.; Yeates, D.; Freudenheim, J. L.; Titus, L. J.; Chang-Claude, J.; Kaaks, R.; Anderson, K. E.; Lazovich, D.; Robien, K.; Hampton, J.; Newcomb, P. A.; Rossing, M. A.; Thomas, D. B.; Weiss, N. S.; Lokkegaard, E.; Riboli, E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Cramer, D.; Hankinson, S. E.; Tamimi, R. M.; Tworoger, S. S.; Franceschi, S.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Adami, H. O.; Magnusson, C.; Riman, T.; Weiderpass, E.; Wolk, A.; Schouten, L. J.; van den Brandt, P. A.; Chantarakul, N.; Koetsawang, S.; Rachawat, D.; Palli, D.; Black, A.; Brinton, L. A.; Freedman, D. M.; Hartge, P.; Hsing, A. W.; Jnr, J. V. Lacey; Lissowska, J.; Hoover, R. N.; Schairer, C.; Babb, C.; Urban, M.; Graff-Iversen, S.; Selmer, R.; Bain, C. J.; Green, A. C.; Purdie, D. M.; Siskind, V.; Webb, P. M.; Moysich, K.; McCann, S. E.; Hannaford, P.; Kay, C.; Binns, C. W.; Lee, A. H.; Zhang, M.; Ness, R. B.; Nasca, P.; Coogan, P. F.; Palmer, J. R.; Rosenberg, L.; Whittemore, A.; Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Tzonou, A.; Dabancens, A.; Martinez, L.; Molina, R.; Salas, O.; Lurie, G.; Carney, M. E.; Wilkens, L. R.; Hartman, L.; Manjer, J.; Olsson, H.; Kumle, M.; Grisso, J. A.; Morgan, M.; Wheeler, J. E.; Edwards, R. P.; Kelley, J. L.; Modugno, F.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Casagrande, J.; Pike, M. C.; Wu, A. H.; Canfell, K.; Miller, A. B.; Gram, I. T.; Lund, E.; McGowan, L.; Shu, X. O.; Zheng, W.; Farley, T. M. M.; Holck, S.; Meirik, O.; Risch, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on

  2. Friend or foe? The current epidemiologic evidence on selenium and human cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Crespi, Catherine M; Malagoli, Carlotta; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Krogh, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Scientific opinion on the relationship between selenium and the risk of cancer has undergone radical change over the years, with selenium first viewed as a possible carcinogen in the 1940s then as a possible cancer preventive agent in the 1960s-2000s. More recently, randomized controlled trials have found no effect on cancer risk but suggest possible low-dose dermatologic and endocrine toxicity, and animal studies indicate both carcinogenic and cancer-preventive effects. A growing body of evidence from human and laboratory studies indicates dramatically different biological effects of the various inorganic and organic chemical forms of selenium, which may explain apparent inconsistencies across studies. These chemical form-specific effects also have important implications for exposure and health risk assessment. Overall, available epidemiologic evidence suggests no cancer preventive effect of increased selenium intake in healthy individuals and possible increased risk of other diseases and disorders.

  3. Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Higdon, Jane V.; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2007-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable in...

  4. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies.

  5. Global epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Newell Johnson

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Globacan [2002] database from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, shows 400,318 cases of oral and pharyngeal [excluding nasopharynx] cancer in the world annually, and 221,917 deaths.

  6. Iron and cancer risk--a systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Jakszyn, Paula; Agudo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Iron has been suggested as a risk factor for different types of cancers mainly due to its prooxidant activity, which can lead to oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, subjects with hemochromatosis or iron overload have been shown to have a higher risk of developing liver cancer. We have systematically reviewed 59 epidemiologic studies, published between 1995 and 2012, reporting information on total iron, dietary iron, heme iron, and biomarkers of iron status and cancer risk. Furthermore we conducted meta-analysis for colorectal [relative risk (RR), 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.17], colon (RR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22), breast (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09), and lung cancer (RR = 1.12; 95% CI, 0.98-1.29), for an increase of 1 mg/day of heme iron intake. Globally, on the basis of the systematic review and the meta-analysis results, a higher intake of heme iron has shown a tendency toward a positive association with cancer risk. Evidence regarding high levels of biomarkers of iron stores (mostly with serum ferritin) suggests a negative effect toward cancer risk. More prospective studies combining research on dietary iron intake, iron biomarkers, genetic susceptibility, and other relevant factors need to be conducted to clarify these findings and better understand the role of iron in cancer development.

  7. Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from consuming aquatic food resources from chemically contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozonoff, D. (Boston Univ. School of Public Health, MA (United States)); Longnecker, M.P. (UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from contaminated waters must confront the problems of long latency and rarity of the end point (cancer). The latency problem makes determination of diet history more difficult, while the low frequency of cancer as an end point reduces the statistical power of the study. These factors are discussed in relation to the study designs most commonly employed in epidemiology. It is suggested that the use of biomarkers for persistent chemicals may be useful to mitigate the difficulty of determining exposure, while the use of more prevalent and timely end points, such as carcinogen-DNA adducts or oncogene proteins, may make the latency and rarity problems more tractable.

  8. Occupational exposure to beryllium and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fryzek, Jon P; Mandel, Jack S

    2012-02-01

    There is controversy on whether occupational exposure to beryllium causes lung cancer. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies on cancer among workers exposed to beryllium, including a study of seven U.S. production plants which has been recently updated, a study of patients with beryllium disease (largely overlapping with the former study) and several smaller studies. A small excess mortality from lung cancer was detected in the large cohort, which was partially explained by confounding by tobacco smoking and urban residence. Other potential confounders have not been addressed. The excess mortality was mainly among workers employed (often for a short duration) in the early phase of the manufacturing industry. There was no relation with duration of employment or cumulative exposure, whereas average and maximum exposure were associated with lung cancer risk. The use of lagged exposure variables resulted in associations with lung cancer risk; however, these associations were due to confounding by year of birth and year of hire. The studies of beryllium disease patients do not provide independent evidence and the results from other studies do not support the hypothesis of an increased risk of lung cancer or any other cancer. Overall, the available evidence does not support a conclusion that a causal association has been established between occupational exposure to beryllium and the risk of cancer.

  9. Diet and the risk of gastric cancer: review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugane, Shoichiro; Sasazuki, Shizuka

    2007-01-01

    There are geographic and ethnic differences in the incidence of gastric cancer around the world as well as with its trends for each population over time. The incidence patterns observed among immigrants change according to where they live. All of these factors serve to indicate the close association of gastric cancer with modifiable factors such as diet. This review presents epidemiological evidence on the association between dietary factors and gastric cancer based on previous systematic reviews and subsequent updates. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a strong and established risk factor of gastric cancer but is not a sufficient cause for its development. Substantial evidence from ecological, case-control, and cohort studies strongly suggests that the risk may be increased with a high intake of various traditional salt-preserved foods and salt per se and decreased with a high intake of fruit and vegetables, particularly fruit. However, it remains unclear which constituents in fruit and vegetables play a significant role in gastric cancer prevention. Among them, vitamin C is a plausible candidate supported by a relatively large body of epidemiological evidence. Consumption of green tea is possibly associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer, although the protective effects have been, for the most part, identified in Japanese women, most of whom are nonsmokers. In contrast, processed meat and N-nitroso compounds may be positively associated with the risk of gastric cancer. In conclusion, dietary modification by reducing salt and salted food intake, as well as by increasing intake of fruit and vitamin C, represents a practical strategy to prevent gastric cancer.

  10. Ovarian cancer risk and nonisoflavone flavonoids intake: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Vida; Dehghani, Sirous; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have investigated the association between ovarian cancer risk and nonisoflavone flavonoids intake, these findings are inconsistent. This systematic review of published epidemiological studies was conducted to summarize and clarify the evidence on the association between ovarian cancer incidence and nonisoflavone flavonoids intake. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and EMBASE databases were searched based on MeSH term (ovarian neoplasm in combination with flavonoids) to identify related English and non-English papers published up to June 2016. We summarized the results of the relevant studies in this review. Results: In total, seven studies (four with cohort and three with case–control design) included in this review. The results of conducted cohort studies show no relation between ovarian cancer risk and total nonisoflavone flavonoids intake, and only one study reported a significant reduction between ovarian cancer incidence and kaempferol and luteolin intake. Similar to those in the cohort studies, also in case–control studies, no association was found between total nonisoflavone flavonoids intake and ovarian cancer risk, just an inverse association between flavonols intake and ovarian cancer was reported. Conclusion: Several studies investigated the relation of nonisoflavone flavonoids intake and ovarian cancer risk; none of them reported any association for total nonisoflavone flavonoids intake, but some reported an inverse association between certain subclasses or individual flavonoids. These findings are limited, and there is a need for further and more accurate researches to be confirmed.

  11. Household physical activity and cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Shi; Tingting Li; Ying Wang; Lingling Zhou; Qin Qin; Jieyun Yin; Sheng Wei; Li Liu; Shaofa Nie

    2015-01-01

    Controversial results of the association between household physical activity and cancer risk were reported among previous epidemiological studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship of household physical activity and cancer risk quantitatively, especially in dose-response manner. PubMed, Embase, Web of science and the Cochrane Library were searched for cohort or case-control studies that examined the association between household physical activity and cancer risks. R...

  12. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hae Jin; Youn, Chang Ho; Kim, Hyo Min; Cho, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Geon Ho; Lee, Won Kee

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary magnesium and the risk of overall cancer using a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Review through November 2012. All the articles searched were independently reviewed by 3 authors based on predetermined selection criterion. A total of 13 epidemiologic studies, 6 case-control studies, and 7 prospective cohort studies involving 1,236,004 participants were included in the final analysis. When all studies were pooled, the relative risk (RR) of overall cancer for the highest level of dietary magnesium intake was 0.801 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.664-0.966) compared with the lowest level of dietary magnesium intake. In subgroup meta-analyses by study design, there was a significant inverse association between dietary magnesium and the risk of cancer in case-control studies (RR = 0.663, 95% CI: 0.475-0.925), whereas there was no significant association in prospective cohort studies (RR = 0.888, 95% CI: 0.745-1.060). Furthermore, there was a significant preventive effect of dietary magnesium for colorectal cancer (RR = 0.775, 95% CI: 0.655-0.919), but not for other cancer. Our meta-analysis showed that higher dietary magnesium intake seems to have a protective effect for cancer, especially colorectal cancer and in females.

  13. Diabetes, gestational diabetes and the risk of cancer in women: epidemiologic evidence and possible biologic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Zucker, Inbar

    2011-03-01

    At present, more than 10% of adult American women are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). As the prevalence of the disease increases, there is greater interest in the relationship between DM and other major health issues, such as cancer - one of the leading causes of death in the western world. This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between Type 2 DM and different types of cancer among women. We discuss the possible biological mechanisms that may link diabetes and cancer, important confounders, shared risk factors and a short review of the epidemiologic literature on the association between Type 2 DM and cancer of specific organs (pancreas, liver, colorectal, bladder, endometrial, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast). We also examine the association between gestational diabetes, a closely related risk factor for DM in women, and subsequent risk of cancer. Cancer survival of diabetic women is also briefly discussed. The paper concludes with an agenda for future research targeting the relationship between diabetes and cancer.

  14. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-06-08

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.

  15. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  16. Choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanwen; Li, Xiao; Ren, Anjing; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Zhu, Lingjun; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A number of human and animal in vitro or in vivo studies have investigated the relationship between dietary choline and betaine and cancer risk, suggesting that choline and betaine consumption may be protective for cancer. There are also a few epidemiologic studies exploring this relationship, however, with inconsistent conclusions. The PubMed and Embase were searched, from their inception to March 2016, to identify relevant studies and we brought 11 articles into this meta-analysis eventually. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of cancer for the highest versus the lowest range were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97) for choline consumption only, 0.86 (95%CI, 0.76 to 0.97) for betaine consumption only and 0.60 (95%CI, 0.40 to 0.90) for choline plus betaine consumption, respectively. Significant protective effect of dietary choline and betaine for cancer was observed when stratified by study design, location, cancer type, publication year, sex and quality score of study. An increment of 100 mg/day of choline plus betaine intake helped reduce cancer incidence by 11% (0.89, 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.92) through a dose-response analysis. To conclude, choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer incidence in this meta-analysis, but further studies are warranted to verify the results. PMID:27759060

  17. Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Jane V; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2007-03-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast or prostate cancer in humans is limited and inconsistent. Organizations such as the National Cancer Institute recommend the consumption of five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily, but separate recommendations for cruciferous vegetables have not been established. Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), have been implicated in a variety of anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but deleterious effects also have been reported in some experimental protocols, including tumor promotion over prolonged periods of exposure. Epidemiological studies indicate that human exposure to isothiocyanates and indoles through cruciferous vegetable consumption may decrease cancer risk, but the protective effects may be influenced by individual genetic variation (polymorphisms) in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates from the body. Cooking procedures also affect the bioavailability and intake of glucosinolates and their derivatives. Supplementation with I3C or the related dimer 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) alters urinary estrogen metabolite profiles in women, but the effects of I3C and DIM on breast cancer risk are not known. Small preliminary trials in humans suggest that I3C supplementation may be beneficial in treating conditions related to human papilloma virus infection, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, but larger randomized

  18. Epigenetic epidemiology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Timothy M; Michels, Karin B

    2014-12-05

    Epigenetic epidemiology includes the study of variation in epigenetic traits and the risk of disease in populations. Its application to the field of cancer has provided insight into how lifestyle and environmental factors influence the epigenome and how epigenetic events may be involved in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has the potential to bring benefit to patients through the identification of diagnostic markers that enable the early detection of disease and prognostic markers that can inform upon appropriate treatment strategies. However, there are a number of challenges associated with the conduct of such studies, and with the identification of biomarkers that can be applied to the clinical setting. In this review, we delineate the challenges faced in the design of epigenetic epidemiology studies in cancer, including the suitability of blood as a surrogate tissue and the capture of genome-wide DNA methylation. We describe how epigenetic epidemiology has brought insight into risk factors associated with lung, breast, colorectal and bladder cancer and review relevant research. We discuss recent findings on the identification of epigenetic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for these cancers.

  19. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  20. Cruciferous vegetable consumption and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Yang, Yang; Wang, Jing; Han, Li-Hua; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between consumption of cruciferous vegetables (CV) and risk of gastric cancer has been investigated by many studies, but remains controversial. We carried out a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from epidemiological studies on this point. Relevant published reports of CV intake and gastric cancer were identified using MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and Web of Science databases through to the end of September 2012. We pooled the relative risk from individual studies using a fixed- or random-effects model and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Sixteen case-control and six prospective studies were included in our analysis. When all studies were pooled, we yielded a significantly inverse association between CV (relative risk = 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.88) intake and gastric cancer risk, with little heterogeneity (Q = 27.27, P = 0.292, I(2) = 12.0%). Specific analysis for cabbage intake yielded similar result. When separately analyzed, case-control studies of CV intake yielded significant results and the results of prospective studies showed borderline statistical significance. Moreover, significant results were consistent for high-quality studies, for North American, European, and Asian studies, for studies on males, and for studies on non-cardia gastric cancer. Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence that high intake of CV was inversely associated with the risk of gastric cancer and non-cardia gastric cancer in humans. Further studies on other specific CV, food preparation methods, and stratified results by anatomic cancer site and histological type should be extended in the future.

  1. Soy intake and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrom, Suhaila; Idris, Nik Ruzni Nik

    2016-06-01

    The impact of soy intake on breast cancer risk has been investigated extensively. However, these studies reported conflicting results. The objective of this study is to perform comprehensive review and updated meta-analysis on the association between soy intake and breast cancer risk and to identify significant factors which may contribute to the inconsistencies of results of the individual studies. Based on reviews of existing meta-analysis, we identified four main factors which contributed to the inconsistencies of results of individual studies on the association of soy intake and breast cancer risk namely; region, menopausal status of the patients, soy type and study design. Accordingly, we performed an updated meta-analysis of 57 studies grouped by the identified factors. Pooled ORs of studies carried out in Asian countries suggested that soy isoflavones consumption was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer among both pre and postmenopausal women (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74 for premenopausal women; OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.52-0.75 for postmenopausal women). However, pooled OR of studies carried out in Western countries shows that there is no statistically significant association between soy intake and breast cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.03). Our study suggests that soy food intake is associated with significantly reduced risk of breast cancer for women in Asian but not in Western countries. Further epidemiological studies need to be conducted with more comprehensive information about the dietary intake and relative exposure among the women in these two different regions.

  2. Flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested the chemopreventive effects of flavonoids on carcinogenesis. Yet numbers of epidemiologic studies assessing dietary flavonoids and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. The association between flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, etc. and the risk of breast cancer lacks systematic analysis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass (except isoflavones and the risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. DESIGN: We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published before July 1(st, 2012, using Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED. Summary relative risks (RR were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. All analyses were performed using STATA version 10.0. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included, involving 9 513 cases and 181 906 controls, six of which were prospective cohort studies, and six were case-control studies. We calculated the summary RRs of breast cancer risk for the highest vs lowest categories of each flavonoid subclass respectively. The risk of breast cancer significantly decreased in women with high intake of flavonols (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98 and flavones (RR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.76-0.91 compared with that in those with low intake of flavonols and flavones. However, no significant association of flavan-3-ols (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.84-1.02, flavanones (summary RR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03, anthocyanins (summary RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.08 or total flavonoids (summary RR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 intake with breast cancer risk was observed. Furthermore, summary RRs of 3 case-control studies stratified by menopausal status suggested flavonols, flavones or flavan-3-ols intake is associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal while not in pre-menopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests the intake of flavonols

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Šipetić Sandra B.; Tomić-Kundaković Slađana; Vlajinac Hristina D.; Maksimović Nataša; Knežević Anita; Kisić Darija

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consump...

  4. Circadian Disruption and Prostate Cancer Risk: An Updated Review of Epidemiological Evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendeu-Foyet, Méyomo G; Menegaux, Florence

    2017-04-04

    Since the publication of the IARC Monograph in 2007 classifying night shift work leading to a disruption of circadian rhythm as probably carcinogenic to humans, there is an increasingly growing interest in understanding how circadian disruption may play a role in cancer development. This systematic review provides a comprehensive update on epidemiological evidences on circadian disruption and prostate cancer since the last review published in 2012. We identified 12 new studies evaluating the effects of several circadian disruptors such as night shift work, sleep patterns, and circadian genes in prostate cancer risk. In contrast, no new studies have focused on exposure to light at night. Several convincing and biologically plausible hypotheses have been proposed to understand how circadian disruption may be related to cancer. However, the current difficulty of concluding on the role of circadian disruption on prostate cancer risk requires further studies including a better characterization of the different night shift systems, data on sleep patterns and chronotype, measurement of biomarkers and investigations of polymorphisms in the genes regulating the biological clock.

  5. Green tea consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea has shown the role of chemoprevention for cancer. Recently, several studies suggested that green tea intake may have effect on esophageal cancer risk, whereas the results were inconsistent. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of all English and Chinese language studies of green tea consumption and esophageal cancer risk indexed in Medline, Embase, the Science Citation Index, the Chinese Biomedical Database and Wanfang Data from 1980 to June 2012. After reviewing each study, extracting data, and evaluating heterogeneity (Chi-square-based Q test and Ι2 and publication bias (Begg and Egger test, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking esophageal cancer risk. Pooled relative risk (RR or odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the fixed- or random-effect models. Results Ten eligible epidemiologic studies including 33731 participants and 3557 cases for esophageal cancer were included. Eight of which were case–control studies, and two were cohort studies. Overall, there were no association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking risk of esophageal cancer (High: highest vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.02. Medium: drinker vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.03. Low: lowest vs non-drinker: RR/OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.08. When stratified analyses according to study design (case–control and cohort studies, country (China and Japan, participates source (population-based and hospital-based case–control, and gender (female and male, there were significant association between high/medium/low green tea consumption and non-drinking risk of esophageal cancer among female (High: RR/OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.54. Medium: RR/OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.66. Low: RR/OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.79, but not the others. Conclusions We did not found significant

  6. Epidemiologic evidence of cancer risk in textile industry workers: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fedeli, Ugo; Fadda, Emanuela; Milan, Giovanni; Lange, John H

    2002-05-01

    A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies for textile industry workers was undertaken in an attempt to evaluate whether the cancer risk varies within the textile industry in relation to the job held or the textile fiber used. We combined studies published up until 1990, when an ad hoc IARC Monograph was issued, and those published after 1990 with the aim of appreciating evidence of reversing trends in cancer risk. Observed and expected cases reported in the original studies were summed up and the totals were divided to obtain a pooled relative risk (PRR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated with a fixed-effect model. We calculated a chi-square test (chi2) of heterogeneity among studies. When PRR and chi2 were both significant, PRR and CI were calculated with a random-effect model and the source of heterogeneity was investigated. Lung cancer risk was around 0.4 in the first study on cotton workers published in 1936, around 0.7 in subsequent studies, mostly published in the 1970s and 1980s, and around 1.0 in the last studies published in the 1990s. Papers published in the 1970s and 1980s produced consistent risk estimates for lung cancer risk, which was significantly lower than 1.0 in workers exposed to cotton (PRR = 0.77; CI = 0.69-0.86) and wool dust (0.71; 0.50-0.92), as well as in carders and fiber preparers (0.73; 0.54-0.91), weavers (0.71; 0.56-0.85), and spinners and weavers (0.78; 0.66-0.91). Lung cancer PRRs did not significantly deviate from 1.0 in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and in dyers. Increased PRRs were found for sinonasal cancer in workers exposed to cotton dust, and in workers involved in spinning or weaving (4.14; 1.80-6.49). PRR was 1.46 (1.10-1.82) for cancer of the digestive system in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and 1.34 (1.10-1.59) for colorectal cancer in spinners and weavers. The increased bladder cancer PRR in dyers (1.39; 1.07-1.71) is generally attributed to textile dye exposure. In studies

  7. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology Study in Xuanwei: the Relationship among
Coal Type, Genotype and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua LI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that the lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei County, China was among the highest in the country and has been associated with exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This risk may be modified by variation in genetic polymorphisms and coal subtypes. Our objective was to use molecular epidemiological techniques to investigate the relationship among genetic polymorphisms, coal subtype and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei County. Methods On the basis of two population-based case-control studies in residents of Xuanwei County, China, questionnaires covering demographic information, smoking history, family and personal medical history, and information on other variables were administered and buccal cells and sputum samples were collected separately from each subject enrolled to extract DNA. GST superfamily, AKR1C3 superfamily, OGG1 superfamily and other genotype were scanned by useing PCR method. ORs and 95%CIs were used to estimate the association between genotypes, coal subtypes and lung cancer risk factors by conditional Logistic regression using Statistical Analysis Software. Results Compared with subjects who using smokeless coal or wood, smoky coal use was statistically significantly associated with lung cancer risk (OR=7.7, 95%CI: 4.5-13.3. There was marked heterogeneity in risk estimates for specific subtypes of smoky coal. Estimates were highest for coal from the Laibin (OR=24.8, Longtan (OR=11.6 and Baoshan (OR=6.0 coal types, and lower for coal from other types; the risk within the same subtype of coal in male and female were similar. The GSTM1-null genotype, the AKR1C3 (Ex1-70C>G, OGG1 (Ex6-315C>G genotypes were closely associated with increased risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei County, and their odds ratios (95%CI were 2.3 (1.3-4.2, 1.8 (1.0-3.5 and 1.9 (1.1-3.3, respectively. Compared to subjects who with GSTM1-positive and used less than

  9. Consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces risk of pancreatic cancer: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Wu, Lang; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Xu, Xin; Ji, Chao; Gong, Ting-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Observational studies have reported inconsistent results on the association between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We carried out a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to summarize available evidence. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases for relevant studies published until the end of January 2015. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to estimate the summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A total of 15 case-control studies, eight prospective studies, and one pooled analysis fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The summary RR for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.73 (95% CI=0.53-1.00) for fruit and vegetables, 0.73 (95% CI=0.63-0.84) for fruit, and 0.76 (95% CI=0.69-0.83) for vegetables, with significant heterogeneities (I=70.5, 55.7, and 43.0%, respectively). Inverse associations were observed in the stratified analysis by study design, although the results of prospective studies showed borderline significance, with corresponding RR=0.90 (95% CI=0.77-1.05) for fruit and vegetable intake, 0.93 (95% CI=0.83-1.03) for fruit intake, and 0.89 (95% CI=0.80-1.00) for vegetable intake. Besides, significant inverse associations were observed in the majority of other subgroup analyses by study quality, geographic location, exposure assessment method, and adjustment for potential confounders. Findings from the present meta-analysis support that fruit and vegetable intake is associated inversely with the risk of pancreatic cancer. However, study design may play a key role in the observed magnitude of the aforementioned association. Future well-designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  10. An assessment of the possible extent of confounding in epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk among roofers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundt, D.J.; van Wijngaarden, E.; Mundt, K.A. [ENVIRON International Corp., Amherst, MA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated the likelihood and extent to which the observed increased risk of lung cancer may be due to confounding (a mixing of effects of multiple exposures) by co-exposure to other potential carcinogens present in roofing or to lifestyle variables. We conducted a review of the epidemiological and industrial hygiene literature of asphalt-exposed workers. Peer-reviewed epidemiological studies of asphalt fumes, related occupational exposures, and confounding factors were identified from MEDLINE (1966 early 2004). Industrial hygiene studies of asphalt workers were identified through MEDLINE, publicly available government documents, and asphalt industry documents. Using well established statistical methods, we quantified the extent to which lung cancer relative risk estimates among roofers reflect confounding from other exposures, using different prevalence and risk scenarios. The relative risk of lung cancer varied from 1.2 to 5.0 in 13 epidemiological studies of roofers; most studies reported a relative risk between 1.2 and 1.4. Smoking, asbestos and coal tar were the most likely confounders, but the prevalence of these factors varied over time. The results of the study indicate that much of the observed risk reported in epidemiological studies of cancer among roofers is well within the range of what may have resulted from confounding by reasonable and expected levels of smoking, asbestos or coal tar. This may be particularly true for those studies that did not adjust for these confounders and where the exposure was defined as employment in the roofing industry. In addition to poorly defined asphalt exposure, uncontrolled confounding cannot reliably be ruled out in studies of lung cancer among asphalt-exposed roofers. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude whether roofers are at increased risk of lung cancer due to asphalt exposure.

  11. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  12. Parity and pancreatic cancer risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bo Guan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results between parity and pancreatic cancer (PC risk. To our knowledge, a comprehensive and quantitative assessment of this association has not been conducted. METHODS: Relevant published studies of parity and PC were identified using MEDLINE (PubMed and Web of Science databases until November 2013. Two authors (H-BG and LW independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. Eleven prospective and 11 case-control studies reported relative risk (RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of PC associated with parity. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to estimate the summary RR depending on the heterogeneity of effects. RESULTS: The summary RR for PC comparing the highest versus lowest parity was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.73-1.02; Q = 50.49, P<0.001, I2 = 58.4%. Significant inverse associations were also observed in the studies that adjusted for cigarette smoking (RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68-0.98, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (RR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.93, and those that included all confounders or important risk factors (RR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76-0.96. Additionally, in the dose-response analysis, the summary RR for per one live birth was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.01; Q = 62.83, P<0.001, I2 = 69.8%, which also indicated a borderline statistically significant inverse effect of parity on PC risk. No evidence of publication bias and significant heterogeneity between subgroups were detected by meta-regression analyses. CONCLUSION: In summary, these findings suggest that higher parity is associated with a decreased risk of PC. Future large consortia or pooled studies are warranted to fully adjust for potential confounders to confirm this association.

  13. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52-0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = -0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case-control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer.

  14. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Several epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and bladder cancer risk and the results were varied. Thus, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of studies exclusively dedicated to the relationship between the 3 most commonly used analgesics and bladder cancer risk. METHODS: A systematic literature search up to November 2012 was performed in PubMed database for 3 categories of analgesics: acetaminophen, aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Seventeen studies (8 cohort and 9 case-control studies, involving a total of 10,618 bladder cancer cases, were contributed to the analysis. We found that acetaminophen (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-1.17 and aspirin (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91-1.14 were not associated with bladder cancer risk. Although non-aspirin NSAIDs was statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer among case-control studies (but not cohort studies, the overall risk was not statistically significant (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.73-1.05. Furthermore, we also found that non-aspirin NSAIDs use was significantly associated with a 43% reduction in bladder cancer risk among nonsmokers (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.76, but not among current smokers. CONCLUSION: The results of our meta-analysis suggest that there is no association between use of acetaminophen, aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs and bladder cancer risk. However, non-aspirin NSAIDs use might be associated with a reduction in risk of bladder cancer for nonsmokers.

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consumption, smoking, gastritis, stomach ulcer, gastrectomy, stomach polyposis, positive family history for gastric cancer, pernicious anemia and blood type A. Diet rich in vegetables and fruits, and reduced salt intake can prevent 65-75% of gastric cancer cases among nonsmokers. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection can also reduce the incidence of this malignant disease. .

  16. Integrative cancer epidemiology--the next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Margaret R; Caporaso, Neil E; Sellers, Thomas A

    2012-12-01

    We outline an integrative approach to extend the boundaries of molecular cancer epidemiology by integrating modern and rapidly evolving "omics" technologies into state-of-the-art molecular epidemiology. In this way, one can comprehensively explore the mechanistic underpinnings of epidemiologic observations in cancer risk and outcome. We highlight the exciting opportunities to collaborate across large observational studies and to forge new interdisciplinary collaborative ventures.

  17. Comparison of cancer risks projected from animal bioassays to epidemiologic studies of acrylonitrile-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C E; Starr, T B

    1993-10-01

    Bioassay findings have demonstrated that acrylonitrile (ACN) is a rodent carcinogen, but the available epidemiologic evidence provides little support for the human carcinogenicity of ACN. This discordance between laboratory animal and human study findings is explored by determining post hoc the statistical power of 11 epidemiologic studies of ACN-exposed workers to detect the all-site and brain cancer excesses that are projected from rodent drinking water bioassay data. At reasonable estimates of the level and duration of exposures among the occupational cohorts, a majority of the human studies had sufficient power (> 80%) to detect the projected excesses, yet such responses were consistently absent. We conclude, subject to certain caveats, that the upper bound estimate of ACN's inhalation cancer potency of 1.5 x 10(-4) per ppm is too high to be consistent with the human ACN experience.

  18. Assessment of the risk of colorectal cancer in Poland on the basis of the analysis of epidemiological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna R. Wiraszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumours are one of the leading causes of death, as well as one of the most important health problems, in Poland and worldwide. Aim of the research was to assess the risk of colorectal cancer in a population of men and women in Poland based on the analysis of data from the most recent studies and epidemiological sources, particularly from the National Cancer Registry. In this study, epidemiological indicators of incidence and deaths for general colorectal cancer (ICD-10: C18–C21 as well as for particular cancer locations (C18 – colon, C19 – rectosigmoid junction, C20 – rectum, C21 – anus and anal canal analized in men and women in Poland in 2011 as well as the profile of these parameters in years 1999–2011. The incidence for colorectal cancer (CRC in man: structure indicators (SI – 12.4%, age standardized rates (ASR – 30.2/105; in women: SI – 10.0%, ASR – 18.0/105. The deaths due to CRC in men: SI – 11.4%, ASR – 19.8/105; in women: SI – 11.8%, ASR – 10.2/105. Colorectal cancer is a serious threat to the health of Poles, characterised by its dynamics increasing with population age, by high incidence and mortality, as well as by a persistent, constant tendency for increasing epidemiological rates, especially among men. The differentiation of epidemiological rates follows from tumour location. Higher incidence and mortality rates are registered for the population of men and among the residents of Western Poland.

  19. Review of salt consumption and stomach cancer risk:Epidemiological and biological evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qin Wang; Paul D Terry; Hong Yan

    2009-01-01

    Stomach cancer is still the fourth most common cancer; thus, it remains an important public health burden worldwide, especially in developing countries. The remarkable geographic variations in the rates of stomach cancer indicate that dietary factors, including a range of food groups to which salt and/or nitrates have been added, may affect stomach cancer risk. In this paper, we review the results from ecologic, case-control and cohort studies on the relationship between salt or salted foods and stomach cancer risk. The majority of ecological studies indicated that the average salt intake in each population was closely correlated with gastric cancer mortality. Most casecontrol studies showed similar results, indicating a moderate to high increase in risk for the highest level of salt or salted food consumption. The overall results from cohort studies are not totally consistent, but are suggestive of a moderate direct association. Since salt intake has been correlated with Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection, it is possible that these two factors may synergize to promote the development of stomach cancer. Additionally, salt may also cause stomach cancer through directly damaging gastric mucus, improving temporary epithelial proliferation and the incidence of endogenous mutations, and inducing hypergastrinemia that leads to eventual parietal cell loss and progression to gastric cancer. Based on the considerable evidence from ecological, case-control and cohort studies worldwide and the mechanistic plausibility, limitation on salt and salted food consumption is a practical strategy for preventing gastric cancer.

  20. [Exposure to CT scans in childhood and long-term cancer risk: A review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysson, Hélène; Journy, Neige; Roué, Tristan; Ducou-Lepointe, Hubert; Etard, Cécile; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2016-02-01

    Amongst medical exams requiring ionizing radiation, computed tomography (CT) scans are used more frequently, including in children. These CT examinations are associated with absorbed doses that are much higher than those associated with conventional radiology. In comparison to adults, children have a greater sensitivity to radiation and a longer life span with more years at cancer risks. Five epidemiological studies on cancer risks after CT scan exposure during childhood were published between 2012 and 2015. The results of these studies are consistent and show an increase of cancer risks in children who have been exposed to several CT scans. However, methodological limits due to indication bias, retrospective assessment of radiation exposure from CT scans and lack of statistical power are to be taken into consideration. International projects such as EPI-CT (Epidemiological study to quantify risks for pediatric computerized tomography and to optimize dose), with a focus on dosimetric reconstruction and minimization of bias will provide more precise results. In the meantime, available results reinforce the necessity of justification and optimization of doses.

  1. An epidemiological model for prediction of endometrial cancer risk in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsing, Anika; Dossus, Laure; Ferrari, Pietro; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Katsoulis, Michalis; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T.; Ardanaz, Eva; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Allen, Naomi E.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the fourth most frequent cancer in women in Europe, and as its incidence is increasing, prevention strategies gain further pertinence. Risk prediction models can be a useful tool for identifying women likely to benefit from targeted prevention measures. On the basis of dat

  2. Red and processed meat intake is associated with higher gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcheng Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat was concluded as a limited-suggestive risk factor of gastric cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund. However, recent epidemiological studies have yielded inconclusive results. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013 for both cohort and case-control studies which assessed the association between red and/or processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled by random-effect or fixed-effect models. RESULTS: Twelve cohort and thirty case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between both red (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22-1.73 and processed (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.26-1.65 meat intake and gastric cancer risk generally. Positive findings were also existed in the items of beef (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.57, bacon (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17-1.61, ham (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00-2.06, and sausage (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16-1.52. When conducted by study design, the association was significant in case-control studies (RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.33-1.99 but not in cohort studies (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.90-1.17 for red meat. Increased relative risks were seen in high-quality, adenocarcinoma, cardia and European-population studies for red meat. And most subgroup analysis confirmed the significant association between processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat contributes to increased gastric cancer risk. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association, especially for red meat.

  3. Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Naeem

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among males worldwide, and is the second leading cause of cancer death among men in United States. According to GLOBOCAN (2012), an estimated 1.1 million new cases and 307,000 deaths were reported in 2012. The reasons for the increase of this disease are not known, but increasing life expectancy and modified diagnostic techniques have been suggested as causes. The established risk factors for this disease are advancing age, race, positive family history of prostate cancer and western diet (use of fat items). Several other risk factors, such as obesity, physical activity, sexual activity, smoking and occupation have been also associated with prostate cancer risk, but their roles in prostate cancer etiology remain uncertain. This mini-review aims to provide risk factors, disease knowledge, prevalence and awareness about prostate cancer.

  4. Landmarks in the history of cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Peter; Dunn, Barbara K

    2009-03-15

    The application of epidemiology to cancer prevention is relatively new, although observations of the potential causes of cancer have been reported for more than 2,000 years. Cancer was generally considered incurable until the late 19th century. Only with a refined understanding of the nature of cancer and strategies for cancer treatment could a systematic approach to cancer prevention emerge. The 20th century saw the elucidation of clues to cancer causation from observed associations with population exposures to tobacco, diet, environmental chemicals, and other exogenous factors. With repeated confirmation of such associations, researchers entertained for the first time the possibility that cancer, like many of the infectious diseases of the time, might be prevented. By the mid-20th century, with antibiotics successfully addressing the majority of infectious diseases and high blood pressure treatment beginning to affect the prevalence of heart disease in a favorable direction, the focus of much of epidemiology shifted to cancer. The early emphasis was on exploring, in greater depth, the environmental, dietary, hormonal, and other exogenous exposures for their potential associations with increased cancer risk. The first major breakthrough in identifying a modifiable cancer risk factor was the documentation of an association between tobacco smoking and lung cancer. During the past four decades, epidemiologic studies have generated population data identifying risk factors for cancers at almost every body site, with many cancers having multiple risk factors. The development of technologies to identify biological molecules has facilitated the incorporation of these molecular manifestations of biological variation into epidemiologic studies, as markers of exposure as well as putative surrogate markers of cancer outcome. This technological trend has, during the past two decades, culminated in emphasis on the identification of genetic variants and their products as

  5. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  6. Epidemiological studies of cancer in aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2009-10-01

    Exposure to cosmic ionising radiation, in addition to other specific occupational risks, is of concern to aircrew members. Epidemiological studies provide an objective way to assess the health of this occupational group. We systematically reviewed the epidemiological literature on health of aircrew members since 1990, focusing on cancer as the endpoint of interest. Sixty-five relevant publications were identified and reviewed. Whereas overall cancer incidence and mortality was generally lower than in the comparison population, consistently elevated risks were reported for breast cancer incidence in female aircrew members and for melanoma in both male and female aircrew members. Brain cancer was increased in some studies among pilots. Occasionally trends of increasing cancer mortality or incidence with increasing estimated radiation dose were reported. Ionising radiation is considered to contribute little if at all to the elevated risks for cancers among aircrew, whereas excess ultraviolet radiation is a probable cause of the increased melanoma risk.

  7. Study of epidemiological risk of lung cancer in Mexico due indoor radon exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles, A.; Espinosa, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this work the lifetime relative risks (LRR) of lung cancer due to exposure to indoor 222Rn on the Mexican population is calculated. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer (LC), because that, to calculate the number of cases of LC due to exposure to 222Rn is necessary considers the number of cases of LC for smoking cigarette. The lung cancer mortality rates published by the "Secretaría de Salud" (SSA), the mexican population data published by the "Consejo Nacional de Población" (CONAPO), smoking data in the mexican population, published by the "Comisión Nacional Contra las Adicciones" (CONADIC), the "Organización Panamericana de la Salud" (OPS) and indoor 222Rn concentrations in Mexico published in several recent studies are used. To calculate the lifetime relative risks (LRR) for different segments of the Mexican population, firstly the Excess Relative Risk (ERR) is calculated using the method developed by the BEIR VI committee and subsequently modified by the USEPA and published in the report "EPA Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes". The excess relative risks were then used to calculate the corresponding lifetime relative risks, again using the method developed by the BEIR VI committee. The lifetime relative risks for Mexican male and female eversmokers and Mexican male and female never-smokers were calculated for radon concentrations spanning the range found in recent studies of indoor radon concentrations in Mexico. The lifetime relative risks of lung cancer induced by lifetime exposure to the mexican average indoor radon concentration were estimated to be 1.44 and 1.40 for never-smokers mexican females and males respectively, and 1.19 and 1.17 for ever-smokers Mexican females and males respectively. The Mexican population LRR values obtained in relation to the USA and Canada LRR published values in ever-smokers for both gender are similar with differences less than 4%, in case of never-smokers in relation with Canada

  8. Lung cancer risk in never-smokers: a population-based case-control study of epidemiologic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Frances A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted a case-control study in the greater Toronto area to evaluate potential lung cancer risk factors including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure, family history of cancer, indoor air pollution, workplace exposures and history of previous respiratory diseases with special consideration given to never smokers. Methods 445 cases (35% of which were never smokers oversampled by design between the ages of 20-84 were identified through four major tertiary care hospitals in metropolitan Toronto between 1997 and 2002 and were frequency matched on sex and ethnicity with 425 population controls and 523 hospital controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the associations between exposures and lung cancer risk. Results Any previous exposure to occupational exposures (OR total population 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-2.1, OR never smokers 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.3, a previous diagnosis of emphysema in the total population (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.0-11.1 or a first degree family member with a previous cancer diagnosis before age 50 among never smokers (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.2 were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Conclusions Occupational exposures and family history of cancer with young onset were important risk factors among never smokers.

  9. Potential cancer risk associated to CT scan. State of the art of epidemiological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, Marie-Odile; Baysson, Neige Joumy Helene; Jacob, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Lab. of Epidemiology

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) scans in paediatric population raises the question of a possible health impact of ionizing radiation exposure associated with CT scans. Material and methods: Two large cohort studies have been recently published that assessed the risk of cancer related to CT examinations of children and young adults. Methodology and results of these studies are presented. Results: The UK cohort included over 176,000 young people, who underwent one or more CT scans between 1985 and 2002. The Australian study compared the risk of cancer and leukaemia in a population of 680,000 young people exposed to CT scans between 1985 and 2005 to non-exposed similar age people. Both studies showed a significant dose-response relation between exposure to CT and leukaemia or brain tumour risks. These results are consistent with predictions from A-bomb survivors' data. However, uncertainties in dosimetric estimation and potential bias linked to underlying medical conditions should be considered. Conclusion and perspectives: Further studies with more accurate dosimetry and assessment of potential bias and uncertainties are needed. Ongoing national studies and the European collaborative EPI-CT study will help to better understand the relation between low level radiation exposure and cancer and to support recommendations for patients'' radiation protection. (orig.)

  10. Breast cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J L; Berkowitz, G S

    1988-10-15

    The various risk factors for breast cancer have been recognized for many years. A table lists these established breast cancer risk factors together with the approximate magnitude of the increase in risk associated with them. Breast cancer incidence rates increase with age throughout the life span in Western countries, although the rate of increase is greater up to age 50 years than after 50 years. Breast cancer is more common among women in upper rather than lower social classes, among women who never have been married, among women living in urban areas, among women living in the northern US than in the southern US, and among whites than blacks, at least among those over age 50. Women in North American and Northern European countries have the highest risk for breast cancer, women in Southern European and Latin American countries are at intermediate risk, and women in Africa and Asian countries have the lowest risk. Yet, rapid rates of increase in incident rates have been noted in recent years in many Asian, Central European, and some South American countries. The later the age at which a woman has her 1st full-term pregnancy, the higher her risk for breast cancer; the earlier the age at menarche and the later the age at menopause the higher the risk; and among women who have a premenopausal oophorectomy, the earlier the age at which this occurs the lower the risk. Among postmenopausal women, obesity is associated with an increase in risk. Lactation is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Some current research is considering potential risk factors that have not been well studied in the past, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), emotional stress, exposure to electric power, and lack of physical activity. Other areas of current research reviewed here include radiation, mammographic parenchymal patterns, a high-fat diet, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), use of estrogen

  11. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  12. Collinearity diagnosis for a relative risk regression analysis: an application to assessment of diet-cancer relationship in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Y

    1992-07-01

    In epidemiologic studies, two forms of collinear relationships between the intake of major nutrients, high correlations, and the relative homogeneity of the diet, can yield unstable and not easily interpreted regression estimates for the effect of diet on disease risk. This paper presents tools for assessing the magnitude and source of the corresponding collinear relationships among the estimated coefficients for relative risk regression models. I show how to extend three tools (condition indices, variance decomposition proportions, and standard inflation factors) for diagnosing collinearity in standard regression models to likelihood and partial likelihood estimation for logistic and proportional hazards models. This extension is based on the analogue role of the information matrix in such analyses and the cross-product matrix in the standard linear model. I apply the methodology to relative risk models that relate crude intakes (on the log scale) and nutrient densities to breast cancer cases in the NHANES-I follow-up study. The three diagnostic tools provide complementary evidence of the existence of a strong collinearity in all models that is due largely to homogeneity of the population with respect to our risk scale for the crude intakes. The analysis suggests that the non-significant relative risks for the crude intakes in these models may be due to their involvement in collinear relationships, while the nonsignificant relative risks for the nutrient densities are far less affected by multicollinearity.

  13. Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Symposium on "Nutrition and health". Cruciferous vegetable intake and the risk of human cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Over several decades a number of epidemiological studies have identified the inverse associations between cruciferous vegetables and the risk of several cancers, including gastric, breast, colo-rectal, lung, prostate, bladder and endometrial cancers, via plausible physiological mechanisms. Although retrospective case-control studies have consistently reported inverse associations between the risk of these cancers and the intake of cruciferous vegetables and isothiocyanate-containing plants, current prospective cohort studies have found these associations to be weaker and less consistent. Genetic variations affecting the metabolism of glucosinolate hydrolysis products may modulate the effects of cruciferous vegetable consumption on cancer risk, which may be one of the reasons for the discrepancies between retrospective and prospective studies. In addition, methodological issues such as measurement errors of dietary exposure, misclassification, recall bias, publication bias, confounding and study design should be carefully considered in interpreting the results of case-control and cohort studies and in drawing conclusions in relation to the potential effects of cruciferous vegetables on cancers. Although recent comprehensive reviews of numerous studies have purported to show the specific protective role of cruciferous vegetables, and particularly Brassicas, against cancer risk, the current epidemiological evidence suggests that cruciferous vegetable consumption may reduce the risk only of gastric and lung cancers. However, there is at present no conclusive evidence that the consumption of cruciferous vegetables attenuates the risk of all other cancers.

  14. [Epidemiology of childhood cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-05-31

    In industrial countries, 1 child out of 500 develops a cancer before the age of 15 years, and before the age of 6 years for almost half of them. In France, incidence rates were stable over the 15 last years with around 1500 cases each year. A very small fraction of cases is attributable to known risk factors, including heritable cancers or cancers in children with heritable predisposing diseases, cancers induced by high doses of ionizing radiation of medical or accidental origin, by chemotherapeutic or immunosuppressive drugs. Responsibility of Epstein Barr virus in a fraction of Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas is also established, even though little is still known on the cofactors involved in industrial countries. Other virus could cause leukaemia, as suggested by localized increases in incidence in various conditions of population mixing. Conversely, there is some evidence that early common infections could be protective toward leukaemia risk, probably through their contribution to the maturation of the immune system. Several agents are suspected to induce chemical cancers, particularly pesticides, which are consistently reported in childhood leukaemia and brain tumours. It is more and more likely that genetic factors may modulate risk induced of environmental factors.

  15. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Testis Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott M; Lowrance, William T

    2015-08-01

    Testis cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in young men. Most cases represent sporadic occurrences. Most commonly it presents at an early stage (clinical stage I) and is highly curable with radical orchiectomy. Even more advanced stages of testicular cancer are curable with a multimodality treatment approach. There are no widely accepted screening strategies for germ cell tumors. This article discusses the known risk factors and epidemiology of testis cancer, the presentation, and work up for new patients, and the prognosis and cure rates based on the staging and current treatment modalities for testis cancer patients.

  16. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  17. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  18. Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundal R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rajveer Hundal, Eldon A Shaffer Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Abstract: Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%-95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the

  19. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  20. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P Dikshit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer. PubMed was used as a search platform using key words such as "stomach cancer, treatment, clinical characteristics, stomach cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination with Boolean operators OR, AND". Most of the reported studies on gastric cancer from India are case report or case series and few are case-control studies. Indian studies on this topic are limited and have observed H. pylori infection, salted tea, pickled food, rice intake, spicy food, soda (additive of food, tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for gastric cancer. More research is required to understand the etiology, develop suitable screening test, to demarcate high-risk population and to develop and evaluate the effect of primary prevention programs.

  1. Epidemiology of cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E K

    1985-12-01

    Some information on cancer in Malaysia are available, and its epidemiology is described. There is a need for systematic and coordinated collection of cancer statistics which are essential to patient management, cancer control programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. The decision of the Ministry of Health to introduce National Cancer Registry and to encourage epidemiological studies, which will ultimately lead to the utilization of data and introduction of control and preventive activities for cancers are positive steps in the right direction. Meanwhile, curative and palliative treatment is available from the existing hospital facilities, and preventive activities such as actions on smoking and health will be continued until such time when a comprehensive prevention and control programme for cancers in the country is evolved.

  2. Breast cancer epidemiology according to recognized breast cancer risk factors in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann Michael F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidisciplinary attempts to understand the etiology of breast cancer are expanding to increasingly include new potential markers of disease risk. Those efforts may have maximal scientific and practical influence if new findings are placed in context of the well-understood lifestyle and reproductive risk factors or existing risk prediction models for breast cancer. We therefore evaluated known risk factors for breast cancer in a cancer screening trial that does not have breast cancer as a study endpoint but is large enough to provide numerous analytic opportunities for breast cancer. Methods We evaluated risk factors for breast cancer (N = 2085 among 70,575 women who were randomized in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Using Poisson regression, we calculated adjusted relative risks [RRs, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs] for lifestyle and reproductive factors during an average of 5 years of follow-up from date of randomization. Results As expected, increasing age, nulliparity, positive family history of breast cancer, and use of menopausal hormone therapy were positively associated with breast cancer. Later age at menarche (16 years or older vs. 2 35 or more vs. 18.5–24.9: RR = 1.21, 95% CI, 1.02–1.43] was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer. Conclusion The ongoing PLCO trial offers continued opportunities for new breast cancer investigations, but these analyses suggest that the associations between breast cancer and age at menarche, age at menopause, and obesity might be changing as the underlying demographics of these factors change. Clinical Trials Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00002540.

  3. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a foc

  4. Micronutrients and cancer aetiology: the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T

    1994-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur most commonly in poor countries and, therefore, are most likely to be associated with cancers common in these countries. Epidemiological studies are hampered by inaccurate measurement of micronutrient intake and by the correlations between intakes of many nutrients. The strongest evidence for a protective effect of micronutrients is for oesophageal cancer. The identity of the micronutrients is not certain, but may include retinol, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and Zn; alcohol, smoking and dietary nitrosamines increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. For stomach cancer there is good evidence that fruit and vegetables are protective. The protective effect of these foods might be largely due to ascorbic acid, but other nutrients and non-nutrients may also be important; the risk for stomach cancer is increased by salt, some types of preserved foods, and by infection of the stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The risk for lung cancer appears to be reduced by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, but it is not clear which agents are responsible and the major cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Diet is probably the major determinant of the risk for colo-rectal cancer; there is evidence that fruit and vegetables and fibre reduce risk and that meat and animal fat increase risk, but there is no convincing evidence that these relationships are mediated by micronutrients. The risk for cervical cancer is inversely related to fruit and vegetable consumption and, therefore, to consumption of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, but the major cause of this cancer is human papillomavirus and it is not yet clear whether the dietary associations indicate a true protective effect or whether they are due to confounding by other variables. The evidence that micronutrients are important in the aetiology of either breast cancer or prostate cancer is weak, but the possible roles of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol in prostate

  5. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  6. [The epidemiology of pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gábor; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2010-10-31

    Pancreatic cancer is a relatively uncommon tumor, but even with early diagnosis, mortality rates are high, explaining why this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. There are no screening tests for early detection of pancreatic cancer. It is more common in men than women and is predominantly a disease of elderly people. There is wide variation in the incidence of pancreatic cancer around the world, suggesting that environmental factors are important in the pathogenesis. Smoking is the major known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, while dietary factors seem to be less important. Other possible risk factors include chronic pancreatitis, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Numerous inherited germ line mutations are associated with pancreatic cancer. Of these, hereditary pancreatitis confers the greatest risk, while BRCA2 mutations are the commonest inherited disorder. Polymorphisms in genes that control detoxification of environmental carcinogens and metabolic pathways may alter the risk of pancreatic cancer.

  7. Epidemiological studies of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindborg, J J

    1977-06-01

    The FDI has shown considerable interest in the oral cancer and has in recent years arranged three symposia on the subject. The incidence of oral cancer shows marked geographic differences mostly depending upon environmental factors. In the present paper the epidemiology of oral cancer is illustrated by the relative frequency to total number of cancers and incidence rates from a number of countries. Canada has the highest rate of cancer of the vermilion border, which is extremely rare among dark-skinned people. Even within one country differences may be found, a fact which is illustrated by findings from Czechoslovakia and India. In most of the studies dealing with the etiology of oral cancer tobacco usage in its various forms is shown to be the outstanding factor.

  8. Epidemiology and risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Côme; Drouillard, Antoine; Jouve, Jean-Louis; Faivre, Jean

    2013-08-01

    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma will soon cease to be a rare form of cancer for people born after 1940. In many Western countries, its incidence has increased more rapidly than other digestive cancers. Incidence started increasing in the Seventies in England and USA, 15 years later in Western Europe and Australia. The cumulative risk between the ages of 15 and 74 is particularly striking in the UK, with a tenfold increase in men and fivefold increase in women in little more than a single generation. Prognosis is poor with a 5-year relative survival rate of less than 10%. The main known risk factors are gastro-oesophageal reflux, obesity (predominantly mediated by intra-abdominal adipose tissues) and smoking. Barrett's oesophagus is a precancerous lesion, however, the risk of degeneration has been overestimated. In population-based studies the annual risk of adenocarcinoma varied between 0.12% and 0.14% and its incidence between 1.2 and 1.4 per 1000 person-years. Only 5% of subjects with Barrett's oesophagus die of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. On the basis of recent epidemiological data, new surveillance strategies should be developed. The purpose of this review is to focus on the epidemiology and risk factors of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  9. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  10. Pleiotropic and sex-specific effects of cancer GWAS SNPs on melanoma risk in the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology (PAGE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Kocarnik

    Full Text Available Several regions of the genome show pleiotropic associations with multiple cancers. We sought to evaluate whether 181 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with various cancers in genome-wide association studies were also associated with melanoma risk.We evaluated 2,131 melanoma cases and 20,353 controls from three studies in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE study (EAGLE-BioVU, MEC, WHI and two collaborating studies (HPFS, NHS. Overall and sex-stratified analyses were performed across studies.We observed statistically significant associations with melanoma for two lung cancer SNPs in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus (Bonferroni-corrected p2.8e-4.We provide confirmatory evidence of pleiotropic associations with melanoma for two SNPs previously associated with lung cancer, and provide suggestive evidence for a male-specific association with melanoma for prostate cancer variant rs12418451. This SNP is located near TPCN2, an ion transport gene containing SNPs which have been previously associated with hair pigmentation but not melanoma risk. Previous evidence provides biological plausibility for this association, and suggests a complex interplay between ion transport, pigmentation, and melanoma risk that may vary by sex. If confirmed, these pleiotropic relationships may help elucidate shared molecular pathways between cancers and related phenotypes.

  11. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  12. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Risk for Colorectal Cancer and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekcioglu, Cem; Haluza, Daniela; Kundi, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests an association between low vitamin D status and risk for various outcomes including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Analyzing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the most established means to evaluate an individual’s vitamin D status. However, cutoff values for 25(OH)D insufficiency as well as for optimal 25(OH)D levels are controversial. This systematic review critically summarizes the epidemiological evidence regarding 25(OH)D levels and the risk for colorectal cancer and T2DM. The meta-analytical calculation revealed a pooled relative risk (RR) of 0.62 (CI 0.56–0.70; I2 = 14.7%) for colorectal cancer and an RR of 0.66 (CI 0.61–0.73; I2 = 38.6%) for T2DM when comparing individuals with the highest category of 25(OH)D with those in the lowest. A dose–response analysis showed an inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and RR for both outcomes up to concentrations of about 55 ng/mL for colorectal cancer and about 65 ng/mL for T2DM. At still higher 25(OH)D levels the RR increases slightly, consistent with a U-shaped association. In conclusion, a higher 25(OH)D status is associated with a lower risk for colorectal cancer and T2DM; however, this advantage is gradually lost as levels increase beyond 50–60 ng/mL. PMID:28134804

  13. Quantification of lung cancer risk after low radon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiological and experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timarche, M

    2004-03-15

    Radon is a radioactive gas produced during the decay of uranium 238 that is present in soil. It was classified as a human lung carcinogen in 1988, based on evidence both from animal studies and from human studies of miners with high levels of radon exposure. Radon is present everywhere; therefore the quantification of the risk associated with exposure to it is a key public health issue. The project aimed to analyse the risk associated with radon inhalation at low doses and at low rates of exposure. It involved researchers from three different fields: epidemiology, animal experiments and mechanistic modelling and provided a unique opportunity to study the influence of dose rate, mainly in the range of low daily exposures over long periods, by analysing in parallel results from both animal and epidemiological studies. The project comprised 6 work packages (W.P.). Firstly, the partners involved in epidemiology and animal experiments worked on the validation and the analysis of the data. Secondly, the data from W.P.1 and W.P.4 were transferred to the partners involved in W.P.5 for the application of mechanistic models. In the final step a synthesis of the results was prepared. (N.C)

  14. Vitamin D and cancer: an overview on epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez Mena, José Manuel; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a rapidly increasing number of studies have investigated the relationship of vitamin D with total cancer and site-specific cancer obtaining diverse findings. In this chapter we provide an overview of epidemiological studies of vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D serum levels and vitamin D associated polymorphisms in relation to total and site-specific cancer risk. Overall, epidemiological evidence for total cancer is inconclusive. However, a large number of studies support a relationship of vitamin D with colorectal cancer and to a lesser extent with breast cancer. Findings are inconsistent for other cancers including all other gastrointestinal cancers and prostate cancer. Different vitamin D associated polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated to colorectal, breast and prostate cancer risk.

  15. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shogo

    2002-01-01

    Findings in epidemiological studies of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer have been inconsistent: many studies have yielded a positive relationship, whereas several studies have shown no relationship. The inconsistency arises because of the occurrence of seroreversion during the period between the time that H. pylori exerts a carcinogenic effect and the time of blood sampling. When this seroreversion is taken into account, there is an epidemiologically positive association between H. pylori status and the risk for gastric cancer. In addition to the epidemiological evidence, experimental studies using Mongolian gerbils have shown that H. pylori infection elevates the risk for gastric cancer. It is concluded that H. pylori is a causal factor for gastric cancer. In the creation of preventive strategies against gastric cancer by the eradication of H. pylori, determination of the time at which H. pylori plays a role as a carcinogen is important. Three hypotheses have been proposed in regard to this timing: that H. pylori infection in childhood or the teenage years acts as a factor that produces precancerous lesions with irreversible damage in the gastric mucosa, that in adulthood it acts as an initiator, and also in adulthood, that it acts as a promoter. As these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, the extent to which each hypothesis plays a part in explaining gastric carcinogenesis should be evaluated. Only a small proportion of subjects infected with H. pylori have gastric cancer during their lifetime. Interleukin-1 polymorphism, a host factor, and CagA, a virulence factor of H. pylori, are suspected to be risk factors for gastric cancer in subjects with H. pylori infection. Dietary factors, especially vitamin C, and patterns of precancerous lesions also seem to influence the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer. H. pylori seems to reduce the risk for esophageal and for some gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. This finding, as

  16. Association between cadmium and breast cancer risk according to estrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Kregzdyte, Rima; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Poskiene, Lina; Baranauskiene, Dale; Pranys, Darius

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to examine the association between cadmium (Cd) and the risk of breast cancer according to estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). A hospital-based case-control study was carried out in 585 cases and 1,170 controls. Information on possible risk factors was collected via a structured questionnaire. Urinary Cd was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The ER and HER2 levels in tumor tissue were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer by creatinine-adjusted urinary Cd. Women with greater creatinine-adjusted urine Cd (3rd quartile: 0.241-0.399 μg/g and 4th quartile: ≥ 0.4 μg/g) experienced 1.6 times higher risk of breast cancer compared with those having Cd concentration lower than 0.147 μg/g (1st quartile) [OR = 1.6, (95 % CI 1.19, 2.17) and OR = 1.62 (95 % CI 1.19, 2.21), respectively, P trend = 0.001] after adjustment for age and other confounders. Both ER+ and HER2- cases from the highest quartile of urine Cd exhibited approximately twice the breast cancer risk of those in the lowest quartile [OR = 1.9, (95 % CI 1.31, 2.74) and OR = 1.87, (95 % CI 1.33, 2.62), respectively, P trend cadmium as a risk factor for breast cancer, especially for both ER+ and HER2- cancer patients.

  17. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Mudit Verma; Mukesh Verma; Payal Patel

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high ris...

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of lung cancer in Japan: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Megumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Wakai, Kenji; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Katanoda, Kota

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systematic evaluation of the association between secondhand smoke exposure and lung cancer in Japan has yet to be conducted. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between secondhand smoke and lung cancer in Japanese non-smokers. Methods Relevant studies were collected from the MEDLINE and Ichushi Web databases using a combination of search terms and Medical Subject Headings. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risks or odds ratios were extracted to calculate pooled risk estimates. This procedure was performed independently by at least two authors. Stratified analyses were carried out according to study design, publication year, and whether or not potential confounding variables were accounted for. The presence of publication bias was assessed via funnel plots. Results We identified four cohort studies and five case-control studies. Quantitative synthesis was conducted only for secondhand smoke exposure in the home during adulthood. Of the 12 populations included in meta-analysis, positive secondhand smoke exposure-lung cancer associations were observed in 11, whereas an inverse association was found in the remaining 1. The pooled relative risk of lung cancer associated with secondhand smoke exposure was 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.10–1.48). We found no evidence of publication bias, and a significant association remained even when potentially missing studies were included (pooled relative risk: 1.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.09–1.46). The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, including by study design, publication year, and when adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusions Secondhand smoke exposure in the home during adulthood results in a statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer. PMID:27511987

  19. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a met...

  20. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastro...

  1. Epidemiology: allergy history, IgE, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michelle C

    2012-09-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated potential associations between allergy history and cancer risk with strong inverse associations reported in studies of pancreatic cancer, glioma, and childhood leukemia. Recently, there has been a rapid expansion of the epidemiological literature both of studies evaluating self-reported allergy history in relation to cancer risk and of studies evaluating biological indicators of allergy history and immune function including levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) E. However, there are several potential methodological limitations associated with prior studies, and further research is required to clarify associations observed. This paper summarizes the recent epidemiological literature examining associations between allergy history and cancer risk. From 2008, a total of 55 epidemiological studies were identified that examined some aspect of the association between allergy and cancer. Although the majority of studies examined self-reported allergy history in relation to cancer risk, there were also studies examining allergy diagnoses or discharges as captured in existing administrative databases, levels of IgE, polymorphisms of allergy, inflammatory- or allergy-related cytokine genes, and concentrations of immune regulatory proteins. The most frequently studied cancer sites included brain and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. Potential methodological sources of bias are discussed as well as recommendations for future work.

  2. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  3. [Epidemiological aspects of childhood cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    In France, cancer hits around 1700 children (0-14 years) each year. The age-standardized incidence rate for all cancers combined is 152 cases per million children per year, with a sex ratio of 1.2. In other terms, one child out of 440 develops a cancer before the age of 15 in industrial countries. The most frequent cancers were leukaemia (29%), embryonal tumours apart central nervous system (25%), central nervous system tumour (23%) and lymphoma (12%). The incidence varies between countries with higher overall rates in industrialized countries. These variations may reflect differences in diagnostic techniques or registration or in the distribution of possible risk factors. Five-year survival after childhood cancer has dramatically improved in the last 30 years, reaching yet 80%.

  4. Dietary Flavonols Intake and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal cancer (EC and gastric cancer (GC are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Many studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonols intake and the risk of EC and GC, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, we conducted a systematic analysis of relevant population-based studies to assess the association and derive a more precise estimation. Methods: The Cochrane, PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify articles published through January 2016 that met the predetermined inclusion criterion. Twelve studies involving 4593 patients and 519,378 controls were included. Results: The summary odds ratios (ORs of EC, GC and the two combined were respectively 0.88 (95% CI: 0.73–1.08, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70–0.91 and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74–0.92 for the highest category of dietary flavonols intake compared with the lowest. No significant heterogeneities were observed in these studies. Further analysis showed that the pooled ORs of EC and GC for cohort, population-based case-control and hospital-based case-control studies were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.61–1.34, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.72–1.18, 0.68 (95% CI: 0.38–1.24 and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.65–1.06, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.45–1.59, 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56–0.88. The subgroup analyses revealed a significant association of flavonol intake with a reduced risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma but not gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Moreover, significant inverse associations of flavonol intake with GC risk were observed in women but not in men, in smokers but not in nonsmokers, in European populations but not in American populations. Similarly, a significant inverse association of flavonols intake with EC risk was also observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Conclusion: High intake of dietary flavonols is significantly related to a reduced risk of GC, especially in women and smokers.

  5. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh P Dikshit; Garima Mathur; Sharayu Mhatre; Yeole, B. B.

    2011-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer...

  6. Gastric cancer - clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Link, Alexander; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) ranks fifth for cancer incidence and second for cancer deaths. Epidemiological data showed that survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and patients with pernicious anemia etiologically linked to autoimmune gastritis are at increased risk of GC. Screening of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease by means of pepsinogen (PG) I and PG I/II detected autoimmune gastritis with oxyntic gastric atrophy in one of four patients and may be recommended for GC prevention purposes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer reported a positive association between consumption of processed meet and increased GC risk. A new GC risk prediction model based on biological markers, age, gender, smoking status, family history of GC, and consumption of highly salted food showed good predictive performance, and might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programs. A novel GC classification based on gene expression of primary resected cancers correlated with clinicopathological features. Noncoding RNA for GC screening remains the focus of multiple studies. Patients with early GC undergoing endoscopic resection are more likely to develop metachronous lesions than patients undergoing surgery and endoscopic surveillance is warranted in this special cohort. The addition of gastrectomy to chemotherapy did not improve survival of patients with advanced GC and a single noncurable factor. Apatinib, a novel oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved the median overall survival of patients with advanced GC and progressive disease after two or more lines of prior chemotherapy of nearly 3 months.

  7. The genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, Rosalind; Goh, Chee; Castro, Elena; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Guy, Michelle; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, familial and epidemiological studies have generated considerable evidence of an inherited component to prostate cancer. Indeed, rare highly penetrant genetic mutations have been implicated. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have also identified 76 susceptibility loci associated with prostate cancer risk, which occur commonly but are of low penetrance. However, these mutations interact multiplicatively, which can result in substantially increased risk. Currently, approximately 30% of the familial risk is due to such variants. Evaluating the functional aspects of these variants would contribute to our understanding of prostate cancer aetiology and would enable population risk stratification for screening. Furthermore, understanding the genetic risks of prostate cancer might inform predictions of treatment responses and toxicities, with the goal of personalized therapy. However, risk modelling and clinical translational research are needed before we can translate risk profiles generated from these variants into use in the clinical setting for targeted screening and treatment.

  8. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shalu Jain; Sunita Saxena; Anup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Data from national cancer registries shows that incidence of certain cancers are on rise in India. The cancers which are showing significant increase in incidence rates include prostate, mouth and kidney among male population, corpus uteri, breast and thyroid among female population and lung cancer in both male and female populations. In the present review article we have focused on epidemiology of prostate cancer in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence, survival, and mortality etc. The ...

  9. Nitrosamine and related food intake and gastric and oesophageal cancer risk: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paula Jakszyn; Carlos Alberto González

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake and gastric cancer (GC), between meat and processed meat intake, GC and oesophageal cancer (OC), and between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC.METHODS: In this article we reviewed all the published cohort and case-control studies from 1985-2005, and analyzed the relationship between nitrosamine and nitrite intake and the most important related food intake (meat and processed meat, preserved vegetables and fish, smoked foods and beer drinking) and GC or OC risk.Sixty-one studies, 11 cohorts and 50 case-control studies were included.RESULTS: Evidence from case-control studies supported an association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake with GC but evidence was insufficient in relation to OC. A high proportion of case-control studies found a positive association with meat intake for both tumours (11 of 16 studies on GC and 11 of 18 studies on OC). A relatively large number of case-control studies showed quite consistent results supporting a positive association between processed meat intake and GC and OC risk (10 of 14 studies on GC and 8 of 9 studies on OC).Almost all the case-control studies found a positive and significant association between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC. The evidence regarding OC was more limited. Overall the evidence from cohort studies was insufficient or more inconsistent than that from case-control studies.CONCLUSION: The available evidence supports a positive association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake and GC, between meat and processed meat intake and GC and OC, and between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC, but is not conclusive.

  10. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic...

  11. Natural vitamin C intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: A pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Turati, Federica; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Chuang, Shu-Chun; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2015-07-15

    Evidence of associations between single nutrients and head and neck cancer (HNC) is still more limited and less consistent than that for fruit and vegetables. However, clarification of the protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables is important to our understanding of HNC etiology. We investigated the association between vitamin C intake from natural sources and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx using individual-level pooled data from ten case-control studies (5,959 cases and 12,248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. After harmonization of study-specific exposure information via the residual method, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models on quintile categories of 'non-alcohol energy-adjusted' vitamin C intake. In the presence of heterogeneity of the estimated ORs among studies, we derived those estimates from generalized linear mixed models. Higher intakes of vitamin C were inversely related to oral and pharyngeal (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.45-0.65, for the fifth quintile category versus the first one, p for trendcancers (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.40-0.68, p for trend = 0.006), although in the presence of heterogeneity among studies for both sites. Inverse associations were consistently observed for the anatomical subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancer, and across strata of age, sex, education, body mass index, tobacco, and alcohol, for both cancer sites. The inverse association of vitamin C intake from foods with HNC may reflect a protective effect on these cancers; however, we cannot rule out other explanations.

  12. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer in Japan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; He, Yutong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Qiao, Youlin; Ueda, Junko; Wei, Wenqiang; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987-2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk.

  13. The epidemiology of pesticide exposure and cancer: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaga, Kushik; Dharmani, Chandrabhan

    2005-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease with contributions from genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Pesticide exposure is recognized as an important environmental risk factor associated with cancer development. The epidemiology of pesticide exposure and cancer in humans has been studied globally in various settings. Insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides are associated with hemopoetic cancers, and cancers of the prostate, pancreas, liver, and other body systems. The involvement of pesticides in breast cancer has not yet been determined. In developing countries, sufficient epidemiologic research and evidence is lacking to link pesticide exposure with cancer development. Agricultural and industrial workers are high-risk groups for developing cancer following pesticide exposure. Children of farm workers can be exposed to pesticides through their parents. Maternal exposure to pesticides can pose a health risk to the fetus and the newborn. The organophosphates are most the commonly used compounds, but the organochlorines are still permitted for limited use in developing countries. Pesticide exposure, independently or in synergism with modifiable risk factors, is associated with several types of cancer.

  14. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  15. Inflammation in the development of lung cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A

    2008-04-01

    The lung is a site for repeated or chronic inflammatory insults. Epidemiologic research has provided evidence to support the hypothesis that tissue damage caused by inflammation can initiate or promote the development of lung cancer, possibly in conjunction with tobacco use. For example, some studies suggest an increased risk of lung cancer among persons with lung infections, such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, or inflammatory lung diseases. Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammation marker, are associated with heightened lung cancer risk. Recent studies also demonstrate increased lung cancer risk among immunosuppressed individuals infected with HIV. Other research indicates an association between genetic polymorphisms in the inflammation pathway, which might modulate the inflammatory response and lung cancer risk.

  16. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  17. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Pirie, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected...... by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p reproductive...

  18. Genetics and epidemiology, congenital anomalies and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, J.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    Many of the basic statistical methods used in epidemiology - regression, analysis of variance, and estimation of relative risk, for example - originally were developed for the genetic analysis of biometric data. The familiarity that many geneticists have with this methodology has helped geneticists to understand and accept genetic epidemiology as a scientific discipline. It worth noting, however, that most of the work in genetic epidemiology during the past decade has been devoted to linkage and other family studies, rather than to population-based investigations of the type that characterize much of mainstream epidemiology. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. 口腔癌相关危险因素的流行病学调查分析%Epidemiologic study of risk factors of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅锦业; 高静; 郑家伟; 张志愿; 钟来平; 项永兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:进行口腔癌相关危险因素的流行病学调查,为口腔癌的预防提供依据.方法:采用流行病学问卷调查方法,在国内8个城市进行多中心大样本病例-对照研究.调查内容主要包括个人基本情况、全身疾病和口腔疾病史、口腔卫生习惯、吸烟与被动吸烟、饮用水及常用的饮料情况、运动及劳动情况、家族史等7个方面.采用SAS 8.2软件包对数据进行t检验或x2检验,采用Logistic回归分析各因素与罹患口腔癌的关系.结果:经常参加运动、饮用牛奶、饮用水处理、高血压、口腔白斑、不良修复体、吸烟史、戒烟史、吸有过滤嘴烟等在病例组和对照组之间有显著差异(P<0.05).吸烟时间越长、吸烟量越大,危险度越高(OR分别为3.57、4.78).运动、饮用牛奶及饮用水处理可降低口腔癌的危险(OR分别为0.48,0.48和0.53).结论:吸烟是口腔癌发生的重要因素,吸过滤嘴烟不能降低口腔癌的发生;运动、饮用牛奶及饮用水处理可降低口腔癌的发生.%PURPOSE: To explore the risk factors of oral cancer in order to provide evidence for oral cancer prevention. METHODS: Epidemiologic questionnaire was used for case-control study in 8 major cities of China. The questionnaire consisted of 7 parts which included essential individual status, systemic and oral diseases, oral hygiene habits, smoking and passive smoking, water and drinks in common usage, sports and labor, family history. SAS8.2 software package was used for data analysis. Student's t test or Chi-square test was used for evaluation of homogeneity between the groups. Logistic regression was used for analyzing the relationship between the factors and oral cancer. RESULTS: Sports, drinking milk and processed water, hypertension, leukoplakia, ill-fitted prosthesis, smoking, smoking cessation and smoking with filter were significanT1y different between the groups (P<0.05). Starting to smoke before 20 years old

  20. Cancer and aging: Epidemiology and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Engholm, Gerda; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological cancer data shed light on key questions within basic science, clinical medicine and public health. For decades, Denmark has had linkable health registers that contain individual level data on the entire population with virtually complete follow-up. This has enabled high quality studies of cancer epidemiology and minimized the challenges often faced in many countries, such as uncertain identification of the study base, age misreporting, and low validity of the cancer diagnoses. However, methodological challenges still remain to be addressed, especially in cancer epidemiology studies among the elderly and the oldest-old. For example, a characteristic pattern for many cancer types is that the incidence increases up to a maximum at about ages 75-90 years and is then followed by a decline or a leveling off at the oldest ages. It has been suggested that the oldest individuals may be asymptomatic, or even insusceptible to cancer. An alternative interpretation is that this pattern is an artifact due to lower diagnostic intensity among the elderly and oldest-old caused by higher levels of co-morbidities in this age group. Currently, the available cancer epidemiology data are not able to provide clear evidence for any of these hypotheses.

  1. Alcohol and breast cancer: reconciling epidemiological and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir; Hoek, Jan B

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have suggested a possible causative role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for breast cancer. However, such conclusions should be interpreted with considerable caution for several reasons. While epidemiological studies can help identify the roots of health problems and disease incidence in a community, they are by necessity associative and cannot determine cause and effect relationships. In addition, all these studies rely on self-reporting to determine the amount and type of alcoholic beverage consumed, which introduces recall bias. This is documented in a recent study which stated that the apparent increased risk of cancer among light-moderate drinkers may be "substantially due to underreporting of intake." Another meta-analysis about alcohol and breast cancer declared "the modest size of the association and variation in results across studies leave the causal role of alcohol in question." Furthermore, breast cancer develops over decades; thus, correlations between alcohol consumption and breast cancer cannot be determined in epidemiological studies with windows of alcohol exposure that captures current or recent alcohol intake, after clinical diagnosis. Numerous risk factors are involved in breast carcinogenesis; some are genetic and beyond the control of a woman; others are influenced by lifestyle factors. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and polygenic disease which is further influenced by epigenetic mechanisms that affect the transciptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and ultimately breast cancer evolution. Environmental factors add another layer of complexity by their interactions with the susceptibility genes for breast cancer and metabolic diseases. The current state-of-knowledge about alcohol and breast cancer association is ambiguous and confusing to both a woman and her physician. Confronting the huge global breast cancer issue should be addressed by sound

  2. Epidemiological associations of allergy, IgE and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, D H; Spicer, J F; Corrigan, C J; Gould, H J; Karagiannis, S N

    2013-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated potential associations between allergy and risk of malignancy. It remains clear that the relationship between allergy and cancer is complex. Three hypotheses have been proposed to account for observed relationships: these are chronic inflammation, immunosurveillance, prophylaxis, and we propose adding a fourth: inappropriate T-helper 2 (Th2) immune skewing. Each of these attempts to explain either the increased or decreased risk of different cancer types in 'allergic' patients reported in the literature. All four hypotheses are based on known mechanisms of allergic inflammation and/or IgE antibody functions, and uphold the view of an immunological basis for the relationship between allergy and malignancies. This review summarizes and draws conclusions from the epidemiological literature examining the relationships between specific types of cancer and allergic diseases. Particular emphasis is placed on the most recent contributions to the field, and on consideration of the allergic immune mechanisms that may influence positive or negative associations.

  3. Risk, characteristics, and prognosis of breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  4. Epidemiology of venous thrombosis in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Dana; Attard, Chantal; Monagle, Paul; Ignjatovic, Vera

    2014-06-01

    There has been an extensive body of research focusing on the epidemiology of thrombosis in adult cancer populations; however, there is significantly less knowledge about thrombosis in paediatric cancer populations. Thrombosis is diagnosed with increasing frequency in children being treated for cancer, and there is an urgent need to increase our understanding of the epidemiology of thrombosis in this population. Currently, there are no guidelines for identification of high-risk groups, prophylaxis or management of thrombotic complications in paediatric cancer patients. We reviewed the available literature regarding the epidemiology, mechanisms, risk factors, prophylaxis and outcomes of thrombosis in children with cancer and identified areas that require further research. The reported incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children with cancer ranges between 2.1% and 16%, while the incidence of asymptomatic events is approximately 40%. Approximately 30% of VTE in this population is associated with central venous lines (CVL). The most common location of VTE is upper and lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (43 to 50% of events, respectively), while 50% of events in ALL patients occur in the central nervous system. Key characteristics that increase the risk of thrombosis include the type of cancer, age of the patient, the presence of a CVL, presence of pulmonary/intra thoracic disease, as well as the type of chemotherapy. Outcomes for paediatric cancer patients with VTE include post-thrombotic syndrome, pulmonary embolism, recurrent thromboembolism, destruction of upper venous system and death. Prospective studies aimed at enabling risk stratification of patients are required to facilitate development of paediatric specific recommendations related to thromboprophylaxis in this population.

  5. Epidemiological evidence for vitamin D and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannucci, Edward

    2007-12-01

    Since Garland and Garland formulated the hypothesis that vitamin D may protect against colorectal cancer in 1980, various epidemiological approaches have been undertaken to evaluate this hypothesis. These approaches include studies based on regional solar UVB radiation, plasma- or serum-based studies, dietary studies, and those examining multiple factors that influence vitamin D status. Studies over the past several decades have tended to support that higher levels of vitamin D may decrease risk of colorectal cancer. An important implication is that current recommended dietary intakes such as 200-400 IU/d may be too low to exert appreciable benefits. To substantially reduce risk, higher levels of vitamin D associated with sunshine exposure or considerably higher intakes may be required. Recent studies also suggest a potential benefit of vitamin D on other digestive system cancers. One study suggested that a better vitamin D status at the time of diagnosis and treatment, as indicated by season of diagnosis, may improve survival from colorectal cancer. Darker-skinned individuals who tend to make less vitamin D may be at particularly high risk for digestive system cancer. The strong biological evidence for a protective role of vitamin D supports the epidemiological data. More study is needed to determine the optimal levels and intakes of this vitamin to optimally reduce colorectal cancer risk.

  6. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  7. Q&A: Muin Khoury on cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Rose, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    Muin J. Khoury, MD, PhD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office of Public Health Genomics and head of the National Cancer Institute's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, talks about challenges and opportunities in cancer epidemiology research and efforts in the epidemiology community to transform the field.

  8. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    epidemiology. The paradoxical finding of high rates of exposure and lower disease rates likely means that there is wider variation in genetic and... disease outcomes and prevention. These techniques and potential applications are directly related to the development and validation of our food...Obesity and cancer: implications for public health 5. New and Emerging Science: the Microbiome -implications for diet and cancer. Johan Hernandez

  9. Breast Cancer Risk From Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Risk Factors Among White Women in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Paige; Barrdahl, Myrto; Joshi, Amit D;

    2016-01-01

    Importance: An improved model for risk stratification can be useful for guiding public health strategies of breast cancer prevention. Objective: To evaluate combined risk stratification utility of common low penetrant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epidemiologic risk factors. Design, ...

  10. Descriptive Epidemiology of Female Breast Cancer in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KexinChen; MinHe; ShufenDong; JifangWang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe trends in the changes of incidence and mortality of female breast cancer patients in Tianjin, and evaluate the effect of these trends on prevention. METHODS A method of descriptive epidemiology was used to comprehensively study the status of female breast cancer in Tianjin. RESULTS From 1981 to 2000, the incidence rate of breast cancer in Tianjin had been increasing at the speed of 1.8 % annually, whereas the peak of the age-adjusted incidence and mortality rate expressed a mild declining trend. Follow-up study indicated that 3 and 5-year survival rates improved in various degrees. CONCLUSION Early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer are very important to both increasing survival and lowering mortality from breast cancer. Preventive efforts should be promoted for women who are at high risk for breast cancer.

  11. Molecular epidemiology, and possible real-world applications in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidemi; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction, a key idea in molecular epidemiology, has enabled the development of personalized medicine. This concept includes personalized prevention. While genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic susceptibility loci in breast cancer risk, however, the application of this knowledge to practical prevention is still underway. Here, we briefly review the history of molecular epidemiology and its progress in breast cancer epidemiology. We then introduce our experience with the trial combination of GWAS-identified loci and well-established lifestyle and reproductive risk factors in the risk prediction of breast cancer. Finally, we report our exploration of the cumulative risk of breast cancer based on this risk prediction model as a potential tool for individual risk communication, including genetic risk factors and gene-environment interaction with obesity.

  12. Relative risk regression analysis of epidemiologic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, R L

    1985-11-01

    Relative risk regression methods are described. These methods provide a unified approach to a range of data analysis problems in environmental risk assessment and in the study of disease risk factors more generally. Relative risk regression methods are most readily viewed as an outgrowth of Cox's regression and life model. They can also be viewed as a regression generalization of more classical epidemiologic procedures, such as that due to Mantel and Haenszel. In the context of an epidemiologic cohort study, relative risk regression methods extend conventional survival data methods and binary response (e.g., logistic) regression models by taking explicit account of the time to disease occurrence while allowing arbitrary baseline disease rates, general censorship, and time-varying risk factors. This latter feature is particularly relevant to many environmental risk assessment problems wherein one wishes to relate disease rates at a particular point in time to aspects of a preceding risk factor history. Relative risk regression methods also adapt readily to time-matched case-control studies and to certain less standard designs. The uses of relative risk regression methods are illustrated and the state of development of these procedures is discussed. It is argued that asymptotic partial likelihood estimation techniques are now well developed in the important special case in which the disease rates of interest have interpretations as counting process intensity functions. Estimation of relative risks processes corresponding to disease rates falling outside this class has, however, received limited attention. The general area of relative risk regression model criticism has, as yet, not been thoroughly studied, though a number of statistical groups are studying such features as tests of fit, residuals, diagnostics and graphical procedures. Most such studies have been restricted to exponential form relative risks as have simulation studies of relative risk estimation

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risks of other cancers (or other health problems). Examples of genetic syndromes that can cause exocrine pancreatic cancer include: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome , caused by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes Familial atypical ...

  14. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data.

  15. An Epidemiologic Study of Genetic Variation in Hormonal Pathways in Relation to the Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    hormone therapy in breast cancer risk.” Kerryn W. Reding, Chu Chen, Christopher I. Li, Christopher S. Carlson, Jasmine Wilkerson, Frederico M...therapy in breast cancer risk.” Kerryn W. Reding, Chu Chen, Christopher I. Li, Christopher S. Carlson, Jasmine Wilkerson, Frederico M. Farin, Kenneth E...Chen, Christopher I. Li, Christopher S. Carlson, Jasmine Wilkerson, Frederico M. Farin, Kenneth E. Thummel, Janet R. Daling, and Kathleen E. Malone

  16. Molecular epidemiology, cancer-related symptoms, and cytokines pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret; Kurzrock, Razelle; Fisch, Michael; Bruera, Eduardo; Shete, Sanjay

    2008-08-01

    The Human Genome Project and HapMap have led to a better appreciation of the importance of common genetic variation in determining cancer risk, created potential for predicting response to therapy, and made possible the development of targeted prevention and therapeutic interventions. Advances in molecular epidemiology can be used to explore the role of genetic variation in modulating the risk for severe and persistent symptoms, such as pain, depression, and fatigue, in patients with cancer. The same genes that are implicated in cancer risk might also be involved in the modulation of therapeutic outcomes. For example, polymorphisms in several cytokine genes are potential markers for genetic susceptibility both for cancer risk and for cancer-related symptoms. These genetic polymorphisms are stable markers and easily and reliably assayed to explore the extent to which genetic variation might prove useful in identifying patients with cancer at high-risk of symptom development. Likewise, they could identify subgroups who might benefit most from symptom intervention, and contribute to developing personalized and more effective therapies for persistent symptoms.

  17. Epidemiology and prevention of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenfels, Albert B; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2004-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an uncommon tumor, but because the mortality rate approaches 100%, this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States it is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer mortality; in Japan it ranks as the fifth commonest cause of death from cancer. Smoking is the major known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, accounting for approximately 25-30% of all cases. Some of the time-dependent changes in the frequency of pancreatic cancer can be explained by smoking trends. Aggressive public health measures to control smoking would substantially reduce the burden of pancreatic cancer. Dietary factors are less important for pancreatic cancer than for other digestive tract tumors, but consumption of a diet with adequate quantities of fruits and vegetables, plus control of calories either by dietary measures or by exercise will help to prevent this lethal tumor. There are more than a dozen inherited germline mutations that increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Of these, hereditary pancreatitis confers the greatest risk, while BRCA2 mutations are the commonest inherited disorder. In addition to germline defects, there are several common polymorphisms in genes that control detoxification of environmental carcinogens that may alter the risk of pancreatic cancer. More research will be needed in this area, to explain and to clarify the interaction between genes and environmental factors.

  18. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha Tourinho-Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits.

  19. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael Rocha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits. PMID:27622278

  20. Cancers of the pancreas and biliary tract: epidemiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraumeni, J F

    1975-11-01

    The epidemiological patterns for pancreatic and biliary cancers reveal more differences than similarities. Pancreatic carcinoma is common in western countries, although 2 Polynesian groups (New Zealand Maoris and native Hawaiians) have the highest rates internationally. In the United States the disease is rising in frequency, predominating in males and in blacks. The rates are elevated in urban areas, but geographic analysis uncovered no clustering of contiguous counties except in southern Louisiana. The origin of pancreatic cancer is obsure, but a twofold increased risk has been documented for cigarette smokers and diabetic patients. Alcohol, occupational agents, and dietary fat have been suspected, but not proven to be risk factors. Except for the rare hereditary form of pancreatitis, there are few clues to genetic predisposition. In contrast, the reported incidence of biliary tract cancer is highest in Latin American populations and American Indians. The tumor predominates in females around the world, except for Chinese and Japanese who show a male excess. In the United States the rates are higher in whites than blacks, and clusters of high-risk counties have been found in the north central region, the southwest, and Appalachia. The distribution of biliary tumors parallels that of cholesterol gallstones, the major risk factor for biliary cancer. Insights into biliary carcinogenesis depend upon clarification of lithogenic influences, such as pregnancy, obesity, and hyperlipoproteinemia, exogenous estrogens, familial tendencies, and ethnic-geographic factors that may reflect dietary habits. Noncalculous risk factors for biliary cancer include ulcerative colitis, clonorchiasis, Gardner's syndrome, and probably certain industrial exposures. Within the biliary tract, tumors of the gallbladder and bile duct show epidemiological distinctions. In contrast to gallbladder cancer, bile duct neoplasms predominate in males; they are less often associated with stones and more

  1. Early Life and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    adulthood in the 1958 British born cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66:1094-101. 52. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62...Biomarkers Prey 2002;11: J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1094-101. 32. He Q Karlbergj. BMI in childhood and 207-10. 28. Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and its...breast cancer among young U.S. women. Epidemiology 1997; 8(5):559-565. (76) Kvale G, Heuch I. Menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Cancer 1988; 62(8

  2. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  3. The epidemiology of Her-2/ neu and P53 in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstein Jonine L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is an etiologically heterogeneous disease with marked geographical variations. Joint consideration of the relationship between specific molecular alterations and known or suspected epidemiologic risk factors for this disease should help distinguish subgroups of women that are at elevated risk of developing breast cancer. In this article, we present a comprehensive literature review of the etiologic and prognostic roles of Her-2/neu and P53 among women. In addition, we discuss the advantages and limitations of using biomarkers in epidemiological studies. We conclude that more research is needed to understand the complex relationships between genetic alterations and etiologic risk factors for breast cancer.

  4. Advances in cancer epidemiology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideo

    2014-02-15

    Epidemiologists in Japan have been performing calculations to estimate nationwide cancer incidence rates as well as 5-year survival rates using population-based cancer registry data. There have been remarkable changes in cancer incidence and/or mortality in cancers of the lung, liver and stomach, which were thought to be attributed to the changing impact of exposure to cigarette smoking, chronic hepatitis C virus infection and Helicobacter pylori infection, respectively. In systematic reviews providing evidence in risk/protective factors for cancer sites using case-control and cohort studies of the Japanese population, there were associations between cancer sites (esophagus, stomach, colo-rectum, liver, pancreas, lung and breast) and various lifestyle factors. In the past 10 years, a hospital-based case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center provided valuable evidence of gene-environment interaction on the development of cancer [i.e., the effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer, ALDH2 polymorphism and smoking on lung cancer, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on pancreatic cancer]. The database with stored DNA was also used and identified seven loci containing significant but low-penetrance polymorphisms associated with the development of breast cancer. These findings together with established risk factors are likely to be useful to predict personalized breast cancer risk in East Asian women. In 2005, the Japan Multi-Institution Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched to elucidate gene-environment interactions as well as to confirm preclinical diagnostic biomarkers of cancer. J-MICC, which has recruited 92,000 healthy individuals by the end of 2012, will follow the individuals until 2025.

  5. The epidemiology of laryngeal cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Wünsch

    Full Text Available The city of São Paulo exhibits one of the highest incidences of laryngeal cancer in world and Brazil presents remarkable occurrence, compared with other Latin American countries. Around 8,000 new cases and 3,000 deaths by laryngeal cancer occur annually in the Brazilian population. In the city of São Paulo, incidence rates for laryngeal cancer among males have been decreasing since the late 1980s while, among females, the rates have shown a stable trend. This phenomenon is probably the expression of changes in gender behavior related to tobacco smoking. Several risk factors are involved in the genesis of laryngeal cancer. The most important are tobacco smoking and alcohol intake, but occupational hazards have also been associated with the disease, such as asbestos, strong inorganic acids, cement dust and free crystalline silica. Additionally, salted meat and total fat intake have been linked to elevated risk of laryngeal cancer. Conversely, several studies have confirmed that fruits, raw leaf vegetables and legumes protect against this cancer. Some researchers have postulated a possible association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and human papilloma virus (HPV, but this is not universally accepted. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is weakly, but consistently correlated with laryngeal cancer. Familial cancer clusters, particularly of head and neck tumors, seem to increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. Some genetic polymorphisms, such as of genes that code for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, have shown elevated risk for laryngeal cancer according to recent studies. Public health policies regarding the control of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, and also surveillance of carcinogen exposure in occupational settings, could have an impact on laryngeal cancer. No proposals for screening have been recommended for laryngeal cancer, but one diagnostic goal should be to avoid treatment delay when suspected symptoms have been observed.

  6. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  7. Epidemiological studies of esophageal cancer in the era of genome-wide association studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Hui; Wang; Yuan; Liu; Bo; Wang; Yi-Xuan; He; Ye-Xian; Fang; Yong-Ping; Yan

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer(EC) caused about 395000 deaths in 2010. China has the most cases of EC and EC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC) is the predominant histologic type(90%-95%), while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma(EAC) remains extremely low in China. Traditional epidemiological studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for EC. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed that susceptibility to EC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Of all the risk factors for EC, some are associated with the risk of ESCC and others with the risk of EAC. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in the process for EC are unclear. The advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies bring a great opportunity for researchers to explore and identify the details of those risk factors or susceptibility genes involved inthe process of EC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era to the era of genome wide association studies(GWAS). Here we review the epidemiological studies of EC(especially ESCC) in the era of GWAS, and provide an overview of the general risk factors and those genomic variants(genes, SNPs, miRNAs, proteins) involved in the process of ESCC.

  8. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  9. Cancer precursors epidemiology, detection, and prevention

    CERN Document Server

    Rohan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of cancer causation have come from epidemiologic and laboratory research, particularly over the past two decades. These developments have included a broadening interest in the critical events that take place during the early stages of the dynamic multistep process leading to - vasive cancer. Increasingly, cancer epidemiologists are pursuing research into the origins and natural history of premalignant lesions, including intermediate or surrogate endpoints, a trend - celerated by the development of molecular technologies that are revolutionizing our understanding of the transformation of normal to malignant cells. There seems little doubt that this emerging knowledge will provide further insights not only into carcinogenic processes, but also into more sensitive methods of early detection and more effective means of prevention. In this book, Drs. Franco and Rohan have succeeded in prep- ing a comprehensive, timely, and critical review of the substantial progress that has ...

  10. The epidemiology of diabetes and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Friis, Søren

    2014-10-01

    The literature on cancer occurrence in persons with diabetes has almost invariably been concerned with relative measures. In this paper, we briefly review this, but the aim is to quantify the absolute occurrence of diabetes and cancer in the population in order to give a fuller picture, which also includes the competing mortality risk. Overall, we find that some 35 % of the population will have a diagnosis of diabetes in their lifetime, 44 % a diagnosis of cancer, and about 15 % will have both diagnoses. The impact of differing mortality between persons with and without diabetes is illustrated by the fact that a person without diabetes at age 50 has a smaller lifetime risk of cancer than a person aged 50 with diabetes. Thus, the differences in cancer occurrence between persons with and without diabetes are of quantitatively smaller importance than the differences in mortality.

  11. Consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büchner, F.L.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Kampman, E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent associations between vegetables and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer. We therefore investigated the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Inve

  12. Comparative epidemiology of gastric cancer between Japan and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingsong Lin; Junko Ueda; Shogo Kikuchi; Yukari Totsuka; Wen-Qiang Wei; You-Lin Qiao; Manami Inoue

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the similarities and differences in gastric cancer epidemiology between Japan and China. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed database was performed. The relevant literature published in China was also been cited. Data on incidence and mortality rates in 2008 were obtained from the Cancer Mondial database, published by International Agency for Research on Cancer at http://www-dep.iarc.fr/.RESULTS: Gastric cancer remains a significant public health burden in both Japan and China. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization is high in the adult populations of both countries. Accumulating evidence from intervention studies in both countries has shown the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication in reducing gastric cancer incidence. There are differences, however, in many aspects of gastric cancer, including patterns of incidence and mortality, trends in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, H. pylori strains, the magnitude of risk of gastric cancer related to H. pylori infection, and associations with dietary habits. Compared with China, Japan has seen a more rapid decline in H. pylori infection among adolescents. While Japanese cohort studies have dominated the literature concerning the associations between gastric cancer and dietary habits, numerous case-control studies in China suggest a positive association between a high intake of preserved fish and vegetables and gastric cancer risk. There is a need for a multidisciplinary research approach to understand the interactions between various strains of H. pylori, host factors, and other lifestyle and environmental factors in gastric carcinogenesis in both countries.CONCLUSION: The shared high incidence of gastric cancer and high prevalence of H. pylori, as well as differences in many aspects of gastric cancer, provide an excellent opportunity to establish Sino-Japanese collaborations.

  13. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.F. Young

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Here we review the relationship of vitamins to PC risk. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin A, retinoids, several B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed these vitamins may have anti-PC properties, whether they can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of PC in humans remains to be intensively studied subjects. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of vitamins on PC prevention and/or treatment.

  14. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Asbestos and Cancer Risk What is asbestos? Asbestos is a group of minerals that occur ... in some countries. How are people exposed to asbestos? People can be exposed to asbestos in different ...

  15. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignanci......ART initiation in reducing cancer risk, understand the relationship between long-term cART exposure and cancer incidence and assess whether adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies can reduce cancer risk during treated HIV infection.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies...... of Kaposi sarcoma and NHL also during early HIV infection before overt immunosuppression occurs. Long-term effects of cART exposure on cancer risk are not well defined; according to basic and epidemiological research, there might be specific associations of each cART class with distinct patterns of cancer...

  16. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  17. Triple-negative breast cancer: epidemiological considerations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    2012-08-01

    Breast cancer is a major problem for global public health. Breast Cancer is the most common incident form of cancer in women around the world. The incidence is increasing while mortality is declining in many high-income countries. The last decade has seen a revolution in the understanding of breast cancer, with new classifications proposed that have significant prognostic value and provide guides to treatment options. Breast cancers that demonstrate the absence of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There is now evidence emerging from epidemiological studies regarding important characteristics of this group of tumours that carry a relatively poorer prognosis than the major breast cancer sub-types. From this review of available data and information, there are some consistent findings that emerge. Women with TNBC experience the peak risk of recurrence within 3 years of diagnosis, and the mortality rates appear to be increased for 5 years after diagnosis. TNBC represents 10%-20% of invasive breast cancers and has been associated with African-American race, deprivation status, younger age at diagnosis, more advanced disease stage, higher grade, high mitotic indices, family history of breast cancer and BRCA1 mutations. TNBC is regularly reported to be three times more common in women of African descent and in pre-menopausal women, and carries a poorer prognosis than other forms of breast cancer. Although prospects for prevention of non-hormone-dependent breast cancer are currently poor, it is still important to understand the aetiology of such tumours. There remains a great deal of work to be done to arrive at a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of breast cancer. Key recommendations are that there is a clear and urgent need to have more epidemiological studies of the breast cancer sub-types to integrate aetiological and

  18. Occupational cancer in France: epidemiology, toxicology, prevention, and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrun, J C; Binet, S; Bozec, C; Brochard, P; Dimerman, S; Fontaine, B; Guénel, P; Luce, D; Martinet, Y; Moulin, J J; Mur, J M; Pietruszynski, M; Vallayer, C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a description of the current situation in France with regard to occupational cancer: research, prevention, and occupation. Toxicologic experiments are carried out using (italic)in vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) tests, particularly using transgenic mice. Several epidemiologic studies have been conducted over the last decades: population-based case-control studies; mortality studies and cancer incidence studies carried out in historical cohorts of workers employed in the industry; and case-control studies nested in occupational cohorts. French ethical aspects of toxicologic and epidemiologic studies are described. The results thus obtained are used to establish regulations for the prevention and the compensation of cancers attributable to occupational exposure. This French regulation for prevention of occupational cancer involves several partners: (italic)a(/italic)) the states authorities, including labor inspectors, responsible for preparing and implementing the labor legislation and for supervising its application, particularly in the fields of occupational health and safety and working conditions; (italic)b(/italic)) the Social Security Organisation for the analysis of present or potential occupational risks based on tests, visits in plants, complaints or requests from various sources, and statistics. These activities are performed within the framework of the general French policy for the prevention of occupational cancer. This organization includes the National Institute for Research and Safety, particularly involved in research in the various fields of occupational risks--animal toxicology, biologic monitoring, exposure measurements epidemiology, psychology, ergonomy, electronic systems and machineries, exposure to chemicals, noise, heat, vibration, and lighting; and (italic)c(/italic)) companies where the regulation defines the role of the plant manager, the occupational physician, and the Health, Safety and Working Conditions

  19. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  20. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Venous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cushman, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, occurs at an annual incidence of about 1 per 1000 adults. Rates increase sharply after around age 45 years, and are slightly higher in men than women in older age. Major risk factors for thrombosis, other than age, include exogenous factors such as surgery, hospitalization, immobility, trauma, pregnancy and the puerperium and hormone use, and endogenous factors such as cancer, obesity, and inherited and acquired disorde...

  1. Atopy and Specific Cancer Sites: a Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yubao; Hill, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence appears to link asthma and atopy to cancer susceptibility. This review presents and discusses published epidemiological studies on the association between site-specific cancers and atopy. PubMed was searched electronically for publications between 1995 and 2015, and cited references were researched manually. Quantitative studies relating to atopy, allergy, or asthma and cancer were identified and tabulated. Despite many exposure-related limitations, patterns in the studies were observed. Asthma, specifically, has been observed to be a risk factor for lung cancer. A protective effect of atopic diseases against pancreatic cancer has been shown consistently in case-control studies but not in cohort studies. Allergy of any type appears to be protective against glioma and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Most studies on atopic diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma or colorectal cancer reported an inverse association. The other sites identified had varying and non-significant outcomes. Further research should be dedicated to carefully defined exposure assessments of "atopy" as well as the biological plausibility in the association between atopic diseases and cancer.

  2. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  3. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therap...

  4. Dietary acrylamide intake and brain cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, which is present in several heat-treatedfood s. In epidemiologic studies, positive associations with endometrial, ovarian, and renal cell cancer risk have been observed. The incidence of central nervous system tumors was increased upon acrylamid

  5. Current issues in gastric cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patru, C L; Surlin, V; Georgescu, I; Patru, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract continues to be a major health problem by frequency, aggressiveness and low rate of cure in symptomatic stage. Although its incidence is decreasing (especially in the West), globally the gastric cancer is ranked fourth in incidence among cancers at various sites. Despite these developments, the gastric cancer mortality, overall declining globally, is high. especially in the West where even if diagnosed fewer cases of gastric cancer, TNM stages are advanced and have a poor prognosis. In contrast, in Japan, where the incidence is still high, the percentage of cases diagnosed at the stage of "early gastric cancer" has greatly increased, thus improving prognosis. Gastric neoplasia affects more men, age range 50-70 years, disadvantaged social classes and black race. In Romania the gastric cancer incidence is increasing over recent years, presenting variations across the country being more common in men compared with women, reaching a peak of incidence around age 60. Gastric cancer mortality in the world places Romania among the countries with average mortality. Gastric cancer prognosis remains extremely reserved, in close correlation with tumor stage at diagnosis, surgical treatment being the only possibility to provide improved survival, especially in the early stages. Improvement of survival rate in recent years is due to increased gastric resectability result of an earlier diagnosis, a more complex treatment and a closer monitoring of the population at risk.

  6. SU-D-16A-01: A Novel Method to Estimate Normal Tissue Dose for Radiotherapy Patients to Support Epidemiologic Studies of Second Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jung, J; Pelletier, C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Kim, J [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Patient cohort of second cancer study often involves radiotherapy patients with no radiological images available: We developed methods to construct a realistic surrogate anatomy by using computational human phantoms. We tested this phantom images both in a commercial treatment planning system (Eclipse) and a custom Monte Carlo (MC) transport code. Methods: We used a reference adult male phantom defined by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The hybrid phantom which was originally developed in Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) and polygon mesh format was converted into more common medical imaging format. Electron density was calculated from the material composition of the organs and tissues and then converted into DICOM format. The DICOM images were imported into the Eclipse system for treatment planning, and then the resulting DICOM-RT files were imported into the MC code for MC-based dose calculation. Normal tissue doses were calculation in Eclipse and MC code for an illustrative prostate treatment case and compared to each other. Results: DICOM images were generated from the adult male reference phantom. Densities and volumes of selected organs between the original phantom and ones represented within Eclipse showed good agreements, less than 0.6%. Mean dose from Eclipse and MC code match less than 7%, whereas maximum and minimum doses were different up to 45%. Conclusion: The methods established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support epidemiological studies of second cancer in cancer survivors treated by radiotherapy. We also work on implementing body size-dependent computational phantoms to better represent patient's anatomy when the height and weight of patients are available.

  7. Precursors in cancer epidemiology: aligning definition and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacholder, Sholom

    2013-04-01

    A precursor of a disease is a definable pathologic state that progresses directly to disease without a known intermediate step and whose presence substantially increases the likelihood of disease. Precancers, or precursors of cancer, can help provide detail about the dynamic pathogenesis process before clinical disease. Thereby, ascertainment of properly defined precancers can increase precision of estimates and power in epidemiologic and clinical studies. Besides providing targets for direct treatment and improving tools for risk assessment in screening programs, precancers can help establish temporal ordering of cause and effect; can identify relatively homogeneous subsets of cancer that have passed through a given precancer state; and provide a basis for choosing high-risk individuals for detailed longitudinal study. Although the most appropriate definition of the precancer will vary with its function in particular research or clinical applications, the proportion of cancers that progress from the precancer and risk of cancer progressing from the precancer can be important measures of the value of a precancer in translational efforts.

  8. Pancreatic Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiubo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PC (pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates have been increasing year by year worldwide, and this review has analyzed the most recent incidence and mortality data for pancreatic cancer occurrence in China. Several possible risk factors have been discussed here, involving known established risk factors and novel possible risk factors. The development of this cancer is a stepwise progression through intraepithelial neoplasia to carcinoma. Though early and accurate diagnosis is promising based on a combination of recent techniques including tumor markers and imaging modalities, lacking early clinical symptoms makes the diagnosis late. Correct staging is critical because treatment is generally based on this parameter. Treatment options have improved throughout the last decades. However, surgical excision remains the primary therapy and efficacy of conventional chemoradiotherapy for PC is limited. Recently, some novel new therapies have been developed and will be applied in clinics soon. This review will provide an overview of pancreatic cancer, including an understanding of the developments and controversies.

  9. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs.Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infec¬tions in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in sponta¬neous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  10. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  11. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the se­cond cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV expo­sures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  12. Perinatal epidemiological risk factors for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobić, Mirna Vuković; Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna Čerkez

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the impact of the potential perinatal epidemiological factors on preeclampsia development was assessed. This clinical study included 55 pregnant women with preeclampsia and control group of 50 healthy pregnant women. Positive family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or thromboembolic disease was recorded in 50% of women with preeclampsia versus 28% of control group women. Positive personal history of this disease was recorded in 15% of women with preeclampsia, whereas all control group women had negative personal history of preeclampsia. Dietary habits, i.e. the intake of meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, coffee and alcohol drinks were similar in the two groups, without statistically significant differences. The women with preeclampsia and control women reported comparable habits; there was no difference in the consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, coffee and alcohol, smoking, use of folate and oral hormonal contraception before pregnancy, or in physical activity as the potential risk factors for preeclampsia in current pregnancy. However, personal and family history of vascular disease proved to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of preeclampsia, emphasizing the need of lifestyle and dietary modifications with healthy dietary habits, while avoiding adverse habits in pregnancy.

  13. Cervical cancer risk factors in Liangshan with epidemiological studies%凉山州妇女宫颈癌危险因素的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅琪; 龚勋; 马燕; 罗连英; 廖国芳

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨凉山州妇女宫颈癌的危险因素.方法:采用回顾性流行病学问卷调查的形式,对80例住院患者进行临床流行病学调查,调查内容包括一般资料、既往病史、性行为和生育史、避孕史及吸烟史、生活习惯等,并以年龄、民族、居住地等为匹配条件选择对照组.结果:居住地、受教育程度、经济收入、孕次、食用腌制食品、被动吸烟、性生活后阴道冲洗等变量进入回归模型.结论:社会经济地位、多孕次、性生活卫生等因素与罹患宫颈癌有关.%Objective : To explore the cervical cancer risk factors in Liangshan , China. Methods : A retrospective epidemiological survey for 80 hospitalized paients was performed . Epidemiological survey included general information,past medical history, sexual and reproductive history, contraceptive history and smoking history, habits and so on. Results:The place of residence, education level, income, pregnancies, eating pickled foods, passive smoking, vaginal douching after sex and other variables were risk factor. Conclusion: The socio - economic status, number of pregnancies, sexual health and other factors are risk factors of cervical cancer.

  14. Epidemiology and etiology of ovarian cancer: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, A.P.; Hacker, N.F.; Lagasse, L.D.

    1985-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in the western world. Much effort has been put into attempts to correlate differences in incidence rates with environmental, endocrinologic, and genetic factors. A review of the literature reveals that there is currently no evidence to incriminate any single etiologic factor for this group of tumors. There is growing evidence of familial predisposition in a small group of patients and of a relationship with reproductive history. If current knowledge of the epidemiology of ovarian cancer is to be translated into disease prevention, more attention should be paid to women at risk because of their family history, and more awareness should be made of the protective effect of oral contraceptives. 79 references.

  15. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GS. Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Annual Review of Immunology 2011; 29:415-445. [PubMed Abstract] Randi G, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors. International Journal ...

  16. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  17. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases ...

  18. Statin use and risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Cecilie D.; Verdoodt, Freija; Friis, Søren

    2017-01-01

    (HRT), obesity, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and education. We evaluated whether the association between statin use and endometrial cancer varied with duration and intensity of statin use, type of endometrial cancer or patient characteristics. RESULTS: The study population comprised......INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (±one month) using risk-set sampling. Ever use of statin was defined as two or more prescriptions...

  19. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  20. UNRECOGNIZED OR POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS FOR CHILDHOOD CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional epidemiological studies suggest that the contribution of environmental agents to childhood cancer may be minor. However, epidemiological methods can only seldom identify causal factors associated with a relative risk of less than a factor of one and a half to two. App...

  1. Introduction: Epidemiologic research and prevention of occupational cancer in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Boffetta, P.; Kogevinas, M.

    1999-01-01

    Research on occupational cancer epidemiology has been an important area of occupational health in Europe since the early studies were conducted in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and 1960s. During the last decade, occupational cancer research in Europe has gained an international dimension and become increasingly interdisciplinary in nature. At present, occupational exposures might be responsible for 13 to 18% of lung cancers, 2 to 10% of bladder cancers, and 2 to 8% of laryngeal cancers in E...

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew MC

    2014-08-01

    accumulation in hereditary hemochromatosis and dietary iron overload in the Black African population and membranous obstruction of the inferior cava cause the tumor in a few countries. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, epidemiology, risk factors

  3. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H P

    1985-07-01

    Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in all developed countries and many of the urban centres of the developing world. It is the most frequent cancer site in Singapore, accounting for 23.4% (623 cases) of all cancer deaths and nearly 5% of all causes in 1982. Based on incidence data for 1968-1977, among males, there was an average of about 330 cases diagnosed each year, giving an annual incidence rate of 30.7 per 100,000 and a proportion of 21% against all sites. Among females, there was an average of about 115 cases, with the incidence rate at 11.2 and the proportion 10.3% (ranking third behind breast and cervix). The risks among the Chinese were more than double those of the other ethnic groups. The Hokkien (73.2 per 100,000) and Teochew (67.0) males had one of the highest age-standardized incidence rates in the world. Most of the cases were of the epidermoid carcinoma type. Among the females, the Cantonese (28.5) had about double the risks compared to the other dialect groups, and the rate was among the highest in the world. Adenocarcinomas accounted for almost 50% of the cases. The relevant host and environmental factors associated with lung cancer are discussed. Without doubt, cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor. The ultimate solution to this problem must lie in an effective smoking control programme, besides much-needed improvements in early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  4. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Grooters, Hilda G; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A Sandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kampman, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Peeters, Petra H M; de Vries, Esther; Wigger, Stefan; Kiemeney, L A L M Bart

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 common types of cancer. The test provides an estimate of individual risk of a specific type of cancer and gives specific lifestyle advice that could lower that risk. This paper describes the development of the test, how it works, and its strengths and limitations.

  5. Advancing the Contribution of Occupational Epidemiology to Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and quantification of risk factors that are characterized by low exposure levels, moderately increased risks, and unspecific exposure-disease relations is a major challenge facing risk assessment today. Occupational epidemiological studies can play a role in addressing this challe

  6. Milk and the risk and progression of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that nutritional factors contribute to a substantial proportion of cancer cases, and milk contains numerous bioactive substances that could affect risk and progression of cancer. Cancer results from multiple genetic and epigenetic events over time, so demonstrating a specific effect of nutrients or other bioactive food components in human cancer is challenging. Epidemiological evidence consistently suggests that milk intake is protective against colorectal cancer. Calcium supplements have been shown to reduce risk for recurrence of adenomatous polyps. Calcium supplementation has not been observed to reduce risk for colon cancer, although long latency and baseline calcium intake affect interpretation of these results. High calcium intake from both food and supplements is associated with increased risk for advanced or fatal prostate cancer. Results from epidemiological studies examining the relationship between intake of dairy foods and breast or ovarian cancer risk are not consistent. Animal studies have suggested that galactose may be toxic to ovarian cells, but results from epidemiological studies that have examined ovarian cancer risk and milk and/or lactose intakes are mixed. Dietary guidelines for cancer prevention encourage meeting recommended levels of calcium intake primarily through food choices rather than supplements, and choosing low-fat or nonfat dairy foods.

  7. Epigenetic research in cancer epidemiology: trends, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L; Schully, Sheri D; Nelson, Stefanie; Joseph Su, L; Ross, Sharon A; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiologic studies in NCI's grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from the NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples were also used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research.

  8. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  9. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-04

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  10. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingsheng Wang; Xiaoping Lin

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer incidence has increased rapidly in China over the last 20 years, especially in females. Among the 183 registered worldwide populations, lung cancer incidence in males was ranked as the 73rd, 74th, 127th and 23rd respectively for Shanghai, Tianjin, Qidong and Hong Kong, and in females the 52nd, 13th, 102nd and 23rd. The sex ratio (M/F) ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 for most areas. The ratio of squamous/ adenocarcinoma was 2.01 in males and 0.67 in females in Tianjin, 0.97 and 0.28 in Hong Kong, 1.00 and 0.61 in the US white population and 1.18 and 0.49 in US blacks. Much research on risk factors have been conducted and documented including the following: genetic predisposition/polymorphism, smoking/coal soot and DNA adduct, cytochrome p450-1A1 (CYP1A1), glutathione S-transferase-M (GST-M), viral infection/HPV infection, high background radiation, family history, tobacco consumption, mental health, prior lung diseases, coal soot indoor air pollution, cooking fume indoor air pollution, hormones, diet, occupational exposure, outdoor air pollution, socioeconomic level/education, alcohol consumption and their interactions(addition/synergy). Based on current information we should carefully devise a plan to control lung cancer that can be put into practice.

  11. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  12. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI, an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002. For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%. However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78. Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06, and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58. In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10-5. Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk.

  13. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Annals of Epidemiology 2014; 24(2),151–159. [PubMed ... in a prospective cohort of Chinese women. Cancer Science 2009; 100(6):1088-1091. [PubMed Abstract] Related ...

  14. Epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Zamir Ali; Akram, Muhammad; Asif, H M; Sultana, Sabira; Khan, Asmatullah

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is more common in men over the age of 65 years. There are 15% cases with positive family history of prostate cancer Worldwide. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death among the U.S. men. Prostate cancer incidence is strongly related to age with the highest rates in older man. Globally millions of people are suffering from this disease. This study aims to provide awareness about prostate cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

  15. The impact of red and processed meat consumption on cancer and other health outcomes: Epidemiological evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Luzardo, O P

    2016-06-01

    Meat is one of the staples of the human diet, which provides high-quality nutrients, but that also constitutes a relevant source of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. Epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Most epidemiological studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially processed meat, is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Potential reasons for the association between high meat intake and colorectal cancer risk include some chemicals naturally contained in meat, or generated by the processing and cooking. From the literature it can be concluded that there is enough epidemiological evidence linking processed meat intake and colorectal cancer risk, but there is limited evidence regarding unprocessed red meat intake and the disease. On the contrary, there is only limited evidence linking meat intake with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or other cancers. Nevertheless, the literature suggest that dietary intervention may be a promising approach for prevention of cancers of the colon, esophagus, liver, stomach and bladder, and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which still need to be confirmed by further well designed prospective studies and experimental research.

  16. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  17. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer Risk: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Rong Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no change in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic men. A recent pooled analysis, including 5 prospective studies from the USA, showed that the summary hazard ratio (95% confidence interval for women was 1.19 (0.84–1.69 and was 0.96 (0.65–1.42 for men. Therefore, the results are controversial and the association between diabetes and thyroid cancer is probably weak. Further studies are necessary to confirm their relationship. Proposed mechanisms for such a possible link between diabetes and thyroid cancer include elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, insulin, glucose and triglycerides, insulin resistance, obesity, vitamin D deficiency, and antidiabetic medications such as insulin or sulfonylureas.

  18. Epidemiology of Liver Cancer in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Xavier Bosch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer (LC ranks fifth in frequency in the world, with an estimated 437,000 new cases in 1990. The estimates are different when LC frequency is analyzed by sex and geographical areas. In developed areas, the estimates are 53,879 among men and 26,939 among women. In developing areas, the estimates are 262,043 in men and 93,961 in women. Areas of highest rates include Eastern and South Eastern Asia, Japan, Africa and the Pacific Islands (LC age-adjusted incidence rates [AAIRs] ranging from 17.6 to 34.8. Intermediate rates (LC AAIRs from 4.7 to 8.9 among men are found in Southern, Eastern and Western Europe, Central America, Western Asia and Northern Africa. Low rates are found among men in Northern Europe, America, Canada, South Central Asia, Australia and New Zealand (LC AAIRs range from 2.7 to 3.2. In Europe, an excess of LC incidence among men compared with women is observed, and the age peak of the male excess is around 60 to 70 years of age. Significant variations in LC incidence among different countries have been described and suggest differences in exposure to risk factors. Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in the etiology of LC is well established. In Europe, 28% of LC cases have been attributed to chronic HBV infection and 21% to HCV infection. Other risk factors such as alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and oral contraceptives may explain the residual variation within countries. Interactions among these risk factors have been postulated. New laboratory techniques and biological markers such as polymerase chain reaction detection of HBV DNA and HCV RNA, as well as specific mutations related to LC, may help to provide quantitative estimates of the risk related to each these factors.

  19. Epidemiology and early diagnosis of primary liver cancer in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, F.S.; Shen, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in different areas in China have revealed several outstanding risk factors of PLC, i.e., HBV infection, pollution of drinking water, contamination of food by AFB1 and/or nitrosamines, and family predisposition. Accordingly, a program of HBV vaccination, improved supply of drinking water, better preservation and storage of food, and possibly chemoprevention for high-risk populations should be effective preventive measures. Studies have shown that frequent AFP screening in high-risk populations is highly recommended to detect early cases of PLC. According to research in Qidong, careful follow-up of the dynamic changes of AFP in individuals with persistent low levels of positive AFP is important for distinguishing other conditions from true PLC. Newer means for the localization of small-size PLC (under 5 cm), such as type B ultrasonography, nuclide scanning, computerized tomography, and hepatoangiography, represent remarkable progress in improving markedly the success of surgery and hence the survival rate of PLC patients. The advances in knowledge of PLC have been encouraging. Although much work remains to be done on the etiological agents and the mechanism of oncogenesis, it is time that larger scale control measures be put into effect in high-incidence areas to discover if one of the most common cancers in the world can be controlled. 62 references.

  20. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies 1-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Plant polyphenols, a large group of natural antioxidants, are serious candidates in explanations of the protective effects of vegetables and fruits against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies are useful for evaluation of the human health effects of long-term exposure to physiol

  1. Diabetes mellitus type 2 - an independent risk factor for cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, V A; Becker, S; Kaaks, R

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological findings have shown up to two-fold increases in the risks of cancers of the colorectum, breast, endometrium, kidney (renal cell tumours), liver and pancreas among diabetes patients. In the present review, we address the question whether, on the basis of these epidemiological observations, type 2 diabetes should be considered a specific and independent risk factor for these various forms of cancer, due to its particular metabolic characteristics of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. On the basis of further epidemiological evidence among non-diabetic individuals, as well as recent studies examining the effects of different types of diabetes treatment on cancer risks, we conclude that chronic elevations in fasting and non-fasting blood levels of glucose and/or insulin are plausible independent risk factors for cancer, but that much of the increase in cancer risks associated with these two metabolic factors may occur within the normoglycaemic and insulinemic (non-diabetic) ranges. Furthermore, for some tumour types (e. g. cancer of the endometrium) the associations of risk with type 2 diabetes may to a large extent be due to, and at least partially confounded by, other obesity-related alterations in (e. g. sex steroid) metabolism that in part are independent of glucose and/or insulin metabolism. Specifically for pancreatic cancer, a major question, addressed in detail by other reviews, is whether associations of risk with plasma glucose, insulin or overt type 2 diabetes could be either a cause, or possibly also a consequence of tumour development (or both).

  2. A review of the epidemiological evidence on tea, flavonoids, and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Ilja C W

    2008-08-01

    Tea and its main bioactive ingredients, the flavonoids, have been associated with human cancer for several decades. In this article, an overview is provided of observational epidemiological studies of lung cancer incidence in relation to intake of green tea, black tea, flavonols/flavones, and catechins. A PubMed search was conducted in September 2007. Articles were selected if they provided risk ratios (relative risk or odds ratio) for lung cancer and were of observational design (cohort, case-control, or case-cohort). Three of 12 studies reported a significantly lower risk of lung cancer with a high intake of flavonoids, whereas 1 study reported a significantly increased risk. After stratification by type of flavonoid, catechin intake was no longer associated with lung cancer risk in 3 of 4 studies available. For tea, 4 of 20 studies reported significantly reduced risks with high intake. Two studies found significantly increased risk ratios, but both were older studies. Findings were similar for green and black tea but became more significant when only methodologically sounder cohort studies were considered. When tea intake and lung cancer were studied among never- or former smokers to eliminate the confounding effect of smoking, 4 of 7 reported associations were significantly protective. In general, the studies on tea, flavonoids, and lung cancer risk indicate a small beneficial association, particularly among never-smokers. More well-designed cohort studies, in particular for catechins, are needed to strengthen the evidence on effects of long-term exposure to physiological doses of dietary flavonoids.

  3. Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies: The pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Ritz, J.; Albanes, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Bernstein, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cho, E.; Colditz, G.A.; Folsom, A.R.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Shore, R.; Virtanen, M.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Hunter, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within

  4. Flavonoid and lignan intake and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina-Montes, Esther; Sánchez, María José; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Wark, Petra A.; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Travis, Ruth C.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Krogh, Vittorio; Martorana, Caterina; Masala, Giovanna; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Quirós, José Ramón; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Angell Åsli, Lene; Skeie, Guri; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Peeters, Petra H.; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Overvad, Kim; Clemens, Matthias; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peppa, Eleni; Vidalis, Pavlos; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutroun-Rualt, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cross, Amanda J.; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the E

  5. Moderate alcohol consumption and breast cancer in women: from epidemiology to mechanisms and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Philip J; Zakhari, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk in women. Understanding the mechanistic basis of this relationship has important implications for women's health and breast cancer prevention. In this commentary, we focus on some recent epidemiologic studies linking moderate alcohol consumption to breast cancer risk and place the results of those studies within the framework of our current understanding of the temporal and mechanistic basis of human carcinogenesis. This analysis supports the hypothesis that alcohol acts as a weak cumulative breast carcinogen and may also be a tumor promoter. We discuss the implications of these mechanisms for the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related breast cancer and present some considerations for future studies. Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health and recently been associated with healthy aging. Therefore, a better understanding of how moderate alcohol consumption impacts breast cancer risk will allow women to make better informed decisions about the risks and benefits of alcohol consumption in the context of their overall health and at different stages of their life. Such mechanistic information is also important for the development of rational clinical interventions to reduce ethanol-related breast cancer mortality.

  6. Recent changes in bacteremia in patients with cancer: a systematic review of epidemiology and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montassier, E; Batard, E; Gastinne, T; Potel, G; de La Cochetière, M F

    2013-07-01

    Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complication in patients with cancer. Significant changes in the spectrum of microorganisms isolated from blood culture have been reported in cancer patients over the past years. The aim of our systematic review was to inventory the recent trends in epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of microorganisms causing bacteremia in cancer patients. Data for this review was identified by searches of Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Library for indexed articles and abstracts published in English since 2008. The principal search terms were: "antimicrobial resistance", "bacteremia", "bacterial epidemiology", "bloodstream infection", "cancer patients", "carbapenem resistance", "Escherichia coli resistance", "extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli", "febrile neutropenia", "fluoroquinolone resistance", "neutropenic cancer patient", "vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus", and "multidrug resistance". Boolean operators (NOT, AND, OR) were also used in succession to narrow and widen the search. Altogether, 27 articles were selected to be analyzed in the review. We found that Gram-negative bacteria were the most frequent pathogen isolated, particularly in studies with minimal use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Another important trend is the extensive emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains associated with increased risk of morbidity, mortality and cost. This increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance has been reported in Gram-negative bacteria as well as in Gram-positive bacteria. This exhaustive review, reporting the recent findings in epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of bacteremia in cancer patients, highlights the necessity of local continuous surveillance of bacteremia and stringent enforcement of antibiotic stewardship programs in cancer patients.

  7. Beta blockers, norepinephrine, and cancer: an epidemiological viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzgerald PJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul J FitzgeraldThe Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute, Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: There is growing evidence that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE and its sister molecule epinephrine (EPI (adrenaline affect some types of cancer. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that chronic use of beta blocking drugs (which antagonize NE/EPI receptors results in lower recurrence, progression, or mortality of breast cancer and malignant melanoma. Preclinical studies have shown that manipulation of the levels or receptors of NE and EPI with drugs affects experimentally induced cancers. Psychological stress may play an etiological role in some cases of cancer (which has been shown epidemiologically, and this could be partly mediated by NE and EPI released by the sympathetic nervous system as part of the body’s “fight or flight” response. A less well-appreciated phenomenon is that the genetic tone of NE/EPI may play a role in cancer. NE and EPI may affect cancer by interacting with molecular pathways already implicated in abnormal cellular replication, such as the P38/MAPK pathway, or via oxidative stress. NE/EPI-based drugs other than beta blockers also may prevent or treat various types of cancer, as may cholinesterase inhibitors that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system, which could be tested epidemiologically.Keywords: clonidine, guanfacine, aspirin, acetylcholine, epinephrine, adrenaline, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, inflammation

  8. Physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer : The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedenreich, Christine; Cust, Anne; Lahmann, Petra H.; Steindorf, Karen; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Pischon, Tobias; Schulz, Mandy; Tjonneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Fons; Overvad, Kim; Mendez, Michelle; Arguelles, M. V.; Martinez Garcia, Carmen; Larranaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Slimani, Nadia; Ferrari, Pietro; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    The etiologic role of physical activity in endometrial cancer risk remains unclear given the few epidemiologic studies that have been conducted. To investigate this relation more fully, an analysis was,undertaken in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). During an a

  9. Plant sterol intakes and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normén, A.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Voorrips, L.E.; Andersson, H.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2001-01-01

    Background: Plant sterols in vegetable foods might prevent colorectal cancer. Objective: The objective was to study plant sterol intakes in relation to colorectal cancer risk in an epidemiologic study. Design: The study was performed within the framework of the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and C

  10. Frontiers in cancer epidemiology: a challenge to the research community from the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program at the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Freedman, Andrew N; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harvey, Chinonye E; Kaefer, Christie; Reid, Britt C; Rogers, Scott; Schully, Sheri D; Seminara, Daniela; Verma, Mukesh

    2012-07-01

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing scientific priorities for cancer epidemiology research in the next decade. We would like to engage the research community and other stakeholders in a planning effort that will include a workshop in December 2012 to help shape new foci for cancer epidemiology research. To facilitate the process of defining the future of cancer epidemiology, we invite the research community to join in an ongoing web-based conversation at http://blog-epi.grants.cancer.gov/ to develop priorities and the next generation of high-impact studies.

  11. Review of epidemiological evidence for reproductive and hormonal factors in relation to the risk of epithelial ovarian malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riman, Tomas; Nilsson, Staffan; Persson, Ingemar R

    2004-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality related to gynecologic malignancies in Sweden but there is no current screening program. Based upon epidemiological research there is evidence that certain reproductive factors are associated with ovarian cancer risk. Most studies generally indicate that each childbirth incurs a 15-20% risk reduction. Women who have used oral contraceptives for 5 years or longer experience about half the risk of ovarian cancer compared with never users. Breastfeeding seems to be protective while age at menarche and at menopause are less consistent risk predictors. Tubal ligation and hysterectomy seem to reduce ovarian cancer risk by up to 80%. Although some studies found endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) to be positively related to ovarian cancer, the role of these factors is not yet established. Most recent studies observed an approximately 50% ovarian cancer risk increase among ever users of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) compared with never users, and the risk increased further with long-term use. There is less information concerning separate estrogen and progestin effects of HRT and ovarian cancer risk. Although the cause of ovarian cancer remains obscure, hypotheses relating to "incessant" ovulation, excessive gonadotropin secretion, retrograde carcinogen transportation, apoptosis and estrogen/progestin imbalance have been invoked as etiological explanations. All these hypotheses find various epidemiological support. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiological findings on reproductive factors and ovarian cancer risk. These findings are considered in the context of etiologic hypotheses and some new research areas are suggested.

  12. Leveraging epidemiology and clinical studies of cancer outcomes: recommendations and opportunities for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Joanne W; Travis, Lois B; Simonds, Naoko I; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bhatia, Smita; Cerhan, James R; Hartge, Patricia; Heist, Rebecca S; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lash, Timothy L; Morton, Lindsay M; Onel, Kenan; Pierce, John P; Robison, Leslie L; Rowland, Julia H; Schrag, Deborah; Sellers, Thomas A; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao Ou; Thomas, Nancy E; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Freedman, Andrew N

    2013-01-16

    As the number of cancer survivors continues to grow, research investigating the factors that affect cancer outcomes, such as disease recurrence, risk of second malignant neoplasms, and the late effects of cancer treatments, becomes ever more important. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated factors that affect cancer risk, but far fewer have addressed the extent to which demographic, lifestyle, genomic, clinical, and psychosocial factors influence cancer outcomes. To identify research priorities as well as resources and infrastructure needed to advance the field of cancer outcomes and survivorship research, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop titled "Utilizing Data from Cancer Survivor Cohorts: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities" on November 3, 2011, in Washington, DC. This commentary highlights recent findings presented at the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and recommendations for future research, data, and infrastructure needed to address high priority clinical and research questions. Multidisciplinary teams that include epidemiologists, clinicians, biostatisticians, and bioinformaticists will be essential to facilitate future cancer outcome studies focused on improving clinical care of cancer patients, identifying those at high risk of poor outcomes, and implementing effective interventions to ultimately improve the quality and duration of survival.

  13. Geographic information system for Long Island: An epidemiologic systems approach to identify environmental breast cancer risks on Long Island. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    BNL is developing and implementing the project ``Geographic Information System (GIS) for Long Island`` to address the potential relationship of environmental and occupational exposures to breast cancer etiology on Long Island. The project is divided into two major phases: The four month-feasibility project (Phase 1), and the major development and implementation project (Phase 2). This report summarizes the work completed in the four month Phase 1 Project, ``Feasibility of a Geographic Information System for Long Island.`` It provides the baseline information needed to further define and prioritize the scope of work for subsequent tasks. Phase 2 will build upon this foundation to develop an operational GIS for the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP).

  14. The changing epidemiology of smoking and lung cancer histology.

    OpenAIRE

    Wynder, E. L.; Muscat, J E

    1995-01-01

    In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies demonstrated that lung cancer is causatively associated with cigarette smoking, a finding subsequently confirmed by the Royal College of Physicians in London, the U.S. Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. Although cigarette consumption has gradually decreased in the United States from a high of about 3800 cigarettes per adult per year in 1965 to about 2800 cigarettes in 1993, death from lung cancer has reached a high among ...

  15. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  16. Risk of gynecologic cancers in Danish hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boilesen, Astrid Elisabeth Bruun; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Bernstein, Inge

    2008-01-01

    . Data in the Danish HNPCC register on the frequency and lifetime risk of gynecologic cancers were analyzed and the actual surveillance strategy discussed in relation to the results. DESIGN: Register-based retrospective study. METHOD: A total of 1,780 at-risk women were identified and epidemiological...... of ovarian cancer were identified with a lifetime risk of three to four times the general population. No significant correlation was found between the frequency of ovarian cancer and MMR gene mutation status in the families. CONCLUSION: The benefit of surveillance concerning gynecological cancers seems...

  17. [Risk factors for cesarean section: epidemiologic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo Hernández, B; Tene Pérez, C E; Ríos Silva, M

    2000-07-01

    The increase in frequency of cesareans that has been noted through 70's, not diminished--like it was expected--perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most important indications to cesarean are distocias, previous cesarean and fetal stress. In 1998 frequency of cesarean deliveries in our hospital was 35% of the pregnancy attended. The claim of this study was to determine risks factors to cesarean in our hospital. A case-control study was performed, selecting 165 cases (cesareans) and 328 controls (via vaginal). It was determined OR of the risks factors and atribuible fraction. Data were analyzed by X2. The most important indications to cesarean delivery were: distocias (39%, n = 64); previous cesarean (23%, n = 41) and fetal stress (11%, n = 21). There was not significative differences in age, height and rupture membrane time in both groups. History of cesarean delivery gave major risk to another surgical intervention (OR = 12.7, p = < 0.0001, atribuible fraction 92%). Nuliparous (OR = 6.6, p < 0.00000, atribuible fraction 85%), second gestation (OR = 1.8, p = 0.002) or history of abortion (OR = 1.8, p = 0.04) were factors mainly associated to cesarean delivery. We concluded that the precise 'medications of this surgical intervention specially in nuliparous or previous cesarean delivery cases must be replanteated to diminish its elevated frequency.

  18. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman;

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case......-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum...... concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines, and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at pdiscrimination was assessed using...

  19. 2. Molecular Biology as a Tool in Cancer Epidemiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@There can be little doubt that we are entering a new era in our understanding of the origins of human cancer. Unfortunately from the point of view of the cancer epidemiology community, some of the more recent advances in the molecular biology of cancer (once fully assimilated) will tend to make the talk of the up-to-date cancer epidemiologist a great deal less straightforward than many of us had previously envisaged it to be, There may still be a few cancers that will prove to result from only a few distinctive types of mutation in a relatively small number of genes, but I strongly suspect that the great majority of human cancers that we wish to study will prove to have their origins in a complex set of DNA changes whose precise

  20. Epidemiology of gastroenterologic cancer in Henan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Bang Lu; Xi-Bin Sun; Di-Xin Dai; Shi-Kuan Zhu; Qiu-Ling Chang; Shu-Zheng Liu; Wen-Jie Duan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the mortality rates of gastroenterologic cancers for the period between 1974 and 1999, in Henan Province, China and its epidemiologic features.METHODS: Information on death of patients with cancer was provided by the county-city registries. Population data were provided by the local police bureau. All the deaths of cancer registered were classified according to the threedigit rubric of the ICD-9. Cancer mortality rates reported herein were age-adjusted, using the world population as standard and weighted piecewise linear regression analysis.RESULTS: Total cancer age-adjusted mortality rates were 195.91 per 100 000 for males and 124.36 per 100 000 for females between 1996 and 1998. During the period of 19741999, a remarkable decrease took place in esophageal carcinoma, stomach cancer remained essentially stable and liver cancer, a moderate increase. Colorectal cancer was slightly increased over the last two decades.CONCLUSION: The population-based cancer registry can give an accurate picture of cancer in Henan Province, by providing a set of analyses of selected cancer mortality data as a source of reference for researchers in cancer, public health and health care services.

  1. Body mass index and risk of head and neck cancer in a pooled analysis of case–control studies in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Olshan, Andrew F; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Berthiller, Julien; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lissowska, Jolanta; Zaridze, David; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neolilia; Sturgis, Erich M; Schwartz, Stephen M; Rudnai, Peter; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Bucur, Alexandru; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Kelsey, Karl; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silva; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Dal Maso, Luigino; Paula Curado, Maria; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; Benhamou, Simone; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia

    2010-01-01

    Background Head and neck cancer (HNC) risk is elevated among lean people and reduced among overweight or obese people in some studies; however, it is unknown whether these associations differ for certain subgroups or are influenced by residual confounding from the effects of alcohol and tobacco use or by other sources of biases. Methods We pooled data from 17 case–control studies including 12 716 cases and the 17 438 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between body mass index (BMI) at different ages and HNC risk, adjusted for age, sex, centre, race, education, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Results Adjusted ORs (95% CIs) were elevated for people with BMI at reference (date of diagnosis for cases and date of selection for controls) ≤18.5 kg/m2 (2.13, 1.75–2.58) and reduced for BMI >25.0–30.0 kg/m2 (0.52, 0.44–0.60) and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (0.43, 0.33–0.57), compared with BMI >18.5–25.0 kg/m2. These associations did not differ by age, sex, tumour site or control source. Although the increased risk among people with BMI ≤18.5 kg/m2 was not modified by tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking, the inverse association for people with BMI > 25 kg/m2 was present only in smokers and drinkers. Conclusions In our large pooled analysis, leanness was associated with increased HNC risk regardless of smoking and drinking status, although reverse causality cannot be excluded. The reduced risk among overweight or obese people may indicate body size is a modifier of the risk associated with smoking and drinking. Further clarification may be provided by analyses of prospective cohort and mechanistic studies. PMID:20123951

  2. Resistant hypertension: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Deneka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possibilities of contemporary pharmacotherapy, more than 80% of hypertensive patients do not achieve target blood pressure levels. Besides the obvious reasons – poor adherence of patients to treatment and non-rational therapy, there are other objective risk factors of resistance. Three main modifiable causes of resistant hypertension, that are often underestimated, are considered: obesity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and primary hyperaldosteronism. Understanding these mechanisms of resistance and their diagnostic criteria can improve the results of resistant hypertension treatment.

  3. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or enviro......BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic...... or environmental factors. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated...... genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from...

  4. The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and women cancer: the epidemiological evidences and putative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Kyong Hye; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Ku, Bon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a chronic disease increasing rapidly worldwide, is well established as an important risk factor for various types of cancer. Although many factors impact the development of T2DM and cancer including sex, age, ethnicity, obesity, diet, physical activity levels, and environmental exposure, many epidemiological and experimental studies are gradually contributing to knowledge regarding the interrelationship between DM and cancer. The insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and chronic inflammation associated with diabetes mellitus are all associated strongly with cancer. The changes in bioavailable ovarian steroid hormone that occur in diabetes mellitus (the increasing levels of estrogen and androgen and the decreasing level of progesterone) are also considered potentially carcinogenic conditions for the breast, endometrium, and ovaries in women. In addition, the interaction among insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and ovarian steroid hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, could act synergistically during cancer development. Here, we review the cancer-related mechanisms in T2DM, the epidemiological evidence linking T2DM and cancers in women, and the role of antidiabetic medication in these cancers.

  5. Genetic-epidemiological evidence for the role of acetaldehyde in cancers related to alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C J Peter

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking increases the risk for a number of cancers. Currently, the highest risk (Group 1) concerns oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast, as assessed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Alcohol and other beverage constituents, their metabolic effects, and alcohol-related unhealthy lifestyles have been suggested as etiological factors. The aim of the present survey is to evaluate the carcinogenic role of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers, with special emphasis on the genetic-epidemiological evidence. Acetaldehyde, as a constituent of alcoholic beverages, and microbial and endogenous alcohol oxidation well explain why alcohol-related cancers primarily occur in the digestive tracts and other tissues with active alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Genetic-epidemiological research has brought compelling evidence for the causality of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers. Thus, IARC recently categorized alcohol-drinking-related acetaldehyde to Group 1 for head and neck and esophageal cancers. This is probably just the tip of the iceberg, since more recent epidemiological studies have also shown significant positive associations between the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 (rs671)*2 allele (encoding inactive enzyme causing high acetaldehyde elevations) and gastric, colorectal, lung, and hepatocellular cancers. However, a number of the current studies lack the appropriate matching or stratification of alcohol drinking in the case-control comparisons, which has led to erroneous interpretations of the data. Future studies should consider these aspects more thoroughly. The polymorphism phenotypes (flushing and nausea) may provide valuable tools for future successful health education in the prevention of alcohol-drinking-related cancers.

  6. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Dose-effect relationships, epidemiological analysis and the derivation of low dose risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenhouts, H P [Bennekom (Netherlands); Chadwick, K H, E-mail: kennethhchadwick@aol.com [Cowan Head, Kendal (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    This paper expands on our recent comments in a letter to this journal about the analysis of epidemiological studies and the determination of low dose RBE of low LET radiation (Chadwick and Leenhouts 2009 J. Radiol. Prot. 29 445-7). Using the assumption that radiation induced cancer arises from a somatic mutation (Chadwick and Leenhouts 2011 J. Radiol. Prot. 31 41-8) a model equation is derived to describe cancer induction as a function of dose. The model is described briefly, evidence is provided in support of it, and it is applied to a set of experimental animal data. The results are compared with a linear fit to the data as has often been done in epidemiological studies. The article presents arguments to support several related messages which are relevant to epidemiological analysis, the derivation of low dose risk and the weighting factor of sparsely ionising radiations. The messages are: (a) cancer incidence following acute exposure should, in principle, be fitted to a linear-quadratic curve with cell killing using all the data available; (b) the acute data are dominated by the quadratic component of dose; (c) the linear fit of any acute data will essentially be dependent on the quadratic component and will be unrelated to the effectiveness of the radiation at low doses; consequently, (d) the method used by ICRP to derive low dose risk from the atomic bomb survivor data means that it is unrelated to the effectiveness of the hard gamma radiation at low radiation doses; (e) the low dose risk value should, therefore, not be used as if it were representative for hard gamma rays to argue for an increased weighting factor for tritium and soft x-rays even though there are mechanistic reasons to expect this; (f) epidemiological studies of chronically exposed populations supported by appropriate cellular radiobiological studies have the best chance of revealing different RBE values for different sparsely ionising radiations.

  18. Heart Risks May Boost Women's Colon Cancer Risk, Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wasn't involved in the research. Excluding skin cancers, colon cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in ... Cancer Society says. The "absolute" risk of developing colon cancer over a specified period of time varies by ...

  19. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  20. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  1. [Epidemiological research on environmental health risks and their economic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E

    2009-12-01

    In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies.

  2. Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen J D; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.

  3. Counseling women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanek, M E

    1990-01-01

    Cancer risk analysis is a relatively new clinical service that has developed as more precise information has become available regarding specific risk factors. Both epidemiological and genetic factors contribute substantially to the identification of women at higher risk for developing breast cancer. The definition of what constitutes risk, an understanding of which factors influence risk, and the ability to present risk information clearly are critical features. In addition to providing information about risk and assessing each woman's perception of risk, the emotional issues must be addressed. The focus of intervention should center upon the benefits of early detection, assessment of breast self-examination skills, individualized breast cancer screening recommendations, such as mammography and physical exams, and recommendations for life style changes for possible prevention.

  4. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Chan, D.S.; Vieira, A.R.; Navarro Rosenblatt, D.A.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer; however, the association with colorectal adenomas is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of red and processed meat intake and

  5. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Chan, D.S.M.; Vieira, A.; Navarro Rosenblatt, D.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current evidence indicates that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer; however, the association with colorectal adenomas is unclear. Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of red and processed meat intake and r

  6. Epidemiology of cancer in Mazandaran province 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Norouzi Nejad1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 11 April, 2009 ; Accepted 8 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Cancer is the second most common cause of death in developed countries and third in less developed countries. The incidence of the different histological types of cancer varies greatly between various populations and is attributed to occupational, social, cultural, racial, and geographic influences. The objective of this study was to determine and register all cases of cancer among population of Mazandaran province, during the year of .Materials and methods: Characteristics of all registered malignancies were obtained from records in histopathology and radiology clinical, hospitals and deaths certificated in Mazandaran using the International Classification of Disease (ICD, with data being analyzed using ASR, Excel and spss soft ware.Results: A total of . patients with cancers were found during this study. These, .. were males and . (.% females. Age standardized rate (ASR for all cancers in males and females were 1. and . Respectively. The most common malignancies among females were breast (. skin (., colon and rectum cancers (..In men, stomach (42.41, skin (. and esophagus (. were the most common cancers respectively. Infiltrating duct carcinoma, was the most common histopathological types of tumors (69. in breast cancer. The most common morphology in stomach cancer was adenocarcinoma, (..Conclusion: Distribution of malignant disorders in our population is different from other regions. Therefore, it appears necessary to have a valid health policy for prevention. Consequently, it is necessary to have a valid health policy for prevention and control of this problem.Key words: J Mazand Univ Med

  7. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment.

  8. Lung cancer risk in relation to dietary acrylamide intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background : Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is present in several heat-treated foods. In epidemiological studies, positive associations between dietary acrylamide intake and the risks of endometrial, ovarian, estrogen receptor-positive breast, and renal cell cancers have been observe

  9. Combining Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Genetic Variant rs2736100 with Epidemiologic Factors in the Prediction of Lung Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Ma, Kewei; Chi, Lumei; Cui, Jiuwei; Jin, Lina; Hu, Ji-Fan; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variants from a considerable number of susceptibility loci have been identified in association with cancer risk, but their interaction with epidemiologic factors in lung cancer remains to be defined. We sought to establish a forecasting model for identifying individuals with high-risk of lung cancer by combing gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with epidemiologic factors. Genotyping and clinical data from 500 lung cancer cases and 500 controls were used for developing the logistic regression model. We found that lung cancer was associated with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) rs2736100 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The TERT rs2736100 model was still significantly associated with lung cancer risk when combined with environmental and lifestyle factors, including lower education, lower BMI, COPD history, heavy cigarettes smoking, heavy cooking emission, and dietary factors (over-consumption of meat and deficiency in fish/shrimp, vegetables, dairy products, and soybean products). These data suggest that combining TERT SNP and epidemiologic factors may be a useful approach to discriminate high and low-risk individuals for lung cancer.

  10. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes : A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; Heikkilae, Paeivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van 't Veer, Laura J.; Van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M. S.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Doerk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menendez Rodriguez, Primitiva; Zamora, Pilar; Bentez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yang, Show-Lin; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gorski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collee, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkaes, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Paeivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Orsted, David Dynnes; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P. E. A.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35 568 invasive breast cancer case patients f

  11. Descriptive epidemiology of childhood cancer in Cali

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Luz Stella; Collazos, Paola; Aristizabal, Paula; Ramirez, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present report is to describe the occurrence and survival patterns of childhood cancer over the last 20 years in Cali. Methods: Information was obtained from the Cancer Population Registry in Cali and the Municipal Department of Health . Childhood cancer international classification was used. The vital status was obtained from MDH death certificate and hospital databases. Additionally, clinical records were revised and, in some cases, telephone contact was carried out. Follow-up was done until 31/12/2011. Incident and mortality rates were estimated and adjusted for age. Life-tables were made to estimate overall survival. Results: Between the years of 1977-2011, there were 2311 cases identified in children under 15 years of age. The IR and MR for Cali were found to be 141.2 and 55.6 per million of people per year. Leukemias, lymphomas, CNS tumors and soft tissue sarcomas showed IR of 60.1, 20.5, 25.7 and 9.4, respectively. 5-years OS was 48%, and showed an improvement from 24.9%±4.3 to 51.8%±4.6, compared 1992-96 vs 2002-06 periods. Conclusion: The IR found is comparable with those described in affluent countries. Taking into account that pediatric cancer is curable for about 75-80% of the cases, it presents an enormous challenge to the Colombian health system: to improve current clinical results. PMID:24892613

  12. Epidemiologic aspects of exogenous progestagens in relation to their role in pathogenesis of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, F E

    1991-01-01

    This review focuses on epidemiologic studies of the relationship between breast cancer risk and exogenous progestagens, as present in oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. Subsequently, it will be discussed whether the present findings are consistent with one of the hypotheses that have been postulated for the role of hormones in breast cancer pathogenesis. The relationship between oral contraceptives and breast cancer is still controversial. Several studies have found that prolonged oral contraceptives use at young ages is associated with increased risk to develop breast cancer at an early age, i.e. before age 35. None of these studies, however, has been able to attribute the increased risk to specific formulations of oral contraceptives, or to the progestagen content of the preparations. This may be largely due to the fact that there is no good method to calculate progestagen potencies of different formulations. There are no reliable data regarding the effect of progestagen-only oral contraceptives on breast cancer risk. Studies conducted so far included only few women who used these preparations exclusively and for an extended period. Use of injectable contraceptives, mainly depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate, may slightly increase breast cancer, but current findings are inconclusive. There is suggestive evidence that the addition of progestagens to estrogen replacement therapy may increase breast cancer risk over that associated with exposure to estrogens alone. However, the data are not sufficient to warrant any recommendation about changes in clinical practice, and more studies of estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy are needed to settle this issue. It is argued that the "unopposed estrogen" hypothesis for breast cancer is not consistent with the known effects of oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy. The "estrogen plus progestagen" hypothesis seems to be more consistent with current epidemiologic

  13. Introduction and overview. Perinatal carcinogenesis: growing a node for epidemiology, risk management, and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lucy M

    2004-09-01

    Perinatal carcinogenesis as a cross-disciplinary concern is the subject of this special issue of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, which consists of a total of eight reviews or commentaries in the areas of epidemiology, risk assessment, and animal models. Some of the conclusions from these articles, and the Questions and Answers section that follows most of them, are summarized here. There is adequate reason to suspect that perinatal exposures contribute to human cancer risk, both childhood cancers, and those appearing later in life. The latter type of risk may actually be quantitatively the more important, and involve a wide range of types of effects, but has received only limited attention. With regard to childhood cancers, fetal irradiation and diethylstilbestrol exposure are known etiological agents, and it is likely, but not yet certain, there are additional external causes of a portion of these. Some current focal points of interest here include nitroso compounds, DNA topoisomerase inhibitors, viruses, anti-AIDS drugs, and endocrine disruptors. Regulatory agencies must rely heavily on animal data for estimation of human risk due to perinatal exposures to chemicals, and the quantity and quality of these data presently available for this purpose are greatly limiting. Correctly designed conventional animal studies with suspect chemicals are still needed. Furthermore, genetically engineered mouse models for childhood cancers, especially medulloblastoma, have become available, and could be used for screening of candidate causative agents for this cancer type, and for better understanding of gene-environment interactions.

  14. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    biology more generally and to develop needed expertise especially for the planned studies as well as for future studies on breast cancer. Task 2...entender como Ia dieta, Ia actividad fisica , el historial familiar y las exposiciones tempranas, ademas de otros factores, estan relacionados con el...relacionadas ala dieta, la actividad fisica , el historial de peso, los habitos de fumar, la exposicion al sol, su informacion demognifica, su

  15. The epidemiology of skin cancer and its trend in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Razi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common cancers is skin cancer worldwide. Since incidence and cost of treatment of the cancer are increasing, it is necessary to further investigate to prevent and control this disease. This study aimed to determine skin cancer trend and epidemiology in Iran. Methods: This study was done based on existing data. Data used in this study were obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2004-2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. Results: Based on the results of this study, the incidence of skin cancer is rising in Iran and the sex ratio was more in men than women in all provinces. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR of skin cancer was highest in males in Semnan, Isfahan, and Hamedan provinces (34.9, 30.80, and 28.84, respectively. The highest ASRs were seen in females in Semnan, Yazd, and Isfahan provinces (26.7, 24.14, and 18.97, respectively. The lowest ASR in male was observed in Sistan and Baluchestan, and in female in Hormozgan provinces. Conclusions: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the country. Therefore, the plan for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers.

  16. Beta blockers, norepinephrine, and cancer: an epidemiological viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Paul J FitzgeraldThe Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute, Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: There is growing evidence that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) and its sister molecule epinephrine (EPI) (adrenaline) affect some types of cancer. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that chronic use of beta blocking drugs (which antagonize NE/EPI receptors) results in lower recurrence, progression, or mortality of ...

  17. Is Type 2 Diabetes a Risk Factor for Pancreatic Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaele Pezzilli; Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate; Riccardo Casadei

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes mellitus and the risk of pancreatic cancer has been a matter of study for a long time. Taking into consideration diabetes mellitus irrespective of type, there is a lack of agreement regarding the data; in fact, some epidemiological studies have excluded this possibility whereas others have found a relationship between the presence of diabetes and the development of pancreatic cancer. On the other hand, a recent study has reported that metformin may have a pro...

  18. Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes in High Risk Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    232-7. 32. Deapen D, Escalante A, Weinrib L, et al. A revised estimate of twin concordance in systemic lupus erythematosus [see comments]. Arthritis...duplicates do not have identical genotype and the cause for the discordancy ( systematic or isolated) will be determined. A second level of QC is provided...AM, Healey CS, Pharoah PD, Teare MD, Ponder BA, Easton DF. A systematic review of genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology

  19. Using epidemiology and neurotoxicology to reduce risks to young workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlman, Diane S; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ismail, Ahmed; Saddik, Basema

    2012-08-01

    Children around the world are working in hazardous or unsafe conditions and they are at risk to injury through manual labor and susceptible to poisoning due to chemical exposures in the work place. Because of their behavior and the developmental changes occurring throughout childhood and adolescence children are more vulnerable to injury. Often children work because of economic necessity, coming from families living in extreme poverty, with poor housing conditions, unsafe water supplies, poor sanitation, and inadequate food supplies making them even more vulnerable to poor developmental outcomes. This presents a multifaceted problem that can be challenging to address. Although many studies have examined occupational risks among adults very few studies have examined the impact of these risks on children. This paper reflects a summary of the talks from the symposium "Using Epidemiology and Neurotoxicology to Reduce Risks to Young Workers" presented at the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association Meeting and the 11th International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health in Xi'an China in June 2011. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that children are exposed to various neurotoxicants, show increased symptoms and health problems and are working in hazardous conditions with minimal safety restrictions. Other studies have identified neurotoxicology effects in children from occupational exposures. Prevention methods have potential for reducing risks to young workers short of eliminating child labor and should be addressed to multiple stakeholders, parents, employers and children.

  20. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health.

  1. Gene-environment interactions in cancer epidemiology: a National Cancer Institute Think Tank report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carolyn M; Mechanic, Leah E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillanders, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF] > 0.05) and less common (0.01 Think Tank" on January 10-11, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on (1) the state of the science, (2) the goals of G × E interaction studies in cancer epidemiology, and (3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of G × E interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance, and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors.

  2. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  3. Shared genetics underlying epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yi; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Painter, Jodie N;

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between endometriosis and certain histotypes of ovarian cancer, including clear cell, low-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas. We aimed to determine whether the observed associations might be due to shared genetic aetiology. To address...... this, we used two endometriosis datasets genotyped on common arrays with full-genome coverage (3194 cases and 7060 controls) and a large ovarian cancer dataset genotyped on the customized Illumina Infinium iSelect (iCOGS) arrays (10 065 cases and 21 663 controls). Previous work has suggested...... that a large number of genetic variants contribute to endometriosis and ovarian cancer (all histotypes combined) susceptibility. Here, using the iCOGS data, we confirmed polygenic architecture for most histotypes of ovarian cancer. This led us to evaluate if the polygenic effects are shared across diseases. We...

  4. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, C.E. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Epidemiology of Patients with Ovarian Cancer with and Without a BRCA1/2 Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tyczynski, Jerzy E

    2015-12-01

    Ovarian cancer survival rates have improved only slightly in recent decades; however, treatment of this disease is expected to undergo rapid change as strategies incorporating molecular-targeted therapies enter clinical practice. Carriers of deleterious mutations (defined as a harmful mutation) in either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene (BRCAm) have a significantly increased risk of developing ovarian cancer. Epidemiology data in large (>500 patients) unselected ovarian cancer populations suggest that the expected incidence rate for BRCAm in this population is 12-14 %. Patients with a BRCAm are typically diagnosed at a younger age than those without a BRCAm. Associations with BRCAm vary according to ethnicity, with women of Ashkenazi Jewish descent being 10 times more likely to have a BRCAm than the general population. In terms of survival, patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer who have a BRCAm may have improved overall survival compared with patients who do not carry a BRCAm. Although genetic testing for BRCAm remains relatively uncommon in ovarian cancer patients, testing is becoming cheaper and increasingly accessible; however, this approach is not without numerous social, ethical and policy issues. Current guidelines recommend BRCAm testing in specific ovarian cancer patients only; however, with the emergence of treatments that are targeted at patients with a BRCAm, genetic testing of all patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer may lead to improved patient outcomes in this patient population. Knowledge of BRCAm status could, therefore, help to inform treatment decisions and identify relatives at increased risk of developing cancer.

  6. Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in Jordan from 1996 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Fayez Nimri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer has varied from 2 per 100,000 in Europe to 21 per 100,000 in the Hawaiian Chinese population and is 2-3 fold more common in females. Middle East Cancer Consortium figures from 1996-2001 have recorded different age standardized incidence rates that ranged from 2 per 100,000 inEgypt to 7.5 per 100,000 among Israeli Jews. In Jordan the age standardized incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 3 per 100,000 during that period. This study aimed to define the incidence of thyroid cancer in Jordan and to explore the epidemiological char-acteristics of patients and tumors. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study that utilized data reported to the Jordan Cancer Registry during 1996-2008. Results: The incidence rate in Jordan varied during the period from 1996 to 2008; however the recorded rate (2.6 per 100,000 in 1996 and 2008 was similar. The incidence rate was higher among Jordanian females. Age specific incidence rate and age standardized incidence rate were parallel during the study period with no peaks. The most common morphological type of thyroid cancer in Jordan was papillarycarcinoma (76%. The average annual incidence during the study period was highest (3.3 per 100,000 in Amman and (2.2 per 100,000 in Jarash governorates. Conclusion: The results of our study are consistent with international studies. The incidence of thyroid cancer in Jordan is not high when compared with other countries. The high incidence of thyroid cancer in Amman and Jarash governorates in comparisonto the incidence in other governorates needs further assessment.

  7. Nutrition and cancer: Review of epidemiological studies and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Panagiotakos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors of cancer include unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, various genetic and environmental factors. Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases with increased incidence; moreover, 80% of gastrointestinal, breast and prostate cancers are attributed to unhealthy eating habits. Many surveys have investigated the role of diet in cancer prevention. Here we summarized current knowledge about dietary factors associated with cancer incidence. There is a strong correlation of the protective effect of fruits and vegetables with colon cancer and the negative effect of red meat and the protective effect of milk on colorectal cancer. High alcohol consumption is related to higher incidence of mouth and esophageal cancers, with hot drinks playing a role in mouth or even gastrointestinal cancers. High fat consumption seems to play a negative role in colorectal cancer, where sugar and salt might be negatively related to stomach cancer. Beyond nutrition, physical inactivity and body fat seems to play an important role in cancer, where there are strong evidence that the first protects against colorectal cancer and the second increases the incidence of breast cancer after menopause. Data for the role of micronutrients, vitamins and minerals lead to the suggestion that dietary supplements should be avoided and all nutritional needs should be covered through a well balanced diet.

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARDIOESOPHAGEAL CANCER AND STOMACH CANCER IN ALTAY REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarev, A.; Shoyhet, Ya; Nechunaev, V.; Panasjan, A.; Tsyvkina, V.

    2007-01-01

    The article summarizes analytical results of morbidity and mortality of stomach cancer and cardioesophageal cancer in Altay region in comparison with Russian indices since 1990 to 2005. Downtrend of morbidity is registered morbidity was reduced on 10.000 (16 %) since 1990. At the same time specific increase of cardioesophageal cancer is registered including Altay region. Morbidity of cardioesophageal cancer is increased twice in Altay region. Different types of adenocarcinoma dominated (92 %)...

  9. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  10. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000931.htm Understanding your prostate cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  11. Global epidemiology of hysterectomy: possible impact on gynecological cancer rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Rositch, Anne; Kahlert, Johnny Abildgaard;

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that hysterectomy is the most common surgical procedure worldwide in gynecology, national reporting of the incidence rate of gynecological cancers rarely removes the proportion no longer at risk of the disease from the population-at-risk-denominator (ie. women who have had...... a hysterectomy). The incidence rate of gynecological cancers is thus likely underestimated. Since hysterectomy, as well as oophorectomy, incidence varies across countries, age, and over time, meaningful comparison of gynecological cancer incidence rates may be compromised. Without accurate estimates...... of gynecological cancer incidence rates, performed via removing the proportion of hysterectomized or oophorectomized women from the population-at-risk-denominator, the impact of prevention strategies may be masked or misinterpreted. Furthermore, since national cervical cancer screening guidelines are at least...

  12. Epidemiología y factores de riesgo de carcinoma hepatocelular Epidemiology and risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Navas Navas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer primario de hígado es en el mundo la quinta neoplasia más común en hombres y la octava en mujeres, con gran impacto debido a su alta mortalidad, ya que representa la tercera causa de mortalidad relacionada con cáncer en población masculina. Se ha descrito una fuerte asociación con factores de riesgo como las hepatitis virales crónicas, las hepatopatías de origen genético, el consumo de alcohol, el tabaquismo y enfermedades metabólicas, entre otras. En este artículo se analizan publicaciones originales y de revisión en las que se evalúan dichos factores y su asociación con el carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC. Además, se recopila información actualizada sobre datos epidemiológicos por regiones del mundo. Primary liver cancer is the 5th neoplasia more common among men and 8th among women worldwide. It has a great impact because of its high mortality; Liver cancer ranks third amongst the causes of cancer-related deaths in men. It has been associated with some risk factors as chronic viral hepatitis, genetic liver disease, intake of alcohol, use of tobacco, metabolic disease and others. This document corresponds to a review of original papers of evaluation of those factors and its association with liver cancer and also reviewed articles. Additionally, updated epidemiological information of liver cancer worldwide is included.

  13. Epidemiologic differences in esophageal cancer between Asian and Western populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Ze Zhang; Guang-Fu Jin; Hong-Bing Shen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common cancer worldwide and has a poor prognosis.The incidence of esophageal squamous cell cancer has been decreasing,whereas the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing rapidly,particularly in Western men.Squamous cell cancer continues to be the major type of esophageal cancer in Asia,and the main risk factors include tobacco smoking,alcohol consumption,hot beverage drinking,and poor nutrition.In contrast,esophageal adenocarcinoma predominately affects the whites,and the risk factors include smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.In addition,Asians and Caucasians may have different susceptibilities to esophageal cancer due to different heritage backgrounds.However,comparison studies between these two populations are limited and need to be addressed in the near future.Ethnic differences should he taken into account in preventive and clinical practices.

  14. Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

    2008-08-01

    Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the

  15. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  16. Cancer risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Labrecque, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update estimates of cancer risk in SLE relative to the general population. METHODS: A multisite international SLE cohort was linked with regional tumor registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected cancers. RESULTS: Across 30 c...

  17. Pretreatment serum albumin as a predictor of cancer survival: A systematic review of the epidemiological literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Christopher G

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several methods of assessing nutritional status in cancer of which serum albumin is one of the most commonly used. In recent years, the role of malnutrition as a predictor of survival in cancer has received considerable attention. As a result, it is reasonable to investigate whether serum albumin has utility as a prognostic indicator of cancer survival in cancer. This review summarizes all available epidemiological literature on the association between pretreatment serum albumin levels and survival in different types of cancer. Methods A systematic search of the literature using the MEDLINE database (January 1995 through June 2010 to identify epidemiologic studies on the relationship between serum albumin and cancer survival. To be included in the review, a study must have: been published in English, reported on data collected in humans with any type of cancer, had serum albumin as one of the or only predicting factor, had survival as one of the outcome measures (primary or secondary and had any of the following study designs (case-control, cohort, cross-sectional, case-series prospective, retrospective, nested case-control, ecologic, clinical trial, meta-analysis. Results Of the 29 studies reviewed on cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, all except three found higher serum albumin levels to be associated with better survival in multivariate analysis. Of the 10 studies reviewed on lung cancer, all excepting one found higher serum albumin levels to be associated with better survival. In 6 studies reviewed on female cancers and multiple cancers each, lower levels of serum albumin were associated with poor survival. Finally, in all 8 studies reviewed on patients with other cancer sites, lower levels of serum albumin were associated with poor survival. Conclusions Pretreatment serum albumin levels provide useful prognostic significance in cancer. Accordingly, serum albumin level could be used in clinical trials to

  18. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  19. A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Case Study of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Receptor Polymorphism and Prostate Cancer Risk 1 Sara S. Strom 2, Qiang Zhang, Yun Gu, Margaret R. Spitz, Peter T. Scardino 3, Christopher J. Logothetis...Taylor, J. A. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and prostate cancer. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 27: 18-23, 2000. 6. Ma, J., Stampfer , M. J., Gann, P. H...Margaret R. Spitz, Richard J. Babaian, Christopher Logothetis, Sara S. Strom, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; The University

  20. Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    unmethylated and active, a cryptic promoter located within the 5ʹ end of IAP’s long terminal repeat hijacks the transcriptional control of the agouti gene...methyl donors.88 Alternatively, peri-conceptional feeding of a methyl- deficient diet to female sheep resulted in adult offspring with CpG islands that...and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin 2012; 62

  1. Gene-environment interaction and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2016-01-19

    Hereditary, genetic factors as well as lifestyle and environmental factors, for example, parity and body mass index, predict breast cancer development. Gene-environment interaction studies may help to identify subgroups of women at high-risk of breast cancer and can be leveraged to discover new genetic risk factors. A few interesting results in studies including over 30,000 breast cancer cases and healthy controls indicate that such interactions exist. Explorative gene-environment interaction studies aiming to identify new genetic or environmental factors are scarce and still underpowered. Gene-environment interactions might be stronger for rare genetic variants, but data are lacking. Ongoing initiatives to genotype larger sample sets in combination with comprehensive epidemiologic databases will provide further opportunities to study gene-environment interactions in breast cancer. However, based on the available evidence, we conclude that associations between the common genetic variants known today and breast cancer risk are only weakly modified by environmental factors, if at all.

  2. Work stress and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.......To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers....

  3. Molecular epidemiology of and genetic susceptibility to esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Manisha; Das, Kiron M; Lefferts, Joel; Lisovsky, Mikhail; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Phillips, Wayne A; Srivastava, Amitabh; To, Henry

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on clonal evolution in Barrett's carcinogenesis; biomarkers for early detection of esophageal cancer; the role of the methylguanine methyl transferase biomarker in the management of adenocarcinoma; and the discovery of high-risk genes in families.

  4. Epidemiological Aspects of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer in Kerman Province, South Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Chamani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Epidemiologic aspects of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Iran have not been studied adequately. We evaluated age-adjusted incidence rates by sex using pathological confirmed cases between 1991 and 2002 in Kerman Province, south east­ern Iran."nMethods: The information of cases was collected actively from all of the 18 histopathology departments around the prov­ince. The standardize risks were estimated using standard world population and the risk ratio for age and sex were estimated us­ing negative binomial model."nResults: The total number of newly diagnosed malignant oral and pharyngeal cancers was 334, represented 3.1% of all newly diagnosed cancers. The age-adjusted incidence rate for oropharyngeal cancers was 2.21 cases per 100 000 popula­tions per year. The results suggested that those age 40 and over were 18.1 times more likely to develop oral and pharyngeal can­cer than the younger group. The risk of developing oral and pharyngeal cancers was 1.75 times more common in males than females."nConclusion: This study showed that the overall incidence of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Kerman Province was lower than that in most parts of the world. The lower incidence might be due to behavioral differences such as low consumption of alco­hol, chewing tobacco, and spicy foods.

  5. Suicide During Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Orsolini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide and infanticide have been considered relatively rare events during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e. postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc. have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk and protective factors and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behaviour during the pregnancy and postpartum period.

  6. Mortality and cancer risk related to primary sclerosing cholangitis in a Swedish population-based cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valle, Maria Benito; Bjornsson, Einar; Lindkvist, Bjorn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Population-based studies on the epidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are sparse. Aims: To investigate mortality and risk of cancer, and to identify risk factors for hepatobiliary cancer and the combined end-point liver related death or liver transplantation (OLT) in a pop

  7. Religion and reduced cancer risk: what is the explanation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Andreas; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Ross, Lone

    2008-01-01

    was also made for healthy habits, no reduction in risk for cancer was observed. We conclude that the most important factor in the correlation between membership in a religious Christian community and risk for cancer is the healthy lifestyle inherent in religious practice in these communities...... 40 years. In the studies in which adjustment was made only for age and sex, reductions were observed in the risks for lifestyle-associated cancers, i.e. those associated with tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity and reproductive factors. In the studies in which adjustment....... The epidemiological studies reviewed did not, however, differentiate the effect on cancer risk of the meaning that a certain lifestyle can give to an individual....

  8. Risk factors for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Y E; Fagin, J A

    1997-01-01

    The potential risk factors for thyroid carcinoma development include genetic predisposition, exposure to therapeutic or environmental ionizing radiation, residence in areas of iodine deficiency or excess, history of preexisting benign thyroid disease, as well as hormonal and reproductive factors. In this review, we analyze some of the epidemiological data, as well as the possible molecular mechanisms by which certain environmental and genetic factors might predispose to thyroid tumorigenesis. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:20-25).

  9. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar-Guzmán Víctor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  10. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Tovar-Guzmán

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  11. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening tests have different risks or harms. Screening tests may cause anxiety when you are thinking about or getting ready ... is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by more tests (such as biopsy ), which also have risks. The ...

  12. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  13. Epidemiologic studies of particulate matter and lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ge Li; Xiang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in air pollution, especially in China. European and American researchers conducted several cohort-based studies to examine the potential relationship between PM and lung cancer and found a positive association between PM and lung cancer mortality. In contrast, the results regarding PM and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. Most of the previous studies had limitations such as misclassification of PM exposure and residual confounders, diminishing the impact of their findings. In addition, prospective studies on this topic are very limited in Chinese populations. This is an important problem because China has one of the highest concentrations of PM in the world and has had an increased mortality risk due to lung cancer. In this context, more prospective studies in Chinese populations are warranted to investigate the relationship between PM and lung cancer.

  14. Collaborative cancer epidemiology in the 21st century: the model of cancer consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Michael R; Ioannidis, John P A; Kaminski, Brett M; Derycke, Eric; Rogers, Scott; Khoury, Muin J; Seminara, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    During the last two decades, epidemiology has undergone a rapid evolution toward collaborative research. The proliferation of multi-institutional, interdisciplinary consortia has acquired particular prominence in cancer research. Herein, we describe the characteristics of a network of 49 established cancer epidemiology consortia (CEC) currently supported by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This collection represents the largest disease-based research network for collaborative cancer research established in population sciences. We describe the funding trends, geographic distribution, and areas of research focus. The CEC have been partially supported by 201 grants and yielded 3,876 publications between 1995 and 2011. We describe this output in terms of interdisciplinary collaboration and translational evolution. We discuss challenges and future opportunities in the establishment and conduct of large-scale team science within the framework of CEC, review future prospects for this approach to large-scale, interdisciplinary cancer research, and describe a model for the evolution of an integrated Network of Cancer Consortia optimally suited to address and support 21st-century epidemiology.

  15. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  16. Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas W Shammas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas W ShammasMidwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Cardiovascular Medicine, PC, Davenport, IA, USAAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is part of a global vascular problem of diffuse atherosclerosis. PAD patients die mostly of cardiac and cerebrovascular-related events and much less frequently due to obstructive disease of the lower extremities. Aggressive risk factors modification is needed to reduce cardiac mortality in PAD patients. These include smoking cessation, reduction of blood pressure to current guidelines, aggressive low density lipoprotein lowering, losing weight, controlling diabetes and the use of oral antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel. In addition to quitting smoking and exercise, cilostazol and statins have been shown to reduce claudication in patients with PAD. Patients with critical rest limb ischemia or severe progressive claudication need to be treated with revascularization to minimize the chance of limb loss, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, epidemiology, risk factors, classification

  17. A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T; Boffetta, Paolo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-10-01

    To inform risk assessment and regulatory decision-making, the relationship between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and prostate cancer requires clarification. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to TCDD or Agent Orange, a TCDD-contaminated herbicide used during the Vietnam War, and prostate cancer risk. Articles evaluated include 11 studies of three cohorts, four case-control or cross-sectional studies, and three case-only studies of military veterans with information on estimated Agent Orange or TCDD exposure; 13 studies of seven cohorts, one case-control study, and eight proportionate morbidity or mortality studies of Vietnam veterans without information on Agent Orange exposure; 11 cohort studies of workers with occupational exposure to TCDD; and two studies of one community cohort with environmental exposure to TCDD. The most informative studies, including those of Vietnam veterans involved in Agent Orange spraying or other handling, herbicide manufacturing or spraying workers with occupational TCDD exposure, and community members exposed to TCDD through an industrial accident, consistently reported no significant increase in prostate cancer incidence or mortality. Only some potentially confounded studies of Vietnam veterans compared with the general population, studies with unreliable estimates of Agent Orange exposure, and analyses of selected subgroups of Vietnam veterans reported positive associations. Overall, epidemiologic research offers no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to Agent Orange or TCDD and prostate cancer. More accurate exposure assessment is needed in large epidemiologic studies to rule out a causal association more conclusively.

  18. [Oral contraceptive pill and thrombotic risk: epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruzzetti, F; Perini, D; Spirito, N; Manca, R

    2012-12-01

    The venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare event during childbearing age and during the assumption of combined oral contraceptive. The absolute risk of VTE in users of combined oral contraceptives is 20-30 per 100000 women years. A number of case-control studies published in recent years have shown an apparent increase in the risk of VTE among users of oral contraceptives (OCs) containing desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone and cyproterone, relative to the use of levonorgestrel. The data derived from these recent studies is of borderline statistical significance because any important factors are not considered to evaluate the real correlation between the assumption of OCs and risk of venous thromboembolism. Among the factors that should be considered, there are: EE dose, duration of use, coexistance of other risk factors of venous thromboembolism (age, BMI, familiarity, surgical interventions) and other prescription bias. The lack of these factors is likely to contribute to the increased risk of venous thromboembolism observed in users of third-generation OCs when compared to that in users of second-generation OCs. To date, because of the inadequacy of epidemiological studies, the data about the correlation between OCs and TVE, are not conclusive and it will be necessary to carry out other studies to clarify this debating point, definitively.

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma: current trends in worldwide epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Alpna Limaye, Roniel CabreraDivision of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common malignancy in developing countries and its incidence is on the rise in the developing world. The epidemiology of this cancer is unique since its risk factors, including hepatitis C and B, have been clearly established. The current trends in the shifting incidence of HCC in different regions of the world can be explained partly by the changing prevalence of hepatitis. Early detection offers the only hope for curative treatment for patients with HCC, hence effective screening strategies for high-risk patients is of utmost importance. Liver transplantation and surgical resection remains the cornerstone of curative treatment. But major advances in locoregional therapies and molecular-targeted therapies for the treatment of advanced HCC have occurred recently. In this review, current trends in the worldwide epidemiology, surveillance, diagnosis, standard treatments, and the emerging therapies for HCC are discussed.Keywords: liver cancer, sorafenib, hepatitis C, TACE

  20. Cancer risk assessment of toxaphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2004-07-01

    The primary purpose is to do cancer risk assessment of toxaphene by using four steps of risk assessment proposed by the United States National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Four steps of risk assessment including hazard identification, dose-response relationship, exposure assessment, and risk characterization were used to evaluate cancer risk of toxaphene. Toxaphene was the most heavily used insecticide in many parts of the world before it was banned in 1982. It increased incidence of neoplasms of liver and uterus in mice and increased incidence of neoplasms of endocrine organs, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, mammary glands, and reproductive systems in rats. From mice's and rats' study, slope factor for toxaphene is 0.8557 (mg/ kg/day)(-1). Lifetime average daily dose (LADD) of toxaphene from ambient air, surface water, soil, and fish were 1.08 x 10(-6), 5.71 x 10(-6), 3.43 x 10(-7), and 7.96 x 10(-5) mg/kg/day, respectively. Cancer risk of toxaphene for average exposure is 7.42 x 10(-5). From this study, toxaphene might have carcinogenic risk among humans.

  1. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-based case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel art and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significartly, OR is 3.905 ( 95 % CI = 1.079 ~ 14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blood relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LOH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed. Conclusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  2. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Obieaites. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-besed case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel-Gart and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymemse chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significantly, OR is 3.905(95% CI = 1.079—14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blnod relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LDH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome abermtions were observed.Condusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  3. Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Daniel, Carrie R; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I; George, Preethi S; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items, which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarly added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk.

  4. Circulating Adipokines and Inflammatory Markers and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cushman, Mary; Xue, Xiaonan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Strickler, Howard D.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; Kaplan, Robert C.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Snetselaar, Linda; Wang, Dan; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. Methods: In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox modeling that included established breast cancer risk factors and previously measured estradiol and insulin levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The association between plasma CRP levels and breast cancer risk was dependent on hormone therapy (HT) use at baseline (P interaction = .003). In a model that controlled for multiple breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), estradiol, and insulin, CRP level was positively associated with breast cancer risk among HT nonusers (hazard ratio for high vs low CRP levels = 1.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 2.68, P trend = .029). None of the other adipokines were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Following inclusion of CRP, insulin, and estradiol in a multivariable model, the association of BMI with breast cancer was attenuated by 115%. Conclusion: These data indicate that CRP is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer among HT nonusers. Inflammatory mediators, together with insulin and estrogen, may play a role in the obesity–breast cancer relation. PMID:26185195

  5. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  6. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  7. Geographical modeling of exposure risk to cyanobacteria for epidemiological purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Tania; Dupas, Rémi; Upegui, Erika; Buscail, Camille; Grimaldi, Catherine; Viel, Jean François

    2015-08-01

    The cyanobacteria-derived neurotoxin β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) represents a plausible environmental trigger for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a debilitating and fatal neuromuscular disease. With the eutrophication of water bodies, cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins are becoming increasingly prevalent in France, especially in the Brittany region. Cyanobacteria are monitored at only a few recreational sites, preventing an estimation of exposure of the human population. By contrast, phosphorus, a limiting nutrient for cyanobacterial growth and thus considered a good proxy for cyanobacteria exposure, is monitored in many but not all surface water bodies. Our goal was to develop a geographic exposure indicator that could be used in epidemiological research. We considered the total phosphorus (TP) concentration (mg/L) of samples collected between October 2007 and September 2012 at 179 monitoring stations distributed throughout the Brittany region. Using readily available spatial data, we computed environmental descriptors at the watershed level with a Geographic Information System. Then, these descriptors were introduced into a backward stepwise linear regression model to predict the median TP concentration in unmonitored surface water bodies. TP concentrations in surface water follow an increasing gradient from West to East and inland to coast. The empirical concentration model included five predictor variables with a fair coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.51). The specific total runoff and the watershed slope correlated negatively with the TP concentrations (p = 0.01 and pcyanobacteria exposure that can be used along with other risk factors in further ALS epidemiologic case-control studies.

  8. Invasive fungal infections in hematology: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bassetti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Recent Italian and International epidemiological data show that invasive fungal infections (IFI, particularly aspergillosis, are still a crucial issue for patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, in the last years the epidemiology is changing, and in order to determine the real risk of a patient and in order to improve preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic measures, it’s important to identify all the factors (e.g. age, performance status, prophylaxis that play a role in the development of IFI. Immunogenetics may potentially contribute to improve diagnosis providing new therapeutic tools, but results are limited by sample size and absence of thorough functional characterization moreover lack of replication limits translation of data to the clinical practice. Regarding candidemia an Italian study showed that the overall incidence remained unchanged between 2008 and 2010 but with an increase in the number of C. albicans aand C. glabrata infections.

  9. Commentary on "Reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk in 2 US cohort studies, 1993-2010." Karami S, Daugherty SE, Schonfeld SJ, Park Y, Hollenbeck AR, Grubb RL 3rd, Hofmann JN, Chow WH, Purdue MP, Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Am J Epidemiol 2013; 177(12):1368-77. [Epub 2013 Apr 26]. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws406.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorjian, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995-2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993-2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend= 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation.

  10. Anthropometry, physical activity, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrington de González, Amy; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Roddam, Andrew; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachel; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Papadimitriou, Aristoteles; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Ocké, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martinez-Garcia, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle; Navarro, Carmen; Quirós, J Ramón; Tormo, María-José; Hallmans, Göran; Ye, Weimin; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim J; Jenab, Mazda; Norat, Teresa; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the only established risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Results from several epidemiologic studies have suggested that increased body mass index and/or lack of physical activity may be associated with an increased risk of this disease. We examined the relationship between anthropo

  11. Red meat, dietary nitrosamines, and heme iron and risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, P.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Lujan-Barroso, L.; Ros, M.M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Roswall, N.; Tjonneland, A.M.; Buchner, F.L.; Egevad, L.; Overvad, K.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Touillaud, M.S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Allen, N.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Key, T.J.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, S.; Trichopoulou, A.; Oikonomou, E.; Zylis, D.; Palli, D.; Berrino, F.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Mattiello, A.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Parr, C.L.; Gram, I.T.; Skeie, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Larranaga, N.; Ardanaz, E.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Ulmert, D.; Ehrnstrom, R.; Hallmans, G.; Ljungberg, B.; Roddam, A.W.; Bingham, S.A.; Khaw, K.T.; Slimani, N.; Boffetta, P.A.; Jenab, M.; Mouw, T.; Michaud, D.S.; Riboli, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent results for the association between red meat intake, nitrosamines [NDMA: N-nitrosodimethylamine, and ENOC (endogenous nitroso compounds)], and the risk of bladder cancer. We investigated the association between red meat consumption, dieta

  12. [Risk factors of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, L P; Liou, S H; Shen, C Y; Kao, S J; Chen, K T

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between various risk factors and lung cancer was evaluated in a case-control study. One hundred and forty-one cancer patients newly cytologically or pathologically diagnosed from May 1990 to July 1991 at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) were recruited as cases. Two control groups were also studied: 282 hospital controls two-to-one matched with cases on sex, age, hospital of admission and insurance status were selected from the TSGH Ophthalmologic Department, and 282 neighborhood controls two-to-one matched on sex, age, and residence were randomly selected from eligible neighbors. A comparison of interview data between cases and hospital controls based on multiple conditional logistic regression revealed that cigarette smoking, keeping doves as pet, occupational exposure to cotton dust and working as a cook were risk factors for lung cancer. An inverse association between incense burning and lung cancer was noted. The comparison between cases and neighborhood controls showed lung cancer was significantly associated with cigarette smoking, keeping doves, prior chronic bronchitis, occupational exposure to cotton dust, asbestos and radiation, low frequency of burning incense, and low intake of vitamin A derived from vegetables and fruits. There was no association between lung cancer and working as a cook when cases were compared with neighborhood controls.

  13. Myastenia and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Arnspang; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between having non-thymoma myasthenia and the risk of extra-thymic cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: A nationwide case-control study was conducted in Denmark based on medical registries. The study included all cases with a first time...... diagnosis of cancer during 2000-2009. Each case was matched by birth year and gender with eight population controls using risk set sampling. Subjects with myasthenia were identified through a validated register-based algorithm. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute crude and adjusted odds...... ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for cancer associated with a prior diagnosis of myasthenia. RESULTS: In all, 233 437 cases and 1 867 009 controls were identified. A total of 80 cases and 518 controls had a prior diagnosis of myasthenia. Myasthenia was not associated with an increased...

  14. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk...... in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  15. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Stony Brook University found no association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from residential power use and breast cancer risk. 5 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Cancer-causing ... to naturally occurring and synthetic cancer, and designing ...

  16. Alcohol May Fuel Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162033.html Alcohol May Fuel Prostate Cancer Risk The more men ... and Australian scientists found a significant association between alcohol and prostate cancer risk, though they did not ...

  17. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  18. Heme iron from meat and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and a review of the mechanisms involved

    OpenAIRE

    Bastide, Nadia; Pierre, Fabrice; Corpet, Denis E

    2011-01-01

    accepted 2 dec 2010; International audience; Red meat and processed meat intake is associated with a risk of colorectal cancer, a major cause of death in affluent countries. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that heme iron present in meat promotes colorectal cancer. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of colon cancer reporting heme intake included 566,607 individuals and 4,734 cases of colon cancer. The summary relative risk of colon cancer was 1.1...

  19. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A. [National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, EPS 7044, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  20. Existing data sources in clinical epidemiology: the Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensvoll H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hilde Jensvoll,1,2 Marianne T Severinsen,3,4 Jens Hammerstrøm,5 Sigrid K Brækkan,1,2 Søren R Kristensen,4,6 Suzanne C Cannegieter,7 Kristine Blix,1,2 Anne Tjønneland,8 Frits R Rosendaal,1,7,9 Olga Dziewiecka,1 Kim Overvad,10,11 Inger Anne Næss,12 John-Bjarne Hansen1,21Department of Clinical Medicine, KG Jebsen – Thrombosis Research and Expertise Center (TREC, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, 2Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Department of Hematology, Aalborg University Hospital, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 5Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 8Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 9Department of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 10Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 11Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 12Department of Hematology, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Although venous thromboembolism (VTE is a known common complication in cancer patients, there is limited knowledge on patient-related and cancer-specific risk factors in the general population. The Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer (STAC Cohort was established by merging individual data from three large Scandinavian cohorts (The Tromsø Study, the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Here, we present the profile of the STAC cohort and provide age-specific incidence rates of VTE and cancerMethods: The STAC cohort includes 144,952 subjects aged 19–101 years

  1. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... Cancer? Can Thymus Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  4. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lauretta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold. Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis.

  5. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, Rosa; Lanzolla, Giulia; Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Moretti, Costanzo

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold). Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis. PMID:27725832

  6. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  7. Second Solid Cancers After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Studies of the Radiation Dose-Response Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Gilbert, Ethel; Curtis, Rochelle; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Morton, Lindsay; Rajaraman, Preetha; Little, Mark P. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. We reviewed the available evidence from epidemiologic studies of second solid cancers in organs that received high-dose exposure (>5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible studies with 3434 second cancer patients across 11 second solid cancers. Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ≥60 Gy. Thyroid cancer was the only exception, with evidence of a downturn after 20 Gy. Generally the excess relative risk per Gray, taking account of age and sex, was 5 to 10 times lower than the risk from acute exposures of <2 Gy among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, the magnitude of the reduction in risk varied according to the second cancer. The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques.

  8. Dietary folate and folate vitamers and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keszei, A.P.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Heinen, M.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    An association between high intake of folate and reduced risk of cancer has been suggested by previous research. However, epidemiologic data from cohort studies regarding the relationship between dietary folate and pancreatic cancer are sparse and inconsistent. We examined the association between di

  9. Consumption of dietary fat and meat and risk of ovarian cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence that links dietary factors to ovarian cancer is conflicting, but several epidemiologic studies suggested that consumption of dietary fat and meat may increase risk of ovarian cancer. Objective: We studied associations of intakes of total fat and sources and subtypes of fat, fres

  10. Targeted screening for colorectal cancer in high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Wong, Sunny H; Ng, Siew C; Wu, Justin C Y; Chan, Francis K L; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-12-01

    The idea of targeted screening for colorectal cancer based on risk profiles originates from its benefits to improve detection yield and optimize screening efficiency. Clinically, it allows individuals to be more aware of their own risk and make informed decisions on screening choice. From a public health perspective, the implementation of risk stratification strategies may better justify utilization of colonoscopic resources, and facilitate resource-planning in the formulation of population-based screening programmes. There are several at-risk groups who should receive earlier screening, and colonoscopy is more preferred. This review summarizes the currently recommended CRC screening strategies among subjects with different risk factors, and introduces existing risk scoring systems. Additional genetic, epidemiological, and clinical parameters may be needed to enhance their performance to risk-stratify screening participants. Future research studies should refine these scoring systems, and explore the adaptability, feasibility, acceptability, and user-friendliness of their use in clinical practice among different population groups.

  11. Epidemiology and risk factors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duseja, Ajay; Chalasani, Naga

    2013-12-01

    The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the presence of hepatic steatosis, determined by either imaging or histology, in the absence of secondary causes of hepatic fat accumulation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver is defined as the presence of hepatic steatosis with no evidence of hepatocellular injury in the form of ballooning of the hepatocytes or fibrosis. NASH is defined as the presence of hepatic steatosis and inflammation with hepatocyte injury (ballooning) with or without fibrosis. Although initial epidemiological studies have focused on its prevalence in the Western countries, it is becoming increasingly clear that NAFLD is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region, and there may be important distinctions in its phenotype between Asia Pacific and Western countries. Of particular interest are "lean NAFLD" and the "urban-rural divide," which will be discussed in this review article. Obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are established risk factors for developing NAFLD. Many other risk factors (e.g., hypothyroidism, polycystic ovary syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, hypopituitarism and hypogonadism) for NAFLD have been described in the Western countries, but these associations are yet to be investigated adequately in the Asia Pacific region.

  12. [Progress of the micronucleus test in the field of molecular cancer epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huadong; Jia, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus test (MNT) can be used to detect multiple genetic end points simultaneously, including chromosome aberration, mis-repaired DNA damage, apoptosis, parts of mutation and so on, which MNT has been an important part of the study of cancer epidemiology.Here, we reviewed the progress of MNT in the field of molecular cancer epidemiology in recent years, including early detection and diagnosis of cancer, evaluation of carcinogenic substances, genetic susceptibility biomarkers, micronutrient and cohort studies.

  13. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancer, Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian; Beral, V.; Doll, R.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptives were introduced almost 50 years ago, and over 100 million women currently use them. Oral contraceptives can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the eventual public-health effects of this reduction will depend on how long the protection lasts after use ceases. We...... aimed to assess these effects. METHODS: Individual data for 23,257 women with ovarian cancer (cases) and 87,303 without ovarian cancer (controls) from 45 epidemiological studies in 21 countries were checked and analysed centrally. The relative risk of ovarian cancer in relation to oral contraceptive use...... was estimated, stratifying by study, age, parity, and hysterectomy. FINDINGS: Overall 7308 (31%) cases and 32,717 (37%) controls had ever used oral contraceptives, for average durations among users of 4.4 and 5.0 years, respectively. The median year of cancer diagnosis was 1993, when cases were aged an average...

  14. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.; Schans, S.A. van de; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: Data from

  15. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the Netherla

  16. [The symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk: an incursion into the thinking of Boaventura de Sousa Santos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevalho, Gil; Stotz, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the concept of epidemiological risk is critically discussed. The work of Elizabeth Teixeira, who uses the ideas of Boaventura de Sousa Santos, is presented. The proposal for symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk is sketched out, defining analytical scales ranging from exteriority and distancing from the field of science to the proximity of territory and place, conceptualized on the basis of the geography of Milton Santos, in which conceptions of risk are drawn up from the perspective of the everyday routine of social existence. Questions relating to space, territoriality, subjectivity and time give meaning to a cartography of risk which is proposed as a model for epidemiological investigations.

  17. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Pierre, Fabrice; Corpet, Denis E

    2008-01-01

    Processed meat intake may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, a major cause of death in affluent countries. The epidemiologic studies published to date conclude that the excess risk in the highest category of processed meat-eaters is comprised between 20% and 50% compared with non-eaters. In addition, the excess risk per gram of intake is clearly higher than that of fresh red meat. Several hypotheses, which are mainly based on studies carried out on red meat, may explain why processed meat intake is linked to cancer risk. Those that have been tested experimentally are (i) that high-fat diets could promote carcinogenesis via insulin resistance or fecal bile acids; (ii) that cooking meat at a high temperature forms carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (iii) that carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds are formed in meat and endogenously; (iv) that heme iron in red meat can promote carcinogenesis because it increases cell proliferation in the mucosa, through lipoperoxidation and/or cytotoxicity of fecal water. Nitrosation might increase the toxicity of heme in cured products. Solving this puzzle is a challenge that would permit to reduce cancer load by changing the processes rather than by banning processed meat.

  18. Epidemiología del dolor por cáncer Epidemiology of cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reyes Chiquete

    2011-04-01

    therapeutic, or else to that pain associated with non-oncological diseases linked to cancer. This review represents a critical analysis of epidemiological studies on the prevalence of cancer pain in the world population. Great variations are shown in prevalence, perhaps because of methodological issues that hinder the comparison of results. In others words, by different criteria used to conceptualize and characterize cancer pain, the contrasts among the study population and data collection methods. If we add to this that there are different types of pain therapeutics and may differ from one hospital to another, the validity and consistency of the reports are limited considerably. Mexican society little known about the prevalence of cancer pain and on personal and socioeconomic bias involved in this terrible disease. Whereas existing studies in the literature, we suggest that epidemiological investigations should be conducted under strict methodological control, studying the different age groups, type of pain, intensity, oncology diagnosis, clinical stage, used anticancer therapeutics, drug therapy and nonpharmacologic analgesic; without forgetting the adjuvant drugs associated with this management.

  19. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkatout I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated and occurs often in elderly women without neoplastic epithelial disorders. Histology: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignant tumor of the vulva (95%. Clinical features: Pruritus is the most common and long-lasting reported symptom of vulvar cancer, followed by vulvar bleeding, discharge, dysuria, and pain. Therapy: The gold standard for even a small invasive carcinoma of the vulva was historically radical vulvectomy with removal of the tumor with a wide margin followed by an en bloc resection of the inguinal and often the pelvic lymph nodes. Currently, a more individualized and less radical treatment is suggested: a radical wide local excision is possible in the case of localized lesions (T1. A sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy may be performed to reduce wound complications and lymphedema. Prognosis: The survival of patients with vulvar cancer is good when convenient therapy is arranged quickly after initial diagnosis. Inguinal and/or femoral node involvement is the most significant prognostic factor for survival. Keywords: vulvar cancer, HPV infection, radical vulvectomy, groin dissection, sentinel lymph node biopsy, overall survival

  20. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  1. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  2. Harold Fred Dorn and the First National Cancer Survey (1937-1939): the founding of modern cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, David E

    2008-12-01

    The development of modern epidemiology, particularly cancer epidemiology, is often seen as a post-World War II phenomenon. However, the First National Cancer Survey, conducted from 1937 to 1939 as part of the newly formed National Cancer Institute's initial activities, provided the first data on the occurrence of cancer in the United States. This project was directed by a young sociologist, Harold Fred Dorn. Through Dorn, many of the methodological innovations in sociology, such as the use of surveys and observational study designs, were incorporated into modern epidemiology. I examine Dorn's training and early career in the context of the First National Cancer Survey as a means of investigating the beginnings of modern epidemiology.

  3. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2006; 15(8):1509–1514. [PubMed Abstract] ... MR, Ascherio A. Diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero and depression in women. American Journal of Epidemiology 2010; 171( ...

  4. 广西肝癌高危人群队列和高发家系样本数据库的建立%Construction of the specimen bank and epidemiological database of high-risk population of liver cancer in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春燕; 黄天壬; 余家华; 张振权; 利基林; 邓伟; 叶司原; 周德南; 何振芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立肝癌高危人群队列和高发家系的血样本库和基础资料数据库.方法 在广西肝癌高发现场,选择肝癌高发年龄段常住居民进行防癌筛查和流行病学调查,其中HBsAg阳性的对象列为肝癌高危人群队列,对其定期随访和复查;根据基于人群的肿瘤登记资料和临床流行病学资料,选取肝癌高发家系并匹配相应对照家系.对所有研究对象均采集早晨空腹静脉血,进行HBsAg等生化指标检测和腹部B超检查;分离其血清、血浆和有核细胞,置于-80℃保存.所有资料按要求进行质控,并录入数据库.结果 已收集了30 000多人次的血清、血浆和有核细胞及其基础资料,并妥善保存和实行计算机动态管理.结论 建立该样本数据库,为下一步开展更深层次、高水平和高质量的广西区域性高发肿瘤基础研究、现场防控与临床研究,搭建了资源共享平台;探索和建立了一个具有先进性、科学性以及通用性等优点的数据管理系统,逐步实现了样本和资料的科学有效管理.%Objective To establish the specimen bank and epidemiological database of high-risk population of liver cancer in Guangxi. Methods In the high-risk area of liver cancer, permanent residents at high incidence age were enrolled for the anti-cancer screening and epidemiological surveys. The HBsAg-positive subjects were chosen as high-risk population cohort of liver cancer, and were regularly followed-up and reviewed. In accordance with population-based tumor registry data and clinical epidemiological data, high incidence families and the matched control families were determined. The morning fasting peripheral venous blood from these persons was collected for assessment of chemical and biological indicators, such as HBsAg. B-ultrasonography was also performed. The serum, plasma and mononuclear cells were separated and preserved under-80℃. All the information was carried out by quality control

  5. New Strategies in Pancreatic Cancer: Emerging Epidemiological and Therapeutic Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Donghui; Abbruzzese, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease with complex etiology involving both environmental and genetic factors. While cigarette smoking is known to explain 25% of cases, data from recent studies suggest that obesity and long-term type II diabetes are two major modifiable risk factors for PC. Furthermore, obesity and diabetes appear to affect the clinical outcome of patients with PC. Understanding the mechanistic effects of obesity and diabetes on the pancreas may identify new strate...

  6. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  7. Clinical and epidemiologic variations of esophageal cancer in Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaime V Gabel; Robert M Chamberlain; Twalib Ngoma; Julius Mwaiselage; Kendra K Schmid; Crispin Kahesa; Amr S Soliman

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the incidence of esophageal cancer(EC) in Kilimanjaro in comparison to other regions in Tanzania. METHODS: We also examined the clinical, epidemiologic, and geographic distribution of the 1332 EC patients diagnosed and/or treated at Ocean Road Cancer Institute(ORCI) during the period 2006-2013. Medical records were used to abstract patient information on age, sex, residence, smoking status, alcohol consumption, tumor site, histopathologic type of tumor, date and place of diagnosis, and type and date of treatment at ORCI. Regional variation of EC patients was investigated at the level of the 26 administrative regions of Tanzania. Total, age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: Male patients 55 years and older had higher incidence of EC than female and younger patients. Of histopathologically-confirmed cases, squamous-cell carcinoma represented 90.9% of histopathologic types of tumors. The administrative regions in the central andeastern parts of Tanzania had higher incidence rates than western regions, specifically administrative regions of Kilimanjaro, Dar es Salaam, and Tanga had the highest rates. CONCLUSION: Further research should focus on investigating possible etiologic factors for EC in regions with high incidence in Tanzania.

  8. Genetic modifiers of CHEK2*1100delC-associated breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muranen, Taru A; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations that confers a two- to threefold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion...

  9. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  10. Interleukin-17 Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that interleukin-17 (IL-17 polymorphisms are associated with cancer risk. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to obtain a precise conclusion. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the association of the IL-17A rs2275913G>A and IL-17F rs763780T>C polymorphisms with cancer risk. Publication bias and sensitivity analyses were performed to ensure the statistical power. Overall, 10 relevant case-control studies involving 4,516 cases and 5,645 controls were included. The pooled ORs with 95% CIs indicated that the IL-17A rs2275913G>A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased cancer risk (for A versus G: OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.16–1.41, PC polymorphism was also significantly associated with gastric cancer development. Overall, the present meta-analysis suggests that IL-17 polymorphisms increase the risk of developing cancer, particularly gastric cancer, in the Asian (and Chinese population.

  11. Invasive fungal disease in PICU: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Olivier; Guichoux, Julie; Harambat, Jerome; Tandonnet, Olivier; Zaoutis, Theoklis

    2012-02-22

    Candida and Aspergillus spp. are the most common agents responsible for invasive fungal infections in children. They are associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate as well as high health care costs. An important increase in their incidence has been observed during the past two decades. In infants and children, invasive candidiasis is five times more frequent than invasive aspergillosis. Candida sp. represents the third most common agent found in healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in children. Invasive aspergillosis is more often associated with hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Recommendations concerning prophylactic treatment for invasive aspergillosis have been recently published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Candida albicans is the main Candida sp. associated with invasive candidiasis in children, even if a strong trend toward the emergence of Candida non-albicans has been observed. The epidemiology and the risk factors for invasive fungal infections are quite different if considering previously healthy children hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care unit, or children with a malignancy or a severe hematological disease (leukemia). In children, the mortality rate for invasive aspergillosis is 2.5 to 3.5 higher than for invasive candidiasis (respectively 70% vs. 20% and 30%).

  12. Cognition and Vascular Risk Factors: An Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Vicario

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an epidemiological approach to identify the negative impact of the vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia over cognition. The interesting aspect of this study was that the survey was conducted in all age groups through a voluntary call (n=1365; ≥18 years old, both sexes; age 49 ± 15 y, female 75.7%. Thus, we demonstrated that the use of a Minimum Cognitive Examination (MCE, a brief, simple, and easy managed neuropsychological evaluation, detected a greater number of people with cognitive decline surpassing to the Minimal Mental Statement Examination alone (14.5% of the participants showed MMSE ≤24, 34,6% showed dys-executive function, and 45,8% memory impairment. Out of the 4 studied RF, the only one that was not related to cognitive impairment was dyslipemia. Finally, we noted the importance of cognitive state early detection in all age groups, even in the youngest group. Acting in the middle of the life stages, we can prevent or delay the onset of a disease in adults, nowadays incurable: dementia.

  13. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cancer: Epidemiology and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shmuel, Sarit; Rostoker, Ran; Scheinman, Eyal J; LeRoith, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple metabolic disorders that drive cardiovascular disease, T2D and cancer. The doubling in the number of obese adults over the past 3 decades led to the recognition of obesity as a "disease". With over 42 million children obese or overweight, this epidemic is rapidly growing worldwide. Obesity and T2D are both associated together and independently with an increased risk for cancer and a worse prognosis. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies revealed potential factors that may explain the association between obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cancer risk. Studies based on the insulin resistance MKR mice, highlighted the roe of the insulin receptor and its downstream signaling proteins in mediating hyperinsulinemia's mitogenic effects. Hypercholesterolemia was also shown to promote the formation of larger tumors and enhancement in metastasis. Furthermore, the conversion of cholesterol into 27-Hydroxycholesterol was found to link high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia with cancer pathophysiology. Alteration in circulating adipokines and cytokines are commonly found in obesity and T2D. Adipokines are involved in tumor growth through multiple mechanisms including mTOR, VEGF and cyclins. In addition, adipose tissues are known to recruit and alter macrophage phenotype; these macrophages can promote cancer progression by secreting inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Better characterization on the above factors and their downstream effects is required in order to translate the current knowledge into the clinic, but more importantly is to understand which are the key factors that drive cancer in each patient. Until we reach this point, policies and activities toward healthy diets and physical activities remain the best medicine.

  15. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process.

  16. Dose to the contralateral breast from radiotherapy and risk of second primary breast cancer in the WECARE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovall, M.; Smith, S.A.; Langholz, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the risk of second primary breast cancer in the contralateral breast (CB) after radiotherapy (RT) for first breast cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study population included participants in the Women's Environmental, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology study: 708 cases (wome...

  17. Isolated Isoflavones do not affect the circulating insulin-like growth factor system in men at increased colorectal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, van J.; Lampe, J.W.; Cats, A.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, van F.E.; van't Veer, L.J.; Voskuil, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are related to increased colorectal cancer risk. A reduced colorectal cancer risk has been associated with isoflavones, which might affect the IGF-system because of their weak estrogenic activity. We conduc

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  19. Solitary pulmonary nodule and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Part 1: epidemiology, morphological evaluation and cancer probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosmann, Marcos Pretto; Borba, Marcelle Alves; Macedo, Francisco Pires Negromonte; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima; Villarim Neto, Arthur, E-mail: mosmann@gmail.com [Liga Norte Riograndense Contra o Cancer, Natal, RN (Brazil); Lima, Kenio Costa de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude Coletiva

    2016-01-15

    Solitary pulmonary nodule corresponds to a common radiographic finding, which is frequently detected incidentally. The investigation of this entity remains complex, since characteristics of benign and malignant processes overlap in the differential diagnosis. Currently, many strategies are available to evaluate solitary pulmonary nodules with the main objective of characterizing benign lesions as best as possible, while avoiding to expose patients to the risks inherent to invasive methods, besides correctly detecting cases of lung cancer so as the potential curative treatment is not delayed. This first part of the study focuses on the epidemiology, the morphological evaluation and the methods to determine the likelihood of cancer in cases of indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodule. (author)

  20. The epidemiology of testicular cancer in upstate New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haughey, B.P.; Graham, S.; Brasure, J.; Zielezny, M.; Sufrin, G. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA)); Burnett, W.S. (New York State Department of Health, Albany (USA))

    1989-07-01

    In a study of 250 cases of cancer of the testis and of neighborhood- and age-matched controls in upstate New York in 1977-1980, the authors found that risk was enhanced by possession of a number of traits associated with exposure of the testis to heat; occupational exposures to fertilizers, phenols, and fumes or smoke; and trauma to the testis. Risk was also increased for characteristics related to congenital and developmental aberrancies and testis-related abnormalities, e.g., low sperm count, fertility problems, atrophic testis, and cryptorchidism. Several of these risk factors were statistically significant in a multiple regression model that adjusted for all other significant traits, age, and education.

  1. Applying quality criteria to exposure in asbestos epidemiology increases the estimated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdorf, Alex; Heederik, Dick

    2011-07-01

    Mesothelioma deaths due to environmental exposure to asbestos in The Netherlands led to parliamentary concern that exposure guidelines were not strict enough. The Health Council of the Netherlands was asked for advice. Its report has recently been published. The question of quality of the exposure estimates was studied more systematically than in previous asbestos meta-analyses. Five criteria of quality of exposure information were applied, and cohort studies that failed to meet these were excluded. For lung cancer, this decreased the number of cohorts included from 19 to 3 and increased the risk estimate 3- to 6-fold, with the requirements for good historical data on exposure and job history having the largest effects. It also suggested that the apparent differences in lung cancer potency between amphiboles and chrysotile may be produced by lower quality studies. A similar pattern was seen for mesothelioma. As a result, the Health Council has proposed that the occupational exposure limit be reduced from 10 000 fibres m(-3) (all types) to 250 f m(-3) (amphiboles), 1300 f m(-3) (mixed fibres), and 2000 f m(-3) (chrysotile). The process illustrates the importance of evaluating quality of exposure in epidemiology since poor quality of exposure data will lead to underestimated risk.

  2. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the Netherland

  3. Epidemiologic evidence for chloroprene carcinogenicity: review of study quality and its application to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John Arthur

    2009-09-01

    This article evaluates the quality and weight of evidence associated with epidemiologic studies of cancer among occupational cohorts exposed to chloroprene. The focus is on liver, lung, and lymphohematopoietic cancers, which had been increased in early studies. Literature searches identified eight morbidity/mortality studies covering seven chloroprene-exposed cohorts from six countries. These studies were summarized and their quality was assessed using the 10 criteria suggested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The limitations within this literature (primarily the early studies) included crude exposure assessment, incomplete follow-up, uncertain baseline rates, and uncontrolled confounding by factors such as smoking, drinking, and co-exposure to benzene and vinyl chloride. Four cohorts were studied by the same group of investigators, who reported no overall increased associations for any cancers. This four-cohort study was by far the most rigorous, having the most comprehensive exposure assessment and follow-up and the most detailed documentation. This study also contained the two largest cohorts, including an American cohort from Louisville, Kentucky, that ranked at or near the top for each of the 10 quality criteria. There was evidence of a strong healthy worker effect in the four-cohort study, which could have hidden small excess risks. Small increased risks were suggested by internal or company-specific analyses, but these were most likely caused by uncontrolled confounding and low baseline rates. Overall, the weight of evidence does not support any substantial link between chloroprene exposure and cancer, but inconsistencies and a lack of control for major confounders preclude drawing firmer conclusions.

  4. Is Type 2 Diabetes a Risk Factor for Pancreatic Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between diabetes mellitus and the risk of pancreatic cancer has been a matter of study for a long time. Taking into consideration diabetes mellitus irrespective of type, there is a lack of agreement regarding the data; in fact, some epidemiological studies have excluded this possibility whereas others have found a relationship between the presence of diabetes and the development of pancreatic cancer. On the other hand, a recent study has reported that metformin may have a protective effect on the development of pancreatic cancer [1]. Therefore, we would briefly revise the data both for and against the possibility that pancreatic cancer is a consequence of long-standing diabetes.

  5. Association of vitamin D levels and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ong, Jue-Sheng; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro and observational epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D may play a role in cancer prevention. However, the relationship between vitamin D and ovarian cancer is uncertain, with observational studies generating conflicting findings. A potential limitation...... of observational studies is inadequate control of confounding. To overcome this problem, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We...... employed SNPs with well-established associations with 25(OH)D concentration as instrumental variables for MR: rs7944926 (DHCR7), rs12794714 (CYP2R1) and rs2282679 (GC). We included 31 719 women of European ancestry (10 065 cases, 21 654 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, who were...

  6. Postpartum remodeling, lactation, and breast cancer risk: summary of a National Cancer Institute-sponsored workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Balkam, Jane J; Eliassen, A Heather; Hassiotou, Foteini; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Michels, Karin B; Palmer, Julie R; Schedin, Pepper; Stuebe, Alison M; Watson, Christine J; Sherman, Mark E

    2013-02-06

    The pregnancy-lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until the next pregnancy. Changes during this period permanently alter the morphology and molecular characteristics of the breast (molecular histology) and produce important, yet poorly understood, effects on breast cancer risk. To provide a state-of-the-science summary of this topic, the National Cancer Institute invited a multidisciplinary group of experts to participate in a workshop in Rockville, Maryland, on March 2, 2012. Topics discussed included: 1) the epidemiology of the PLC in relation to breast cancer risk, 2) breast milk as a biospecimen for molecular epidemiological and translational research, and 3) use of animal models to gain mechanistic insights into the effects of the PLC on breast carcinogenesis. This report summarizes conclusions of the workshop, proposes avenues for future research on the PLC and its relationship with breast cancer risk, and identifies opportunities to translate this knowledge to improve breast cancer outcomes.

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your ... taking both estrogen and progesterone. Family history of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or colorectal cancer Ovarian cancer can ...

  8. Cancer Incidence - Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registries Limited-Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SEER Limited-Use cancer incidence data with associated population data. Geographic areas available are county and SEER registry. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and...

  9. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  10. [Cervix uteri cancer in Poland--epidemiological opening balance and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Zatoński, Witold

    2006-09-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death among young and middle-aged females. In case of some cancer sites there is a possibility of undertaking an intervention, which would diminish the risk of death--to this group belongs first of all malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri. The date of beginning first cervix uteri cancer screening in Poland is approaching, therefore presenting epidemiological opening balance and possible scenarios of changes it worthwhile. This work uses data on morbidity and mortality due to malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri cancer in Polish population. Time trends analysis was based on so-called "breakpoint" (joinpoint analysis). Cervix uteri cancer mortality trend is characterized by two breakpoints (1971 and 1993). In the period of 1963-1970 there was an increase of mortality and then after the trend reversed: percentage decline was estimated at the level of 0.8% yearly in 1971-1992 and 2.4% yearly in 1993-2002. Hypothetical scenarios of changes in cervix uteri cancer mortality show, that lack of intervention will cause mortality among Polish females at the level recorded in Finland 25 years ago. Optimistic variant would allow on diminishing mortality in Poland down to the level observed currently in Finland, in around 30 years. Implementing preventive cervix uteri cancer screening is currently the most urgent challenge of public health. If the preventive screening program will still be in the phase of plans and projects, then in 30 years time Poland will be in the point which Finland reached in the end of 1970s, and our civilizing underdevelopment will reach half a century.

  11. [Leanness, obesity, and breast cancer risk-different impact of body weight on breast cancer risk according to women's life stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Saji, Shigehira

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies, although not all, in Western countries have reported a possible differential impact of BMI on breast cancer risk in women of various lifestages. Among premenopausal women, a number of epidemiological studies in Western populations suggested a weak inverse association between BMI and breast cancer risk. Conversely, there exists substantial evidence for a statistically significant positive association between body weight and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. The cumulative exposure to estrogen throughout a woman's life is one of the significant risk factors for breast cancer. After menopause, adipose tissue is a major source of estrogen. Therefore, an increase in body fat after menopause is one of the possible explanations for the positive association of body weight with the development of breast cancer. To evaluate the impact of body weight on the risk of breast cancer, we need to consider the role of adipose tissue in the development and differentiation of normal mammary glands. Special attention should be paid to women in their twenties and/or during their lactation periods when the development of normal mammary glands is significant. Further studies are needed to investigate the association between BMI and breast cancer risk, considering the role of body fat in the development of mammary glands.

  12. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...... human papillomavirus infections would help individualize screening guidelines and target immune-associated factors in the cervical cancer etiology....

  13. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2013-10-01

    differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. Keywords: epidemiology, breast cancer, morbidity measure, public health, cancer epidemiology

  14. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer: a contrary thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroff, Leon

    2008-01-01

    The most important unanswered question regarding postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer is whether hormone therapy initiates the growth of new breast cancers or whether the epidemiologic data reflect a hormonal impact on preexisting tumors. In this perspective I review the evidence favoring hormonal effects on preexisting tumors and suggest that exposure to combined estrogen and progestin is beneficial, causing greater differentiation and earlier detection of breast cancers.

  15. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Breast Cancer by Tumor Receptor Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xuehong; Beck, Andrew H.; Collins, Laura C.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Hazra, Aditi; Brown, Myles; Rosner, Bernard; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiologic studies, alcohol consumption appears more strongly associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive than ER-negative breast cancer. However, this association has not been assessed by other potentially relevant tumor markers, such as androgen receptor (AR) or insulin receptor (IR). In the prospective Nurses’ Health Study cohort, we evaluated alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk by individual tumor marker expression (i.e. ER, Progesterone Receptor [PR], AR and IR) ...

  17. Caffeinated Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee and Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Prospective Cohort Study among US Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Katherine W.; Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson; Nicole Luisi; Raji Balasubramanian; Ayush Giri; Sturgeon, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    There is plausible biological evidence as well as epidemiologic evidence to suggest coffee consumption may lower endometrial cancer risk. We evaluated the associations between self-reported total coffee, caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee, and endometrial cancer risk using the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study Research Materials obtained from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Biological Specimen and Data Repository Coordinating Center. Our primary analyses inc...

  18. Intrauterine environments and breast cancer risk: meta-analysis and systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sue Kyung; Kang, Daehee; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Kim, Yeonju; Yoo, Keun Young; Brinton, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Various perinatal factors, including birth weight, birth order, maternal age, gestational age, twin status, and parental smoking, have been postulated to affect breast cancer risk in daughters by altering the hormonal environment of the developing fetal mammary glands. Despite ample biologic plausibility, epidemiologic studies to date have yielded conflicting results. We investigated the associations between perinatal factors and subsequent breast cancer risk through meta-analyse...

  19. The genetics of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Mark M; Freedman, Matthew L

    2011-01-01

    One hundred years ago, decades before the discovery of the structure of DNA, debate raged regarding how human traits were passed from one generation to the next. Phenotypes, including risk of disease, had long been recognized as having a familial component. Yet it was difficult to reconcile genetic segregation as described by Mendel with observations exhaustively documented by Karl Pearson and others regarding the normal distribution of human characteristics. In 1918, R. A. Fisher published his landmark article, "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance," bridging this divide and demonstrating that multiple alleles, all individually obeying Mendel's laws, account for the phenotypic variation observed in nature.Since that time, geneticists have sought to identify the link between genotype and phenotype. Trait-associated alleles vary in their frequency and degree of penetrance. Some minor alleles may approach a frequency of 50% in the human population, whereas others are present within only a few individuals. The spectrum for penetrance is similarly wide. These characteristics jointly determine the segregation pattern of a given trait, which, in turn, determine the method used to map the trait. Until recently, identification of rare, highly penetrant alleles was most practical. Revolutionary studies in genomics reported over the past decade have made interrogation of most of the spectrum of genetic variation feasible.The following article reviews recent discoveries in the genetic basis of inherited cancer risk and how these discoveries inform cancer biology and patient management. Although this article focuses on prostate cancer, the principles are generic for any cancer and, indeed, for any trait.

  20. Managing Lunar and Mars Mission Radiation Risks. Part 1; Cancer Risks, Uncertainties, and Shielding Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2005-01-01

    This document addresses calculations of probability distribution functions (PDFs) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPEs). PDFs are used to test the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Monte-Carlo techniques are used to propagate uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. The cancer risk uncertainty is about four-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missins (shielding. For long-duration (>180 d) lunar or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits. While shielding materials are marginally effective in reducing GCR cancer risks because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativisitc particles, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding. Therefore, improving our knowledge of space radiobiology to narrow uncertainties that lead to wide PDFs is the best approach to ensure radiation protection goals are met for space exploration.

  1. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  2. Dietary zinc, copper and selenium, and risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, Somdat; Spitz, Margaret R; Barrera, Stephanie L; Beaver, Shao Hua; Etzel, Carol; Forman, Michele R

    2007-03-01

    Zinc, copper and selenium are important cofactors for several enzymes that play a role in maintaining DNA integrity. However, limited epidemiologic research on these dietary trace metals and lung cancer risk is available. In an ongoing study of 1,676 incident lung cancer cases and 1,676 matched healthy controls, we studied the associations between dietary zinc, copper and selenium and lung cancer risk. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer for all subjects by increasing quartiles of dietary zinc intake were 1.0, 0.80 (0.65-0.99), 0.64 (0.51-0.81), 0.57 (0.42-0.75), respectively (p trend = 0.0004); similar results were found for men. For dietary copper, the ORs and 95% CI for all subjects were 1.0, 0.59 (0.49-0.73), 0.51 (0.41-0.64), 0.34 (0.26-0.45), respectively (p trend cancer with increased dietary zinc intake were also found for all ages, BMI > 25, current smokers, pack-years copper intake was associated with protective trends (p copper intakes are associated with reduced risk of lung cancer. Given the known limitations of case-control studies, these findings must be interpreted with caution and warrant further investigation.

  3. Non melanoma skin cancer and subsequent cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy R Rees

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC but the individual risk factors underlying this risk have not been elucidated, especially in relation to sun exposure and skin sensitivity to sunlight. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the individual risk factors associated with the development of subsequent cancers after non melanoma skin cancer. METHODS: Participants in the population-based New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study provided detailed risk factor data, and subsequent cancers were identified via linkage with the state cancer registry. Deaths were identified via state and national death records. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk of subsequent malignancies in NMSC patients versus controls and to assess the potential confounding effects of multiple risk factors on this risk. RESULTS: Among 3584 participants, risk of a subsequent cancer (other than NMSC was higher after basal cell carcinoma (BCC (adjusted HR 1.40 [95% CI 1.15, 1.71] than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.95, 1.46] compared to controls (adjusted for age, sex and current cigarette smoking. After SCC, risk was higher among those diagnosed before age 60 (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.24, 3.12]. An over 3-fold risk of melanoma after SCC (HR 3.62; 95% CI 1.85, 7.11 and BCC (HR 3.28; 95% CI 1.66, 6.51 was observed, even after further adjustment for sun exposure-related factors and family history of skin cancer. In men, prostate cancer incidence was higher after BCC compared to controls (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.10, 2.46. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study indicates an increased cancer risk after NMSC that cannot be fully explained by known cancer risk factors.

  4. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M;

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  5. 体力活动与结肠癌关系前瞻性研究的Meta分析%Epidemiological prospective studies on physical activities and the risk of colon cancer: a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万水; 谭玉婷; 刘大可; 高姗; 高静; 项永兵

    2010-01-01

    目的 索体力活动与结肠癌发生的病因学联系.方法 集和整理1979-2009年国内外公开发表的体力活动与结肠癌关系的队列研究文献,开展Meta分析.其中,各文献RR值的合并采用倒方差法或DerSimonian-Laird method(D-L)法,剂量-反应关系的评价采用方差加权的最小二乘法.结果 入Meta分析的文献共28篇.与低体力活动者相比,男、女性高体力活动者结肠癌RR值分别为0.75(95%CI:0.66~0.86)、0.85(95%CI:0.76~0.95).高质量文献分析显示体力活动与结肠癌,男性RR=0.74(95%CI:0.61~0.90)、女性接近统计学意义的RR=0.99(95%CI:0.95~1.02).男、女性中均未观察到明显的剂量-反应关系,趋势检验分别为P=0.142和P=0.417.结肠亚部位分析结果显示,增加体力活动与男性近端(右侧)结肠癌与远端(左侧)结肠癌发生均有关联,合并RR值分别为0.62(95%CI:0.45~0.85)和0.74(95%CI:0.56~0.99).结论 增加体力活动可以降低结肠癌发生的危险性.%Objective To explore the relationship between physical activity(PA) and the risk of colon cancer. Methods Cohort studies on physical activity and risk of colon cancer were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-medicine and Chinese Wanfang databases from January 1979 to December 2009. Results from the individual studies were synthetically combined in our study. Inverse variance weighting was used in fixed effects model and the random effects estimate was based on the DerSimonian-Laird method. Variance-weighted least squares method was used for trend test of summarized dose-response data. Results A total of 28 studies were included in our analysis. An inverse association between physical activities and the risk of colon cancer was observed with the relative risks (RR) as 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.86] in males and 0.85(95%CI: 0.76-0.95)in females, respectively. However, the findings from those documents with high quality showed significant and

  6. The changing epidemiology of Asian digestive cancers: From etiologies and incidences to preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Ying; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2015-12-01

    Digestive cancers are a major health burden in Asia. Due to the presence of similar "infection-inflammation-cancer" pathways in the carcinogenesis process, eradicating infective pathogens or attenuating relevant inflammatory signaling pathways may reduce digestive cancer incidences and improve patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to review the recent evidence regarding the epidemiology of three major digestive cancers in Asia: stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer. We focused on the incidence trends, the major etiologies, and especially the potential preventive strategies.

  7. Cancer risk in dermatomyositis: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rollo, D; Abeni, D; Tracanna, M; Capo, A; Amerio, P

    2014-10-01

    The association between idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) and cancer has been extensively studied in adults. Many epidemiological studies demonstrated this association, which appears stronger for dermatomyositis (DM) than for polymyositis (PM). The first case suggesting an association between cancer and DM was reported in 1916. At present the reported incidence of cancer association with DM varies widely, from less than 7% to over 30%. Many early evidences came from case reports, but this association was later confirmed in case-control as well as in population-based studies. Ovarian cancer or breast cancer in females and lung cancer in males are the main malignancies associated with DM. Given the frequency of the association of dermatomyositis with cancer, for cost-effectiveness reasons it might be important to develop simple and appropriate diagnostic tests for identification of patients with DM, who may be at higher risk of developing a malignancy. Clinicians should plan follow-up schedules to optimize both cancer detection and treatment, and thus to improve patient survival. Many different clinical and serological signs have been suggested as possible predictive factors for malignancy in dermatomyositis: age, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), presence of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, cutaneous rash and skin lesions as cutaneous necrosis and periungueal erythemas, neoplastic markers or dysphagia. The results of the different studies are quite discordant. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature to evaluate the level of the risk of cancer in patients with dermatomyositis and to explore whether certain patient characteristics may be linked to different levels of cancer risk.

  8. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ORAL CANCER: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil H Agrawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is heading towards various types of non-communicable diseases, which are also known as modern epidemics. Among these modern epidemics cancer is among the ten commonest cause of mortality in developing countries including India. Oral cancer is a major problem in India and accounts for 50-70% of all the cancers diagnosed. Ninety percent (90% of oral cancers in South East Asia including India are linked to tobacco chewing and tobacco smoking. Research question: What is the profile of Oral cancer (Oral cavity cases reported in the hospital? Objective: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile associated with Oral cancer cases. Methods: Study Design: Hospital based, Cross -sectional study. Settings: Shri Siddhivinayak Ganapati Cancer Hospital, Miraj, Maharashtra. Participants and Sample size: As it is a time bound study sample size comprised of all the confirmed cases of oral cancer reported in the hospital during the study period. The study was carried out from 1st March 2005 to 28th February 2006. Study variables included demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, enquiries regarding modifiable risk factors such as tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, site involved (within oral cavity, staging, histopathological examination, treatment modality used. Data entry and statistical analysis was done using Microsoft excel. Data presented in form of percentages and proportions. Results: Out of the total 160 cases, majority of the subjects were above 40 years age. 36 (22% of subjects were young adults (below 40 years age. 125 (78% subjects were male. Most of the subjects belonged to upper lower and lower middle socio-economic scale according to modified Kuppuswamy classification. It was observed that 139 (87% cases consumed tobacco in all forms. Out of these, ninety cases consumed tobacco in chewable form. Tobacco was chewed mainly in the form of gutka. Only ten (10 female subjects chewed tobacco. No female subjects smoked. The most

  9. Tea drinking and risk of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Junbao; Chen Long; Zhu Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.This study aimed to investigate whether tea consumption is related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.Methods We searched Medline,EMBASE,ISI Web of Science,and the Cochrane library for studies published up to November 2013.We used a meta-analytic approach to estimate overall odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest tea consumption categories.Results The summary OR for high versus no/almost never tea drinkers was 1.04 (95% CI:0.91-1.20),with no significant heterogeneity across studies (P=0.751;I2=0.0%).The OR was 0.99 (95% CI:0.77-1.28) in males and 1.01 (95% CI:0.79-1.29) in females.The OR was 1.07 (95% CI:0.85-1.34) in Asian studies,1.05 (95% CI:0.84-1.31) in European studies,and 0.98 (95% CI:0.72-1.34) in the US studies.The OR was 0.87 (95% CI:0.69-1.10) without adjustment for a history of diabetes and 1.16 (95% CI:0.97-0.39) after adjustment for a history of diabetes.The OR was 0.90 (95% CI:0.72-1.12) without adjustment for alcohol drinking and 1.16 (95% CI:0.96-1.39) after adjustment for alcohol drinking.The OR was 0.97 (95% CI:0.76-1.25) without adjustment for BMI and 1.07 (95% CI:0.87-1.31) after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion This systematic meta-analysis of cohort studies dose not provide quantitative evidence that tea consumption is appreciably related to the risk of pancreatic cancer,even at high doses.

  10. Epidemiological profile of nonmelanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients: experience of a referral center

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in humans and also the malignant disease that is increasingly common among kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of renal transplant recipients with nonmelanoma skin cancer seen at a referral transplantation center. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study with renal transplant recipients presenting nonmelanoma skin cancer, treated at a transplantation referral cente...

  11. Pretreatment serum albumin as a predictor of cancer survival: A systematic review of the epidemiological literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lis Christopher G; Gupta Digant

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There are several methods of assessing nutritional status in cancer of which serum albumin is one of the most commonly used. In recent years, the role of malnutrition as a predictor of survival in cancer has received considerable attention. As a result, it is reasonable to investigate whether serum albumin has utility as a prognostic indicator of cancer survival in cancer. This review summarizes all available epidemiological literature on the association between pretreatme...

  12. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  13. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression...... was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for epithelial ovarian cancer overall, and for histological types, associated with statin use. RESULTS: We observed a neutral association between ever use of statins and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.......87-1.10), and no apparent risk variation according to duration, intensity or type of statin use. Decreased ORs associated with statin use were seen for mucinous ovarian cancer (ever statin use: OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.39-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was not associated with overall risk for epithelial ovarian cancer...

  14. Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-06-15

    The debate on the potential carcinogenic effect of dietary acrylamide is open. In consideration of the recent findings from large prospective investigations, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer at several sites. Up to July 2014, we identified 32 publications. We performed meta-analyses to calculate the summary relative risk (RR) of each cancer site for the highest versus lowest level of intake and for an increment of 10 µg/day of dietary acrylamide, through fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity test. Fourteen cancer sites could be examined. No meaningful associations were found for most cancers considered. The summary RRs for high versus low acrylamide intake were 0.87 for oral and pharyngeal, 1.14 for esophageal, 1.03 for stomach, 0.94 for colorectal, 0.93 for pancreatic, 1.10 for laryngeal, 0.88 for lung, 0.96 for breast, 1.06 for endometrial, 1.12 for ovarian, 1.00 for prostate, 0.93 for bladder and 1.13 for lymphoid malignancies. The RR was of borderline significance only for kidney cancer (RR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.45). All the corresponding continuous estimates ranged between 0.95 and 1.03, and none of them was significant. Among never-smokers, borderline associations with dietary acrylamide emerged for endometrial (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51) and ovarian (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00) cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies indicates that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers. A modest association for kidney cancer, and for endometrial and ovarian cancers in never smokers only, cannot be excluded.

  15. Body mass and endometrial cancer risk by hormone replacement therapy and cancer subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Marjorie L; Patel, Alpa V; Patel, Roshni; Rodriguez, Carmen; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Bandera, Elisa V; Gansler, Ted; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies unequivocally show that greater body mass increases the risk of endometrial cancer, but whether risk varies by use of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT), location of fat deposition, or cancer subtype is still unclear. We examined these associations among 33,436 postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, who completed questionnaires on diet, lifestyle, and medical history at baseline in 1992. A total of 318 cases were eligible through June 2003. Cox-proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR). As expected, adult body mass index (BMI) was a strong predictor of risk [RR, 4.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.12-7.07 for BMI 35+ versus 22.5-25.0, P trend or =35 versus 22.5-25.0, P trend or =30 versus <25.0) increased risk of both "type I" (classic estrogen pathway, RR, 4.22; 95% CI, 3.07-5.81) and "type II" (serous, clear cell, and all other high grade) cancers (RR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.59-5.16). The increased risk of endometrial cancer across the range of BMI in women who never used postmenopausal HT stresses the need to prevent both overweight and obesity in women.

  16. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients.

  17. Cancers in Togo from 1984 to 2008: Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of 5251 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Koffi Amégbor; Tchin Darre; Koffi Didier Ayéna; Essohana Padaro; Kodjo Tengué; Anani Abalo; Gado Napo-Koura

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods. We made a retrospective review of the epidemiological and pathological features of cancers observed from 1984 to 2008 at the laboratory of pathology of CHU-TOKOIN in Lomé, Togo. Results. During our study period, we found 5251 cases of cancers with an annual average frequency of 210 cases. The sex ratio, male/female, was 0.9 and the average age of occurring was 45.3 years. T...

  18. CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 gene polymorphism and cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Zhang, Chun; Xu, Weizhang; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zheng, Yuxiao; Lu, Zipeng; Liu, Dongfang; Jiang, Kuirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous epidemiological studies have reported the relationship between CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) synonymous polymorphism (rs2228014), and risk of cancer, but the results remained conflicting and controversial. Therefore, this study was devised to evaluate the genetic effects of the rs2228014 polymorphism on cancer risk in a large meta-analysis. Methods: The computer-based databases (EMBASE, Web of Science, and PubMed) were searched for all relevant studies evaluating rs2228014 and susceptibility to cancer. In the analysis, pooled odds ratios (ORs) with its corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in 5 genetic models to assess the genetic risk. Egger regression and Begg funnel plots test were conducted to appraise the publication bias. Results: Data on rs2228014 polymorphism and overall cancer risk were available for 3684 cancer patients and 5114 healthy controls participating in 11 studies. Overall, a significantly increased risk of cancer was associated with rs2228014 polymorphism in homozygote model (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22–3.33) and in recessive model (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.23–3.16). When stratified by ethnicity, the results were positive only in Asian populations (heterozygote model: OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13–1.65; homozygote model: OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.21–4.91; dominant model: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13–1.90; recessive model: OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.13–4.48; and allele model: OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.10–1.99). Besides, in the subgroup analysis by source of control, the result was significant only in population-based control (homozygote model: OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.06–5.40; recessive model: pooled OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.02–4.96). Conclusion: In general, our results first indicated that the rs2228014 polymorphism in CXCR4 gene is correlated with an increased risk of cancer, especially among Asian ethnicity. Large, well-designed epidemiological studies are required to verify the current findings. PMID

  19. Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodutta Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined environmental epidemiologic, genomic, and bioinformatics approach to identify: exposure of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity; epidemiologic association between endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC and health effects, such as, breast cancer or endometriosis; and gene-EDC interactions and disease associations. Human exposure measurement and modeling confirmed estrogenic activity of three selected class of environmental chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, bisphenols (BPs, and phthalates. Meta-analysis showed that PCBs exposure, not Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates, increased the summary odds ratio for breast cancer and endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EDC interactions and disease associations identified several hundred genes that were altered by exposure to PCBs, phthalate or BPA. EDCs-modified genes in breast neoplasms and endometriosis are part of steroid hormone signaling and inflammation pathways. All three EDCs–PCB 153, phthalates, and BPA influenced five common genes—CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR2, FOS, and IGF1—in breast cancer as well as in endometriosis. These genes are environmentally and estrogen responsive, altered in human breast and uterine tumors and endometriosis lesions, and part of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in cancer. Our findings suggest that breast cancer and endometriosis share some common environmental and molecular risk factors.

  20. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D.; Gompel, A.; Mueck, A.O.;

    2011-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  1. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D; Gompel, A; Mueck, A O;

    2010-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  2. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  3. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  4. Epidemiological study on risk factor of gastric cancer among Buyi population in Qiannan%黔南地区布依族居民胃癌发病危险因素病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo examine the risk factors of gastric carcinoma among Buyi population in Qannan area,and to provide reference for making effective strategy to prevent gastric carcinoma.MethodsA 1:1 matched casecontrol study was conducted among 138 new diagnosed gastric cancer patients and 138healthy physical examinees over the same period in with a questionnaire survey.ResultsUnivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the main risk factors for gastric cancer in the high-altitude region were the history of digestive system disease,family history of tumor,eating disorders,water scarcity,arsenic environmental pollution,smoking,barbecue food,fried food,high-salt diet,sulking and Helicobacter pylori(Hp)infection. Multiyariate logistic regression analyses showed that the main risk factors for gastric carcinoma in the Hp infection,family history of tumor,eating disorders,water scarcity,arsenic environmental pollution, barbecue food,fried food and high-salt diet.ConclusionThe incidence of gastric carcinoma Qannan area may correlate with Hpinfection,family history of tumor,water scarcity,arsenic environmental pollution,unhealthy dietary habit and unhealthy living habit. Specific preventive measures should be taken to control the disease according to the unique local condition.%目的:了解黔南地区布依族居民胃癌发病的相关影响因素,为制订有效的胃癌防治措施提供依据。方法2008年1月—2014年12月,按照配对病例对照研究方法,在黔南民族医学高等专科学校第二附属医院对新发胃癌布依族患者138例和同期进行体检的138名布依族健康人群进行问卷调查,分析胃癌发病的影响因素。结果多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,Hp感染、肿瘤家族史、饮食不规律、水资源缺乏、砷环境污染、烧烤食物、煎炸食品、高盐饮食是黔南地区布依族居民胃癌发生的主要危险因素。结论黔南地区布依族居民胃癌的发病与Hp感染

  5. Metabolic syndrome and risk of subsequent colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raluca Pais; Horatiu Silaghi; Alina Cristina Silaghi; Mihai Lucian Rusu; Dan Lucian Dumitrascu

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome and visceral obesity have an increasing prevalence and incidence in the general population. The actual prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 24% in US population and between 24.6% and 30.9% in Europe. As demonstrated by many clinical trials (NAHANES Ⅲ, INTERHART) the metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition to cardiovascular disease, individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been linked to the development of cancer, particularly to colorectal cancer.Colorectal cancer is an important public health problem; in the year 2000 there was an estimated total of 944 717 incident cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed world-wide. This association is sustained by many epidemiological studies. Recent reports suggest that individuals with metabolic syndrome have a higher risk of colon or rectal cancer. Moreover, the clusters of metabolic syndrome components increase the risk of associated cancer. The physiopathological mechanism that links metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer is mostly related to abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Population and experimental studies demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia, elevated C-peptide, elevated body mass index, high levels of insulin growth factor-1, low levels of insulin growth factor binding protein-3, high leptin levels and low adiponectin levels are all involved in carcinogenesis. Understanding the pathological mechanism that links metabolic syndrome and its components to carcinogenesis has a major clinical significance and may have profound health benefits on a number of diseases including cancer, which represents a major cause of mortality and morbidity in our societies.

  6. Descriptive epidemiology of breast cancer in China: incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm diagnosed amongst women worldwide and is the leading cause of female cancer death. However, breast cancer in China is not comprehensively understood compared with Westernised countries, although the 5-year prevalence statistics indicate that approximately 11 % of worldwide breast cancer occurs in China and that the incidence has increased rapidly in recent decades. This paper reviews the descriptive epidemiology of Chinese breast cancer in terms of incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence, and explores relevant factors such as age of manifestation and geographic locations. The statistics are compared with data from the Westernised world with particular emphasis on the United States and Australia. Potential causal agents responsible for differences in breast cancer epidemiology between Chinese and other populations are also explored. The need to minimise variability and discrepancies in methods of data acquisition, analysis and presentation is highlighted.

  7. Usage of risk management system for improvement of sanitary-epidemiological control and surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Karelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviewsthe possibility to work out and introduce risk-oriented model for control and surveillance in the field of the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population in the Russian Federation. In implementation of risk-oriented approaches, choice of a model is of importance. If the static model is the starting one, then in the future, the dynamic model will be the most promising allowing for assessment of stability of the sanitary-epidemiologic situation in time. Introduction and development of risk-oriented models for control and surveillance is the actual objective at realization of sanitary-epidemiological control (surveillance . It is necessary to work out and harmonize concept, procedural apparatus, and scientific and methodological support of risk-oriented control and surveillance on the base of the best world patterns and standards.

  8. Estimation of cancer risks and benefits associated with a potential increased consumption of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Richard; Johnston, Jason; Tucker, Kevin; DeSesso, John M; Keen, Carl L

    2012-12-01

    The current paper provides an analysis of the potential number of cancer cases that might be prevented if half the U.S. population increased its fruit and vegetable consumption by one serving each per day. This number is contrasted with an upper-bound estimate of concomitant cancer cases that might be theoretically attributed to the intake of pesticide residues arising from the same additional fruit and vegetable consumption. The cancer prevention estimates were derived using a published meta-analysis of nutritional epidemiology studies. The cancer risks were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods, cancer potency estimates from rodent bioassays, and pesticide residue sampling data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The resulting estimates are that approximately 20,000 cancer cases per year could be prevented by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, while up to 10 cancer cases per year could be caused by the added pesticide consumption. These estimates have significant uncertainties (e.g., potential residual confounding in the fruit and vegetable epidemiologic studies and reliance on rodent bioassays for cancer risk). However, the overwhelming difference between benefit and risk estimates provides confidence that consumers should not be concerned about cancer risks from consuming conventionally-grown fruits and vegetables.

  9. Rationale and design of the Japan molecular epidemiology for lung cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Ando, Masahiko; Ito, Norimasa; Isa, Shun-Ichi; Tamiya, Akihiro; Shimizu, Shigeki; Saka, Hideo; Kubo, Akihito; Koh, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Akihide

    2013-09-01

    We present the rationale for the Japan Molecular Epidemiology for Lung Cancer study designed to elucidate molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer. This prospective, ongoing, multicenter study is being conducted nationwide in Japan. Although there is no doubt that active smoking is the major cause of lung cancer, the contribution of other possible factors, including environmental tobacco or wood smoke, human papilloma virus, radon, occupational exposures, and genetic susceptibility, is highly likely, based on studies of never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer. Because of the predominance of women in the never-smoker subgroup, the role of female hormones in lung cancer development has also been considered. We hypothesize that driver mutations, which are critical for the development of lung cancer, are triggered by the environmental factors with or without the influence of the hormone. The SWOG-led intergroup molecular epidemiology study S0424 was conducted to focus on these issues by using a detailed questionnaire and specimen collection in statistically significant cohorts of smokers and never-smokers from both sexes. The Japan Molecular Epidemiology for Lung Cancer study follows and extends the S0424 molecular epidemiology concept in principle by using a similar approach that will facilitate future comparisons between the studies but with a greater focus on more recently defined driver mutations and broad genomic sequencing.

  10. Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2016-01-01

    More than 250,000 new cases of primary malignant brain tumors are diagnosed annually worldwide, 77% of which are gliomas. A small proportion of gliomas are caused by the inheritance of rare high-penetrance genetic variants or high-dose radiation. Since 2009, inherited genetic variants in 10 regions near eight different genes have been consistently associated with glioma risk via genome-wide association studies. Most of these variants increase glioma risk by 20-40%, but two have higher relative risks. One on chromosome 8 increases risk of IDH-mutated gliomas sixfold and another that affects TP53 function confers a 2.5-fold increased risk of glioma. Functions of some of the other risk variants are known or suspected, but future research will determine functions of other risk loci. Recent progress also has been made in defining subgroups of glioma based on acquired alterations within tumors. Allergy history has been consistently associated with reduced glioma risk, though the mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Future studies will need to be large enough so that environmental and constitutive genetic risk factors can be examined within molecularly defined, etiologically homogeneous subgroups.

  11. Improvement of risk assessment by integrating toxicological and epidemiological approaches: the case of isoflavones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.A.

    2015-01-01

      Improvement of risk assessment by integrating toxicological and epidemiological approaches: the case of isoflavones PhD-thesis Mohammed Ariful Islam This thesis describes the results of a research project that aimed at the improvement of the risk/benefit as

  12. The high prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer at autopsy: implications for epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer in the Prostate-specific Antigen-era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J

    2015-12-15

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening detects many cancers that would have otherwise gone undiagnosed. To estimate the prevalence of unsuspected prostate cancer, we reviewed 19 studies of prostate cancer discovered at autopsy among 6,024 men. Among men aged 70-79, tumor was found in 36% of Caucasians and 51% of African-Americans. This enormous prevalence, coupled with the high sensitivity of PSA screening, has led to the marked increase in the apparent incidence of prostate cancer. The impact of PSA screening on clinical practice is well-recognized, but its effect on epidemiologic research is less appreciated. Before screening, a larger proportion of incident prostate cancers had lethal potential and were diagnosed at advanced stage. However, in the PSA era, overall incident prostate cancer mainly is indolent disease, and often reflects the propensity to be screened and biopsied. Studies must therefore focus on cancers with lethal potential, and include long follow-up to accommodate the lead time induced by screening. Moreover, risk factor patterns differ markedly for potentially lethal and indolent disease, suggesting separate etiologies and distinct disease entities. Studies of total incident or indolent prostate cancer are of limited clinical utility, and the main focus of research should be on prostate cancers of lethal potential.

  13. [Cancer screening and risk communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwarth, Odette

    2013-04-01

    In most psychological and medical research, patients are assumed to have difficulties with health statistics but clinicians not. However, studies indicate that most doctors have problems in understanding health statistics, including those of their own speciality. For example, only two out of 20 urologists knew the information relevant for a patient to make an informed decision about whether to take PSA screening for prostate cancer, just 14 out of 65 physicians in internal medicine understood that 5-year survival rates do not tell anything about screening's benefit, and merely 34 out of 160 gynecologists were able to interpret the meaning of a positive test result. This statistical illiteracy has a direct effect on patients understanding and interpretation of medical issues. Not rarely their own limited health literacy and their doctors' misinformation make them suffer through a time of emotional distress and unnecessary anxiety. The main reasons for doctors' statistical illiteracy are medical schools that ignore the importance of teaching risk communication. With little effort doctors could taught the simple techniques of risk communication, which would make most of their statistical confusion disappear.

  14. Association Between the Mediterranean Diet and Cancer Risk: A Review of Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, L.D.M.; Bach-Faig, A.; Buckland, G.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to summarize the evidence concerning the association between Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in observational epidemiological studies. All the studies that met the following criteria were reviewed: human cohort and case-control studies that examined the effe

  15. Dietary Flavonols and Flavonol-rich foods intake and the risk of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adebamowo, C.A.; Sampson, L.; Katan, M.B.; Spiegelman, D.; Willett, W.C.; Holmes, M.D.; Cho, E.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and animal studies suggest that dietary flavonols may reduce breast cancer risk but there are limited epidemiological studies. We computed flavonol intakes from dietary data collected by validated food frequency questionnaires in 1991 and 1995 from 90,630 women in the Nurses Health Study

  16. Dietary Carotenoids and Risk of Lung Cancer in a Pooled Analysis of Seven Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Albanes, D.; Anderson, K.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.; Feskanich, D.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Hunter, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Intervention trials with supplemental β-carotene have observed either no effect or a harmful effect on lung cancer risk. Because food composition databases for specific carotenoids have only become available recently, epidemiological evidence relating usual dietary levels of these carotenoids with l

  17. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  18. Tumor-based case-control studies of infection and cancer: muddling the when and where of molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    We describe the "tumor-based case-control" study as a type of epidemiologic study used to evaluate associations between infectious agents and cancer. These studies assess exposure using diseased tissues from affected individuals (i.e., evaluating tumor tissue for cancer cases), but they must utilize nondiseased tissues to assess control subjects, who do not have the disease of interest. This approach can lead to exposure misclassification in two ways. First, concerning the "when" of exposure assessment, retrospective assessment of tissues may not accurately measure exposure at the key earlier time point (i.e., during the etiologic window). Second, concerning the "where" of exposure assessment, use of different tissues in cases and controls can have different accuracy for detecting the exposure (i.e., differential exposure misclassification). We present an example concerning the association of human papillomavirus with various cancers, where tumor-based case-control studies likely overestimate risk associated with infection. In another example, we illustrate how tumor-based case-control studies of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer underestimate risk. Tumor-based case-control studies can demonstrate infection within tumor cells, providing qualitative information about disease etiology. However, measures of association calculated in tumor-based case-control studies are prone to over- or underestimating the relationship between infections and subsequent cancer risk.

  19. Epidemiological and clinical profile of triple negative breast cancer at a cancer hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recent concept and the burning topic of research today. Various studies have been reported in western literature on TNBCs or the similar group of basal like cancers, all highlighting the poor prognostic features of this molecular subtype in comparison to the other types of breast cancers. However extensive data from India is lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological and clinical profile of TNBcs at our institute. Materials and Methods: Data on 171 patients of TNBCs registered at this hospital between 2005 and 2008 and followed up until December 2010 was collected and reviewed for epidemiological and clinical features. Results: The median age at presentation was 49 years (22-75 years. Sixty eight patients (40% had lump in the breast of less than 1 month duration. Fourteen (8% were nulliparous and 10 (7% patients had crossed the age of 30 years at first full-term pregnancy, 89 (52% were pre or peri-menopausal at presentation. Only 8 (5% patients had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. One hundred and six (62% patients were stage II, 26 (15% stage III, 21 (12% stage I and 18 (10% stage IV at presentation. One hundred and twenty eight patients (75% had early breast cancer eligible for surgery at presentation, 25 (15% were locally advanced and received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and 18 (10% were found to be metastatic. Modified radical mastectomy was the preferred surgical option by most patients (76% who underwent upfront surgery in our study. The pathological overall response rates (complete and partial response after NACT was 75% with complete response rate of 25% and there were no relapses in the complete responders. The median follow-up was 30 months (9-70 months. One hundred and twenty two patients (71% were alive at last follow-up, 34 (22% had relapsed, 18 (11% had died due to progressive disease. Thirty one patients (18% were lost to follow-up. Most of

  20. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

  1. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  2. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

  3. Increased risk of cancer among azoospermic men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L.; Betts, Paul; Herder, Danielle; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if men with azoospermia are at an elevated risk of developing cancer in the years following an infertility evaluation. Design Cohort Study Setting United States andrology clinic Patients 2,238 men with complete records were evaluated for infertility at a single andrology clinic in Texas from 1989 to 2009. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Cancer incidence was determined by linkage to the Texas Cancer Registry. Results In all, 451 men had azoospermia and 1,787 were not azoospermic with a mean age at infertility evaluation of 35.7 years. Compared to the general population, infertile men had a higher risk of cancer with 29 cases observed compared with 16.7 expected (SIR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.5). When stratifying by azoospermia status, azoospermic men had an elevated risk of cancer (SIR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.4). Infertile men without azoospermia had a trend towards a higher rate of cancer (SIR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9–2.2). The Cox regression model revealed that azoospermic men had 2.2-fold higher cancer risk compared to not azoospermic men (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0–4.8). Conclusions Men with azoospermia have an increased risk of subsequently developing cancer, suggesting a possible common etiology between azoospermia and cancer development. Additional follow-up of azoospermic men after reproductive efforts end may be warranted. PMID:23790640

  4. Occupation and prostate cancer risk in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Wagner, S; Chokkalingam, A P; Malker, H S; Stone, B J; McLaughlin, J K; Hsing, A W

    2000-05-01

    To provide new leads regarding occupational prostate cancer risk factors, we linked 36,269 prostate cancer cases reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1961 to 1979 with employment information from the 1960 National Census. Standardized incidence ratios for prostate cancer, within major (1-digit), general (2-digit), and specific (3-digit) industries and occupations, were calculated. Significant excess risks were seen for agriculture-related industries, soap and perfume manufacture, and leather processing industries. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios were also seen for the following occupations: farmers, leather workers, and white-collar occupations. Our results suggest that farmers; certain occupations and industries with exposures to cadmium, herbicides, and fertilizers; and men with low occupational physical activity levels have elevated prostate cancer risks. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and identify specific exposures related to excess risk in these occupations and industries.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... between PUFAs and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We used individual-level data from a consortium of 22 721 cases and 23 034 controls of European ancestry. Externally-weighted PUFA-specific polygenic risk scores (wPRSs), with explanatory variation ranging from 0.65 to 33.07%, were constructed and used...... to evaluate associations with prostate cancer risk per one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in genetically-predicted plasma PUFA levels using multivariable-adjusted unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: No overall association was observed between the genetically-predicted PUFAs evaluated in this study...

  6. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  7. Cancers in Togo from 1984 to 2008: Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of 5251 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amégbor, Koffi; Darre, Tchin; Ayéna, Koffi Didier; Padaro, Essohana; Tengué, Kodjo; Abalo, Anani; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods. We made a retrospective review of the epidemiological and pathological features of cancers observed from 1984 to 2008 at the laboratory of pathology of CHU-TOKOIN in Lomé, Togo. Results. During our study period, we found 5251 cases of cancers with an annual average frequency of 210 cases. The sex ratio, male/female, was 0.9 and the average age of occurring was 45.3 years. This average age was 46.9 years for men and 43.8 years for women. The most frequent cancers for men were prostate cancer (12.9%), nonmelanoma skin cancer (10.4%), and gastric cancer (10.3%). For women it was breast cancer (27.1%), cervix cancer (11.2%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.3%). Histologically, it was carcinomas in 68.1% of the cases, sarcomas in 11% of the cases and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in 12.6% of the cases. Children cancers were primarily Burkitt lymphoma (27.9% of cases) and retinoblastoma (8.5% of cases). Conclusion. This study shows that cancers are frequent in Togo and emphasizes on the necessity of having a cancer register for the prevention and the control of this disease in Togo. PMID:22007216

  8. Cancers in Togo from 1984 to 2008: Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of 5251 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Amégbor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of cancers in Togo. Materials and Methods. We made a retrospective review of the epidemiological and pathological features of cancers observed from 1984 to 2008 at the laboratory of pathology of CHU-TOKOIN in Lomé, Togo. Results. During our study period, we found 5251 cases of cancers with an annual average frequency of 210 cases. The sex ratio, male/female, was 0.9 and the average age of occurring was 45.3 years. This average age was 46.9 years for men and 43.8 years for women. The most frequent cancers for men were prostate cancer (12.9%, nonmelanoma skin cancer (10.4%, and gastric cancer (10.3%. For women it was breast cancer (27.1%, cervix cancer (11.2% and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6.3%. Histologically, it was carcinomas in 68.1% of the cases, sarcomas in 11% of the cases and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in 12.6% of the cases. Children cancers were primarily Burkitt lymphoma (27.9% of cases and retinoblastoma (8.5% of cases. Conclusion. This study shows that cancers are frequent in Togo and emphasizes on the necessity of having a cancer register for the prevention and the control of this disease in Togo.

  9. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, Katherine J; Jaju, Prajakta D; Jaju, Prajaka D; Tang, Jean Y; Carbone, Michele; Leachman, Sancy; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic traits, such as red hair and freckling, increase melanoma risk by 2- to 3-fold. In addition, approximately 10% of melanomas are caused by inherited germline mutations that increase melanoma risk from 4- to >1000-fold. This review highlights the key genes responsible for inherited melanoma, with an emphasis on when a patient should undergo genetic testing. Many genetic syndromes associated with increased melanoma risk are also associated with an increased risk of other cancers. Identification of these high-risk patients is essential for preventive behavior reinforcement, genetic counseling, and ensuring other required cancer screenings.

  10. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  11. Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M; Melbye, M; Diaz, L J

    2015-01-01

    -years of follow-up, 19 subjects developed a primary cancer. The corresponding SIR for any primary cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.68-1.63). Subgroup analyses according to mutational subtype yielded similar results, for example, a SIR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.67) for the m.3243A>G maternally inherited......BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial mutations are commonly reported in tumours, but it is unclear whether impaired mitochondrial function per se is a cause or consequence of cancer. To elucidate this, we examined the risk of cancer in a nationwide cohort of patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. METHODS...... matrilineal relatives to a cohort member with a genetically confirmed maternally inherited mDNA mutation. Information on cancer was obtained by linkage to the Danish Cancer Register. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess the relative risk of cancer. RESULTS: During 7334 person...

  12. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Concentration and Risk of Prostate Cancer : Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, Alison J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Appleby, Paul N.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Travis, Ruth C.; Tipper, Sarah J.; Overvad, Kim; Gronbaek, Henning; Tjonneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Fons; Rinaldi, Sabina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annie; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Andarakis, George; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Argueelles, Marcial V.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larranaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Stattin, Par; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Background: High circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations have been associated with increased risk for prostate cancer in several prospective epidemiological studies. In this study, we investigate the association between circulating IGF-I concentration and risk of prostate can

  13. Adherence to the mediterranean diet and risk of breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckland, G.; Travier, N.; Cottet, V.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Lujan-Barroso, L.; Agudo, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet (MD) could reduce the risk of breast cancer (BC). As evidence from the prospective studies remains scarce and conflicting, we investigated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of BC among 335,062 women recruited from 1992

  14. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and gastric adenocarcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study123

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Agudo, Antonio; Luján-Barroso, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several experimental studies have suggested potential anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids, although epidemiologic evidence for the impact of dietary flavonoids on risk of gastric cancer (GC) is limited.Objective: We investigated the association between intake of dietary flavonoids...

  15. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  16. [Testicular cancer - a matter of geography? Epidemiology and etiopathogenesis of germ cell tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuz, G

    2014-05-01

    More than 90 % of testicular tumors are germ cell tumors. There is no doubt that ethnicity is one of the single overriding etiological factors in the development of these tumors. White males living in western industrialized countries, particularly in northern Europe show the highest incidence rates, whereas black males in Africa show the lowest. These differences are the result of interaction of genetic factors and exogenous noxious agents. Some of these agents are chemical substances with an estrogen-like effect. Many exogenous substances have been blamed for causing testicular cancer, but clear epidemiological evidence is lacking for most cases. Some well-established risk factors prevail, such as cryptorchidism, familial association, gonadal dysgenesis (intersex) and germ cell tumor in the contralateral testis. In terms of importance, overalimentation appears to outweigh occupation. The development of germ cell tumors is assumed to have an intrauterine origin through defect gonocytes which evolve into atypical germ cells of unclassified intratubular germ cell neoplasms. The trigger event is, however, the appearance of isochromosome 12p, which makes these cells aggressive and results in overt invasive testicular cancer.

  17. The epidemiologic status of gynecologic cancer in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilailak, Sarikapan; Lertchaipattanakul, Nuttapong

    2016-11-01

    Between the years of 2010-2012, it was estimated there were a total of 112,392 new cases of cancers in Thailand, thus, the total age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 is 137.6. In regards to the most prevalent types of cancer in female, breast cancer has the highest ASR, followed by cervical cancer (ASR=14.4); liver and bile duct cancer; colon and rectum cancer; trachea, bronchus and lung cancer; ovarian cancer (ASR=6.0); thyroid cancer; non-Hodgkin lymphoma and uterine cancer (ASR=4.3). The trend of cervical cancer in Thailand is decreasing, one key factor in making this possible was the employment of dual tract strategy (Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid [VIA]) by the government in 2005. In the future, the government is also considering integrating human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into the national immunization program, which may assist in the prevention of cervical cancer. By studying the statistical data of gynecologic cancer, it will be possible to formulate measures for the prevention, control and treatment of gynecologic cancer. Eventually, it will potentially improve the quality of life (QoL) of patients as well as decrease the mortality rate caused by gynecologic cancer.

  18. Communicating cancer risk in print journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, J E

    1999-01-01

    The current barrage of information about real and potential cancer risks has created undue fears and misplaced concerns about cancer hazards faced by Americans. Most members of the general public are far more worried about minuscule, hypothetical risks presented by environmental contaminants than about the far greater well-established hazards that they inflict on themselves, for example, through smoking, dietary imbalance, and inactivity. It is the job of the print media to help set the record straight and to help place in perspective the myriad cancer risks that are aired almost weekly in 30-second radio and television broadcasts.

  19. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  20. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... of the World Trade Center disaster. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004; 112(6):731–739. [PubMed Abstract] Herbert ...

  1. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk.

  2. Breast cancer susceptibility variants alter risk in familial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A; McBurney, H J; Roberts, S A; Lalloo, F; Howell, A; Evans, D G; Newman, W G

    2010-12-01

    Recent candidate gene and genome wide association studies have revealed novel loci associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We evaluated the effect of these breast cancer associated variants on ovarian cancer risk in individuals with familial ovarian cancer both with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. A total of 158 unrelated white British women (54 BRCA1/2 mutation positive and 104 BRCA1/2 mutation negative) with familial ovarian cancer were genotyped for FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3 and CASP8 variants. The p.Asp302His CASP8 variant was associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk in the familial BRCA1/2 mutation negative ovarian cancer cases (P = 0.016). The synonymous TNRC9/TOX3 (Ser51) variant was present at a significantly lower frequency than in patients with familial BRCA1/2 positive breast cancer (P = 0.0002). Our results indicate that variants in CASP8 and TNRC9/TOX3 alter the risk of disease in individuals affected with familial ovarian cancer.

  3. Use of disulfiram and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, G.; Friis, S.; Hallas, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have indicated that disulfiram (Antabuse) has antineoplastic effects against melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the association between disulfiram use and these cancers in a nationwide register-based case-control study nested within...... ever-users (>= one prescription) of disulfiram. Cases were all Danish individuals with a histologically verified first-time diagnosis of malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected four cancer-free controls matched for age, sex, and year of first...... disulfiram prescription using risk set sampling. Similarly, for secondary analyses, we selected case-control populations for selected tobacco-related and alcohol-related cancer types, that is, cancers of the buccal cavity, liver, lung, and colorectal cancer. Disulfiram use 1 year before cancer diagnosis...

  4. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype as a risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; Pinheiro, Nidia A; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2004-01-01

    for ADH3 genotypes using logistic regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for sex, age, tobacco use, and history of cancer in first-degree family relatives, a significantly higher odds ratio for UADT cancer was observed among individuals with AA genotype and low cumulative alcohol consumption...... (tobacco consumption (... be a risk factor for UADT cancer, especially in individuals with low alcohol or tobacco consumption. However, further epidemiological case-control or cohort studies, preferably prospective, are needed to establish the exact role of ADH3 polymorphism and its association with the development of UADT cancers....

  5. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M; Chen, John J; Kovach, John S

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  6. Management of metastatic thyroid cancer in pregnancy: risk and uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Rowe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic thyroid cancer is an uncommon condition to be present at the time of pregnancy, but presents a challenging paradigm of care. Clinicians must balance the competing interests of long-term maternal health, best achieved by iatrogenic hyperthyroidism, regular radioiodine therapy and avoidance of dietary iodine, against the priority to care for the developing foetus, with inevitable compromise. Additionally, epidemiological and cellular data support the role of oestrogen as a growth factor for benign and malignant thyrocytes, although communicating the magnitude of this risk to patients and caregivers, as well as the uncertain impact of any pregnancy on long-term prognosis, remains challenging. Evidence to support treatment decisions in this uncommon situation is presented in the context of a case of a pregnant teenager with known metastatic papillary thyroid cancer and recent radioiodine therapy.

  7. Diazepam and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, D W; Shapiro, S; Slone, D; Rosenberg, L; Helmrich, S P; Miettinen, O S; Stolley, P D; Levy, M; Schottenfeld, D

    1982-03-06

    The relation of breast cancer to diazepam use was evaluated in a case-control study of 1236 women with breast cancer and 728 control subjects with other malignancies. Compared to women who never used diazepam, the relative risk for women who used the drug at least 4 days per week for at least 6 months was estimated to be 0.9, with 95% confidence limits of 0.5 and 1.6. There was no apparent association for recent use, or for use in the distant past, although confidence intervals were fairly wide in these categories. The results were not explained by various potential confounding factors, including the major risk factors for breast cancer. The findings suggest that regular diazepam use does not increase the risk of breast cancer relative to other cancers.

  8. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...... of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. RESULTS: Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer...

  9. Greater absolute risk for all subtypes of breast cancer in the US than Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Hisani N; Beena Devi, C R; Sung, Hyuna; Tang, Tieng Swee; Rosenberg, Philip S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Sherman, Mark E; Anderson, William F; Yang, Xiaohong R

    2015-01-01

    Hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancers are relatively more common in low-risk than high-risk countries and/or populations. However, the absolute variations between these different populations are not well established given the limited number of cancer registries with incidence rate data by breast cancer subtype. We, therefore, used two unique population-based resources with molecular data to compare incidence rates for the 'intrinsic' breast cancer subtypes between a low-risk Asian population in Malaysia and high-risk non-Hispanic white population in the National Cancer Institute's surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries database (SEER 18). The intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were recapitulated with the joint expression of the HRs (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Invasive breast cancer incidence rates overall were fivefold greater in SEER 18 than in Malaysia. The majority of breast cancers were HR-positive in SEER 18 and HR-negative in Malaysia. Notwithstanding the greater relative distribution for HR-negative cancers in Malaysia, there was a greater absolute risk for all subtypes in SEER 18; incidence rates were nearly 7-fold higher for HR-positive and 2-fold higher for HR-negative cancers in SEER 18. Despite the well-established relative breast cancer differences between low-risk and high-risk countries and/or populations, there was a greater absolute risk for HR-positive and HR-negative subtypes in the US than Malaysia. Additional analytical studies are sorely needed to determine the factors responsible for the elevated risk of all subtypes of breast cancer in high-risk countries like the United States.

  10. Factors contributing to risk for cancer among HIV-infected individuals, and evidence that earlier combination antiretroviral therapy will alter this risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically appraise recent published literature about factors associated with cancer risk likely to be influenced by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential of earlier cART initiation to reduce this risk. RECENT FINDINGS...... and epidemiological data have been reported as to whether (and how) cART affects NADM risk. Furthermore, secondary analyses of randomized controlled trials comparing early versus delayed cART initiation were inconclusive. SUMMARY: Continuous epidemiological surveillance is warranted to monitor trends in cancer...... incidence among HIV-infected individuals and to better understand the impact of earlier cART on NADM risk. The role of adjuvant anti-inflammatory or antithrombotic therapies to reduce cancer risk deserves further investigation....

  11. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  12. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    12th November 2007. 10) Speaker, “Research in the Prevention of secondary colon - rectal cancers in the Latina Province” (Indagine di prevenzione...hydroxyestrone and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone metabolism with flaxseed consumption: modification by COMT and CYP1B1 genotype. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers...sample of postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiology , Biomarkers & Prevention. 2008 Jan;17 (1): 33-42 10) Akl E, Barba M, Rohilla S, Terrenato I

  13. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000842.htm Genetic testing and your cancer risk To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  14. Lung cancer risk at low doses of alpha particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, W; Katz, R; Zhang, C X

    1986-10-01

    A survey of inhabitant exposures arising from the inhalation of 222Rn and 220Rn progeny, and lung cancer mortality has been carried out in two adjacent areas in Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China, designated as the "high background" and the "control" area. Annual exposure rates are 0.38 working level months (WLM) per year in the high background, and 0.16 WLM/yr in the control area. In 14 yr of continuous study, from 1970 to 1983, age-adjusted mortality rates were found to be 2.7 per 10(5) living persons of all ages in the high background area, and 2.9 per 10(5) living persons in the control area. From this data, we conclude that we are unable to determine excess lung cancers over the normal fluctuations below a cumulative exposure of 15 WLM. This conclusion is supported by lung cancer mortality data from Austrian and Finnish high-background areas. A theoretical analysis of epidemiological data on human lung cancer incidence from inhaled 222Rn and 220Rn progeny, which takes into account cell killing as competitive with malignant transformation, leads to the evaluation of a risk factor which is either a linear-exponential or a quadratic-exponential function of the alpha-particle dose. Animal lung cancer data and theoretical considerations can be supplied to support either hypothesis. Thus we conclude that at our current stage of knowledge both the linear-exponential and the quadratic-exponential extrapolation to low doses seem to be equally acceptable for Rn-induced lung cancer risk, possibly suggesting a linear-quadratic transformation function with an exponential cell-killing term, or the influence of risk-modifying factors such as repair or proliferation stimuli.

  15. Cancer risks related to electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Cardis, E; Vainio, H; Coleman, M P; Kogevinas, M; Nordberg, G; Parkin, D M; Partensky, C; Shuker, D; Tomatis, L

    1991-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has previously evaluated the cancer risks associated with fossil fuel-based industrial processes such as coal gastification and coke production, substances and mixtures such as coal tars, coal tar pitch and mineral oils, and a number of substances emitted from fossil-fuelled plants such as benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and formaldehyde. Based on these evaluations and other evidence from the literature, the carcinogenic risks to the general population and occupational groups from the fossil fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle and renewable cycles are reviewed. Cancer risks from waste disposal, accidents and misuses, and electricity distribution are also considered. No cycle appears to be totally free from cancer risk, but the quantification of the effects of such exposures (in particular of those involving potential exposure to large amounts of carcinogens, such as coal, oil and nuclear) requires the application of methods which are subject to considerable margins of error. Uncertainties due to inadequate data and unconfirmed assumptions are discussed. Cancer risks related to the operation of renewable energy sources are negligible, although there may be some risks from construction of such installations. The elements of knowledge at our disposal do not encourage any attempt toward a quantitative comparative risk assessment. However, even in the absence of an accurate quantification of risk, qualitative indication of carcinogenic hazards should lead to preventive measures.

  16. Vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer are sparse. We studied the association between vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric c

  17. Current Understanding of Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: An Epidemiological Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A. Bassig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL have steadily increased over the last several decades in the United States, and the temporal trends in incidence can only be partially explained by the HIV epidemic. In 1992, an international workshop sponsored by the United States National Cancer Institute concluded that there was an “emerging epidemic” of NHL and emphasized the need to investigate the factors responsible for the increasing incidence of this disease. Over the past two decades, numerous epidemiological studies have examined the risk factors for NHL, particularly for putative environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and international consortia have been established in order to investigate rare exposures and NHL subtype-specific associations. While few consistent risk factors for NHL aside from immunosuppression and certain infectious agents have emerged, suggestive associations with several lifestyle and environmental factors have been reported in epidemiologic studies. Further, increasing evidence has suggested that the effects of these and other exposures may be limited to or stronger for particular NHL subtypes. This paper examines the progress that has been made over the last twenty years in elucidating the etiology of NHL, with a primary emphasis on lifestyle factors and environmental exposures.

  18. Association between Variants in Atopy-Related Immunologic Candidate Genes and Pancreatic Cancer Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cotterchio

    Full Text Available Many epidemiology studies report that atopic conditions such as allergies are associated with reduced pancreas cancer risk. The reason for this relationship is not yet understood. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between variants in atopy-related candidate genes and pancreatic cancer risk.A population-based case-control study of pancreas cancer cases diagnosed during 2011-2012 (via Ontario Cancer Registry, and controls recruited using random digit dialing utilized DNA from 179 cases and 566 controls. Following an exhaustive literature review, SNPs in 180 candidate genes were pre-screened using dbGaP pancreas cancer GWAS data; 147 SNPs in 56 allergy-related immunologic genes were retained and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odd ratio (AOR for each variant and false discovery rate was used to adjust Wald p-values for multiple testing. Subsequently, a risk allele score was derived based on statistically significant variants.18 SNPs in 14 candidate genes (CSF2, DENND1B, DPP10, FLG, IL13, IL13RA2, LRP1B, NOD1, NPSR1, ORMDL3, RORA, STAT4, TLR6, TRA were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two LRP1B SNPs remained statistically significant; for example, LRP1B rs1449477 (AA vs. CC: AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.22-0.62; p (adjusted=0.04. Furthermore, the risk allele score was associated with a significant reduction in pancreas cancer risk (p=0.0007.Preliminary findings suggest certain atopy-related variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk. Further studies are needed to replicate this, and to elucidate the biology behind the growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggesting allergies may reduce pancreatic cancer risk.

  19. [Artificial mineral fibers and the risk of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, M

    1990-07-01

    The cancer risk can be reduced by replacing crocidolite and amosite by chrysotile asbestos, by replacing asbestos by man-made mineral fibres that produce less dust, and by nonfibrous materials. MMMF have been found to be carcinogenic in experiments in animals. All respirable mineral fibres that are retained in the lungs are suspected to increase the lung cancer risk, the fibre length and surface properties appearing to be the decisive factors. For most of these fibres, data so far collected in humans are still insufficient to permit definite conclusions to be drawn. There is a certain amount of evidence to suggest that rock/slag wool may be carcinogenic in humans: lung cancer in workers in the production area in the USA was found to be significantly increased (SMR 134%), and in the early phase of European production an SMR of 257% was observed. In the area of glass wool production, exposure to fibre and lung cancer rates were lower, but showed an increasing tendency with increasing time elapsed since the first exposure to respirable fibres. Methodological problems associated with published epidemiological studies are reviewed, and prevention strategies--which need to give consideration to the possibility that the carcinogenicity per fibre could be higher in the case of MMMF than in chrysotile asbestos--are discussed.

  20. The Oviduct and Serous Cancer Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    all the pathological and immunological hallmarks of human high-grade serous cancer , such as gain of p53, EZH2 and MUC4 expression (Figure 2a) 15 26...59 60 For Peer Review Figure 3. . Molecular correlates of progression from STIC to invasive cancer . a. Left, Histology of the sections used...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0504 TITLE: The Oviduct and Serous Cancer Risk Assessment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher P. Crum, MD

  1. Risk Factors, Comorbid Conditions, and Epidemiology of Autism in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic steatoheapatitis). Despite that risk, children with ASD also were at risk of developing macronutrient and micronutrient ...common co-morbid conditions, especially sleep-related diagnoses, ear infections, celiac disease, appendicitis, injury rates, and micronutrient ...Gregory Gorman. Macronutrient and Micronutrient Malnutrition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses. Digestive Diseases Week, Washington

  2. Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Katherine; Chiodini, Paolo; Colao, Annamaria; Lenzi, Andrea; Giugliano, Dario

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Available evidence supports the emerging hypothesis that metabolic syndrome may be associated with the risk of some common cancers. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between metabolic syndrome and risk of cancer at different sites. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted an electronic search for articles published through October 2011 without restrictions and by reviewing reference lists from retrieved articles. Every included study was to repor...

  3. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    fat and low vegetables , in particular low in cruciferous , and obesity may increase estrogen metabolism towards 16a hydroxylation. This preferential...and Prostate Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paola C. Muti, M.D., M.S. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: State University of New York Amherst, New York...DATES COVERED October 1999 Annual (I Oct 98 - 30 Sep 99) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk DAMD17-98-l

  4. Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Rohrmann, Sabine; Nöthlings, Ute; Arriola, Larraitz; Gunter, Marc J; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J Ramón; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Molina-Montes, Esther; Gavrila Chervase, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay T; Wareham, Nick J; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Malm, Johan; Orho-Melander, Marju; Johansson, Mattias; Stattin, Pär; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2015-01-15

    The current epidemiologic evidence suggests that men with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be at lower risk of developing prostate cancer, but little is known about its association with stage and grade of the disease. The association between self-reported diabetes mellitus at recruitment and risk of prostate cancer was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among 139,131 eligible men, 4,531 were diagnosed with prostate cancer over an average follow-up of 12 years. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for education, smoking status, body mass index, waist circumference, and physical activity. In a subset of men without prostate cancer, the cross-sectional association between circulating concentrations of androgens and insulin-like growth factor proteins with diabetes status was also investigated using linear regression models. Compared to men with no diabetes, men with diabetes had a 26% lower risk of prostate cancer (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.86). There was no evidence that the association differed by stage (p-heterogeneity, 0.19) or grade (p-heterogeneity, 0.48) of the disease, although the numbers were small in some disease subgroups. In a subset of 626 men with hormone measurements, circulating concentrations of androstenedione, total testosterone and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-three were lower in men with diabetes compared to men without diabetes. This large European study has confirmed an inverse association between self-reported diabetes mellitus and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.

  5. Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkelaar, den I.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Veer, van't P.; Arts, C.J.M.; Adlercreutz, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Peeters, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant substances that are structurally or functionally similar to estradiol. We report the associations of two major phytoestrogens, genistein and enterolactone, with breast cancer risk, using urinary specimens collected 1-9 years before breast cancer was diagnosed. The

  6. Diet and colorectal cancer risk and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary and other lifestyle factors account for 20–45% of all colorectal cancer cases. Being overweight or obese, having a high intake of red and processed meat and alcohol increase the risk of colorectal cancer, while a high intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables, foods containin

  7. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer. A clinician's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroff, Leon

    2004-09-24

    Reports from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the Million Women Study have indicated that postmenopausal hormone therapy increases the risk of breast cancer. At this point in time, it is not certain whether these data reflect a small increase in risk or an impact of hormone therapy on pre-existing tumors. The purpose of this review is to provide an analysis of the epidemiologic data that can help the clinician inform patients and assist patients in their decision-making.

  8. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  9. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  10. Insufficient milk supply and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association between insufficient milk supply, the inability of a mother's breast milk to provide sufficiently for her infant, and breast cancer has been suggested by observations in animal models. To determine if an association has been reported in epidemiological studies of human breast cancer, a systematic review of the literature has been conducted. We also sought to identify the methodological limitations of existing studies to guide the design of any future prospective studies in this field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and CAB abstracts were searched. We selected any study that (1 assessed breast cancer in association with breastfeeding history and (2 examined the relationship between insufficient milk supply with breast cancer. Seven relevant studies were identified that met both criteria. There was statistically significant heterogeneity among the results which likely reflects clinically significant differences in definitions of insufficient milk supply and reference groups that were used. Among premenopausal women who had experienced insufficient milk supply, odds ratios (ORs for breast cancer risk ranged from 0.9 to 16.3. Among postmenopausal women, ORs ranged from 0.6 to 6.7. Based on the range of odds ratios obtained in the studies reported in this review, it remains unclear if there is a true association between insufficient milk supply and breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although some studies have shown a strong positive association, there is no consistent evidence for an effect of insufficient milk supply on breast cancer risk. Exposure definitions are in need of improvement in order to focus on primary insufficient milk supply. Reference groups consisting of women who have successfully breastfed may also introduce positive bias (inflation of the odds ratio into study results because of the protective effect of prolonged breastfeeding in the control group.

  11. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen

  12. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a quantitative review of prospective epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dominik D; Miller, Arthur J; Cushing, Colleen A; Lowe, Kimberly A

    2010-09-01

    A tremendous amount of scientific interest has been generated regarding processed meat consumption and cancer risk. Therefore, to estimate the association between processed meat intake and colorectal cancer (CRC), a meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted. Twenty-eight prospective studies of processed meat and CRC were identified, of which 20 represented independent nonoverlapping study populations. Summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for high versus low intake and dose-response relationships were calculated. The SRRE for high (vs. low) processed meat intake and CRC was 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.23] for all studies. Summary associations were modified considerably by sex; the SRRE for men was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07-1.42) and the SRRE for women was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.94-1.16), based on nine and 13 studies, respectively. Sensitivity analyses did not indicate appreciable statistical variation by tumor site, processed meat groups, or study location. The SRRE for each 30-gram increment of processed meat and CRC was 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05-1.15) based on nine studies, and the SRRE for each incremental serving of processed meat per week was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01-1.05) based on six studies. Overall, summary associations were weak in magnitude (i.e. most less than 1.20), processed meat definitions and analytical comparisons were highly variable across studies, and isolating the independent effects of processed meat intake is difficult, given the likely influence of confounding by other dietary and lifestyle factors. Therefore, the currently available epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to support a clear and unequivocal independent positive association between processed meat consumption and CRC.

  13. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  14. Reproductive factors, exogenous hormones, and pancreatic cancer risk in the CTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjung; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Rull, Rudolph P; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ursin, Giske; Henderson, Katherine D; Bernstein, Leslie

    2013-11-01

    Female steroid hormones are hypothesized to play a protective role in pancreatic cancer risk. However, results from epidemiologic studies that examined hormone-related exposures have been inconsistent. The California Teachers Study is a cohort study of female public school professionals that was established in 1995-1996. Of the 118,164 eligible study participants, 323 women were diagnosed with incident invasive pancreatic cancer through December 31, 2009. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of pancreatic cancer risk with reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use. Current users of estrogen-only therapy at baseline (1995-1996) had a lower risk of pancreatic cancer than did participants who had never used hormone therapy (hazard ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.42, 0.84). Use of estrogen-plus-progestin therapy was not associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. A longer duration of oral contraceptive use (≥10 years of use compared with never use) was associated with an increased risk of cancer (hazard ratio = 1.72, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.49). Reproductive factors, including age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, and age at menopause, were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Our results suggest that increased estrogen exposure through estrogen-only therapy may reduce pancreatic cancer risk in women.

  15. Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161233.html Knowing Their Breast Cancer Risk May Empower Teens Greater self-esteem noted in ... interviewed to assess their mental health, perception of breast cancer risk, and levels of distress about breast cancer. The ...

  16. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinfu, E-mail: Jinfu.hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); La Vecchia, Carlo [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Negri, Eva [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Mery, Les [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2010-02-10

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  17. Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojima Masayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems.

  18. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  19. Epidemiology of gastric cancer and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent estimates of the world-wide incidence of cancer indicate that gastric cancer was in 1990 the second most frequent cancer in the world (after lung cancer, with about 900 000 new cases diagnosed every year. Steady declines in the rates have been observed everywhere in the last few decades, but the absolute number of new cases per year is increasing mainly because of ageing of the population. The exact causes of the decline of gastric cancer are not well understood, but must include improvements in diet, food storage (e.g., refrigeration and, possibly, the decline of Helicobacter pylori infection. Dietary modifications and, possibly, vitamin supplements remain one of the most important tool for the prevention of gastric cancer. Control of H. pylori infection, by means of eradication or immunization, is also likely to offer great potential for the prevention of this important malignancy.

  20. Risk factors for venous thrombosis - current understanding from an epidemiological point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijfering, Willem M.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    P>Epidemiological research throughout the last 50 years has provided the long list of risk factors for venous thrombosis that are known today. Although this has advanced our current understanding about the aetiology of thrombosis, it does not give us all the answers: many people have several of thes

  1. Colon polyps: epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic criteria and courses of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteva Е.А.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Article focuses on the intestinal polyps. Intestinal polyps are considered to be obligatory precancerous diseases of the colon. Risk factors, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnostic methods of polyps have been analyzed. The courses of treatment of colon polyps have been revealed.

  2. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consum...

  3. Does the consumption of green tea reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenbin; Binns, Colin W; Jian, Le; Lee, Andy H

    2007-03-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies were reviewed to assess whether the consumption of green tea could reduce the risk of lung cancer in smokers. Articles published since 1990 were located by searching electronic databases PubMed, Ovid and Science Direct, using keywords 'lung cancer', 'tea' and 'smoking' without any restriction on language. After relevant articles had been located, further papers were obtained from their reference lists. Evidence from experimental studies (in vitro animal and human trials) suggested that regular intake of green tea may be protective against tobacco carcinogens. However, the mechanism behind the protective effect is only partly understood. In most of the epidemiological studies reviewed, the green tea exposure was within 5 years of the interview or follow-up, which would coincide with the induction period and latent period of lung cancer. Longer term studies are thus needed to further quantify the cancer risk. There is some evidence suggesting regular intake of green tea at high level (>3 cups per day) may reduce the risk of smokers developing lung cancer. Improvement in measuring green tea intake is required in order to confirm the evidence from epidemiological studies.

  4. Assessment of uncertainties in radiation-induced cancer risk predictions at clinically relevant doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Moteabbed, M.; Paganetti, H., E-mail: hpaganetti@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Theoretical dose–response models offer the possibility to assess second cancer induction risks after external beam therapy. The parameters used in these models are determined with limited data from epidemiological studies. Risk estimations are thus associated with considerable uncertainties. This study aims at illustrating uncertainties when predicting the risk for organ-specific second cancers in the primary radiation field illustrated by choosing selected treatment plans for brain cancer patients. Methods: A widely used risk model was considered in this study. The uncertainties of the model parameters were estimated with reported data of second cancer incidences for various organs. Standard error propagation was then subsequently applied to assess the uncertainty in the risk model. Next, second cancer risks of five pediatric patients treated for cancer in the head and neck regions were calculated. For each case, treatment plans for proton and photon therapy were designed to estimate the uncertainties (a) in the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for a given treatment modality and (b) when comparing risks of two different treatment modalities. Results: Uncertainties in excess of 100% of the risk were found for almost all organs considered. When applied to treatment plans, the calculated LAR values have uncertainties of the same magnitude. A comparison between cancer risks of different treatment modalities, however, does allow statistically significant conclusions. In the studied cases, the patient averaged LAR ratio of proton and photon treatments was 0.35, 0.56, and 0.59 for brain carcinoma, brain sarcoma, and bone sarcoma, respectively. Their corresponding uncertainties were estimated to be potentially below 5%, depending on uncertainties in dosimetry. Conclusions: The uncertainty in the dose–response curve in cancer risk models makes it currently impractical to predict the risk for an individual external beam treatment. On the other hand, the ratio

  5. Solitary pulmonary nodule and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Part 1: epidemiology, morphological evaluation and cancer probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pretto Mosmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solitary pulmonary nodule corresponds to a common radiographic finding, which is frequently detected incidentally. The investigation of this entity remains complex, since characteristics of benign and malignant processes overlap in the differential diagnosis. Currently, many strategies are available to evaluate solitary pulmonary nodules with the main objective of characterizing benign lesions as best as possible, while avoiding to expose patients to the risks inherent to invasive methods, besides correctly detecting cases of lung cancer so as the potential curative treatment is not delayed. This first part of the study focuses on the epidemiology, the morfological evaluation and the methods to determine the likelihood of cancer in cases of indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodule.

  6. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... associated with use of antidepressants. CONCLUSION: Women with breast cancer are at long-term increased risk for first depression, including both severe episodes leading to hospital contact and use of antidepressants. Clinicians should be aware that the risk is highest in women with comorbid conditions, node...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...

  7. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  8. Toxicogenetic profile and cancer risk in Lebanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaini, Hassan R; Kobeissi, Loulou

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) were identified among different ethnic groups. Some of these polymorphisms are associated with an increased cancer risk, while others remain equivocal. However, there is sufficient evidence that these associations become significant in populations overexposed to environmental carcinogens. Hence, genetic differences in expression activity of both Phase I and Phase II enzymes may affect cancer risk in exposed populations. In Lebanon, there has been a marked rise in reported cancer incidence since the 1990s. There are also indicators of exposure to unusually high levels of environmental pollutants and carcinogens in the country. This review considers this high cancer incidence by exploring a potential gene-environment model based on available DME polymorphism prevalence, and their impact on bladder, colorectal, prostate, breast, and lung cancer in the Lebanese population. The examined DME include glutathione S-transferases (GST), N-acetyltransferases (NAT), and cytochromes P-450 (CYP). Data suggest that these DME influence bladder cancer risk in the Lebanese population. Evidence indicates that identification of a gene-environment interaction model may help in defining future research priorities and preventive cancer control strategies in this country, particularly for breast and lung cancer.

  9. Reducing Prostate Cancer Disparities Through Behavioral and Biologic Epidemiologic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Smythe Yerby Postdoctoral Fellowship , Social Epidemiology Harvard School of Public Health Mentors: Gary G. Bennett, PhD and Karen M. Emmons...2001 B.S., Biochemistry major, Sociology minor Baylor University Baylor Interdisciplinary Core Graduate 2003 M.P.H., Public Health...PRC Predoctoral Research Fellow, University of South Carolina 2006-09 Alonzo Yerby Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Harvard School of Public Health

  10. Trends and variations in breast and colorectal cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011: a comparative study between Texas Cancer Registry and National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheyu; Zhang, Yefei; Franzin, Luisa; Cormier, Janice N; Chan, Wenyaw; Xu, Hua; Du, Xianglin L

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have examined the cancer incidence trends in the state of Texas, and no study has ever been conducted to compare the temporal trends of breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas with those of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the United States. This study aimed to conduct a parallel comparison between the Texas Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's SEER on cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011. A total of 951,899 breast and colorectal cancer patients were included. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence was 134.74 per 100,000 in Texas and 131.78 per 100,000 in SEER in 1995-2011, whereas age-adjusted colorectal cancer incidence was 50.52 per 100,000 in Texas and 49.44 per 100,000 in SEER. Breast cancer incidence increased from 1995 to 2001, decreased from 2002 to 2006, and then remained relatively stable from 2007 to 2011. For colorectal cancer, the incidence increased in 1995-1997, and then decreased continuously from 1998 to 2011 in Texas and SEER areas. Incidence rates and relative risks by age, gender and ethnicity were identical between Texas and SEER.

  11. Epidemiología del cáncer en adolescentes The epidemiology of cancer in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Cuevas-Urióstegui

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar los artículos publicados sobre la epidemiología del cáncer en adolescentes en el ámbito mundial. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisó la literatura médica (Medline nacional e internacional para un periodo de 15 años (1985-1999. Se calcularon frecuencias. RESULTADOS: En general se conoce poco de la epidemiología del cáncer en adolescentes porque es difícil el registro de los casos que se presentan en el grupo de 12 a 18 años. Como adolescentes se ha tomado al grupo de 10 a 14 o el de 15 a 19 años de edad, en donde este último incluye mejor los casos que se presentan en esta edad. La incidencia es mayor para el segundo grupo (117.3 y 202.2 [tasas x 10(6] respectivamente. Las principales neoplasias para el grupo de 15 a 19 años de edad fueron los tumores del sistema nervioso central (TSNC, las leucemias, los linfomas, los tumores óseos, los de células germinales y carcinomas. La incidencia es mayor en el sexo masculino y la raza blanca. Existe una tendencia al incremento. La mortalidad en adolescentes ha disminuido (2.0 a 3.2% por año en Estados Unidos de América [EUA]. La sobrevida se ha incrementado en todos los tipos de neoplasias. En México no se cuenta con datos de incidencia para el grupo de 15 a 19 años de edad; sólo se tiene para el de 10 a 14 años; las principales neoplasias son leucemias, linfomas, tumores óseos y los TSNC, con tasas por 10(6 de 41.9, 29.9, 12.0 y 10.0 respectivamente. La tasa de mortalidad por cáncer para el periodo de 1990 a 1994 fue de 64.1, y las principales causas de muerte fueron las leucemias, los TSNC y los linfomas. CONCLUSIONES: Es recomendable, en general, y en particular, en nuestro país, el desarrollo de proyectos dirigidos a conocer y difundir la epidemiología descriptiva del cáncer en adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To review the international literature on adolescent cancer epidemiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Medline database was searched to obtain all papers on

  12. Identification of cancer risk lncRNAs and cancer risk pathways regulated by cancer risk lncRNAs based on genome sequencing data in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiran; Li, Wan; Liang, Binhua; Li, Liansheng; Wang, Li; Huang, Hao; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Yahui; He, Yuehan; Chen, Lina; He, Weiming

    2016-12-19

    Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The complexity of cancer can be reduced to a small number of underlying principles like cancer hallmarks which could govern the transformation of normal cells to cancer. Besides, the growth and metastasis of cancer often relate to combined effects of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Here, we performed comprehensive analysis for lncRNA expression profiles and clinical data of six types of human cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and identified six risk pathways and twenty three lncRNAs. In addition, twenty three cancer risk lncRNAs which were closely related to the occurrence or development of cancer had a good classification performance for samples of testing datasets of six cancer datasets. More important, these lncRNAs were able to separate samples in the entire cancer dataset into high-risk group and low-risk group with significantly different overall survival (OS), which was further validated in ten validation datasets. In our study, the robust and effective cancer biomarkers were obtained from cancer datasets which had information of normal-tumor samples. Overall, our research can provide a new perspective for the further study of clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  13. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. METHODS: Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer...... patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated...... with the number of cycles of chemotherapy with alkylating or platinum agents (P=0.057), although only one case was exposed to platinum. CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response relationship exists between radiation to the pancreas and subsequent cancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small...

  14. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    -analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case-control studies, and some evidence for an exposure-response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because...... it is the primary solvent used and it is the only chemical commonly used by dry cleaners that is currently identified as a potential bladder carcinogen. Relatively crude approaches in exposure assessment in the studies of "tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers" may have attenuated the relative risks....

  15. Epidemiology, risk factors, intervention, and prevention of adolescent suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewater, K M; Burr, B H

    1998-08-01

    Increasing rates of adolescent suicide are a significant health concern and the third leading cause of death for this age group. Recent research into psychiatric, gender-related, family, cultural and neurobiologic risk factors is reviewed. The effects of suicide exposure and media influences are also examined. Although many risk factors have been identified, the application of this knowledge to clinical practice requires further study. The limited number of studies on prevention and intervention strategies are discussed. High rates of nonadherence to follow-up remain problematic. More research is needed to develop appropriate treatments, prevention programs and outcome measures.

  16. Association of OPN rs11730582 polymorphism with cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He LL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lanlan He,1,* Yong Wang2,* 1Emergency Department, Zhenjiang First People’s Hospital, Zhenjiang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Interventional Radiology and Vascular Surgery, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *Both authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Several molecular epidemiological studies have investigated the association between OPN rs11730582 C>T polymorphism and cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the association of this polymorphism with cancer risk. Materials and methods: The related articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the strength of the associations. A random-effects model or fixed-effects model was e