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Sample records for cancer recalling ancient

  1. Recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recalls by Product Violations Home En Español Recent Recalls This is the federal government's recalls page for ... Previous 1 2 3 4 5 ... Next Search Recalls and News Alerts from to Find Recalls By: ...

  2. Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

  3. The role of companions in aiding older cancer patients to recall medical information.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jansen; Weert, J.C.M. van; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Van Dulmen, S.; Heeren, T. J.; Bensing, J M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates information recall in unaccompanied and accompanied older cancer patients and their companions.Methods: One hundred cancer patients (aged >/=65 years) and 71 companions completed a recall questionnaire after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment. Recall was checked against the actual communication in video-recordings of the consultations. Patients also completed measures of anxiety and memory-related beliefs.Results: Findings revealed that...

  4. Radiation Recall Phenomenon Secondary to Bevacizumab in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Jorge Ramos; Jonathan Knisely

    2008-01-01

    Radiation recall is an acute inflammatory reaction in an area that has been previously irradiated that is incited by a pharmacologic agent [1]. Reactions associated with gemcitabine include dermatitis, optic neuritis, brainstem radionecrosis, colitis, and lymphangitis [2, 3, 4]. In the treatment of pancreatic cancer, gemcitabine has been implicated in radiation recall manifested as myositis in two case reports [5, 6]. Gemcitabine linked radiation recall has also resulted in gastritis and duod...

  5. Recall of UVB-induced erythema in breast cancer patient receiving multiple drug chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lindskov, R

    1984-01-01

    One day after sunbathing, a breast cancer patient received intravenous methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil and had a recall of her UV erythema over the following week. Phototesting with UVA and UVB prior to and after a subsequent chemotherapy treatment showed a UVB-induced recall...

  6. Radiation Recall Phenomenon Secondary to Bevacizumab in a Patient with Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiation recall is an acute inflammatory reaction in an area that has been previously irradiated that is incited by a pharmacologic agent [1]. Reactions associated with gemcitabine include dermatitis, optic neuritis, brainstem radionecrosis, colitis, and lymphangitis [2, 3, 4]. In the treatment of pancreatic cancer, gemcitabine has been implicated in radiation recall manifested as myositis in two case reports [5, 6]. Gemcitabine linked radiation recall has also resulted in gastritis and duodenitis in a patient who presented with an upper GI bleed [7]. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, thus inhibiting angiogenesis. There are no case reports of bevacizumab related radiation recall. In this report, we present a case of radiation recall of a patient with locally advanced pancreatic cancer on gemcitabine and bevacizumab combination therapy.

  7. Ultrasonographic screening for breast cancer using the recall criteria established by the Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology (JABTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As is the case in many other countries, mammography is currently used in Japan for breast cancer screening. However, as it cannot detect lesions in dense breasts such as those of young women, ultrasound (US) imaging is used for this purpose. Although there have been numerous reports of US screening, the results obtained using the recall criteria stipulated by the Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology (JABTS) has not yet been reported. We have performed US screening based on the JABTS guidelines for three years. Technologists perform the examinations, and physicians select recall cases on the basis of these criteria. So far there have been 17,089 attendees, of whom 90% were less than 50 years old. The recall rate was 3.6% (616/17,089). The results of further examinations were confirmed in 452 of these 616 recalled women, and breast cancer was detected in 48 (0.28%) of them. Cancer was detected early in 37 (80.5%) of these 48 cases. Mammography was unable to detect cancer in 16 (43%) of the cases. Although the high recall rate of US screening has been mentioned previously, we wish to emphasize that US breast cancer screening is effective, particularly in younger women. Furthermore, the reasonable recall rate ensures that a high quality of detection is maintained. (author)

  8. Changes in frequency of recall recommendations of examinations depicting cancer with the availability of either priors or digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Christiane M.; Bandos, Andriy I.; Ganott, Marie A.; Catullo, Victor J.; Chough, Denise M.; Kelly, Amy E.; Shinde, Dilip D.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Wallace, Luisa P.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Gur, David

    2016-03-01

    Performance changes in a binary environment when using additional information is affected only when changes in recommendations are made due to the additional information in question. In a recent study, we have shown that, contrary to general expectation, introducing prior examinations improved recall rates, but not sensitivity. In this study, we assessed cancer detection differences when prior examinations and/or digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) were made available to the radiologist. We identified a subset of 21 cancer cases with differences in the number of radiologists who recalled these cases after reviewing either a prior examination or DBT. For the cases with differences in recommendations after viewing either priors or DBT, separately, we evaluated the total number of readers that changed their recommendations, regardless of the specific radiologist in question. Confidence intervals for the number of readers and a test for the hypothesis of no difference was performed using the non-parameteric bootstrap approach addressing both case and reader-related sources of variability by resampling cases and readers. With the addition of priors, there were 14 cancer cases (out of 15) where the number of "recalling radiologists" decreased. With the addition of DBT, the number of "recalling radiologists" decreased in only five cases (out of 15) while increasing in the remaining 9 cases. Unlike most new approaches to breast imaging DBT seems to improve both recall rates and cancer detection rates. Changes in recommendations were noted by all radiologists for all cancers by type, size, and breast density.

  9. Paleo-oncology: the role of ancient remains in the study of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2004-01-01

    Paleo-oncology is the study of carcinomas and sarcomas in ancient human populations and their hominid precursors. These populations are informative concerning the possible influences on cancer of morphologic and functional evolution, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. The prevalence of cancer in ancient populations might have differed from that in modern humans, because of substantial differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet, life expectancy, and the availability of treatment. The available physical data concerning cancer in antiquity includes evidence of its existence in animal fossils and ancient humans and their precursors. The difficulties of paleo-oncologic research include a limited soft tissue record. In evaluating cancer in ancient remains, one must also deal with the problem of pseudopathology: whether an observed tissue change is all antemortem pathologic lesion or a postmortem artifact. Future archeological discoveries and the application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable paleo-oncology to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer. PMID:15061165

  10. Paleo-oncology: the role of ancient remains in the study of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2004-01-01

    Paleo-oncology is the study of carcinomas and sarcomas in ancient human populations and their hominid precursors. These populations are informative concerning the possible influences on cancer of morphologic and functional evolution, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. The prevalence of cancer in ancient populations might have differed from that in modern humans, because of substantial differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet, life expectancy, and the availability of treatment. The available physical data concerning cancer in antiquity includes evidence of its existence in animal fossils and ancient humans and their precursors. The difficulties of paleo-oncologic research include a limited soft tissue record. In evaluating cancer in ancient remains, one must also deal with the problem of pseudopathology: whether an observed tissue change is all antemortem pathologic lesion or a postmortem artifact. Future archeological discoveries and the application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable paleo-oncology to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer.

  11. Radiation recall pneumonitis induced by chemotherapy after thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation recall pneumonitis (RRP) describes a rare reaction in previously irradiated area of pulmonary tissue after application of triggering agents. RRP remains loosely characterized and poorly understood since it has so far only been depicted in 8 cases in the literature. The objective of the study is to disclose the general characteristics of RRP induced by chemotherapy after thoracic irradiation for lung cancer, and to draw attention to the potential toxicity even after a long time interval from the previous irradiation. Medical records were reviewed. RRP induced by chemotherapy was diagnosed by the history of chemotherapy after radiotherapy, clinical presentation and radiographic abnormalities including ground-glass opacity, attenuation, or consolidation changes within the radiation field, plus that radiographic examination of the thorax before showed no radiation pneumonitis. RRP was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. The characteristics of the 12 RRP cases were analyzed. Twelve patients were diagnosed of RRP, of who 8 received taxanes. The median time interval between end of radiotherapy and RRP, between end of radiotherapy and beginning of chemotherapy, and between beginning of chemotherapy and RRP was 95 days, 42 days and 47 days, respectively. Marked symptomatic and radiographic improvement was observed in the 12 patients after withdrawal of chemotherapy and application of systemic corticosteroids. Seven patients were rechallenged with chemotherapy, of whom four with the same kind of agents, and showed no recurrence with steroid cover. Doctors should pay attention to RRP even after a long time from the previous radiotherapy or after several cycles of consolidation chemotherapy. Taxanes are likely to be associated with radiation recall more frequently. Withdrawal of causative agent and application of steroids are the treatment of choice. Patients may be rechallenged safely with steroid cover and careful

  12. Does Recall Period Have an Effect on Cancer Patients’ Ratings of the Severity of Multiple Symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Qiuling; Trask, Peter C.; Wang, Xin Shelley; Mendoza, Tito R.; Apraku, Winifred A.; Malekifar, Maggie; Cleeland, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of recall on symptom severity ratings by comparing ratings made using 24-hour and 7-day recall periods of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Forty-two patients in their third to eighth week of chemoradiation rated their symptoms using the MDASI on two separate occasions (T1 and T2), one week apart. At T1, patients were randomly assigned to rate symptoms using either a 24-hour or a 7-day recall. At T2, patients rated symptoms using the recall period not used ...

  13. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohno, Eriko, E-mail: tohno@tmch.or.jp [Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, 1-2, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Umemoto, Takeshi, E-mail: umemoto@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Sasaki, Kyoko, E-mail: kdon@za.cyberhome.ne.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Morishima, Isamu, E-mail: morishima@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Ueno, Ei, E-mail: e-ueno@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening.

  14. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening

  15. Cancer on a mammogram is not memorable: readers remember their recalls and not cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if presence of cancer on a mammogram makes that mammogram more memorable. A total of 100 mammograms (25 cancers) were grouped into 5 sets of 20 cases. Set pairs were presented in five reads to eight radiologist readers. Readers were asked to 'clear' or 'call back' cases, and at post-baseline reads to indicate whether each case was 'new' or 'old ' (remembered from prior read). Two sets were presented only at baseline, to calculate each reader's false recollection rate. For cases presented more than once ('old' cases, 100 presentations) readers could have 'correct memory' or 'memory loss'. Memory performance was defined as odds ratio of correct memory to memory loss. Multivariate logistic data regression analysis identified predictors of memory performance from: reader, set, time since last read, presence of cancer, and whether the case was called back at the last read. Memory performance differed markedly between readers and reader identity was a highly significant predictor of memory performance. Presence of cancer was not a significant predictor of memory performance (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI: 0.49–1.21). Whether the case was called back at the last read was a highly significant predictor (odds ratio 4.22, 95% CI: 2.70–6.61) for the model incorporating reader variability, and also the model without reader variability (odds ratio 2.67, 95% CI: 1.74–4.08). The only statistically significant predictor of radiologist memory for a mammogram was whether the radiologist 'called it back' at a prior reading round. Presence of cancer on a mammogram did not make it memorable.

  16. Radiation Recall Reaction: Two Case Studies Illustrating an Uncommon Phenomenon Secondary to Anti-Cancer Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops throughout a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the administration of certain drugs. Radiation recall is uncommon and easily neglected by physicians; hence, this phenomenon is underreported in literature. This manuscript reports two cases of radiation recall. First, a 44-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with radiotherapy in 2010 and subsequently developed multi-site bone metastases. A few days after the docetaxel-based chemotherapy, erythema and papules manifested dermatitis, as well as swallowing pain due to pharyngeal mucositis, developed on the head and neck that strictly corresponded to the previously irradiated areas. Second, a 19-year-old man with recurrent nasal NK/T cell lymphoma initially underwent radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy after five weeks. Erythema and edema appeared only at the irradiated skin. Both cases were considered chemotherapeutic agents that incurred radiation recall reactions. Clinicians should be knowledgeable of and pay attention to such rare phenomenon

  17. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC provides accessibility to recalls via a recall database. The information is publicly available to consumers and businesses as well as software and application...

  18. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  19. Factors affecting recall rate and false positive fraction in breast cancer screening with breast tomosynthesis - A statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Aldana; Lång, Kristina; Petersson, Ingemar F; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors affect the false positive fraction (FPF) for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) compared to digital mammography (DM) in a screening population by using classification and regression trees (C&RT) and binary marginal generalized linear models. The data was obtained from the Malmö Breast Tomosynthesis Screening Trial, which aimed to compare the performance of DBT to DM in breast cancer screening. By using data from the first half of the study population (7500 women), a tree with the recall probability for different groups was calculated. The effect of age and breast density on the FPF was estimated using a binary marginal generalized linear model. Our results show that breast density and breast cancer were the main factors influencing recall. The FPF is mainly affected by breast density and increases with breast density for DBT and DM. In conclusion, the results obtained with C&RT are easy to interpret and similar to those obtained using binary marginal generalized linear models. The FPF is approximately 40% higher for DBT compared to DM for all breast density categories.

  20. Women's experiences of the breast cancer diagnostic process: A thematic evaluation of the literature; Recall and biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to use relevant literature to understand women's experiences of diagnostic breast cancer procedures; in this case their experiences of being recalled and of having a biopsy. Method: A structured literature search was performed to locate relevant research. Research articles published between 2002 and 2013 were identified in CINAHL, MEDLINE and Science Direct. The quality of the research was assessed using an appropriate critical appraisal tool to enable a systematic and consistent assessment. Results: Thematic analysis of the literature identified five themes: fear, pain and discomfort, waiting, the physical environment and staff interactions. Women's experiences are unique and diverse; however, literature suggests that these themes do summarise women's experiences. Conclusion: Women's experiences of diagnostic breast cancer procedures are not limited to the examinations alone but encompass the entire experience. These themes influence women's experiences and their perception of care

  1. Views on ocular cancer in Arabo-Islamic medicine and the leading influence of the ancient Greek medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Nikolopoulos, Thomas; Moschos, Marilita M; Androutsos, George

    2016-01-01

    In the ophthalmological treatises of the medieval Arabo-Islamic physicians such as al-Mawsili (9th-10th century), al-Kahhal (ca. 940-1010), Haly Abbas (10th century) and al Sadili (14th century) we may find references about ocular cancer, focusing on eyelid tumors and cancerous ulcers of the cornea. These references are similar to the analogous ones of ancient Greek physicians as these are preserved in the medical texts of the most famous Byzantine doctors, indicating the influence of ancient Greek medicine in the Arabo-Islamic one. PMID:27061559

  2. Cancer tumors as Metazoa 1.0: tapping genes of ancient ancestors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genes of cellular cooperation that evolved with multicellularity about a billion years ago are the same genes that malfunction to cause cancer. We hypothesize that cancer is an atavistic condition that occurs when genetic or epigenetic malfunction unlocks an ancient 'toolkit' of pre-existing adaptations, re-establishing the dominance of an earlier layer of genes that controlled loose-knit colonies of only partially differentiated cells, similar to tumors. The existence of such a toolkit implies that the progress of the neoplasm in the host organism differs distinctively from normal Darwinian evolution. Comparative genomics and the phylogeny of basal metazoans, opisthokonta and basal multicellular eukaryotes should help identify the relevant genes and yield the order in which they evolved. This order will be a rough guide to the reverse order in which cancer develops, as mutations disrupt the genes of cellular cooperation. Our proposal is consistent with current understanding of cancer and explains the paradoxical rapidity with which cancer acquires a suite of mutually-supportive complex abilities. Finally we make several predictions and suggest ways to test this model

  3. Can colorectal cancer survivors recall their medications and doctor visits reliably?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Louisa G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence on the agreement between self-reported health resource use and administrative records is mixed and no gold standard exists. The objective of this study was to assess self-reported general practitioner (GP and specialist doctor visits, as well as medication use via telephone interview against national insurance administrative data for colorectal cancer survivors. Methods In a sample of 76 adults recently diagnosed with colorectal cancer, data was abstracted from telephone survey items on GP visits, specialist visits and medication use over the previous six months and compared with data on the same individuals from administrative data. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were used to assess the reliability of frequency of visits and kappa statistics were derived for four broad categories of medicines used for gastrointestinal conditions, cardiovascular disease, psychological conditions and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Logistic regression was undertaken to assess factors associated with agreement (yes/no between the two data sources for doctors’ visits. Results Good agreement was found for GP visits (ICC 0.62, 95%CI: 0.38, 0.86 and specialist visits (ICC 0.73, 95%CI: 0.56, 0.91 across the two data sources. When costs were assigned to frequencies, mean costs for the two methods were not significantly different over six months. Over-reporting was more common among men and participants with frequent doctor encounters. Large discrepancies between self-reports and administration records were found for broad types of medications used (44% agreement, kappa 0.13. Conclusion Self-reported frequency of doctor’s visits using telephone interviews may be a reasonable substitute for administratively recorded data however, medication use by self-report appears to be unreliable. Administrative records are preferable to self-report for health service use in colorectal cancer survivors with high and complex service

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of cancer in medical textbooks of ancient Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Ali Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that ancient Iranians were among the pioneers of medical science, and are therefore admired and praised by non-Iranian scholars for their efforts and accomplishments in this field. Investigations of medical and historical texts indicate that between the 10(th) and the 18(th) century A.D., ancient Iran experienced a golden age of medicine. Great physicians such as Rhazes, al-Ahwazi, Avicenna and others reviewed the medical textbooks of civilizations such as Greece and India, Theories were scientifically criticized, superstitious beliefs were discarded, valuable innovations were added to pre-existing knowledge and the ultimate achievements were compiled as precious textbooks. Alhawi by Rhazes, Cannon by Avicenna, and Kamil al-Sina'ah by al-Ahwazi are among the works that were treasured by domestic and foreign scientists alike, as well as future generations who continued to appreciate them for centuries. The above-mentioned textbooks discuss diseases and conditions related to neurosurgery, ophthalmology, ear, nose and throat, gastroenterology, urology, skeletomuscular system and other specialties, as well as cancer and similar subjects. One of the richest texts on the description, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of cancer and therapeutic approaches is Alhawi by Mohammad ibn Zakarya al Razi (Rhazes). This article presents a brief summary of Rhazes' views about the definition of cancer, types, signs and symptoms, prevalence, complications, medical care, treatment and even surgical indications and contraindications. Moreover, his opinions are compared against the views of other physicians and theories of modern medicine. It is also recommended to review the medical heritage of Iran and evaluate the proposed treatments based on modern methodologies and scientific approaches. PMID:25512835

  5. Diet and the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study: does the threat of disease have an influence on recall bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, S; Pietinen, P; Virtanen, M; Kataja, V; Uusitupa, M

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that recall bias may explain the discrepant results between case-control and cohort studies on diet and the risk of breast cancer. Two control groups were used for this case-control study of 25 to 75-year-old breast cancer cases (n = 310). The first group consisted of population controls drawn from the Finnish National Population Register (n = 454). The second group consisted of women who were referred to the same examinations as were the cases because of clinical suspicion of breast disease but who were later diagnosed as healthy (referral controls; n = 506). Because the diagnosis was unknown at the time of interview, it was possible to assess by comparing the two control groups whether the self-reporting of diet changed under the threat of disease. Dietary habits were examined using a validated, self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Premenopausal women misreported their consumption of liquid milk products, tea, and sugar. Reporting bias was also associated with the intake of fat and vitamins. Postmenopausal women misreported consumption of milk products. When recall bias was taken into consideration, milk was associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer, whereas high consumption of poultry or high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and vitamin E were related to lower risk. The study suggested that oil, milk, cheese, coffee and beta-carotene may act as protective factors in postmenopausal women, whereas butter and cream may be risk factors for breast cancer. In summary, it is possible that some food items may be overreported or underreported under the threat of disease in health-conscious population. However, most of the results in this study were not modified by recall bias. PMID:10360338

  6. Gemcitabine-Induced Rectus Abdominus Radiation Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Fakih, Marwan G.

    2006-01-01

    Context :Radiation recall has been described in the context of gemcitabine chemotherapy. However, this phenomenon has been largely limited to skin. Case report: We hereby report a case of radiation recall dermatitis and myositis occurring on gemcitabine monotherapy, five months after completing chemoradiation for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Radiation recall resolved spontaneously with withdrawal of gemcitabine. Conclusions: This is the second case report that describes gemcitabine-ind...

  7. Recall Searching with and without Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, Tibor; DiCagno, D.; Sadrieh, A.; Rodriguez Palermo, C.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the sequential search problem by Hey (1987). In a 2x2 factorial design, varying fixed and random cost treatments with and without recall, we address open research questions that were originally stated by Hey (1987). Our results provide clear evidence for Hey’s (1987) conjecture that recall negatively affects performance in sequential search. With experience, however, search behaviour with and without recall converges towards the optimal reservation rule. We further find that the ut...

  8. Digital breast tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) screening: A pictorial review of screen-detected cancers and false recalls attributed to tomosynthesis in prospective screening trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lång, Kristina; Bernardi, Daniela; Tagliafico, Alberto; Zackrisson, Sophia; Skaane, Per

    2016-04-01

    This pictorial review highlights cancers detected only at tomosynthesis screening and screens falsely recalled in the course of breast tomosynthesis screening, illustrating both true-positive (TP) and false-positive (FP) detection attributed to tomosynthesis. Images and descriptive data were used to characterise cases of screen-detection with tomosynthesis, sourced from prospective screening trials that performed standard (2D) digital mammography (DM) and tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) in the same screening participants. Exemplar cases from four trials highlight common themes of relevance to screening practice including: the type of lesions frequently made more conspicuous or perceptible by tomosynthesis (spiculated masses, and architectural distortions); the histologic findings (both TP and FP) of tomosynthesis-only detection; and the need to extend breast work-up protocols (additional imaging including ultrasound and MRI, and tomosynthesis-guided biopsy) if tomosynthesis is adopted for primary screening. PMID:27017251

  9. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  10. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  11. Recalling academic tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  12. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  13. Pistachio Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes food subject to recall in the United States since March 2009 related to pistachios distributed by Setton Pistachio of Terra Bella, Inc. The FDA...

  14. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  15. Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

    2010-01-01

    The study of recollective and nonrecollective retrieval has become controversial, owing to several critiques of traditional recognition-based measurement (e.g., remember/know, ROC, process dissociation). We present a new methodology in which subjects merely study and recall lists, using any standard paradigm (associative, cued, free, or serial recall), the data are analyzed with a Markov model whose parameters measure recollective and nonrecollective retrieval, and the model’s fit is compared...

  16. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  17. Writing superiority in cued recall

    OpenAIRE

    Carina eFueller; Jens eLoescher; Peter eIndefrey

    2013-01-01

    In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have b...

  18. Radiation recall dermatitis with azithromycin

    OpenAIRE

    Vujovic, O.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation recall is a well-known phenomenon that involves the “recall” of an acute inflammatory reaction in a previously irradiated region after administration of certain drugs. The most common type of radiation recall is radiation recall dermatitis, which involves the reoccurrence of an acute inflammatory skin reaction in previously irradiated skin. Most radiation recall reactions are attributable to chemotherapeutic agents. One previously reported case of radiation recall dermatitis occurre...

  19. Time Limits : Effects on Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Kinue

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of differing time limits and the level of language proficiency on the written recalls of 66 Japanese EFL undergraduates. Results showed that different time limits affected total recall, but not main ideas recalled. Regardless of proficiency level, the 20-minute group (Group 2) recalled a greater number of idea units than the 8-minute group (Group 1). However, no significant difference was found between Groups 1 and 2 regarding the recall of main ideas, alth...

  20. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  1. Aspirin for cancer is no mere antiplatelet prototype. There is potential in its ancient roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, James R; Baxter, Gwendoline J; Paterson, John R

    2016-09-01

    Aspirin (ASA), increasingly accepted as predominantly a cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor, is a prodrug for salicylic acid (SA) which has no such activity. SA is widespread in nature, vital in plants, and present in drug free serum from animals and man. Evolutionary conserved SA receptors are found in human tissues. Very low doses of ASA will, on repeat dosing, produce near maximal platelet COX-1 inhibition. Evidence for cancer prophylaxis is based on ASA doses of at least 75mg/day. Pleiotropic mechanisms underlie low dose ASA's undoubted efficacy in preventive medicine but the key barrier to its more widespread use is gastrointestinal toxicity. ASA/SA combination formulations may improve the current risk/benefit ratio of chemo-prophylactic preparations. There is well established methodology for, and should be few regulatory barriers to, their evaluation. PMID:27515206

  2. Optimal Search with Costly Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten; Parakhonyak, Alexei

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper builds a consumer search model where the cost of going back to stores already searched is explicitly taken into account. We show that the optimal search rule under costly recall is very different from the optimal search rule under perfect recall. Under costly recall, the optimal search behaviour is nonstationary and, moreover, the reservation price is not independent of previously sampled prices. We fully characterize the optimal search rule under costly recall when a f...

  3. Optimal Search with Costly Recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper builds a consumer search model where the cost of going back to stores already searched is explicitly taken into account. We show that the optimal search rule under costly recall is very different from the optimal search rule under perfect recall. Under costly recall, the optim

  4. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  5. Evolution of the knowledge of electricity and electrotherapeutics with special reference to X-rays and cancer. Part 1. Ancient Greeks to Luigi Galvani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a chronological review of the growth points in the knowledge of electricity, especially as applied to medicine. Commencing with the ancient Greeks and ending with cancer electrotherapeutics at the turn of the 20th century, our history is arranged in chronological order by years of the investigators. William Gilbert (1540-1603) initiated the era of scientific investigation, followed by advances in later centuries by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686), Abbe Nollet (1700-1770), Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Alessandro Volta ( 1745-1827), Michael Faraday (1791-1867) and Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) among others. Although electrotherapy was infrequently used to treatment malignancy, it was to make a major contribution to cancer therapy because the experience gained in electrotherapeutics paved the way for the rapid adoption of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Within a year of rontge's discovery, more than a thousand books, pamphlets and papers about X-rays were published. (author)

  6. Gemcitabine-induced radiation recall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study and report 6 patients with radiation recall in unique sites, secondary to gemcitabine chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The clinical presentations and outcomes of 6 patients with radiation recall secondary to gemcitabine chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed over the course of a 1-year period. Results: Radiation recall reactions were seen in the central nervous system, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and in the lymphatic and musculoskeletal systems. The time between initiation of radiation and recall of the radiation phenomenon ranged from 3 weeks to 8 months from the time gemcitabine was initiated. The usual dosage of gemcitabine in these cases was 1000 mg/m2 given on a weekly basis. No radiation therapy was given concomitantly with gemcitabine. Treatment of the recall reaction consisted of discontinuing gemcitabine and initiating steroid therapy, supportive therapy, and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Minimal improvement was seen in 3 out of 6 patients, and resolution of the radiation recall was seen in 3 out of 6 patients. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed that radiation recall with gemcitabine has been related to skin reactions only; no previous cases of radiation recall occurring in the central nervous system have been reported with any chemotherapy agent. Conclusion: Radiation recall from gemcitabine chemotherapy is rare, but can potentially arise in any site that has been previously irradiated. Treating physicians must be aware of this potential toxicity from gemcitabine and radiation and discontinue the gemcitabine if radiation recall is observed

  7. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  8. Writing superiority in cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueller, Carina; Loescher, Jens; Indefrey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather

  9. Recall error and recall bias in life course epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES I propose a distinction between recall error and recall bias and examine the the effect of childhood financial hardship on adult health, subject to such recall problems. Studying the effect of childhood hardship on adult health is a prototypical investigation in life course studies where both non-clinical factors and long-duration processes are at play in determining health outcome. These factors and processes are often elicited retrospectively. Unfortunately, retrospective informa...

  10. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  11. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y W; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    the technical challenges that face researchers in the field. We catalogue the diverse sequencing methods and source materials used to obtain ancient mitogenomic sequences, summarise the associated genetic and phylogenetic studies that have been conducted, and evaluate the future prospects of the field....

  12. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  13. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dochang; Koo, Ja Seung; Suh, Chang-Ok; Yoon, Chang Yun; Bae, Jaehyun; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of radiation recall dermatitis caused by trastuzumab. A 55-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer received palliative first-line trastuzumab/paclitaxel and a salvage partial mastectomy with lymph node dissection was subsequently performed. In spite of the palliative setting, the pathology report indicated that no residual carcinoma was present, and then she underwent locoregional radiotherapy to ensure a definitive response. After radiotherapy, she has maintained trastuzumab monotherapy. Nine days after the fifth cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis in previously irradiated skin developed, with fever. Radiation recall dermatitis triggered by trastuzumab is extremely rare. A high fever developed abruptly with a skin rash. This may be the first case of this sort to be reported.

  14. Radiation recall--another call with tamoxifen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal anti oestrogen, has been used as an adjuvant therapy in patients with oestrogen-receptor positive breast cancer for more than 10 years. Few cutaneous adverse side-effects of the skin are found with this therapy. In this study we present 20 cases of adverse skin effects in relation to tamoxifen during 1979-1997 reported to the Swedish Adverse Drug Reaction Register and 1160 skin side-effects reported to he World Health Organisation's International Collaborative Programme on Drug Monitoring. One new case report of radiation recall in conjunction to tamoxifen, with no sign of reactivation despite 18 months treatment with the tamoxifen analogue toremifene is also discussed in detail. This case illustrates that toremifene can be used as a second-line therapy in patients who have received radiation recall, on tamoxifen

  15. Superior Memorizers Employ Different Neural Networks for Encoding and Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eMallow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL to memorize large amounts of information. The method of loci, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, fMRI data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  16. Dream recall and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, M; Frauscher, S; Shendi, A

    1995-08-01

    The present study estimated correlations for 50 subjects among frequency of dream recall, length of dream report, and visual memory. Whereas the results confirmed the previously found relationship between frequency of dream recall and visual memory, influence of visual memory on length of dream report was not found. PMID:8532466

  17. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs....42 Recall strategy. (a) General. (1) A recall strategy that takes into account the following factors... Administration will review the adequacy of a proposed recall strategy developed by a recalling firm and...

  18. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  19. Large individual differences in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Using single factor ANOVA I show that there are large individual differences in free recall ({\\eta} ranges from 0.09-0.26) including the total recall, the balance between recency and primacy, and the initial recall (subsequent recalls show smaller individual differences). All three memory properties are relatively uncorrelated. The variance in the initial position may be a measure of executive control and is correlated with total recall (the smaller the variation, the larger the recall).

  20. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  1. The Strategic Value of Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Peretz

    2007-01-01

    This work studies the value of two-person zero-sum repeated games in which at least one of the players is restricted to (mixtures of) bounded recall strategies. A (pure) k-recall strategy is a strategy that relies only on the last k periods of history. This work improves previous results [Lehrer, Neyman and Okada] on repeated games with bounded recall. We provide an explicit formula for the asymptotic value of the repeated game as a function of the stage game, the duration of the repeated gam...

  2. MANAGEMENT OF UNSAFE FOOD RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the essence of eff ective management to recall unsafe food. The implementation of the development is refl ected in its individual parts. Legal requirements oblige companies to take immediate action when an available product poses a threat to the consumer’s health or life. These actions imply blocking of a suspicious batch or a possible product recall, as well as eff ective communication with supervisory authorities and consumers, if a product has already been available to them. The scope of these regulations is scrupulously listed in private safety standards and food quality, such as BRC, IFS, or in an international norm ISO 22000. The article emphasized the importance of the traceability system to ensure eff ective recall, also analysed the results of the research into the causes and evaluated the eff ectiveness of the food recall.

  3. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  4. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  5. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  6. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  7. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  8. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  9. Recalled emotions and risk judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based on a field study of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war that was conducted in two waves, the first two weeks after the end of the war, and the second 18 months later (2008. The purpose of the study was to examine recalled emotions and perceived risks induced by manipulation using a short videoclip that recalled the sounds of the alarms and the sights of the missile attacks during the war. Before filling in the study questionnaire in 2008, the experimental group watched a short videoclip recalling the events of the war. The control group did not watch the video before filling in the questionnaire. Using the data provided by questionnaires, we analyzed the effect of recalled emotions on perceived risks in two different regions in Israel: the northern region, which was under missile attack daily during the war, and the central region, which was not under missile attacks. The videoclip had a strong effect on the level of recalled emotions in both regions, but it did not affect risk judgments. The results of the analytical framework in the northern region support both the valence approach, in which negative emotion increases pessimism about risk (Johnson and Tversky, 1983, and the modified appraisal tendency theory, which implies different effects for different emotions (Lerner and Keltner, 2000. The current study emphasizes the effects of recalled emotion in the context of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war on perceived risks among those in the northern region who were under direct attack compared to those who were not directly exposed to the war. Understanding people's responses to stressful events is crucial, not only when these events take place but also over time, since media-induced emotions can influence appraisals and decisions regarding public policies.

  10. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy...

  11. A Minority Game with Bounded Recall.

    OpenAIRE

    Renault, Jérôme; Scarsini, Marco; Tomala, Tristan

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a repeated minority game with public signals, symmetric bounded recall, and pure strategies. We investigate both public and private equilibria of the game with fixed recall size. We first show how public equilibria in such a repeated game can be represented as colored subgraphs of a de Bruijn graph. Then we prove that the set of public equilibrium payoffs with bounded recall converges to the set of uniform equilibrium payoffs as the size of the recall increases. We also sho...

  12. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  13. Practice Makes Perfect in Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists.…

  14. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  15. Recalled Behavior and Ease of Recall as Information in Self-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    In studies examining the influence of recall on judgments, social psychologists have generally concentrated on the content of recalled material rather than on the process of recall. To investigate the impact of recalled behaviors (content) and the ease with which these behaviors came to mind (process) on assessment of one's own assertiveness, 158…

  16. [Dream recall and sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, M; Bozzer, A; Morlock, M

    1997-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between dream recall and sleep disorders. The sample comprised 762 patients who were diagnosed in the sleep laboratory. In the course of the examination they completed the sleep questionnaire SF-B (Görtelmeyer 1986). The results showed a heightened dream recall frequency (DRF) in insomniacs and patients with myoclonia. This result as well as the findings in the control group supports the arousal-retrieval model of dream recall (Koulack u. Goodenough 1976) which emphasizes the importance of nocturnal awakenings. However, this model seems only to be valid for males. In females, DRF is mainly influenced by emotional stress which is best explained by the salience hypothesis of Cohen and MacNeilage (1974). They pointed out that intensive dream emotions lead to high recallability of dream experience. The data gives evidence to the hypothesis of Ermann et al. (1993, 1994) which states that reduced DRF in terms of unsuccessful dream work is accompanied by frequent nocturnal awakenings. DRF of patients with sleep apnea syndrome did not differ from DRF in healthy controls. In addition, sleep apnea parameters did not correlate substantially with DRF. The finding that insomniacs reported more negatively toned dreams in comparison to persons who were examined for sleep apnea but did not showed a pathological apnea index. This may be an hint to increased emotional stress in this patient group. To summarize, the results are promising in clarifying the relationship between sleep disorders and dream life. The next step is to investigate dream reports of these patients by means of content analysis.

  17. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGISHI, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Sato, Atsushi; Imamura, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the ta...

  18. Characterizing the phenomenon of radiation recall dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation recall represents the 'recalling' of an effect similar in appearance to that of an acute radiation reaction in a previously irradiated field. The recall is triggered by the administration of certain drugs days to years after the exposure to ionizing radiation. This review focuses almost exclusively on the skin manifestations of radiation recall to assemble the largest data base upon which to discuss this rare phenomenon. No absolute radiation dose threshold is apparent, but rather an interplay between dose and time before drug exposure seems to affect both the risk and speed of onset of recall. Recall usually occurs on first exposure to a particular recall-triggering drug. The skin reaction develops within minutes to days. The time to develop the reaction may be slightly longer for oral than intravenously administered drugs reflecting their bioavailability. Most drugs associated with recall are cytotoxics, but several other drugs may elicit the phenomenon. Individuals exposed to a number of potentially recall-triggering drugs reveal the marked drug specificity characteristic of the phenomenon. Skin reactions usually settle within a few days of stopping the triggering drug. The role of steroids or anti-histamines in affecting resolution is unclear. Drug rechallenge tends to produce either only a mild recurrence or no recurrence of recall. Steroids or dose reduction may favour uneventful rechallenge. A number of aetiological hypotheses on radiation recall exist. Using the available evidence these hypotheses are critically reviewed and a novel hypothesis based on radiation affecting local cutaneous immunological responses proposed

  19. Recall of Events Affects Perception of Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelica Moe

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships between recall of positive and negative events, API (attention to positive) and ANI (attention to negative information), and perception of happiness, with the hypothesis that recall affects the perception of happiness and that ANI and API affect recall. One hundred and five women filled in the APNI scale to assess API and ANI and were asked to listen to and recall a story presenting both positive and negative events, and provide an assessment of the character perceived happiness. Finally, they were asked to choose an ending for the story. Results showed that recall is related to the perception of happiness more than API and ANI, and that relationships occur among recall, API, ANI, and perception of happiness. A positive ending for the story was preferred. Discussion focuses on the implications of individual differences in paying attention to and recall positive and negative information.

  20. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  1. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. PMID:27516599

  2. Factors affecting reading recall(Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Kinue

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has investigated whether many variables affect a reader's ability to understand and recall a text written in a first or second language. The present study reviewed some of the literature related to factors that affect reading recall: background knowledge, the syntactic complexity of the text, the language of recall, the importance of the structure of a passage, story schema, and sex differences and reading ability. Thus the factors considered in this paper should be taken in...

  3. Better-Reply Dynamics with Bounded Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Andriy Zapechelnyuk

    2008-01-01

    A decision maker is engaged in a repeated interaction with Nature. The objective of the decision maker is to guarantee to himself the average payoff as large as the best-reply payoff to Nature's empirical distribution of play, no matter what Nature does. The decision maker with perfect recall can achieve this objective by a simple better-reply strategy. In this paper we demonstrate that the relationship between perfect recall and bounded recall is not straightforward: The decision maker with ...

  4. Separable Prefrontal Cortex Contributions to Free Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Nicole M.; Öztekin, Ilke; Badre, David

    2010-01-01

    In everyday life, we often must remember the past in the absence of helpful cues in the environment. In these cases, the brain directs retrieval by relying on internally maintained cues and strategies. Free recall is a widely used behavioral paradigm for studying retrieval with minimal cue support. During free recall, individuals often recall semantically related items consecutively—an effect termed semantic clustering—and previous studies have sought to understand clustering to gain leverage...

  5. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  6. Are forwards and backwards digit recall the same? A dual task study of digit recall

    OpenAIRE

    St. Clair-Thompson, HL; Allen, RJ

    2013-01-01

    There is some debate surrounding the cognitive resources underlying backwards digit recall. Some researchers consider it to differ from forwards digit recall due to the involvement of executive control, while others suggest that backwards recall involves visuo-spatial resources. Five experiments therefore investigated the role of executive-attentional and visuo-spatial resources in both forwards and backwards digit recall. In the first, participants completed visuo-spatial 0-back and 2-back t...

  7. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  8. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  9. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  10. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  11. Radiation equivalency: For the radiation recall phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and clinico-epidemiological investigations have unequivocally established the risk of an offspring in later years developing cancer after experiencing an in utero carcinogenic insult. The present studies have focused upon identifying whether the biological effects of iodine-131 and the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) when administered during pregnancy in the Fischer F344 inbred rat are remembered in the offsprings at a later age. The investigations have been based upon the premise that after exposure to a carcinogen ''foreign-like'' tumor cells develop which result in the host mounting active antitumor immune responses. The authors have now measured at 2 to 3 months post-exposure, the antitumor cell-mediated immunity (CMI) induced by intraperitoneal administration of the radionuclide or chemical at 16-18 days of gestation. Their findings indicate a positive sex relationship existing in those offsprings exposed to the radioiodine with the female being much less sensitive. In contrast, no such difference was observed between responsiveness of the males and females born from dams exposed to the DMH. Significantly, the dams exposed to either the radionuclide or DMH expressed no measurable CMI suggesting that either the fetus acted as a carcinogen trap or else the state of pregnancy altered the mother's immune system in such a fashion to no longer respond to the insult. A Radiation Equivalency value has now been determined for the transplacental DMH exposures with the calculations suggesting the fetus is significantly more sensitive (over 10 times) than the adult animals. The results of this study now demonstrate that carcinogenic memory remains for exposures to both the iodine-131 and DMH in the first offspring generation and suggest that the effects may be recalled at a later age with the expected overt results being the development of cancer

  12. Effectiveness of recall notification: community response to a nationwide recall of hot dogs and deli meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Mary E; Griffin, Patricia M; Voetsch, Andrew C; Mead, Paul S

    2007-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of recall notification and advertising in informing the public about a nationwide recall of hot dogs and deli meats. As part of an ongoing random population telephone survey, residents of seven states were interviewed. Data from the survey were weighted to account for the multistage sampling design. Overall, 307 (45%) of 633 knew about the recall. Knowledge was higher among persons older than 40 years (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 to 3.3) and persons interviewed after major newspaper notices about the recall. Among those who knew about the recall, 5% believed the products were safe to eat; 23% were not sure. Seventy percent learned about the recall through television. Our findings indicate that routine recall notifications failed to reach a large portion of the population and were not well understood. Messages to the public about recalled products should clearly describe the risks of consuming the recalled product. Supplemental advertising by manufacturers can be beneficial if the risks of consuming the recalled product and recommendations to consumers are clearly described. These policies, coupled with broader distribution through the television and print media, may help increase the proportion of the persons who receive the information they need from future product recalls. PMID:17969620

  13. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  14. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future. PMID:20514391

  15. Radiation recall phenomenon presenting as myositis triggered by carboplatin plus paclitaxel and related literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Chi Hoon; Park, Jun Sang; Lee, Seung Ah; Kim, Dong Hwan; Yun, Dong Hwan; Yoo, Seung-Don; Kim, Hee-Sang; Chon, Jinmann

    2014-01-01

    While most case reports to date are radiation recall dermatitis, radiation recall myositis, which is a distinct form of radiation recall phenomenon caused by carboplatin plus paclitaxel, has not been reported. We treated a 57-year-old female patient who suffered from recurrent cervical cancer. When the patient developed a new left sacral metastasis, salvage radiotherapy (total dose 60 Gy) was administered. Four weeks later, chemotherapy using carboplatin plus paclitaxel was initiated. Four months after chemotherapy, the patient complained of severe pain in her left buttock. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), edematous changes and increased signal densities of left gluteus maximus and medius muscles were noted suggesting myositis. The border of the high signal intensity territory of the muscles was sharp and clearly corresponded with the recent irradiation field. We concluded that the patient had radiation recall myositis triggered by paclitaxel-carboplatin. Symptoms were controlled by analgesics, and there was no recurrence.

  16. Early onset recall pneumonitis during targeted therapy with sunitinib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunitinib interacts with radiation therapy, leading to synergism of the toxicities of these treatments. Radiation recall pneumonitis is a rare but serious complication of targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The case of a patient with metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC) who developed recall pneumonitis on the first cycle of systemic sunitinib treatment is reported here. A 65-year-old man with RCC and bone metastasis underwent radiation therapy on his thoracic vertebrae (Th5-8) with a total dose of 24 Gy. Sunitinib (37.5 mg) was started 14 days after completing the radiation therapy. On the 14th day of sunitinib treatment, the patient developed progressive fever with worsening of dyspnea and general weakness. Treatment with pulse administration of prednisolone 1,000 mg for 3 days was initiated. Thereafter, the symptoms and the radiological findings regarding the interstitial filtration gradually improved over 7 days. To our knowledge, this is the first report of early onset recall pneumonitis during sunitinib therapy. At present, how sunitinib interacts with radiation therapy remains unclear. The possibility that tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, including with sunitinib, after radiation therapy may lead to adverse effects should be kept in mind

  17. Exploring the relationship between retrieval disruption from collaboration and recall

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-01-01

    When people recall together in a collaborative group, they recall less than their potential. This phenomenon of collaborative inhibition is explained in terms of retrieval disruption. However, collaborative recall also re-exposes individuals to items recalled by others that they themselves might otherwise have forgotten. This re-exposure produces post-collaborative benefits in individual recall. The current study examined whether reduced retrieval disruption during group recall is related not...

  18. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal registered) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.)

  19. Esotericism Ancient and Modern

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Leo Strauss presents at least two distinct accounts of the idea that the authors in the political-philosophical canon have often masked their true teachings. A weaker account of esotericism, dependent on the contingent fact of persecution, is attributed to the moderns, while a stronger account, stemming from a necessary conflict between philosophy and society, is attributed to the ancients. Although most interpreters agree that Strauss here sides with the ancients, this view fails to consider...

  20. Characterizing perfect recall in Epistemic Temporal Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Witzel, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We review the notion of perfect recall in the literature on interpreted systems, game theory, and epistemic logic. We give a (to our knowledge) novel frame condition for it, which is local and can straightforwardly be translated to a defining formula in a language that only has next-step temporal operators, such as epistemic temporal logic (ETL). It also gives rise to a complete axiomatization for S5 ETL frames with perfect recall. We then consider how to extend and consolidate the notion of perfect recall in sub-S5 settings, where the various notions discussed are no longer equivalent.

  1. Better-Reply Strategies with Bounded Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Andriy Zapechelnyuk

    2007-01-01

    A decision maker (an agent) is engaged in a repeated interaction with Nature. The objective of the agent is to guarantee to himself the long-run average payoff as large as the best-reply payoff to Nature?s empirical distribution of play, no matter what Nature does. An agent with perfect recall can achieve this objective by a simple better-reply strategy. In this paper we demonstrate that the relationship between perfect recall and bounded recall is not straightforward: An agent with bounded r...

  2. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, John E.; Robert W Hughes; Sorqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure—whe...

  3. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  4. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  5. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadayat eSeddiqi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  6. Radiation Emitting Product Corrective Actions and Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...

  7. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the...

  8. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; ...

  9. Consensus collaboration enhances group and individual recall accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Celia Bernadette; Barnier, Amanda J.; Sutton, John

    2012-01-01

    We often remember in groups, yet research on collaborative recall finds “collaborative inhibition”: Recalling with others has costs compared to recalling alone. In related paradigms, remembering with others introduces errors into recall. We compared costs and benefits of two collaboration procedu...

  10. 40 CFR 91.904 - Voluntary emission recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emission recall. 91.904... Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 91.904 Voluntary emission recall. (a) A manufacturer, prior to initiating a voluntary emission recall program, must submit to the EPA the following...

  11. 40 CFR 92.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 92.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer or remanufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...

  12. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  13. 40 CFR 91.806 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 91.806... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Testing and Recall Regulations § 91.806 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, the manufacturer may perform...

  14. 40 CFR 90.808 - Ordered recall provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ordered recall provisions. 90.808...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.808 Ordered recall provisions. (a) Effective with respect to Phase 2 small SI engines: (1) If the...

  15. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  16. 40 CFR 92.703 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall. 92.703... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.703 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) Prior to an EPA ordered recall, a manufacturer or remanufacturer may...

  17. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary emissions recall reporting... Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program § 94.404 Voluntary emissions recall reporting. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall campaign involving an engine,...

  18. On Optimal Solutions of Decision Problems with Imperfect Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrus-Lakatos, Lorand

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, I study decision theory in the presence of imperfect recall. I use an extension of the standard strategy concept for the analysis of extensive form games in order to examine the range of imperfect recall problems for which there exists an optimal solution. Optimality is assessed in terms of perfect recall problems associated to their corresponding imperfect recall problems.

  19. Memory as a hologram: an analysis of learning and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Donald R J; Mewhort, D J K

    2015-03-01

    We present a holographic theory of human memory. According to the theory, a subject's vocabulary resides in a dynamic distributed representation-a hologram. Studying or recalling a word alters both the existing representation of that word in the hologram and all words associated with it. Recall is always prompted by a recall cue (either a start instruction or the word just recalled). Order of report is a joint function of the item and associative information residing in the hologram at the time the report is made. We apply the model to archival data involving simple free recall, learning in multitrial free recall, simple serial recall, and learning in multitrial serial recall. The model captures accuracy and order of report in both free and serial recall. It also captures learning and subjective organisation in multitrial free recall. We offer the model as an alternative to the short- and long-term account of memory postulated in the modal model.

  20. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  1. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be in the descending order of memory strength. The dual-retrieval process theory postulates two phases in a free recall, a first direct access phase in ...

  2. Adoption in ancient times

    OpenAIRE

    Bisha Eugena

    2015-01-01

    Since in ancient times, in all human cultures, children transfered from biological parents to parents that want them to create family, for political alliances, for inheritance, for a future marriage, or to care for elderly parents. The practice of adoption was fairly common in different places and periods. Adoption is mention on Bible and Quran. Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Babylonians had adoption systems.

  3. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  4. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  5. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  6. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  7. Ancient Egyptian surgical heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Aly

    2010-12-01

    Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri: The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus and the Ebers Medical Papyrus are famous. PMID:21208098

  8. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  9. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  10. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  11. An Ancient Indian Board Game as a Tool for Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelatha Malempati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available User authentication is the first phase of information security. Users should remember their passwords and recall them for authentication. Text based passwords is the traditional method for authentication. Short and simple passwords are memorable and usable but not secure. Random and lengthy passwords are secure but not memorable and usable. Graphical password schemes are introduced as alternatives to text based schemes. Few grid based authentication techniques are also proposed. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a tool to enhance the memorability and security of passwords which also provides usability. The most popular ancient Indian board game “Snakes and Ladders” is used as a tool for authentication.

  12. Emphasizing Expert Practice with Spaced Recall

    CERN Document Server

    Torigoe, Eugene T

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores an intervention that emphasizes expert practice using spaced recall. Interviews were performed with two students who were shown physics solutions, and were asked to repeatedly recall the solutions over a period of weeks. The students reflected that they became aware of the importance of using the diagrams to create equations, as well as the utility of reasoning over pure memorization. We believe that the structure of this activity may be an effective way of encouraging expert practice to introductory physics students.

  13. Trends in Non-prescription Drug Recalls in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chikoto; Ishida, Takuya; Osawa, Takashi; Naito, Takafumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Recalls of non-prescription drugs can contribute to preventing harm to human health, however, they also interrupt the supply of medicines to the market. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trends in non-prescription drug recalls in Japan. Class I, II, and III recalls reported from April 2009 to March 2014 were obtained from the websites of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Each drug recall was classified according to year, dosage form, therapeutic category, and reasons for the recall. The trends over the 5 year period were assessed for each class. A total of 220 recalls were reported in the 5-year study period. The numbers of drug recalls were 21, 16, 80, 58, and 45 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. The drugs recalled consisted of 177 internal medications, 35 topical agents, and 8 others. Drug recalls were observed in 12 therapeutic categories of drug effects. The largest number of recalls was for Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs. Of all the drug recalls in 2011, Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs produced by one manufacturer accounted for 84%. Slightly more than half (54%) of drug recalls were due to a violation of the regulations. One manufacturer recalled many drugs because of non-compliance with the standard regulations for manufacturing drugs after 2011. In conclusion, non-prescription drug recalls can occur for any drug regardless of the dosage form and therapeutic category. PMID:27592833

  14. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Freund, Ulrich; Momm, Felix [Ortenau-Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach Lehrkrankenhaus der Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg i. Br., Radio-Onkologie, Offenburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal {sup registered}) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlen-Recall-Dermatitis (RRD) ist eine akute Hauttoxizitaet, die durch verschiedene Chemotherapeutika oder Antibiotika innerhalb eines frueheren, komplett abgeheilten Bestrahlungsfelds hervorgerufen wird. Praediktive Faktoren fuer die RRD sind nicht bekannt und ihr Mechanismus ist nicht vollstaendig geklaert. Es wird ein Fallbericht einer durch Docetaxel induzierten RRD dargestellt, die erfolgreich mit einer antioxidativen Salbe (Mapisal {sup registered}) behandelt wurde. Solche Salben koennten nicht nur zur Therapie der RRD, sondern auch bei der Behandlung einer akuten Dermatitis waehrend der Strahlentherapie nuetzlich sein und damit zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet der Patienten und zur planmaessigen Durchfuehrung der Tumortherapie beitragen. (orig.)

  15. Improving text recall with multiple summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Hans; Meij, van der Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background. QuikScan (QS) is an innovative design that aims to improve accessibility, comprehensibility, and subsequent recall of expository text by means of frequent within-document summaries that are formatted as numbered list items. The numbers in the QS summaries correspond to numbers placed in

  16. Working Memory and Binding in Sentence Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A. D.; Hitch, G. J.; Allen, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments explored whether chunking in short-term memory for verbal materials depends on attentionally limited executive processes. Secondary tasks were used to disrupt components of working memory and chunking was indexed by the sentence superiority effect, whereby immediate recall is better for sentences than word lists. To…

  17. Differential Interpolation Effects in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, William M.; Jamieson, Donald G.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether a sufficiently demanding and difficult interpolated task (shadowing, i.e., repeating aloud) would decrease recall for earlier-presented items as well as for more recent items. Listening to music was included as a second interpolated task. Results support views that serial position effects reflect a single process.…

  18. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

  19. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  20. Reliability of Recall in Agricultural Data

    OpenAIRE

    Beegle, Kathleen; Carletto, Calogero; Himelein, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of agriculture to economic development, and a vast accompanying literature on the subject, little research has been done on the quality of the underlying data. Due to survey logistics, agricultural data are usually collected by asking respondents to recall the details of events occurring during past agricultural seasons that took place a number of months prior to the ...

  1. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  2. Ancient human microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  3. Exploring the relationship between retrieval disruption from collaboration and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-07-01

    When people recall together in a collaborative group they recall less than their potential. This phenomenon of collaborative inhibition is explained in terms of retrieval disruption. However, collaborative recall also re-exposes individuals to items recalled by others that they themselves might otherwise have forgotten. This re-exposure produces post-collaborative benefits in individual recall. The current study examined whether reduced retrieval disruption during group recall is related not only to less collaborative inhibition, but also to greater post-collaborative recall benefits. To test this we devised a paradigm to calculate the extent to which each individual experienced retrieval disruption during group recall. We also included two types of collaborative groups, one of which was expected to experience greater retrieval disruption than the other. Results suggest that the relationship between retrieval disruption and recall performance depends on the level at which retrieval disruption is measured. When retrieval disruption was assessed at the individual level, then minimising retrieval disruption was associated with higher recall (i.e., less collaborative inhibition and greater post-collaborative individual recall). However, when retrieval disruption was assessed at the group level there was no relationship with recall. Furthermore, the findings from this design suggest a role of cross-cueing in modulating group recall levels.

  4. Two cases of radiation myositis probably induced by recall phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of radiation myositis following gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer are presented. In the two cases, myositis appeared 3 and 5.5 months after the completion of radiation therapy and 2 and 2.5 months after the beginning of chemotherapy, respectively. The affected areas, the upper back and right thigh, appeared as areas of increased signal intensity on T2-weighted MR imaging and were enhanced by the administration of Gd-DTPA in the skeletal muscles. These coincided with the previously irradiated area. Although radiation myositis is a rare complication, it is important to be careful of radiation recall induced by chemotherapeutic agents. (author)

  5. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  6. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  7. Monkeys recall and reproduce simple shapes from memory

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    If you draw from memory a picture of the front of your childhood home, you will have demonstrated recall. You could also recognize this house upon seeing it. Unlike recognition, recall demonstrates memory for things that are not present. Recall is necessary for planning and imagining, and can increase the flexibility of navigation, social behavior, and other cognitive skills. Without recall, memory is more limited to recognition of the immediate environment. Amnesic patients are impaired on r...

  8. Optimal recall period length in consumer payment surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Hitczenko, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Surveys in many academic fields ask respondents to recall the number of events that occurred over a specific period of time with the goal of learning about the mean frequency of these events among the population. Research has shown that the choice of the recall period, particularly the length, affects the results by influencing the cognitive recall process. We combine experimental recall data with use data to learn about this relationship in the context of consumer payments, specifically for ...

  9. Bender Test Recall in Children: An Unreliable Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Dan L.

    1980-01-01

    To assess the utility and reliability of Bender test recall in children, 304 children (ages 5 through 14) were individually administered the copy and recall phases using Koppitz's directions. The recall phase was judged to be of doubtful utility in assessing intellectual functioning in children. (Author/SJL)

  10. Capacity Differences Reflected in the Recall Performance of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, Mary S.

    Recent theories in cognitive psychology have emphasized the role of capacity requirements in encoding tasks. To examine the notion that age-related differences in the recall performance reflect differences in cognitive capacity, 80 adults (40 undergraduates, and 40 senior citizens) recalled newspaper advertisements under free recall and cued…

  11. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  12. Using Pictographs To Enhance Recall of Spoken Medical Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Peter S.; Bachrach, Rebecca; Witmer, Judith T.; Tringali, Carol A.; Bucher, Julia A.; Localio, Russell A.

    1998-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that pictographs can improve recall of spoken medical instructions. Junior college subjects (N=21) listened to two lists of actions, one of which was accompanied by pictographs during both listening and recall while the other was not. Mean correct recall was 85% with pictographs and 14% without, indicating that pictographs can…

  13. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50... ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.50 Public notification of recall. The Food and Drug Administration will promptly...

  14. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefits for recall service. 19.10-6 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-6 Benefits for recall service. (a... recall service. Upon reversion of the annuitant to retired status, any pension payable to a former...

  15. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances...

  16. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  17. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  18. Some structural determinants of melody recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, M

    1991-05-01

    Sophisticated musicians were asked to recall, using musical notation, a set of unfamiliar folk tunes that varied in rhythmic structure and referents of tonality. The results showed that memory was facilitated by tonic triad members marking phrase endings, but only when their presence was highlighted by a corresponding pattern of temporal accents. Conversely, recall significantly declined when tonal information was either absent or obscured by rhythmic structure. Error analyses further revealed that the retention of overall pitch contour and information at phrase ending points varied as a function of these manipulations. The results are discussed in terms of a framework that links the acts of perceiving and remembering to a common attentional scheme. PMID:1861610

  19. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  20. Exits from unemployment : recall or new job

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Bullón, Fernando; Alba, Alfonso; Arranz, José M.

    2006-01-01

    JEL Classification Numbers J21, J24 This paper studies transitions out of unemployment in Spain distinguishing between recall to the same employer and reemployment in a new job. We use a large sample of newly unemployed workers obtained from Social Security records for Spain. These data contain information about each individual's employer identy before and after the unemployment spell. A discrete-time duration model with competing risks of exits serves us to investigate the factors that in...

  1. Accelerating Deep Learning with Shrinkage and Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shuai; Vishnu, Abhinav; Ding, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Deep Learning is a very powerful machine learning model. Deep Learning trains a large number of parameters for multiple layers and is very slow when data is in large scale and the architecture size is large. Inspired from the shrinking technique used in accelerating computation of Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm and screening technique used in LASSO, we propose a shrinking Deep Learning with recall (sDLr) approach to speed up deep learning computation. We experiment shrinking Deep Lea...

  2. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  3. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  4. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  5. Retrieval opportunities while multitasking improve name recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2008-11-01

    In two experiments we tested whether providing retrieval opportunities while people were multitasking would improve memory for names. College students (n=195) in Experiment 1 did addition problems and intermittently were "introduced" to 12 face-name pairs to learn. For half the names students were given three within-list retrieval opportunities. Name recall (cued with the faces) was tested either immediately or after 24 hours. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall with both immediate and delayed tests. Experiment 2 more closely resembled the multitasking required in a real-life social situation. College students (n=98) viewed a videotape and were asked to learn the names of 12 dormitory residents who were introduced during an ongoing conversation. Retrieval opportunities were provided for 8 of the 12 residents by having them appear three additional times in the video without repeating their names. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall, but the effect was much smaller than in Experiment 1. The present research demonstrates that distributed retrieval can be effective when people are multitasking including when the multitasking involves a conversation.

  6. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Role of List Length, Strategy Use, and Test Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists is similar to immediate serial recall (ISR). These findings were obtained using a methodology in which participants did not know the list length in advance of each list, and this uncertainty may have encouraged participants to adopt atypical recall strategies. Therefore,…

  7. Parameter optimization of parenchymal texture analysis for prediction of false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology to obtain optimal parameter values for a locally-adaptive texture analysis algorithm that extracts mammographic texture features representative of breast parenchymal complexity for predicting falsepositive (FP) recalls from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. The algorithm has two components: (1) adaptive selection of localized regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) Haralick texture feature extraction via Gray- Level Co-Occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The following parameters were systematically varied: mammographic views used, upper limit of the ROI window size used for adaptive ROI selection, GLCM distance offsets, and gray levels (binning) used for feature extraction. Each iteration per parameter set had logistic regression with stepwise feature selection performed on a clinical screening cohort of 474 non-recalled women and 68 FP recalled women; FP recall prediction was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and associations between the extracted features and FP recall were assessed via odds ratios (OR). A default instance of mediolateral (MLO) view, upper ROI size limit of 143.36 mm (2048 pixels2), GLCM distance offset combination range of 0.07 to 0.84 mm (1 to 12 pixels) and 16 GLCM gray levels was set. The highest ROC performance value of AUC=0.77 [95% confidence intervals: 0.71-0.83] was obtained at three specific instances: the default instance, upper ROI window equal to 17.92 mm (256 pixels2), and gray levels set to 128. The texture feature of sum average was chosen as a statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor and associated with higher odds of FP recall for 12 out of 14 total instances.

  8. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  9. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  10. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  11. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  12. The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.; Freisling, H.; Huybrechts, I.; Ocke, M.C.; Niekerk, E.M.; Rossum, van C.; Bellemans, M.; Maeyer, de M.; Lafay, L.; Krems, C.; Amiano, P.; Trolle, E.; Geelen, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Boer, de E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary monitoring

  13. The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.;

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary monitor...

  14. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  15. Mammographic findings of women recalled for diagnostic work-up in digital versus screen-film mammography in a population-based screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Limited information is available concerning differences in the radiological findings of women recalled for diagnostic work-up in digital mammography (DM) versus screen-film mammography (SFM) screening. Purpose: To compare the radiological findings, their positive predictive values (PPVs) for cancer and other process indicators of DM screening performed by computed radiography (CR) technology and SFM screening in a population-based program. Material and Methods: The material consisted of women, 50-59 years of age, who were invited for screening: 30 153 women with DM in 2007-2008 and 32 939 women with SFM in 1999-2000. The attendance rate was 77.7% (23 440) in the DM arm and 83.8% (27 593) in the SFM arm. In the DM arm, 1.71% of those screened (401) and in the SFM arm 1.59% (438) were recalled for further work-up. The images resulting in the recall were classified as: 1) tumor-like mass, 2) parenchymal distortion/asymmetry, 3) calcifications, and 4) combination of mass and calcifications. The distributions of the various radiological findings and their PPVs for cancer were compared in both study groups. The recall rates, cancer detection rates, test specificities, and PPVs of the DM and SFM groups were also compared. Results: Women were recalled for diagnostic work-up most often due to tumor-like mass. It was more common in SFM (1.08% per woman screened) than in DM (0.93%). The second most common finding was parenchymal distortion and asymmetry, more often in DM (0.58%) than in SFM (0.37%). Calcifications were the third most common finding. DM exposed calcifications more often (0.49%) than SFM (0.26%). The PPVs for cancer of the recalls were higher in DM than in SFM in all subgroups of radiological findings. The test specificities were similar (DM 98.9%, SFM 98.8%). Significantly more cancers were detected by DM (cancer detection rate 0.623% per woman screened, n=146) than by SFM (cancer detection rate 0.406% per woman screened, n=112). The PPVs for

  16. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-05-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval.

  17. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    OpenAIRE

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancesto...

  18. New Ways to Detect Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two together," recalls Arie Kaufman, chairman of the computer science department at New York's Stony Brook University. Dr. ... system for the prostate. Read More "Colorectal Cancer" Articles Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Colorectal Cancer / A Conversation ...

  19. Maternal recall of breastfeeding duration twenty years after delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Natland Siv Tone; Andersen Lene Frost; Nilsen Tom Ivar Lund; Forsmo Siri; Jacobsen Geir W

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on the health benefits from breastfeeding often rely on maternal recall of breastfeeding. Although short-term maternal recall has been found to be quite accurate, less is known about long-term accuracy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of long-term maternal recall of breastfeeding duration. Methods In a prospective study of pregnancy and birth outcome, detailed...

  20. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  1. Consumer confidence in Food Safety and the 2010 egg recall

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Iowa egg producers recalled nearly 500 million eggs in August 2010. The typical effect of a recall is to cause a decline in the demand for the affected product, yielding a decrease in the price. In the case of August 2010 egg recall, the price of eggs increased in the following weeks. This essay investigates the market effects of the egg recall. I estimate a system of simultaneous equations that includes supply and demand equations for the two main segments of the US industry. This essay offe...

  2. Reduction of false-positive recalls using a computerized mammographic image feature analysis scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high false-positive recall rate is one of the major dilemmas that significantly reduce the efficacy of screening mammography, which harms a large fraction of women and increases healthcare cost. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of helping reduce false-positive recalls by developing a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme based on the analysis of global mammographic texture and density features computed from four-view images. Our database includes full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images acquired from 1052 recalled women (669 positive for cancer and 383 benign). Each case has four images: two craniocaudal (CC) and two mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. Our CAD scheme first computed global texture features related to the mammographic density distribution on the segmented breast regions of four images. Second, the computed features were given to two artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers that were separately trained and tested in a ten-fold cross-validation scheme on CC and MLO view images, respectively. Finally, two ANN classification scores were combined using a new adaptive scoring fusion method that automatically determined the optimal weights to assign to both views. CAD performance was tested using the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The AUC = 0.793  ±  0.026 was obtained for this four-view CAD scheme, which was significantly higher at the 5% significance level than the AUCs achieved when using only CC (p = 0.025) or MLO (p = 0.0004) view images, respectively. This study demonstrates that a quantitative assessment of global mammographic image texture and density features could provide useful and/or supplementary information to classify between malignant and benign cases among the recalled cases, which may eventually help reduce the false-positive recall rate in screening mammography. (paper)

  3. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  4. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  5. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage and...... contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  6. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentra...

  7. Beyond Memorability: Visualization Recognition and Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkin, Michelle A; Bylinskii, Zoya; Kim, Nam Wook; Bainbridge, Constance May; Yeh, Chelsea S; Borkin, Daniel; Pfister, Hanspeter; Oliva, Aude

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we move beyond memorability and investigate how visualizations are recognized and recalled. For this study we labeled a dataset of 393 visualizations and analyzed the eye movements of 33 participants as well as thousands of participant-generated text descriptions of the visualizations. This allowed us to determine what components of a visualization attract people's attention, and what information is encoded into memory. Our findings quantitatively support many conventional qualitative design guidelines, including that (1) titles and supporting text should convey the message of a visualization, (2) if used appropriately, pictograms do not interfere with understanding and can improve recognition, and (3) redundancy helps effectively communicate the message. Importantly, we show that visualizations memorable "at-a-glance" are also capable of effectively conveying the message of the visualization. Thus, a memorable visualization is often also an effective one. PMID:26390488

  8. Parapraxes in song recall: a neglected variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Chumaceiro, C L

    1993-09-01

    In addition to expressing themselves with verbal and nonverbal communications, and by the countertransference reactions perceived by analysts, patients also reveal their inner world of images and feelings specifically with music evocations. This paper presents an initial attempt to identify and classify some of the parapraxes produced in the evocation of lyrics and music by polyglot members of treatment dyads in two empirical studies and in private practice. There may be many others, particularly related to the music per se. This paper has focused mainly on the lyrics, the equivalent of the manifest content of dreams, which nonmusician therapists can learn to handle well. Instead, in the case of the musical latent content, some knowledge of music is necessary. Supervisors' songs were considered beyond the scope of this paper and will be addressed separately. Parapraxes in song recall signal unconscious transference-countertransference states in process at the moment of evocation. PMID:8214208

  9. Estimating recreational harvest using interview-based recall survey: Implication of recalling in weight or numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz

    2013-01-01

    For many overfished marine stocks, recreational fishing continues even though recovery plans are implemented and commercial landings regulated. In such cases, unbiased and precise estimates of recreational harvest are important for successful management. Harvest estimation often relies on intervi...... result in a substantial bias through the conversion from numbers to weight. Based upon these results it is recommended that recreational harvest should be requested in numbers and not weight...... on interviewed-based surveys where fishers are asked to recall harvest within a given timeframe. However, the importance of whether fishers are requested to provide figures in weight or number is unresolved. Therefore, a recall survey aiming at estimating recreational harvest was designed, such that respondents...... could report harvest using either weight or numbers. It was found that: (1) a preference for reporting in numbers dominated; (2) reported mean individual weight of fish caught, differed between units preferences; and (3) when an estimate of total harvest in weight are calculated, these difference could...

  10. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  11. Food Recalls and Food Safety Perceptions: The September 2006 Spinach Recall Case

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Benjamin M.; Miljkovic, Dragan; Hallman, William K.; Nganje, William E.; Condry, Sarah C.; Cuite, Cara L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines public perceptions on food safety particularly relating to spinach, which was subject of countrywide recall in 2006. Results indicate that food safety perceptions may be driven by public trust/confidence in institutions whose activities may be directly or indirectly related to food safety. The results further suggest that food safety perceptions may also be related to the type of the product; for example, the public perceives frozen spinach differently from bagged fresh sp...

  12. On the origin of intermediate effects in clinical case recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Schmidt (Henk); H.P.A. Boshuizen (Henny)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn two experiments, the effects of level of medical expertise and study time on free recall of a clinical case were assessed. In Experiment 1, a nonmonotonic relationship between level of expertise and recall was found: Subjects of intermediate levels of expertise remembered more informa

  13. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... of noncomplying vehicles. (a) Pursuant to section 11(d)(1) of the Act, the Administrator may issue an order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  14. Bender Gestalt Recall: Memory Measure or Intelligence Estimate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentrout, James A.

    1976-01-01

    WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…

  15. Self-Generated Questions and Reading Recall: Does Training Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Trained junior high school students were compared with untrained students on comprehension and recall after both were told to construct questions while reading text passages. Results indicate that training improved the question quality only for those students who had above average pretest free recall scores. (Author/LMO)

  16. Recall Oriented Search on the Web using Semantic Annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, A.M.; Broek, E.L. van den; Koot, G.; Huis in't Veld, M.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Web search engines are optimized for early precision, which makes it difficult to perform recall oriented tasks with them. In this article, we propose several ways to leverage semantic annotations and, thereby, increase the efficiency of recall oriented search tasks, with a focus on forensic investi

  17. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  18. The Interaction of Color Realism and Pictorial Recall Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Louis H.

    This study investigated the interaction of variations in color realism on pictorial recall memory in order to better understand the effects of variations in color realism, and to draw comparisons between visual recall memory and visual recognition memory in terms of color information processing. Stimulus materials used were three sets of slides,…

  19. Price Recall, Bertrand Paradox and Price Dispersion With Elastic Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the consequence of an imprecise recall of the price by the consumers in the Bertrand price competition model for a homogeneous good. It is shown that firms can exploit this weakness and charge prices above the competitive price. This markup increases for rougher recall of the pric

  20. Nationwide Fluoroscopic Screening of Recalled Riata Defibrillator Leads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Mosgaard; Riahi, Sam; Nielsen, Jens C.;

    2013-01-01

    The natural history of insulation defects with inside-out conductor externalization in recalled St Jude Medical Riata defibrillator leads is not well understood.......The natural history of insulation defects with inside-out conductor externalization in recalled St Jude Medical Riata defibrillator leads is not well understood....

  1. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  2. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 85.1902(d), or in a remedial plan determination made pursuant to section 207(c) of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with recall notices. 51.370... Requirements § 51.370 Compliance with recall notices. States shall establish methods to ensure that...

  3. Parent Implementation of RECALL: A Systematic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalon, Kelly; Hanline, Mary Frances; Davis, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    This systematic case study utilized a repeated acquisition design to investigate the impact of a caregiver-implemented RECALL (Reading to Engage Children with Autism in Language and Learning) on the correct, unprompted responses of a young child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). RECALL is an adapted shared reading intervention that includes a…

  4. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  5. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...

  6. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: the differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Anthony J; Cleary, Anne M; Seger, Carol A

    2013-01-25

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed.

  7. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  8. Ancient DNA in Greece. Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise associated with early 'ancient DNA' results has not been translated into routine techniques of value to archaeologists. The reasons for this are partly technical - ancient DNA analysis is an extremely difficult technique - and partly practical - ancient DNA analysis is often an 'after thought' to an archaeological project. In this paper ancient human DNA analysis is briefly reviewed paying particular attention to specimens originating from Greek archaeological contexts. Problems commonly encountered during ancient DNA research are summarised and recommendations for future strategies in the application of ancient DNA in archaeology are proposed. (author)

  9. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  10. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  11. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  12. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and fourth groups consisted of 27 undergraduates where each group was trained only to perform one recall type: free recall, cued recall and serial recall respectively. Interference (short-term memory interruption was the independent variable and a number of recalled abstract and concrete words was the dependent variable. The used materials in this study were: abstract and concrete words classification form based on four factors was distributed to the participants (concreteness, imageability, meaningfulness, and age of acquisition, three oral recall forms, three written recall forms, and observation sheets for each type of recall. Also, three methods were used: auditory, visual, and written methods. Results: Findings indicated that interference effect on short-term memory recall of Arabic abstract and concrete words was not significant especially in the case of free and serial recall paradigms. The difference between the total number of recalled Arabic abstract and concrete words was also very slight. One other the hand, we came to the conclusion that Pearson’s correlation between interference at these memory recall paradigms (M: 1.66, SD= .47 and the short-term memory recall (M: 1.75, SD= .43 supported the research hypothesis that those participants with oral interruptions tended to recall slightly less Arabic abstract and concrete words, whereas those participants with no oral interruptions would tend to recall slightly more Arabic abstract and concrete

  13. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  14. Subjective organisation in the free recall learning of adults with Asperger's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bowler, D.M.; Gaigg, S. B.; Gardiner, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Single trial methods reveal unimpaired free recall of unrelated words in Asperger’s syndrome (AS). When repeated trials are used (free recall learning), typical individuals show improved recall over trials, subjective organisation of material (SO) and a correlation between free recall and SO. We tested oral (Experiment 1) and written (Experiment 2) free recall over 16 trials in adults with AS and typical individuals. Across both experiments AS participants showed marginally diminished recall....

  15. Conscious recall of different aspects of skill memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunbin eSong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms are involved in the formation of memories necessary for daily living. For example, different memory representations are formed for the practiced transitions between key-presses (i.e. pressing key 2 after 3 in 4-3-2-1 and for the ordinal position of each key-press (i.e. pressing key 2 in the third ordinal position in 4-3-2-1 in a motor sequence. Whether the resulting transition-based and ordinal-based memories (Song & Cohen, in press can be consciously recalled is unknown. Here, we studied subjects who over a week of training and testing formed transition and ordinal-based memory representations of skill for a 12-item sequence of key-presses. Afterwards, subjects were first asked to recall and type the trained sequence and then to perform random key-presses avoiding the trained sequence. The difference in the ability to purposefully recall and avoid a trained sequence represents conscious recall (Destrebecqz & Cleeremans, 2001. We report that (a the difference in the ability to purposefully recall and to avoid the trained sequence correlated with ordinal-based but not with transition-based memory, (b subjects with no ability to recall or avoid the trained sequence formed transition-based but not ordinal-based memories, and (c subjects with full ability to recall and avoid the trained sequence formed both transition-based and ordinal-based memories. We conclude that ordinal-based memory can be voluntarily recalled when transition-based memory cannot, documenting a differential capacity to recall memories forming a motor skill. Understanding that different memories form a motor skill, with different neural substrates (Cohen & Squire, 1980, may help develop novel training strategies in neurorehabilitation of patients with brain lesions.

  16. Exacerbation of radiation fibrosis with erlotinib. Another pattern of radiation recall phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 79-year-old woman with advanced lung cancer presented with worsened radiation fibrosis after administration of erlotinib. After radiation therapy 7 months previously, she had radiation fibrosis that had been stable for months. On the 19th day after administration of erlotinib, low-grade fever and mild dyspnea developed accompanied by new pulmonary opacity in the area of the radiation fibrosis, which improved without therapy. We surmise that this is a manifestation of the radiation recall phenomenon, and discontinuation of the drug should be considered with discretion. (author)

  17. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.;

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval......, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD...

  18. Understanding Malaria: Fighting an Ancient Scourge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  19. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth;

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...

  20. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  1. Murdock free recall data: The initial recall search identifies the context by the location of the least remembered item and produces only better remembered items in proportion to the total recall difference.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr. Eugen

    2009-01-01

    The curious free recall data of Murdock (1962) shows an additional surprise that seems to have gone undetected until now: the probability of guessing an item in the initial recall is not identical to the overall free recall curve. Initial recall of an item is well correlated with the total recall of that item using a straight line but with an unexpected offset. The offset varies with the presentation rate and the total number of list items but in each case it is the same as the total recall ...

  2. Wisdom of an Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE JIANXIONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The famous painting,Along the River During Qingming Festival,impresses visitors at the China Pavilion not iust because of the animated figures in the electronic version of the painting but because it shows a prosperous view of Kaifeng,capital of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127).It also showcases the wisdom of city planning in ancient China.

  3. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable? PMID:24304762

  4. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  5. The Echoes of Ancient Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzman, Haim

    2006-01-01

    Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

  6. Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casler, Frederick H.

    Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

  7. Radiation recall dermatitis after Docetaxel administration and external beam radiotherapy. Report of two cases and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation recall refers to a tissue reaction produced by a chemotherapeutic agent in a previously irradiated field that would not occur in a nonirradiated field. Docetaxel is a member of the taxane group of antineoplastic agents that cause disruption of cell division by enhancing microtubule assembly and inhibiting tubulin depolymerization. As well as in breast cancer and lung cancer treatment, its association in a chemo-radiation planned treatment becomes frequent and effective. Most of radiation recall dermatitis (RDD) reported in literature concerned Paclitaxel or other drugs. We report two particularly striking cases of RDD with Docetaxel and radiotherapy. Even if etiology remains undetermined, a number of hypotheses can be formulated. Familiarity with this phenomenon and potential complications of chemotherapy following tumor irradiation may expedite early diagnosis and appropriate life saving treatment. (authors)

  8. Patterns of hemispheric lateralization in dream recallers and non-dream recallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doricchi, F; Milana, I; Violani, C

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen right handed females reporting 6 or more dreams per week on a home dream and sleep diary (Dream Recallers: DR), and 11 reporting 1 or 0 dreams per week (Non Dream Recallers: NDR) drawn from a sample of 233 college students, were individually tested on two tasks assessing the hemispheric lateralization of visuo-constructive and verbal-semantic functions. NDR showed a significant degree of hemispheric asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right asymmetry of both visuo-constructive (right hemisphere advantage) and semantic (left hemisphere advantage) functions. DR showed no hemispheric advantage on both tasks. The two groups of subjects did not differ in mean daily amount of sleep time. In keeping with previous studies showing that NDR have an imbalance of interhemispheric activation upon REM awakenings, results from the present research suggest that DR and NDR can be characterized by a different pattern of hemispheric lateralization of cognitive skills. This finding may stimulate further research aimed at evaluating both the possible existence of differences in the lateralization of functions not considered in this study and the concomitance of REM sleep dependent differences in balance of hemispheric functioning. PMID:8082996

  9. Management of the Recall of Defective Motor Vehicles in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Administrative Regulation on the Recall of Defective Motor Vehicles has officially entered into force on October 1st, 2004, which means the management on defective products has made a substantive progress.

  10. Music-dependent memory in immediate and delayed word recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W R; Bowman, K; Mohler, L

    1992-01-01

    Undergraduate volunteers rated a series of words for pleasantness while hearing a particular background music. The subjects in Experiment 1 received, immediately or after a 48-h delay, an unexpected word-recall test in one of the following musical cue contexts: same cue (S), different cue (D), or no cue (N). For immediate recall, context dependency (S-D) was significant but same-cue facilitation (S-N) was not. No cue effects at all were found for delayed recall, and there was a significant interaction between cue and retention interval. A similar interaction was also found in Experiment 3, which was designed to rule out an alternative explanation with respect to distraction. When the different musical selection was changed specifically in either tempo or form (genre), only pieces having an altered tempo produced significantly lower immediate recall compared with the same pieces (Experiment 2). The results support a stimulus generalization view of music-dependent memory.

  11. #DDOD Use Case: Consolidated reporting of medical device recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case request for consolidated, consistent reporting of medical device recalls. WHAT IS A USE CASE? A “Use Case” is a request that was made by the...

  12. Recalling of Images using Hopfield Neural Network Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ramya, C; Shreedhara, Dr K S

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, an effort has been made for storing and recalling images with Hopfield Neural Network Model of auto-associative memory. Images are stored by calculating a corresponding weight matrix. Thereafter, starting from an arbitrary configuration, the memory will settle on exactly that stored image, which is nearest to the starting configuration in terms of Hamming distance. Thus given an incomplete or corrupted version of a stored image, the network is able to recall the corresponding original image. The storing of the objects has been performed according to the Hopfield algorithm explained below. Once the net has completely learnt this set of input patterns, a set of testing patterns containing degraded images will be given to the net. Then the Hopfield net will tend to recall the closest matching pattern for the given degraded image. The simulated results show that Hopfield model is the best for storing and recalling images.

  13. On the origin of intermediate effects in clinical case recall

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Henk; Boshuizen, Henny

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn two experiments, the effects of level of medical expertise and study time on free recall of a clinical case were assessed. In Experiment 1, a nonmonotonic relationship between level of expertise and recall was found: Subjects of intermediate levels of expertise remembered more information from the case than both experts and novices. This "intermediate effect" disappeared, however, when study time was restricted. Analysis of post hoc acquired protocols of pathophysiological know...

  14. REcall Venice - Exploring disciplines of visual literacy through difficult heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Møller, Hans Ramsgaard

    2015-01-01

    According to James Elkin visual literacy is interpreted as material representations,which communicate knowledge and create insight through their visual appearance. Based on the EU Cultural Heritage project REcall, we argue that visual literacy can also relate to interdisciplinary knowledge rooted in architectural environments. The project REcall seeks to formulate a new role of the architectural environment based on invigorated research on the cultural landscapes of WWI and WWII. Based on int...

  15. Content-Specificity in Verbal Recall: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Zirk-Sadowski; Denes Szucs; Joni Holmes

    2013-01-01

    In this controlled experiment we examined whether there are content effects in verbal short-term memory and working memory for verbal stimuli. Thirty-seven participants completed forward and backward digit and letter recall tasks, which were constructed to control for distance effects between stimuli. A maximum-likelihood mixed-effects logistic regression revealed main effects of direction of recall (forward vs backward) and content (digits vs letters). There was an interaction between type o...

  16. Maternal recall of breastfeeding duration twenty years after delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natland Siv Tone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the health benefits from breastfeeding often rely on maternal recall of breastfeeding. Although short-term maternal recall has been found to be quite accurate, less is known about long-term accuracy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of long-term maternal recall of breastfeeding duration. Methods In a prospective study of pregnancy and birth outcome, detailed information on breastfeeding during the child’s first year of life was collected from a cohort of Norwegian women who gave birth in 1986–88. Among 374 of the participants, data on breastfeeding initiation and duration were compared to recalled data obtained from mailed questionnaires some 20 years later. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland-Altman plot, and Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between the two sources of data. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of misreporting breastfeeding duration by more than one month. Results Recorded and recalled breastfeeding duration were strongly correlated (ICC=0.82, p Conclusion Breastfeeding duration was recalled quite accurately 20 years after mothers gave birth in a population where breastfeeding is common and its duration long.

  17. Intrusions in story recall: when over-learned information interferes with episodic memory recall. Evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Anna, Francesca; Attali, Eve; Freynet, Laurence; Foubert, Lucie; Laurent, Aurore; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from distortions of memory. Among such distortions, intrusions in memory tests are frequently observed. In this study we describe the performance of a group of mild AD patients and a group of normal controls on the recall of three different types of stories: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy-tale (Cinderella), and a modified well-known fairy-tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in patients who tend to produce intrusions, over-learned information interferes with episodic recall, i.e., the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. AD patients produced significantly more intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale compared to the recall of the two other stories. Intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale always consisted of elements of the original version of the story. We suggest that in AD patients intrusions may be traced back to the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.

  18. Recall initiation strategies must be controlled in training studies that use immediate free recall tasks to measure the components of working memory capacity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Robison, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    There has been great interest in using working memory (WM) training regimens as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but it has recently been concluded that existing training regimens may not be optimally designed because they target the primary memory component but not the secondary component of WM capacity. This conclusion requires the ability to accurately measure changes in primary and secondary memory abilities over time. The immediate free recall task has been used in previous studies to measure these changes; however, one concern with these tasks is that the recall order required on training exercises may influence the recall strategy used during free recall, which may in turn influence the relative number of items recalled from primary and secondary memory. To address this issue, previous training studies have explicitly controlled recall strategy before and after training. However, the necessity of controlling for recall strategies has not been explicitly tested. The present study investigated the effects of forward-serial-order training on free recall performance under conditions in which recall strategy was not controlled using a sample of adolescents with ADHD. Unlike when recall order was controlled, the main findings showed selective improvement of the secondary memory component (as opposed to the primary memory component) when recall order was uncontrolled. This finding advances our understanding of WM training by highlighting the importance of controlling for recall strategies when free recall tasks are used to measure changes in the primary and secondary components of WM across time.

  19. Serial Recall, Word Frequency, and Mixed Lists: The Influence of Item Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…

  20. 77 FR 45636 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...'s failure to comply with a recall order. Types of activities could include conducting recall audit... Reinspection, Recall, and Importer Reinspection Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Food and Drug... with a recall order, and importer reinspections that are authorized by the Federal Food, Drug,...

  1. The Role of Covert Retrieval in Working Memory Span Tasks: Evidence from Delayed Recall Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined delayed recall of items that had been processed during simple and complex span tasks. Three experiments were reported showing that despite more items being recalled initially from a simple span task (i.e., word span) than a complex span task (i.e., operation span), on a delayed recall test more items were recalled that…

  2. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  3. Models of ancient sound vases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruel, Per V.

    2002-11-01

    Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters cannot be ascribed to the vases placed under their seats. This study also found that sound vases placed in Nordic churches could not have shortened the reverberation time because there are far too few of them. Moreover, they could not have covered a broad frequency range. It remains a mystery why vases were installed under the seats of ancient Greek theaters and why, 1000 years later, Danes placed vases in their churches.

  4. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L.A.; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well....... To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has...

  5. Molecular analysis of ancient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains.

  6. Radiation recall secondary to adjuvant docetaxel after balloon-catheter based accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Nathan W. [Summer Intern, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Wong, William W., E-mail: wong.william@mayo.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States); Karlin, Nina J. [Division of Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gray, Richard J. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2010-08-15

    For early stage breast cancer, wide local excision and post-operative whole breast irradiation is a standard treatment. If adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended, radiation is usually given after completion of chemotherapy. In recent years, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon-cathetered based brachytherapy has become an option for selected patients. For these patients, adjuvant chemotherapy would have to be administered after radiation. The sequence of treatment with radiation followed by chemotherapy results in increased risk of radiation recall reaction (RRD) in these patients. Docetaxel is becoming a more commonly used drug as adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Here we report a case of docetaxel induced RRD after APBI with balloon-cathetered based brachytherapy. Such reaction would have an adverse impact on the cosmetic outcome and quality of life of the patient. For patients who develop an intense skin reaction after the administration of docetaxel following APBI, RRD should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  7. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  8. Ancient Technology in Contemporary Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Bruce A.

    1982-01-01

    Archaeologists have shown that ancient man developed the ability to produce cutting blades of an extreme degree of sharpness from volcanic glass. The finest of these prismatic blades were produced in Mesoamerica about 2,500 years ago. The technique of production of these blades was rediscovered 12 years ago by Dr. Don Crabtree, who suggested possible uses for the blades in modern surgery. Blades produced by Dr. Crabtree have been used in experimental microsurgery with excellent results. Anima...

  9. Splendid Arts Fram Ancient Capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IT was in the golden autumn in Beijing, when the sky was high and the air clear, that I hurried to Zhongshan Park to witness the display of the songs and dances of the seven Chinese ancient capitals. The flower beds arranged for the celebration of National Day were still there and the colorful blooms looked especially bright in the sunshine. The seven cities which have served as capitals in Chinese history are Beijing,

  10. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  11. Analysis of Ancient DNA in Microbial Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgé, Olivier; Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Daligault, Julien; Pruvost, Melanie; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing has led to a breakthrough in the analysis of ancient genomes, and the subsequent genomic analyses of the skeletal remains of ancient humans have revolutionized the knowledge of the evolution of our species, including the discovery of a new hominin, and demonstrated admixtures with more distantly related archaic populations such as Neandertals and Denisovans. Moreover, it has also yielded novel insights into the evolution of ancient pathogens. The analysis of ancient microbial genomes allows the study of their recent evolution, presently over the last several millennia. These spectacular results have been attained despite the degradation of DNA after the death of the host, which results in very short DNA molecules that become increasingly damaged, only low quantities of which remain. The low quantity of ancient DNA molecules renders their analysis difficult and prone to contamination with modern DNA molecules, in particular via contamination from the reagents used in DNA purification and downstream analysis steps. Finally, the rare ancient molecules are diluted in environmental DNA originating from the soil microorganisms that colonize bones and teeth. Thus, ancient skeletal remains can share DNA profiles with environmental samples and identifying ancient microbial genomes among the more recent, presently poorly characterized, environmental microbiome is particularly challenging. Here, we describe the methods developed and/or in use in our laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible paleogenomic results from ancient skeletal remains that can be used to identify the presence of ancient microbiota. PMID:26791510

  12. The Role of Covert Retrieval in Working Memory Span Tasks: Evidence from Delayed Recall Tests

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, David P.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined delayed recall of items that had been processed during simple and complex span tasks. Three experiments were reported showing that despite more items being recalled initially from a simple span task (i.e., word span) than a complex span task (i.e., operation span), on a delayed recall test more items were recalled that had initially been processed during the complex span task. This delayed recall advantage for items processed during complex span tasks persisted when...

  13. Initial Free Recall Data Characterized and Explained By Activation Theory of Short Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr. Eugen

    2011-01-01

    The initial recall distribution in a free recall experiment is shown to be predictably different from the overall free recall distribution including an offset which can cause the least remembered items to be almost completely absent from the first recall. Using the overall free recall distribution as input and a single parameter describing the probability of simultaneous reactivated items per number of items in the presented list, activation theory not only qualitatively but quantitatively d...

  14. Optimizing Design Efficiency of Free Recall Events for fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Öztekin, Ilke; Long, Nicole M.; Badre, David

    2010-01-01

    Free recall is a fundamental paradigm for studying memory retrieval in the context of minimal cue support. Accordingly, free recall has been extensively studied using behavioral methods. However, the neural mechanisms that support free recall have not been fully investigated due to technical challenges associated with probing individual recall events with neuroimaging methods. Of particular concern is the extent to which the uncontrolled latencies associated with recall events can confer suff...

  15. Effects of adult aging on utilization of temporal and semantic associations during free and serial recall

    OpenAIRE

    Golomb, Julie D.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Addis, Kelly M.; Kahana, Michael J.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    Older adults show poorer performance than young adults at word list recall, especially for order information. In contrast with this temporal association deficit, older adults are generally adept at using preexisting semantic associations, when present, to aid recall. We compared the use of temporal and semantic associations in young and older adults’ word list recall following both free recall and serial recall instructions. Decomposition of serial position curves confirmed that older adults ...

  16. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it. PMID:24304111

  17. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais; Yasir Saad Almukhaizeem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and...

  18. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  19. Goal-seeking neural net for recall and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Omid M.

    1990-07-01

    Neural networks have been used to mimic cognitive processes which take place in animal brains. The learning capability inherent in neural networks makes them suitable candidates for adaptive tasks such as recall and recognition. The synaptic reinforcements create a proper condition for adaptation, which results in memorization, formation of perception, and higher order information processing activities. In this research a model of a goal seeking neural network is studied and the operation of the network with regard to recall and recognition is analyzed. In these analyses recall is defined as retrieval of stored information where little or no matching is involved. On the other hand recognition is recall with matching; therefore it involves memorizing a piece of information with complete presentation. This research takes the generalized view of reinforcement in which all the signals are potential reinforcers. The neuronal response is considered to be the source of the reinforcement. This local approach to adaptation leads to the goal seeking nature of the neurons as network components. In the proposed model all the synaptic strengths are reinforced in parallel while the reinforcement among the layers is done in a distributed fashion and pipeline mode from the last layer inward. A model of complex neuron with varying threshold is developed to account for inhibitory and excitatory behavior of real neuron. A goal seeking model of a neural network is presented. This network is utilized to perform recall and recognition tasks. The performance of the model with regard to the assigned tasks is presented.

  20. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition. PMID:26417089

  1. Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2009-09-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain. PMID:19524088

  2. Content and Epistemic Relations: A Developmental Study of Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Verbrugge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the types of coherence relations adults and children can recall after having read a text. We discerned content and epistemic relations (Dancygier, 1998; Sweetser, 1990. Content relations express relations between events in reality. Epistemic relations typically express relations between states of thinking (premise-conclusion relations. The relations between the two parts of a content or epistemic relation is often made explicit by means of connectives. The differences between these types of sentences have been shown in different areas (e.g., reasoning, clause integration, acquisition. However, no clear results could be reached as for recall of these relations and the interaction with connectives. We aim to clarify this debate by means of an experiment involving 539 participants. The experiment revealed that the difficulty associated with epistemic relations decreases as participants get older. Interestingly, connectives play a larger role in participants' ability to recall epistemic compared to content relations.

  3. Cognitive interviewing procedures and suggestibility in children's recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, B K; Delamothe, K

    1997-08-01

    In this study the authors examine the effects of procedures adapted from the cognitive interview of R. E. Geiselman, R.P. Fisher, D.P. MacKinnon, and H.L. Holland (1985) on children's recall following exposure to misleading suggestions. Children aged 5-7 years and 9-11 years saw a videotaped story and were presented with misleading or neutral information concerning story details. All were later given free- and cued-recall tests preceded by standard interview instructions or instructions that reinstated the encoding context and encouraged exhaustive reporting. Increased recall accuracy was found following cognitive interview instructions. Both age groups were susceptible to misleading suggestions, but susceptibility was unaffected by interview type. The authors discuss the implications for interviewing child witnesses. PMID:9378684

  4. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  5. Blending technology and teamwork for successful management of product recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frush, Karen; Pleasants, Jane; Shulby, Gail; Hendrix, Barbara; Berson, Brooke; Gordon, Cynthia; Cuffe, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Patient safety programs have been developed in many hospitals to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Proactive, real-time, and retrospective risk-reduction strategies should be implemented in hospitals, but patient safety leaders should also be cognizant of the risks associated with thousands of products that enter the hospital through the supply chain. A growing number of recalls and alerts related to these products are received by health care facilities each year, through a recall process that is fraught with challenges. Despite the best efforts of health care providers, weaknesses and gaps in the process lead to delays, fragmentation, and disruptions, thus extending the number of days patients may be at risk from potentially faulty or misused products. To address these concerns, Duke Medicine, which comprises an academic medical center, two community hospitals, outlying clinics, physicians' offices, and home health and hospice, implemented a Web-based recall management system. Within three months, the time required to receive, deliver, and close alerts decreased from 43 days to 2.74 days. To maximize the effectiveness of the recall management process, a team of senior Duke Medicine leaders was established to evaluate the impact of product recalls and alerts on patient safety, to evaluate response action plans, and to provide oversight of patient and provider communication strategies. Alerts are now communicated more effectively and responded to in a more consistent and global manner. This comprehensive approach to product recalls is a critical component of a broader Duke Medicine strategy to improve patient safety. PMID:19940578

  6. Using pictographs to enhance recall of spoken medical instructions II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, P S; Witmer, J T; Egeth, H E; Loscalzo, M J; Zabora, J R

    2001-06-01

    The first study in this series [Houts PS, Bachrach R, Witmer JT, Tringali CA, Bucher JA, Localio RA. Patient Educ. Couns. 1998;35:83-8] found that recall of spoken medical instructions averaged 14% but that, when pictographs (drawings representing the instructions) accompanied the spoken instructions and were present during recall, 85% of medical instructions were remembered correctly. Those findings suggested that spoken instructions plus pictographs may be a way to give people with low literacy skills access to medical information that is normally available only in written form. However, there were three important limitations to that study: (1) the subjects were literate and perhaps literate people remember pictograph meanings better than people with low literacy skills; (2) only short term recall was tested and, for medical information to be useful clinically, it must be remembered for significant periods of time and (3) a maximum of 50 instructions were shown in pictographs, whereas managing complex illnesses may require remembering several hundred instructions. This study addresses those limitations by investigating 4-week recall of 236 medical instructions accompanied by pictographs by people with low literacy skills. Subjects were 21 adult clients of an inner city job training program who had less than fifth grade reading skills. Results showed 85% mean correct recall of pictograph meanings immediately after training (range from 63 to 99%) and 71% after 4 weeks (range from 33 to 94%). These results indicate that people with low literacy skills can, with the help of pictographs, recall large amounts of medical information for significant periods of time. The impact of pictographs on symptom management and patient quality of life remains to be studied.

  7. Validity of recall absent schoolchildren to free eye health projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Noma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the results of recall absent schoolchildren to eye health projects. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Visual screening was performed in schoolchildren attending 1st to 4th grades at public schools, from 7 to 10 years-old, to select and forward to complete ophthalmic evaluation. The projects were performed during weekends, at a public school, in the same municipality. Free transportation, food and eyeglasses were offered. A second opportunity of examination was offered to the students who were absent from the first call, with the same facilities. RESULTS: 51,509 schoolchildren had their vision tested, 14,651 (28.4% were referred for ophthalmic examination. Of these, 8,683 (59.3% attended the first call, 2,228 (37.3% attended the recall and 25.5% of parents did not take their children to ophthalmic examination. The need for eyeglasses for children who attended the examination was 23.8% and 32.0% in the first opportunity and recall, respectively. The recall increased the coverage in 15.2% (59.3% to 74.5%. CONCLUSION: An expressive number of parents (25.5% did not bring their children to be examined, even at a second opportunity of exam. The facilities offered: access, free examination, transportation and glasses. Children who were absent in the first opportunity and appeared at recall had a greater need for eyeglasses. Recall increased the coverage in 15.2% (59.3% to 74.5% and it is not recommended when financial resources are limited.

  8. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  9. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  10. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  11. From Here I Walked into Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2011-01-01

    @@ When I was a little girl, I had heard about the eighth world wonder - terra cotta warriors in Qin Emperor Mausoleum.I have been wishing to visit there to see those magnificent scene which were created thousands of years ago.While with my age added, I gradually learned the terra cotta warriors were lust only one of many ancient marks of Xi'an, which once was capital of 13 dynasties in ancient China.Xi'an actually is a carrier of ancient China culture, where I walked from the modern world to the ancient China.

  12. Re-inventing ancient human DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Michael; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Hofreiter, M.

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, the analysis of ancient human DNA represented one of the most controversial disciplines in an already controversial field of research. Scepticism in this field was only matched by the long-lasting controversy over the authenticity of ancient pathogen DNA. This ambiguous view on ancient human DNA had a dichotomous root. On the one hand, the interest in ancient human DNA is great because such studies touch on the history and evolution of our own species. On the other hand, beca...

  13. Drivers Recall and Attitudes Towards Road Safety Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Fonseca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse Portuguese drivers recall and attitudes towards road safety advertising campaigns. Through a quantitative method the authors used a sample of Portuguese drivers. More than a half of the subjects didn’t recall any road safety advertising campaign. The appeals that most influenced driving behaviour were moderate speed and use of seatbelt. The dramatic approach was the one that had most impact, and the death of familiars of the driver the consequence that most influenced drivers. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v9i2.2112

  14. Simulated recalls of fish products in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Storøy, J.; Lievonen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Simulated recalls of fish products sampled in retailer shops were conducted in five Nordic countries to indicate the effectiveness and accuracy of chain traceability systems. The results suggested poor traceability practices at the vessels/auctions and revealed that batch sizes at the last...... traceable step of the raw material vary considerably. However, the existing traceable information seemed to be easily accessible. Altogether, the fish industry in the Nordic countries seems not to be fully prepared for a recall.. Improved traceability awareness and practices in the whole chain can limit...

  15. Ancient Ethics and Contemporary Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gómez Lobo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine a few doctrines in the history of ancient ethics which can still be considered valuable and even perhaps valid today. Moral motivation for the Stoics and for Socratesis based on self-interest with the further assumption that the moral virtues are the true goods. But the Stoic and Socratic justification strategies are different. Attention is then called to the Protagorean brand ofrelativism underlying contemporary libertarian claims. The paper end swith the suggestion that only a theory of objective human goods can resolve the problem of moral motivation and of the indeterminacy of the harm principie in modern liberalism.

  16. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  17. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  18. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM. PMID:24199660

  19. Pathfinders in oncology from ancient times to the end of the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Steven I

    2016-06-01

    This commentary highlights the onset and progression of the diagnosis and treatment of cancer from ancient times to the 15th century. During the preparation of this synoptic review of the lives and contributions to oncology of 7 ancient physicians, it became clear that despite separation by centuries, ethnicity, and religion, they had many things in common. For example, with the exception of Chauliac, all were born into wealthy families, had an excellent education in the liberal arts and sciences, and were mentored by outstanding teachers. After they became physicians, they traveled extensively, were polyglots, were sponsored by influential individuals, had inquisitive minds, searched for the true nature of diseases, and were proud to share the results of their observations with others. Except for Galen, all of them were kind and well-mannered individuals. They cared with sincere dedication for the poor and those who had untreatable disease, including cancer. Although their understanding of cancer was limited, they were deeply concerned about the neglect and hopelessness of cancer patients. They were aware of their shortcomings in offering effective treatment beyond the surgical excision of early cancers. For advanced cancers, they had nothing to give beyond palliative care with herbals and minerals. All physicians who care for cancer patients owe these pioneer physicians, whatever their shortcomings, an inexpressible debt for their attempts to cure cancer. Cancer 2016;122:1638-46. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26970504

  20. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  1. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

  2. Musculoskeletal allograft risks and recalls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Thomas E; Joyce, Michael J; Steinmetz, Michael P; Lieberman, Isador H; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2008-10-01

    There have been several improvements to the US tissue banking industry over the past decade. Tissue banks had limited active government regulation until 1993, at which time the US Food and Drug Administration began regulatory oversight because of reports of disease transmission from allograft tissues. Reports in recent years of disease transmission associated with the use of allografts have further raised concerns about the safety of such implants. A retrospective review of allograft recall data was performed to analyze allograft recall by tissue type, reason, and year during the period from January 1994 to June 30, 2007. During the study period, more than 96.5% of all allograft tissues recalled were musculoskeletal. The reasons underlying recent musculoskeletal tissue recalls include insufficient or improper donor evaluation, contamination, recipient infection, and positive serologic tests. Infectious disease transmission following allograft implantation may occur if potential donors are not adequately evaluated or screened serologically during the prerecovery phase and if the implant is not sterilized before implantation. PMID:18832599

  3. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hengeveld, Hester M. E.; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from

  4. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  5. Induced Recall of Jane Austen's Novels: Films, Television, Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)

  6. Training the Mind's Eye: "Brain Movies" Support Comprehension and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Explicit instruction on the skill of creating mental imagery from text supports reading comprehension and recall. This article shares a strategy for teaching students how to process what they read by comparing mental imagery to "brain movies." It emphasizes choosing appropriate fiction and nonfiction texts to encourage readers to build the skill…

  7. Age differences in recall and liking of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, M.J. van der; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Kleemans, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether there are differences between older and younger adults in recall and liking of arousing television commercials. As hypothesized, the experiment demonstrated that older adults remembered brands and products in calm commercials better than in arousing commercials, and the

  8. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Goot; E. van Reijmersdal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the effect

  9. Disrupting frontal eye-field activity impairs memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Cazzoli, Dario; Kalla, Roger; Müri, René; Mast, Fred W

    2016-04-13

    A large body of research demonstrated that participants preferably look back to the encoding location when retrieving visual information from memory. However, the role of this 'looking back to nothing' is still debated. The goal of the present study was to extend this line of research by examining whether an important area in the cortical representation of the oculomotor system, the frontal eye field (FEF), is involved in memory retrieval. To interfere with the activity of the FEF, we used inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). Before stimulation was applied, participants encoded a complex scene and performed a short-term (immediately after encoding) or long-term (after 24 h) recall task, just after cTBS over the right FEF or sham stimulation. cTBS did not affect overall performance, but stimulation and statement type (object vs. location) interacted. cTBS over the right FEF tended to impair object recall sensitivity, whereas there was no effect on location recall sensitivity. These findings suggest that the FEF is involved in retrieving object information from scene memory, supporting the hypothesis that the oculomotor system contributes to memory recall. PMID:26901058

  10. Dyslexia: The Effects of Visual Memory and Serial Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Thomas C.

    Research on the role of visual memory and serial recall in dyslexia is reviewed. Findings touch on feature theory, which proposes that information is held in the form of "features," and that students for example learn to discriminate letters by marking certain identifiable aspects. Other studies are described which focus on speed of processing…

  11. A comparative analysis of national food recall systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food recall and withdrawal is a fundamental tool for risk management and different countries stated the mandatory application of a system for food; the present work is an analysis of different systems applied in different countries. The main objective of analysed systems is the consumer’s health protection through an audit system and the application of system to rapidly recall/withdraw food on the part of producers. The comparative analysis of different national systems [i.e. European Union (EU, Australia, Canada, US and China] shows differences both of the terminological and legal aspects; the words recall and withdrawal have different meaning in EU legislation than in other counties’ legislations; from a legal point of view, two main recall/withdrawal systems could be identified: a mandatory one (EU and China and a voluntary one (USA, Canada and Australia; all the investigated systems have a co-operative approach between authority and food business operator, but different functions on their respective roles could be identified.

  12. The Impact of Interactive Storybook on Elementary School Students' Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyit, Ertem Ihsan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of animated interactive storybook on elementary school students' recall. This experiment utilized 77 fourth grade students in three groups. Each student was randomly assigned with one of the three conditions: (1) computer presentation of interactive storybooks with animation; (2) computer presentation of…

  13. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke's (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected 1 or both of these 2 processes. The first experiment successfully…

  14. Shared Encoding and the Costs and Benefits of Collaborative Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Celia B.; Barnier, Amanda J.; Sutton, John

    2013-01-01

    We often remember in the company of others. In particular, we routinely collaborate with friends, family, or colleagues to remember shared experiences. But surprisingly, in the experimental collaborative recall paradigm, collaborative groups remember less than their potential, an effect termed "collaborative inhibition". Rajaram and…

  15. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  16. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  17. An ancient rangefinder for teaching surveying methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rangefinders are instruments used for ballistics and for surveying in general. Here we propose a discussion of some of them, ranging from the ancient Rome to the modern methods. Using an ancient roman artefact as a model, we can pre-pare a rangefinder at no cost for teaching surveying methods to students of engineering and military schools

  18. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  19. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  20. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  1. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  2. Event History Data and Survey Recall. An Analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Recall Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    To test the effect of less-frequent interviews on data quality in longitudinal surveys, event history data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 regarding welfare and employment were analyzed. Due to the longer recall period, respondents failed to report short spells of welfare, employment, and unemployment. (SK)

  3. Ancient Acupuncture Literature on Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-zeng; BI Zhen; Xiao Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews twenty-eight Chinese medicine books with complete prescriptions prior to the Qing Dynasty, and analyzes the characteristics of acupoint selection and needling manipulations from the perspective of apoplectic symptoms. It is concluded that,in ancient times, apoplexy is often treated on the basis of its symptoms and a great number of acupoints are employed; hemiplegia is mainly treated by the acupoints of the Large Intestine Meridian and Gallbladder Meridian,with two key acupoints; coma is mainly treated by first-aid acupoints and qi-supplementing acupoints, with seven key acupoints; wry mouth and convulsion are mainly treated by the local acupoints; as for needling manipulations, moxibustion with moxa cones is principally used, while needling is less used.

  4. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca;

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland...... woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene...... knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field....

  5. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  6. [Being old in ancient Hellas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, A J

    1983-08-01

    There is room for a more balanced view of old age among the ancient Greeks than is furnished by De Beauvoir's la Vieillesse and other more or less one-sided publications. The old body was despised by the Greeks of classical times; especially walking with three legs (tripous) was stressed as a mark of old age. The Hippocratic writings show some interest in the infirmities of elderly people. Specific psychic and intellectual qualities were not attributed to senescence: old age brought out good and bad qualities of a person more sharply than before. The share of old people in the population cannot be established with any certainty, but there was always a group of men in their sixties who had specific tasks in society. Old age was not an autonomous theme in art, it was solely accidental. The position of the elderly was challenged occasionally in democratic Athens, but it was never undermined. Old people were never marginated in classical Greece.

  7. EDUCATIONAL EXHIBITION SPONSORSHIP: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES OF VISITORS AND THE SPONSORS' BRAND RECALL

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, P. G.; Ali, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Brand building activity includes a brand recall, brand attitude, brand purchase intension, brand loyalty. A brand recall is the first step of brand building activity. We can't reach to the top/upper staircase (brand purchase intension, brand loyalty) without foot stepping on the first staircase (brand recall). Practically, it is not possible to occurs brand attitude, brand purchase intension and brand loyalty without occurring brand recall. This research is focused on relationship between the...

  8. Clinical evaluation of two strategies for improving patient recall of prior drug therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellamy, N; Grace, E; Hanna, B.; Grant, E; Tugwell, P.; Buchanan, W W

    1984-01-01

    The ability to recall details of current and prior drug therapy was evaluated in two studies employing a total of 94 patients with inflammatory polyarthritis. Ten per cent of patients were unable to completely recall the names of their current anti-inflammatory drugs and eighty-three per cent of patients to completely recall the details of prior anti-inflammatory drug therapy. Prompting firstly with the proprietary names of drugs and thereafter with a pill board substantially enhanced recall ...

  9. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel A.; Eidhof, Marloes B.; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic s

  10. Effects of Long-Term Representations on Free Recall of Unrelated Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Mikhail; Romani, Sandro; Tsodyks, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Human memory stores vast amounts of information. Yet recalling this information is often challenging when specific cues are lacking. Here we consider an associative model of retrieval where each recalled item triggers the recall of the next item based on the similarity between their long-term neuronal representations. The model predicts that…

  11. Establishing a System for Food Recalls to Protect Food Quality and Safety in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are no explicit laws concerning food recalls in China; moreover, some related regulations have weaknesses. China should first create a system of laws and regulations governing food recalls, establish a system to recall defective food, and strengthen administrative and legal remedial mechanisms related to consumer rights.

  12. Accuracy and correlates of maternal recall of birthweight and gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Heitmann, B.

    2008-01-01

    revealed that the most important variables in the discordance between recalled and registered BW were ethnicity and parity. Maternal recall of BW was highly reliable (MD =-5.5 g; ICC = 0.93), and reliability remained high across subgroups. CONCLUSION: Maternal recall of BW and GA seems to be sufficiently...

  13. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  14. 40 CFR 85.1508 - “In Use” inspections and recall requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âIn Useâ inspections and recall... Vehicle Engines § 85.1508 “In Use” inspections and recall requirements. (a) Vehicles or engines which have... section 202(d)). After such notification, the Recall Regulations at part 85, subpart S, shall govern...

  15. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7... GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.45 Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. (a) The Commissioner...

  16. Effects of Multimedia Annotations on Thai EFL Readers' Words and Text Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasigijtamrong, Jenjit

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of using multimedia annotations on EFL readers' word recall and text recall and to explore which type of multimedia annotations--L1 meaning, L2 meaning, sound, and image--would have a better effect on their recall of new words and text comprehension. The participants were 78 students who enrolled in an…

  17. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification... SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notification or mandatory recall order. 810.17 Section 810.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.17 Termination of a cease distribution and notification...

  19. 76 FR 38184 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... reporting requirements on FDA recalls. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments on the collection... techniques, when appropriate, and other forms of information technology. FDA Recall Regulations--21 CFR...

  20. 76 FR 45820 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspections, Recall, and Importer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Reinspections, Recall, and Importer Reinspection User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Food and Drug... with a recall order, and importer reinspections that are mandated in the Federal Food, Drug, and... (section 743(a)(1)(A)), (2) failure to comply with a recall order under section 423 or 412(f) of the...

  1. 10 CFR 30.62 - Right to cause the withholding or recall of byproduct material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to cause the withholding or recall of byproduct... DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Enforcement § 30.62 Right to cause the withholding or recall of byproduct material. The Commission may cause the withholding or recall of byproduct material from...

  2. 40 CFR 1068.505 - How does the recall program work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the recall program work? 1068.../Equipment § 1068.505 How does the recall program work? (a) If we make a determination that a substantial... may ask us to allow you to conduct your recall differently than specified in this subpart,...

  3. Dynamics of Context-Dependent Recall: An Examination of Internal and External Context Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J.; Brewer, Gene A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval dynamics in context-dependent recall were explored via manipulations of external and internal context in two experiments. Participants were tested in either the same or different context as the material was learned in and correct recalls, errors, and recall latency measures were examined. In both experiments changes in context resulted…

  4. 40 CFR 204.59 - Recall of non-complying compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of non-complying compressors... Recall of non-complying compressors. (a) Pursuant to section 11(d)(1) of the Act, the Administrator may issue an order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any compressor distributed in...

  5. 78 FR 78321 - Early Warning Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... agency's Web site for purposes of learning vehicle recall information. See 78 FR 51382, 51401. This... Reporting, Foreign Defect Reporting, and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Recall Regulations; Meeting AGENCY... electronic transfer of manufacturer recall data to NHTSA when a consumer submits VIN information to...

  6. 21 CFR 107.200 - Food and Drug Administration-required recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-required recall. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.200 Food and Drug Administration-required recall. When the Food and Drug Administration determines that...

  7. Free Recall Behaviour in Children with and without Spelling Impairment: The Impact of Working Memory Subcapacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malstadt, Nadine; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lehmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined supraspan free recall in children with and without spelling impairment. A repeated free recall task involving overt rehearsal and three computer-based adaptive working memory tasks were administered to 54 eight-year-old children. Children without spelling impairments tended to recall more items than did those children with…

  8. REcall Venice - Exploring disciplines of visual literacy through difficult heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Møller, Hans Ramsgaard

    2015-01-01

    According to James Elkin visual literacy is interpreted as material representations, which communicate knowledge and create insight through their visual appearance. Based on the EU Cultural Heritage project REcall, we argue that visual literacy can also relate to interdisciplinary knowledge rooted...... in architectural environments. The project REcall seeks to formulate a new role of the architectural environment based on invigorated research on the cultural landscapes of WWI and WWII. Based on interdisciplinary workshops employing creative approaches and tools, artists, architects, museologists......, and archeologists question the role of architectural environments when dealing with war heritage. Today, there are still traces left from WWII in the European architectural environments, traces that by visual literacy represent unpleasant memories. However, these visual literacies have shaped our environment, yet...

  9. Facilitating children's eyewitness recall with the revised cognitive interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M R; Fisher, R P

    1995-08-01

    Eighty-six 2nd-grade children participated in a Simon says game with an unfamiliar adult. The children were subsequently interviewed twice with either a standard interview or the revised cognitive interview (CI), once within 3 hr of the event and then 2 weeks later. On both the initial interview and the 2-week delayed interview, children receiving the revised CI recalled significantly more correct information than did children receiving a standard interview. In addition, children who were interviewed twice with the revised CI recalled more unique accurate facts (M = 25.44) than children who received 2 standard interviews (M = 16.75). The CI also elicited more inaccurate facts; however, the accuracy rate (proportion of reported facts that were accurate) for the 2 groups was equivalent. The research has implications for police and others who interview real child victims and witnesses. PMID:7642461

  10. On Discarding, Caching, and Recalling Samples in Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Ashish; Horvitz, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    We address challenges of active learning under scarce informational resources in non-stationary environments. In real-world settings, data labeled and integrated into a predictive model may become invalid over time. However, the data can become informative again with switches in context and such changes may indicate unmodeled cyclic or other temporal dynamics. We explore principles for discarding, caching, and recalling labeled data points in active learning based on computations of value of ...

  11. Economics of traceability for mitigation of food recall costs

    OpenAIRE

    Resende-Filho, Moises; Buhr, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Traceability of food products and particularly meats is increasingly advocated as a means to provide consumer confidence in credence attributes (e.g., range fed, organic, country of origin) as well as for improved quality control. In the case of food safety, where there are failures in testing and there is not likely to be zero failure rates, traceability may also improve the overall process efficiency and cost effectiveness of recalls. This study relies on case observations to develop a gen...

  12. MOJIBAKE – The Rehearsal of Word Fragments In Verbal Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christiane eLange-Küttner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005. In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF English words versus geographical UK town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT non-words and names of international (INT European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words.

  13. Validation of the OMNI RPE Seven Day Exertional Recall Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Mark A.; Robertson, Robert J.; Thekkada, Savitha J.; Gallagher, Michael, Jr.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Goss, Fredric L.; Aaron, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the validity of the Seven Day Recall Questionnaire among recreationally active men and women. Method: Initially, participants completed a level walk (2.5 mph [4.0 kph]), hill walk (3.5 mph [5.6 kph], 5% grade), and run (5.0 mph [8.0 kph], 2.5% grade). Seven days later, participants were given the Seven Day…

  14. Validity of recall absent schoolchildren to free eye health projects

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Noma; Regina de Souza Carvalho; Newton Kara-José

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the results of recall absent schoolchildren to eye health projects. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Visual screening was performed in schoolchildren attending 1st to 4th grades at public schools, from 7 to 10 years-old, to select and forward to complete ophthalmic evaluation. The projects were performed during weekends, at a public school, in the same municipality. Free transportation, food and eyeglasses were offered. A second opportunity of examination was offered to the...

  15. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  16. Recall versus familiarity when recall fails for words and scenes: The differential roles of the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and category-specific cortical regions☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ryals, Anthony J.; Cleary, Anne M.; Seger, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, le...

  17. Word list recall in youngsters and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogol Gerami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A word-list recall is an experiment examines the effect of age on the change in memory. The ability to understand or use language is more or less dependent on the memory capacity. Any person may know what s/he wants to say but may not be able to say it if the memory does not help. We use some form of memory in all aspects of language processing. Whatever we have in our mind is stored whether for seconds, hours, or years. By short-term memory, a person can remember different things for a period of seconds or minutes only. By rehearsal, the duration and the quantity of storage will increase. Therefore, rehearsal transforms the short-term memory into the long-term memory. This experiment, which examines the number of words recalled by different age groups after presenting a word list, reveals that the younger a person the more are the words he or she recalls. The experiment also reveals that semantically related words have greater chance to be remembered when they are compared with unrelated words.

  18. Word List Recall in Youngsters and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogol Gerami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A word-list recall is an experiment examines the effect of age on the change in memory. The ability to understand or use language is more or less dependent on the memory capacity. Any person may know what s/he wants to say but may not be able to say it if the memory does not help. We use some form of memory in all aspects of language processing. Whatever we have in our mind is stored whether for seconds, hours, or years. By short-term memory, a person can remember different things for a period of seconds or minutes only. By rehearsal, the duration and the quantity of storage will increase. Therefore, rehearsal transforms the short-term memory into the long-term memory. This experiment, which examines the number of words recalled by different age groups after presenting a word list, reveals that the younger a person the more are the words he or she recalls. The experiment also reveals that semantically related words have greater chance to be remembered when they are compared with unrelated words.

  19. Free recall and outdoor running: cognitive and physical demand interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Samantha L; Blakely, Megan J; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive resource theory is a proposed explanation for people's limited ability to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Reallocation of a restricted supply of cognitive resources to two or more tasks may be detrimental to performance on one or both tasks. Many professionals in high-risk fields, such as those engaged in firefighting, military, and search and rescue missions, face simultaneous mental and physical demands, yet little is known about the resources required to move over the natural terrain these operators may encounter. In the present research, we investigated whether interference was found between outdoor running and a word recall task. As hypothesized, a reduction in word recall was observed in the dual task compared to a recall-alone task; however, the distance run was not significantly different between the dual task and the run-alone task. Subjective reports of workload, task focus, and being "spent" (measures calculated from responses on a questionnaire) were greatest in the dual task. These results support the cognitive resource theory and have important theoretical and practical implications. Further research is required to better understand the type and extent of cognitive resources required by such physical tasks and the potential interference with simultaneous mental tasks.

  20. Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CARMONA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the relevance and implications of ancient accounting practices to the contemporary theorizing of accounting. The paper provides a synthesis of the literature on ancient accounting particularly in relation to issues of human accountability, identifies its major achievements and outlines some of the key challenges facing researchers. We argue that far from being an idiosyncratic research field of marginal interest, research in ancient accounting is a rich an...

  1. Castleberry's: 2007 Botulism Recall; A Case Study by The Food Industry Center

    OpenAIRE

    Seltzer, Jonathan M.; Rush, Jeff; Kinsey, Jean D.

    2008-01-01

    This case summarizes the available information on the 2007 Castleberry’s recall and food recalls in general, and raises questions prompted by a recall of this magnitude. A massive, nationwide recall of Castleberry’s canned food due to botulism in the summer of 2007 illustrates the complexity of the food industry. Product from a single production line at a single plant, packed under 90 labels (the company’s own store brands and foodservice), spurred a recall of tens of millions of cans of food...

  2. Faience: the ceramic technology of ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Faiences are ancient Egyptian ceramic materials, considered as "high-tech" products. The paper discussed the method by which the faiences were produced and the application of SEM and Raman spectroscopy to their analysis

  3. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  4. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  5. Ancient Admixture in Human History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

    2012-01-01

    Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.” PMID:22960212

  6. Ancient history of flatfish research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  7. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  8. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  9. What types of learning are enhanced by a cued recall test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K; Pashler, Harold; Vul, Edward

    2006-10-01

    In two experiments, we investigated what types of learning benefit from a cued recall test. After initial exposure to a word pair (A+B), subjects experienced either an intervening cued recall test (A-->?) with feedback, or a restudy presentation (A-->B). The final test could be cued recall in the same (A-->?) or opposite (?-->B) direction, or free recall of just the cues (Recall As) or just the targets (Recall Bs). All final tests revealed a benefit for testing as opposed to restudying. Tests produced a direct benefit for information that was retrieved on the intervening test (B). This benefit also "spilled over" to facilitate recall of information that was present on the test but not retrieved (A). Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  11. Revaluation of Xihuang Pill on tumor treatment:from ancient literatures to modern studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yang; Xiong-ZhiWu

    2016-01-01

    Xihuang Pill (XHP), an old prescription since the 18th century to treat various diseases, including breast cancer, is used widely for tumor therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. XHP is composed of Niu Huang (Calculus bovis), She Xiang (Moschus), Ru Xiang (Olibanum), and Mo Yao (Myrrha). XHP was recorded to have effects on treating breast cancer, intestinal cancer, lymphomas, ovarian cancer. Modern studies indicate that XHP can inhibit tumor cells proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and regulate tumor microenvironment. In this review, we firstly introduced the application of XHP on tumor therapy in ancient literatures. Then, the antitumor studies of XHP in both clinical and basic aspects were summarized and we also discussed the antitumor material basis and mechanisms of Calculus Bovis, Moschus, Olibanum and Myrrha. In addition, with the development of time, the dosage form of XHP, source and dose of herbs and processing methods of Olibanum and Myrrha have been changed and we also evaluated the advantage and disadvantage of these changes of XHP. Taken together, XHP has various antitumor active ingredients, which is multi-target. Moreover, beneficial technology improvement has been made in modern XHP compared to the ancient prescription. Here, we aimed to put forward a new method to revaluating XHP on its application from ancient literatures to modern studies and from pharmacy to medicine.

  12. Examining the Relationship between Immediate Serial Recall and Immediate Free Recall: Common Effects of Phonological Loop Variables but Only Limited Evidence for the Phonological Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by…

  13. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  14. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  15. Aural, visual, and pictorial stimulus formats in false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Heather M

    2002-12-01

    The present investigation is an initial simultaneous examination of the influence of three stimulus formats on false memories. Several pilot tests were conducted to develop new category associate stimulus lists. 73 women and 26 men (M age=21.1 yr.) were in one of three conditions: they either heard words, were shown words, or were shown pictures highly related to critical nonpresented items. As expected, recall of critical nonpresented stimuli was significantly greater for aural lists than for visually presented words and pictorial images. These findings demonstrate that the accuracy of memory is influenced by the format of the information encoded. PMID:12530749

  16. Tobacco imagery in video games: ratings and gamer recall

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, SR; Malone, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. All rights reserved. Objective To assess whether tobacco content found in video games was appropriately labelled for tobacco-related content by the Entertainment and Software Ratings Board (ESRB). Methods Sixty-five gamer participants (self-identified age range 13-50) were interviewed in-person (n=25) or online (n=40) and asked (A) to list favourite games and (B) to name games that they could recall containing tobacco content. The ESRB database was sear...

  17. Ancient Egypt measured by radio-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors recall how carbon dating has been used for decades in Egyptian archaeology, and how biases and errors have been solved. They also describe how this technique is now supported by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and thus allowed a better chronological knowledge of the Egyptian history. AMS indeed allows the measuring of extremely small isotopic rates from very small archaeological samples

  18. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig;

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...

  19. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  20. The Ancient Martian Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than

  1. Children’s Vantage Point of Recalling Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Katie S.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the recollections of child survivors of the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of their vantage point and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) responses. Five years after the tsunami, 110 children (aged 7–13 years) living in Aceh, Indonesia were assessed for source of memories of the tsunami (personal memory or second-hand source), vantage point of the memory, and were administered the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale-13. Fifty-three children (48%) met criteria for PTSD. Two-thirds of children reported direct memories of the tsunami and one-third reported having memories based on reports from other people. More children (97%) who reported an indirect memory of the tsunami recalled the event from an onlooker’s perspective to some extent than those who recalled the event directly (63%). Boys were more likely to rely on stories from others to reconstruct their memory of the tsunami, and to adopt an observer perspective. Boys who adopted an observer’s perspective had less severe PTSD than those who adopted a field perspective. These findings suggest that, at least in the case of boys, an observer perspectives of trauma can be associated with levels of PTSD. PMID:27649299

  2. OS EFEITOS DO RECALL DE PRODUTOS NAS ATITUDES DOS CONSUMIDORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Augusto de Mattos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente têm sido comuns mensagens das montadoras de automóveis convidando os consumidores a comparecerem em lojas autorizadas para efetuar consertos ou trocas preventivas de peças. Essas mensagens, conhecidas por recall ou chamadas, são usualmente veiculadas em mídias de massa, como TV e jornais impressos, a fim de ter ampla divulgação. Embora pareça uma postura honesta e proativa, não se conhecem 05 seus efeitos sobre o comportamento do consumidor. Como este percebe essas mensagens? Quais as suas Intenções em relação a essas empresas que fizeram o recall? O uso de citações de fomecedores na mensagem faz alguma diferença? A fim de Investigar essas questões, foi realizada uma pesquisa com 204 consumidores, dos quais 142 (70% possuiam automóvel. Os resultados mostraram que somente a avaliação da imagem apresentou diferença significativa entre os grupos, tendo sido negativa no grupo com referência ao fornecedor e positiva no grupo sem referência, principalmente para os consumidores de alto envolvimento com o produto. As implicações gerendais e recomendações para novas pesquisas são também apresentadas.

  3. Protoplasmic Computing to Memorize and Recall Periodic Environmental Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tero, Atsushi; Saigusa, Tetsu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    Single-celled organisms might be more intelligent than previously envisaged [1]-[5]. The acts of anticipating and recalling events are higher functions performed by the brains of higher animals; their evolutionary origins and the way they self-organize, however, remain open questions. Here we show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favorable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favorable conditions. For example, plasmodia exposed to low temperature and low humidity, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When favorable conditions were subsequently reintroduced, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the point in time when the next unfavorable episode would have occurred. This implies that the plasmodia are able to anticipate impending environmental change. After this anticipatory response had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal speed; however, the slowing down could subsequently be induced by a single unfavorable pulse, implying recall of the periodicity that had been memorized. We have explored the mechanisms underlying this behavior from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results suggest that this primitive intelligence is of cellular origin and that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence. abstract environment.

  4. The effect of French television sexual program content on the recall of sexual and nonsexual advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Mainaud, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of television program sexual content and explicit sexual advertisement content on memory for advertisements. Eighty-two French participants, aged 18 to 48 years, watched either a sexual program (Sex and the City) or a nonsexual program (Friends), with three sexual and three nonsexual adverts embedded within it. They then completed free- and cued-recall questionnaires testing their memory of the advertisements, as well as a gender identity scale. Overall, sexual advertisements were recalled (in free recall) better than nonsexual advertisements. Participants were found to recall adverts significantly better within the nonsexual program than within the sexual program. No interaction was found between program type and advertisement type: Sexual adverts were recalled better than nonsexual adverts within both programs. Males and females recalled sexual adverts equally, with no mediating effect of gender identity. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:20924942

  5. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  6. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    , a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  7. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  8. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  9. PIXE ANALYSIS ON AN ANCIENT SCROLL SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Iuliano, Edward M.; Seales, William B.

    2008-12-01

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn.

  10. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  11. Phase-based binarization of ancient document images: model and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafchi, Hossein Ziaei; Moghaddam, Reza Farrahi; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a phase-based binarization model for ancient document images is proposed, as well as a postprocessing method that can improve any binarization method and a ground truth generation tool. Three feature maps derived from the phase information of an input document image constitute the core of this binarization model. These features are the maximum moment of phase congruency covariance, a locally weighted mean phase angle, and a phase preserved denoised image. The proposed model consists of three standard steps: 1) preprocessing; 2) main binarization; and 3) postprocessing. In the preprocessing and main binarization steps, the features used are mainly phase derived, while in the postprocessing step, specialized adaptive Gaussian and median filters are considered. One of the outputs of the binarization step, which shows high recall performance, is used in a proposed postprocessing method to improve the performance of other binarization methodologies. Finally, we develop a ground truth generation tool, called PhaseGT, to simplify and speed up the ground truth generation process for ancient document images. The comprehensive experimental results on the DIBCO'09, H-DIBCO'10, DIBCO'11, H-DIBCO'12, DIBCO'13, PHIBD'12, and BICKLEY DIARY data sets show the robustness of the proposed binarization method on various types of degradation and document images. PMID:24816587

  12. Recall of Briefly Presented Chess Positions and Its Relation to Chess Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfei Gong; K Anders Ericsson; Jerad H Moxley

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions) and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique,...

  13. Relations of nostalgia with music to emotional response and recall of autobiographical memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Asami; Iwanaga, Makoto; Seiwa, Hidetoshi

    2002-01-01

    Previous researches suggest that musical mood and preferences affects on emotional response, and that context of music also affects on musical-dependent memory. We often feel 'nostalgia' when listening to old familiar tunes. Nostalgia is related to eliciting positive emotions, recall of autobiographical memory and positive evaluations for recall contents. The present study aimed to examine effects of musical mood, preference and nostalgia on emotional responses, the amounts of recall of autob...

  14. In vitro diagnostic company recalls and medical laboratory practices: an Italian case

    OpenAIRE

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In vitro human diagnostic (IVD) company recalls are a common practice aimed to either minimize a potential error or eliminate an existing failure. In this case report, we aim to provide a critical analysis of a recent IVD recall and to provide a practical framework about what to do when an IVD company recalls product(s) based on the International Organization for Standardization - ISO 15189:2012 standard. Case report: In 2014, Abbott Laboratories® (Green Oaks, IL) published a...

  15. Recall and Recognition of Visual Short-term Memory in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanno, Yoshihiko

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-eight schizophrenics, 36 non-schizophrenic psychiatric patients and 29 normal controls were examined in the tasks of recall and recognition of visual information. Schizophrenics were poorer than normals both in recall and recognition. On the other hand, non-schizophrenics were as poor as schizophrenics in recall, but were comparable to normals in recognition. These results suggest that schizophrenics have deficit in input stage of memory process. The performances of visual short-term m...

  16. Effects of Age on Serial Recall of Natural and Synthetic Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Humes, Larry E.; Nelson, Kathleen J.; Pisoni, David B.; Lively, Scott E.

    1993-01-01

    The present study addressed the effects of aging on auditory serial-recall performance for natural and synthetic words. Word difficulty, measured in terms of frequency of occurrence and phonological similarity, and rate of presentation were also manipulated in an effort to determine which processes underlying serial-recall performance, if any, were affected by aging. Results indicated that age per se had little effect on short-term (working) memory as measured by the serial recall of monosyll...

  17. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  18. Ancient neurilemmoma: A rare oral tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Muruganandhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurilemmomas are benign tumors of neural origin composed of Schwann cell proliferation in characteristic patterns. Ancient neurilemmomas are usually longstanding growths that exhibit degenerative features that could be mistaken for malignancy. They are extremely rare in the oral cavity and present in older individuals of long duration. The authors report a case of ancient neurilemmoma in a young patient with short duration of growth. This unique case presented with remarkable histopathological features with respect to vascularity and atypia associated with degenerative change. It is essential to not mistake these features as malignant transformation so as to avoid radical procedures.

  19. Mythological Emblem Glyphs of Ancient Maya Kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles that incorp......Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles...

  20. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  1. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  2. A Modern Take on an Ancient Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new English translation of The Analects gives a fresh perspective on Confucius and his philosophy by Zan Jifang Confucius(551-491 B.C.) is generally viewed as ancient China’s foremost thinker.His philosophy is probably best catalogued in The Analects,a record of the sage’s wisdom compiled after his death.This Confucian classic provides a shortcut to understanding Chinese culture. A new English edition of the ancient classic(published by the Foreign Languages Press)

  3. THE BEST ATHLETES IN ANCIENT ROME WERE VEGETARIAN!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umile Giuseppe Longo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The figure of gladiators recalls the ideas of strength, hard training, endurance, and deadly efficiency: a perfect fighting machine. Historically, a gladiator was a sort of sport hero, and gladiator's medicine probably one of the first forms of organised sports medicine. Statues and paintings of the ancient roman period tell us of this astonishing world of fighters. There are traces of famous gladiators all over the known world at Roman times, resembling our Mohammad Ali or Mike Tyson. Most of them grew up in fighting schools, the most famous in Capua, near Naples in Italy: Spartacus, the rebel gladiator who inflicted a severe defeat to Roman army, came from there. Gladiators had to endure long session of training to fight in the arena. Considering the modern diets of strength athletes, we should expect that gladiators had a high protein diet. However, analysis of their bones has put forward the hypothesis that gladiators were vegetarian athletes: in his accounts of Rome, the ancient historian Plinius refers to gladiators as "hordearii" (barley-eaters (Eichholz et al., 1938. Plants contain higher levels of strontium than animal tissues. People who consume more plants and less meat will build up measurably higher levels of strontium in their bones. Levels of strontium in the gladiators' bones were two times as high than the bones of contemporary Ephesians (Kanz and Grossschmidt, 2007. Roman army troopers, the "legionnaires", had daily expenditure of energy that can be estimated at around 5000 kcal for the legionnaire performing engineer work and at 6000 kcal for the legionnaire in war action. At present, only workmen and sportsmen reach such levels of energy expenditure (Fornaris and Aubert, 1998. Legionnaires were able to endure long war campaignes and endless "magnis itineribus" (forced marches with incredible resistance to fatigue. The legionnaire's daily ration consisted of 78% carbohydrates, mainly from wheat or barley. This diet has the

  4. Accuracy and correlates of maternal recall of birthweight and gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, A R A; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR and the Eur......OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR...

  5. The Effects of Reading Ability and Sex Difference on Recall Protocols of Japanese University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Kinue

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the concurrent validity of a recall test as a measure of reading comprehension and the effects of the level of reading ability and sex difference on the written recalls of 70 Japanese EFL university students. Results showed that there were moderate significant correlations between a recall test and a standardized reading test (i.e., FCE): for all the students, r = .64, p < .01; for males, r = .61, p < .01; for females, r = .67, p < .01, suggesting that a recall test is...

  6. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  7. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YanBen; QIAO OiYuan

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astro-nomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors re-garded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Conse-quently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  8. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

    2009-11-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  9. Enhanced radiation sensitivity and radiation recall dermatitis (RRD after hypericin therapy – case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer Christof

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern radiotherapy (RT reduces the side effects at organ at risk. However, skin toxicity is still a major problem in many entities, especially head and neck cancer. Some substances like chemotherapy provide a risk of increased side effects or can induce a "recall phenomenon" imitating acute RT-reactions months after RT. Moreover, some phototoxic drugs seem to enhance side effects of radiotherapy while others do not. We report a case of "radiation recall dermatitis" (RRD one year after RT as a result of taking hypericin (St. John's wort. Case report A 65 year old man with completely resected squamous cell carcinoma of the epiglottis received an adjuvant locoregional RT up to a dose of 64.8 Gy. The patient took hypericin during and months after RT without informing the physician. During radiotherapy the patient developed unusual intensive skin reactions. Five months after RT the skin was completely bland at the first follow up. However, half a year later the patient presented erythema, but only within the area of previously irradiated skin. After local application of a steroid cream the symptoms diminished but returned after the end of steroid therapy. The anamnesis disclosed that the patient took hypericin because of depressive mood. We recommended to discontinue hypericin and the symptoms disappeared afterward. Conclusion Several drugs are able to enhance skin toxicity of RT. Furthermore, the effect of RRD is well known especially for chemotherapy agents such as taxans. However, the underlying mechanisms are not known in detail so far. Moreover, it is unknown whether photosensitising drugs can also be considered to increase radiation sensitivity and whether a recall phenomenon is possible. The first report of a hypericin induced RRD and review of the literature are presented. In clinical practise many interactions between drugs and radiotherapy were not noticed and if registered not published. We recommend to ask especially

  10. Enhanced radiation sensitivity and radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) after hypericin therapy – case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern radiotherapy (RT) reduces the side effects at organ at risk. However, skin toxicity is still a major problem in many entities, especially head and neck cancer. Some substances like chemotherapy provide a risk of increased side effects or can induce a 'recall phenomenon' imitating acute RT-reactions months after RT. Moreover, some phototoxic drugs seem to enhance side effects of radiotherapy while others do not. We report a case of 'radiation recall dermatitis' (RRD) one year after RT as a result of taking hypericin (St. John's wort). A 65 year old man with completely resected squamous cell carcinoma of the epiglottis received an adjuvant locoregional RT up to a dose of 64.8 Gy. The patient took hypericin during and months after RT without informing the physician. During radiotherapy the patient developed unusual intensive skin reactions. Five months after RT the skin was completely bland at the first follow up. However, half a year later the patient presented erythema, but only within the area of previously irradiated skin. After local application of a steroid cream the symptoms diminished but returned after the end of steroid therapy. The anamnesis disclosed that the patient took hypericin because of depressive mood. We recommended to discontinue hypericin and the symptoms disappeared afterward. Several drugs are able to enhance skin toxicity of RT. Furthermore, the effect of RRD is well known especially for chemotherapy agents such as taxans. However, the underlying mechanisms are not known in detail so far. Moreover, it is unknown whether photosensitising drugs can also be considered to increase radiation sensitivity and whether a recall phenomenon is possible. The first report of a hypericin induced RRD and review of the literature are presented. In clinical practise many interactions between drugs and radiotherapy were not noticed and if registered not published. We recommend to ask especially for complementary or alternative

  11. Recall dermatitis caused by reexposition of decotaxel following irradiation of the brain. Case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Together with radiation therapy the taxanes Paclitaxel and Docetaxel are more and more integrated into multimodal therapy regimens concerning breast- and lung cancer as well as squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Especially in palliative situations we have to be aware of increasing side effects caused by interaction of the different treatment components. Therefore we report on a severe recall dermatitis that occurred in two breast-cancer patients following irradiation of the brain and reexposition to Docetaxel. Patients and method: From January until March 1999 tow female patients suffering from metastatic brest cancer and newly diagnosed cerebral metastases respectively carcinomatous meningitis underwent irradiation of the whole brain (2 Gy 5 days/week up to a reference dose of 50 Gy) in our department. Both patients had several courses of Docetaxel (Taxotere trademark) 30 mg/m2 BSA weekly respectively 100 mg/m2 BSA/month since October and November 1998. After completion of radiotherapy chemotherapy with Docetaxel was continued. Results: Both patients tolerated Docetaxel well before and during radiotherapy. However, after having finished irradiation of the brain and receiving Docetaxel again a severe erythema of the irradiated skin and large areas of moist epitheliolysis with crust occurred (CTC grade IV). Conclusion: The dermatitis related to irradiation and reexposition to Docetaxel observed in our two cases is interpreted as a recall reaction. The basic initiating pathologic mechanism has not been solved completely. Further investigation is needed to find out how the taxanes can be used in combination radiochemotherapy regimens without causing severe toxicity to the irradiated skin or mucosa. (orig.)

  12. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  13. Fast neutron activation analysis of ancient mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About fifty specimens of ancient Chinese bronze mirror from various dynasties are analysed by fast neutron radiated from neutron generator. The contents of copper, tin and lead in the mirror are listed in this paper. Experimental method and measurement equipment are described too

  14. LD Students and the Ancient Mariner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara L.

    1988-01-01

    Synectics, the making of analogies, was used with learning disabled high school seniors to provide them with a creative process that aids in developing a deeper understanding of literature. After studying Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," the students completed a six-step process and produced a short writing assignment. (VW)

  15. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  16. Paragons of Education in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    MOTHERS contributed greatly to children’s education in ancient China long before schools took shape. Behind many prominent figures lay greatmothers whose personal example and verbal instruction benefited their children throughout life. There is an old sayingabout the "stern father and compassionate mother."However, you will always

  17. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  18. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  19. A probabilistic model of Ancient Egyptian writing

    OpenAIRE

    Nederhof, Mark Jan; Rahman, Fahrurrozi

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a probabilistic model to describe how signs form words in Ancient Egyptian writing. This applies to both hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. The model uses an intermediate layer of sign functions. Experiments are concerned with finding the most likely sequence of sign functions that relates a given sequence of signs and a given sequence of phonemes. Postprint

  20. [Ancient tattooing from today's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K

    1981-06-01

    Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases.

  1. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  2. Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method

  3. Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

  4. An ancient musical instrument returns home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    After 300 years abroad, an ancient Chinese musical instrument returned home with its face lifted and a Japanese name. Originally a one-stringed plucker, the Daisho Modo now features a whole family of electric high-, medium-pitched and bass instruments. With crisp tone and wide range, the Daisho Modo is

  5. Unlocking the Mysteries of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    Describes the work of Egyptologist William Murnane who is recording the ritual scenes and inscriptions of a great columned hall from the days of the pharaohs. The 134 columns, covered with divine imagery and hieroglyphic inscriptions represent an unpublished religious text. Briefly discusses ancient Egyptian culture. Includes several photographs…

  6. Moessbauer effect study of ancient Egyptian pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was used in examining ancient Egyptian pottery. From the values of Moessbauer parameters and the differences for the individual samples, conclusions could be drawn as to the temperature of baking and the kind of clay used in various archaeological periods. (A.K.)

  7. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine.

  8. A Roman Dodecahedron as an ancient rangefinder

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rangefinders are instruments used for ballistics and for surveying in general. I report about some of them, ranging from the ancient Rome to modern methods. In particular, I am discussing the use of Roman Dodecahedra, bronze artifacts of gallo-roman origin, for measuring distance

  9. Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

  10. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias;

    2013-01-01

    to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far...

  11. [Ancient tattooing from today's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K

    1981-06-01

    Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases. PMID:7021475

  12. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  13. Story and Recall in First-Person Shooters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Pinchbeck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Story has traditionally been seen as something separate to gameplay—frequently relegated to an afterthought or epiphenomenon. Nevertheless, in the FPS genre there has been something of a renaissance in the notion of the story-driven title. Partially, this is due to advances in technology enabling a greater capacity for distributed storytelling and a better integration of story and gameplay. However, what has been underrecognised is the dynamic, epistemological, and psychological impact of story and story elements upon player behaviour. It is argued here that there is evidence that story may have a direct influence upon cognitive operations. Specifically, evidence is presented that it appears to demonstrate that games with highly visible, detailed stories may assist players in recalling and ordering their experiences. If story does, indeed, have a more direct influence, then it is clearly a more powerful and immediate tool in game design than either simply reward system or golden thread.

  14. Dream recall frequency: impact of prospective measures and motivational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Antonio; Robert, Geneviève

    2012-12-01

    Significant individual differences exist in dream recall frequency (DRF) but some variance is likely attributable to instrument choice in measuring DRF. Three hundred and fifty eight participants estimated their weekly DRF and recorded their dreams in either a narrative log (n = 165) or checklist log (n = 193) for 2-5 weeks. There was an early peak in DRF within the first week of both types of prospective logs after which DRF remained relatively stable. Although the two groups did not differ in their estimated DRF, significantly fewer dreams were reported per week on the narrative logs and only checklist logs yielded significantly higher DRF than participants' questionnaire estimates. The interactions between DRF measures did not vary across groups with low, medium or high baseline levels of DRF. Keeping a dream log does not necessarily increase DRF and narrative logs' time consuming nature can impact subjects' motivation to report all of their dreams over time.

  15. Chaotic neural network for learnable associative memory recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles C.; Szu, Harold H.

    2003-04-01

    We show that the Fuzzy Membership Function (FMF) is learnable with underlying chaotic neural networks for the open set probability. A sigmoid N-shaped function is used to generate chaotic signals. We postulate that such a chaotic set of innumerable realization forms a FMF exemplified by fuzzy feature maps of eyes, nose, etc., for the invariant face classification. The CNN with FMF plays an important role for fast pattern recognition capability in examples of both habituation and novelty detections. In order to reduce the computation complexity, the nearest-neighborhood weight connection is proposed. In addition, a novel timing-sequence weight-learning algorithm is introduced to increase the capacity and recall of the associative memory. For simplicity, a piece-wise-linear (PWL) N-shaped function was designed and implemented and fabricated in a CMOS chip.

  16. Can audio recording improve patients' recall of outpatient consultations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Axboe, Mette;

    Introduction In order to give patients possibility to listen to their consultation again, we have designed a system which gives the patients access to digital audio recordings of their consultations. An Interactive Voice Response platform enables the audio recording and gives the patients access...... to replay their consultation. The intervention is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial with 5.460 patients in order to determine whether providing patients with digital audio recording of the consultation affects the patients overall perception of their consultation. In addition to this primary...... objective we want to investigate if replay of the consultations improves the patients’ recall of the information given. Methods Interviews are carried out with 40 patients whose consultations have been audio recorded. Patients are divided into two groups, those who have listened to their consultation...

  17. Recall of Personal Dosimeters Not Presently in Use

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service requests all persons who do not require access to radiation areas in the foreseeable future to return their personal dosimeter to the Dosimetry Service. This concerns, for example, experimental physicists whose beam time is over until 2009, or persons whose work profile has changed and therefore no longer need regular access to radiation areas. When regular access to radiation areas is needed again at a later date, a new dosimeter can be attributed if the prerequisites (medical fitness certificate, RP course) are met. This recall will allow personal dosimeters to be attributed to personnel who will soon be working in newly created radiation areas at the LHC. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Thomas Otto on behalf of the Dosimetry Service Radiation Protection Group

  18. The hidden effects of recalling secrets: Assimilation, contrast, and the burdens of secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Masicampo, E J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-08-01

    Three high-power studies (N = 3,000 total) demonstrated that asking participants to recall an experience as a manipulation can have unintended consequences. Participants who recalled preoccupying secrets made more extreme judgments of an external environment, supporting the notion that secrecy is burdensome. This influence was found, however, only among a subset of participants (i.e., participants who successfully recalled secrets that corresponded to their condition). We introduce the concept of manipulation correspondence to understand these patterns of results. Without taking into account whether participants' recalled secrets corresponded to their manipulation, there was no main effect of the recall manipulation on hill slant judgments. Among participants whose secrets did not correspond with the manipulation, a contrast effect emerged (i.e., influences on perceptual judgments opposite to the intention of the recall prompts). Moreover, the very process of recalling a secret in response to a prompt can lead to contrast from that prompt. Exposing participants to extreme exemplar secrets can experimentally produce, or counteract, this contrast effect. Preoccupying secrets are burdensome but tests of this phenomenon must take into account whether participants are actually preoccupied with their secrets (i.e., whether their recalled secrets correspond with the experimental manipulation), or experimentally ensure that participants judge their secrets as in line with the manipulation. More broadly, the current research speaks to a fundamental principle of recall manipulations; when recalling a particular experience, correspondence with the manipulation will determine its effects, and the process of recalling an experience (and comparing it to a prompt) might change how one perceives that experience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454011

  19. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  20. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S; Abelson, James L; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2013-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 h prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 h after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22796109

  1. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  2. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  3. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13% than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5% as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  4. Radon and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes an overview on what is known about the carcinogenic effect of radon. It recalls the origin of radon, its presence in the environment, and its radioactivity. It comments data on the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer, and with other forms of cancer. It discusses the role of the exposure level, and the cases of professional and domestic exposure with respect to these risks. It indicates the hazardous areas in France which are well identified, outlines that smokers are more likely victims of risks related to radon, that this risk is still underrated and underestimated (notably by the public). It gives an overview of existing regulations regarding exposure to radon, of public health policies and national plans concerning radon, and recalls some WHO recommendations

  5. Scoring Recalls for L2 Readers of English in China: Pausal or Idea Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Strube, Michael; Yu, Xiucheng

    2014-01-01

    Written recall may be a powerful tool used to address reading deficiencies in China. With 180 students enrolled in a third-year English class at a large university in northeastern China, the present investigation studies the relationship between pausal and idea units used to codify written recalls, and it investigates whether the strength of the…

  6. Program-involvement effects on commercial attention and recall of successive and embedded advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moorman; L.M. Willemsen; P.C. Neijens; E.G. Smit

    2012-01-01

    Research on context effects has demonstrated a link between program-induced involvement and recall of commercials broadcast in breaks. However, the effect of program-induced involvement on recall of advertising embedded in the program itself has been understudied. In addition, little consideration h

  7. Advertising Graphic Design and Its Effect on Recall and Attitude: A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Kosak, Hermann H.

    Advertisers and other mass media communicators are interested in the potential cognitive and affective effects of various graphic designs, specifically relating to the recall of information and the attitude toward information presented. This study deals with the respondent's recall of information contained within an advertisement as well as the…

  8. Singers' Recall for the Words and Melody of a New, Unaccompanied Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsborg, Jane; Sloboda, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between words and music in memory has been studied in a variety of ways, from investigations of listeners' recall for the words of songs stored in long-term memory to recall for novel information set to unfamiliar melodies. We asked singers to perform an unaccompanied song from memory following deliberate learning…

  9. Recalls of microbiologically contaminated cosmetics in EU from 2005 to May 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Zachariae, Claus Otto Carl

    2008-01-01

    The Rapid Alert System for non-food consumer products in the EU (RAPEX) notifies each week the member countries on dangerous products sold in the EU. Microbiological contaminated cosmetics pose a potential health risk and are recalled from the market. This study investigated the number of recalled...

  10. Odor-induced recall of emotional memories in PTSD-Review and new paradigm for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, Judith K; Vermetten, Eric

    2016-01-01

    It is clinically well known that olfactory intrusions in PTSD can be a disabling phenomena due to the involuntary recall of odor memories. Odorants can trigger involuntary recall of emotional memories as well have the potential to help diminishing emotional arousal as grounding stimuli. Despite majo

  11. Recall of Details Never Experienced: Effects of Age, Repetition, and Semantic Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Robyn E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    To test theoretical predictions about the role of meaning connections in false memory, the effects of semantic cues and list repetition on children's false memories were evaluated across early childhood to mid-adolescence using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. True recall and false recall increased from 7 to 13 years. Study list…

  12. Review of the Literature on Determinants of Chemical Hazard Information Recall among Workers and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Sathar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In many low and middle income countries (LMIC, workers’ and consumers’ only access to risk and hazard information in relation to the chemicals they use or work with is on the chemical label and safety data sheet. Recall of chemical hazard information is vital in order for label warnings and precautionary information to promote effective safety behaviors. A literature review, therefore, was conducted on determinants of chemical hazard information recall among workers and consumers globally. Since comprehension and recall are closely linked, the determinants of both were reviewed. Literature was reviewed from both online and print peer reviewed journals for all study designs and countries. This review indicated that the level of education, previous training and the inclusion of pictograms on the hazard communication material are all factors that contribute to the recall of hazard information. The influence of gender and age on recall is incongruent and remains to be explored. More research is required on the demographic predictors of the recall of hazard information, the effect of design and non-design factors on recall, the effect of training on the recall among low literate populations and the examining of different regions or contexts.

  13. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue... HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.43 Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. (a) Upon a finding that human tissue may be in violation of...

  14. Review of the Literature on Determinants of Chemical Hazard Information Recall among Workers and Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Farzana; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many low and middle income countries (LMIC), workers’ and consumers’ only access to risk and hazard information in relation to the chemicals they use or work with is on the chemical label and safety data sheet. Recall of chemical hazard information is vital in order for label warnings and precautionary information to promote effective safety behaviors. A literature review, therefore, was conducted on determinants of chemical hazard information recall among workers and consumers globally. Since comprehension and recall are closely linked, the determinants of both were reviewed. Literature was reviewed from both online and print peer reviewed journals for all study designs and countries. This review indicated that the level of education, previous training and the inclusion of pictograms on the hazard communication material are all factors that contribute to the recall of hazard information. The influence of gender and age on recall is incongruent and remains to be explored. More research is required on the demographic predictors of the recall of hazard information, the effect of design and non-design factors on recall, the effect of training on the recall among low literate populations and the examining of different regions or contexts. PMID:27258291

  15. Preschoolers' Recall of Science Content from Educational Videos Presented with and without Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental investigation evaluated the impact of educational songs on a child's ability to recall scientific content from an educational television program. Preschoolers' comprehension of the educational content was examined by measuring children's ability to recall the featured science content (the function of a pulley and…

  16. Reflections of Distraction in Memory: Transfer of Previous Distraction Improves Recall in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting…

  17. Applying a Timeline as a Recall Aid in a Telephone Survey: A Record Check Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, van der W.; Glasner, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of a timeline tool that was employed as a visual recall aid for respondents in a standardised telephone survey. The timeline was tested in a split-ballot field experiment on the purchase behaviour of clients of opticians, the recall period being approximately 7 years.

  18. Representation of Item Position in Immediate Serial Recall: Evidence from Intrusion Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In immediate serial recall, participants are asked to recall novel sequences of items in the correct order. Theories of the representations and processes required for this task differ in how order information is maintained; some have argued that order is represented through item-to-item associations, while others have argued that each item is…

  19. Gender Differences in Preschool Children's Recall of Competitive and Noncompetitive Computer Mathematics Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Yi Flora; Hendrix, Katherine Grace

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether competitive and noncompetitive educational mathematics computer games influence four- to seven-year-old boys' and girls' recall of game-playing experience. A qualitative analysis was performed to investigate what preschool children may have learned through their selective recall of game-playing experience. A…

  20. Do Adults with Mental Retardation Show Pictorial Superiority Effects in Recall and Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Applegate, Heather; Reese, Celinda M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined memory for pictures and words in 16 adults with mental retardation and 24 controls. Pictorial superiority effects occurred in free recall and recognition for both intelligence-level groups. Correlational analyses indicated working memory span was primarily related to recall performance, irrespective of stimulus format. (Contains…

  1. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant... by the infant formula. (b) Carry out additional effectiveness checks, if the agency's audits,...

  2. Influence of the recall period on a beverage-specific weekly drinking measure for alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbæk, M.

    2011-01-01

    alcohol intake on each day. Moreover, the analyses indicated that interviews on Sundays should be avoided if the purpose is to assess alcohol intake for the previous day (Saturdays). Conclusions: It seems problematic to recall alcohol intake even when the recall period is as short as 1 week. Weekly...

  3. 19 CFR 141.113 - Recall of merchandise released from Customs and Border Protection custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 141.113, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall of merchandise released from Customs and... Merchandise § 141.113 Recall of merchandise released from Customs and Border Protection custody....

  4. 40 CFR 205.163 - Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying motorcycles... Motorcycles § 205.163 Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles. (a) Pursuant to section 11(d)(1) of the Act, the Administrator may issue an order to the manufacturer to...

  5. Children's Recall and Motivation for an Environmental Education Video with Supporting Pedagogical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This study examined recall (Rcl) differences of high, average and low achieving fifth-grade elementary students (72) for an environmental education video with supporting pedagogical materials. In addition, it assessed the motivational level of all students. Recall assessment was carried out one-week and twenty-weeks after intervention. Main…

  6. 40 CFR 89.608 - “In Use” inspections and recall requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âIn Useâ inspections and recall... Importation of Nonconforming Nonroad Engines § 89.608 “In Use” inspections and recall requirements. (a... or § 89.609 and finally admitted by EPA may be inspected and emission tested by EPA for the...

  7. 16 CFR 1630.81 - Policy on recall of noncomplying carpets and rugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) (16 CFR part 1630, subpart A). In this policy statement, the Commission reaffirms that provisions of... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy on recall of noncomplying carpets and... and Policies § 1630.81 Policy on recall of noncomplying carpets and rugs. (a) Purpose. The purpose...

  8. Recall bias in a case-control surveillance system on the use of medicine during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, Jørn; Czeizel, A.E.;

    2001-01-01

    It is important to study possible teratogenic effects of drugs used during pregnancy. Many studies of this type rely upon case-control designs in which drug intake is recalled by the mothers after having given birth. Recall bias in this situation may lead to spurious associations. We looked...... for indicators of recall bias by comparing self-reported drug intake with medically notified intake for specific diseases in the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, which includes 22,865 cases with congenital abnormalities and 39,151 controls. Recall error was present......, especially for drugs used for a short time period. Furthermore, the timing of drug intake was reported slightly closer to the time of interview for cases compared than for controls. Severe or visible congenital abnormalities did not appear to be more conducive to recall bias than other abnormalities under...

  9. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed.

  10. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. PMID:20870067

  11. Memories affect mood: evidence from covert experimental assignment to positive, neutral, and negative memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Kessler, Jennifer; Farah, Martha J

    2007-06-01

    Memory recall has been proposed as a common and effective mood regulation strategy. Although several studies have presented results suggesting that recalling valenced memories affects subsequent mood, their designs allow for alternative interpretations of the observed effects. Two such alternatives include the reverse effect (mood effects on memory due to non-experimental assignment to memory recall condition) and demand characteristics of the experiment. We used covert experimental assignment to memory condition, asking subjects (N=314; 56% female) to recall memories that were primarily positive, neutral, or negative. Results showed the expected effect on mood (pmood worst in the negative memory condition, better in the neutral condition, and best in the positive condition. These results suggest that valenced memory recall does indeed exert an effect on mood, and may do so even without the individual's awareness.

  12. Relationship between parent held child records for immunisations, parental recall and health service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jessop, L

    2011-03-01

    Parent held child records (PHCR) were introduced in Ireland in 2008. This study investigated the relationship between the PHCR, parental recall and regional Health Service Executive (HSE) records for immunisation uptake. It used the Lifeways cohort study of 1070 singleton children to compare immunisation data from PHCR at one year, parental recall at five years and information from the HSE. When compared to HSE records, full recording of primary immunisations in the PHCR was reported for 695 of 749 (92.8%) children. Parental recall was correct for 520 of 538 (96.7%) children. Of the 307 completed PHCRs, 207 (75.9%) agreed with the HSE records. Agreement between the three sources for primary immunisations was 74-93% but was not statistically significant. Agreement was 91% (p < 0.001) for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccines between parental recall and HSE records. PHCRs underestimated and parental recall overestimated immunisation status when compared with HSE records.

  13. Reduced dream-recall frequency in left-handed adolescents: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Beaton, Alan A; Henley-Einion, Josie; Blagrove, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recall a dream upon waking up in the morning has been linked to a broad variety of factors such as personality, creativity, sleep behaviour and cognitive function. There have been conflicting findings as to whether dream recall is related more to the right or to the left hemisphere, and conflicting findings regarding the relationship of dream-recall frequency to handedness. We have found previously that right- and mixed-handers report having more dreams than left-handers, a finding more pronounced among adolescents than adults. In the present sample of 3535 participants aged from 6 to 18 years, right-handedness and mixed/inconsistent handedness were associated with higher dream-recall frequency compared to that of left-handed persons, again especially in adolescents compared with children. Further research is required to uncover the reason for the lower frequency of dream recall by left-handers.

  14. Surgeons and surgery from ancient Persia (5,000 years of surgical history).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Arman; Fazelzadeh, Afsoon; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-08-01

    The development of surgery is indebted to scientists and surgeons from various civilizations throughout history. The present study considers surgery in the ancient Persian civilization. It highlights aspects of the subject, such as findings of the first trephinated skulls in Iran; surgeons' social class (kareto baēšaza in the Avestan language-dating back 3,000 years); surgical operations such as cesarean section and procedures to treat breast cancer; and the use of anesthetic compounds and surgical practice in the military. It is hoped that this catalogue of historical evidence of surgical practice in ancient Persian civilization will contribute to the history of surgery, as an important field in medical science.

  15. Rangifer and man: An ancient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gordon

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-term relationship between Rangifer and humans is documented in three case studies: the Canadian Barrenlands (8000 years ago to Historic period, Ice-Age France (11 000-19 000 years ago and Mesolithic Russia (7000¬10 000 years ago. Ancient human and herd migration occurred in all areas, based upon Rangifer remains and seasonal variations in tools along reconstructed migration routes, with few if any hunting camps outside the routes. An April peak of ancient human births is inferred from the historic record where we see births occurring nine months after peak nutritional states in herds and people. The origin of reindeer domestication and breeding in Eurasia is discussed.

  16. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R;

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  17. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of ancient potteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is focused on the characterization study of ancient pottery shreds excavated recently from Sembiankandiyur in India. The study is intended to identify the firing temperature, firing conditions and morphology of the ancient pottery samples. The samples were analyzed using FTIR, XRD and TG-DTA. FTIR and XRD studies were used in mineralogical characterization of potteries. The firing temperature and conditions were interpreted by studying the difference in mineral composition in the samples using FTIR and XRD. TG-DTA is considered the complementary technique to elucidate the firing temperature from the thermal characteristic reactions such as dehydration, decomposition and transformations of minerals in the course of controlled firing of the samples. The results showed that all the samples fired in a oxidizing condition and firing temperature also inferred.(authors)

  18. Retroperitoneal Ancient Schwannoma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalişkan, Selahattin; Gümrükçü, Gülistan; Kaya, Cevdet

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are extremely rare tumors that are composed of Schwann cells. Retroperitoneal localization comprises 0.7% to 2.6% of all schwannomas. Patients usually present with nonspecific symptoms. There are no pathognomonic features on radiologic evaluation. Preoperative biopsy is not recommended because of complication risks; however, surgery is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Although most schwannomas are benign tumors, those that are associated with von Recklinghausen disease are malignant. Schwannomas exhibit regions of high and low cellularity, termed Antoni A and Antoni B areas, with a diffuse positivity of S100 protein on pathologic evaluation. If there are degenerative changes, such as cyst formation, hemorrhage, calcification, and hyalinization, these tumors are termed ancient schwannomas. We present a case of retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma.

  19. Computed tomography of ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood-Nash, D C

    1979-12-01

    This first report of the application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of ancient mummies, the desiccated brain of a boy and the body of a young woman within her cartonnage, shows that CT is uniquely suitable for the study of such antiquities, a study that does not necessitate destruction of the mummy or its cartonnage. Exquisite images result that are of great paleoanatomical, paleopathological, and archeological significance.

  20. Parallel OCR for Ancient Greek Critical Editions

    OpenAIRE

    Del Grosso, Angelo; Boschetti, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This project is focused on the parallelization of OCR processes applied to Ancient Greek critical editions. Two experiments have been performed. The first experiment is related to parameters differently tuned on the nodes of the grid, in order to identify the best combination that improves the accuracy of the recognition. The second experiment concerns the application of OCR with the best parameters on sample pages by a divide et impera strategy. Results related to the performances of the par...

  1. The ancient Greeks present: Rational Trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wildberger, N J

    2008-01-01

    Pythagoras' theorem, the area of a triangle as one half the base times the height, and Heron's formula are amongst the most important and useful results of ancient Greek geometry. Here we look at all three in a new and improved light, using quadrance not distance. This leads to a simpler and more elegant trigonometry, in which angle is replaced by spread, and which extends to arbitrary fields and more general quadratic forms.

  2. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  3. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-01-01

    Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent ed...

  4. Science in the Study of Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Sonia; Shortland, Andrew; Rowland, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Egyptology has been dominated by the large quantity of written and pictorial material available. This amazing archaeology has opened up a wonderful view of the ancient Egyptian world. The importance of hieroglyphics and texts, and their interpretation, has led to other areas of archaeology playing much less prominence in the study of Egypt. Perhaps most notable in this is relative lack of the application of analytical science to answer Egyptian questions. This problem has been compounded by d...

  5. Ancient News: HMGBs are Universal Sentinels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco E. Bianchi; Barbara Celona

    2010-01-01

    @@ Yanai et al. (2009, Nature 462, 99-103) have shown that high mobility group boxs (HMGBs) are universal sensors of viral nucleic acids, and thus of cell infection. This appears to be an evolutionary ancient mechanism of virus detection, and possibly might be a facet of a more general propensity of HMGBs to act as integrators of signals that pertain to peace and stress, life and death.

  6. Forgetting to Remember or Remembering to Forget - A Study of the Recall Period Length in Health Care Survey Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Clarke, Philip; Gerdtham, Ulf-G

    2013-01-01

    Self-reported data on utilization of health care is a key input into a range of studies. However, the length of the recall period in self-reported health care questions varies between surveys and this variation may affect the results of the studies. While longer recall periods include more information, shorter recall periods generally imply smaller bias. This article examines the role of the recall period length for the quality of self-reported data by comparing registered hospitalization wit...

  7. Short-term and long-term collaboration benefits on individual recall in younger and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Helena M Blumen; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    A recent study of younger adults suggests that, compared to repeated individual recall trials, repeated collaborative recall trials produce better individual recall after a short delay (Blumen & Rajaram, 2008). Our study was designed to determine if such collaboration benefits would remain after a one-week delay, in both younger and older adults. Sixty younger (M age = 24.60) and 60 older (M age = 67.35) adults studied a list of words and then completed either two collaborative recall trials ...

  8. Qualitative aspects of learning, recall, and recognition in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Neelima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether learning and serial position effect (SPE differs qualitatively and quantitatively among different types of dementia and between dementia patients and controls; we also wished to find out whether interference affects it. Materials and Methods: We administered the Malayalam version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT to 30 cognitively unimpaired controls and 80 dementia patients [30 with Alzheimer′s disease (AD, 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, and 20 with frontotemporal dementia (FTD] with mild severity on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. Results: All groups were comparable on education and age, except the FTD group, who were younger. Qualitatively, the learning pattern and SPE (with primacy and recency being superior to intermediate was retained in the AD, VaD, and control groups. On SPE in free recall, recency was superior to intermediate in the FTD group (P < 0.01 using Bonferroni correction. On recognition, the AD and VaD groups had more misses (P < 0.01, while the FTD group had more false positives (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Quantitative learning is affected by dementia. The pattern of qualitative learning remains unaltered in dementia in the early stages.

  9. Factors of home dream recall: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Wittmann, Lutz; Ciric, Petra; Götz, Simon

    2003-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that personality factors such as openness to experience, creativity, visual memory, attitude toward dreams, and sleep behavior is related to home dream recall frequency (DRF). However, a study investigating all areas simultaneously within one sample in order to determine the percentage of variance explained by all variables and to take intercorrelations between the influencing factors into account has not been performed till now. The present study with 444 participants fills this gap. Using several indicators for each of the variables mentioned above, a structural equation model was tested. Although the model fit was satisfying, the four factors which were significantly related to DRF: personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption), creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams, explained only 8.4% of the total variance. As this value is considerably lower than those of studies investigating a single influencing factor and using similar measurement instruments in similar samples, one might speculate about possible expectancy effects in these previous studies, an effect which has been demonstrated for DRF in the laboratory setting. In addition, the small percentage of explained variance of each single factors (inertia) show substantial covariance with the interindividual differences in DRF. Future studies should focus on longitudinal aspects in order to differentiate between state versus trait factors (although methodologic issues, e.g. the effect of the measurement technique on DRF itself, have to be clarified) and investigate additional variables which might be associated with DRF (see above). PMID:12753350

  10. Semantic and phonological contributions to short-term repetition and long-term cued sentence recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Rose, Nathan S; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C; Panamsky, Lilia; Silberberg, Alexandra; Madani, Noushin; Links, Kira A

    2016-02-01

    The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period. After this task was complete, long-term memory for each sentence was probed by a two-word recall cue. The sentences were either concrete (high imageability) or abstract (low imageability), and the initial 14-s retention period was filled with either an undemanding finger-tapping task or a more engaging articulatory suppression task (Exp. 1, counting backward by threes; Exp. 2, repeating a four-syllable nonword). Recall was always better for the concrete sentences. Articulatory suppression reduced accuracy in short-term recall, especially for abstract sentences, but the sentences initially recalled following articulatory suppression were retained better at the subsequent cued-recall test, suggesting that the engagement of semantic mechanisms for short-term retention promoted encoding of the sentence meaning into long-term memory. These results provide a basis for using sentence imageability and subsequent memory performance as probes of semantic engagement in short-term memory for sentences.

  11. Long-term maternal recall of obstetric complications in schizophrenia research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walshe, Muriel

    2011-05-30

    Obstetric complications (OCs) are consistently implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia. Information about OCs is often gathered retrospectively, from maternal interview. It has been suggested that mothers of people with schizophrenia may not be accurate in their recollection of obstetric events. We assessed the validity of long term maternal recall by comparing maternal ratings of OCs with those obtained from medical records in a sample of mothers of offspring affected and unaffected with psychotic illness. Obstetric records were retrieved for 30 subjects affected with psychosis and 40 of their unaffected relatives. The Lewis-Murray scale of OCs was completed by maternal interview for each subject blind to the obstetric records. There was substantial agreement between maternal recall and birth records for the summary score of "definite" OCs, birth weight, and most of the individual items rated, with the exception of antepartum haemorrhage. There were no significant differences in the validity of recall or in errors of commission by mothers for affected and unaffected offspring. These findings indicate that several complications of pregnancy and delivery are accurately recalled by mother\\'s decades after they occurred. Furthermore, there is no indication that mothers are less accurate in recalling OCs for their affected offspring than their unaffected offspring. When comparing women with and without recall errors, we found those with recall errors to have significantly worse verbal memory than women without such errors. Assessing the cognition of participants in retrospective studies may allow future studies to increase the reliability of their data.

  12. Sketching to Remember: Episodic Free Recall Task Support for Child Witnesses and Victims with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Dando, Coral J.; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in episodic free-recall memory performance have been reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet best practice dictates that child witness/victim interviews commence with a free-recall account. No "tools" exist to support children with ASD to freely recall episodic information. Here, the efficacy of a novel…

  13. Child and Adult Witnesses: The Effect of Repetition and Invitation-Probes on Free Recall and Metamemory Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Jens; Allwood, Carl Martin; Johansson, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Witnesses' event recall and the realism in their evaluation of the correctness of their recall are of great importance in forensic processes. These issues were investigated in the present study by use of calibration methodology. More specifically, we analyzed the effects of two recalls of the same event ("repetition") and of "probes"…

  14. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  15. Do Vehicle Recalls Reduce the Number of Accidents? The Case of the U.S. Car Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yong-Kyun; Benitez-Silva, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has increased sharply in the last two decades, and the numbers of units involved are often counted in the millions. In 2010 alone, over 20 million vehicles were recalled in the United States, and the massive recalls of full model lines by Toyota have brought this issue to the front pages around the…

  16. The Dynamics of Free Recall and Their Relation to Rehearsal between 8 and 10 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Martin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    The present study longitudinally examined changes in recall in children between the ages of 8 and 10 years. Given the increasingly sophisticated use of memory strategies during this developmental period, correspondences between study and recall dynamics were of particular interest. Seventy-six children performed free-recall tasks on 5 occasions…

  17. The impact of digital mammography on screening a young cohort of women for breast cancer in an urban specialist breast unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Nicholas M.; Milner, S.E.; Mokbel, K. [The Princess Grace Hospital, The London Breast Institute, London (United Kingdom); Patani, N. [St. George' s University of London, Department of Breast Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Pinker, K. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Allgood, P.C.; Duffy, S.W. [Queen Mary University of London, Cancer Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Mathematics and Statistics, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with screen-film mammography (SFM) in a corporate screening programme including younger women. Data were available on 14,946 screening episodes, 5010 FFDM and 9936 SFM. Formal analysis was by logistic regression, adjusting for age and calendar year. FFDM is compared with SFM with reference to cancer detection rates, cancers presenting as clustering microcalcifications, recall rates and PPV of recall. Overall detection rates were 6.4 cancers per thousand screens for FFDM and 2.8 per thousand for SFM (p < 0.001). In women aged 50+ cancer detection was significantly higher for FFDM at 8.6 per thousand vs. 4.0 per thousand, (p = 0.002). In women <50, cancer detection was also significantly higher for FFDM at 4.3 per thousand vs. 1.4 per thousand, (p = 0.02). Cancers detected as clustering microcalcifications increased from 0.4 per thousand with SFM to 2.0 per thousand with FFDM. Rates of assessment recall were higher for FFDM (7.3% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001). FFDM provided a higher PPV for assessment recall, (32 cancers/364 recalls, 8.8%) than SFM, (28 cancers/493 recalls, 5.7%). Cancer detection rates were significantly higher for FFDM than for SFM, especially for women <50, and cancers detected as clustering microcalcifications. (orig.)

  18. The impact of digital mammography on screening a young cohort of women for breast cancer in an urban specialist breast unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the diagnostic performance of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with screen-film mammography (SFM) in a corporate screening programme including younger women. Data were available on 14,946 screening episodes, 5010 FFDM and 9936 SFM. Formal analysis was by logistic regression, adjusting for age and calendar year. FFDM is compared with SFM with reference to cancer detection rates, cancers presenting as clustering microcalcifications, recall rates and PPV of recall. Overall detection rates were 6.4 cancers per thousand screens for FFDM and 2.8 per thousand for SFM (p < 0.001). In women aged 50+ cancer detection was significantly higher for FFDM at 8.6 per thousand vs. 4.0 per thousand, (p = 0.002). In women <50, cancer detection was also significantly higher for FFDM at 4.3 per thousand vs. 1.4 per thousand, (p = 0.02). Cancers detected as clustering microcalcifications increased from 0.4 per thousand with SFM to 2.0 per thousand with FFDM. Rates of assessment recall were higher for FFDM (7.3% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001). FFDM provided a higher PPV for assessment recall, (32 cancers/364 recalls, 8.8%) than SFM, (28 cancers/493 recalls, 5.7%). Cancer detection rates were significantly higher for FFDM than for SFM, especially for women <50, and cancers detected as clustering microcalcifications. (orig.)

  19. No evidence of age-related increases in unconscious plagiarism during free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Timothy John; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine; Elliman, Rachel; Dehon, Hedwige

    2011-07-01

    In three experiments younger and older participants took part in a group generation task prior to a delayed recall task. In each, participants were required to recall the items that they had generated, avoiding plagiarism errors. All studies showed the same pattern: older adults did not plagiarise their partners any more than younger adults did. However, older adults were more likely than younger adults to intrude with entirely novel items not previously generated by anyone. These findings stand in opposition to the single previous demonstration of age-related increases in plagiarism during recall.

  20. Kynurenine pathway metabolites are associated with hippocampal activity during autobiographical memory recall in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Drevets, Wayne C; Dantzer, Robert; Teague, T Kent; Bodurka, Jerzy; Savitz, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation-related changes in the concentrations of inflammatory mediators such as c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 1β (IL-1), and IL-6 as well as kynurenine metabolites are associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and affect depressive behavior, cognition, and hippocampal plasticity in animal models. We previously reported that the ratios of kynurenic acid (KynA) to the neurotoxic metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK) and quinolinic acid (QA), were positively correlated with hippocampal volume in depression. The hippocampus is critical for autobiographical memory (AM) recall which is impaired in MDD. Here we tested whether the ratios, KynA/3HK and KynA/QA were associated with AM recall performance as well as hippocampal activity during AM recall. Thirty-five unmedicated depressed participants and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent fMRI scanning while recalling emotionally-valenced AMs and provided serum samples for the quantification of kynurenine metabolites, CRP, and cytokines (IL-1 receptor antagonist - IL-1RA; IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha - TNF, interferon gamma -IFN-γ, IL-10). KynA/3HK and KynA/QA were lower in the MDD group relative to the HCs. The concentrations of the CRP and the cytokines did not differ significantly between the HCs and the MDD group. Depressed individuals recalled fewer specific AMs and displayed increased left hippocampal activity during the recall of positive and negative memories. KynA/3HK was inversely associated with left hippocampal activity during specific AM recall in the MDD group. Further, KynA/QA was positively correlated with percent negative specific memories recalled in the MDD group and showed a non-significant trend toward a positive correlation with percent positive specific memories recalled in HCs. In contrast, neither CRP nor the cytokines were significantly associated with AM recall or activity of the hippocampus during AM recall. Conceivably, an imbalance in levels of KynA versus QA

  1. Characteristics of product recalls of biopharmaceuticals and small-molecule drugs in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbers, Hans C; de Tienda, Nina Fuentes; Hoefnagel, Marcel C; Nibbeling, Ria; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2016-04-01

    Compared with chemically synthesized small-molecule drugs, the manufacturing process of biopharmaceuticals is more complex. Unexpected changes to product characteristics following manufacturing changes have given rise to calls for robust systems to monitor the postauthorization safety of biopharmaceuticals. We compared quality-related product recalls in the USA of biopharmaceuticals and of small molecules. Although the reasons for recalls for biopharmaceuticals differed from those for small molecules, adverse events were rarely reported. The relative contribution of recalls that could cause serious adverse health consequences was not greater for biopharmaceuticals than for small molecules. Therefore, these data do not give rise to concerns that biopharmaceuticals are more frequently associated with unexpected safety concerns.

  2. Recalls of cardiac implants in the last decade: what lessons can we learn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Due to an ageing population and demographic changes worldwide, a higher prevalence of heart disease is forecasted, which causes an even higher demand for cardiac implants in future. The increasing high incidence of clinical adverse events attributed especially to high-risk medical devices has led an advocated change from many stakeholders. This holds especially true for devices like cardiac implants, with their high-risk nature and high complication rates associated with considerable mortality, due to their frequent use in older populations with frequent co-morbidities. To ensure patients' safety, the objective of this study is to analyze different cardiac implants recall reasons and different recall systems, based on an overview of the recalls of cardiac implant medical devices in the last decade. On the basis of the results from this structured analysis, this study provides recommendations on how to avoid such recalls from a manufacturer perspective, as well as how to timely react to an adverse event from a post-surveillance system perspective.A systematic search of cardiac implant recalls information has been performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases, as well as data sources in regulatory authorities from 193 UN Member States. Data has been extracted for the years 2004-2014 with the following criteria applied: cardiac implant medical device recalls and reasons for recall, associated harm or risk to patients. From the data sources described above, eleven regulatory authorities and 103 recall reports have been included in this study. The largest cardiac implant categories include ICDs 40.8%, pacemakers 14.5% and stents 14.5%. Regarding the recall reasons, the majority of reports were related to device battery problems (33.0% and incorrect therapy delivery (31.1%. From a total of 103 recall reports, five reported death and serious injuries. Our review highlights weaknesses in the current cardiac implant recall system, including

  3. PROBE: NOISE-AND-ROTATION RESISTANCE OF HOPFIELD NEURAL NETWORK IN IMAGED TRAFFIC SIGN RECALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ken; Yang Shoujian; Celal Batur

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the noise and rotation resistance capacity of Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) given four corrupted traffic sign images.In the study,Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR),recall rate and pattern complexity are defined and employed to evaluate the recall performance.The experimental results indicate that the HNN possesses significant recall capacity against the strong noise corruption,and certain restoring competence to the rotation.It is also found that combining noise with rotation does not further challenge the HNN corruption resistance capability as the noise or rotation alone does.

  4. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  5. Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2003-12-01

    The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

  6. Sex-related memory recall and talkativeness for emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto eArnone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have evidenced an increasing interest in sex-related brain mechanisms and cerebral lateralization subserving emotional memory, language processing, and conversational behavior. We used event related potentials (ERP to examine the influence of sex and hemisphere on brain responses to emotional stimuli. Given that the P300 component of ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon, we compared left and right hemisphere P300 responses to emotional stimuli in men and women. As indexed by both amplitude and latency measures, emotional stimuli elicited more robust P300 effects in the left hemisphere in women than in men, while a stronger P300 component was elicited in the right hemisphere in men compared to women. Our findings show that the variables of sex and hemisphere interacted significantly to influence the strength of the P300 component to the emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli were also best recalled when given a long-term, incidental memory test, a fact potentially related to the differential P300 waves at encoding. Moreover, taking into account the sex-related differences in language processing and conversational behaviour, in the present study we evaluated possible talkativeness differences between the two genders in the recollection of emotional stimuli. Our data showed that women used a higher number of words, compared to men, to describe both arousal and neutral stories. Moreover, the present results support the view that sex differences in lateralization may not be a general feature of language processing but may be related to the specific condition, such as the emotional content of stimuli.

  7. Witness to Change: A Tibetan Woman Recalls Her Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nangchukja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nangchukja. 2015. Witness to Change: A Tibetan Woman Recalls Her Life in Gerald Roche, Keith Dede, Fernanda Pirie, and Benedict Copps (eds Asian Highlands Perspectives 37 Centering the Local, A Festschrift for Dr. Charles Kevin Stuart on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 250-278. Women play a critical role in rural Tibetan households. As youths and adults, they engage in labor-intensive chores, including farming, herding, fetching water, cooking, tailoring, cleaning, collecting fuel, and child care. In their old age, most Tibetan women dedicate themselves to chanting, prostrating, going on pilgrimage, and meditating. Prior to the early twenty-first century, in such areas as Mang ra County in A mdo, women seldom traveled away from their family and community for work, though nomadic women seasonally traveled long distances between summer and winter camps with their family's livestock. Farming and herding have sustained life on the Tibetan Plateau for millennia. These traditional lifestyles have been changing in most Tibetan communities today in China's rapidly urbanizing society. Despite the massive transformations that have taken place in A mdo over the last sixty years, much continuity remains in how Tibetan women in A mdo spend their time. In 2015, average women in their forties and above are still actively engaged in such religious practices as chanting, prostrating, going on pilgrimage, and meditating. This paper presents the life-story of an elder Tibetan woman, Lha mtsho (b. 1946. Similar to many other Tibetan women born in the late 1940s, she was witness to the chaos of 1958, the Great Leap Forward (1958-1961, the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976, and also saw China's economic reform and development from the late 1970s up until today.

  8. The Ancient City of Pinqyao:Where the Time Stops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ It is a common night in May, I found myself wandering in the Ancient City of Pingyao.If not those neon light, I would even doubt that I had gone back to the ancient times.Located on the eastern banks of the Fen River, and in the southwestern edge of the Taiyuan basin, Pingyao Ancient City is the outstanding example of Chinese Han nationality cities during Ming and Qing Dynasties.

  9. Advances in structural mechanics of Chinese ancient architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maohong YU; Yoshiya ODA; Dongping FANG; Junhai ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Chinese ancient architectures are valuable heritage of ancient culture of China. Many historical building have been preserved up to now. The researches on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures show the different aspects of structure and mechanics. Systematical studies on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures have been carried out at Xi'an Jiaotong University since 1982. It is related with the need of repair of some national preservation relics in Xi'an. These studies include: 1) Ancient wooden structures including three national preservation relics Arrow Tower at North City Gate, City Tower at East City Gate, and Baogao Temple in Ningbao, Zhejiang province. 2) Ancient tall masonry building, the Big Goose Pagoda and Small Goose Pagoda in Xi'an. 3) Mechanical characteristics of ancient soil under foundation and city wall; the influence of caves in and under the ancient City Wall on the stability of the wall. 4) The typical Chinese ancient building at the center of city: the Bell Tower and Drum tower. 5) The behavior of Dou-Gong and Joggle joint of Chinese ancient wooden structure. 6) The mechanical behavior of ancient soils under complex stress state. A new systematical strength theory, the unified strength theory, is used to analyze the stability of ancient city wall in Xi'an and foundation of tall pagoda built in Tang dynasty. These researches also concern differential settlements of Arrow Tower and resistance to earthquake of these historical architecture heritages. Some other studies are also introduced. This paper gives a summary of these researches. Preservation and research are nowadays an essential requirement for the famous monuments, buildings, towers and others. Our society is more and more conscious of this necessity, which involves increasing activities of restoration, and then sometimes also of repair, mechanical strengthening and seismic retrofitting. Many historical buildings have in fact problems of structural strength and

  10. Geography, Writing System and History of Ancient Civilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Pak-Hung

    2013-01-01

    We find an undiscovered effect of geography on the choices of writing system in ancient civilizations that in turn drive their courses of historical evolution. The fates of the ancient civilizations were predetermined by the causation spirals generated by the writing system chosen by their ancient ancestors. Understanding the mechanism can enlighten our present political choices that in turn determine the future course of humankind evolution. It can also inspire us about the clue to build an ...

  11. Unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some examples are given for unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE. Effectiveness of PIXE to analyze art and archaeological objects is also explained. Objects employed here are 1) red, yellow, blue and white pigments painted on sun-dried bricks excavated in Egypt, 2) ancient glass beads used in the Near East, 3) South American mummy hair, 4) ancient slag excavated from Kansai-district, Japan 5) ink used by Galileo Galilei and 6) Renaissance style enameled gold jewelry. (author)

  12. Connecting Philosophy of Ancient Egyptians to Modern Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aminuddin Hassan; Nurul A.A.K. Anuar; Norhasni Z. Abiddin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Associating any knowledge from ancient Egyptians to modern civilization and thinking was important and had its own value. The process of understanding knowledge related to ancient Egyptians is actually based on the nature of philosophical thought. Approach: In the discussion of ancient Egypt philosophy, it is important to look at it from the perspectives of the four branches of philosophy; metaphysics, epistemology, axiology and logic. Metaphysics has two elements, which ar...

  13. Study on Prohibitions of Ancient Chinese Costumes in Black Series

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomeng Qu

    2013-01-01

    China is a historical country with extensive and profound civilization, in which the Chinese Costume has always been a brilliant feature. Black series occupies an important position in the color institution of ancient Chinese Costumes. The prohibition on black series costumes also has a significant meaning in ancient China. By discussing prohibitions related to black series in ancient Chinese costume institution, this paper studied two typical colors used by people of different classes as the...

  14. Using semantic memory to boost 'episodic' recall in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R; Gardiner, John M; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-07-17

    We report two experiments that investigated factors that might boost 'episodic' recall for Jon, a developmental amnesic whose episodic memory is gravely impaired but whose semantic memory seems relatively normal. Experiment 1 showed that Jon's recall improved following a semantic study task compared with a non-semantic study task, as well as following four repeated study trials compared with only one. Experiment 2 additionally revealed that Jon's recall improved after acting compared with reading action phrases at study, but only if the phrases were well integrated semantically. The results provide some support for the hypothesis that Jon's 'episodic' recall depends on the extent to which he is able to retrieve events using semantic memory. PMID:16791103

  15. Semantic and phonological information in sentence recall: converging psycholinguistic and neuropsychological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf; Bormann, Tobias; Martin, Randi C

    2011-12-01

    We present one experiment and a neuropsychological case study to investigate to what extent phonological and semantic representations contribute to short-term sentence recall. We modified Potter and Lombardi's (1990) intrusion paradigm, in which retention of a list interferes with sentence recall such that on the list a semantically related lure is presented, which is expected to intrude into sentence recall. In our version, lure words are either semantically related to target words in the sentence or semantically plus phonologically related. With healthy participants, intrusions are more frequent when lure and target overlap phonologically in addition to semantically than when they solely overlap semantically. When this paradigm is applied to a patient with a phonological short-term memory impairment, both lure types induce the same amount of intrusions. These findings indicate that usually phonological information is retained in sentence recall in addition to semantic information.

  16. Individual differences and context: factors mediating recall of anti-drug public service announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Margaret U; Palmgreen, Philip

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 597 participants was surveyed to examine factors that influence recall of antidrug public service announcements (PSAs). High sensation-seekers and polydrug users recalled somewhat more antidrug PSAs than low sensation-seekers and nonusers. Regression analyses indicated that total hours of television viewing did not predict recall of televised antidrug PSAs; instead, recall was predicted by preference for specific program genres, such as sports, news shows, action programs, sitcoms, and stand-up/comedy channel programs, and individual-difference variables such as sensation-seeking, drug use, and gender. The findings provide more evidence for the sensation-seeking targeting (SENTAR) approach and demonstrate the relevance of selective exposure and program contexts in reaching potential drug users. PMID:17461753

  17. The effect of mood-context on visual recognition and recall memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarita J; Rollings, Lucy J L

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely known that memory is enhanced when encoding and retrieval occur in the same state, the impact of elevated stress/arousal is less understood. This study explores mood-dependent memory's effects on visual recognition and recall of material memorized either in a neutral mood or under higher stress/arousal levels. Participants' (N = 60) recognition and recall were assessed while they experienced either the same o a mismatched mood at retrieval. The results suggested that both visual recognition and recall memory were higher when participants experienced the same mood at encoding and retrieval compared with those who experienced a mismatch in mood context between encoding and retrieval. These findings offer support for a mood dependency effect on both the recognition and recall of visual information.

  18. Semantic Integration: Effects of Imagery, Enaction, and Sentence Repetition Training on Prereaders' Recall for Pictograph Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, George W.; Ryan, Ellen Bouchard

    1985-01-01

    Over a two-week period, examined the effectiveness of integrative imagery strategy over concrete enaction and repetition strategies for improving kindergartners' recall of pictograph sentences. (Author/BE)

  19. Using Ancient DNA to Understand Evolutionary and Ecological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA provides a unique means to record genetic change through time and directly observe evolutionary and ecological processes. Although mostly based on mitochondrial DNA, the increasing availability of genomic sequences is leading to unprecedented levels of resolution. Temporal studies of...... modern populations. Importantly, the complex series of events revealed by ancient DNA data is seldom reflected in current biogeographic patterns. DNA preserved in ancient sediments and coprolites has been used to characterize a range of paleoenvironments and reconstruct functional relationships in...... paleoecological systems. In the near future, genome-level surveys of ancient populations will play an increasingly important role in revealing, calibrating, and testing evolutionary processes....

  20. Mapping the Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom

    2003-01-01

    This project uses new satellite and airborne imagery in combination with remote sensing, GIS, and GPS technology to understand the dynamics of how the Maya successfully interacted with their karst topographic landscape for several centuries in the northern Peten region of Guatemala. The ancient Maya attained one of the greatest population densities in human history in the tropical forest of the Peten, Guatemala, and it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons around AD 800. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not known at this time. However, a recent NASA-funded project was the first to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Micro-environmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetational associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The recent acquisition of one-meter IKONOS imagery and high resolution STAR-3i radar imagery (2.5m backscatter/ 10m DEM), opens new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karst topographic landscape and their human-induced effects upon the local climate. This understanding is critical for the current population that is presently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through non-traditional farming and grazing techniques