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Sample records for cancer prevention trial

  1. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.

  2. Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about actively enrolling, ongoing, and completed clinical trials of cancer prevention, early detection, and supportive care, including phase I, II, and III agent and action trials and clinical trials management. |

  3. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  4. Clinical Trials Node | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program (Consortia) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five cancer research centers lead multiple collaborative networks to assess potential cancer preventive agents and to conduct early clinical development of promising preventive agents. Also called the Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials, the studies require extensive biomarker analysis, investigation of the biologic effects of the cancer preventive agents on their intended molecular targets and on multiple endpoints associated with carcinogenesis, and correlation with clinically relevant endpoints.  | Systematic early clinical development of promising preventive agents through five major medical research centers.

  6. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Dunn, Barbara K

    2013-01-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was ...

  7. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  11. Serum Oxidized Protein and Prostate Cancer Risk within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Ashraful; Ambrosone, Christine B; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Tangen, Cathy; Kristal, Alan; Lucia, Scott; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Thompson, Ian; Hsing, Ann W.; Parnes, Howard; Lippman, Scott M.; Santella, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1808 prostate cancer cases and 1805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-control trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted ...

  12. Diet, Supplement Use, and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L; Goodman, Phyllis; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thompson, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994–2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a str...

  13. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  14. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The ...

  15. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Prevention of Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Clinical Trials and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ian; Kristal, Alan; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is an excellent target for prevention, to reduce both mortality and the burden of overdetection of potential inconsequential disease whose diagnosis increases cost, morbidity, and anxiety. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial has demonstrated that finasteride significantly reduces the risk of prostate cancer but only low-grade disease; overall survival is unaffected. In the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) clinical trial, selenium had no effect on prosta...

  17. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Cindy H.; Price, Douglas K.; Cathee Till; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Xiaohong Chen; Leach, Robin J; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Ashraful Hoque; Tangen, Catherine M.; Lisa Chu; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying dru...

  18. TRICHOMONOSIS AND SUBSEQUENT RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Alderete, John F.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Zenilman, Jonathan M; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    We previously observed a positive association between a history of trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis, and prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. To determine the reproducibility of this finding, we conducted a second, prospective investigation of trichomonosis and prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Participants were men ≥55 years of age with no evidence of prostate cancer at enrollmen...

  19. Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brasky, Theodore M.; Till, Cathee; White, Emily; Neuhouser, Marian L; Song, Xiaoling; Goodman, Phyllis; Thompson, Ian M; King, Irena B.; Albanes, Demetrius; Kristal, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation may be involved in prostate cancer development and progression. This study examined the associations between inflammation-related phospholipid fatty acids and the 7-year-period prevalence of prostate cancer in a nested case-control analysis of participants, aged 55–84 years, in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial during 1994–2003. Cases (n = 1,658) were frequency matched to controls (n = 1,803) on age, treatment, and prostate cancer family history. Phospholipid fatty acids were ...

  20. Reduction in the risk of prostate cancer: future directions after the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E David; Andriole, Gerald L; Marberger, Michael; Rittmaster, Roger S

    2010-03-01

    The landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) generated interest in the potential health benefits and cost of reducing prostate cancer risk--specifically, the potential role of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. However, the PCPT raised several unanswered questions, including the cause and significance of the increased incidence of high-grade tumors associated with finasteride. In the present study, we review the PCPT findings and unanswered questions, next steps in this field, and ongoing prostate cancer prevention trials addressing these unanswered questions. Particular emphasis is placed on the design of the second large-scale trial of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. PMID:20035983

  1. Biorepositories for the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has a serum and lymphocyte bank with specimens on more than 90% of the 33,000 women in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). They also have tumor blocks on the majority of the breast cancers that have occurred in women on these studies. |

  2. Nutritional Science Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray. Both chest X-rays and low-dose helical CT scans have been used to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. NLST enrolled 53,454 current or former heavy smokers from 33 sites and coordinating centers across the United States. | The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: participants who received low-dose helical CT scans had a 20% lower risk of dying from lung cancer than participants who received standard chest X-rays.

  4. Long-term survival of participants in the prostate cancer prevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) is a seminal study in the field of urology. More than 10 years after its initial publication, updated data from this trial continue to shape our understanding of prostate cancer. Among the major findings from the PCPT has been the demonstration that prostate cancer is common in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) once thought to be in the normal range,1 finasteride prevents the development of benign prostatic hypertrophy,2 it increases the sens...

  5. Association of Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Jeannette M.; Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Neuhouser, Marian L; Lin, Daniel W; White, Emily; Thompson, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer risk in 5,068 placebo-arm participants enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (1993–2003). These data include 1,225 men whose cancer was detected during the 7-year trial—556 detected for cause (following abnormal prostate-specific antigen or digital rectal examination) and 669 detected not for cause (without indication), as well as 3,843 men who had biopsy-proven absence of...

  6. Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Chau

    Full Text Available In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT, finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations.Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression.Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910, and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746 were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106.

  7. A Multi-Method Process Evaluation for a Skin Cancer Prevention Diffusion Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Escoffery, Cam; Glanz, Karen; Hall, Dawn; Elliott, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This article describes process evaluation methods for the Pool Cool Diffusion Trial across four years. Pool Cool is a skin cancer prevention program that was found to improve behaviors and environments for sun protection at swimming pools in a randomized efficacy trial, which was followed by a national Diffusion Trial. The process evaluation focus shifted from measuring program satisfaction to assessing widespread program implementation, barriers and facilitators to implementation, and progra...

  8. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Active Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Serum estrogen levels and prostate cancer risk in the prostate cancer prevention trial: a nested case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Song; Till, Cathee; Kristal, Alan R.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Tang, Li; Neuhouser, Marian L; Santella, Regina M.; William D Figg; Price, Douglas K.; Parnes, Howard L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Finasteride reduces prostate cancer risk by blocking the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. However, whether finasteride affects estrogens levels or change in estrogens affects prostate cancer risk is unknown. Methods These questions were investigated in a case–control study nested within the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) with 1,798 biopsy-proven prostate cancer cases and 1,798 matched controls. Results Among men on placebo, no relationship of serum estroge...

  11. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES 16, 18 AND 31 SEROSTATUS AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hoque, Ashraful M.; Hsing, Ann W.; Thompson, Ian M; Zenilman, Jonathan M; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was first identified as a risk factor for cervical cancer, several seroepidemiologic and tissue-based studies have investigated HPV in relation to prostate cancer, another common genitourinary malignancy, with mixed results. To further inform this potential association, we conducted a large, prospective investigation of HPV types 16, 18, and 31 in relation to risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Cases were a sample ...

  12. Clinical Trial Design for Testing the Stem Cell Model for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cancer stem cell model introduces new strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancers. In cancers that appear to follow the stem cell model, pathways such as Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog may be targeted with natural compounds such as curcumin or drugs to reduce the risk of initiation of new tumors. Disease progression of established tumors could also potentially be inhibited by targeting the tumorigenic stem cells alone, rather than aiming to reduce overall tumor size. These new approaches mandate a change in the design of clinical trials and biomarkers chosen for efficacy assessment for preventative, neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatments. Cancer treatments could be evaluated by assessing stem cell markers before and after treatment. Targeted stem cell specific treatment of cancers may not result in “complete” or “partial” responses radiologically, as stem cell targeting may not reduce the tumor bulk, but eliminate further tumorigenic potential. These changes are discussed using breast, pancreatic, and lung cancer as examples

  13. Clinical Trial Design for Testing the Stem Cell Model for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Rishindra M., E-mail: reddyrm@med.umich.edu [Medical Center, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, 2120 Taubman Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kakarala, Madhuri; Wicha, Max S. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-06-20

    The cancer stem cell model introduces new strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancers. In cancers that appear to follow the stem cell model, pathways such as Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog may be targeted with natural compounds such as curcumin or drugs to reduce the risk of initiation of new tumors. Disease progression of established tumors could also potentially be inhibited by targeting the tumorigenic stem cells alone, rather than aiming to reduce overall tumor size. These new approaches mandate a change in the design of clinical trials and biomarkers chosen for efficacy assessment for preventative, neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatments. Cancer treatments could be evaluated by assessing stem cell markers before and after treatment. Targeted stem cell specific treatment of cancers may not result in “complete” or “partial” responses radiologically, as stem cell targeting may not reduce the tumor bulk, but eliminate further tumorigenic potential. These changes are discussed using breast, pancreatic, and lung cancer as examples.

  14. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial was a population-based randomized trial to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and secondary endpoints in more than 150,000 men and women aged 55 to 74.  The PLCO Biorepository, accessible by the Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) web portal, contains about 2.7 million biologic specimens from intervention participants during their six trial screening years, and buccal cell specimens from control participants. The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) component has biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before diagnosis of disease.  | A repository of data from a large randomized trial on the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and secondary endpoints in men and women aged 55 to 74.

  15. Active Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Biorepository for Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PCPT biorepository and extended data was used to further explore the initial suggestion that some men taking finasteride were at risk of developing high-grade prostate cancers, and to look at the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection. Researchers showed that: |

  18. Relationship of ZNF423 and CTSO with breast cancer risk in two randomised tamoxifen prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, Adam R; Cuzick, Jack; Byers, Helen; Segal, Corrinne; Reuter, Caroline; Detre, Simone; Sestak, Ivana; Howell, Anthony; Powles, Trevor J; Newman, William G; Dowsett, Mitchell

    2016-08-01

    A case-control study from two randomised breast cancer prevention trials of tamoxifen and raloxifene (P-1 and P-2) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near genes ZNF423 and CTSO as factors which predict which women will derive most anti-cancer benefit from selective oestrogen receptor modulator (SERM) therapy. In this article, we further examine this question using blood samples from two randomised tamoxifen prevention trials: the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study I (IBIS-I) and the Royal Marsden trial (Marsden). A nested case-control study was designed with 2:1 matching in IBIS-I and 1:1 matching in Marsden. The OncoArray was used for genotyping and included two SNPs previously identified (rs8060157 in ZNF423 and rs10030044 near CTSO), and 102 further SNPs within the same regions. Overall, there were 369 cases and 662 controls, with 148 cases and 268 controls from the tamoxifen arms. Odds ratios were estimated by conditional logistic regression, with Wald 95 % confidence intervals. In the tamoxifen arms, the per-allele odds ratio for rs8060157 was 0.99 (95 %CI 0.73-1.34) and 1.00 (95 %CI 0.76-1.33) for rs10030044. In the placebo arm, the odds ratio was 1.10 (95 %CI 0.87-1.40) for rs8060157 and 1.01 (95 %CI 0.79-1.29) for rs10030044. There was no evidence to suggest that other SNPs in the surrounding regions of these SNPs might predict response to tamoxifen. Results from these two prevention trials do not support the earlier findings. rs8060157 in ZNF423 and rs10030044 near CTSO do not appear to predict response to tamoxifen. PMID:27400912

  19. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer prevention by dietary phytochemicals: From experimental models to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Girish B; Hudlikar, Rasika R; Kumar, Gaurav; Gandhi, Khushboo; Mahimkar, Manoj B

    2016-02-26

    Chemoprevention is one of the cancer prevention approaches wherein natural/synthetic agent(s) are prescribed with the aim to delay or disrupt multiple pathways and processes involved at multiple steps, i.e., initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. Amongst environmental chemopreventive compounds, diet/beverage-derived components are under evaluation, because of their long history of exposure to humans, high tolerability, low toxicity, and reported biological activities. This compilation briefly covers and compares the available evidence on chemopreventive efficacy and probable mechanism of chemoprevention by selected dietary phytochemicals (capsaicin, curcumin, diallyl sulphide, genistein, green/black tea polyphenols, indoles, lycopene, phenethyl isocyanate, resveratrol, retinoids and tocopherols) in experimental systems and clinical trials. All the dietary phytochemicals covered in this review have demonstrated chemopreventive efficacy against spontaneous or carcinogen-induced experimental tumors and/or associated biomarkers and processes in rodents at several organ sites. The observed anti-initiating, anti-promoting and anti-progression activity of dietary phytochemicals in carcinogen-induced experimental models involve phytochemical-mediated redox changes, modulation of enzymes and signaling kinases resulting to effects on multiple genes and cell signaling pathways. Results from clinical trials using these compounds have not shown them to be chemopreventive. This may be due to our: (1) inability to reproduce the exposure conditions, i.e., levels, complexity, other host and lifestyle factors; and (2) lack of understanding about the mechanisms of action and agent-mediated toxicity in several organs and physiological processes in the host. Current research efforts in addressing the issues of exposure conditions, bioavailability, toxicity and the mode of action of dietary phytochemicals may help address the reason for observed mismatch that may ultimately

  1. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  2. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are im...

  3. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  4. Clinical Trial Design for Testing the Stem Cell Model for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wicha, Max S.; Madhuri Kakarala; Reddy, Rishindra M.

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell model introduces new strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancers. In cancers that appear to follow the stem cell model, pathways such as Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog may be targeted with natural compounds such as curcumin or drugs to reduce the risk of initiation of new tumors. Disease progression of established tumors could also potentially be inhibited by targeting the tumorigenic stem cells alone, rather than aiming to reduce overall tumor size. These new approac...

  5. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  6. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  7. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  9. The HealthyTexts study: a randomized controlled trial to improve skin cancer prevention behaviors among young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, M; Youl, P; Marshall, A L; Soyer, H P; Baade, P

    2013-05-01

    Several randomized trials have found behavior change programs delivered via text messaging to be efficacious to improve preventive health behaviors such as physical activity and stopping smoking; however few have assessed its value in skin cancer prevention or early detection. The HealthyTexts study enrolled 678 participants 18-42 years, and assigned them to receive 21 text messages about skin cancer prevention, skin self-examination or physical activity (attention control) over the course of one year. Baseline data have been collected and outcomes will be assessed at three months and twelve months post-intervention. The trial aims to increase the mean overall sun protection habits index score from 2.3 to 2.7 with a standard deviation of 0.5 (effect size of 0.5) and the proportion of people who conduct a whole-body skin self-examination by an absolute 10%. This paper describes the study design and participants' baseline characteristics. In addition, participants' goals for their health, and strategies they apply to achieve those goals are summarized. PMID:23557730

  10. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  11. Celecoxib-related gastroduodenal ulcer and cardiovascular events in a randomized trial for gastric cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Shuang Feng; Harry HX Xia; Ji-You Li; Shiu Kum Lam; Wei-Cheng You; Jun-Ling Ma; Benjamin CY Wong; Lian Zhang; Wei-Dong Liu; Kai-Feng Pan; Lin Shen; Xiao-Dong Zhang; Jie Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term risk of gastroduodenal ulcer and cardiovascular events induced by celecoxib in a population-based, randomized, double-blind,placebo-controlled study.METHODS: From 2004 to 2006, a total of 1024 Chinese patients (aged 35 to 64 years) with severe chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg of celecoxib twice daily or placebo in Linqu County (Shandong Province, China), a high-risk area of gastric cancer. All gastroduodenal ulcer and cardiovascular events occurred were recorded and the patients were followed up for 1.5 years after treatment. At the end of the trial, a systematic interview survey about other adverse events was conducted.RESULTS: Gastroduodenal ulcer was detected in 19 of 463 (3.72%) patients who Received: celecoxib and 17 of 473 (3.31%) patients who Received placebo,respectively (odds ratio = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.58-2.19).Cardiovascular (CV) events occurred in 4 patients who received celecoxib and in 5 patients who received placebo,respectively.Compared with those who received placebo,patients who received celecoxib had no significant increase in occurrence of Cvevents (hazard ratio = 0.84,95% CI =0.23-3.15).Among the adverse events acquired by interview survey,only the frequency of bloating was significantly higher in patients treated with celecoxib than in those treated with placebo.CONCLUSION:Treatment of gastric cancer with celecoxib is not associated with increased risk of gastroduodenal ulcer and cardiovascular events.

  12. The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): Rationale and Design of a Large Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin D and Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Manson, JoAnn E.; Bassuk, Shari S.; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R.; Albert, Michelle A.; Gordon, David; Zaharris, Elaine; MacFadyen, Jean G.; Danielson, Eleanor; Lin, Jennifer; Zhang, Shumin M.; Buring, Julie E

    2011-01-01

    Data from laboratory studies, observational research, and/or secondary prevention trials suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD), but primary prevention trials with adequate dosing in general populations (i.e., unselected for disease risk) are lacking. The ongoing VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial trial of vitamin D (in the form of vitamin D3 [chole...

  13. Two-year results of a prospective preventive swallowing rehabilitation trial in patients treated with chemoradiation for advanced head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Molen; M. van Rossum; C.R.N. Rasch; L.E. Smeele; F.J.M. Hilgers

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was the assessment of the results of a prospective clinical trial with two preventive swallowing rehabilitation programs on the long-term side effects of chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in advanced head and neck cancer patients. The study cohort consisted of 29 patients, randomiz

  14. Primary HPV screening for cervical cancer prevention: results from European trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2009-01-01

    Six European, randomized, controlled trials that will compare human papillomavirus (HPV) testing with cytological testing for cervical screening are under way. We reviewed the results published so far to compare the benefits and costs for participating women. At baseline screening, use of HPV...... for each extra detected CIN2+ case; although, in another trial, this number was 49 in women > or =35 years of age. The outcome of HPV testing versus cytological testing depends not only on the relative accuracy of the primary test but also on how radical the different triage procedures are. In two trials...... of a switch from primary screening with cytological testing to primary screening with HPV testing....

  15. Clinical Trials Reference Materials and Related Links | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreements Clinical Trials Agreement Confidential Disclosure Agreements Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) - Research Plan Financial and Staffing Contribution of the Parties Exception or Modifications to the CRADA Human Subject Protection/Informed Consent Tutorials (or Education) |

  16. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  17. External validation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer risk calculators in a Chinese cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; Ding-Wei Ye; Jin-You Wang; Yi-Jun Shen; Bo Dai; Chun-Guang Ma; Wen-Jun Xiao; Guo-Wen Lin; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Several prediction models have been developed to estimate the outcomes of prostate biopsies.Most of these teels were designed for use with Western populations and have not been validated across different ethnic groups.Therefore,we evaluated the predictive value of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculators in a Chinese cohort.Clinicopathological information was obtained from 495 Chinese men who had undergone extended prostate biopsies between January 2009 and March 2011.The estimated probabilities of prostate cancer and high-grade disease (Gleason >6) were calculated using the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators.Overall measures,discrimination,calibration and clinical usefulness were assessed for the model evaluation.Of these patients,28.7% were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 19.4% had high-grade disease.Compared to the PCPT model and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold of 4 ng ml-1,the ERSPC risk calculator exhibited better discriminative ability for predicting positive biopsies and high-grade disease (the area under the curve was 0.831 and 0.852,respectively,P<0.01 for both).Decision curve analysis also suggested the favourable clinical utility of the ERSPC calculator in the validation dataset.Both prediction models demonstrated miscalibration:the risk of prostate cancer and high-grade disease was overestimated by approximately 20% for a wide range of predicted probabilities.In conclusion,the ERSPC risk calculator outperformed both the PCPT model and the PSA threshold of 4 ng ml-1 in predicting prostate cancer and high-grade disease in Chinese patients.However,the prediction tools derived from Western men significantly overestimated the probability of prostate cancer and high-grade disease compared to the outcomes of biopsies in a Chinese cohort.

  18. Future directions in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Asad; Dunn, Barbara K; Greenwald, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Prevention of cancer remains the most promising strategy for reducing both its incidence and the mortality due to this disease. For more than four decades, findings from epidemiology, basic research and clinical trials have informed the development of lifestyle and medical approaches to cancer prevention. These include selective oestrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer, the 5-α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer, and the development of vaccines for viruses that are associated with specific cancers. Future directions include genetic, proteomic and other molecular approaches for identifying pathways that are associated with cancer initiation and development, as well as refining the search for immunologically modifiable causes of cancer. PMID:23151603

  19. Friday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    TimeAgenda8:00 am - 8:10 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research GroupDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCI8:10 am - 8:40 amClinical Trials Statistical Concepts for Non-Statisticians |

  20. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Division of Cancer Prevention Web site at http://prevention.cancer.gov on the Internet. More information on cholesterol-lowering drugs can be obtained from the FDA Web site at http://www.fda.gov on the Internet. Related Resources Causes and Prevention Posted: June 2, ...

  1. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or other cancers, including lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, bladder, pancreas, and colon and rectum ( 26 ). Overall, these nine ... the incidence and mortality of carcinoma of the pancreas in a randomized, controlled trial. Cancer 1999; 86(1):37-42. [PubMed Abstract] Virtamo ...

  2. Comparison of tai chi vs. strength training for fall prevention among female cancer survivors: study protocol for the GET FIT trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women with cancer are significantly more likely to fall than women without cancer placing them at higher risk of fall-related fractures, other injuries and disability. Currently, no evidence-based fall prevention strategies exist that specifically target female cancer survivors. The purpose of the GET FIT (Group Exercise Training for Functional Improvement after Treatment) trial is to compare the efficacy of two distinct types of exercise, tai chi versus strength training, to prevent falls in women who have completed treatment for cancer. The specific aims of this study are to: 1) Determine and compare the efficacy of both tai chi training and strength training to reduce falls in older female cancer survivors, 2) Determine the mechanism(s) by which tai chi and strength training each reduces falls and, 3) Determine whether or not the benefits of each intervention last after structured training stops. We will conduct a three-group, single-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial in women, aged 50–75 years old, who have completed chemotherapy for cancer comparing 1) tai chi 2) strength training and 3) a placebo control group of seated stretching exercise. Women will participate in supervised study programs twice per week for six months and will be followed for an additional six months after formal training stops. The primary outcome in this study is falls, which will be prospectively tracked by monthly self-report. Secondary outcomes are maximal leg strength measured by isokinetic dynamometry, postural stability measured by computerized dynamic posturography and physical function measured by the Physical Performance Battery, all measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The sample for this trial (N=429, assuming 25% attrition) will provide adequate statistical power to detect at least a 47% reduction in the fall rate over 1 year by being in either of the 2 exercise groups versus the control group. The GET FIT trial will provide important new knowledge

  3. Comparison of tai chi vs. strength training for fall prevention among female cancer survivors: study protocol for the GET FIT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winters-Stone Kerri M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with cancer are significantly more likely to fall than women without cancer placing them at higher risk of fall-related fractures, other injuries and disability. Currently, no evidence-based fall prevention strategies exist that specifically target female cancer survivors. The purpose of the GET FIT (Group Exercise Training for Functional Improvement after Treatment trial is to compare the efficacy of two distinct types of exercise, tai chi versus strength training, to prevent falls in women who have completed treatment for cancer. The specific aims of this study are to: 1 Determine and compare the efficacy of both tai chi training and strength training to reduce falls in older female cancer survivors, 2 Determine the mechanism(s by which tai chi and strength training each reduces falls and, 3 Determine whether or not the benefits of each intervention last after structured training stops. Methods/Design We will conduct a three-group, single-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial in women, aged 50–75 years old, who have completed chemotherapy for cancer comparing 1 tai chi 2 strength training and 3 a placebo control group of seated stretching exercise. Women will participate in supervised study programs twice per week for six months and will be followed for an additional six months after formal training stops. The primary outcome in this study is falls, which will be prospectively tracked by monthly self-report. Secondary outcomes are maximal leg strength measured by isokinetic dynamometry, postural stability measured by computerized dynamic posturography and physical function measured by the Physical Performance Battery, all measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The sample for this trial (N=429, assuming 25% attrition will provide adequate statistical power to detect at least a 47% reduction in the fall rate over 1 year by being in either of the 2 exercise groups versus the control group. Discussion

  4. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  6. PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PREVENT program provides a structure for the introduction of new agents, drugs and vaccines to inhibit, retard or reverse the cancer process. The program was designed to optimize translational opportunities from discovery to the clinic, and provide a mechanism to identify and study efficacy and pharmacodynamics biomarkers that will help in phase II trials to evaluate drug effects.  | Research pipeline for new prevention interventions and biomarkers headed toward clinical trials.

  7. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  8. Novel Method for Recruiting Representative At-Risk Individuals into Cancer Prevention Trials: Online Health Risk Assessment in Employee Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Miller, Suzanne M; Hazuda, Leah; Engelman, Kimberly; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2016-09-01

    Participation in cancer prevention trials (CPT) is lower than 3 % among high-risk healthy individuals, and racial/ethnic minorities are the most under-represented. Novel recruitment strategies are therefore needed. Online health risk assessment (HRA) serves as a gateway component of nearly all employee wellness programs (EWPs) and may be a missed opportunity. This study aimed to explore employees' interest, willingness, motivators, and barriers of releasing their HRA responses to an external secure research database for recruitment purpose. We used qualitative research methods (focus group and individual interviews) to examine employees' interest and willingness in releasing their online HRA responses to an external, secure database to register as potential CPT participants. Fifteen structured interviews (40 % of study participants were of racial/ethnic minority) were conducted, and responses reached saturation after four interviews. All employees showed interest and willingness to release their online HRA responses to register as a potential CPT participant. Content analyses revealed that 91 % of participants were motivated to do so, and the major motivators were to (1) obtain help in finding personally relevant prevention trials, (2) help people they know who are affected by cancer, and/or (3) increase knowledge about CPT. A subset of participants (45 %) expressed barriers of releasing their HRA responses due to concerns about credibility and security of the external database. Online HRA may be a feasible but underutilized recruitment method for cancer prevention trials. EWP-sponsored HRA shows promise for the development of a large, centralized registry of racially/ethnically representative CPT potential participants. PMID:26507744

  9. Preventive effects of zinc sulfate on taste alterations in patients under irradiation for head and neck cancers: A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Najafizade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taste abnormalities are common among cancer patients after starting radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Considering the role of zinc and reports on its beneficial effects in taste perception, we evaluated the preventive effects of zinc sulfate on radiation-induced taste alterations. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with head and neck cancers who were on schedule for radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, were allocated to receive zinc sulfate (50 mg, three times a day or placebo; started with beginning of radiotherapy and continued for one month later. Taste acuity was determined by measuring detection and recognition thresholds for four taste qualities at baseline, at the end of radiotherapy, and a month later using the Henkin method. Results: Thirty-five patients (mean age = 59.2 ± 16.5, 60% male completed the trial. The two groups were similar at baseline. After radiotherapy, and one month later, there was a significant increase in taste perception threshold for bitter, salty, sweet, and sour tastes in the placebo group ( P = 0.001. In those who received zinc, there was only slight increase in threshold for perception of the salty taste ( P = 0.046. No relevant side effects due to zinc sulfate were reported. Conclusion: Zinc supplementation in head/neck cancer patients under radiotherapy can prevent radiation-induced taste alterations. Further studies with longer follow-ups and with different doses of zinc supplementation are warranted in this regard.

  10. Can Lifestyle Change Prevent the Recurrence of Ovarian Cancer? A DCP/CCOP-Sponsored Phase 3 Trial in the GOG | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker David S Alberts, MD Director Emeritus, University of Arizona Cancer Center Regents Professor of Medicine Pharmacology Nutritional Science and Public Health This meeting is reserved for NIH staff only. |

  11. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is...

  12. Efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer: A review of evidence from phase III trials and national programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in the national immunization programs in most of the medium and high income countries following endorsement from national and international advisory bodies. HPV vaccine is unique and its introduction is challenging in many ways - it is the first vaccine developed to prevent any cancer, the vaccine is gender specific, it targets adolescent females who are difficult to reach by any health intervention programs. It is not unusual for such a vaccine to face scepticism and reservations not only from lay public but also from professionals in spite of the clinical trial results convincingly and consistently proving their efficacy and safety. Over the last few years millions of doses of the HPV vaccine have been administered round the world and the efficacy and safety data have started coming from the real life programs. A comprehensive cervical cancer control program involving HPV vaccination of the adolescent girls and screening of the adult women has been proved to be the most cost-effective approach to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. The present article discusses the justification of HPV vaccination in the backdrop of natural history of cervical cancer, the mechanism of action of the vaccines, efficacy and safety data from phase III randomized controlled trials as well as from the national immunization programs of various countries.

  13. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial Etiologic and Early Marker Studies (EEMS), 2016 Winter Review Cycle Has New Website | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial Etiologic and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) has a new application process for specimen requests. Researchers planning to submit a grant application in response to the Funding Opportunity Announcement PAR-15-297 must use a new website to submit applications. |

  14. Protocol Information Office | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIO Instructions and ToolsFind instructions, forms, and templates for the management of all types of Division of Cancer Prevention clinical trials.Clinical Trials Reference MaterialsModel clinical agreements, human subject protection and informed consent models, gender and minority inclusion information, and monitoring policy and guidelines. |

  15. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  16. The ALCHEMIST Lung Cancer Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of material about the ALCHEMIST lung cancer trial that will examine tumor tissue from patients with early-stage, completely resected lung cancer for gene mutations in the EGFR and ALK genes, and a

  17. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  18. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Marina M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0, midpoint (week 12 and at the end of the intervention (week 24. Discussion Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Cancer Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Cancer CAM Clinical Trials Introduction What are clinical trials? A clinical trial is one of the final ... and effective. What are the different types of clinical trials? Treatment trials test new treatments (like a new ...

  20. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  1. Design and methods for a cluster randomized trial of the Sunless Study: A skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning among beach visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam Philip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most prevalent yet most preventable cancer in the US. While protecting oneself from ultraviolet radiation (UVR can largely reduce risk, rates of unprotected sun exposure remain high. Because the desire to be tan often outweighs health concerns among sunbathers, very few interventions have been successful at reducing sunbathing behavior. Sunless tanning (self-tanners and spray tans, a method of achieving the suntanned look without UVR exposure, might be an effective supplement to prevention interventions. Methods and Design This cluster randomized trial will examine whether a beach-based intervention that promotes sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing and includes sun damage imaging and sun safety recommendations is superior to a questionnaire only control group in reducing sunbathing frequency. Female beach visitors (N = 250 will be recruited from 2 public beaches in eastern Massachusetts. Beach site will be the unit of randomization. Follow-up assessment will occur at the end of the summer (1-month following intervention and 1 year later. The primary outcome is average sunbathing time per week. The study was designed to provide 90% power for detecting a difference of .70 hours between conditions (standard deviation of 2.0 at 1-year with an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 and assuming a 25% rate of loss to follow-up. Secondary outcomes include frequency of sunburns, use of sunless tanning products, and sun protection behavior. Discussion Interventions might be improved by promoting behavioral substitutes for sun exposure, such as sunless tanners, that create a tanned look without exposure to UVR. Trial registration NCT00403377

  2. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  3. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC) study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus) and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week) or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week) for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0), midpoint (week 12) and at the end of the intervention (week 24). Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, interventions effective in

  4. Personalizing Lung Cancer Prevention Through a Reverse Migration Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Kathryn A.; Kim, Edward S.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Hong, Waun K.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in the United States and worldwide. Tobacco use is the one of the primary causes of lung cancer and smoking cessation is an important step towards prevention, but patients who have quit smoking remain at risk for lung cancer. Finding pharmacologic agents to prevent lung cancer could potentially save many lives. Unfortunately, despite extensive research, there are no known effective chemoprevention agents for lung cancer. Clinical trials in the past, using a...

  5. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can ovarian cancer be found early? Can ovarian cancer be prevented? Most women have one or ... strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history ...

  6. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  7. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  8. Preventing and Therapeutic Effect of Propolis in Radiotherapy Induced Mucositis of Head and Neck Cancers: A Triple-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Javadzadeh Bolouri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucositis is one of the acute complications of radiotherapy which can ulcerate oral mucosa and cause severe pain and discomfort which can affect oral normal function. Propolis is a natural source of flavenoid which has antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, healing and anti-inflammatory effects. Using such an affordable compound without any bad smell or taste that has reasonable price can help the radiotherapy undergoing patients. Objectives: Our goal is assessing the preventing and therapeutic effect of propolis in radiotherapy induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. Patients and Methods: In a randomized triple blind clinical trial, 20 patient were selected randomly to swish and swallow 15 ml of water based extract of propolis mouth wash 3 times a day in the case group (n = 10 and 15 ml placebo mouth wash in control group (n = 10. we use NIC-CTC scale for determining mucositis grading. Results: We use T-test, Man-Whitney, Chi-square, and Friedman as analyzing tests. Case group had significantly (P 0.05. Conclusions: This is a pilot study which shows water based extract of propolis efficiently prevents and heals radiotherapy induced mucositis.

  9. Overshadowing as prevention of anticipatory nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Friedemann; Wolfgram, Levke

    2013-01-01

    Background Emesis and nausea are side effects induced by chemotherapy. These effects lead to enormous stress and strain on cancer patients. Further consequences may include restrictions in quality of life, cachexia or therapy avoidance. Evidence suggests that cancer patients develop the side effects of nausea and vomiting in anticipation of chemotherapy. Contextual cues such as smell, sounds or even the sight of the clinic may evoke anticipatory nausea and vomiting prior to infusion. Anticipa...

  10. Cancer prevention trial of a synergistic mixture of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (CAPSOL-T) in a random population of subjects ages 40-84

    OpenAIRE

    Hanau, Claudia; Morré, D. James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2014-01-01

    Background Experts agree that one of the more promising strategies in cancer management is early detection coupled with early intervention. In this study, we evaluated an early cancer detection strategy of cancer presence based on serum levels of the cancer-specific transcript variants of ENOX2 in serum coupled with an ENOX2-targeted nutraceutical preparation of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T®) as a strategy of Curative Prevention® involving early detection coupled with early i...

  11. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  12. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  13. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Lethal Prostate Cancer in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoag, Jonathan; Mittal, Sameer; Halpern, Joshua A; Scherr, Douglas; Hu, Jim C; Barbieri, Christopher E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial randomized men to usual care or annual prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for 6 yr and digital rectal examination for 4 yr. This trial found no difference between the intervention and usual care arms of the study in the primary end point of prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality. The PLCO trial results have had a major impact on health policy and the rate of PSA screening in the United States. We analyzed the 13-yr screening and outcomes data from the 151 participants who died of PCa in the screening arm of the trial to better understand how randomization to screening failed to prevent PCa death in these men. We found that of these men, 81 (53.6%) either were never screened as part of the trial or had an initial positive screen. Only 17 (11.3%) of those who died reached year 6 of the trial with a PSA <4.0 ng/ml. The men who died in the screening arm were also older at study entry than the average PLCO participant (66 vs 62 yr; p < 0.001). Our analysis should inform the interpretation of the PLCO trial and provide insight into future trial design. PMID:27166670

  15. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy to prevent gastric cancer in healthy asymptomatic infected individuals: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, AC; Forman, D; Hunt, RH; Y. Yuan; MOAYYEDI, P

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether searching for Helicobacter pylori and treating with eradication therapy leads to a reduction in incidence of gastric cancer among healthy asymptomatic infected individuals. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials were searched through to December 2013. Conference proceedings between 2001 and 2013 were hand searched. A recursive search was ...

  16. Promoting state health department evidence-based cancer and chronic disease prevention: a multi-phase dissemination study with a cluster randomized trial component

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Peg; Sequeira, Sonia; Jacob, Rebekah R.; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Stamatakis, Katherine A; Harris, Jenine K.; Elliott, Lindsay; Kerner, Jon F.; Jones, Ellen; Dobbins, Maureen; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer and other chronic diseases reduce quality and length of life and productivity, and represent a significant financial burden to society. Evidence-based public health approaches to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases have been identified in recent decades and have the potential for high impact. Yet, barriers to implement prevention approaches persist as a result of multiple factors including lack of organizational support, limited resources, competing emerging priorities...

  17. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  18. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  19. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  20. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB and...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  1. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  2. Stroke Prevention Trials in Sickle Cell Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    As part of an International Pediatric Stroke Study launched in 2002, the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP) reports a reduction in the number of overt clinical strokes in children with critically high transcranial Doppler velocities (>200 cm/sec) who were regularly transfused.

  3. Stroke Prevention Trials in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of an International Pediatric Stroke Study launched in 2002, the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP reports a reduction in the number of overt clinical strokes in children with critically high transcranial Doppler velocities (>200 cm/sec who were regularly transfused.

  4. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  5. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, T. Kuan, E-mail: tkyu@houstonprecisioncc.com [Houston Precision Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of {>=}Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop.

  6. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of ≥Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid–based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of ≥Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of ≥Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid–based gel for reducing the development of ≥Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid–based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop

  7. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-10-10

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol's iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

  8. Double blind randomized prospective trial of bethanechol in the prevention of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the prophylactic bethanechol use to prevent salivary gland dysfunction during radiotherapy. A total of 97 head and neck cancer patients were allocated into two groups: Bethanechol or Placebo. Bethanechol group presented significantly improve of salivary parameters. Bethanechol was effective in decreasing the salivary gland damage

  9. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large amount of arsenic has been linked to skin , bladder, and lung cancers. Studies have been done ...

  10. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate cancer increases as men get older. Family history of prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, ... some foods, such as green vegetables, beans and orange juice. Folic acid is a man-made form ...

  11. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015 Keynote Lecture HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 23, 2015 at 3:00pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Douglas Lowy, NCI Acting Director. |

  12. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  13. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linking the development of this disease, in many cases, with exposure to the hormone estrogen. The focus of recent breast cancer prevention studies has been on testing the effectiveness of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). SERMs are ...

  14. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as the skin on the genital or anal area. Still, condoms do provide some protection against HPV, and they also protect against HIV and some ... cancers. They are also approved to help prevent anal and genital warts, as well ... cancers. More HPV vaccines are being developed and tested. For more ...

  15. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  16. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis B, which greatly lowers the risk of getting the ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis C, which ... infected with hepatitis B. It is caused by hepatitis D virus (HDV) ...

  17. Study Design and Rationale for the Phase 3 Clinical Development Program of Enobosarm, a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, for the Prevention and Treatment of Muscle Wasting in Cancer Patients (POWER Trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jeffrey; Prado, Carla M M; Johnston, Mary Ann; Gralla, Richard J; Taylor, Ryan P; Hancock, Michael L; Dalton, James T

    2016-06-01

    Muscle wasting in cancer is a common and often occult condition that can occur prior to overt signs of weight loss and before a clinical diagnosis of cachexia can be made. Muscle wasting in cancer is an important and independent predictor of progressive functional impairment, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality. Although several therapeutic agents are currently in development for the treatment of muscle wasting or cachexia in cancer, the majority of these agents do not directly inhibit muscle loss. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have the potential to increase lean body mass (LBM) and hence muscle mass, without the untoward side effects seen with traditional anabolic agents. Enobosarm, a nonsteroidal SARM, is an agent in clinical development for prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in patients with cancer (POWER 1 and 2 trials). The POWER trials are two identically designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, and multinational phase 3 trials to assess the efficacy of enobosarm for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in subjects initiating first-line chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To assess enobosarm's effect on both prevention and treatment of muscle wasting, no minimum weight loss is required. These pivotal trials have pioneered the methodological and regulatory fields exploring a therapeutic agent for cancer-associated muscle wasting, a process hereby described. In each POWER trial, subjects will receive placebo (n = 150) or enobosarm 3 mg (n = 150) orally once daily for 147 days. Physical function, assessed as stair climb power (SCP), and LBM, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are the co-primary efficacy endpoints in both trials assessed at day 84. Based on extensive feedback from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the co-primary endpoints will be analyzed as a responder analysis. To be considered a physical function responder, a

  18. Prevention strategies for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2012-12-01

    Through the last decade consideration of the role of vitamins and minerals in primary prevention of genitourinary tumors has dramatically changed. Despite all efforts efficacy of a specific compound has not been proven, so far. In consequence, recommendations for a use of vitamins or other supplements with the intention of prostate cancer prevention should be avoided today. In contrast, there is some evidence that life style modification might be helpful: recent investigations suggest that smoking may be involved in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that moderate food consumption, reduction of dairy products and an Asian or Mediterranean diet might not only prevent prostate cancer but also harbors additional beneficial effects on general health. This move from single compounds to more complex diets can be considered as a change of paradigm in prostate cancer prevention and could be the starting point of future epidemiological research. Disappointing findings with regards to nutritional cancer prevention contrast with a solid evidence concerning the efficacy of chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors: Long-term use of Finasteride and Dutasteride significantly reduces prostate cancer detection. Further candidate drugs are under investigation. However, translation of these findings into urological practice remains a matter of controversial discussion. PMID:23288209

  19. Study design and methods for the Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA)

    OpenAIRE

    Friedenreich, Christine M; MacLaughlin, Sarah; Neilson, Heather K.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Yasui, Yutaka; Duha, Aalo; Lynch, Brigid M; Kallal, Ciara; Courneya, Kerry S

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise has favorable effects on biomarkers associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, however it is unclear if higher doses of exercise provide additional effects. No clinical trial has systematically examined how different exercise volumes influence the mechanisms underlying breast cancer etiology. The Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA) - a follow-up study to the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial - is examining how a one-yea...

  20. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnant. This increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is one of a group of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators , or SERMs. Tamoxifen acts like estrogen on some tissues in the ...

  1. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  2. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  3. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients public health campaign, a public-private partnership was formed between the CDC Foundation and Amgen, Inc. The CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control developed and launched an interactive website, www.PreventCancerInfections.org, designed for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The site encourages patients to complete a risk assessment for developing neutropenia during their treatment. After completing the assessment, patients receive information about how to lower the risk for infection and keep themselves healthy while receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25095295

  4. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  5. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are safe. DO NOT eat fish, eggs, or meat that is raw or undercooked. And DO NOT ... During or right after cancer treatment, call your health care provider right away if you have any of the signs of infection mentioned above. Getting ...

  6. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk? What Are the Symptoms? What Should I Know About Screening? Statistics Related Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ...

  7. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  8. Rationale and design of the Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research Trial (MANTICORE 101 - Breast: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer using cardiac MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekowitz Justin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MANTICORE 101 - Breast (Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research is a randomized trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or beta-blocker can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling, measured with cardiac MRI, among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty-nine patients with histologically confirmed HER2+ breast cancer will be enrolled in a parallel 3-arm, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind design. After baseline assessments, participants will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril, beta-blocker (bisoprolol, or placebo. Participants will receive drug or placebo for 1 year beginning 7 days before trastuzumab therapy. Dosages for all groups will be systematically up-titrated, as tolerated, at 1 week intervals for a total of 3 weeks. The primary objective of this randomized clinical trial is to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, as measured by 12 month change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume using cardiac MRI. Secondary objectives include 1 determine the evolution of left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, 2 understand the mechanism of trastuzumab mediated cardiac toxicity by assessing for the presence of myocardial injury and apoptosis on serum biomarkers and cardiac MRI, and 3 correlate cardiac biomarkers of myocyte injury and extra-cellular matrix remodeling with left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Discussion Cardiac toxicity as a result of cancer therapies is now recognized as a significant health problem of increasing prevalence. To our knowledge, MANTICORE will be the first

  9. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Casari; Marco Falasca

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and d...

  10. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016 Keynote Lecture Polyvalent Vaccines Targeting Oncogenic Driver Pathways A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 21, 2016 at 1:30pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Mary L. (Nora) Disis, MD. |

  11. Rosemary and cancer prevention: preclinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Suong N T; Williams, Desmond B; Head, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in Australia. Nutrition, particularly intake of vegetables and certain plant components, has been reported to have a major role in cancer risk reduction. Recently, there has been a growing research interest in rosemary, a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. This study aims to review scientific evidence from all studies, published from 1996 to March 2010 that examined the protective effects of rosemary on colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. Literature evidence from animal and cell culture studies demonstrates the anticancer potential of rosemary extract, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. No evidence for other rosemary constituents was found. The reported anticancer properties were found to arise through the molecular changes in the multiple-stage process of cancer development, which are dose related and not tissue or species specific. This is evidenced by the ability of rosemary to suppress the development of tumors in several organs including the colon, breast, liver, stomach, as well as melanoma and leukemia cells. The results suggested that the different molecular targets modulated by rosemary and its active constituents are useful indicators of success in clinical cancer chemo-prevention trials. PMID:21955093

  12. A randomized phase III prospective trial of bethanechol to prevent mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. A secondary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of bethanechol administration concomitant to radiotherapy (RT) on oral mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss. We performed a secondary analysis of a previously conducted prospective randomized trial which evaluated the effect of bethanechol on salivary gland dysfunction before, during, and after RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), in comparison to artificial saliva. Mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss were analyzed in 36 patients. Mucositis was scored using the World Health Organization (WHO) method; candidiasis was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, whereas taste loss was assessed by the patients' subjective report of absence of taste. No significant differences were observed between groups in relation to frequency and severity of mucositis or frequency of candidiasis and taste loss. In conclusion, bethanechol does not appear to reduce the incidence of mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss when administered during RT. (author)

  13. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  14. Rationale and design of the Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research Trial (MANTICORE 101 - Breast): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer using cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANTICORE 101 - Breast (Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research) is a randomized trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or beta-blocker) can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling, measured with cardiac MRI, among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. One hundred and fifty-nine patients with histologically confirmed HER2+ breast cancer will be enrolled in a parallel 3-arm, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind design. After baseline assessments, participants will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril), beta-blocker (bisoprolol), or placebo. Participants will receive drug or placebo for 1 year beginning 7 days before trastuzumab therapy. Dosages for all groups will be systematically up-titrated, as tolerated, at 1 week intervals for a total of 3 weeks. The primary objective of this randomized clinical trial is to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, as measured by 12 month change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume using cardiac MRI. Secondary objectives include 1) determine the evolution of left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, 2) understand the mechanism of trastuzumab mediated cardiac toxicity by assessing for the presence of myocardial injury and apoptosis on serum biomarkers and cardiac MRI, and 3) correlate cardiac biomarkers of myocyte injury and extra-cellular matrix remodeling with left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Cardiac toxicity as a result of cancer therapies is now recognized as a significant health problem of increasing prevalence. To our knowledge, MANTICORE will be the first randomized trial testing proven heart failure pharmacotherapy in

  15. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Molecular Prevention Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) one-week course on molecular aspects of cancer prevention follows the Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course. It provides a strong background about molecular biology and genetics of cancer, and an overview of cutting-edge research and techniques in the fields of molecular epidemiology, biomarkers, multi-omic, and translational research. The following topics will be typically presented: |

  16. Prevention of cardiac dysfunction during adjuvant breast cancer therapy (PRADA): a 2 × 2 factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of candesartan and metoprolol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Geeta; Heck, Siri Lagethon; Ree, Anne Hansen; Hoffmann, Pavel; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Fagerland, Morten W.; Gravdehaug, Berit; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Bratland, Åse; Storås, Tryggve H.; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Røsjø, Helge; Steine, Kjetil; Geisler, Jürgen; Omland, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Aims Contemporary adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer is associated with improved survival but at the cost of increased risk of cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that concomitant therapy with the angiotensin receptor blocker candesartan or the β-blocker metoprolol will alleviate the decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) associated with adjuvant, anthracycline-containing regimens with or without trastuzumab and radiation. Methods and results In a 2 × 2 factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we assigned 130 adult women with early breast cancer and no serious co-morbidity to the angiotensin receptor blocker candesartan cilexetil, the β-blocker metoprolol succinate, or matching placebos in parallel with adjuvant anticancer therapy. The primary outcome measure was change in LVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A priori, a change of 5 percentage points was considered clinically important. There was no interaction between candesartan and metoprolol treatments (P = 0.530). The overall decline in LVEF was 2.6 (95% CI 1.5, 3.8) percentage points in the placebo group and 0.8 (95% CI −0.4, 1.9) in the candesartan group in the intention-to-treat analysis (P-value for between-group difference: 0.026). No effect of metoprolol on the overall decline in LVEF was observed. Conclusion In patients treated for early breast cancer with adjuvant anthracycline-containing regimens with or without trastuzumab and radiation, concomitant treatment with candesartan provides protection against early decline in global left ventricular function. PMID:26903532

  17. Phase III trial of low-level laser therapy to prevent oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oral mucositis (OM) is a complication of chemoradiotherapy treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with no effective therapy. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of preventive low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing the incidence of grade 3–4 OM. Material and methods: From June 2007 to December 2010, 94 HNSCC patients entered a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of conventional radiotherapy plus concurrent cisplatin every 3 weeks. A diode InGaAlP (660 nm–100 mW–1 J–4 J/cm2) was used. OM evaluation was performed by WHO and OMAS scales and quality of life by EORTC questionnaires (QLQ). Results: A six-fold decrease in the incidence of grades 3–4 OM was detected in the LLLT group compared to the placebo; (6.4% versus 40.5%). LLLT impacted the incidence of grades 3–4 OM to a relative risk ratio of 0.158 (CI 95% 0.050–0.498). After treatment QLQ-C30 showed, differences favoring LLLT in physical, emotional functioning, fatigue, and pain; while the QLQ-H and N35 showed improvements in LLLT arm for pain, swallowing, and trouble with social eating. Conclusion: Preventive LLLT in HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiotherapy is an effective tool for reducing the incidence of grade 3–4 OM. Efficacy data were corroborated by improvements seen in quality of life

  18. Immune checkpoints in cancer clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elad Sharon; Howard Streicher; Priscila Goncalves; Helen XChen

    2014-01-01

    Immunology-based therapy is rapidly developing into an effective treatment option for a surprising range of cancers. We have learned over the last decade that powerful immunologic effector cells may be blocked by inhibitory regulatory pathways controlled by specific molecules often called“immune checkpoints.” These checkpoints serve to control or turn off the immune response when it is no longer needed to prevent tissue injury and autoimmunity. Cancer cells have learned or evolved to use these mechanisms to evade immune control and elimination. The development of a new therapeutic class of drugs that inhibit these inhibitory pathways has recently emerged as a potent strategy in oncology. Three sets of agents have emerged in clinical trials exploiting this strategy. These agents are antibody-based therapies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). These inhibitors of immune inhibition have demonstrated extensive activity as single agents and in combinations. Clinical responses have been seen in melanoma, renal cellcarcinoma, non-smal celllung cancer, and several other tumor types. Despite the autoimmune or inflammatory immune-mediated adverse effects which have been seen, the responses and overall survival benefits exhibited thus far warrant further clinical development.

  19. Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Cancer Treatment Request Permissions Print to PDF Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment November 2, 2015 ... Torisel) Topotecan (Hycamtin, Brakiva) Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Recommendations for preventing vomiting caused by chemotherapy and targeted therapy The ...

  20. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G;

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  1. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G;

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  2. Single Institution Feasibility Trials - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the CIP program, the current R21 mechanism provides potential funding for small, single institution feasibility trials. The current announcement is titled In Vivo Cancer Imaging Exploratory/Developmental Grants.

  3. Phase 1 Trials in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Yu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite many clinical trials over the last two decades since the approval of gemcitabine, the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer has improved by a few only months. This disappointing reality underlines an urgent need to develop more effective drugs or better combinations. A variety of phase I trials were presented at the annual meeting of ASCO 2014 focusing on locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer. We summarize four abstracts (abstracts #4116, #4123, #4026, #4138.

  4. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka;

    2014-01-01

    predominantly elderly community-dwelling women. Vitamin D₃ supplementation decreased cancer mortality and vitamin D supplementation decreased all-cause mortality, but these estimates are at risk of type I errors due to the fact that too few participants were examined, and to risks of attrition bias originating......BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of...... provided data for the analyses. All trials came from high-income countries. Most of the trials had a high risk of bias, mainly for-profit bias. Most trials included elderly community-dwelling women (aged 47 to 97 years). Vitamin D was administered for a weighted mean of six years. Fourteen trials tested...

  5. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers; to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening; and to validate educational materials developed for low-literacy populations.

  6. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate and bladder cancer. | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate, bladder, and skin cancers.

  7. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  8. A favorable view: progress in cancer prevention and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Clifton Leaf, in his article "Why We're Losing the War on Cancer," presents criticisms of past research approaches and the small impact of this research thus far on producing cures or substantially extending the life of many cancer patients. It is true that gains in long-term survival for people with advanced cancers have been modest, hindered in part by the heterogeneity of tumors, which allows the cancers to persist using alternate molecular pathways and so evade many cancer therapeutics. In contrast, clinical trials have demonstrated that it is possible to reduce the incidence or improve cancer survival through prevention and early detection. Strides have been made in preventing or detecting early the four deadliest cancers in the United States (i.e., lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal). For example, 7-year follow-up data from the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) provides evidence that tamoxifen reduces the occurrence of invasive breast tumors by more than 40%; recent studies using aromatase inhibitors and raloxifene are also promising. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) showed that finasteride reduced prostate cancer incidence by 25%, and the ongoing Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) is investigating selenium and vitamin E for prostate cancer prevention based on encouraging results from earlier studies. Living a healthy lifestyle, including regular physical activity, avoiding obesity, and eating primarily a plant-based diet has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, noninvasive stool DNA tests for early detection are being studied, which may lessen the reluctance of people to be screened for colorectal polyps and cancer. Behavioral and medical approaches for smoking prevention are ways to reduce the incidence of lung cancer, with antinicotine vaccines on the horizon that may help former smokers to avoid relapse. The US National Lung Screening Trial is testing whether early detection via

  9. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT

  10. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  11. Prophylactic use of Mepitel Film prevents radiation-induced moist desquamation in an intra-patient randomised controlled clinical trial of 78 breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Safetac-based soft silicone dressings used in a management setting decrease the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions but do not affect moist desquamation rates. Here we investigate the prophylactic use of another Safetac product, Mepitel Film, on moist desquamation rates. Material and methods: A total of 80 breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy were recruited between October 2012 and April 2013; 78 participants contributed data for analysis. Lateral and medial halves of the skin areas to be irradiated were randomised to Mepitel Film or aqueous cream; skin dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters; skin reaction severity was assessed using RISRAS and RTOG scales. Results: Overall skin reaction severity was reduced by 92% (p < 0.0001) in favour of Mepitel Film (RISRAS). All patients developed some form of reaction in cream-treated skin which progressed to moist desquamation in 26% of patients (RTOG grades I: 28%; IIA: 46%; IIB: 18%; III: 8%). Only 44% of patients had a skin reaction under the Film, which did not progress to moist desquamation in any of the patients (RTOG grades I: 36%; IIA: 8%). Conclusions: Mepitel Film completely prevented moist desquamation and reduced skin reaction severity by 92% when used prophylactically in our cohort

  12. Investigators' - Site Coordinators' Opportunity for Research Excellence (I-SCORE) Workshop | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DCP Organ Systems Research Groups develop, support and oversee clinical cancer prevention trials and promote participation by all populations. The trials are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of promising new preventive agents, the utility of novel biomarkers and the value of innovative technologies to identify premalignant lesions. The Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials program was created to facilitate the efficient implementation of these studies by teams of multidisciplinary investigators. |

  13. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  14. DO CANCER CLINICAL TRIAL POPULATIONS TRULY REPRESENT CANCER PATIENTS? A COMPARISON OF OPEN CLINICAL TRIALS TO THE CANCER GENOME ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geifman, Nophar; Butte, Atul J.

    2016-01-01

    Open clinical trial data offer many opportunities for the scientific community to independently verify published results, evaluate new hypotheses and conduct meta-analyses. These data provide a springboard for scientific advances in precision medicine but the question arises as to how representative clinical trials data are of cancer patients overall. Here we present the integrative analysis of data from several cancer clinical trials and compare these to patient-level data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Comparison of cancer type-specific survival rates reveals that these are overall lower in trial subjects. This effect, at least to some extent, can be explained by the more advanced stages of cancer of trial subjects. This analysis also reveals that for stage IV cancer, colorectal cancer patients have a better chance of survival than breast cancer patients. On the other hand, for all other stages, breast cancer patients have better survival than colorectal cancer patients. Comparison of survival in different stages of disease between the two datasets reveals that subjects with stage IV cancer from the trials dataset have a lower chance of survival than matching stage IV subjects from TCGA. One likely explanation for this observation is that stage IV trial subjects have lower survival rates since their cancer is less likely to respond to treatment. To conclude, we present here a newly available clinical trials dataset which allowed for the integration of patient-level data from many cancer clinical trials. Our comprehensive analysis reveals that cancer-related clinical trials are not representative of general cancer patient populations, mostly due to their focus on the more advanced stages of the disease. These and other limitations of clinical trials data should, perhaps, be taken into consideration in medical research and in the field of precision medicine. PMID:26776196

  15. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  16. The dawn of a revolution in personalized lung cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Fadlo R

    2011-07-01

    Lung cancer prevention and early detection, which have fallen on hard times for more than the past 20 years, seem to have turned a corner toward better times ahead. Exciting new results of randomized controlled trials that targeted the arachidonic acid pathway, including a celecoxib trial reported by Mao and colleagues in this issue of the journal (beginning on page 984) and a trial of the prostacyclin analog iloprost, complement recently reported 20%-30% lung cancer mortality reductions, either with aspirin in targeting the arachidonic acid pathway or with computed tomography screening. The new results show encouraging activity personalized to former smokers and/or people expressing predictive biomarkers. These trials and technological advances in molecular profiling and imaging herald substantial clinical advances on the horizon of this field. PMID:21733817

  17. Moving Toward Bioadjuvant Approaches to Head and Neck Cancer Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma affects >45,000 Americans annually. Patients who are successfully treated for their primary tumor are at high risk of developing a second primary tumor, making effective preventive strategies highly desirable for this disease. Although a landmark study in 1990 suggested some benefit of high-dose retinoids in head and neck cancer prevention, subsequent trials using more tolerable doses have shown limited clinical success. Newer preventive strategies have included bioadjuvant therapy combining retinoids with interferon and α-tocopherol, combinations of molecularly targeted agents, and oncolytic viruses. Furthermore, considerable evidence has supported a cancer protective role for several nutrients, including green tea and curcumin analogs. Natural compounds such as these with favorable long-term safety profiles might be particularly suited to the cancer prevention setting, in which patients will usually tolerate only moderate risk and toxicity

  18. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  19. Civil society perspectives on negative biomedical HIV prevention trial results and implications for future trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Zaynab; Koen, Jennifer; Slack, Catherine; Lindegger, Graham; Newman, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement is crucial to ongoing development and testing of sorely needed new biomedical HIV prevention technologies. Yet, negative trial results raise significant challenges for community engagement in HIV prevention trials, including the early termination of the Cellulose Sulfate microbicide trial and two Phase IIb HIV vaccine trials (STEP and Phambili). The present study aimed to explore the perspectives and experiences of civil society organization (CSO) representatives regarding negative HIV prevention trial results and perceived implications for future trials. We conducted in-depth interviews with 14 respondents from a broad range of South African and international CSOs, and analyzed data using thematic analysis. CSO representatives reported disappointment in response to negative trial results, but acknowledged such outcomes as inherent to clinical research. Respondents indicated that in theory negative trial results seem likely to impact on willingness to participate in future trials, but that in practice people in South Africa have continued to volunteer. Negative trial results were described as having contributed to improving ethical standards, and to a re-evaluation of the scientific agenda. Such negative results were identified as potentially impacting on funding for trials and engagement activities. Our findings indicate that trial closures may be used constructively to support opportunities for reflection and renewed vigilance in strategies for stakeholder engagement, communicating trial outcomes, and building research literacy among communities; however, these strategies require sustained resources for community engagement and capacity-building. PMID:22360605

  20. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention. No woman should die of cervical cancer. Doctors, nurses, and health systems can: Help women understand what ... Cancer Early Detection Program , Title X Family Planning Doctors, nurses, and health systems can Help women understand which ...

  2. Prevention program of cervical cancer - Enrique Pouey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the first basic objectives in the prevention of cervical cancer in Uruguay. The Papanicolaou test, the biopsia, and the colposcopy are important studies for the early cervical cancer detection

  3. 2014 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. 2015 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. 2013 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. 2016 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Biometry Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. News Archives | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Active Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Nutritional Science Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Prostate cancer: a serious disease suitable for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, John M; Schulman, Claude; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Schröder, Fritz H

    2009-04-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common causes of death from cancer in men, and accounts for 10% of all new male cancers worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer place a substantial physical and emotional burden on patients and their families, and have considerable financial implications for healthcare providers and society. Given that the risk of prostate cancer continues to increase with age, the burden of the disease is likely to increase in line with population life-expectancy. Reducing the risk of prostate cancer has gained increasing coverage in recent years, with proof of principle shown in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with the type 2 5alpha-reductase (5AR) inhibitor, finasteride. The long latency period, high disease prevalence, and significant associated morbidity and mortality make prostate cancer a suitable target for a risk-reduction approach. Several agents are under investigation for reducing the risk of prostate cancer, including selenium/vitamin E and selective oestrogen receptors modulators (e.g. toremifene). In addition, the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, involving >8000 men, is evaluating the effect of the dual 5AR inhibitor, dutasteride, on the risk of developing prostate cancer. A successful risk-reduction strategy might decrease the incidence of the disease, as well as the anxiety, cost and morbidity associated with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19302133

  13. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  14. Perspectives for Cancer Prevention With Natural Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, A. R. M. Ruhul; KUCUK, Omer; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Dong M Shin

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Despite the estimated 565,650 deaths in 2008 of Americans as a result of cancer, it is mostly a preventable disease. Simply by modification of diet, maintenance of optimum body weight, and regular physical activity, 30% to 40% of all instances of cancer could be prevented. Modification of diet alone by increasing vegetable and fruit intake could prevent 20% or more of all cases of cancer and may potentially prevent approximatel...

  15. Dead space closure with quilting suture versus conventional closure with drainage for the prevention of seroma after mastectomy for breast cancer (QUISERMAS): protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldamer, Lobna; Bonastre, Julia; Brunet-Houdard, Solène; Body, Gilles; Giraudeau, Bruno; Caille, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative wound seroma is common after mastectomy. This complication is associated with significant impact on patient outcomes and healthcare costs. The optimal closure approach for seroma prevention remains unknown but some evidence suggests that quilting suture of the dead space could lower the incidence of seroma. The aim of this trial is to compare seroma formation using quilting suture versus conventional closure with drainage in patients undergoing mastectomy. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre, superiority, randomised controlled trial in women undergoing mastectomy with or without axillary involvement. Exclusion criteria include indication of bilateral mastectomy or immediate reconstruction and any physical or psychiatric condition that could impair patient's ability to cooperate with postoperative data collection or that do not allow an informed consent. 320 participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either quilting suture or conventional wound closure with drain. The primary outcome is seroma requiring either aspiration or surgical intervention within 21 days following mastectomy. Secondary outcomes include seroma regardless of whether or not it requires an intervention, surgical site infection, pain score, cosmetic result, patient's quality of life, costs and cost-effectiveness. The primary analysis will be an intention-to treat analysis performed with a χ2 test (or Fisher's exact test). Ethics and dissemination Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. This study was approved by Tours Research ethics committee (CPP TOURS—Region Centre—Ouest 1, 2014-R20, 16 December 2014). Study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant national and international breast cancer conferences. Trial registration number NCT02263651. PMID:27044574

  16. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches. PMID:19481061

  17. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  18. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  19. Optimizing mouse models for precision cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Magnen, Clémentine; Dutta, Aditya; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2016-03-01

    As cancer has become increasingly prevalent, cancer prevention research has evolved towards placing a greater emphasis on reducing cancer deaths and minimizing the adverse consequences of having cancer. 'Precision cancer prevention' takes into account the collaboration of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in influencing cancer incidence and aggressiveness in the context of the individual, as well as recognizing that such knowledge can improve early detection and enable more accurate discrimination of cancerous lesions. However, mouse models, and particularly genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, have yet to be fully integrated into prevention research. In this Opinion article, we discuss opportunities and challenges for precision mouse modelling, including the essential criteria of mouse models for prevention research, representative success stories and opportunities for more refined analyses in future studies. PMID:26893066

  20. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  1. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  2. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Active Prostate and Urologic Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, September 10th (6:00 to 9:30 PM) Welcome Barnett Kramer, MD, MPH (6:00 to 6:10 PM) Director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI Introduction – Goals of the Workshop: ABCs of Cancer Prevention (Agents, Biomarkers, Cohorts) Mark Miller, PhD (6:10 to 6:25 PM) Program Director Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI |

  6. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  7. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  8. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  9. Possibilities for the prevention of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of evidence suggest that the prevention of cancer is a practical possibility: first, our increasing knowledge of the causes of cancer, many of which can be avoided without difficulty, and second, evidence that all common cancers whose causes are still unknown vary in incidence with place, time or social group. Many known causes still exist, however, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of cases annually throughout the world. Practical possibilities for prevention now and in the near future include changes in personal habits (tobacco, alcohol, diet), control of exposure to known cancer-producing substances (carcinogens) in both industry and the general environment, and immunization against viruses causing cancer. (author)

  10. Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-κB pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-κB, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

  11. Molecular markers and targets for colorectal cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveena B JANAKIRAM; Chinthalapally V RAO

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. If detected at an early stage, treatment often might lead to cure. As prevention is better than cure, epidemiological studies reveal that having a healthy diet often protects from pro-moting/developing cancer. An important consideration in evaluating new drugs and devices is determining whether a product can effectively treat a targeted disease. There are quite a number of biomarkers making their way into clinical trials and few are awaiting the preclinical efficacy and safety results to enter into clinical trials. Researchers are facing challenges in modifying trial design and defining the right control population, validating biomarker assays from the bio-logical and analytical perspective and using biomarker data as a guideline for decision making. In spite of following all guidelines, the results are disappointing from many of the large clinical trials. To avoid these disappointments, selection of biomarkers and its target drug needs to be evaluated in appropriate animal models for its toxicities and efficacies. The focus of this review is on the few of the potential molecular targets and their biomarkers in colorectal cancers. Strengths and limitations of biomarkers/surrogate endpoints are also discussed. Various pathways involved in tumor cells and the specific agents to target the altered molecular biomarkerin biomolecular pathwayare elucidated. Importance of emerging new platforms siRNAs and miRNAs technology for colorectal cancer therapeutics is reviewed.

  12. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahu Mati

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT, originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may

  13. Formative research in clinical trial development: attitudes of patients with arthritis in enhancing prevention trials

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Holly A.; Sugarman, Jeremy; Pisetsky, David S; Bathon, Joan

    2007-01-01

    In preparation for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA), formative research was conducted to enhance the design of such trials. The objectives of this research were to (1) determine patients' educational needs as they relate to the necessary elements of informed consent; and (2) assess patients' interest in enrolling in a hypothetical prevention trial. In‐depth interviews were conducted with nine patie...

  14. Evaluating Bioactive Food Components in Obesity and Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Kristi M.; Allison, David

    2015-01-01

    Research into bioactive food compounds (BFC) continues to evolve albeit with shared challenges among scientists in the fields of obesity and cancer treatment and prevention. Given the diversity of scientific disciplines involved in evaluating BFC, multi-disciplinary conferences provide opportunities to update the state of the science and critically discuss conceptual and methodological challenges encountered in studying BFC in both pre-clinical and clinical trials. This overview is an introdu...

  15. Preventive effect of Malva on urinary toxicity after radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients: A multi-centric, double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mofid, Bahram; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Jaladat, Amir Mohammad; Atarzadeh, Fatemeh; Moeini, Reihane; Motevalian, Abbas; Mosalaie, Ahmad; Farhan, Farshid; Rakhsha, Afshin; Kashi, Amir Shahram Yousefi

    2015-01-01

    Background: For patients receiving external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant treatment or patients receiving EBRT as definitive treatment, partial irradiation of the urinary bladder is common. Many of such patients experience some degree of radiation-induced cystitis during or after EBRT. There is currently no efficient treatment for preventing radiation cystitis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of one of the safe mucilag...

  16. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, researc...

  17. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  18. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C;

    2015-01-01

    , outcomes, timing of assessment, and adjusting for risk factors in the analyses. We provide a detailed examination of 4 models of chronic pain prevention (ie, chronic postsurgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, chronic low back pain, and painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). The issues...... potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic pain in the population. Additionally, standardization of outcomes in prevention clinical trials will facilitate meta-analyses and systematic reviews and improve detection of preventive strategies emerging from clinical trials.......Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations...

  19. Metformin: On Ongoing Journey across Diabetes, Cancer Therapy and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Strano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metabolism is the focus of intense research, which witnesses its key role in human tumors. Diabetic patients treated with metformin exhibit a reduced incidence of cancer and cancer-related mortality. This highlights the possibility that the tackling of metabolic alterations might also hold promising value for treating cancer patients. Here, we review the emerging role of metformin as a paradigmatic example of an old drug used worldwide to treat patients with type II diabetes which to date is gaining strong in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities to be included in clinical trials. Metformin is also becoming the focus of intense basic and clinical research on chemoprevention, thus suggesting that metabolic alteration is an early lesion along cancer transformation. Metabolic reprogramming might be a very efficient prevention strategy with a profound impact on public health worldwide.

  20. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approac | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers.

  1. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sestak I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ivana Sestak Centre for Cancer Prevention, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, UKAbstract: Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3 trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women. Keywords: breast cancer, preventive therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, aromatase inhibitors, high-risk women

  2. Long-term effect of aspirin on cancer risk in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer: an analysis from the CAPP2 randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Macrae, Finlay;

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies report reduced colorectal cancer in regular aspirin consumers. Randomised controlled trials have shown reduced risk of adenomas but none have employed prevention of colorectal cancer as a primary endpoint. The CAPP2 trial aimed to investigate the antineoplastic effects of as...

  3. Tetracycline to Prevent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor-Induced Skin Rashes: Results of a Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N03CB)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatoi, Aminah; Rowland, Kendrith; Sloan, Jeff A.; Gross, Howard M.; Fishkin, Paul A.; Kahanic, Stephen P.; Novotny, Paul J.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Johnson, David B.; Tschetter, Loren K.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are effective cancer therapies, but they cause a rash in greater than 50% of patients. This study tested tetracycline for rash prevention. METHODS This placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial enrolled patients who were starting cancer treatment with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Patients could not have had a rash at enrollment. All were randomly assigned to either tetracycline 500 milligrams orally twice a day for 28 days versus a placebo. Patients were monitored for rash (monthly physician assessment and weekly patient-reported questionnaires), quality of life (SKINDEX-16), and adverse events. Monitoring occurred during the 4-week intervention and then for an additional 4 weeks. The primary objective was to compare the incidence of rash between study arms, and 30 patients per arm provided a 90% probability of detecting a 40% difference in incidence with a p-value of 0.05 (2-sided). RESULTS Sixty-one evaluable patients were enrolled, and arms were well balanced on baseline characteristics, rates of drop out, and rates of discontinuation of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Rash incidence was comparable across arms. Physicians reported that 16 tetracycline-treated patients (70%) and 22 placebo-exposed patients (76%) developed a rash (p=0.61). Tetracycline appears to have lessened rash severity, although high drop out rates invite caution in interpreting findings. By week 4, physician-reported grade 2 rash occurred in 17% of tetracycline-treated patients (n=4) and in 55% of placebo-exposed patients (n=16); (p=0.04). Tetracycline-treated patients reported better scores, as per the SKINDEX-16, on certain quality of life parameters, such as skin burning or stinging, skin irritation, and being bothered by a persistence/recurrence of a skin condition. Adverse events were comparable across arms. CONCLUSION Tetracycline did not prevent epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor

  4. Sponsoring Organization | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) project officers are responsible for the design and oversight of all aspects of the PLCO trial. These NCI components work directly with the Coordinating Center which provides support for development and implementation of the study protocol; and with the Principal Investigators from each of the Screening Centers to ensure that the technical aspects of the trial are carried out under rigorous scientific standards. |

  5. Kara Smigel Croker | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Smigel Croker is the Communications Manager for the National Cancer Institute Division of Cancer Prevention. She coordinates and supports all aspects of communication, including media contacts, writing and editing of reports and responses, divisional websites, and social media. |

  6. Immunosuppressants in cancer prevention and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    Rapalogs such as rapamycin (sirolimus), everolimus, temserolimus, and deforolimus are indicated for the treatment of some malignancies. Rapamycin is the most effective cancer-preventive agent currently known, at least in mice, dramatically delaying carcinogenesis in both normal and cancer-prone murine strains. In addition, rapamycin and everolimus decrease the risk of cancer in patients receiving these drugs in the context of immunosuppressive regimens. In general, the main concern about the ...

  7. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  8. African American women's perceptions of cancer clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; DiMartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William

    2014-01-01

    Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical tri...

  9. Mind the gap: An empirical study of post-trial access in HIV biomedical prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Bridget; Jordens, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    The principle of providing post-trial access for research participants to successful products of that research is widely accepted and has been enshrined in various declarations and guidelines. While recent ethical guidelines recognise that the responsibility to provide post-trial access extends to sponsors, regulators and government bodies as well as to researchers, it is the researchers who have the direct duty of care to participants. Researchers may thus need to act as advocates for trial participants, especially where government bodies, sponsors, and regulatory bodies have complex interests vested in decisions about whether or not new interventions are made available, how, and to whom. This paper provides an empirical account of post-trial access in the context of HIV prevention research. It describes both access to the successful products of research and the provision antiretroviral drugs for trial participants who acquire HIV. First, we provide evidence that, in the current system, there is considerable variation in the duration and timeliness of access. We then argue that by analysing the difficulties faced by researchers to this point, and their efforts to meet this obligation, much can be learned about how to secure post-trial access in HIV biomedical preventions trials. While researchers alone have a limited obligation, their advocacy on behalf of trial participants may be necessary to call the other parties to account. PMID:26193849

  10. The benefits of using genetic information to design prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youna; Li, Li; Ehm, Margaret G; Bing, Nan; Song, Kijoung; Nelson, Matthew R; Talmud, Philippa J; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kumari, Meena; Kivimäki, Mika; Xu, Chun-Fang; Waterworth, Dawn M; Whittaker, John C; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Spino, Cathie; Kang, Hyun Min

    2013-04-01

    Clinical trials for preventative therapies are complex and costly endeavors focused on individuals likely to develop disease in a short time frame, randomizing them to treatment groups, and following them over time. In such trials, statistical power is governed by the rate of disease events in each group and cost is determined by randomization, treatment, and follow-up. Strategies that increase the rate of disease events by enrolling individuals with high risk of disease can significantly reduce study size, duration, and cost. Comprehensive study of common, complex diseases has resulted in a growing list of robustly associated genetic markers. Here, we evaluate the utility--in terms of trial size, duration, and cost--of enriching prevention trial samples by combining clinical information with genetic risk scores to identify individuals at greater risk of disease. We also describe a framework for utilizing genetic risk scores in these trials and evaluating the associated cost and time savings. With type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), myocardial infarction (MI), and advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as examples, we illustrate the potential and limitations of using genetic data for prevention trial design. We illustrate settings where incorporating genetic information could reduce trial cost or duration considerably, as well as settings where potential savings are negligible. Results are strongly dependent on the genetic architecture of the disease, but we also show that these benefits should increase as the list of robustly associated markers for each disease grows and as large samples of genotyped individuals become available. PMID:23541341

  11. Most Breast Cancer Screening Trials Have a Flawed Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gurnani, Nishant; Srivastava, Anurag

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we discuss that why most breast cancer screening trials have a flawed origin. We suggest some solutions to correct these flaws so that more valid and reliable screening trials can be conducted in the future.

  12. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline. PMID:26970137

  13. Cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals. Expectation for phytochemicals as preventive agents against radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing evidence from the studies using animal models that phytochemicals in plants have preventive effect on cancer induction, which is mediated by polyphenol anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions. Some phytochemicals such as curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate have been moved onto clinical trials. These phytochemicals are also expected to reduce the deleterious effect of radiation, and to be a powerful tool for the prevention of radiation carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarized the general concept of cancer chemoprevention and usefulness of phytochemicals as cancer preventive agents, and pointed out their possibilities for prevention of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

  14. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  15. Transforming Cancer Prevention through Precision Medicine and Immune-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W; Spira, Avrum; Garber, Judy E; Szabo, Eva; Lee, J Jack; Dong, Zigang; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hait, William N; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Davidson, Nancy E; Foti, Margaret; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a transformative period in cancer prevention (including early detection). Remarkable progress in precision medicine and immune-oncology, driven by extraordinary recent advances in genome-wide sequencing, big-data analytics, blood-based technologies, and deep understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment (TME), has provided unprecedented possibilities to study the biology of premalignancy. The pace of research and discovery in precision medicine and immunoprevention has been astonishing and includes the following clinical firsts reported in 2015: driver mutations detected in circulating cell-free DNA in patients with premalignant lesions (lung); clonal hematopoiesis shown to be a premalignant state; molecular selection in chemoprevention randomized controlled trial (RCT; oral); striking efficacy in RCT of combination chemoprevention targeting signaling pathway alterations mechanistically linked to germline mutation (duodenum); molecular markers for early detection validated for lung cancer and showing promise for pancreatic, liver, and ovarian cancer. Identification of HPV as the essential cause of a major global cancer burden, including HPV16 as the single driver of an epidemic of oropharyngeal cancer in men, provides unique opportunities for the dissemination and implementation of public health interventions. Important to immunoprevention beyond viral vaccines, genetic drivers of premalignant progression were associated with increasing immunosuppressive TME; and Kras vaccine efficacy in pancreas genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model required an inhibitory adjuvant (Treg depletion). In addition to developing new (e.g., epigenetic) TME regulators, recent mechanistic studies of repurposed drugs (aspirin, metformin, and tamoxifen) have identified potent immune activity. Just as precision medicine and immune-oncology are revolutionizing cancer therapy, these approaches are transforming cancer prevention. Here, we set out a brief agenda for the

  16. Hereditary colon Cancer: Recommendations for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention in individuals with hereditary risk of colon cancer, is subject to clinical and molecular facts because their behavior differs to sporadic cancer. Hereditary cancer diseases affecting the colon in particular linked to other locations or that are associated with pre-cancer (polyps, osteoma s, lentigines) phenotypic markers represent a dissimilar to those who present directly in colorectal cancer status or associated conditions. In the first, the presence of previous injury (phenotypes) allows us to identify, while the latter is essential to have other diagnostic pathway (genotypes) .The location of genomic alterations manages to delve into the problem and identify those who will develop disease. The perspective will be different in the general population and those who do not carry mutations in terms suggestions for prevention, both primary and secondary. Not always the mutation is detected and in these high-risk situations, the clinic is sovereign and agrees to keep all members of these events surveillance strict about not being able to characterize those who are carriers of alterations and our condition is different in the proposition of preventive attitudes: set from when control about which organs and often starts, suffer because of accelerated carcinogenesis. The presentation is focused on populations at increased risk of cancer colorectal, regarding the management of the suggestions for primary prevention, secondary prevention while analyzing the early diagnosis of the disease and the suggestion of treatment, compared to the general population management. Primary prevention, including chemo prevention are described. While in secondary prevention is emphasized to management time tracking, optimization diagnostics according to the pathology suspected, the most common therapeutic approaches and findings relating prophylactic surgery

  17. Scientific Scope | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of developing cancer and to find ways to reduce that risk. Through laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic research, scientists have shown that the diseases of cancer occur not as single, catastrophic events, but rather as the result of a complex and long-evolving molecular process that can take decades. This long-term process of carcinogenesis provides time and opportunities to slow down, stop, or reverse the cellular changes that can become cancer. | DCP research spans the initiation of cancer and the occurrence of invasive disease in major organ sites. The overall goal is to detect changes and intervene early to prevent symptomatic disease and death.

  18. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk for developing lung and other cancers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  19. Quimioprevención del Cáncer de Mama: Ensayos clínicos en la prevención farmacológica Chemoprevention of breast cancer. Clinical trials in pharmacological prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier J. Ricart

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo trata sobre los ensayos clínicos presentados en quimioprevención del cáncer mamario. Hasta la fecha las drogas más estudiadas han sido los Moduladores Selectivos de los Receptores de Estrógenos (SERMs. Cuatro estudios aleatorizados de tamoxifeno versus placebo fueron publicados y dos con raloxifeno están en curso. Dos de los estudios con tamoxifeno mostraron una reducción de incidencia de cáncer mamario entre el 30 y el 50%, sin embargo otros dos trabajos no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. A esta controversia se le suma la incertidumbre sobre el verdadero impacto en la mortalidad que pudiera tener este tipo de terapia preventiva. Se citan además diversos estudios que evaluaron la ingesta de vitaminas y su relación con el desarrollo de tumores mamarios. Sin duda alguna el estudio y el seguimiento de los ensayos clínicos nos permitirán dilucidar qué pacientes requieren una terapia, preventiva del desarrollo de un tipo específico de cáncer, que se encuentra lejos de estar exenta de riesgos.The following review article focuses on chemoprevention clinical trials of breast cancer. To date, SERMs (Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators have been the most studied drugs. Four randomized trials with tamoxifen vs. placebo have been performed and two with raloxifene are being carried out. Two tamoxifen trials showed between 30 and 50% reduction in breast cancer incidence. However, two other studies showed no statistical differences. Moreover, the real impact on mortality that these therapies could have is still unknown. This article includes a revision of trials that evaluated the relationship between daily vitamin intake and breast cancer. A follow up of these trials will give us answers about which patients will benefit from chemoprevention therapies.

  20. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Principles and Practices of Cancer Prevention and Control Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program four-week summer course provides specialized instruction in the principles and practice of cancer prevention and control. Participants will gain a broad-based perspective on concepts, issues, and applications related to this field. The course typically covers the following topics: |

  1. Eradication of H pylori for the prevention of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karolin Trautmann; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2006-01-01

    Tnfection with H pylori is the most important known etiological factor associated with gastric cancer. While colonization of the gastric mucosa with H pylori results in active and chronic gastritis in virtually all individuals infected, the likelihood of developing gastric cancer depends on environmental, bacterial virulence and host specific factors. The majority of all gastric cancer cases are attributable to H pylori infection and therefore theoretically preventable. There is evidence from animal models that eradication of H pylori at an early time point can prevent gastric cancer development. However, randomized clinical trials exploring the prophylactic effect of H pylori eradication on the incidence of gastric cancer in humans remain sparse and have yielded conflicting results. Better markers for the identification of patientsat risk for H pylori induced gastric malignancy are needed to allow the development of a more efficient public eradication strategy. Meanwhile, screening and treatment of H pylori in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients as well as certain high-risk populations might be beneficial.

  2. How Have Cancer Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria Evolved Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Anil; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Sen, Anando; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge reuse of cancer trial designs may benefit from a temporal understanding of the evolution of the target populations of cancer studies over time. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the trends of cancer trial eligibility criteria between 1999 and 2014. The yearly distributions of eligibility concepts for chemicals and drugs, procedures, observations, and medical conditions extracted from free-text eligibility criteria of 32,000 clinical trials for 89 cancer types were analyzed. We identified the concepts that trend upwards or downwards in all or selected cancer types, and the concepts that show anomalous trends for some cancers. Later, concept trends were studied in a disease-specific manner and illustrated for breast cancer. Criteria trends observed in this study are also validated and interpreted using evidence from the existing medical literature. This study contributes a method for concept trend analysis and original knowledge of the trends in cancer clinical trial eligibility criteria. PMID:27570681

  3. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  4. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that naturally contain vitamin D, such as fatty fish, fish liver oil, and eggs. However, most dietary vitamin ... prostate cancer. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2005; 97(1–2):31–36. [PubMed Abstract] ...

  5. Design and baseline characteristics of participants in a phase III randomized trial of celecoxib and selenium for colorectal adenoma prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Patricia; Roe, Denise J.; Fales, Liane; Buckmeier, Julie; Wang, Fang; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Bhattacharyya, Achyut; Green, Sylvan; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Chow, H-H Sherry; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Boland, C Richard; Russell I. Heigh; Fay, David E.; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors reduce colorectal adenoma recurrence by up to 45% and selenium supplementation may prevent colorectal cancer. Following colonoscopic adenoma resection, 1,600 men and women aged 40-80 years were randomized to celecoxib (400 mg daily), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and/or selenium (200 μg daily as selenized yeast), or double placebo. The trial was initiated in November, 2001. The primary trial endpoint is adenoma recurrence in each intervention group compared to p...

  6. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  7. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanjiang Pan; Cuirong Sun; Shan He

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been ...

  8. Prostate Cancer: Current Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-kun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the life threatening disorders of male. Although, over the last two decades, a high rate of overdiagnosis, and overtreatment has lowered the incidence rate of prostate cancer, the treatment or prevention strategies are not enough to control the high rate of disease related mortality. Current medical treatment approaches include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, cryosurgery and other methods. These approaches are more or less effecti...

  9. Flavin-Dependent Enzymes in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical studies have demonstrated that various agents may reduce the risk of cancer’s development. One of them is activity of flavin-dependent enzymes such as flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1, FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase. In the last decade, many papers concerning their structure, reaction mechanism and role in the cancer prevention were published. In our work, we provide a more in-depth analysis of flavin-dependent enzymes and their contribution to the cancer prevention. We present the actual knowledge about the glucosinolate synthesized by flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1 and its role in cancer prevention, discuss the influence of mutations in FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase on the cancer risk, and describe FAD as an important cofactor for the demethylation of histons. We also present our views on the role of riboflavin supplements in the prevention against cancer.

  10. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

  11. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Agnes Y Y

    2014-12-01

    Robust evidence remains scarce in guiding best practice in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients living with cancer. Recommendations from major consensus guidelines are largely based on extrapolated data from trials performed mostly in noncancer patients, observational studies and registries, studies using surrogate outcomes, and underpowered randomized controlled trials. Nonetheless, a personalized approach based on individual risk assessment is uniformly recommended for inpatient and outpatient thromboprophylaxis and there is consensus that anticoagulant prophylaxis is warranted in selected patients with a high risk of thrombosis. Prediction tools for estimating the risk of thrombosis in the hospital setting have not been validated, but the use of prophylaxis in the ambulatory setting in those with a high Khorana score is under active investigation. Symptomatic and incidental thrombosis should be treated with anticoagulant therapy, but little is known about the optimal duration. Pharmacologic options for prophylaxis and treatment are still restricted to unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, and vitamin K antagonists because there is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of target-specific, non-vitamin K-antagonist oral anticoagulants. Although these agents offer practical advantages over traditional anticoagulants, potential drug interaction with chemotherapeutic agents, gastrointestinal problems, hepatic and renal impairment, and the lack of rapid reversal agents are important limitations that may reduce the efficacy and safety of these drugs in patients with active cancer. Clinicians and patients are encouraged to participate in clinical trials to advance the care of patients with cancer-associated thrombosis. PMID:25696871

  12. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identi...

  13. Two Outstanding Investigator Awards Go to Division of Cancer Prevention Grantees | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Outstanding Investigator Award supports accomplished leaders in cancer research, who are providing significant contributions toward understanding cancer and developing applications that may lead to a breakthrough in biomedical, behavioral, or clinical cancer research. The Award provides up to $600,000 in direct costs per year for 7 years, allowing substantial time for funded investigators to take greater risks and be more adventurous in their research. Two of these awards have been made to Division of Cancer Prevention investigators: |

  14. BRCA1: a movement toward cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Elizabeth; Ford, James M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) was first identified in 1994 and has since been shown to encode a tumor suppressor protein that maintains genetic stability through DNA damage response pathways. Carriers of mutations in BRCA1 are predisposed to breast and ovarian cancer; however, their cancers lack the targets for existing anticancer drugs. We describe a novel chemoprevention approach that uses DNA repair-activating agents to enhance the repair of oxidative DNA damage and, in turn, prevent tumorigenesis in the presence of mutant BRCA1. PMID:27308455

  15. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...

  16. The REDUCE trial: chemoprevention in prostate cancer using a dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musquera, Mireia; Fleshner, Neil E; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R

    2008-07-01

    Dutasteride, a dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, is used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It reduces serum prostate-specific antigen levels by approximately 50% at 6 months and total prostate volume by 25% after 2 years. Randomized placebo-controlled trials in BPH patients have shown the efficacy of dutasteride in symptomatic relief, improvements in quality of life and peak urinary flow rate. Side effects occurring with dutasteride are decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorders and gynecomastia. Preliminary data from placebo-controlled BPH trials have shown a decrease in the detection of prostate cancer in patients treated with dutasteride, although these studies were not designed to look at this issue. Dutasteride differs from finasteride in that it inhibits both isoenzymes of 5alpha-reductase, type I and type II. The landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial at the end of the 7-year study demonstrated a 24.8% reduction in the incidence of prostate cancer in the finasteride group compared with placebo. However, a 25.5% increase in the prevalence of high-grade Gleason tumors has been observed, the clinical significance of which has been debated. Preliminary data suggest a decrease in prostate cancer incidence in dutasteride-treated patients and demonstrate type I alphareductase enzyme expression in prostate cancer. As a result, dutasteride is being investigated for prostate cancer prevention in the ongoing Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, which is discussed here. PMID:18588452

  17. Preventive Care in Older Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lisa M.; Ouellet, Jennifer Andreozzi; Dale, William; Fan, Lin; Mohile, Supriya Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study factors that influence receipt of preventive care in older cancer survivors. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative sample of 12,458 older adults from the 2003 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Factors associated with non-receipt of preventive care were explored among cancer and non-cancer survivors, using logistic regression. Results Among cancer survivors, 1,883 were diagnosed >one year at survey completion. A cancer history was independently associated with receipt of mammogram (AOR=1.57, 95%CI=1.34–1.85), flu shot (AOR=1.33, 95%CI=1.16–1.53), measurement of total cholesterol in the previous six months (AOR=1.20, 95%CI=1.07–1.34), pneumonia vaccination (AOR=1.33, 95%CI=1.18–1.49), bone mineral density (BMD) testing (AOR=1.38, 95%CI=1.21–1.56) and lower endoscopy (AOR=1.46, 95%CI=1.29–1.65). However, receipt of preventive care was not optimal among older cancer survivors with only 51.2% of female cancer survivors received a mammogram, 63.8% of all cancer survivors received colonoscopy, and 42.5% had BMD testing. Among cancer survivors, factors associated with non-receipt of mammogram included age ≥85 years (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.26–0.74) and scoring ≥three points on the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (AOR=0.94, 95%CI=0.80–1.00). Factors associated with non-receipt of colonoscopy included low education (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.27–0.68) and rural residence (AOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.34–0.77). Factors associated with non-receipt of BMD testing included age ≥70 (AOR=0.59, 95%CI=0.39–0.90), African American race (AOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.27–0.95), low education (AOR=0.23, 95%CI=0.14–0.38) and rural residence (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.27–0.70). Conclusion Although older cancer survivors are more likely to receive preventive care services than other older adults, the prevalence of receipt of preventive care services is low. PMID:25547206

  18. Intelligent Application of Breast Cancer Trials Data in the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Frankli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This meeting commenced with a talk from Prof Loibl on neoadjuvant and adjuvant strategies for HER2positive (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive early breast cancer (EBC, which featured a précis on the most pertinent, recent trial data and how these data may shape future treatment decisions in clinical practice. Prof Conte moved the discussion forward by addressing how recent studies may lead towards a new standard of care (SoC and treatment paradigms in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Prof Schmid gave an overview of potential strategies that could be used to prevent or overcome endocrine therapy resistance in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The session was concluded with a presentation on ‘Precision Medicine for Metastatic Breast Cancer’ by Prof Sotiriou, in which he highlighted the potential applications of precision medicine and some of the different approaches that have been used in metastatic breast cancer. Prof Verma, the meeting chair, opened the symposium and facilitated the discussion sessions. The contents of the presentations and discussions are summarised herein.

  19. Current Status and Challenges of Cancer Clinical Trials in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Byoung Yong; Park, Se Hoon; Lee, Soonil; Kim, Jin-Soo; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Ahn, Myung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancer clinical trials in Korea have rapidly progressed in terms of quantity and quality during the last decade. This study evaluates the current status of cancer clinical trials in Korea and their associated problems. Materials and Methods We analyzed the clinical trials approved by the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) between 2007 and 2013. A nationwide on-line survey containing 22 questions was also performed with several cooperative study groups and individual researchers...

  20. Effects of an 18-week exercise programme started early during breast cancer treatment: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Travier, Noémie; Velthuis, Miranda J; Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N.; van den Buijs, Bram; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Backx, Frank; Los, Maartje; Erdkamp, Frans; Bloemendal, Haiko J.; Rodenhuis, Carla; de Roos, Marnix A.J.; Verhaar, Marlies; ten Bokkel Huinink, Daan; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise started shortly after breast cancer diagnosis might prevent or diminish fatigue complaints. The Physical Activity during Cancer Treatment (PACT) study was designed to primarily examine the effects of an 18-week exercise intervention, offered in the daily clinical practice setting and starting within 6 weeks after diagnosis, on preventing an increase in fatigue. Methods This multi-centre controlled trial randomly assigned 204 breast cancer patients to usual care (n = 102) o...

  1. Steps You Can Take to Prevent Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast discusses the main steps people can take to reduce their risk of getting cancer.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  2. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

  3. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. PMID:27048903

  4. Heart healthy equals prostate healthy and statins, aspirin, and/or metformin (S.A.M.) are the ideal recommendations for prostate cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Moyad, Mark A; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Lifestyle factors that promote CVD also appear to increase prostate cancer risk and those that reduce CVD risk also appear to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. The largest randomized trials utilizing dietary supplements or pharmacologic agents for prostate cancer prevention (Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial [SELECT]) have also shed light on the problems and future sol...

  5. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  6. Prospective cohort study of comprehensive prevention to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462~0.7392,P<0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604~0.8198,P<0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298~0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.

  7. Memantine before Mastectomy Prevents Post-Surgery Pain: A Randomized, Blinded Clinical Trial in Surgical Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Véronique; Joly, Dominique; Villatte, Christine; Dubray, Claude; Durando, Xavier; Daulhac, Laurence; Coudert, Catherine; Roux, Delphine; Pereira, Bruno; Pickering, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain following surgical treatment for breast cancer with or without chemotherapy is a clinical burden and patients frequently report cognitive, emotional and quality of life impairment. A preclinical study recently showed that memantine administered before surgery may prevent neuropathic pain development and cognitive dysfunction. With a translational approach, a clinical trial has been carried out to evaluate whether memantine administered before and after mastectomy could prevent the development of neuropathic pain, the impairment of cognition and quality of life. Method A randomized, pilot clinical trial included 40 women undergoing mastectomy in the Oncology Department, University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Memantine (5 to 20 mg/day; n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) was administered for four weeks starting two weeks before surgery. The primary endpoint was pain intensity measured on a (0–10) numerical rating scale at three months post-mastectomy. Results Data analyses were performed using mixed models and the tests were two-sided, with a type I error set at α = 0.05. Compared with placebo, patients receiving memantine showed at three months a significant difference in post-mastectomy pain intensity, less rescue analgesia and a better emotional state. An improvement of pain symptoms induced by cancer chemotherapy was also reported. Conclusions This study shows for the first time the beneficial effect of memantine to prevent post-mastectomy pain development and to diminish chemotherapy-induced pain symptoms. The lesser analgesic consumption and better well-being of patients for at least six months after treatment suggests that memantine could be an interesting therapeutic option to diminish the burden of breast cancer therapy. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01536314 PMID:27050431

  8. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  9. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  10. [Primary prevention of urologic tumors: prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2011-10-01

    Assessment of the role of vitamins and micronutrients in the primary prevention of prostate cancer has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Efforts to confirm the efficacy of a single substance have not yet succeeded. Therefore, such recommendations should at present no longer be given. Consideration could even be given to discussing whether additional large-scale interventional studies are expedient in this regard. There is still solid evidence that a well-balanced moderate diet, reduced consumption of milk products, and an Asian or Mediterranean diet are not only beneficial for general good health but can also prevent the development of prostate cancer. This should be the focus of further epidemiological studies. Thus, one can certainly speak of a paradigm shift in the prevention of prostate cancer. In contrast, available data on chemoprevention with 5α-reductase inhibitors is unequivocal: intake of finasteride as well as dutasteride correlates with significantly decreased evidence for prostate cancer. Converting this result into urologic practice remains the topic of extensive controversy. PMID:21927877

  11. Stakeholder views of ethical guidance regarding prevention and care in HIV vaccine trials

    OpenAIRE

    Moorhouse, Rika; SLACK, CATHERINE; Quayle, Michael; Essack, Zaynab; Lindegger, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa is a major hub of HIV prevention trials, with plans for a licensure trial to start in 2015. The appropriate standards of care and of prevention in HIV vaccine trials are complex and debated issues and ethical guidelines offer some direction. However, there has been limited empirical exploration of South African stakeholders’ perspectives on ethical guidance related to prevention and care in HIV vaccine trials. Methods Site staff, Community Advisory Board membe...

  12. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3) trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women

  13. Aspirin, Calcitriol, and Calcium Do Not Prevent Adenoma Recurrence in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chemopreventive strategies might be used to reduce the recurrence of colorectal adenomas and the incidence of colorectal cancer. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether a combination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), calcitriol, and...... current smokers OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.70-4.09; P value interaction < .05). However, the overall interaction was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study, the combination of calcitriol, aspirin, and calcium carbonate did not prevent recurrence of colorectal adenomas over a 3-year period. The...

  14. Prevention of erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak Faiena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing scrutiny of prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis and treatment, much attention has been given to the morbidity caused by radical prostatectomy (RP and/or radiotherapy (RT. One of the most common side-effects of either treatment is erectile dysfunction (ED. [1] Approximately, 40% of patients will experience ED after RT for PCa. The post-RT ED causes significant patient dissatisfaction with cancer treatment as well as decrease in patient and partner psychosocial function. [2] To address this issue in patients undergoing RT, Pisansky et al. [3] conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a phosphodiesterase enzyme-5 inhibitor (PDE5i, tadalafil, as a preventive measure for patients undergoing RT for PCa and found no difference in erectile function between the control and treatment groups.

  15. Cancer preventive role of selected dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Amitabha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behavior seems to be an important modifiable determinant for the risk of cancer. The evidences from several epidemiological studies suggest that higher intakes of fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cancer. Dietary phenolic and polyphenolic substances, terpenoids, dietary fibers, fish oils, some micronutrients present in foods of both plant and animal origin, and a reduction of caloric intake appear to inhibit the process of cancer development. Many dietary factors possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cause induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases. It has been suggested that cruciferous vegetables play an important role in cancer prevention, and their chemopreventive effects are due to high glucosinolate content which under enzymatic hydrolysis produces bioactive compound isothiocyanates. Further, isothiocyanates of a wide variety of cruciferous vegetables are powerful inhibitors of carcinogenesis in experimental animal models. Several flavonoids present in fruits, tea, soya beans, etc. may be useful as cancer preventive agents. Similarly, ellagic acid, perillyl alcohol and resveratrol found in various fruits may have chemoprotective effect. Moreover, different vanilloids such as curcumin and gingerol have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Nevertheless, in spite of several studies, still the effects of various ingredients are not clearly distinguished. In human, little convincing evidence has been established for the proposed protective effects of dietary constituents. It is an important future research goal to provide necessary evidences to support the chemopreventive role of different dietary factors, and also to clarify misunderstandings in this perplexing area.

  16. Does Sunscreen Prevent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitor–Induced Rash? Results of a Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N05C4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrower, Abby; Sloan, Jeff A.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Wentworth-Hartung, Nicole Lea; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Mattar, Bassam I.; Nikcevich, Daniel A.; Novotny, Paul; Sekulic, Aleksandar; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Rash occurs in >50% of patients prescribed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. This study was undertaken to determine whether sunscreen prevents or mitigates these rashes. Methods. This placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial enrolled rash-free patients starting an EGFR inhibitor. Patients were randomly assigned to sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 60 applied twice a day for 28 days versus placebo. They were then monitored for rash and quality of life (Skindex-16) during the 4-week intervention and for an additional 4 weeks. Results. Fifty-four patients received sunscreen, and 56 received placebo; the arms were balanced at baseline. During the 4-week intervention, physician-reported rash occurred in 38 (78%) and 39 (80%) sunscreen-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 1.00); no significant differences in rash rates emerged over the additional 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in rash severity, and patient-reported outcomes of rash yielded similar conclusions. Adjustment for sun intensity by geographical zone, season, and use of photosensitivity medications did not yield a significant difference in rash across study arms (p = .20). Quality of life scores declined but remained comparable between arms. Conclusions. Sunscreen, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent or attenuate EGFR inhibitor–induced rash. PMID:20798191

  17. Prevention trial in the Cherokee Nation: design of a randomized community trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Boyd, Misty; Boyd, B J; Kominsky, Terrence; Pettigrew, Dallas; Tobler, Amy L; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D; Livingston, Melvin D; Livingston, Bethany; Molina, Mildred M Maldonado

    2015-02-01

    Despite advances in prevention science and practice in recent decades, the U.S. continues to struggle with significant alcohol-related risks and consequences among youth, especially among vulnerable rural and Native American youth. The Prevention Trial in the Cherokee Nation is a partnership between prevention scientists and Cherokee Nation Behavioral Health to create, implement, and evaluate a new, integrated community-level intervention designed to prevent underage drinking and associated negative consequences among Native American and other youth living in rural high-risk underserved communities. The intervention builds directly on results of multiple previous trials of two conceptually distinct approaches. The first is an updated version of CMCA, an established community environmental change intervention, and the second is CONNECT, our newly developed population-wide intervention based on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) research. CMCA direct-action community organizing is used to engage local citizens to address community norms and practices related to alcohol use and commercial and social access to alcohol among adolescents. The new CONNECT intervention expands traditional SBIRT to be implemented universally within schools. Six key research design elements optimize causal inference and experimental evaluation of intervention effects, including a controlled interrupted time-series design, purposive selection of towns, random assignment to study condition, nested cohorts as well as repeated cross-sectional observations, a factorial design crossing two conceptually distinct interventions, and multiple comparison groups. The purpose of this paper is to describe the strong partnership between prevention scientists and behavioral health leaders within the Cherokee Nation, and the intervention and research design of this new community trial. PMID:24615546

  18. Efficacy and effectiveness as aspects of cluster randomized trials with nursing home residents: Methodological insights from a pneumonia prevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Peduzzi, Peter N.; Quagliarello, Vincent J.

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses how methodological aspects of study efficacy and effectiveness combine in cluster randomized trials in nursing homes. Discussion focuses on the relationships between these study aspects in the Pneumonia Reduction in Institutionalized Disabled Elders (PRIDE) trial, an ongoing cluster randomized clinical trial of pneumonia prevention among nursing home residents launched in October 2009 in Greater New Haven, Connecticut. This clinical trial has enrolled long-term care nurs...

  19. Should Male Circumcision be Advocated for Genital Cancer Prevention?

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Brian J.; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron AR; Hankins, Catherine A.; Ronald H Gray; Bailey, Robert C.; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D

    2012-01-01

    The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention. While HPV vaccination of boys should help reduce anal cancer in homosexual men and cervical cancer in women, it will have little or no impact on penile or prostate cancer. Male circumcision can reduc...

  20. A multifaceted perspective on skin cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Reinau, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation has been acknowledged as the main culprit for the three major types of skin cancer which are among the most numerous (basal cell carcinoma [BCC], squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) and most dangerous (cutaneous malignant melanoma) malignancies in Caucasian populations. The present thesis comprises six individual projects providing a multifaceted perspective on the prevention of these tumours. Project I evaluated a school-based sun safety educat...

  1. New generation of breast cancer clinical trials implementing molecular profiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitrios Zardavas; Martine Piccart-Gebhart

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of molecular profiling technologies in oncology deepens our knowledge for the molecular landscapes of cancer diagnoses, identifying aberrations that could be linked with specific therapeutic vulnerabilities. In particular, there is an increasing list of molecularly targeted anticancer agents undergoing clinical development that aim to block specific molecular aberrations. This leads to a paradigm shift, with an increasing list of specific aberrations dictating the treatment of patients with cancer. This paradigm shift impacts the field of clinical trials, since the classical approach of having clinico-pathological disease characteristics dictating the patients' enrolment in oncology trials shifts towards the implementation of molecular profiling as pre-screening step. In order to facilitate the successful clinical development of these new anticancer drugs within specific molecular niches of cancer diagnoses, there have been developed new, innovative trial designs that could be classified as follows: i) longitudinal cohort studies that implement (or not) "nested" downstream trials, 2) studies that assess the clinical utility of molecular profiling, 3) "master" protocol trials, iv) "basket" trials, v) trials following an adaptive design. In the present article, we review these innovative study designs, providing representative examples from each category and we discuss the challenges that still need to be addressed in this era of new generation oncology trials implementing molecular profiling. Emphasis is put on the field of breast cancer clinical trials.

  2. ROLE OF LYCOPENE IN PREVENTING PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Tami Budirejeki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the United States in 2003. Prostate cancer is the second cause of death after lung cancer. The possibility of a man suffering from prostate cancer is about 3 %. Increasing age is the main risk factor for this disease. Eighty percent of prostate cancer patients aged over 65 years. Prostate cancer occurs due to accumulation of DNA damage. There are various mechanisms that cause DNA damage, one of them is due to oxidative stress. Imbalance levels of free radicals and antioxidant in tissues causes oxidative stress. Antioxidants are substance that has ability to neutralize free radicals. One of the powerful antioxidant is lycopene. It is belived have ability to prevent prostate cancer. Various studies and reviews have been conducted to determine the role of lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer. Although most studies have found an association between the consumption of foods that contain lycopene with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, but few studies have found no such relationship. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Cancer precursors epidemiology, detection, and prevention

    CERN Document Server

    Rohan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of cancer causation have come from epidemiologic and laboratory research, particularly over the past two decades. These developments have included a broadening interest in the critical events that take place during the early stages of the dynamic multistep process leading to - vasive cancer. Increasingly, cancer epidemiologists are pursuing research into the origins and natural history of premalignant lesions, including intermediate or surrogate endpoints, a trend - celerated by the development of molecular technologies that are revolutionizing our understanding of the transformation of normal to malignant cells. There seems little doubt that this emerging knowledge will provide further insights not only into carcinogenic processes, but also into more sensitive methods of early detection and more effective means of prevention. In this book, Drs. Franco and Rohan have succeeded in prep- ing a comprehensive, timely, and critical review of the substantial progress that has ...

  4. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. PMID:26977038

  5. Role of vitamin K2 in preventing the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz Irbaz Bin; Riaz Haris; Riaz Talha; Rahman Sophia; Amir Muhammad; Badshah Maaz B; Kazi Abdul Nafey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatocellular cancer is notorious for recurrence even after curative therapy. High recurrence determines the long term prognosis of the patients. Vitamin K2 has been tested in trials for its effect on prevention of recurrence and improving survival. The results are inconclusive from individual trials and in our knowledge no systematic review which entirely focuses on Vitamin K2 as a chemo preventive agent is available to date. This review is an attempt to pool all the exi...

  6. ALCHEMIST: Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALCHEMIST represents three integrated, precision medicine trials that are designed to identify people with early-stage lung cancer who have tumors that harbor certain uncommon genetic changes and evaluate whether drug treatments targeted against those mol

  7. Trial Yields Positive Data on Pembrolizumab for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from an early phase clinical trial may point to a biomarker that identifies patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer most likely to respond to the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda®).

  8. The art of casting nets: fishing for the prize of personalized cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David J; Chiang, Emily C; Bostwick, David G

    2008-01-01

    Now, more than ever, there is great need for personalized cancer prevention. We define personalized cancer prevention as a strategy that will enable each person to reduce his or her risk for lethal cancer by matching the dose, duration, and timing of an intervention with their own cancer risk profile. Most research studies provide us with data on the average person. But who is the average person anyway? The central tenet of personalized cancer prevention is that average is overrated. In this article, we frame what are the major obstacles to developing personalized cancer-reducing interventions: the lack of validated, non-invasive stratifiers of risk; the U-shaped dose response between cancer-fighting nutrients (e.g., selenium) and DNA damage, meaning that more of a good thing is not necessarily a good thing; the relatively brief duration of interventions evaluated in human prevention trials; the challenge of finding populations in which the impact of early life interventions on the incidence of cancers affecting older adults can be studied; and the interindividual differences in gene expression that may influence a person's response to a particular nutrient. Moreover, we contend that those who study personalized cancer prevention will need a unique constellation of expertise, including an understanding of cancer and aging, a passion for prevention, and proven health communication skills. We propose that becoming cross-trained in cancer and aging and taking more responsibility for communicating health-related research to the public in the proper context are two of the most important ways scientists can move us all closer to the goal of personalized cancer prevention. Every fisherman knows that where he casts his net determines his catch. Now, we ask: When it comes to solving the cancer problem, where should we be casting our nets? PMID:18444129

  9. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH;

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their ......Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  10. Nutrition and cancer: Review of epidemiological studies and clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Demosthenes Panagiotakos; Georgia Georgiou; Niki Kontou

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors of cancer include unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, various genetic and environmental factors. Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases with increased incidence; moreover, 80% of gastrointestinal, breast and prostate cancers are attributed to unhealthy eating habits. Many surveys have investigated the role of diet in cancer prevention. Here we summarized current knowledge about dietary factors associated with cancer incidence. There ...

  11. Prevention of hypertension in patients with pre-hypertension: protocol for the PREVER-prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto José

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure (BP within pre-hypertensive levels confers higher cardiovascular risk and is an intermediate stage for full hypertension, which develops in an annual rate of 7 out of 100 individuals with 40 to 50 years of age. Non-drug interventions to prevent hypertension have had low effectiveness. In individuals with previous cardiovascular disease or diabetes, the use of BP-lowering agents reduces the incidence of major cardiovascular events. In the absence of higher baseline risk, the use of BP agents reduces the incidence of hypertension. The PREVER-prevention trial aims to investigate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of a population-based intervention to prevent the incidence of hypertension and the development of target-organ damage. Methods This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, with participants aged 30 to 70 years, with pre-hypertension. The trial arms will be chlorthalidone 12.5 mg plus amiloride 2.5 mg or identical placebo. The primary outcomes will be the incidence of hypertension, adverse events and development or worsening of microalbuminuria and of left ventricular hypertrophy in the EKG. The secondary outcomes will be fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events: myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, evidence of new sub-clinical atherosclerosis, and sudden death. The study will last 18 months. The sample size was calculated on the basis of an incidence of hypertension of 14% in the control group, a size effect of 40%, power of 85% and P alpha of 5%, resulting in 625 participants per group. The project was approved by the Ethics committee of each participating institution. Discussion The early use of blood pressure-lowering drugs, particularly diuretics, which act on the main mechanism of blood pressure rising with age, may prevent cardiovascular events and the incidence of hypertension in individuals with hypertension. If this intervention shows to be effective and safe

  12. Dance as a therapy for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Gurbuz; Ogce, Filiz

    2005-01-01

    Even though the field of medicine has developed tremendously, the wide variety of cancer is still among chronic and life threatening disease today. Therefore, the specialists constantly research and try every possible way to find cure or preventive ways to stop its further development. For this reason, studies concerning the chronic disease such as cancer have been spread to many different fields. In this regard, many other alternative ways besides medicine, are used in prevention of cancer. Nutritional therapy, herbal therapy, sportive activities, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, imagery, yoga and acupuncture can be given as examples. Among these, dance/movement therapy which deals with individuals physical, emotional, cognitive as well as social integration is widely used as a popular form of physical activity. The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Studies have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins), which create a state of well-being. And total body movement such as dance enhances the functions of other body systems, such as circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, and muscular systems. Regarding its unique connection to the field of medicine, many researches have been undertaken on the effects of dance/movement therapy in special settings with physical problems such as amputations, traumatic brain injury, and stroke, chronic illnesses such as anorexia, bulimia, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, AIDS, and arthritis. Today dance/movement therapy is a well recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals as well as at the comprehensive clinical cancer centres. PMID:16236009

  13. Cancer Prevention and Interception: A New Era for Chemopreventive Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Adriana; DeCensi, Andrea; Cavalli, Franco; Costa, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    At several recent, internationally attended scientific meetings, including the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)'s "Shaping the Future of Cancer Prevention: A Roadmap for Integrative Cancer Science and Public Health" summit in Leesburg (VA) and the AACR Annual Meeting in New Orleans, the focus on cancer prevention to reduce cancer-related deaths was extensively discussed with renewed attention and emphasis. Cancer prevention should be actively proposed even to healthy individuals, and not just to individuals with high cancer risk. We discuss evaluation of a high cancer risk versus the relatively low risk for side effects of chemopreventive agents. The concept of cancer interception, which is halting transformed cells from becoming malignant cancers, should be adopted for cancer prevention. Potential prevention/interception actions include adopting healthy life style and avoiding carcinogens, repressing inflammation and pathologic angiogenesis, controlling metabolism, correcting insulin resistance and other metabolic alterations. Current drugs with limited toxicity can be repurposed to reduce cancer incidence. Aspirin is now being recommended for the prevention of colorectal cancer and it prevents other neoplasms as well. Metformin and β-blockers could be valuable for reducing pancreatic and breast cancer onset. On the basis of the evaluation of cancer risk, we here call for personalized approaches for cancer prevention and preventive interception and we envisage a list of measures and potential guidelines for preventive and interceptive strategies to reduce cancer burden. Investment into translational research to bring these approaches into public health policies and in the clinic is urgently needed. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4322-7. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27220959

  14. Why older people refuse to participate in falls prevention trials: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Elskamp, Annemijn; Hartholt, Klaas; Patka, Peter; van Beeck, Ed; Cammen, Tischa

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Objectives: Falls are a major public health problem. Older persons are frequently underrepresented in trials, including falls prevention trials. Insight into possible reasons for non-participation could help to improve trial designs and participation rates among this age-group. The aim of this study was to explore reasons why older people refuse to participate in falls prevention trials. Setting: A qualitative study. Participants: Community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 65. ye...

  15. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  16. Ethical issues for late-stage trials of multipurpose prevention technologies for HIV and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Jessica A.; Mastroianni, Anna C.; Macklin, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This ...

  17. FDA Approves Two HPV Vaccines: Cervarix for Girls, Gardasil for Boys | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FDA has approved a second vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and cervical precancers, the vaccine’s manufacturer, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), announced last week. The approval is based on data from a large clinical trial showing that the vaccine, Cervarix, prevented precancerous lesions in 93 percent of those who received the full vaccine sequence of three injections over 6 months. |

  18. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China. PMID:26733022

  19. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butow Phyllis N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  20. Unique perception of clinical trials by Korean cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Su Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past few years, the number of clinical trials has increased rapidly in East Asia, especially for gastric and hepatobiliary cancer that are prevalent in Asian populations. However, the actual degree of understanding or perceptions of clinical trials by cancer patients in East Asian countries have seldom been studied. Methods Between July 1st and November 30th of 2011, we conducted a prospective study to survey cancer patients regarding their awareness of, and willingness to participate in, a clinical trial. Patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary cancer who visited the Hematology-Oncology outpatient clinic at Samsung Medical Center (SMC were enrolled. A total of 21 questions were asked including four questions which used the Visual analogue scale (VAS score. Results In this survey study, 1,000 patients were asked to participate and 675 patients consented to participate (67.5%. The awareness of clinical trials was substantially higher in patients who had a higher level of education (pp=0.004, and had a higher economic status (p=0.001. However, the willingness to participate in a clinical trial was not affected by the level of education or economic status of patients. The most influential factors for patient willingness to participate were a physician recommendation (n=181, 26.8%, limited treatment options (n=178, 26.4%, and expectations of effectiveness of new anti-cancer drugs (n=142, 21.0%. Patients with previous experience in clinical trials had a greater willingness to participate in clinical trials compared to patients without previous experience (p Conclusions This large patient cohort survey study showed that Korean cancer patients are more aware of clinical trials, but awareness did not translate into willingness to participate.

  1. Atrophy rates in asymptomatic amyloidosis: implications for Alzheimer prevention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abigail Andrews

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in designing therapeutic studies of individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease (AD to prevent the onset of symptoms. Cortical β-amyloid plaques, the first stage of AD pathology, can be detected in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET, and several studies have shown that ~1/3 of healthy elderly have significant β-amyloid deposition. Here we assessed whether asymptomatic amyloid-PET-positive controls have increased rates of brain atrophy, which could be harnessed as an outcome measure for AD prevention trials. We assessed 66 control subjects (age = 73.5±7.3 yrs; MMSE = 29±1.3 from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers & Lifestyle study who had a baseline Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET scan and two 3T MRI scans ~18-months apart. We calculated PET standard uptake value ratios (SUVR, and classified individuals as amyloid-positive/negative. Baseline and 18-month MRI scans were registered, and brain, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes and annualized volume changes calculated. Increasing baseline PiB-PET measures of β-amyloid load correlated with hippocampal atrophy rate independent of age (p = 0.014. Twenty-two (1/3 were PiB-positive (SUVR>1.40, the remaining 44 PiB-negative (SUVR≤1.31. Compared to PiB-negatives, PiB-positive individuals were older (76.8±7.5 vs. 71.7±7.5, p<0.05 and more were APOE4 positive (63.6% vs. 19.2%, p<0.01 but there were no differences in baseline brain, ventricle or hippocampal volumes, either with or without correction for total intracranial volume, once age and gender were accounted for. The PiB-positive group had greater total hippocampal loss (0.06±0.08 vs. 0.02±0.05 ml/yr, p = 0.02, independent of age and gender, with non-significantly higher rates of whole brain (7.1±9.4 vs. 4.7±5.5 ml/yr and ventricular (2.0±3.0 vs. 1.1±1.0 ml/yr change. Based on the observed effect size, recruiting 384 (95%CI 195-1080 amyloid-positive subjects/arm will provide 80% power to detect 25

  2. Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Franciane Schneider; Mitzy Tannia Reichembach Danski; Stela Adami Vayego

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. METHOD This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27) and experimental (24). RESULTS There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120) that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group i...

  3. "Cancer--Educate to Prevent"--high-school teachers, the new promoters of cancer prevention education campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barros

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test and immediately after (post-test. The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives ...

  5. [Significance of precision medicine in pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C F

    2016-03-23

    The morbidity and mortality of pancreatic cancer has been increasing year by year, however, the treatment progress and prevention effect were minimal. With the development of basic research, especially the advances of gene sequencing technology, it was possible to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and achieve the first stage prevention. The discovery of pancreatic cancer exosomes of high sensitivity and specificity made early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (the second stage prevention) no longer a worldwide problem. The build of pancreatic cancer genotyping with clinical applicability made the precision treatment of pancreatic cancer (the third stage prevention) possible. Thus, the precision medicine which is based on advances of gene sequencing, popularity of the Internet and the big data technology has brought a ray of hope for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26988819

  6. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer ... that can lead to cervical cancer, a new study shows. Canadian researchers found that young women who ...

  7. Biometry Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Diet and Cancer Prevention: Separating Fact from Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    Public belief about the role of diet in cancer ranges from the opinion that cancer is genetically determined through to the idea that a specific diet will prevent all cancer. This article examines current knowledge about food additives, vitamins and nutritional pharmacology in relation to present knowledge of cancer incidence.

  9. Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE SURGEON GENERAL’S CALL TO ACTION TO PREVENT SKIN CANCER From the Surgeon General Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer the ... be disfiguring and even deadly. Medical treatment for skin cancer is costly for individuals, families, and the nation. ...

  10. Grant R01NS046606 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA138800 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA107408 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R21CA184788 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant U01DK048375 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA161534 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R21CA182111 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R03CA121827 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01NR014068 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant U01DK048377 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant U01DK048349 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R21CA185460 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01EB019337 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Active Nutritional Science Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Nutritional Science Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Nutritional Science Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Towards research-tested smartphone applications for preventing breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Wilson, Lt Col Candy

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to prevent breast cancer and other chronic illnesses have focused on promoting physical activity, healthy diet and nutrition, and avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption. Smartphone applications (apps) offer a low-cost, effective strategy for breast cancer prevention in women through behavioral change. However, there are currently no research-tested smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention that are suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. ...

  7. A Review of Barriers to Minorities' Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials: Implications for Future Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ali; Nguyen, Claire; Lee, Yi-Hui; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-04-01

    To enhance nurses' awareness and competencies in practice and research by reporting the common barriers to participation of minorities in cancer clinical trials and discussing facilitators and useful strategies for recruitment. Several databases were searched for articles published in peer reviewed journals. Some of the barriers to minorities' participation in clinical trials were identified within the cultural social-context of cancer patients. The involvement of community networking was suggested as the most effective strategy for the recruitment of minorities in cancer clinical trials. Using culturally sensitive approaches to enhance ethnic minorities' participation is important for advancing cancer care and eliminating health disparities. Awareness of barriers and potential facilitators to the enrollment of ethnic minority cancer patients may contribute to enhancing nurses' competencies of recruiting ethnic minorities in nursing research, playing efficient roles in cancer clinical trials team, and providing culturally competent quality care. PMID:25822567

  8. Systematic review: primary and secondary prevention of gastrointestinal cancers with antioxidant supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.;

    2008-01-01

    0.43-0.80, test of interaction P < 0.0005) and type of antioxidant supplement (beta-carotene potentially increasing and selenium potentially decreasing cancer risk). Antioxidant supplements had no significant effect on mortality in a random-effects model meta-analysis (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.97-1.07, I(2......BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements prevent gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. AIM: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology, we reviewed the...... randomized trials comparing antioxidant supplements with placebo or no intervention on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. We searched electronic databases and reference lists until October, 2007. Our outcome measures were gastrointestinal cancers, overall mortality and adverse events. Outcomes were...

  9. Cancer Prevention Health Services Research: An Emerging Field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui; Tektiridis, Jennifer H.; Zhang, Ning; Chamberlain, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2009, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center hosted a symposium, “Future Directions in Cancer Prevention and Control: Workforce Implications for Training, Practice, and Policy.” This article summarizes discussions and an Internet and literature review by the symposium's Health Services Infrastructure Working Group. We agree on the need for the recognition of Cancer Prevention Health Services Research (CP-HSR) as a unified research field. With advances in cancer screening...

  10. CANCER IS PREVENTABLE- LET US TRY OUR LEVEL BEST

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a chronic disease and the prevalence is increasing at a faster rate in recent years. Most of the cancers are incurable, treatment is very expensive and is not affordable even for above middle-class people. A strong correlation is observed between lifestyle factors and cancer incidence or prevention. Let us know about cancer prevention lifestyle focussing mainly on the role of physical activity and diet. Most of the people leading sedentary life style. There is an overall decline in ...

  11. Why older people refuse to participate in falls prevention trials: A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B.M. Elskamp (Annemijn); K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); P. Patka (Peter); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Objectives: Falls are a major public health problem. Older persons are frequently underrepresented in trials, including falls prevention trials. Insight into possible reasons for non-participation could help to improve trial designs and participation rates among this age-group

  12. Online Information about Cancer Clinical Trials: Evaluating the Web Sites of Comprehensive Cancer Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Monaco, Valerie; Krills, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the information provided on comprehensive cancer centers’ Web sites regarding clinical trials. Thirty-nine Web sites were visually inspected for four categories of variables: navigation to the clinical trial information, search functionality provided to the visitor, information content provided about trials, and the reading level of the information provided. Results indicated that for those Web sites that provided information about clinical trials, t...

  13. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk

  14. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palozza, Paola, E-mail: p.palozza@rm.unicatt.it; Simone, Rossella E.; Catalano, Assunta [Institute of General Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy); Mele, Maria Cristina [Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy)

    2011-05-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  15. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Catalano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  16. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  17. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005, a nationally representative survey of American adults (N = 5,586 conducted by telephone interview.ResultsRespondents reported that all 3 types of cancer can be prevented through healthy behaviors; however, fewer did so for colon cancer. More respondents reported screening as a prevention strategy for colon cancer than did so for lung or skin cancer. Representations were associated with colon cancer screening, smoking status, and sunscreen use.ConclusionRepresentations of cancer were associated with relevant health behaviors, providing a target for health messages and interventions.

  18. What we have learned from randomized trials of prostate cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard M Hoffman; Anthony Y Smith

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer screening in the late 1980s led to an epidemic of prostate cancer, particularly in developed countries. However, the first valid reports from randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of screening were not published until 2009. Men in the screening group in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer were 20% less likely than those in the control group to die from prostate cancer. The absolute difference was only 0.7/1000, implying that over 1400 men needed to be screened to prevent one prostate cancer death. Screening was also associated with a 70% increased risk for being diagnosed with prostate cancer. The American Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial found no survival benefit for screening. Results were not conclusive because a substantial proportion of study subjects had previously undergone PSA testing, over half of the control group had PSA testing, follow-up was relatively short, and fewer than 100 subjects died from prostate cancer. Balancing the potential survival benefit from screening is the risk of overdiagnosis-finding cancers that would not otherwise cause clinical problems-and the risk of treatment complications, including urinary, sexual and bowel dysfunction. Prostate cancer screening efforts would benefit from improved biomarkers, which more readily identify clinically important cancers. Cancer control efforts might also need to include chemoprevention, though currently available agents are controversial. In the meantime, patients need to be supported in achieving informed decisions on whether to be screened for prostate cancer.

  19. A Little Bit Pregnant: Modeling How the Accurate Detection of Pregnancy Can Improve HIV Prevention Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Courtney A.; Sammel, Mary; Hillier, Sharon L.; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of unplanned pregnancies contributes to the methodological challenges of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials. In this paper, the authors discuss the incidence of pregnancy, including chemical pregnancy, and how the different methods of pregnancy diagnosis could affect the statistical power and calculated outcomes of HIV prevention trials. Study sample size inflation factors are estimated to aid in the design of clinical trials.The authors used published data of...

  20. Significant cancer prevention factor extraction: an association rule discovery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Jesmin; Tickle, Kevin S; Ali, A B M Shawkat; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-06-01

    Cancer is increasing the total number of unexpected deaths around the world. Until now, cancer research could not significantly contribute to a proper solution for the cancer patient, and as a result, the high death rate is uncontrolled. The present research aim is to extract the significant prevention factors for particular types of cancer. To find out the prevention factors, we first constructed a prevention factor data set with an extensive literature review on bladder, breast, cervical, lung, prostate and skin cancer. We subsequently employed three association rule mining algorithms, Apriori, Predictive apriori and Tertius algorithms in order to discover most of the significant prevention factors against these specific types of cancer. Experimental results illustrate that Apriori is the most useful association rule-mining algorithm to be used in the discovery of prevention factors. PMID:20703554

  1. Advancing the evidence base in cancer: psychosocial multicenter trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanson-Fisher Robert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of cancer is associated with significant distress and psychosocial morbidity. Although psychosocial interventions have been developed in an attempt to improve psychosocial outcomes in cancer patients and survivors, there is continued debate about whether there is adequate high-level evidence to establish the effectiveness of these interventions. The evidence base is limited as a result of numerous challenges faced by those attempting to conduct psychosocial intervention trials within the health system. Barriers include insufficient participant recruitment, difficulty generalizing from single-trial studies, difficulty in building and managing research teams with multidisciplinary expertise, lack of research design expertise and a lack of incentives for researchers conducting intervention research. To strengthen the evidence base, more intervention studies employing methodologically rigorous research designs are necessary. Methods In order to advance the evidence base of interventions designed to improve psychosocial outcomes for cancer patients and survivors, we propose the formation of a collaborative trials group that conducts multicenter trials to test the effectiveness of such interventions. Results Establishment of such a group would improve the quality of the evidence base in psychosocial research in cancer patients, by increasing support for conducting intervention research and providing intervention research training opportunities. A multidisciplinary collaborative group conducting multicenter trials would have the capacity to overcome many of the barriers that currently exist. Conclusions A stronger evidence base is necessary to identify effective psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. The proposed formation of a psycho-oncology collaborative trials group that conducts multicenter trials to test the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions would assist in achieving this outcome.

  2. Clinical trials update of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present clinical trial update consists of a review of two of eight current studies (the 10981-22023 AMAROS trial and the 10994 p53 trial) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group, as well as a preview of the MIND-ACT trial. The AMAROS trial is designed to prove equivalent local/regional control for patients with proven axillary lymph node metastasis by sentinel node biopsy if treated with axillary radiotherapy instead of axillary lymph node dissection, with reduced morbidity. The p53 trial started to assess the potential predictive value of p53 using a functional assay in yeast in patients with locally advanced/inflammatory or large operable breast cancer prospectively randomised to a taxane regimen versus a nontaxane regimen

  3. DICOM Structured Reporting and Cancer Clinical Trials Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Clunie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomarkers derived from radiological images as surrogate end-points in therapeutic cancer clinical trials is well established. DICOM is the ubiquitous standard for the interchange of images for both clinical use as well as research. It also has capabilities for the exchange of image-related information, including categorical and quantitative information derived from images. The use of DICOM Structured Reporting for the encoding and interchange of clinical trial results in a standard manner is reviewed.

  4. DICOM Structured Reporting and Cancer Clinical Trials Results

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Clunie

    2007-01-01

    The use of biomarkers derived from radiological images as surrogate end-points in therapeutic cancer clinical trials is well established. DICOM is the ubiquitous standard for the interchange of images for both clinical use as well as research. It also has capabilities for the exchange of image-related information, including categorical and quantitative information derived from images. The use of DICOM Structured Reporting for the encoding and interchange of clinical trial results in a standar...

  5. 20-years of population-based cancer registration in hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention in the Gambia, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrima Bah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR, was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009 of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population.

  6. Targeting multiple signal pathways by chemopreventive agents for cancer prevention and therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fazlul H SARKAR; Yi-wei LI

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, growing interest has been focused on the field of cancer prevention.Cancer prevention by chemopreventive agents offers significant promise for re-ducing the incidence and mortality of cancer. Chemopreventive agents may exert their effects either by blocking or metabolizing carcinogens or by inhibiting tumor cell growth. Another important benefit of chemopreventive agents is their non-toxic nature. Therefore, chemopreventive agents have recently been used for cancer treatment in combination with chemotherapeutics or radiotherapy, uncov-ering a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This strategy opens a new avenue fromcancer prevention to cancer treatment. In vitro and in vivo studies have demon-strated that chemopreventive agents could enhance the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutics, improving the treatment outcome. Growing evidence has shown that chemopreventive agents potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy through the regulation of multiple signaling pathways, including Akt, NF-κB, c-Myc, cyclooxygenase-2, apoptosis, and others, suggesting a multitargeted nature of chemopreventive agents. However, further in-depth mecha-nistic studies, in vivo animal experiments, and clinical trials are needed to investi-gate the effects of chemopreventive agents in combination treatment of cancer with conventional cancer therapies. More potent natural and synthetic chemo-preventive agents are also needed to improve the efficacy of mechanism-based and targeted therapeutic strategies against cancer, which are likely to make a significant impact on saving lives. Here, we have briefly reviewed the role of chemopreventive agents in cancer prevention, but most importantly, we have reviewed how they could be useful for cancer therapy in combination with con-ventional therapies.

  7. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoEllen WELSH

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated that breast cancer incidence is inversely correlated with indices of vitamin D status, including ultraviolet exposure, which enhances epidermal vitamin D synthesis. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is ex-pressed in mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that vitamin D may directly influ-ence sensitivity of the gland to transformation. Consistent with this concept, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the VDR ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), exerts negative growth regulatory effects on mammary epithelial ceils that contribute to maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of the VDR gene in mice alters the balance between proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland, which ultimately enhances its susceptibility to carcinogenesis.In addition, dietary supplementation with vitamin D, or chronic treatment with synthetic VDR agonists, reduces the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rodents. Collectively, these observations have reinforced the need to further define the human requirement for vitamin D and the molecular actions of the VDR in relation to prevention of breast cancer.

  8. Differences in trial knowledge and motives for participation among cancer patients in phase 3 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godskesen, T M; Kihlbom, U; Nordin, K; Silén, M; Nygren, P

    2016-05-01

    While participants in clinical oncology trials are essential for the advancement of cancer therapies, factors decisive for patient participation have been described but need further investigation, particularly in the case of phase 3 studies. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in trial knowledge and motives for participation in phase 3 clinical cancer trials in relation to gender, age, education levels and former trial experience. The results of a questionnaire returned from 88 of 96 patients (92%) were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. There were small, barely relevant differences in trial knowledge among patients when stratified by gender, age or education. Participants with former trial experience were less aware about the right to withdraw. Male participants and those aged ≥65 years were significantly more motivated by a feeling of duty, or by the opinions of close ones. Men seem more motivated than women by external factors. With the awareness that elderly and single male participants might be a vulnerable group and participants with former trial experience are less likely to be sufficiently informed, the information consent process should focus more on these patients. We conclude that the informed consent process seems to work well, with good results within most subgroups. PMID:25904313

  9. Insight into early-phase trials for lung cancer in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jin-Ji; Wu, Yi-Long

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few data have been published comparing early-phase trials for lung cancer between China and the United States (US). This study was to investigate the differences of phase 1 trials for lung cancer between these two countries. Methods In 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to compare phase 1 trials for lung cancer between the Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute (GLCI), the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center (UWCCC), and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Cen...

  10. Improving ethical and participatory practice for marginalized populations in biomedical HIV prevention trials: lessons from Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Allman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. METHODS: In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP guided this work. RESULTS: Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. DISCUSSION: Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical

  11. Nutrition and cancer: Review of epidemiological studies and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Panagiotakos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors of cancer include unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, various genetic and environmental factors. Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases with increased incidence; moreover, 80% of gastrointestinal, breast and prostate cancers are attributed to unhealthy eating habits. Many surveys have investigated the role of diet in cancer prevention. Here we summarized current knowledge about dietary factors associated with cancer incidence. There is a strong correlation of the protective effect of fruits and vegetables with colon cancer and the negative effect of red meat and the protective effect of milk on colorectal cancer. High alcohol consumption is related to higher incidence of mouth and esophageal cancers, with hot drinks playing a role in mouth or even gastrointestinal cancers. High fat consumption seems to play a negative role in colorectal cancer, where sugar and salt might be negatively related to stomach cancer. Beyond nutrition, physical inactivity and body fat seems to play an important role in cancer, where there are strong evidence that the first protects against colorectal cancer and the second increases the incidence of breast cancer after menopause. Data for the role of micronutrients, vitamins and minerals lead to the suggestion that dietary supplements should be avoided and all nutritional needs should be covered through a well balanced diet.

  12. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  13. The Prevention of Liver Cancer by HBV Vaccine Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To recognize the HBV vaccine program for prevention of the hepatic cancer.Methods To discuss the relation between the HBV and hepatic cancer arising, and to discuss the immunology respond of the HBV vaccine (HBV surface antigen protein) in our patient group. Result Our data indicates that the predisposing of the HBV infection is required for the hepatic cancer arising and for the high expression of the AFP gene, and our data indicates that the HBV vaccine can induce highly immuno respond in about 78.8 % of the adult for achieving the HBV prevention status and the hepatic cancer prevention status.

  14. Design of clinical trials for therapeutic cancer vaccines development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-25

    Advances in molecular and cellular biology as well as biotechnology led to definition of a group of drugs referred to as medicinal products of advanced technologies. It includes gene therapy products, somatic cell therapeutics and tissue engineering. Therapeutic cancer vaccines including whole cell tumor cells vaccines or gene modified whole cells belong to somatic therapeutics and/or gene therapy products category. The drug development is a multistep complex process. It comprises of two phases: preclinical and clinical. Guidelines on preclinical testing of cell based immunotherapy medicinal products have been defined by regulatory agencies and are available. However, clinical testing of therapeutic cancer vaccines is still under debate. It presents a serious problem since recently clinical efficacy of the number of cancer vaccines has been demonstrated that focused a lot of public attention. In general clinical testing in the current form is very expensive, time consuming and poorly designed what may lead to overlooking of products clinically beneficial for patients. Accordingly regulatory authorities and researches including Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trial Working Group proposed three regulatory solutions to facilitate clinical development of cancer vaccines: cost-recovery program, conditional marketing authorization, and a new development paradigm. Paradigm includes a model in which cancer vaccines are investigated in two types of clinical trials: proof-of-principle and efficacy. The proof-of-principle trial objectives are: safety; dose selection and schedule of vaccination; and demonstration of proof-of-principle. Efficacy trials are randomized clinical trials with objectives of demonstrating clinical benefit either directly or through a surrogate. The clinical end points are still under debate. PMID:19835869

  15. Update on clinical trials: genetic targets in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bora; Cream, Leah V; Harvey, Harold A

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in United States. From data of American Cancer Society from 2007 reported total of 178,480 women diagnosed with breast cancer. The death rate from breast cancer has decreased in North America over time, but still accounts for second highest cancer death, following lung cancer. Breast cancer is staged based on tumor size, nodal involvement, and distant metastasis like any other solid tumors. However clinical staging is not the only important factor in management of breast cancer. Various molecular features divides breast cancer into many subgroups - that act differently, and respond differently from therapy. Thus the focus of breast cancer treatment has evolved focusing on specific targets. The most important biologic markers in subtyping of breast cancer so far are hormone receptor positivity and HER2/neu protein expression. Five molecular subtypes using intrinsic gene set include Basal mRNA, HER2 + mRNA, Luminal AmRNA, Luminal B mRNA, and Normal-like mRNA. In addition, better understanding of genetic target of breast cancer has given us arsenal of personalized, and more effective treatment approach.This review will focus on examples that highlight several mechanism of tumorigenesis, giving us not just understanding of gene pathways and the molecular biology, that could lead us to therapeutic target. Several important molecular targets have been investigated in preclinical and clinical trials, others are yet to be explored. We will also describe genetic mechanisms discovery related to overcoming resistance to current targeted therapies in breast cancer, including hormone receptor expression and HER 2- neu amplification. We will also review other exciting developments in understanding of breast cancer, the tumor microenvironment and cancer stem cells, and targeting agents in that area. PMID:23288634

  16. Effects of manual lymphatic drainage on breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Tsai-Wei; Tseng Sung-Hui; Lin Chia-Chin; Bai Chyi-Huey; Chen Ching-Shyang; Hung Chin-Sheng; Wu Chih-Hsiung; Tam Ka-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Lymphedema is a common complication of axillary dissection for breast cancer. We investigated whether manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) could prevent or manage limb edema in women after breast-cancer surgery. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effectiveness of MLD in the prevention and treatment of breast-cancer-related lymphedema. The PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Physiotherapy Evidence Datab...

  17. Educating Cancer Prevention Researchers in Emerging Biobehavioral Models: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A.; Li, Dennis H.; Noor, Syed W.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and ...

  18. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.

  19. Preventing and Treating Prostate Cancer Spread to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... options Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it ... a vein and settle in areas of damaged bones (like those containing cancer spread). Once there, they give off radiation that ...

  20. Comparison of Eligibility Criteria Between Protocols, Registries, and Publications of Cancer Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Liang, Fei; Li, Wenfeng; Tannock, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Trial registration and public accessibility of appended or published protocols of phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) allow comparison of reported research with essential aspects of trial design. We determined how eligibility criteria of participants specified in protocols were described in trial registries and articles of 255 cancer RCTs published in leading journals. The mean proportion of matching eligibility criteria between protocols and publications per trial (the primary endpoint) was 44.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 40.8% to 47.3%). Almost all discrepancies in eligibility criteria (96.7%, 95% CI = 96.1% to 97.3%) suggested to readers of articles that a broader study population was included. The mean proportion of matching eligibility criteria between protocols and registries was 72.9% (95% CI = 68.2% to 77.7%, the secondary endpoint). We conclude that there are substantial differences in eligibility criteria between trial protocols, registries and articles. Inaccurate reporting of eligibility criteria may prevent appropriate assessment of the applicability of trial results. PMID:27226519

  1. Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Schneider

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. METHOD This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27 and experimental (24. RESULTS There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120 that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group is higher than Calendula group. Through the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed that Essential Fatty Acids group has always remained below the Calendula group survival curve, due to the lower risk of developing radiodermatitis grade 1, which makes the usage of Calendula more effective, with statistical significance (p-value = 0.00402. CONCLUSION Calendula showed better therapeutic response than the Essential Fatty Acids in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-237v4b.

  2. Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Franciane; Danski, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach; Vayego, Stela Adami

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. METHOD This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27) and experimental (24). RESULTS There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120) that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group is higher than Calendula group. Through the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed that Essential Fatty Acids group has always remained below the Calendula group survival curve, due to the lower risk of developing radiodermatitis grade 1, which makes the usage of Calendula more effective, with statistical significance (p-value = 0.00402). CONCLUSION Calendula showed better therapeutic response than the Essential Fatty Acids in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-237v4b. PMID:25992820

  3. The Complexities of Epidemiology and Prevention of Gastrointestinal Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Saba Haq; Shadan Ali; Fazlul H Sarkar; Ramzi Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Cancer epidemiology and prevention is one of the most well studied fields today. The more we can understand about the incidence and pathogenesis of this disease, the better we will be able to prevent it. Effective prevention strategies can decrease the mortality rate of cancer significantly; this is why it is important to delineate the underlying causes. It has been well recognized that genetic mutations, sporadic or hereditary, may lead to increased chance of tumorigenesis. Detecting genetic...

  4. Phase I and II clinical trials for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushalani, Nikhil I

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a global public health problem with considerable heterogeneity in pathogenesis and clinical presentation across geographic regions. Improved understanding of the molecular biology of this disease has opened avenues for targeted intervention. An individualized treatment approach is required for optimal management of this cancer. Overcoming resistance to therapy requires combining targeted agents with the traditional options of chemotherapy/radiation therapy, and also targeting more than 1 pathway of carcinogenesis at a time. Encouraging molecular hypothesis and biomarker-driven trials will lead to improved patient outcomes and may eventually enable the therapeutic nihilism associated with gastric cancer to be overcome. PMID:22098835

  5. Ethical issues for late-stage trials of multipurpose prevention technologies for HIV and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica A; Mastroianni, Anna C; Macklin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This article identifies several ethical issues uniquely associated with this research that will benefit from future deliberation and guidance to ensure that this globally important research can proceed efficiently and expeditiously. PMID:25113651

  6. Breast Cancer Clinical Trials: Past Half Century Moving Forward Advancing Patient Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerer, Henry M; van la Parra, Raquel F D

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials in breast cancer have contributed immensely to the advancements of modern multimodal breast cancer treatment. Due to improved screening methods and more effective biologic-based tailored systemic therapies, the extent of surgery necessary for local and systemic control of disease is decreasing. Sequential trials for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) have changed the management of this disease and are culminating in randomized active surveillance studies in an effort potentially to prevent overtreatment of low- and intermediate-grade disease. For patients with initial node-positive disease, clipping and marking of the biopsy-proven nodal metastases before the start of neoadjuvant chemotherapy can allow for selective node dissection based on the axillary response. With the current advances in primary systemic therapy, feasibility trials are beginning to investigate the potential of nonoperative therapy for invasive cancers with percutaneously documented pathologic complete response. This article presents a review and update on landmark clinical trials related to DCIS, the extent of axillary surgery in node-positive disease, and the integration of systemic therapy with local therapy. PMID:27364503

  7. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tárraga López, Pedro J; Juan Solera Albero; José Antonio Rodríguez-Montes

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths b...

  8. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  9. Green tea compounds in breast cancer prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Min-Jing; Yin, Yan-Cun; Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In recent years, many in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that green tea possesses anti-cancer effects. The epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. Likewise, results from animal models about the preventive or therapeutic effects of green tea components are inconclusive. The mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence the risk of breast cancer in humans remain elusive mechanisms by which green...

  10. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  11. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer: Prospects and Disappointments in Human Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William N. Rom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the risk of lung cancer, or preventing its development in high-risk individuals, would have a huge impact on public health. The most effective means to decrease lung cancer incidence is to eliminate exposure to carcinogens. However, with recent advances in the understanding of pulmonary carcinogenesis and the identification of intermediate biomarkers, the prospects for the field of chemoprevention research have improved dramatically. Here we review the most recent research in lung cancer chemoprevention—focusing on those agents that have been investigated in human clinical trials. These agents fall into three major categories. First, oxidative stress plays an important role in pulmonary carcinogenesis; and therefore, antioxidants (including vitamins, selenium, green tea extracts, and isothiocyanates may be particularly effective in preventing the development of lung cancer. Second, inflammation is increasingly accepted as a crucial factor in carcinogenesis, and many investigators have focused on anti-inflammatory agents, such as glucocorticoids, NSAIDs, statins, and PPARγ agonists. Finally, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is recognized to play a central role in tobacco-induced carcinogenesis, and inhibitors of this pathway, including myoinositol and metformin, are promising agents for lung cancer prevention. Successful chemoprevention will likely require targeting of multiple pathways to carcinogenesis—both to minimize toxicity and maximize efficacy.

  12. Serum α-Tocopherol and γ-Tocopherol Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk in the PLCO Screening Trial: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Ulrike Peters; Jiyoung Ahn; Friesen, Marlin D.; Elio Riboli; Hayes, Richard B; Demetrius Albanes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin E compounds exhibit prostate cancer preventive properties experimentally, but serologic investigations of tocopherols, and randomized controlled trials of supplementation in particular, have been inconsistent. Many studies suggest protective effects among smokers and for aggressive prostate cancer, however. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer S...

  13. Preventive Effects of Cocoa and Cocoa Antioxidants in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angeles Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality in the developed world. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process conventionally defined by the initiation, promotion and progression stages. Natural polyphenolic compounds can act as highly effective antioxidant and chemo-preventive agents able to interfere at the three stages of cancer. Cocoa has been demonstrated to counteract oxidative stress and to have a potential capacity to interact with multiple carcinogenic pathways involved in inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis of initiated and malignant cells. Therefore, restriction of oxidative stress and/or prevention or delayed progression of cancer stages by cocoa antioxidant compounds has gained interest as an effective approach in colorectal cancer prevention. In this review, we look over different in vitro and in vivo studies that have identified potential targets and mechanisms whereby cocoa and their flavonoids could interfere with colonic cancer. In addition, evidence from human studies is also illustrated.

  14. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  15. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard, Catherine; Harrison, Cheryce; Kozica, Samantha; Zoungas, Sophia; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Teede, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information. Methods and Findings We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters) randomised ...

  16. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  17. Aloe vera for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis: a self-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, P; Amouzgar-Hashemi, F; Samsami, S; Chinichian, S; Oghabian, M A

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate an Aloe vera lotion for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis, all patients with a prescription of radiotherapy to a minimum dose of 40 Gy were eligible provided that their treatment area could be divided into two symmetrical halves. Patients were given a lotion of Aloe vera to use on one half of the irradiated area, with no medication to be used on the other half. The grade of dermatitis in each half was recorded weekly until 4 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. The trial enrolled 60 patients (mean age: 52 years; 67% women). Most patients had breast cancer (38%), followed by pelvic (32%), head-and-neck (22%), and other cancers (8%). Field size was 80-320 cm(2) (mean: 177 cm(2)), and the dose of radiotherapy was 40-70 Gy (mean: 54 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy was administered in 20 patients. From week 4 to week 6 of radiotherapy and then at weeks 2 and 4 after radiotherapy, the mean grade of dermatitis with and without Aloe vera was 0.81 and 1.10 (p Aloe vera reduces the intensity of radiationinduced dermatitis. PMID:23904773

  18. Challenges of conducting clinical trials of natural products to combat cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Channing J; Denmeade, Samuel R; Carducci, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Numerous drugs that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved for use in cancer therapy are derived from plants, including taxanes such as paclitaxel and vinca alkaloids such as vinblastine. Dietary supplements are another category of natural products that are widely used by patients with cancer, but without the FDA-reviewed evidence of safety and efficacy--be it related to survival, palliation, symptom mitigation, and/or immune system enhancement-that is required for therapy approval. Nearly half of patients in the United States with cancer report that they started taking new dietary supplements after being given a diagnosis of cancer. Oncologists are challenged in providing advice to patients about which supplements are safe and effective to use to treat cancer or the side effects of cancer therapy, and which supplements are antagonistic to standard treatment with chemotherapy, radiation, and/or immunotherapy. Despite the large number of trials that have been launched, the FDA has not approved any dietary supplement or food to prevent cancer, halt its growth, or prevent its recurrence. In this article, we review the primary challenges faced by researchers attempting to conduct rigorous trials of natural products, including shortages of funding due to lack of patentability, manufacturing difficulties, contamination, and lack of product consistency. We also highlight the methods used by dietary supplement marketers to persuade patients that a supplement is effective (or at least safe) even without FDA approval, as well as the efforts of the US government to protect the health and safety of its citizens by ensuring that the information used to market natural products is accurate. We close with a summary of the most widely used databases of information about the safety, efficacy, and interactions of dietary supplements. PMID:27379814

  19. Review article about nutrition and primary prevention of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Atena Shiva; Shahin Arab

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a worldwide problem that is caused by a variety of different factors increasing over a number of years. Oral cancer is a very prevalent disease and one of the most 10 common causes of death. It is important that the risk factors can be controlled. Selecting the correct health behaviors and preventing exposure to convinced environmental risk factors can help to prevent the expansion of cancer. Scientists guess that as many as 30-40 percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by h...

  20. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer. PMID:25207383

  1. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude;

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  2. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzick, J.; Thorat, M.A.; Andriole, G.; Brawley, O.W.; Brown, P.H.; Culig, Z.; Eeles, R.A.; Ford, L.G.; Hamdy, F.C.; Holmberg, L.; Ilic, D.; Key, T.J.; Vecchia, C. La; Lilja, H.; Marberger, M.; Meyskens, F.L.; Minasian, L.M.; Parker, C.; Parnes, H.L.; Perner, S.; Rittenhouse, H.; Schalken, J.A.; Schmid, H.P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schroder, F.H.; Stenzl, A.; Tombal, B.; Wilt, T.J.; Wolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-speci

  3. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude; Teillac, Pierre; Iversen, Peter; Boccon Gibod, Laurent; Bartsch, Georg; Marberger, Michael

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  4. Cancer prevention: take charge of your lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitting smoking has a direct affect on your risk of cancer. Tobacco contains harmful chemicals that damage your cells and cause cancer growth. Harming your lungs is not the only concern. Smoking and tobacco use cause many types of cancer, such as: Lung ...

  5. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  6. Does tadalafil prevent erectile dysfunction in patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Incrocci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A recently published paper addressed the interesting topic of prevention of erectile dysfunction (ED with tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i in patients undergoing radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. [1] Tadalafil 5 mg or placebo was administered once-daily for 24 weeks in patients undergoing external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT or brachytherapy (BT for prostate cancer. This randomized trial did not show superior efficacy of the active drug compared with placebo 4-6 weeks after stopping the study drug. Furthermore, patients younger than 65 years did not respond significantly better than older patients.

  7. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  8. Black raspberries in cancer clinical trials: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresty, Laura A.; Mallery, Susan R.; Stoner, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Black raspberries (BRB) inhibit a broad range of cancers in preclinical models, including in vivo models of oral, esophageal, colon, breast and skin cancer. Promising preclinical results have led to clinical evaluations in cancer patients or patients at increased risk for cancer development. OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical investigations targeting cancer or precancerous lesions with BRB and discuss future directions. METHODS A thorough literature search was conducted through December 1, 2015 to identify all published studies evaluating BRB in cancer focused clinical trials. RESULTS Research investigating BRB in clinical settings report positive effects on preneoplastic lesions or cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus and colon. BRB treatment resulted in: histologic regression of oral intraepithelial neoplasia associated with improved histologic grade and significantly reduced loss of heterozygosity at tumor suppressor gene loci, modulated genes linked to RNA processing and growth factor recycling; in the colon, BRB inhibited FAP-associated polyp progression, demethylated tumor suppressor genes and improved plasma cytokine profiles; in Barrett’s patients, BRB consumption increased tissue levels of GST-pi and decreased 8-isoprostane, a marker of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS The precise dose, duration and optimum mode of BRB delivery for cancer inhibition remains to be fully elucidated. Common themes across studies support that BRB are anti-proliferative, anti- inflammatory, reduce oxidative stress and restore tumor suppressive activity. Future directions are included in the conclusions section.

  9. Current Evidence to Justify, and the Methodological Considerations for a Randomised Controlled Trial Testing the Hypothesis that Statins Prevent the Malignant Progression of Barrett's Oesophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Thurtle; Leo Alexandre; Yoon K Loke; Ed Cheong; Andrew Hart

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's oesophagus is the predominant risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer whose incidence is increasing and which has a poor prognosis. This article reviews the latest experimental and epidemiological evidence justifying the development of a randomised controlled trial investigating the hypothesis that statins prevent the malignant progression of Barrett's oesophagus, and explores the methodological considerations for such a trial. The experimental evidence suggests anti-carcinogenic properties of statins on oesophageal cancer cell lines, based on the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway and the production of pro-apoptotic proteins. The epidemiological evidence reports inverse associations between statin use and the incidence of oesophageal carcinoma in both general population and Barrett's oesophagus cohorts. Such a randomised controlled trial would be a large multi-centre trial, probably investigating simvastatin, given the wide clinical experience with this drug, relatively low side-effect profile and low ifnancial cost. As with any clinical trial, high adherence is important, which could be increased with therapy, patient, doctor and system-focussed interventions. We would suggest there is now sufifcient evidence to justify a full clinical trial that attempts to prevent this aggressive cancer in a high-risk population.

  10. Active Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Protein found to promote DNA repair, prevent cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ An abundant chromosomal protein that binds to damaged DNA prevents cancer development by enhancing DNA repair, researchers at University of Texas reported on-line in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science.

  12. Insurance, Distance Often Prevent Breast Reconstruction After Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160210.html Insurance, Distance Often Prevent Breast Reconstruction After Cancer Obstacles ... 2, 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Insurance coverage and the distance to a doctor's office ...

  13. Molecular epidemiology, prenatal exposure and prevention of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Molecular Epidemiology was originally conceived as a preventive approach, providing a valuable tool for investigating risk factors for cancer in vulnerable populations. Biomarkers can be used as early indicators of risk for preventative purposes and risk assessment. The present contribution mainly refers to in utero exposures to carcinogens, since humans are especially vulnerable during fetal development. Environmental exposures in utero can increase risks for both childhood and adult cancers...

  14. Cancer Preventive Mechanismsof the Green Tea Polyphenol (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Yu Zhang; Lei Chen

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that consumption of tea, especially green tea, is good for preventing cancer. To elucidate the cancer preventive mechanisms of green tea, much effort has been devoted to investigating the anticancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea. It has been revealed that EGCG restrained carcinogenesis in a variety of tissues through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), growth factor-related cell signaling,...

  15. Taking culture seriously in biomedical HIV prevention trials: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, Clara; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Newman, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    A substantial gap exists between widespread acknowledgement of the importance of incorporating cultural sensitivity in biomedical HIV prevention trials and empirical evidence to guide the operationalization of cultural sensitivity in these trials. We conducted a systematic literature search and qualitative meta-synthesis to explore how culture is conceptualized and operationalized in global biomedical HIV prevention trials. Across 29 studies, the majority (n = 17) were conducted in resource-limited settings. We identified four overarching themes: (1) semantic cultural sensitivity - challenges in communicating scientific terminology into local vernaculars; (2) instrumental cultural sensitivity - understanding historical experiences to guide tailoring of trial activities; (3) budgetary, logistical, and personnel implications of operationalizing cultural sensitivity; and (4) culture as an asset. Future investigations should address how sociocultural considerations are operationalized across the spectrum of trial preparedness, implementation, and dissemination in particular sociocultural contexts, including intervention studies and evaluations of the effectiveness of methods used to operationalize culturally sensitive practices. PMID:26560332

  16. Correlates of Adherence to a Telephone-Based Multiple Health Behavior Change Cancer Preventive Intervention for Teens: The Healthy for Life Program (HELP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Peshkin, Beth N.; Sharff, McKane E.; Walker, Leslie R.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with teens' adherence to a multiple health behavior cancer preventive intervention. Analyses identified predictors of trial enrollment, run-in completion, and adherence (intervention initiation, number of sessions completed). Of 104 teens screened, 73% (n = 76) were trial eligible. White teens were more…

  17. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  18. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:25575572

  19. Role of phytochemicals in colon cancer prevention. A nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Specific food compounds, especially from fruits and vegetables, may protect against development of colon cancer. In this thesis effects and mechanisms of various phytochemicals in relation to colon cancer prevention were studied through application of large-scale gene expression profiling. Expressio

  20. Opportunities and Challenges for Nutritional Proteomics in Cancer Prevention12

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnolo, Donato F.; Milner, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge gaps persist about the efficacy of cancer prevention strategies based on dietary food components. Adaptations to nutrient supply are executed through tuning of multiple protein networks that include transcription factors, histones, modifying enzymes, translation factors, membrane and nuclear receptors, and secreted proteins. However, the simultaneous quantitative and qualitative measurement of all proteins that regulate cancer processes is not practical using traditional protein met...

  1. Screening and prevention in women at increased breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.S. de

    2015-01-01

    The most frequent cancer among women in the Western world arises in the breast accounting for over 1.7 million new cases in 2012, a number which is still rising. Much attention is paid to the discovery of new ways to prevent breast cancer, as is the search for new treatment modalities with a minimum

  2. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH; Lila J. Finney Rutten, PhD, MPH; Bradford W. Hesse, PhD; Richard P. Moser, PhD; Alexander J. Rothman, PhD; Kevin D. McCaul, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer) and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005), a nationally representative survey of American adults (N...

  3. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Majidi; Reza Ghiasvand; Maryam Hadji; Azin Nahvijou; Azam-Sadat Mousavi; Minoo Pakgohar; Nahid Khodakarami; Mehrandokht Abedini; Farnaz Amouzegar Hashemi; Marjan Rahnamaye Farzami; Reza Shahsiah; Sima Sajedinejhad; Mohammad Ali Mohagheghi; Fatemeh Nadali; Arash Rashidian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor progn...

  4. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Neal D Freedman; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for ga...

  5. Rapalogs in cancer prevention: Anti-aging or anticancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    Common cancer is an age-related disease. Slow aging is associated with reduced and delayed carcinogenesis. Calorie restriction (CR), the most studied anti-aging intervention, prevents cancer by slowing down the aging process. Evidence is emerging that CR decelerates aging by deactivating MTOR (Target of Rapamycin). Rapamycin and other rapalogs suppress cellular senescence, slow down aging and postpone age-related diseases including cancer. At the same time, rapalogs are approved for certain c...

  6. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul K. Lall; Syed, Deeba N.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mohammad Imran Khan; Hasan Mukhtar

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes incons...

  7. Elaine Trujillo, MS, RD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Trujillo is a Nutritionist with the NSRG, where she promotes the translation of information about bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer. She plans and directs nutritional programs such as the annual week-long Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum, and the lectureship program Stars in Nutrition and Cancer. She collaborates with other federal agencies, and is currently serving on the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Management Team. Ms. |

  8. Health beliefs and cancer prevention practices of Filipino American women

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Celine M

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...

  9. Tamoxifen may prevent both ER+ and ER- breast cancers and select for ER- carcinogenesis: an alternative hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Esserman, Laura J.; Dowsett, Mitch; Slingerland, Joyce M.; Elissa M. Ozanne

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene (MORE) data have been interpreted to indicate that tamoxifen reduces the risk of ER+ but not ER- breast carcinogenesis. We explored whether these data also support an alternative hypothesis, that tamoxifen influences the natural history of both ER+ and ER- cancers, that it may be equally effective in abrogating or delaying ER- and ER+ carcinogenesis, and place selection pressure, in some cases, for the out...

  10. Primary breast cancer: European radiotherapy trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years in Europe, surgically operable breast carcinomas have been treated by conservative treatments. There are two methods of conservative treatment: limited surgery with or without auxiliary dissection followed by irradiation and irradiation as the primary treatment. Depending on the size of the primary tumor and clinical findings in the axillae, patients were referred to either of the two treatment alternatives. Generally, limited surgery and irradiation was performed in patients with early breast carcinomas, while irradiation as the primary treatment was used for more locally advanced cancers. Since 1960, conservative treatments with megavoltage for patients with invasive breast carcinomas have been used more and more frequently. These conservation methods have been used hoping to achieve long-term survival comparable to that obtained by mastectomy and breast preservation with good cosmetic results. This chapter reviews results at 5 and 10 years obtained in Europe by several authors concerning early breast infiltration carcinomas treated by limited surgery or without axillary dissection followed by irradiation

  11. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention: reducing excessive ovarian androgen production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secreto, Giorgio; Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Muti, Paola; Zumoff, Barnett; Sant, Milena; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Minimizing endogenous estrogen production and activity in women at high risk for breast cancer is a prominent approach to prevention of the disease. A number of clinical trials have shown that the administration of selective-estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors significantly reduces the incidence of breast cancer in healthy women. Unfortunately, these drugs often produce adverse effects on the quality of life and are, therefore, poorly accepted by many women, even those who are at high risk for breast cancer. We propose a novel alternative approach to decreasing estrogen production: suppression of ovarian synthesis of the androgen precursors of estrogens by administration of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia. The specific target population would be elderly postmenopausal women, at increased risk of breast cancer, and with high blood levels of testosterone, marker of ovarian hyperandrogenemia, and recognized factor of risk for breast cancer. Testosterone levels are measured at baseline to identify women at risk and during the follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The postmenopausal ovary is an important source of excessive androgen production which originates from the ovarian interstitial cell hyperplasia frequently present in breast cancer patients. We propose to counter the source of androgen excess in women with ovarian stromal hyperplasia, thus reducing the substrate for estrogen formation without completely inhibiting estrogen synthesis. Available evidence indicates that gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs can be safely used for breast cancer prevention in postmenopausal women. PMID:27393623

  12. PREVENTion of a parastomal hernia with a prosthetic mesh in patients undergoing permanent end-colostomy; the PREVENT-trial: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandsma Henk-Thijs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parastomal hernia is a common complication of a colostomy. Ultimately, one-third of patients with a parastomal hernia will need surgical correction due to frequent leakage or life-threatening bowel obstruction or strangulation. However, treatment remains a challenge resulting in high recurrence rates. Two single center trials demonstrated that the frequency of parastomal hernias decreases by prophylactic placement of a mesh around the stoma at the time of formation. Unfortunately, both studies were small-sized, single-center studies and with these small numbers less common complications could be missed which were the reasons to initiate a prospective randomized multicenter trial to determine if a retromuscular, preperitoneal mesh at the stoma site prevents parastomal hernia and does not cause unacceptable complications. Methods One hundred and fifty patients undergoing open procedure, elective formation of a permanent end-colostomy will be randomized into two groups. In the intervention group an end-colostomy is created with placement of a preperitioneal, retromuscular lightweight monofilament polypropylene mesh, and compared to a group with a traditional stoma without mesh. Patients will be recruited from 14 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands during a 2-year period. Primary endpoint is the incidence of parastomal hernia. Secondary endpoints are stoma complications, cost-effectiveness, and quality of life. Follow-up will be performed at 3 weeks, 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years. To find a difference of 20% with a power of 90%, a total number of 134 patients must be included. All results will be reported according to the CONSORT 2010 statement. Discussion The PREVENT-trial is a multicenter randomized controlled trial powered to determine whether prophylactic placement of a polypropylene mesh decreases the incidence of a parastomal hernia versus the traditional stoma formation without a mesh. Trial registration The PREVENT-trial

  13. Nutritional Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to | Establishing a comprehensive understanding of diet and food components in cancer risk and tumor cell behavior.

  14. Molecular mechanism of bitter melon juice efficacy against pancreatic cancer. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Pancreatic cancer (PanC) is an aggressive disease;median life of PanC patients post-diagnosis is been tested in several clinical trials for its anti-diabetic effects and has plenty of human safety data. We, therefore, anticipate that the positive outcomes from the proposed studies will provide compelling rationale for initiating clinical trials to establish BMJ activity against human pancreatic cancer. |

  15. Sample size re-estimation in a breast cancer trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hade, Erinn; Jarjoura, David; Wei, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Background During the recruitment phase of a randomized breast cancer trial, investigating the time to recurrence, we found evidence that the failure probabilities used at the design stage were too high. Since most of the methodological research involving sample size re-estimation has focused on normal or binary outcomes, we developed a method which preserves blinding to re-estimate sample size in our time to event trial. Purpose A mistakenly high estimate of the failure rate at the design stage may reduce the power unacceptably for a clinically important hazard ratio. We describe an ongoing trial and an application of a sample size re-estimation method that combines current trial data with prior trial data or assumes a parametric model to re-estimate failure probabilities in a blinded fashion. Methods Using our current blinded trial data and additional information from prior studies, we re-estimate the failure probabilities to be used in sample size re-calculation. We employ bootstrap resampling to quantify uncertainty in the re-estimated sample sizes. Results At the time of re-estimation data from 278 patients was available, averaging 1.2 years of follow up. Using either method, we estimated an increase of 0 for the hazard ratio proposed at the design stage. We show that our method of blinded sample size re-estimation preserves the Type I error rate. We show that when the initial guess of the failure probabilities are correct; the median increase in sample size is zero. Limitations Either some prior knowledge of an appropriate survival distribution shape or prior data is needed for re-estimation. Conclusions In trials when the accrual period is lengthy, blinded sample size re-estimation near the end of the planned accrual period should be considered. In our examples, when assumptions about failure probabilities and HRs are correct the methods usually do not increase sample size or otherwise increase it by very little. PMID:20392786

  16. Competing events and costs of clinical trials: Analysis of a randomized trial in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Clinical trial costs may be reduced by identifying enriched subpopulations of patients with favorable risk profiles for the events of interest. However, increased selectivity affects accrual rates, with uncertain impact on clinical trial cost. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) 8794 randomized trial of adjuvant radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer. The primary endpoint was metastasis-free survival (MFS), defined as time to metastasis or death from any cause (competing mortality). We used competing risks regression models to identify an enriched subgroup at high risk for metastasis and low risk for competing mortality. We applied a cost model to estimate the impact of enrichment on trial cost and duration. Results: The treatment effect on metastasis was similar in the enriched subgroup (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.76) compared to the whole cohort (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30–0.81) while the effect on competing mortality was not significant in the subgroup or the whole cohort (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.39–1.23, vs. HR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.68–1.31). Due to the higher incidence of metastasis relative to competing mortality in the enriched subgroup, the treatment effect on MFS was greater in the subgroup compared to the whole cohort (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.36–0.82, vs. HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.58–1.01). Trial cost was 75% less in the subgroup compared to the whole cohort ($1.7 million vs. $6.8 million), and the trial duration was 30% shorter (8.4 vs. 12.0 years). Conclusion: Competing event enrichment can reduce clinical trial cost and duration, without sacrificing generalizability

  17. Relation between breast cancer mortality and screening effectiveness: systematic review of the mammography trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    The mammography screening trials have shown varying results. This could be because screening was better in some trials than in others at advancing the time of diagnosis. If so, more cancers would be identified in such trials relative to the control group, and fewer of the cancers would have reached...... an advanced stage. I performed a systematic review of the mammography screening trials using metaregression. Finding many cancers was not related to the size of the reduction in breast cancer mortality (p = 0.19 after seven and p = 0.73 after 13 years of follow-up). In contrast, finding few cancers...

  18. Exemestane in the prevention setting

    OpenAIRE

    Litton, Jennifer Keating; Bevers, Therese B.; Arun, Banu K.

    2012-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are well-established therapies in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings for breast cancer. In adjuvant trials, this class of drugs has shown preventative properties by decreasing the rate of contralateral breast cancer. Recently, the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group MAP.3 study evaluated exemestane as a breast cancer prevention agent for women with specified higher risks of developing breast cancer. We review the history of exemestane ...

  19. Lorenzo Tomatis and primary prevention of environmental cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huff James

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The leading 20th century proponent for primary prevention of environmental cancer was Dr. Lorenzo Tomatis, the former Director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and founder of the IARC Monographs program. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Tomatis – eminent scientist, scholar, teacher, humanitarian, and public health champion - and includes many perspectives that he promoted throughout his career, with original quotations from some of his scientific writings on primary prevention of environmental cancer. Any attempt by us to simply summarize his views would only detract from the power and logic of his language. “Cancer still remains a mainly lethal disease. Primary prevention remains the most relevant approach to reduce mortality through a reduction in incidence”1.

  20. Governance Structure | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  1. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lara C; Stefancic, Ana; Cunningham, Amy T; Hurley, Katelyn E; Cabassa, Leopodo J; Wender, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE People with mental illness die decades earlier in the United States compared with the general population. Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. The authors conducted an integrative review to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. Although multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review identified only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. On the basis of a literature review and the experience and expertise of the authors, each section in this article concludes with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:133-151. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26663383

  2. Calcium and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium carbonate has about 40 percent elemental calcium, meaning that 500 mg of calcium carbonate actually contains ... in this trial also contained vitamin D (400 international units [ IU ]). During ... and calcium in relation to prostate cancer risk among more than 142, ...

  3. Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis: Implication for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Nurrani Mustika Dewi; Andi Wijaya

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer is a disease of genomic instability, evasion of immune cells, and adaptation of the tumor cells to the changing environment. Genetic heterogeneity caused by tumors and tumor microenvironmental factors forms the basis of aggressive behavior of some cancer cell populations. CONTENT: Cancers arise in self-renewing cell populations and that the resulting cancers, like their normal organ counterparts, are composed of hierarchically organized cell populations. Self–renewing “...

  4. Prevention of gastric cancer: diet modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karagianni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the available evidence a probable protective role of vegetables, especially allium vegetables, and fruit consumption against gastric cancer risk probably exist. It also seems probable that high salt intake increases gastric cancer risk. Furthermore, the available evidence, though limited, is suggestive of a protective role of pulses and foods containing selenium. Limited, but still suggestive evidence exists concerning an inverse association between chilli, processed meat, smoked foods and grilled or barbecued animal foods with gastric cancer risk. A great number of other dietary factors are being investigated, but it is still not safe to reach any conclusions concerning them.

  5. How to permanently build up the prevention of occupational cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As about 2 millions of workers are exposed to carcinogenic agents in different industrial sectors, this expert opinion proposes a presentation of the state of the art of the prevention of carcinogenic risks. The different parts address the contribution of experimental and epidemiologic studies to the knowledge and prevention of occupational cancers (sure and possible factors, classifications and regulations), the knowledge of exposures in working environments (exposure modalities and principle of assessment of exposures, traceability and retrospective assessment), the risk management within a company (identification, suppression and substitution, design of work equipment, prevention of exposure for the personnel of subcontracting companies and in the waste and recycling sectors), the evolution from risk perception to risk prevention, the various strategies for action and professional sectors (general regime, prevention policy of the French national fund of prevention for territorial and hospital public services, the taking into charge of cancers as occupational disease by agriculture regimes of social protection), and the taking into care and restorative actions (medical and legal follow up and remedy, taking inequities into account, acknowledgement of occupational cancers in Europe, critical discussion of the European policy on occupational cancer prevention, lessons learned from Giscop93 inquiry)

  6. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)

  7. Apigenin: A Promising Molecule for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Apigenin, a naturally occurring plant flavone, abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables is recognized as a bioactive flavonoid shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Epidemiologic studies suggest that a diet rich in flavones is related to a decreased risk of certain cancers, particularly cancers of the breast, digestive tract, skin, prostate and certain hematological malignancies. It has been suggested that apigenin may be protective in other dise...

  8. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majo...

  9. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Andrew T Chan

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  10. Prevention of abdominal wound infection (PROUD trial, DRKS00000390: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heger Ulrike

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound infection affects a considerable portion of patients after abdominal operations, increasing health care costs and postoperative morbidity and affecting quality of life. Antibacterial coating has been suggested as an effective measure to decrease postoperative wound infections after laparotomies. The INLINE metaanalysis has recently shown the superiority of a slowly absorbable continuous suture for abdominal closure; with PDS plus® such a suture has now been made available with triclosan antibacterial coating. Methods/Design The PROUD trial is designed as a randomised, controlled, observer, surgeon and patient blinded multicenter superiority trial with two parallel groups and a primary endpoint of wound infection during 30 days after surgery. The intervention group will receive triclosan coated polydioxanone sutures, whereas the control group will receive the standard polydioxanone sutures; abdominal closure will otherwise be standardized in both groups. Statistical analysis is based on intention-to-treat population via binary logistic regression analysis, the total sample size of n = 750 is sufficient to ensure alpha = 5% and power = 80%, an interim analysis will be carried out after data of 375 patients are available. Discussion The PROUD trial will yield robust data to determine the effectiveness of antibacterial coating in one of the standard sutures for abdominal closure and potentially lead to amendment of current guidelines. The exploration of clinically objective parameters as well as quality of life holds immediate relevance for clinical management and the pragmatic trial design ensures high external validity. Trial Registration The trial protocol has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000390.

  11. Adherence to Diet and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Lindsay N; Garcia, David O; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal; Roe, Denise J; Jacobs, Elizabeth T

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have reported that adherence to health promotion guidelines for diet, physical activity, and maintenance of healthy body weight may decrease cancer incidence and mortality. A systematic review was performed to examine associations between adherence to established cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity and overall cancer incidence and mortality. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched following the current recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Approach (PRISMA). Twelve studies met inclusion criteria for this review. High versus low adherence to established nutrition and physical activity cancer prevention guidelines was consistently and significantly associated with decreases of 10% to 61% in overall cancer incidence and mortality. Consistent significant reductions were also shown for breast cancer incidence (19%-60%), endometrial cancer incidence (23%-60%), and colorectal cancer incidence in both men and women (27%-52%). Findings for lung cancer incidence were equivocal, and no significant relationships were found between adherence and ovarian or prostate cancers. Adhering to cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity is consistently associated with lower risks of overall cancer incidence and mortality, including for some site-specific cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1018-28. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27340121

  12. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Fat and fiber and breast cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ross L.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for a reduction in dietary fat or for an increase in dietary fiber to reduce breast cancer risk has been debated for some years. It is argued here that available research data, even though extensive, leave open hypotheses ranging from little or no potential to major public health potential for breast cancer prevention by means of these dietary maneuvers. Some elements of a research strategy for testing these and other dietary breast cancer prevention hypotheses are described.

  13. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Katta; Danielle Nicole Brown

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  14. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care. |

  15. Prevention of cancer and non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey; Gupta, Prakash; Gomes, Fabio; Kerner, Jon; Parra, William; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kim, Jeongseon; Moore, Malcolm; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for approximately 7.6 million deaths (13% of all deaths) in 2008. Cancer mortality is projected to increase to 11 million deaths in 2030, with the majority occurring in regions of the world with the least capacity to respond. However, cancer is not only a personal, societal and economic burden but also a potential societal opportunity in the context of functional life - the years gained through effective prevention and treatment, and strategies to enhance survivorship. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session in 2011 has served to focus attention on key aspects of cancer prevention and control. Firstly, cancer is largely preventable, by feasible means. Secondly, cancer is one of a number of chronic, non- communicable diseases that share common risk factors whose prevention and control would benefit a majority of the world's population. Thirdly, a proportion of cancers can be attributed to infectious, communicable causal factors (e.g., HPV, HBV, H.pylori, parasites, flukes) and that strategies to control the burden of infectious diseases have relevance to the control of cancer. Fourthly, that the natural history of non-communicable diseases, including cancer, from primary prevention through diagnosis, treatment and care, is underwritten by the impact of social, economic and environmental determinants of health (e.g., poverty, illiteracy, gender inequality, social isolation, stigma, socio-economic status). Session 1 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on the social, economic and environmental, as well as biological and behavioural, modifiers of the risk of cancer through one plenary presentation and four interactive workshop discussions. The workshop sessions concerned 1) the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and social determinants of tobacco use in high burden low- and middle-income countries; 2) the role of diet, including alcohol, and physical activity in modifying the

  16. ACCESS TO TREATMENT IN HIV PREVENTION TRIALS: PERSPECTIVES FROM A SOUTH AFRICAN COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    BARSDORF, NICOLA; Maman, Suzanne; Kass, Nancy; Slack, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Access to treatment, in HIV vaccine trials (HVTs), remains ethically controversial. In most prevention trials, including in South Africa, participants who seroconvert are referred to publicly funded programmes for treatment. This strategy is problematic when there is inadequate and uneven access to public sector antiretroviral therapy (ART) and support resources. The responsibilities, if any, of researchers, sponsors and public health authorities involved in HVTs has been hotly debated among ...

  17. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Latest Clinical Trials and Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Armaganijan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Atrial Fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia and 1/6 strokes is attributed to AF. The cornerstone of treatment remains maintaining sinus rhythm or appropriate ventricular rate control in addition to prevention of stroke. Oral anticoagulation therapy (OAC with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs has been the gold standard for almost 50 years and a significant reduction in the risk of stroke in patients with AF has been demonstrated. Nonetheless, only 50% of patients with guideline recommendations for OAC treatment actually receive VKAs and half of these will discontinue therapy within 3 to 5 years with only another half achieving therapeutic ranges more than 50% of the time. The aforementioned limitations in addition with frequent blood monitoring have prompted the development of a series of new OAC therapies. The present review focuses on the current pharmacological management for stroke prevention in patients with AF based on current and emerging evidence.

  18. Prostate cancer - evidence of exercise and nutrition trial (PrEvENT):Study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy; Lane, J. Athene; Persad, Raj; Gillatt, David; Holly, Jeff M P; Koupparis, Anthony; Rowe, Edward; Johnston, Lyndsey; Cloete, Jenny; Shiridzinomwa, Constance; Abrams, Paul; Penfold, Chris M; Bahl, Amit; Oxley, Jon; Perks, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A growing body of observational evidence suggests that nutritional and physical activity interventions are associated with beneficial outcomes for men with prostate cancer, including brisk walking, lycopene intake, increased fruit and vegetable intake and reduced dairy consumption. However, randomised controlled trial data are limited. The 'Prostate Cancer: Evidence of Exercise and Nutrition Trial' investigates the feasibility of recruiting and randomising men diagnosed with local...

  19. Prevention of pathological gambling: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Jason P; Nicki, Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Although the gambling industry is expanding rapidly throughout North America and around the world, there are only a few empirically evaluated programs aimed at the prevention of pathological gambling (PG). The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of a new prevention program aimed at PG. The Stop & Think! program was designed to teach at-risk video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers cognitive restructuring and problem-solving skills that may help to prevent the development of PG. These skills were taught through a variety of methods - including an automated educational presentation, video and text vignettes, audio training tapes, and skill rehearsal. The program was evaluated using a randomized, 2-group experimental design with a wait-list control group and pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Results indicated that, compared with the control group, the experimental group was less at risk for developing a gambling problem after the program. The experimental group endorsed fewer gambling-related cognitive distortions, engaged in less VLT gambling, and had lower scores on a measure of PG. The results of this study provide the basis for the implementation of the Stop & Think! program in the province of Prince Edward Island, Canada, and perhaps other jurisdictions too. PMID:17530493

  20. New concepts and challenges in the clinical translation of cancer preventive therapies: the role of pharmacodynamic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen; Rufini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of therapeutic cancer prevention strategies has enormous potential for reducing cancer incidence and related mortality. Trials of drugs including tamoxifen and aspirin have led the way in demonstrating proof-of-principle that prevention of breast and colorectal cancer is feasible. Many other compounds ranging from drugs in widespread use for various indications, including metformin, bisphosphonates, and vitamin D, to dietary agents such as the phytochemicals resveratrol and curcumin, show preventive activity against several cancers in preclinical models. Notwithstanding the wealth of opportunities, major challenges have hindered the development process and only a handful of therapies are currently approved for cancer risk reduction. One of the major obstacles to successful clinical translation of promising preventive agents is a lack of pharmacodynamic biomarkers to provide an early read out of biological activity in humans and for optimising doses to take into large scale randomised clinical trials. A further confounding factor is a lack of consideration of clinical pharmacokinetics in the design of preclinical experiments, meaning results are frequently reported from studies that use irrelevant or unachievable concentrations. This article focuses on recent findings from investigations with dietary-derived agents to illustrate how a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of action, using models that mimic the clinical scenario, together with the development of compound-specific accompanying pharmacodynamic biomarkers could accelerate the developmental pipeline for preventive agents and maximise the chances of success in future clinical trials. Moreover, the concept of a bell-shaped dose-response curve for therapeutic cancer prevention is discussed, along with the need to rethink the traditional 'more is better' approach for dose selection. PMID:26635905

  1. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  2. Instructions for Applying | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is NOT a grant application - if successful, funds will not be transferred to your institution to support your project. Rather, this is an application to access the scientific capabilities and resources of the NCI with the goal of moving promising cancer chemopreventive agents into clinical testing. If successful, you will partner with the NCI in developing a drug development pipeline. | Apply to access the scientific capabilities and resources of the NCI with the goal of moving promising cancer chemopreventive agents into clinical testing.

  3. [Modernisation of the design of clinical trials for caries preventive agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2006-04-01

    In January 2002 the International Consensus Workshop on Caries Clinical Trials was organised in Scotland. The meeting was an initiative of both academic and industrial partners, in order to arrive at a consensus about ways to modernise the design of clinical trials for caries preventive agents (Caries Clinical Trials or CCTs). All presentations delivered at the workshop and the consensus statements formulated at the end of the workshop were published last year in a special issue of the Journal of Dental Research. In this paper some important aspects are highlighted and the workshop conclusions are presented. PMID:16669293

  4. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results f

  5. A national agenda for Latino cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Suarez, Lucina; Giachello, Aida L; Marti, Jose R; Medrano, Martha A; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-06-01

    Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among Latinos, there is limited knowledge of cancer-related issues and priorities of greatest significance to the Latino population, the largest minority group in the nation. This information is vital in helping to guide Latino cancer research, training, and awareness efforts at national, regional, and local levels. To help identify cancer issues of greatest relevance to Latinos, Redes En Accion, The National Hispanic/Latino Cancer Network, a major network among the National Cancer Institute's Special Populations Networks, conducted a survey of 624 key opinion leaders from around the country. Respondents were asked to rank the three cancer sites most important to Latinos in their region and the five issues of greatest significance for this population's cancer prevention and control. Recommendations were prioritized for three specific areas: 1) research, 2) training and/or professional education, and 3) awareness and/or public education. Among cancers, breast carcinoma was ranked number one, followed in order by cervical and lung carcinomas. The issues of greatest significance to Latinos were 1) access to cancer screening and care, 2) tobacco use, 3) patient-doctor communication, 4) nutrition, and 5) risk communication. This survey solicited information from scientists, health care professionals, leaders of government agencies, professional and community-based organizations, and other stakeholders in Latino health. The results laid the foundation for a national Redes En Accion Latino cancer agenda, thus providing a useful tool for individuals and organizations engaged in cancer prevention and control efforts among the Hispanic-Latino population. PMID:15822119

  6. Intelligent Application of Breast Cancer Trials Data in the Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne Frankli; Sunil Verma; Sibylle Loibl; Pierfranco Conte; Peter Schmid; Christos Sotiriou

    2015-01-01

    This meeting commenced with a talk from Prof Loibl on neoadjuvant and adjuvant strategies for HER2positive (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive) early breast cancer (EBC), which featured a précis on the most pertinent, recent trial data and how these data may shape future treatment decisions in clinical practice. Prof Conte moved the discussion forward by addressing how recent studies may lead towards a new standard of care (SoC) and treatment paradigms in patients with metastat...

  7. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  8. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  9. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  10. A randomized placebo-controlled prevention trial of aspirin and/or resistant starch in young people with familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Chapman, Pamela D;

    2011-01-01

    significantly reduced polyp count in the rectum and sigmoid colon: aspirin relative risk = 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-1.10; versus nonaspirin arms); RS relative risk = 1.05 (95% CI, 0.73-1.49; versus non-RS arms). There was a trend toward a smaller size of largest polyp in patients treated with aspirin versus......Evidence supporting aspirin and resistant starch (RS) for colorectal cancer prevention comes from epidemiologic and laboratory studies (aspirin and RS) and randomized controlled clinical trials (aspirin). Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) strikes young people and, untreated, confers virtually a...... 100% risk of colorectal cancer and early death. We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin (600 mg/d) and/or RS (30 g/d) for from 1 to 12 years to prevent disease progression in FAP patients from 10 to 21 years of age. In a 2 × 2 factorial design...

  11. Uncaria tomentosa—Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Santos Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm affecting women worldwide. Some of the recommended treatments involve chemotherapy whose toxic effects include leukopenia and neutropenia. This study assessed the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa (Ut in reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapy through a randomized clinical trial. Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma—Stage II, who underwent a treatment regimen known as FAC (Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, were divided into two groups: the UtCa received chemotherapy plus 300 mg dry Ut extract per day and the Ca group that only received chemotherapy and served as the control experiment. Blood samples were collected before each one of the six chemotherapy cycles and blood counts, immunological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress were analyzed. Uncaria tomentosa reduced the neutropenia caused by chemotherapy and was also able to restore cellular DNA damage. We concluded that Ut is an effective adjuvant treatment for breast cancer.

  12. Probiotics’ Preventive Effect on Pediatric Food Allergy:A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yi Kong; Yi Yang; Jian Guan; Ren-zhi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the preventive effect of probiotics on pediatric food allergy. Methods From MEDLINE bibliographical database, we searched and reviewed all randomized controlled trials on the preventive effects of probiotics on pediatric food allergies up to September 2013 and excluded the studies that do not meet inclusion criteria and extracted the data. Meta-analysis for the results of homogenous studies was performed using RevMan 5.0 and the co-effect was pooled by using fixed-effects model of relative risk (RR) ratios. Results Ten trials published between 2007 and 2012 including 2701 cases were included. Meta-analysis based on included data showed that the preventive effect of prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation on food allergies was not significant with the RR=0.88 (95%CI:0.76-1.03). Conclusion Present evidences cannot show in unequivocal terms that prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation will prevent food allergic diseases.

  13. Pomegranate Extracts and Cancer Prevention: Molecular and Cellular Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that dietary phytochemicals can be potential weapons in the fight against cancer. Emerging data has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular framework needed to establish novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention by selective bioactive food components. The unique chemical composition of the pomegranate fruit, rich in antioxidant tannins and flavonoids has drawn the attention of many investigators. Polyphenol...

  14. Antioxidants Meet Molecular Targets for Cancer Prevention and Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    A fine balance between oxidants and antioxidants is required for the normal functioning of living systems. A deregulation of this balance has been implicated in many adverse effects and diseases, including cancer. Extensive research has been done in the area of cancer prevention and therapeutics by a wide range of antioxidants, especially naturally occurring and diet-based agents. However, additional efforts are still needed toward clinical development of the most promising antioxidant agents...

  15. Breast cancer prevention and theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tsounis A.; Sarafis P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:Breast cancer is considered to be one of the highest of all forms of cancer among women.Understanding the factors that influence the adoption of preventive behaviors in this particular area is very important. Aim:the aim of the present study is to identify the factors associated with mammography screening, according to the theory of the Planned Behavior framework. Method: the methodology which was used included a literature review of Greek and international bibliograp...

  16. Nutrition Frontiers - Summer 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 3 The summer issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the combined effects of ursolic acid and resveratrol for skin cancer, the potential chemopreventive effects of the dietary supplement 4-MU, and a method to monitor a heterocyclic aromatic amine in dyed hair. Learn about our spotlight investigators, Drs. Michael Caligiuri and Jianhua Yu, and their research on dietary components for cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  17. Extending Cancer Prevention to Improve Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Darcy A.; Peña-Purcell, Ninfa; Friedman, Daniela B.; Ory, Marcia; Flocke, Susan; Barni, Marie T.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Consuming a diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables is critical for preventing cancer and cancer-related disparities. Food systems approaches that increase spatial-temporal, economic, and social access to fruits and vegetables may ultimately result in improved consumption patterns among Americans. Engaging the triad of Cooperative Extension Services, public health systems, and community health centers may yield maximal public health benefits from food systems interventions. These entities ...

  18. Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pudenz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones (IF such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone‑dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans.

  19. Using implementation science to advance cancer prevention in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Sivaram, Sudha; Anderson, Benjamin O; Basu, Partha; Belinson, Jerome L; Bhatla, Neerja; D'Cruz, Anil; Dhillon, Preet K; Gupta, Prakash C; Joshi, Niranjan; Jhulka, P K; Kailash, Uma; Kapambwe, Sharon; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kaur, Tanvir; Mathur, Prashant; Prakash, Anshu; Sankaranarayanan, R; Selvam, Jerard M; Seth, Tulika; Shah, Keerti V; Shastri, Surendra; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Srivastava, Anurag; Trimble, Edward; Rajaraman, Preetha; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Oral, cervical and breast cancers, which are either preventable and/or amenable to early detection and treatment, are the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in India. In this paper, we describe implementation science research priorities to catalyze the prevention and control of these cancers in India. Research priorities were organized using a framework based on the implementation science literature and the World Health Organization's definition of health systems. They addressed both community-level as well as health systems-level issues. Community-level or "pull" priorities included the need to identify effective strategies to raise public awareness and understanding of cancer prevention, monitor knowledge levels, and address fear and stigma. Health systems-level or "push" and "infrastructure" priorities included dissemination of evidence- based practices, testing of point-of-care technologies for screening and diagnosis, identification of appropriate service delivery and financing models, and assessment of strategies to enhance the health workforce. Given the extent of available evidence, it is critical that cancer prevention and treatment efforts in India are accelerated. Implementation science research can generate critical insights and evidence to inform this acceleration. PMID:25987015

  20. HIV Epidemic in Asia: Implications for HIV Vaccine and Other Prevention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanuphak, Nittaya; Lo, Ying-Ru; Shao, Yiming; Solomon, Sunil Suhas; O'Connell, Robert J; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Chang, David; Kim, Jerome H; Excler, Jean Louis

    2015-11-01

    An overall decrease of HIV prevalence is now observed in several key Asian countries due to effective prevention programs. The decrease in HIV prevalence and incidence may further improve with the scale-up of combination prevention interventions. The implementation of future prevention trials then faces important challenges. The opportunity to identify heterosexual populations at high risk such as female sex workers may rapidly wane. With unabating HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) populations, an effective vaccine would likely be the only option to turn the epidemic. It is more likely that efficacy trials will occur among MSM and TG because their higher HIV incidence permits smaller and less costly trials. The constantly evolving patterns of HIV-1 diversity in the region suggest close monitoring of the molecular HIV epidemic in potential target populations for HIV vaccine efficacy trials. CRF01_AE remains predominant in southeast Asian countries and MSM populations in China. This relatively steady pattern is conducive to regional efficacy trials, and as efficacy warrants, to regional licensure. While vaccines inducing nonneutralizing antibodies have promise against HIV acquisition, vaccines designed to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses of greater breadth and depth in the mucosal compartments should be considered for testing in MSM and TG. The rationale and design of efficacy trials of combination prevention modalities such as HIV vaccine and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remain hypothetical, require high adherence to PrEP, are more costly, and present new regulatory challenges. The prioritization of prevention interventions should be driven by the HIV epidemic and decided by the country-specific health and regulatory authorities. Modeling the impact and cost-benefit may help this decision process. PMID:26107771

  1. Prevention of chemically induced urinary bladder cancers by naproxen: protocols to reduce gastric toxicity in humans do not alter preventive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Ronald A; Scheiman, James M; Bode, Ann; White, Jonathan; Minasian, Lori; Juliana, M Margaret; Boring, Daniel L; Steele, Vernon E; Grubbs, Clinton J

    2015-04-01

    The COX inhibitors (NSAID/Coxibs) are a major focus for the chemoprevention of cancer. The COX-2-specific inhibitors have progressed to clinical trials and have shown preventive efficacy in colon and skin cancers. However, they have significant adverse cardiovascular effects. Certain NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) have a good cardiac profile, but can cause gastric toxicity. The present study examined protocols to reduce this toxicity of naproxen. Female Fischer-344 rats were treated weekly with the urinary bladder-specific carcinogen hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for 8 weeks. Rats were dosed daily with NPX (40 mg/kg body weight/day, gavage) or with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (4.0 mg/kg body weight/day) either singly or in combination beginning 2 weeks after the final OH-BBN. OH-BBN-treated rats, 96% developed urinary bladder cancers. While omeprazole alone was ineffective (97% cancers), naproxen alone or combined with omeprazole-prevented cancers, yielding 27 and 35% cancers, respectively. In a separate study, OH-BBN -: treated rats were administered naproxen: (A) daily, (B) 1 week daily naproxen/1week vehicle, (C) 3 weeks daily naproxen/3 week vehicle, or (D) daily vehicle beginning 2 weeks after last OH-BBN treatment. In the intermittent dosing study, protocol A, B, C, and D resulted in palpable cancers in 27%, 22%, 19%, and 96% of rats (P Short-term naproxen treatment increased apoptosis, but did not alter proliferation in the urinary bladder cancers. Two different protocols that should decrease the gastric toxicity of NSAIDs in humans did not alter chemopreventive efficacy. This should encourage the use of NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) in clinical prevention trials. PMID:25762530

  2. Prevention of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Using a Web Intervention, iChill: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip; Mackinnon, Andrew; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Kalia Hehir, Kanupriya; Kenardy, Justin A; Gosling, John; Bennett, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Background Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a high prevalence, chronic disorder. Web-based interventions are acceptable, engaging, and can be delivered at scale. Few randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of prevention programs for anxiety, or the factors that improve effectiveness and engagement. Objective The intent of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based program in preventing GAD symptoms in young adults, and to determine the role of telephone an...

  3. The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lauren T.; Hollis, Jenna L; Collins, Clare E.; Morgan, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity inte...

  4. Clinical Trials and Tribulations: Lessons Learned from Recruiting Pregnant Ex-Smokers for Relapse Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Elena N.; Simmons, Vani Nath; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Meade, Cathy D.; Chirikos, Thomas N.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    The development of smoking cessation and relapse-prevention interventions for pregnant and postpartum women is a public health priority. However, researchers have consistently reported substantial difficulty in accruing this population into clinical trials. The problem is particularly acute for relapse-prevention studies, which must recruit women who have already quit smoking because of their pregnancy. Although an important target for tobacco control efforts, these individuals represent an e...

  5. Dissonance and Healthy Weight Eating Disorder Prevention Programs: A Randomized Efficacy Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Burton, Emily; Wade, Emily

    2006-01-01

    In this trial adolescent girls with body dissatisfaction (N=481; M age=17) were randomized to an eating disorder prevention program involving dissonance-inducing activities that reduce thin-ideal internalization, a prevention program promoting healthy weight management, an expressive writing control condition, or an assessment-only control condition. Dissonance participants showed significantly greater reductions in eating disorder risk factors and bulimic symptoms than healthy weight, expres...

  6. Cancer-associated thrombosis: prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brose, K.M.J.; Lee, A.Y.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at high risk to develop venous thromboembolism, and they are also more likely to develop complications from anticoagulant treatment. Because little research has focused on the oncology population to date, the optimal methods of prophylaxis and treatment remain uncertain in some clinical situations. Currently, low molecular weight heparin and warfarin are the most frequently used pharmacologic agents; however, they have their limitations. Other therapeutic options, suc...

  7. Targeting 5α-reductase for prostate cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacusi, Lucas P; Tindall, Donald J

    2011-07-01

    Testosterone is the most abundant circulating androgen, and can be converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a more potent androgen, by the 5α-reductase enzymes in target tissues. Current treatments for prostate cancer consist of reducing androgen levels by chemical or surgical castration or pure antiandrogen therapy that directly targets the androgen receptor (AR). Although these therapies reduce tumor burden and AR activity, the cancer inevitably recurs within 18-30 months. An approach targeting the androgen-AR axis at different levels could, therefore, improve the efficacy of prostate cancer therapy. Inhibition of 5α-reductase is one such approach; however, the two largest trials to investigate the use of the 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) finasteride and dutasteride in patients with prostate cancer have shown that, although the incidence of cancer was reduced by 5ARI treatment, those cancers that were detected were more aggressive than in patients treated with placebo. Thus, the best practice for using these drugs to prevent and treat prostate cancer remains unclear. PMID:21629218

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping ...

  9. Review article about nutrition and primary prevention of oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Shiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem that is caused by a variety of different factors increasing over a number of years. Oral cancer is a very prevalent disease and one of the most 10 common causes of death. It is important that the risk factors can be controlled. Selecting the correct health behaviors and preventing exposure to convinced environmental risk factors can help to prevent the expansion of cancer. Scientists guess that as many as 30-40 percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by human behaviors such as smoking, consumption of alcohol, poor diet quality and physical inactivity. This result explains the tendency in the following behaviors that can influence the possibility of getting cancer, especially oral cancer in addition to providing information and classes about healthy eating habits and a subsequent healthy lifestyle at home. In fact, a diet rich in fresh fruits, whole grains and vegetables can decrease the risk of the oral cancer because of certain compounds such as vitamin C, E, carotenoids and lycopene. Moreover, limit consumption of meat, particularly processed meat, and replace it with vegetable proteins and fish (rich of omega 3 are helpful and effective.

  10. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  11. Preventing Childhood Bullying: Findings and Lessons from the Denver Public Schools Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.; Dieterich, William A.; Brisson, Daniel; Bender, Kimberly A.; Powell, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-month follow-up outcomes from a group-randomized trial (GRT) of a classroom curriculum aimed at preventing bullying and victimization among elementary students in the Denver, Colorado, public school system are presented. Twenty-eight elementary schools were randomly assigned to receive selected modules of "Youth Matters" (YM), a…

  12. Outcomes from a School-Randomized Controlled Trial of Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric C.; Low, Sabina; Smith, Brian H.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program conducted in 33 California elementary schools. Schools were matched on school demographic characteristics and assigned randomly to intervention or waitlisted control conditions. Outcome measures were obtained from (a) all school…

  13. Prevention of low back pain in female eldercare workers: randomized controlled work site trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Gonge, Henrik Gjesing; Jørs, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    . Improvement of person-transfer techniques is the preferred tool in the prevention of both. Although popular, to our knowledge, any effect has not been documented in controlled trials. Methods. Study participants were eldercare workers from 19 eldercare groups randomly assigned to the transfer technique...

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6…

  15. External Link Policy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following graphic notice means that you are leaving the DCP Web site: (link is external)This external link provides additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of DCP.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal site.Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site.You will be subject to the destination site |

  16. 1. HUMAN POPULATION MONITORING FOR CANCER PREVENTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Most of the chemicals classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as human carcinogens are mutagenic across test systems, cf. [www.epa.gov/gapdb ] and induce tumors at multiple sites in rodent species. They are therefore readity detected in short term tests for gene-tic and related effects (GRE), in animal carcinogenesis bioassays and in human monitoring studies. Carcinogens that are not genotoxic may be studied using new toxicogenomic approaches as will be discussed. A Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) database is planned by the National Center for Toxicogenomics to contain information on such compounds. The 1992 Preamble to the IARC Monographs

  17. Primary Cancer Prevention by Green Tea, and Tertiary Cancer Prevention by the Combination of Green Tea Catechins and Anticancer Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Suganuma, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is a daily beverage, a non-oxidized non-fermented product containing at least four green tea catechins. Considering our first results when repeated applications of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) prevented tumor promotion in mouse skin, we have continued to look at green tea as a possible cancer preventive agent. 1) The 10-year prospective cohort study by Drs. K. Nakachi and K. Imai revealed that drinking 10 Japanese-size cups (120 mL/cup) of green tea per day delayed cancer ons...

  18. COLOR II. A randomized clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer has been proven efficacious but morbidity and oncological outcome need to be investigated in a randomized clinical trial. Trial design: Non-inferiority randomized clinical trial. METHODS: The COLOR II trial is an ongoing international randomized...... clinical trial. Currently 27 hospitals from Europe, South Korea and Canada are including patients. The primary endpoint is loco-regional recurrence rate three years post-operatively. Secondary endpoints cover quality of life, overall and disease free survival, post-operative morbidity and health economy...... II trial. Completion of inclusion is expected by the end of 2009. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00297791 (www.clinicaltrials.gov)....

  19. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advani P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Advani, Alvaro Moreno-AspitiaDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Due to the high incidence of breast cancer in the United States, optimal strategies for its prevention are imperative. This entails identification of women who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and an integrative approach that includes effective screening methods as well as nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical management. Several breast cancer risk-assessment tools, such as the Gail and Claus models, can help clinicians determine the quantitative risk of breast cancer. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, for the prevention of breast cancer has been well established. Several other agents, such as aromatase inhibitors, are currently being investigated. The potential adverse effects of these chemopreventive agents, which include an impact on the quality of life, must be discussed with the patient before deciding on this approach. Additionally, breast cancer risk factors have been identified over the years; some of them are modifiable, but others are not. Although there is no conclusive evidence to suggest the protective role of specific dietary components, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; thus lifestyle changes can lead to a lower risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical approaches, including bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, are usually limited to women with a hereditary predisposition to development of breast cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the various approaches directed at reducing the incidence of breast cancer.Keywords: chemoprevention, tamoxifen, raloxifene, prophylactic surgery

  20. Effects of nutrition education on weight gain prevention: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Metzgar, Catherine J.; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body weight (BW) reduction through energy restriction is ineffective at impacting the obesity epidemic. Shifting from an obesity treatment to weight gain prevention focus may be more effective in decreasing the burden of adult obesity. Methods This was a 1-year randomized controlled trial of weight gain prevention in healthy premenopausal women, aged 18–45 y, with a body mass index (BMI) of >18.5 kg/m2. Eighty-seven women were randomized to a weight gain prevention intervention del...

  1. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 2 The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases green tea's effect on human metabolism, fish oil — as a chemopreventive agent in myeloid leukemia and, with pectin, how they affect microRNA expression in the colon. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Richard Eckert, and his research on skin cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  3. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  4. Tea Polyphenols and Their Roles in Cancer Prevention and Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Ping Dou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plant-derived, dietary polyphenols have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against human cancers, including green tea polyphenols, genistein (found in soy, apigenin (celery, parsley, luteolin (broccoli, quercetin (onions, kaempferol (broccoli, grapefruits, curcumin (turmeric, etc. The more we understand their involved molecular mechanisms and cellular targets, the better we could utilize these “natural gifts” for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. Furthermore, better understanding of their structure-activity relationships will guide synthesis of analog compounds with improved bio-availability, stability, potency and specificity. This review focuses on green tea polyphenols and seeks to summarize several reported biological effects of tea polyphenols in human cancer systems, highlight the molecular targets and pathways identified, and discuss the role of tea polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of human cancer. The review also briefly describes several other dietary polyphenols and their biological effects on cancer prevention and chemotherapy.

  5. Dutasteride May Slow the Growth of Early-Stage Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    For men who are undergoing active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer, the drug dutasteride (Avodart) could help control the disease and prevent the need for more aggressive treatments. |

  6. The effect of transdermal estradiol or oral conjugated oestrogen and fenretinide versus placebo on haemostasis and cardiovascular risk biomarkers in a randomized breast cancer chemoprevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzeroni, M; Macis, D; Decensi, A.; Gandini, S; Sandri, MT; Serrano, D.; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, A; H. Johansson; Mora, S.; Daldoss, C; Omodei, U; Bonanni, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: We have previously reported the favourable effect of transdermal estradiol (E2), relative to oral conjugated equine oestrogen (CEE), on ultrasensitive C-reactive protein after 12 months of treatment in a retinoid-placebo controlled two-by-two randomized breast cancer prevention trial (Decensi A et al (2002) Circulation 106 10 1224–8). Here, we investigate the changes in lipids and clotting profile in patients of the same trial. Methods and results: Recent post-menopausal women wer...

  7. Randomization to screening for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large cancer screening trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials.We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST. In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO, we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for thyroid cancer.In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96-2.71. This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07-4.47, but not subsequently (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49-2.37. In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.95 but not women (HR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66-1.26. Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO.Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer.

  8. Randomization to Screening for Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancers and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Two Large Cancer Screening Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Boscoe, Francis P.; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials. Methods We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer. Results In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR  = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96–2.71). This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR  = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07–4.47), but not subsequently (HR  = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49–2.37). In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR  = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.95) but not women (HR  = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66–1.26). Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO. Conclusion Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer. PMID:25192282

  9. Tribulations of a prostate cancer trial - lessons learned from TOAD, a cancer council Victoria and Transtasman Radiation Oncology Group Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: From 2004-2009 a total of 226 out of a target of 750 prostate cancer patients have been randomised into the Timing of Androgen Deprivation trial between immediate and delayed androgen deprivation. A screening log was kept by participating centres for the first 928 patients, which documented the reasons for non-entry into the trial; 42.7% of screened patients were ineligible and a further 33.0% were not entered for other reasons. Fewer than 10% of patients cited not wanting to be part of a clinical trial as a reason for non-entry. Strategies to improve recruitment included broadening the eligibility criteria, encouraging international collaboration, the use and support of research nurses in the private health care environment, and the use of phone follow-up. Recruitment will be completed at the number originally intended to inform the interim analysis designed to test the validity of the statistical assumptions, and a combined survival analysis with the Canadian study is planned.

  10. Prospective study of the relationship between coffee and tea with colorectal cancer risk: The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dominianni, C; Huang, W-Y; Berndt, S.; Hayes, R B; Ahn, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee and tea are commonly consumed and carry potential anticancer components that could reduce the risk of colorectal cancer; however, their relationships with colorectal cancer risk remain inconsistent. Methods: A prospective analysis was carried out to examine the relationships of coffee and tea intake with colorectal cancer risk in 57 398 men and women in the intervention arm of the National Cancer Institute-Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a nat...

  11. A message of hope: creation of the Faces of Lung Cancer project for increasing awareness of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, G P; Bell-Ellison, B A; Bell, M Y; Caraway, V D; Conforte, D; Graci, L B; Lewandowski, A; Reynolds, B; Shaffer, A; Powell-Stafford, V L; Sapp, A L; Shimizu, C O; Vadaparampil, S; Vaughn, E J; Williams, C; Bepler, G

    2008-11-01

    In 2002, the Thoracic Oncology Advocacy Program at H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute was created with a mission to contribute to the prevention and cure of lung cancer by embracing the patient perspective. In an effort to increase awareness of clinical trials (CTs) and to humanize the CT process, members of the advocacy programme were involved in the creation of the Faces of Lung Cancer project. Twelve lung cancer patients who participated in a CT, four caregivers of patients who had been on a trial and four thoracic health care professionals were interviewed and photographed by a professional photographer with prior experience in photo-documentary work. Preliminary results indicate just the process of participating in the Faces of Lung Cancer project and creating the photo essay has had a positive impact on the lives of cancer patients and their caregivers. Formal evaluation of the Faces of Lung Cancer project is underway; however, preliminary results indicate that the project is viewed as successful in terms of conveying a message of hope and increasing awareness. By including visual displays, in conjunction with patient interviews, the photo essay is able to generate and blend powerful information and images that provide a richer, more complete portrayal of the context of a patient's experience. PMID:18771536

  12. Breast cancer prevention and control programs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlui, Maznah; Ramli, Sofea; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia. PMID:22126511

  13. Behaviour among women in the scope of cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słopiecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cytological examination is a simple and inexpensive method used in the prevention of cervical cancer. In Poland, too low proportions of women still have the test. Aim of the research : To analyse the attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention. Material and methods : Two hundred and ten hospitalized women were invited to take part in the investigation. The research used the diagnostic poll method, using the author’s original questionnaire form. The research was carried out in four gynaecological wards. Results : Of the women who participated in the research, 16.2% by the time of diagnosis had never received a Pap test. In the analysed group, 88.2% of women were not referred to a specialist for a Pap test. Among all respondents, only 35.7% underwent cervix cytology regularly, i.e. once a year or once every 2 years. Conclusions : The effort made by the women towards the attitudes of cervical cancer prevention was insufficient; still too many women had not reported to the specialist for taking material from the cervix, or did not do so regularly. A significant relation in the behaviour of women was found depending on their level of education and place of residence. Greater activity of nurses, midwives and family physicians in stimulating Polish women to participate in prevention programmes for cervical cancer is advisable. To increase the health awareness of girls and women, it is important to include in the curriculum, especially in secondary schools, the issues of prevention of female reproductive system cancer.

  14. Neurotransmission and cancer: implications for prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Hildegard M

    2008-08-01

    Published evidence compiled in this review supports the hypothesis that the development, progression, and responsiveness to prevention and therapy of the most common human cancers is strongly influenced, if not entirely orchestrated, by an imbalance in stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. The neurotransmitters acetylcholine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline of the autonomic nervous system act as powerful upstream regulators that orchestrate numerous cell and tissue functions, by releasing growth factors, angiogenesis factors and metastasis factors, arachidonic acid, proinflammatory cytokines, and local neurotransmitters from cancer cells and their microenvironment. In addition, they modulate proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis of cancer directly by intracellular signaling downstream of neurotransmitter receptors. Nicotine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamines have the documented ability to hyperstimulate neurotransmission by both branches of the autonomic nervous system. The expression and function of these neurotransmitter pathways are cell type specific. Lifestyle, diet, diseases, stress, and pharmacological treatments modulate the expression and responsiveness of neurotransmitter pathways. Current preclinical testing systems fail to incorporate the modulating effects of neurotransmission on the responsiveness to anticancer agents and should be amended accordingly. The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid has a strong inhibitory function on sympathicus-driven cancers whereas stimulators of cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A signaling have strong inhibitory function on parasympathicus-driven cancers. Marker-guided restoration of the physiological balance in stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmission represents a promising and hitherto neglected strategy for the prevention and therapy of neurotransmitter-responsive cancers. PMID:18594207

  15. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ...

  16. Knowledge of medical school students on breast cancer and cervical cancer, and their prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Liszcz; Badowska-Kozakiewicz, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer and cervical cancer are the most common cancers in women. Early diagnosis of the disease can reduce mortality, so it plays an important role in the field of prevention measures. An important aspect is education, the aim of which is to provide information on the risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, as well as the possibility of eliminating them from the life of women, but also shaping women’s need to perform regular diagnostics. Aim of the resea...

  17. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tickle, Martin

    2011-10-10

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods\\/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will

  18. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Solveig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years, fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F (supplied twice per year, a toothbrush (supplied twice a year or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit. 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs

  19. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Azam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hadji, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Mousavi, Azam-Sadat; Pakgohar, Minoo; Khodakarami, Nahid; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rahnamaye Farzami, Marjan; Shahsiah, Reza; Sajedinejhad, Sima; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Nadali, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Mogensen, Ole; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods: We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results: From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  20. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  1. Randomised clinical trial of Levonantradol and Chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucraft, H.H.; Palmer, M.K. (Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK))

    1982-11-01

    Levonantradol is a cannabis derivative. Cannabinoid anti-emetics are being assessed in cancer chemotherapy but have been little used in radiotherapy to date. A pilot study and randomised trial compared the anti-emetic effect of a standard drug (Chlorpromazine 25 mg) with Levonantradol at two doses (0.5 and 0.75 mg) in patients receiving palliative single fraction radiotherapy to sites likely to cause nausea and vomiting. Most patients were out-patients. Both drugs were well tolerated. The frequency of vomiting was similar in all three groups in both the pilot study and randomised trial.

  2. Randomised clinical trial of Levonantradol and Chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levonantradol is a cannabis derivative. Cannabinoid anti-emetics are being assessed in cancer chemotherapy but have been little used in radiotherapy to date. A pilot study and randomised trial compared the anti-emetic effect of a standard drug (Chlorpromazine 25 mg) with Levonantradol at two doses (0.5 and 0.75 mg) in patients receiving palliative single fraction radiotherapy to sites likely to cause nausea and vomiting. Most patients were out-patients. Both drugs were well tolerated. The frequency of vomiting was similar in all three groups in both the pilot study and randomised trial. (author)

  3. Issues Related to Implementing a Smoking Cessation Clinical Trial for Cancer Patients1

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Elisa; Tatum, Kristina L.; Weber, Dorothy M.; Kuzla, Natalie; Pendley, Anna B.S.; Campbell, Kirsten; Ridge, John A; Langer, Corey; Miyamoto, Curtis; Schnoll, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Given high rates of smoking among cancer patients, smoking cessation treatment is crucial, yet limited data exist to guide integration of such trials into the oncologic context. To determine the feasibility of conducting smoking cessation clinical trials with cancer patients, screening and baseline data from a large randomized placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy trial were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to compare enrollees to decliners, describe program enr...

  4. Law 16.097 Prevention program of uterine cervix cancer in Uruguay: Uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every year in Uruguay, is diagnosed around 600 new cases of cancer of uterine cervix. Next important information was related on this cancer and the evolution that will have the carrying of this illness, it was informed about the prevention, symptoms, I diagnose and treatment of the same one

  5. Periodontal Treatment for Preventing Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Meta- and Trial Sequential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Karimbux, Nadeem; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Periodontal treatment might reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. The efficacy of periodontal treatment to prevent preterm birth, low birth weight, and perinatal mortality was evaluated using meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Methods An existing systematic review was updated and meta-analyses performed. Risk of bias, heterogeneity, and publication bias were evaluated, and meta-regression performed. Subgroup analysis was used to compare different studies with low and high risk of bias and different populations, i.e., risk groups. Trial sequential analysis was used to assess risk of random errors. Results Thirteen randomized clinical trials evaluating 6283 pregnant women were meta-analyzed. Four and nine trials had low and high risk of bias, respectively. Overall, periodontal treatment had no significant effect on preterm birth (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.79 [0.57-1.10]) or low birth weight (0.69 [0.43-1.13]). Trial sequential analysis demonstrated that futility was not reached for any of the outcomes. For populations with moderate occurrence (<20%) of preterm birth or low birth weight, periodontal treatment was not efficacious for any of the outcomes, and trial sequential analyses indicated that further trials might be futile. For populations with high occurrence (≥20%) of preterm birth and low birth weight, periodontal treatment seemed to reduce the risk of preterm birth (0.42 [0.24-0.73]) and low birth weight (0.32 [0.15-0.67]), but trial sequential analyses showed that firm evidence was not reached. Periodontal treatment did not significantly affect perinatal mortality, and firm evidence was not reached. Risk of bias, but not publication bias or patients’ age modified the effect estimates. Conclusions Providing periodontal treatment to pregnant women could potentially reduce the risks of perinatal outcomes, especially in mothers with high risks. Conclusive evidence could not be reached due to risks of bias, risks of random

  6. 5-Alpha reductase inhibitor use and prostate cancer survival in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtola, Teemu J; Karppa, Elina K; Taari, Kimmo; Talala, Kirsi; Tammela, Teuvo Lj; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-06-15

    Randomized clinical trials have shown that use of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) lowers overall prostate cancer (PCa) risk compared to placebo, while the proportion of Gleason 8-10 tumors is elevated. It is unknown whether this affects PCa-specific survival. We studied disease-specific survival by 5-ARI usage in a cohort of 6,537 prostate cancer cases diagnosed in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial and linked to the national prescription database for information on medication use. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prostate cancer-specific deaths. For comparison, survival among alpha-blocker users was also evaluated. During the median follow-up of 7.5 years after diagnosis a total of 2,478 men died; 617 due to prostate cancer and 1,861 due to other causes. The risk of prostate cancer death did not differ between 5-ARI users and nonusers (multivariable adjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.72-1.24 and HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.69-1.41 for usage before and after the diagnosis, respectively). Alpha-blocker usage both before and after diagnosis was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer death (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.08-1.54 and HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.30-1.86, respectively). The risk increase vanished in long-term alpha-blocker usage. Use of 5-ARIs does not appear to affect prostate cancer mortality when used in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Increased risk associated with alpha-blocker usage should prompt further exploration on the prognostic role of lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:26804670

  7. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Karen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups

  8. The promise of omics-based approaches to cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerzaman, Daoud; Dunn, Barbara K; Lee, Maxwell; Chen, Qingrong; Yan, Chunhua; Ross, Sharon

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is a complex category of diseases caused in large part by genetic or genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic or epigenomic alterations in affected cells and the surrounding microenvironment. Carcinogenesis reflects the clonal expansion of cells that progressively acquire these genetic and epigenetic alterations-changes that, in turn, lead to modifications at the RNA level. Gradually advancing technology and most recently, the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with bioinformatics analytic tools, have revolutionized our ability to interrogate cancer cells. The ultimate goal is to apply these high-throughput technologies to the various aspects of clinical cancer care: cancer-risk assessment, diagnosis, as well as target identification for treatment and prevention. In this article, we emphasize how the knowledge gained through large-scale omics-oriented approaches, with a focus on variations at the level of nucleic acids, can inform the field of chemoprevention. PMID:26970123

  9. Annual Fasting; the Early Calories Restriction for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solat Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  10. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  11. A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yingting

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse. The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy

  12. Controlled clinical trial in the advanced primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a controlled clinical trial in the treatment of advanced primary lung cancer are presented. There were 39 patients who entered the present study that was conducted at the Thoracic Surgery Departament of the A.C. Camargo Hospital of the Antonio Prudente Foundation of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The patients were divided in two groups 1) - Radiotherapy with Cobalt 60 plus Chemotherapy. 2) - Chemotherapy only. The radiotherapy was provided by the split dose technic (6.000 rads in 3 cycles of 2.000 rads each). The chemotherapy consisted of the following drugs (5 FU, Metil hidrazina, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Oncovin, Cytoxan) administered in 16 cycles, aiming the synchronous funtional blockade. There was no statistically significant difference in survival of the two groups, ie, the first with 19,3 weeks and the second group with 14,6 weeks. (Author)

  13. Educating cancer prevention researchers in emerging biobehavioral models: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A; Li, Dennis H; Noor, Syed W; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-12-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and delivery method, as well as each session. A total of 11 students and 22 presenters participated in the course. In each class session, one presenter was from a behavioral science background,and the other was from a biological sciences background. Both presenters and students expressed overall satisfaction with the content and format of the course. The presentation of topics from a transdisciplinary perspective and interaction with presenters from both biological and behavioral sciences are valuable and can help junior researchers prepare to meet the emerging challenges in cancer prevention research. PMID:21720937

  14. Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol, is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological functions of several target tissues in the human body from conception to adulthood. Its molecular mode of action ranges from immediate nongenomic responses to longer term mechanisms that exert persistent genomic effects. The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of other growth factors or hormones that collectively regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a role for vitamin D (calcitriol in modulating cellular growth and development. Vitamin D (calcitriol acts as an antiproliferative agent in many tissues and significantly slows malignant cellular growth. Moreover, epidemiological studies have suggested that ultraviolet-B exposure can help reduce cancer risk and prevalence, indicating a potential role for vitamin D as a feasible agent to prevent cancer incidence and recurrence. With the preventive potential of this biologically active agent, we suggest that countries where cancer is on the rise—yet where sunlight and, hence, vitamin D may be easily acquired—adopt awareness, education and implementation strategies to increase supplementation with vitamin D in all age groups as a preventive measure to reduce cancer risk and prevalence.

  15. Continuing education in oral cancer prevention for dentists in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Juan; Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Tomás, Inmaculada; Seoane-Romero, Juan; Diz, Pedro; Takkouche, Bahi

    2012-09-01

    Continuing education (CE) can have a large impact on dentists' oral cancer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior. Reading scientific journals is a key component of CE. The objective of this study was to assess preventive and clinical attitudes of the participants in an educational intervention on oral cancer in Spain based on scientific journals. Members of the Spanish Board of Dentists and Stomatologists participated in an online, cross-sectional study, using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. There were 791 general dental practitioners (GDPs) invited to participate in the study. The large majority reported that they deliver tobacco-cessation counseling (93.6 percent) as well as advice on alcohol consumption (66.6 percent), but advice on vegetable intake was less frequently provided (42.4 percent). Alcohol intake advice, routine mucosa exploration, and biopsy performance on lesions suspicious of malignancy are preventive attitudes related to training. Compared with those who did not benefit from CE courses or did so only once, the GDPs who took four or more CE courses showed a doubling in the odds of giving alcohol advice to their patients and a tenfold increased odds of performing mucosa check on a routine basis; they were 3.5 times as likely to take biopsies of suspicious lesions. A longer experience as a GDP did not increase the probability of adopting preventive attitudes. In addition to presenting the results of this study, the article also discusses the general usefulness of other preventive measures in oral cancer. PMID:22942420

  16. Designing phase II trials in cancer: a systematic review and guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S R; Gregory, W. M.; Twelves, C. J.; M. Buyse; Collinson, F; Parmar, M; Seymour, M T; J M Brown

    2011-01-01

    Background: Literature reviews of cancer trials have highlighted the need for better understanding of phase II statistical designs. Understanding the key elements associated with phase II design and knowledge of available statistical designs is necessary to enable appropriate phase II trial design. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed to identify phase II trial designs applicable to oncology trials. The results of the review were used to create a library of currently availabl...

  17. Recommendations for Collection and Handling of Specimens From Group Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Leyland-Jones, Brian R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bartlett, John; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Enos, Rebecca A.; Raji, Adekunle; Pins, Michael R.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Forbes, John F.; Abramovitz, Mark; Braga, Sofia; Cardoso, Fatima; Harbeck, Nadia; Denkert, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for specimen collection and handling have been developed for adoption across breast cancer clinical trials conducted by the Breast International Group (BIG)-sponsored Groups and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored North American Cooperative Groups. These recommendations are meant to promote identifiable standards for specimen collection and handling within and across breast cancer trials, such that the variability in collection/handling practices that currently exist...

  18. Reasons why patients fail screening in Indian breast cancer trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased number of screen failure patients in a clinical trial increases time and cost required for the recruitment. Assessment of reasons for screen failure can help reduce screen failure rates and improve recruitment. Materials and Methods: We collected retrospective data of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 positive Indian breast cancer patients, who failed screening for phase 3 clinical trials and ascertained their reasons for screen failure from screening logs. Statistical comparison was done to ascertain if there are any differences between private and public sites. Results: Of 727 patients screened at 14 sites, 408 (56.1% failed screening. The data on the specific reasons for screen failures was not available at one of the public sites (38 screen failures out of 83 screened patients. Hence, after excluding that site, further analysis is based on 644 patients, of which 370 failed screening. Of these, 296 (80% screen failure patients did not meet selection criteria. The majority -266 were HER2 negative. Among logistical issues, 39 patients had inadequate breast tissue sample. Sixteen patients withdrew their consent at private sites as compared to six at public sites. The difference between private and public sites for the above three reasons was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of prescreening logs to reduce the number of patients not meeting selection criteria and protocol logistics, and patient counseling to reduce consent withdrawals could be used to reduce screen failure rate.

  19. Experiences in conducting multiple community-based HIV prevention trials among women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Moodley Jothi; Maharaj Rashika; Guddera Vijayanand; Govinden Roshini; Gappoo Sharika; Ganesh Shay; Dladla-Qwabe Nozizwe; Coumi Nicola; Ramjee Gita; Morar Neetha; Naidoo Sarita; Palanee Thesla

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background South Africa, with its scientific capacity, good infrastructure and high HIV incidence rates, is ideally positioned to conduct large-scale HIV prevention trials. The HIV Prevention Research Unit of the South African Medical Research Council conducted four phase III and one phase IIb trials of women-initiated HIV prevention options in KwaZulu-Natal between 2003 and 2009. A total of 7046 women participated, with HIV prevalence between 25% and 45% and HIV incidence ranging fr...

  20. Role of Honey in Prevention of Radiation induced Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of honey in preventing radiation induced mucositis (RIM) in patients with head and neck cancers. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Oncology Department of Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from July 2011 to September 2012. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer requiring radiotherapy to the oropharyngeal mucosa were randomized into two groups to receive either radiation alone or radiation and natural honey. Patients were treated using 6-MV X-ray beams from linear accelerator at a dose rate of 2 Gy per day five times a week up to a dose of 66 Gy. In the treatment group, patients were advised to take 20 ml of pure honey 15 minutes before, 15 minutes after and 6 hours after radiotherapy. Patients were evaluated every week for the development of RIM using the WHO oral mucositis grading system. Results: In treatment group, out of 30 patients, 4(13%) developed grade 3 RIM and none developed grade 4 RIM. In control group, out of 30 patients, 12 (40%) developed grade 3 or 4 RIM (p=0.039). Four patients (13%) in treatment group lost more than 5 Kg weight during the course of radiotherapy compared to 16 patients (53%) in control group (p=0.002). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that honey is a simple and cost effective treatment to prevent RIM. Large scale randomized trials are needed to confirm the results of our study. (author)