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Sample records for cancer mrc cr07

  1. Effect of the plane of surgery achieved on local recurrence in patients with operable rectal cancer: a prospective study using data from the MRC CR07 and NCIC-CTG CO16 randomised clinical trial.

    Quirke, Phil; Steele, Robert; Monson, John; Grieve, Robert; Khanna, Subhash; Couture, Jean; O'Callaghan, Chris; Myint, Arthur Sun; Bessell, Eric; Thompson, Lindsay C; Parmar, Mahesh; Stephens, Richard J; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2009-03-07

    Local recurrence rates in operable rectal cancer are improved by radiotherapy (with or without chemotherapy) and surgical techniques such as total mesorectal excision. However, the contributions of surgery and radiotherapy to outcomes are unclear. We assessed the effect of the involvement of the circumferential resection margin and the plane of surgery achieved. In this prospective study, the plane of surgery achieved and the involvement of the circumferential resection margin were assessed by local pathologists, using a standard pathological protocol in 1156 patients with operable rectal cancer from the CR07 and NCIC-CTG CO16 trial, which compared short-course (5 days) preoperative radiotherapy and selective postoperative chemoradiotherapy, between March, 1998, and August, 2005. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN 28785842. 128 patients (11%) had involvement of the circumferential resection margin, and the plane of surgery achieved was classified as good (mesorectal) in 604 (52%), intermediate (intramesorectal) in 398 (34%), and poor (muscularis propria plane) in 154 (13%). We found that both a negative circumferential resection margin and a superior plane of surgery achieved were associated with low local recurrence rates. Hazard ratio (HR) was 0.32 (95% CI 0.16-0.63, p=0.0011) with 3-year local recurrence rates of 6% (5-8%) and 17% (10-26%) for patients who were negative and positive for circumferential resection margin, respectively. For plane of surgery achieved, HRs for mesorectal and intramesorectal groups compared with the muscularis propria group were 0.32 (0.16-0.64) and 0.48 (0.25-0.93), respectively. At 3 years, the estimated local recurrence rates were 4% (3-6%) for mesorectal, 7% (5-11%) for intramesorectal, and 13% (8-21%) for muscularis propria groups. The benefit of short-course preoperative radiotherapy did not differ in the three plane of surgery groups (p=0.30 for trend). Patients in the short

  2. Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC trial): a randomised study.

    Kitchener, H; Swart, A M C; Qian, Q; Amos, C; Parmar, M K B

    2009-01-10

    Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is the standard surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy has been used to establish whether there is extra-uterine disease and as a therapeutic procedure; however, randomised trials need to be done to assess therapeutic efficacy. The ASTEC surgical trial investigated whether pelvic lymphadenectomy could improve survival of women with endometrial cancer. From 85 centres in four countries, 1408 women with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma thought preoperatively to be confined to the corpus were randomly allocated by a minimisation method to standard surgery (hysterectomy and BSO, peritoneal washings, and palpation of para-aortic nodes; n=704) or standard surgery plus lymphadenectomy (n=704). The primary outcome measure was overall survival. To control for postsurgical treatment, women with early-stage disease at intermediate or high risk of recurrence were randomised (independent of lymph-node status) into the ASTEC radiotherapy trial. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 16571884. After a median follow-up of 37 months (IQR 24-58), 191 women (88 standard surgery group, 103 lymphadenectomy group) had died, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% CI 0.87-1.54; p=0.31) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year overall survival of 1% (95% CI -4 to 6). 251 women died or had recurrent disease (107 standard surgery group, 144 lymphadenectomy group), with an HR of 1.35 (1.06-1.73; p=0.017) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year recurrence-free survival of 6% (1-12). With adjustment for baseline characteristics and pathology details, the HR for overall survival was 1.04 (0.74-1.45; p=0.83) and for recurrence-free survival was 1.25 (0.93-1.66; p=0.14). Our results show no evidence of benefit in terms of overall or recurrence-free survival for pelvic lymphadenectomy in women with early

  3. Body mass index does not influence post-treatment survival in early stage endometrial cancer: results from the MRC ASTEC trial.

    Crosbie, Emma J; Roberts, Chris; Qian, Wendi; Swart, Ann Marie; Kitchener, Henry C; Renehan, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a major risk factor for endometrial cancer incidence but its impact on post-treatment survival is unclear. We investigated the relationships of BMI (categorised using the WHO definitions) with clinico-pathological characteristics and outcome in women treated within the MRC ASTEC randomised trial, which provides data from patients who received standardised allocated treatments and therefore reduces biases. The impact of BMI on both recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) was analysed using the Cox regression models. An apriori framework of evaluating potential biases was explored. From 1408 participants, there were 1070 women with determinable BMI (median=29.1 kg/m(2)). Histological types were endometrioid (type 1) in 893 and non-endometrioid (type 2) in 146 women; the proportion of the latter decreasing with increasing BMI (8% versus 19% for obese III WHO category versus normal weight, p(trend)=0.003). For type 1 carcinomas, increasing BMI was associated with less aggressive histopathological features (depth of invasion, p=0.006; tumour grade, p=0.015). With a median follow-up of 34.3 months, there was no influence of BMI on RFS - adjusted HRs per 5 kg/m(2) were 0.98 (95% CI 0.86, 1.13) and 0.95 (0.74, 1.24), for type 1 and 2 carcinomas; and no influence on OS - adjusted HRs per 5 kg/m(2) were 0.96 (0.81, 1.14) and 0.92 (0.70, 1.23), respectively. These findings demonstrate an important principle: that an established link between an exposure (here, obesity) and increased incident cancer risk, does not necessarily translate into an inferior outcome following treatment for that cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Target volume definition in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: quality assurance in the MRC RT-01 trial

    Seddon, B.S.; Wilson, J.; Khoo, V.; Dearnaley, D.; Bidmead, M.

    2000-01-01

    Prior to randomization of patients into the UK Medical Research Council multicentre randomized trial (RT-01) of conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) in prostate cancer, clinicians at participating centres were required to complete a quality assurance (QA) clinical planning exercise to enable an investigation of inter-observer variability in gross target volume (GTV) and normal structure outlining. Thirteen participating centres and two investigators completed the clinical planning exercise of three practice planning cases. Clinicians were asked to draw outlines of the GTV, rectum and bladder on hard-copy computerized tomography (CT) films of the pelvis, which were transferred onto the Cadplan computer planning system by a single investigator. Centre, inferior and superior CT levels of GTV, rectum and bladder were noted, and volume calculations performed. Planning target volumes (PTV) were generated using automatic volume expansion of GTVs by a 1 cm margin. Anterior, right and left lateral beam eye views (BEV) of the PTVs were generated. Using a common central point, the BEV PTVs were superimposed for each beam direction of each case. Radial PTV variation was investigated by measurement of a novel parameter, termed the radial line measurement variation (RLMV). GTV central slice and length were defined with reasonable consistency. The RLMV analysis showed that the main part of the prostate gland, bladder and inferior rectum were outlined with good consistency among clinicians. However, the outlining of the prostatic apex, superior aspect of the prostate projecting into the bladder, seminal vesicles, the base of seminal vesicles and superior rectum were more variable. This exercise has demonstrated adequate consistency of GTV definition. The RLMV method of analysis indicates particular regions of clinician uncertainty. Appropriate feedback has been given to all participating clinicians, and the final RT-01 trial protocol has been modified to accommodate these findings

  5. A versatile phantom for quality assurance in the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) RT01 trial (ISRCTN47772397) in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Rollo Moore, A.; Jim Warrington, A.P.; Aird, Edwin G.A.; Margaret Bidmead, A.; Dearnaley, David P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the UK RT01 trial the MRC also funded a quality assurance (QA) programme. This included a planning and dosimetry audit at participating centres using a purpose built phantom. Geometrical setup was visually assessed via field shaping around the phantom GTV (to within the order of 1 mm). Within the phantom, ion chamber positional uncertainties were estimated as 0.6 mm (95% CL, k = 2). This was the basis for ion chamber measurements in a variety of dose gradients around the PTV closely simulating a patient case. The design provides a representative but reproducible system for QA in the prostate radiotherapy process, from CT scan to treatment. Setup errors are not eliminated, but minimised and estimated

  6. The early toxicity of escalated versus standard dose conformal radiotherapy with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression for patients with localised prostate cancer: Results from the MRC RT01 trial (ISRCTN47772397)

    Dearnaley, David P.; Sydes, Matthew R.; Langley, Ruth E.; Graham, John D.; Huddart, Robert A.; Syndikus, Isabel; Matthews, John H.L.; Scrase, Christopher D.; Jose, Chakiath C.; Logue, John; Stephens, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Five-year disease-free survival rates for localised prostate cancer following standard doses of conventional radical external beam radiotherapy are around 80%. Conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) raises the possibility that radiotherapy doses can be increased and long-term efficacy outcomes improved, with safety an important consideration. Methods: MRC RT01 is a randomised controlled trial of 862 men with localised prostate cancer comparing Standard CFRT (64 Gy/32 f) versus Escalated CFRT (74 Gy/37 f), both administered with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression. Early toxicity was measured using physician-reported instruments (RTOG, LENT/SOM, Royal Marsden Scales) and patient-reported questionnaires (MOS SF-36, UCLA Prostate Cancer Index, FACT-P). Results: Overall early radiotherapy toxicity was similar, apart from increased bladder, bowel and sexual toxicity, in the Escalated Group during a short immediate post-radiotherapy period. Toxicity in both groups had abated by week 12. Using RTOG Acute Toxicity scores, cumulative Grade ≥2 bladder and bowel toxicity was 38% and 30% for Standard Group and 39% and 33% in Escalated Group, respectively. Urinary frequency (Royal Marsden Scale) improved in both groups from pre-androgen suppression to 6 months post-radiotherapy (p < 0.001), but bowel and sexual functioning deteriorated. This pattern was supported by patient-completed assessments. Six months after starting radiotherapy the incidence of RTOG Grade ≥2 side-effects was low (<1%); but there were six reports of rectal ulceration (6 Escalated Group), six haematuria (5 Escalated Group) and eight urethral stricture (6 Escalated Group). Conclusions: The two CFRT schedules with neo-adjuvant androgen suppression have broadly similar early toxicity profiles except for the immediate post-RT period. At 6 months and compared to before hormone therapy, bladder symptoms improved, whereas bowel and sexual symptoms worsened. These assessments of early treatment safety will be

  7. Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC and NCIC CTG EN.5 randomised trials): pooled trial results, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

    Blake, P; Swart, Ann Marie; Orton, J; Kitchener, H; Whelan, T; Lukka, H; Eisenhauer, E; Bacon, M; Tu, D; Parmar, M K B; Amos, C; Murray, C; Qian, W

    2009-01-10

    Early endometrial cancer with low-risk pathological features can be successfully treated by surgery alone. External beam radiotherapy added to surgery has been investigated in several small trials, which have mainly included women at intermediate risk of recurrence. In these trials, postoperative radiotherapy has been shown to reduce the risk of isolated local recurrence but there is no evidence that it improves recurrence-free or overall survival. We report the findings from the ASTEC and EN.5 trials, which investigated adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in women with early-stage disease and pathological features suggestive of intermediate or high risk of recurrence and death from endometrial cancer. Between July, 1996, and March, 2005, 905 (789 ASTEC, 116 EN.5) women with intermediate-risk or high-risk early-stage disease from 112 centres in seven countries (UK, Canada, Poland, Norway, New Zealand, Australia, USA) were randomly assigned after surgery to observation (453) or to external beam radiotherapy (452). A target dose of 40-46 Gy in 20-25 daily fractions to the pelvis, treating five times a week, was specified. Primary outcome measure was overall survival, and all analyses were by intention to treat. These trials were registered ISRCTN 16571884 (ASTEC) and NCT 00002807 (EN.5). After a median follow-up of 58 months, 135 women (68 observation, 67 external beam radiotherapy) had died. There was no evidence that overall survival with external beam radiotherapy was better than observation, hazard ratio 1.05 (95% CI 0.75-1.48; p=0.77). 5-year overall survival was 84% in both groups. Combining data from ASTEC and EN.5 in a meta-analysis of trials confirmed that there was no benefit in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio 1.04; 95% CI 0.84-1.29) and can reliably exclude an absolute benefit of external beam radiotherapy at 5 years of more than 3%. With brachytherapy used in 53% of women in ASTEC/EN.5, the local recurrence rate in the observation group at 5 years

  8. Induction Chemotherapy and Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (CHART) for Patients With Locally Advanced Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The MRC INCH Randomized Trial

    Hatton, Matthew; Nankivell, Matthew; Lyn, Ethan; Falk, Stephen; Pugh, Cheryl; Navani, Neal; Stephens, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that both CHART (continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy) and induction chemotherapy offer a survival advantage over conventional radical radiotherapy for patients with inoperable non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC). This multicenter randomized controlled trial (INCH) was set up to assess the value of giving induction chemotherapy before CHART. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed, inoperable, Stage I-III NSCLC were randomized to induction chemotherapy (ICT) (three cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by CHART) or CHART alone. Results: Forty-six patients were randomized (23 in each treatment arm) from 9 UK centers. As a result of poor accrual, the trial was closed in December 2007. Twenty-eight patients were male, 28 had squamous cell histology, 34 were Stage IIIA or IIIB, and all baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment arms. Seventeen (74%) of the 23 ICT patients completed the three cycles of chemotherapy. All 42 (22 CHART + 20 ICT) patients who received CHART completed the prescribed treatment. Median survival was 17 months in the CHART arm and 25 months in the ICT arm (hazard ratio of 0.60 [95% CI 0.31-1.16], p = 0.127). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (mainly fatigue, dysphagia, breathlessness, and anorexia) were reported for 13 (57%) CHART and 13 (65%) ICT patients. Conclusions: This small randomized trial indicates that ICT followed by CHART is feasible and well tolerated. Despite closing early because of poor accrual, and so failing to show clear evidence of a survival benefit for the additional chemotherapy, the results suggest that CHART, and ICT before CHART, remain important options for the treatment of inoperable NSCLC and deserve further study.

  9. Characterization of SWIR cameras by MRC measurements

    Gerken, M.; Schlemmer, H.; Haan, Hubertus A.; Siemens, Christofer; Münzberg, M.

    2014-05-01

    Cameras for the SWIR wavelength range are becoming more and more important because of the better observation range for day-light operation under adverse weather conditions (haze, fog, rain). In order to choose the best suitable SWIR camera or to qualify a camera for a given application, characterization of the camera by means of the Minimum Resolvable Contrast MRC concept is favorable as the MRC comprises all relevant properties of the instrument. With the MRC known for a given camera device the achievable observation range can be calculated for every combination of target size, illumination level or weather conditions. MRC measurements in the SWIR wavelength band can be performed widely along the guidelines of the MRC measurements of a visual camera. Typically measurements are performed with a set of resolution targets (e.g. USAF 1951 target) manufactured with different contrast values from 50% down to less than 1%. For a given illumination level the achievable spatial resolution is then measured for each target. The resulting curve is showing the minimum contrast that is necessary to resolve the structure of a target as a function of spatial frequency. To perform MRC measurements for SWIR cameras at first the irradiation parameters have to be given in radiometric instead of photometric units which are limited in their use to the visible range. In order to do so, SWIR illumination levels for typical daylight and twilight conditions have to be defined. At second, a radiation source is necessary with appropriate emission in the SWIR range (e.g. incandescent lamp) and the irradiance has to be measured in W/m2 instead of Lux = Lumen/m2. At third, the contrast values of the targets have to be calibrated newly for the SWIR range because they typically differ from the values determined for the visual range. Measured MRC values of three cameras are compared to the specified performance data of the devices and the results of a multi-band in-house designed Vis-SWIR camera

  10. Evaluating the relationship between erectile dysfunction and dose received by the penile bulb: Using data from a randomised controlled trial of conformal radiotherapy in prostate cancer (MRC RT01, ISRCTN47772397)

    Mangar, Stephen A.; Sydes, Matthew R.; Tucker, Helen L.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between erectile function and the radiation dose to the penile bulb and other proximal penile structures in men receiving conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: The Medical Research Council (MRC) RT01 trial randomised 843 men who had localised PCa to receive either 64 or 74 Gy after 3-6 months neoadjuvant hormonal treatment. Fifty-one men were selected who were potent prior to hormonal treatment, having completed both pre-hormone and 2-year post-CFRT Quality of Life assessments, and on whom dose volume data were available for analysis. The men were divided into three groups according to 2-year follow-up: potent, reduced potency, and impotent. The bulb of the penis together with the crura, were outlined on restored treatment plans. Dose-volume histograms were generated and compared between the three groups. An ordered logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio of a range of dose-volume parameters to the penile bulb and effect on erectile dysfunction. The dose to the penile bulb was correlated to the dose received by the crura. Results: Of the 51 patients, 12 remained potent, 22 had reduced potency, and 17 were impotent at 2 years. No differences were seen in mean dose to the penile bulb by allocated treatment (t test = 1.61, p = 0.11). The mean doses to the penile bulb received by the potent, reduced potency, and impotent groups were 45.5 Gy (SD 17.1), 48 Gy (SD 16.1), and 59.2 Gy (SD 13.8), respectively. There was a strong correlation between the mean dose received by the penile bulb and dose to the crura (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001). 83.3% of impotent patients received a D90 ≥50 Gy to the penile bulb compared with 29.4% of patients who maintained potency at 2 years (p 0.006). Conclusion: There is evidence from this study to suggest a dose volume effect on the penile bulb and erectile dysfunction. A D90 ≥50 Gy is associated with a significant risk of erectile dysfunction and this should

  11. The effect of CTB on P53 protein acetylation and consequence apoptosis on MCF-7 and MRC-5 cell lines

    Mehdi Nikbakht Dastjerdi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: CTB could induce acetylation of P53 protein through increasing expression of P300 and consequently induce the significant cell death in MCF-7 but it could be well tolerated in MRC-5. Therefore, CTB could be used as an anti-cancer agent.

  12. DNA synthesis in permeabilized WI38 and MRC5 cells

    Griffiths, T.D.; Carpenter, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    DNA synthesis was examined in cultures of growing WI38 and MRC5 cells made permeable to deoxyribonucleotides. Cells from late passage cultures showed a reduced rate of deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) uptake as compared to cells from early- to mid-passage cultures. This reduction became evident earlier in WI38 cultures (passage 33) than in MRC5 cultures (passage 41). Although this reduced rate of incorporation appeared to be primarily due to a reduced percentage of replicating (S phase) cells in later passage cultures, some effect on the rate of DNA synthesis in replicating cells was also evident

  13. Response of Fibroblasts MRC-5 to Flufenamic Acid-Grafted MCM-41 Nanoparticles

    Giovanna Gomes Lara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, flufenamic acid (FFA was discovered among fenamates as a free radical scavenger and gap junction blocker; however, its effects have only been studied in cancer cells. Normal cells in the surroundings of a tumor also respond to radiation, although they are not hit by it directly. This phenomenon is known as the bystander effect, where response molecules pass from tumor cells to normal ones, through communication channels called gap junctions. The use of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, through which drug-loaded nanoparticles smaller than 200 nm may accumulate around a tumor, can prevent the local side effect upon controlled release of the drug. The present work, aimed at functionalizing MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 silica nanoparticles with FFA and determining its biocompatibility with human fibroblasts MRC-5 (Medical Research Council cell strain 5. MCM-41, was synthesized and characterized structurally and chemically, with multiple techniques. The biocompatibility assay was performed by Live/Dead technique, with calcein and propidium–iodide. MRC-5 cells were treated with FFA-grafted MCM-41 for 48 h, and 98% of cells remained viable, without signs of necrosis or morphological changes. The results show the feasibility of MCM-41 functionalization with FFA, and its potential protection of normal cells, in comparison to the role of FFA in cancerous ones.

  14. Response of Fibroblasts MRC-5 to Flufenamic Acid-Grafted MCM-41 Nanoparticles.

    Lara, Giovanna Gomes; Cipreste, Marcelo Fernandes; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Silva, Wellington Marcos da; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2018-01-09

    Recently, flufenamic acid (FFA) was discovered among fenamates as a free radical scavenger and gap junction blocker; however, its effects have only been studied in cancer cells. Normal cells in the surroundings of a tumor also respond to radiation, although they are not hit by it directly. This phenomenon is known as the bystander effect, where response molecules pass from tumor cells to normal ones, through communication channels called gap junctions. The use of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, through which drug-loaded nanoparticles smaller than 200 nm may accumulate around a tumor, can prevent the local side effect upon controlled release of the drug. The present work, aimed at functionalizing MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41) silica nanoparticles with FFA and determining its biocompatibility with human fibroblasts MRC-5 (Medical Research Council cell strain 5). MCM-41, was synthesized and characterized structurally and chemically, with multiple techniques. The biocompatibility assay was performed by Live/Dead technique, with calcein and propidium-iodide. MRC-5 cells were treated with FFA-grafted MCM-41 for 48 h, and 98% of cells remained viable, without signs of necrosis or morphological changes. The results show the feasibility of MCM-41 functionalization with FFA, and its potential protection of normal cells, in comparison to the role of FFA in cancerous ones.

  15. The BIG 2.04 MRC/EORTC SUPREMO Trial: pathology quality assurance of a large phase 3 randomised international clinical trial of postmastectomy radiotherapy in intermediate-risk breast cancer.

    Thomas, J S; Hanby, A M; Russell, N; van Tienhoven, G; Riddle, K; Anderson, N; Cameron, D A; Bartlett, J M S; Piper, T; Cunningham, C; Canney, P; Kunkler, I H

    2017-05-01

    SUPREMO is a phase 3 randomised trial evaluating radiotherapy post-mastectomy for intermediate-risk breast cancer. 1688 patients were enrolled from 16 countries between 2006 and 2013. We report the results of central pathology review carried out for quality assurance. A single recut haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) tumour section was assessed by one of two reviewing pathologists, blinded to the originally reported pathology and patient data. Tumour type, grade and lymphovascular invasion were reviewed to assess if they met the inclusion criteria. Slides from potentially ineligible patients on central review were scanned and reviewed online together by the two pathologists and a consensus reached. A subset of 25 of these cases was double-reported independently by the pathologists prior to the online assessment. The major contributors to the trial were the UK (75%) and the Netherlands (10%). There is a striking difference in lymphovascular invasion (LVi) rates (41.6 vs. 15.1% (UK); p = grade 3 carcinomas (54.0 vs. 42.0% (UK); p = grade and/or lymphovascular invasion status. Following online consensus review, this fell to 70 cases (16.3% of N- cases, 4.1% of all cases). These data have important implications for the design, powering and interpretation of outcomes from this and future clinical trials. If critical pathology criteria are determinants for trial entry, serious consideration should be given to up-front central pathology review.

  16. Asymptotic Analysis in MIMO MRT/MRC Systems

    Zhou Quan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the probability density function of the squared largest singular value of a complex Gaussian matrix at the origin and tail, we obtain two asymptotic results related to the multi-input multi-output (MIMO maximum-ratio-transmission/maximum-ratio-combining (MRT/MRC systems. One is the asymptotic error performance (in terms of SNR in a single-user system, and the other is the asymptotic system capacity (in terms of the number of users in the multiuser scenario when multiuser diversity is exploited. Similar results are also obtained for two other MIMO diversity schemes, space-time block coding and selection combining. Our results reveal a simple connection with system parameters, providing good insights for the design of MIMO diversity systems.

  17. The MRC dyspnoea scale by telephone interview to monitor health status in elderly COPD patients.

    Paladini, Luciana; Hodder, Rick; Cecchini, Isabella; Bellia, Vincenzo; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2010-07-01

    Dyspnoea is the most common symptom associated with poor quality of life in patients affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). While COPD severity is commonly staged by lung function, the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale has been proposed as a more clinically meaningful method of quantifying disease severity in COPD. We wished to assess whether this scale might also be useful during telephone surveys as a simple surrogate marker of perceived health status in elderly patients with COPD. We conducted a comprehensive health status assessment by telephone survey of 200 elderly patients who had a physician diagnosis of COPD. The telephone survey contained 71 items and explored such domains as educational level, financial status, living arrangements and social contacts, co-morbid illness, and the severity and the impact of COPD on health status. Patients were categorized according to the reported MRC score: mild dyspnoea (MRC scale of 1), moderate dyspnoea (MRC scale of 2 and 3), or severe dyspnoea (MRC of 4 and 5). Deterioration in most of the recorded indicators of health status correlated with an increasingly severe MRC score. This was most evident for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), perceived health and emotional status, pain-related limitations, limitations in social life, hospital admissions in preceding year and prevalence of most co-morbidities. The MRC dyspnoea scale is a reliable index of disease severity and health status in elderly COPD patients which should prove useful for remote monitoring of COPD and for rating health status for epidemiological purposes.

  18. Diagnostic imaging of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: preoperative evaluation of ERC, MRC and PTC in comparison with histopathology

    Romaneehsen, B.; Mainz Univ.; Otto, G.; Lohse, A.W.; Bittinger, F.; Herber, S.; Oberholzer, K.; Pitton, M.B.; Thelen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the results of the preoperative workup consisting of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC), and percutaneous resonance cholangiography (PTC) with the tumor extent of the surgical specimen in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (hilCC). Materials and Methods: Between 9/1997 and 12/2002. 59 patients with hilCC tumor underwent surgical resection. Preoperative ERC, MRC, and PTC were analyzed, blinded for the identity of the patient, and compared with the surgical specimen. For this retrospective analysis, 55 of the initial 59 ERCs, 39 of the initial 40 MRCs and 32 of the initial 38 PTCs were available. Most of the ERCs and MRCs had been performed at referring institutions by various investigators. In 20 patients, all three imaging modalities were available for direct comparison. Results: The mean scores of the visualization of the bile ducts and tumor differ considerably for ERC, MRC and PTC, with PTC visualizing the bile ducts better than ERC (p<0.001) and MRC (p=0.019). The tumor classification according to Bismuth and Corlette was correctly predicted by ERC in 29%, by MRC in 36% and by PTC in 53%. The tumor extent was overestimated in 40% (ERC), 41% (MRC) and 31% (PTC) and underestimated in less than 10% for all modalities. Twenty patients, who underwent all three imaging modalities, were included in an additional analysis for a direct comparison of ERC, MRC and PTC. PTC provided correct or acceptable information on tumor extent in 19 of 20 patients, MRC in 15 of 20 patients, and ERC in only 11 of 20 patients. The statistical analysis revealed a significant superiority of PTC to ERC (McNemar test: p<0.01) but not to MRC (p=0.22). (orig.)

  19. Performance of non-ideal OT-MRC with co-channel interference

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies the effect of non-ideal estimation of channel state information (CSI) on the performance of output-threshold maximal-ratio combining (OT-MRC) diversity scheme in the presence of co-channel interference as well as white noise. The channel fading envelopes are assumed to follow slowly varying flat Rayleigh model. New closed-form expressions for the combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) distribution and outage probability performance are presented. Performance comparisons between the conventional MRC and OT-MRC for the system model described above are provided. © 2010 IEEE.

  20. Phenotypic and genomic analysis of serotype 3 Sabin poliovirus vaccine produced in MRC-5 cell substrate.

    Alirezaie, Behnam; Taqavian, Mohammad; Aghaiypour, Khosrow; Esna-Ashari, Fatemeh; Shafyi, Abbas

    2011-05-01

    The cell substrate has a pivotal role in live virus vaccines production. It is necessary to evaluate the effects of the cell substrate on the properties of the propagated viruses, especially in the case of viruses which are unstable genetically such as polioviruses, by monitoring the molecular and phenotypical characteristics of harvested viruses. To investigate the presence/absence of mutation(s), the near full-length genomic sequence of different harvests of the type 3 Sabin strain of poliovirus propagated in MRC-5 cells were determined. The sequences were compared with genomic sequences of different virus seeds, vaccines, and OPV-like isolates. Nearly complete genomic sequencing results, however, revealed no detectable mutations throughout the genome RNA-plaque purified (RSO)-derived monopool of type 3 OPVs manufactured in MRC-5. Thirty-six years of experience in OPV production, trend analysis, and vaccine surveillance also suggest that: (i) different monopools of serotype 3 OPV produced in MRC-5 retained their phenotypic characteristics (temperature sensitivity and neuroattenuation), (ii) MRC-5 cells support the production of acceptable virus yields, (iii) OPV replicated in the MRC-5 cell substrate is a highly efficient and safe vaccine. These results confirm previous reports that MRC-5 is a desirable cell substrate for the production of OPV. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro

    Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5, and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells.

  2. Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Samani, Roghayeh Kamran; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5), and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB) were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells. (author)

  3. 3D magnetic-resonance-coupling (MRC) localization of wireless capsule endoscopy

    Xia, Yongming; Zhang, Lihui; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2016-01-01

    ) technique, which has been widely developed for efficient wireless power transfer, is introduced. It is proposed that the distance dependent signal strength in a MRC system can be beneficially used for 3D localization. The new 3D-MRC localization system consists of three orthogonal emitting coils which......Wireless Capsule Endoscope (WCE) enables developing actively controlled capsule for potential complex surgeries, imaging, and new medicine tests. These tasks of WCE need safe, efficient, and precise 3D localization techniques. In this paper, a new application of the magnetic resonance coupling (MRC...... are powered by a battery in the capsule, and three pairs of orthogonal receiving coils which are placed outside human body. The distances between the WCE and the receiving coils can be estimated with good accuracy by studying the signal strengths in individual receiving coils. The proposed new 3D...

  4. On the BER and capacity analysis of MIMO MRC systems with channel estimation error

    Yang, Liang

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of channel estimation error on the capacity and bit-error rate (BER) of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit maximal ratio transmission (MRT) and receive maximal ratio combining (MRC) systems over uncorrelated Rayleigh fading channels. We first derive the ergodic (average) capacity expressions for such systems when power adaptation is applied at the transmitter. The exact capacity expression for the uniform power allocation case is also presented. Furthermore, to investigate the diversity order of MIMO MRT-MRC scheme, we derive the BER performance under a uniform power allocation policy. We also present an asymptotic BER performance analysis for the MIMO MRT-MRC system with multiuser diversity. The numerical results are given to illustrate the sensitivity of the main performance to the channel estimation error and the tightness of the approximate cutoff value. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Partial PIC-MRC Receiver Design for Single Carrier Block Transmission System over Multipath Fading Channels

    Juinn-Horng Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single carrier block transmission (SCBT system has become one of the most popular modulation systems due to its low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR, and it is gradually considered to be used for uplink wireless communication systems. In this paper, a low complexity partial parallel interference cancellation (PIC with maximum ratio combining (MRC technology is proposed to use for receiver to combat the intersymbol interference (ISI problem over multipath fading channel. With the aid of MRC scheme, the proposed partial PIC technique can effectively perform the interference cancellation and acquire the benefit of time diversity gain. Finally, the proposed system can be extended to use for multiple antenna systems to provide excellent performance. Simulation results reveal that the proposed low complexity partial PIC-MRC SIMO system can provide robust performance and outperform the conventional PIC and the iterative frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (FD-DFE systems over multipath fading channel environment.

  6. On the BER and capacity analysis of MIMO MRC systems with channel estimation error

    Yang, Liang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of channel estimation error on the capacity and bit-error rate (BER) of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit maximal ratio transmission (MRT) and receive maximal ratio combining (MRC) systems over

  7. Rapid Coeval Black Hole and Host Galaxy Growth in MRC 1138-262 : The Hungry Spider

    Seymour, N.; Altieri, B.; De Breuck, C.; Barthel, P.; Coia, D.; Conversi, L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dey, A.; Dickinson, M.; Drouart, G.; Galametz, A.; Greve, T. R.; Haas, M.; Hatch, N.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Kovacs, A.; Kurk, J.; Lehnert, M.; Miley, G.; Nesvadba, N.; Rawlings, J. I.; Rettura, A.; Rottgering, H.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Santos, J. S.; Stern, D.; Stevens, J.; Valtchanov, I.; Vernet, J.; Wylezalek, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the infrared spectral energy distribution of the high-redshift radio galaxy MRC 1138-26 at z = 2.156, also known as the Spiderweb Galaxy. By combining photometry from Spitzer, Herschel, and LABOCA we fit the rest-frame 5-300 mu m emission using a two-component,

  8. Preoperative evaluation of synchronous colorectal cancer using MR colonography

    Achiam, Michael P; Holst Andersen, Lars P; Klein, Mads

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: It is well known that synchronous cancers (incidence, 2%-11%) and polyps (incidence, 12%-58%) occur in patients with colorectal cancer. Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) seems like the obvious choice as a diagnostic tool in preoperative evaluation, because...... a full conventional colonoscopy or in whom full conventional colonoscopy was not possible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 13-month period, 47 patients diagnosed with rectal or sigmoid colon cancer scheduled for operation were included in the study. MRC was performed with bowel purgation either the night...... before surgery or as ambulatory MRC the week before surgery. RESULTS: Full MRC was performed in 98% of the patients. In four patients, 12 synchronous lesions (one cancer, two plaques of carcinosis, and nine adenomas) were found. One flat adenoma and five small polyps were missed by MRC and perioperative...

  9. [The role of magnetic resonance imaging to select patients for preoperative treatment in rectal cancer].

    Rödel, Claus; Sauer, Rolf; Fietkau, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, the decision to apply preoperative treatment for rectal cancer patients has been based on the T- and N-category. Recently, the radial distance of the tumor to the circumferential resection margin (CRM) has been identified as an important risk factor for local failure. By magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) this distance can be measured preoperatively with high reliability. Thus, selected groups have started to limit the indication for preoperative therapy to tumors extending to - or growing within 1 mm from - the mesorectal fascia (CRM+). Pros and cons of this selected approach for preoperative treatment and first clinical results are presented. Prerequisites are the availability of modern high-resolution thin-section MRI technology as well as strict quality control of MRI and surgical quality of total mesorectal excision (TME). By selecting patients with CRM-positive tumors on MRI for preoperative therapy, only approximately 35% patients will require preoperative radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). However, with histopathologic work-up of the resected specimen after primary surgery, the indication for postoperative RCT is given for a rather large percentage of patients, i.e., for pCRM+ (5-10%), intramesorectal or intramural excision (30-40%), pN+ (30-40%). Postoperative RCT, however, is significantly less effective and more toxic than preoperative RCT. A further point of concern is the assertion that patients, in whom a CRM-negative status is achieved by surgery alone, do not benefit from additional RT. Data of the Dutch TME trial and the British MRC (Medical Research Council) CR07 trial, however, suggest the reverse. To omit preoperative RT/RCT for CRM-negative tumors on MRI needs to be further investigated in prospective clinical trials. The German guidelines for the treatment of colorectal cancer 2008 continue to indicate preoperative RT/RCT based on the T- and N-category.

  10. The role of magnetic resonance imaging to select patients for preoperative treatment in rectal cancer

    Roedel, Claus; Sauer, Rolf; Fietkau, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, the decision to apply preoperative treatment for rectal cancer patients has been based on the T- and N-category. Recently, the radial distance of the tumor to the circumferential resection margin (CRM) has been identified as an important risk factor for local failure. By magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) this distance can be measured preoperatively with high reliability. Thus, selected groups have started to limit the indication for preoperative therapy to tumors extending to - or growing within 1 mm from - the mesorectal fascia (CRM+). Methods: Pros and cons of this selected approach for preoperative treatment and first clinical results are presented. Prerequisites are the availability of modern high-resolution thin-section MRI technology as well as strict quality control of MRI and surgical quality of total mesorectal excision (TME). Results: By selecting patients with CRM-positive tumors on MRI for preoperative therapy, only approximately 35% patients will require preoperative radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). However, with histopathologic work-up of the resected specimen after primary surgery, the indication for postoperative RCT is given for a rather large percentage of patients, i.e., for pCRM+ (5-10%), intramesorectal or intramural excision (30-40%), pN+ (30-40%). Postoperative RCT, however, is significantly less effective and more toxic than preoperative RCT. A further point of concern is the assertion that patients, in whom a CRM-negative status is achieved by surgery alone, do not benefit from additional RT. Data of the Dutch TME trial and the British MRC (Medical Research Council) CR07 trial, however, suggest the reverse. Conclusion: To omit preoperative RT/RCT for CRM-negative tumors on MRI needs to be further investigated in prospective clinical trials. The German guidelines for the treatment of colorectal cancer 2008 continue to indicate preoperative RT/RCT based on the T- and N-category. (orig.)

  11. Outage and ser performance of spectrum sharing system with TAS/MRC

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Capacity of the secondary network degrades due to the interference constraint from the primary network. The secondary network capacity can be enhanced by means of spatial diversity, that can be achieved by adding multiple antennas on the terminals. In this paper, the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) secondary link with transmit antenna selection (TAS) at the transmitter and maximum ratio combining (MRC) at the receiver is analysed. A peak transmit power constraint is considered in addition to the interference power constraint. For a Rayleigh faded channel, closed-form expression for the outage probability of a MIMO cognitive system (MIMO-CS) with TAS/MRC is derived. In addition, closed-form expressions of the moment generating function and the symbol error rate are also obtained. The performance of this system is analyzed for asymptotic regimes and it is shown that TAS/MRC in a MIMO-CS achieves a generalized diversity order of nTnR, where nT and nR are the number of transmit and receive antennas, respectively. Numerical results are also presented to corroborate the derived analytical results. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Comparative cytotoxicity study of nicotine and cotinine on MRC-5 cell line

    Ana-Maria Vlasceanu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine has several health hazards regarding carcinogenic potential. It also imparts increased risk for respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the carcinogenic potential, including effects on cell proliferation, inducing oxidative stress, DNA mutation, or inhibition of apoptosis. The cotinine metabolite is generally thought to have effects similar to nicotine in some experimental systems. The purpose of this study was to assess the nicotine and cotinine cytotoxicity on MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. The pulmonary fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of nicotine or cotinine (in the range 1 µM – 2 mM for 24 or 48 h and analyzed for cell viability by MTT test. The results indicated that high nicotine concentrations (2 mM induced marked cell death (about 50% in MRC-5 cell line. Cotinine showed lower toxicity than nicotine on the MRC-5 cells. In contrast to nicotine treatment, cells treated with cotinine continued to proliferate after the 48h incubation period.

  13. Transmit selection algorithms for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in the presence of co-channel interference

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    The performance of transmit antenna selection for threshold-based maximal ratio combining (MRC) diversity receivers in the presence of multiple co-channel interfering signals is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation of desired user

  14. The subunits of the S-phase checkpoint complex Mrc1/Tof1/Csm3: dynamics and interdependence.

    Uzunova, Sonya Dimitrova; Zarkov, Alexander Stefanov; Ivanova, Anna Marianova; Stoynov, Stoyno Stefanov; Nedelcheva-Veleva, Marina Nedelcheva

    2014-01-01

    The S-phase checkpoint aims to prevent cells from generation of extensive single-stranded DNA that predisposes to genome instability. The S. cerevisiae complex Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 acts to restrain the replicative MCM helicase when DNA synthesis is prohibited. Keeping the replication machinery intact allows restart of the replication fork when the block is relieved. Although the subunits of the Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 complex are well studied, the impact of every single subunit on the triple complex formation and function needs to be established. This work studies the cellular localization and the chromatin binding of GFP-tagged subunits when the complex is intact and when a subunit is missing. We demonstrate that the complex is formed in cell nucleus, not the cytoplasm, as Tof1, Csm3 and Mrc1 enter the nucleus independently from one another. Via in situ chromatin binding assay we show that a Tof1-Csm3 dimer formation and chromatin binding is required to ensure the attachment of Mrc1 to chromatin. Our study indicates that the translocation into the nucleus is not the process to regulate the timing of chromatin association of Mrc1. We also studied the nuclear behavior of Mrc1 subunit in the process of adaptation to the presence hydroxyurea. Our results indicate that after prolonged HU incubation, cells bypass the S-phase checkpoint and proceed throughout the cell cycle. This process is accompanied by Mrc1 chromatin detachment and Rad53 dephosphorylation. In S. cerevisiae the subunits of the S-phase checkpoint complex Mrc1/Tof1/Csm3 independently enter the cell nucleus, where a Tof1-Csm3 dimer is formed to ensure the chromatin binding of Mrc1 and favor DNA replication and S-phase checkpoint fork arrest. In the process of adaptation to the presence of hydroxyurea Mrc1 is detached from chromatin and Rad53 checkpoint activity is diminished in order to allow S-phase checkpoint escape and completion of the cell cycle.

  15. Assessing the survival of MRC5 and a549 cell lines upon exposure to pyruvic Acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate - biomed 2013.

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Lewis, Veshell L; Ayensu, Wellington K; Cameron, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers in United States. In general, cancer cells are known to exhibit higher rates of glycolysis in comparison to normal cells. In attempting to exploit this unique cancer-dependent ATP generation phenomenon, it was our hypothesis that upon exposure to organic inhibitors of glycolysis, cancer cells would not survive normally and that their growth and viability would be vastly decreased; essential glycolytic ATP production will be exhausted to the point of collapsing energy utilization. Furthermore, we hypothesize that no negative effect would be seen with exposures to organic inhibitors for normal lung cells. The human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell lines were used as in vitro models of normal lung and lung cancers respectively. Using standard methods, both cell lines were maintained and exposed to pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate reagents at concentration levels ranging from 31.3-2,000 µg/ml in 96 well plates in quadruplets and experiments repeated at least three times using MTT, and cell counting (T4 Cellometer) assays as well as phase-contrast photo-imaging for parallel morphological displays of any changes in the course of their vitality and metabolic activities. Our results indicate that exposure of both cell lines to these organics resulted in concentration dependent cell destruction/cell survival depending on the cell line exposed. Pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate showed statistically significant (pcancer biotherapeutics.

  16. Performance Analysis of a Power Limited Spectrum Sharing System with TAS/MRC

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    Capacity of the cognitive radio network degrades due to the interference constraint from the primary network. The secondary network capacity can be enhanced in a cost effective way by means of spatial diversity, that can be achieved by adding multiple antennas on the secondary network terminals and performing antenna selection. In this paper, the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) secondary link with transmit antenna selection (TAS) at the transmitter and maximum ratio combining (MRC) at the receiver is analyzed. A peak transmit power constraint at the secondary transmitter is considered in addition to the interference power constraint and two scenarios are considered; 1) the MIMO cognitive system with TAS/MRC (MCS-TM) does not experience interference from the primary network (denote by MCS-TM-NI), and 2) MCS-TM does experience interference from the primary network (denote by MCS-TM-WI). The performance of both MCS-TM-NI and MCS-TM-WI is analyzed and, for a Rayleigh faded channel, closed-form expression for the outage probability is derived. In addition, closed-form expressions of the moment generating function, the symbol error rate and the ergodic capacity are obtained for the MCS-TM-NI. Asymptotic performance analysis of the MCS-TM-NI reveals that TAS/MRC in a MIMO cognitive system achieves a generalized diversity gain equal to the product of the number of transmit and receive antennas. Numerical results are also presented to corroborate the derived analytical results. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

  17. Galactic interaction as the trigger for the young radio galaxy MRC B1221-423

    Anderson, Craig; Johnston, Helen; Hunstead, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Mergers between a massive galaxy and a small gas-rich companion (minor mergers) have been proposed as a viable mechanism for triggering radio emission in an active galaxy. Until now the problem has been catching this sequence of events as they occur. With MRC B1221$-$423 we have an active radio galaxy that has only recently been triggered, and a companion galaxy that provides the "smoking gun". Using spectroscopic data taken with the VIMOS Integral Field Unit detector on the European Southern...

  18. The Replisome-Coupled E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rtt101Mms22 Counteracts Mrc1 Function to Tolerate Genotoxic Stress.

    Raymond Buser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Faithful DNA replication and repair requires the activity of cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL4, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The budding yeast Cul4 homologue, Rtt101, in complex with the linker Mms1 and the putative substrate adaptor Mms22 promotes progression of replication forks through damaged DNA. Here we characterized the interactome of Mms22 and found that the Rtt101(Mms22 ligase associates with the replisome progression complex during S-phase via the amino-terminal WD40 domain of Ctf4. Moreover, genetic screening for suppressors of the genotoxic sensitivity of rtt101Δ cells identified a cluster of replication proteins, among them a component of the fork protection complex, Mrc1. In contrast to rtt101Δ and mms22Δ cells, mrc1Δ rtt101Δ and mrc1Δ mms22Δ double mutants complete DNA replication upon replication stress by facilitating the repair/restart of stalled replication forks using a Rad52-dependent mechanism. Our results suggest that the Rtt101(Mms22 E3 ligase does not induce Mrc1 degradation, but specifically counteracts Mrc1's replicative function, possibly by modulating its interaction with the CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS complex at stalled forks.

  19. Protein oxidation and degradation during proliferative senescence of human MRC-5 fibroblasts.

    Sitte, N; Merker, K; von Zglinicki, T; Grune, T

    2000-03-01

    One of the highlights of age-related changes of cellular metabolism is the accumulation of oxidized proteins. The aging process on a cellular level can be treated either as the ongoing proliferation until a certain number of cell divisions is reached (the Hayflick limit) or as the aging of nondividing cells, that is, the age-related changes in cells without proliferation. The present investigation was undertaken to reveal the changes in protein turnover, proteasome activity, and protein oxidation status during proliferative senescence. We were able to demonstrate that the activity of the cytosolic proteasomal system declines dramatically during the proliferative senescence of human MRC-5 fibroblasts. Regardless of the loss in activity, it could be demonstrated that there are no changes in the transcription and translation of proteasomal subunits. This decline in proteasome activity was accompanied by an increased concentration of oxidized proteins. Cells at higher proliferation stages were no longer able to respond with increased degradation of endogenous [(35)S]-Met-radiolabeled proteins after hydrogen peroxide- or quinone-induced oxidative stress. It could be demonstrated that oxidized proteins in senescent human MRC-5 fibroblasts are not as quickly removed as they are in young cells. Therefore, our study demonstrates that the accumulation of oxidized proteins and decline in protein turnover and activity of the proteasomal system are not only a process of postmitotic aging but also occur during proliferative senescence and result in an increased half-life of oxidized proteins.

  20. Silica Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and Autophagy but Not Apoptosis in the MRC-5 Cell Line

    Sorina Nicoleta Petrache Voicu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro effects of 62.5 µg/mL silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs on MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells for 24, 48 and 72 h. The nanoparticles’ morphology, composition, and structure were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. Our study showed a decreased cell viability and the induction of cellular oxidative stress as evidenced by an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, carbonyl groups, and advanced oxidation protein products after 24, 48, and 72 h, as well as a decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH and protein sulfhydryl groups. The protein expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, and Hsp90 decreased at all time intervals, while the level of protein Hsp70 remained unchanged during the exposure. Similarly, the expression of p53, MDM2 and Bcl-2 was significantly decreased for all time intervals, while the expression of Bax, a marker for apoptosis, was insignificantly downregulated. These results correlated with the increase of pro-caspase 3 expression. The role of autophagy in cellular response to SiO2 NPs was demonstrated by a fluorescence-labeled method and by an increased level of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Taken together, our data suggested that SiO2 NPs induced ROS-mediated autophagy in MRC-5 cells as a possible mechanism of cell survival.

  1. The presence of pMRC01 promotes greater cell permeability and autolysis in lactococcal starter cultures.

    Fallico, Vincenzo; McAuliffe, Olivia; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2009-08-15

    Conjugative transfer of plasmid-associated properties is routinely used to generate food-grade derivatives of lactococcal starter strains with improved technological traits. However, the introduction of one or more plasmids in a single strain is likely to impose a burden on regular cell metabolism and may affect the growth characteristics of the transconjugant culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 60.2-kb plasmid pMRC01 (encoding for an abortive infection bacteriophage resistance system and production of the anti-microbial, lacticin 3147) on starter performance. Five lactococcal strains (L. lactis HP, 255A, SK1, 712 and IL1403) and their pMRC01-containing derivatives were compared in terms of technological properties, including analysis of growth, acidification and autolysis rates. The transconjugants exhibited lower specific growth rates and higher generation times compared to the parental strains when grown at 30 degrees C in glucose-M17, but the presence of pMRC01 did not significantly affect the acidification capacity of strains in 11% reconstituted skimmed milk and synthetic media. Levels of lactate dehydrogenase were two-fold higher in supernatants of transconjugants than in those of parental strains, after 24 and 72 h of growth at 30 degrees C in glucose-M17, suggesting that the presence of pMRC01 somehow accelerates and promotes cellular autolysis. Analysis by flow cytometry following live/dead staining confirmed this result by showing larger populations of injured and dead cells in pMRC01-carrying cultures compared to the parental strains. The results of this study reveal that the plasmid pMRC01 places a burden on lactococcal host metabolism, which is associated with an increased cell permeability and autolysis, without significantly affecting the acidification capacity of the starter. While the magnitude of these effects appears to be strain dependent, the production of the bacteriocin lacticin 3147 may not be involved.

  2. Transmit selection for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in Rayleigh fading channels

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    The performance of multiple-antenna diversity systems in which the receiver combines signal replicas per thresholdbased maximal ratio combining (MRC) and the transmitter uses only a single antenna according to receive combined signal strength is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation is considered when the received signal replicas undergo independent and flat multipath fading. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection when the multiple-antenna channels experience identically distributed and non-identically distributed Rayleigh fading conditions. New closed-form expressions for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are presented. The system models adopted herein and the presented analytical results can be used to study the performance of different system architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. © 2009 IEEE.

  3. Differential diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis and periductal infiltrating cancer in the common bile duct at dynamic CT, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and MR cholangiography

    Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, So Jung; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Moon-Gyu [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asanbyeongwon-gil 86, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Hwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Asanbyeongwon-gil 86, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Asanbyeongwon-gil 86, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare findings at dynamic computed tomography (CT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in patients with sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis (SC-AIP) and periductal infiltrating cancer in the common bile duct (CBD), and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ERC and MRC in differentiating between the two diseases. Bile duct changes at dynamic CT, ERC and MRC were compared in 58 patients with SC-AIP and CBD involvement and 93 patients with periductal infiltrating CBD cancer. Two radiologists rated their confidence in differentiating between the two diseases and the diagnostic performances of ERC and MRC were compared. At CT, SC-AIP was more frequently associated with intrapancreatic CBD involvement, thinner CBD walls, concentric wall thickening, smooth outer margins, and lower degrees of upstream ductal dilatation and contrast enhancement (P {<=} 0.05) than CBD cancer. At ERC and MRC, SC-AIP was more frequently associated with smooth margins, gradual and symmetric narrowing, multifocal involvement and hourglass appearance (P {<=} 0.027) than CBD cancer. MRC showed good diagnostic performance comparable to ERC. Dynamic CT, ERC and MRC can be helpful in distinguishing SC-AIP from periductal infiltrating CBD cancer. MRC may be a useful diagnostic alternative to ERC in differentiating between the two diseases. (orig.)

  4. Differential diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis and periductal infiltrating cancer in the common bile duct at dynamic CT, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and MR cholangiography

    Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, So Jung; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Moon-Gyu; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Jihun

    2012-01-01

    To compare findings at dynamic computed tomography (CT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in patients with sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis (SC-AIP) and periductal infiltrating cancer in the common bile duct (CBD), and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ERC and MRC in differentiating between the two diseases. Bile duct changes at dynamic CT, ERC and MRC were compared in 58 patients with SC-AIP and CBD involvement and 93 patients with periductal infiltrating CBD cancer. Two radiologists rated their confidence in differentiating between the two diseases and the diagnostic performances of ERC and MRC were compared. At CT, SC-AIP was more frequently associated with intrapancreatic CBD involvement, thinner CBD walls, concentric wall thickening, smooth outer margins, and lower degrees of upstream ductal dilatation and contrast enhancement (P ≤ 0.05) than CBD cancer. At ERC and MRC, SC-AIP was more frequently associated with smooth margins, gradual and symmetric narrowing, multifocal involvement and hourglass appearance (P ≤ 0.027) than CBD cancer. MRC showed good diagnostic performance comparable to ERC. Dynamic CT, ERC and MRC can be helpful in distinguishing SC-AIP from periductal infiltrating CBD cancer. MRC may be a useful diagnostic alternative to ERC in differentiating between the two diseases. (orig.)

  5. Attrition and bias in the MRC cognitive function and ageing study: an epidemiological investigation

    Matthews Fiona E

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Any hypothesis in longitudinal studies may be affected by attrition and poor response rates. The MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing study (MRC CFAS is a population based longitudinal study in five centres with identical methodology in England and Wales each recruiting approximately 2,500 individuals. This paper aims to identify potential biases in the two-year follow-up interviews. Methods Initial non-response: Those not in the baseline interviews were compared in terms of mortality to those who were in the baseline interviews at the time of the second wave interviews (1993–1996. Longitudinal attrition: Logistic regression analysis was used to examine baseline differences between individuals who took part in the two-year longitudinal wave compared with those who did not. Results Initial non-response: Individuals who moved away after sampling but before baseline interview were 1.8 times more likely to die by two years (95% Confidence interval(CI 1.3–2.4 compared to respondents, after adjusting for age. The refusers had a slightly higher, but similar mortality pattern to responders (Odds ratio 1.2, 95%CI 1.1–1.4. Longitudinal attrition: Predictors for drop out due to death were being older, male, having impaired activities of daily living, poor self-perceived health, poor cognitive ability and smoking. Similarly individuals who refused were more likely to have poor cognitive ability, but had less years of full-time education and were more often living in their own home though less likely to be living alone. There was a higher refusal rate in the rural centres. Individuals who moved away or were uncontactable were more likely to be single, smokers, demented or depressed and were less likely to have moved if in warden-controlled accommodation at baseline. Conclusions Longitudinal estimation of factors mentioned above could be biased, particularly cognitive ability and estimates of movements from own home to residential homes

  6. Inflammation is associated with a worsening of presbycusis: evidence from the MRC national study of hearing.

    Verschuur, Carl; Agyemang-Prempeh, Akosua; Newman, Tracey A

    2014-07-01

    Inflammaging, a state of chronic inflammation in the elderly, is now thought to be a key element of the ageing process and contributor to age-related disease. In a previously published study, we identified a significant association between inflammation levels and severity of presbycusis among individuals aged 63 to 73 ('younger old") within an available audiometric range 0.5 to 4 kHz. Our aim was to see if this association would be identified among participants in the MRC national study of hearing, and whether the strength of the association would increase with greater age, or for very low or very high audiometric frequencies. Cross-sectional analysis of cohort data. Three hundred and sixty community-dwelling adults age 60 years and over, representing all those with white blood cell count and audiometric data available. A significant independent association between (higher) WBC and (worse) hearing level was identified. This effect increased with age. The strongest association was among those over 75, for whom average hearing threshold levels among those with lower WBC was 17 dB better than those with higher WBC. The current findings support an association between inflammaging (a condition potentially amenable to pharmacological treatment or lifestyle management) and presbycusis.

  7. Epidemiology of cancer in young persons in West Cumbria

    Snee, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    A brief report is given of a lecture by Professor Gardner of the MRC in which some of the epidemiological evidence of cancer in young persons in the vicinity of the Sellafield site was reviewed. The studies that the MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit at Southampton were currently undertaking in relation to Recommendations 1,2 and 3 of the Black Committee 1984 Report were also outlined. Some of the questions put to Professor Gardner after his lecture are briefly discussed. (UK)

  8. Radiation in MRC supported research in the 1950s and 1960s. Report of a committee inquiry

    1998-01-01

    On 6 July 1995, a television documentary entitled 'Deadly Experiments' was broadcast on Channel 4 as part of the 'True Stories' series. The programme, produced by Twenty-Twenty Television, featured a number of research projects conducted between 1950 and 1970 in which either measurements were made of the amount of radiation absorbed by, or radioactive substances were administered to, human subjects in the UK and USA. The level of public concern generated by the broadcast and the implication of unethical practices in the conduct of some of the research sponsored by the MRC, has acted as the trigger for the MRC to establish this independent Committee of Inquiry. Its remit has been to clarify the facts surrounding the research and to examine issues of 'acceptability and consent in the context of the scientific and ethical standards of the period in, which the research was carried out. The following studies featured in the programme were funded by the MRC. The study measuring levels of Strontium 90 uptake, in which samples of bone were taken at autopsy (the programme featured a case in North Wales where the femora were removed from a deceased infant). The work carried out at University College London and reported in 1952 and 1958, in which radioiodine was administered to women in order to measure thyroid function throughout the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. The work carried out at the Hammersmith Hospital, London, in 1953, in which radioactive sodium was used to measure maternal placental blood flow in normal and hypertensive women. The studies at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, which investigated iodine metabolism and maternal thyroid function during pregnancy, and the development of the human fetal thyroid. The Coventry study in which women from the Asian community were asked to consume specially prepared chapattis in order to measure levels of iron absorption, with a view to investigating the problem of anaemia

  9. The effect of prepartum antibiotics on the type of neonatal bacteraemia: insights from the MRC ORACLE trials.

    Gilbert, R E; Pike, K; Kenyon, S L; Tarnow-Mordi, W; Taylor, D J

    2005-06-01

    We analysed the type of bacteraemia before discharge from Neonatal Intensive Care Units in babies born to women randomised to the MRC ORACLE Trials. There was no evidence for an effect of oral antibiotics given prior to delivery on bacteraemia due to gram negative or enterococci bacteria, but Group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteraemia was significantly reduced in women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes (1.58% to 0.55%, relative risk 0.34; 95% CI: 0.17-0.70). There was no detectable effect in women in spontaneous preterm labour with intact membranes as the risk of GBS bacteraemia in their babies was very small regardless of treatment.

  10. Numerical study of flow, combustion and emissions characteristics in a 625 MWe tangentially fired boiler with composition of coal 70% LRC and 30% MRC

    Sa'adiyah, Devy; Bangga, Galih; Widodo, Wawan; Ikhwan, Nur

    2017-08-01

    Tangential fired boiler is one of the methods that can produce more complete combustion. This method applied in Suralaya Power Plant, Indonesia. However, the boiler where supposed to use low rank coal (LRC), but at a given time must be mixed with medium rank coal (MRC) from another unit because of lack of LRC coal. Accordingly to the situation, the study about choosing the right position of LRC and MRC in the burner elevation must be investigated. The composition of coal is 70%LRC / 30%MRC where MRC will be placed at the lower (A & C - Case I)) or higher (E & G - Case II) elevation as the cases in this study. The study is carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The simulation with original case (100%LRC) has a good agreement with the measurement data. As the results, MRC is more recommended at the burner elevation A & C rather than burner elevation E & G because it has closer temperature (880 K) compared with 100%LRC and has smaller local heating area between upper side wall and front wall with the range of temperature 1900 - 2000 K. For emissions, case I has smaller NOx and higher CO2 with 104 ppm and 15,6%. Moreover, it has samller O2 residue with 5,8% due to more complete combustion.

  11. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce bystander factors and induce radiation bystander effect

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation damages initiated by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE are not limited to the first or immediate neighbors of the irradiated cells, but the effects have been observed in the cells far from the irradiation site. It has been postulated that bystander cells, by producing bystander factors, are actively involved in the propagation of bystander effect in the regions beyond the initial irradiated site. Current study was planned to test the hypothesis. MRC5 and QU-DB cell lines were irradiated, and successive medium transfer technique was performed to induce bystander effects in two bystander cell groups. Conditioned medium extracted from the target cells was transferred to the bystander cells (first bystander cells. After one hour, conditioned medium was substituted by fresh medium. Two hours later, the fresh medium was transferred to a second group of non-irradiated cells (second bystander cells. Micronucleated cells (MC were counted to quantify damages induced in the first and second bystander cell groups. Radiation effect was observed in the second bystander cells as well as in the first ones. Statistical analyses revealed that the number of MC in second bystander subgroups was significantly more than the corresponding value observed in control groups, but in most cases it was equal to the number of MC observed in the first bystander cells. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce and release bystander signals in the culture medium and affect non-irradiated cells. Therefore, they may contribute to the RIBE propagation.

  12. Modification of an x-ray diffraction unit to comply with the NH and MRC code of practice

    Ibbetson, V.J.; Young, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray analysis units are commonly used in research and industrial laboratories throughout Australia. Despite a well-established Code of Practice and working protocols for the safe use of such units, there are all too many stories of users by-passing safety features significantly increasing the risk of accidental exposure to the primary X-ray beam. Since the output of such units may be as high as 300 Gy x s 1 , such accidental exposures could have very serious consequences. Australian Radiation Services Pty Ltd undertook a compliance audit of an X-ray diffraction unit with respect to the NH and MRC Code of Practice for protection against ionising radiation emitted from X-ray analysis equipment. This paper discusses the findings from the initial inspection and the modifications recommended for the XRD unit to ensure compliance with the Code, without unnecessarily restricting its use. Copyright (2004) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  13. Transmit selection algorithms for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in the presence of co-channel interference

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    The performance of transmit antenna selection for threshold-based maximal ratio combining (MRC) diversity receivers in the presence of multiple co-channel interfering signals is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation of desired user signals is considered, and the effect of phase and time misalignments between desired and undesired signals is incorporated in the analysis. Precise formulation for Nakagami-m faded interfering signals is presented. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection, which is based on the receiver combined signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) or combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs) for different transmit channels. New expressions for the distribution of combined SINR and outage probability performance are derived considering SNR-based as well as SINR-based selection algorithms. The results can be used to study the performance of different system architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. ©2010 IEEE.

  14. Biopsy proportion of tumour predicts pathological tumour response and benefit from chemotherapy in resectable oesophageal carcinoma: results from the UK MRC OE02 trial.

    Hale, Matthew D; Nankivell, Matthew; Hutchins, Gordon G; Stenning, Sally P; Langley, Ruth E; Mueller, Wolfram; West, Nicholas P; Wright, Alexander I; Treanor, Darren; Hewitt, Lindsay C; Allum, William H; Cunningham, David; Hayden, Jeremy D; Grabsch, Heike I

    2016-11-22

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard of care for UK patients with locally advanced resectable oesophageal carcinoma (OeC). However, not all patients benefit from multimodal treatment and there is a clinical need for biomarkers which can identify chemotherapy responders. This study investigated whether the proportion of tumour cells per tumour area (PoT) measured in the pre-treatment biopsy predicts chemotherapy benefit for OeC patients. PoT was quantified using digitized haematoxylin/eosin stained pre-treatment biopsy slides from 281 OeC patients from the UK MRC OE02 trial (141 treated by surgery alone (S); 140 treated by 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin followed by surgery (CS)). The relationship between PoT and clinicopathological data including tumour regression grade (TRG), overall survival and treatment interaction was investigated. PoT was associated with chemotherapy benefit in a non-linear fashion (test for interaction, P=0.006). Only patients with a biopsy PoT between 40% and 70% received a significant survival benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy (N=129; HR (95%CI):1.94 (1.39-2.71), unlike those with lower or higher PoT (PoT70% (N=28, HR:0.65 (0.36-1.18)). High pre-treatment PoT was related to lack of primary tumour regression (TRG 4 or 5), P=0.0402. This is the first study to identify in a representative subgroup of OeC patients from a large randomized phase III trial that the proportion of tumour in the pre-chemotherapy biopsy predicts benefit from chemotherapy and may be a clinically useful biomarker for patient treatment stratification.Proportion of tumour is a novel biomarker which can be measured in the pre-treatment diagnostic biopsy and which may enable the identification of chemotherapy responders and non-responders among patients with oesophageal carcinoma. Proportion of tumour could easily become part of the routine reporting of oesophageal cancer biopsies and may aid in managing patients with borderline resectable cancer.

  15. Magnetic resonance colonography versus colonoscopy as a diagnostic investigation for colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    Purkayastha, S.; Tekkis, P.P.; Athanasiou, T.; Aziz, O.; Negus, R.; Gedroyc, W.; Darzi, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) is emerging as a potential complementary investigation for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and also for benign pathology such as diverticular disease. A meta-analysis reporting the use of MRC is yet to be performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRC compared with the gold-standard investigation, conventional colonoscopy (CC). METHODS: A literature search was carried out to identify studies containing comparative data between MRC findings and CC findings. Quantitative meta-analysis for diagnostic tests was performed, which included the calculation of independent sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic odds ratios, the construction of summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves, pooled analysis and sensitivity analysis. The study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q-test using a random-effect model to accommodate the cluster of outcomes between individual studies. RESULTS: In all, 8 comparative studies were identified, involving 563 patients. The calculated pooled sensitivity for all lesions was 75% (95% CI: 47% to 91%), the specificity was 96% (95% CI: 86% to 98%) and the area under the ROC curve was 90% (weighted). On sensitivity analysis, MRC had a better diagnostic accuracy for CRC than for polyps, with a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI: 97% to 91%), a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 66% to 99%) and an area under the ROC curve of 92%. There was no significant heterogeneity between the studies with regard to the diagnostic accuracy of MRC for CRC. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that MRC is an imaging technique with high discrimination for cases presenting with colorectal cancer. The exact diagnostic role of MRC needs to be clarified (e.g. suitable for an elderly person with suspected CRC). Further evaluation is necessary to refine its applicability and diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other imaging methods such as computed tomography colonography

  16. The Apoptotic Effects of the P300 Activator on Breast Cancer and Lung Fibroblast Cell Lines

    Mohammad Reza Salahshoor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: P300 is an enzyme that acetylates histones during stress. It alsoacetylates several non-histone proteins, including P53 which is the most important tumorsuppressor gene. P53 plays an important role in the apoptosis of tumor cells. Hereby,this study describes the potency of cholera toxin B subunit as a P300 activator to induceapoptosis in a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and a lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5as a non-tumorigenic control sample. Methods: MCF-7 and MRC-5 were cultured in RPMI-1640 and treated with orwithout cholera toxin B subunit at the concentration of 85.43 μmol/L, based on the half-maximal inhibitory concentration index at different times (24, 48 and 72 h. Thepercentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Real-time quantitativeRT-PCR was performed to estimate the mRNA expression of P300 in MCF-7 and MRC-5 with cholera toxin B subunit at different times. We used the ELISA and Bradford proteintechniques to detect levels of total and acetylated P53 protein generated in MCF-7 andMRC-5. Results: Our findings indicated that the cholera toxin B subunit effectively andsignificantly induced more apoptosis in MCF-7 compared to MRC-5. We showed thatexpression of P300 up-regulated by increasing the time of the cholera toxin B subunittreatment in MCF-7 but not in MRC-5. In addition, the acetylated and total P53protein levels increased more in MCF-7 cells than in MRC-5 cells.Conclusion: Cholera toxin B subunit induced significant cell death in MCF-7, butit could be well tolerated in MRC-5. Therefore, cholera toxin B subunit can besuggested as an anti-cancer agent.

  17. MRC chronic Dyspnea Scale: Relationships with cardiopulmonary exercise testing and 6-minute walk test in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients: a prospective study

    Roussos Charis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exertional dyspnea is the most prominent and disabling feature in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The Medical Research Chronic (MRC chronic dyspnea score as well as physiological measurements obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT are shown to provide information on the severity and survival of disease. Methods We prospectively recruited IPF patients and examined the relationship between the MRC score and either CPET or 6MWT parameters known to reflect physiologic derangements limiting exercise capacity in IPF patients Results Twenty-five patients with IPF were included in the study. Significant correlations were found between the MRC score and the distance (r = -.781, p 2 at the initiation and the end (r = -.542, p = 0.005 and r = -.713, p VO2 peak/kg (r = -.731, p 2 at peak exercise (r = -. 682, p 2 slope (r = .731, p 2 at AT (r = .630, p = 0.002 and the Borg scale at peak exercise (r = .50, p = 0.01 for the CPET. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the only variable independently related to the MRC is the distance walked at the 6MWT. Conclusion In this population of IPF patients a good correlation was found between the MRC chronic dyspnoea score and physiological parameters obtained during maximal and submaximal exercise testing known to reflect ventilatory impairment and exercise limitation as well as disease severity and survival. This finding is described for the first time in the literature in this group of patients as far as we know and could explain why a simple chronic dyspnea score provides reliable prognostic information on IPF.

  18. 1-Methyl-tryptophan attenuates regulatory T cells differentiation due to the inhibition of estrogen-IDO1-MRC2 axis in endometriosis.

    Wei, Chunyan; Mei, Jie; Tang, Lingli; Liu, Yukai; Li, Dajin; Li, Mingqing; Zhu, Xiaoyong

    2016-12-01

    Foxp3 + regulatory T (T reg ) cells contribute to the local dysfunctional immune environment in endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, which affects the function of ectopic endometrial tissue clearance by the immune system. The reason for the high percentage of peritoneal T reg in endometriosis patients is unknown. Here, we show that the proportion of peritoneal T reg cells increases as endometriosis progresses. To determine the probable mechanism, we established a naive T cell-macrophage-endometrial stromal cell (ESC) co-culture system to mimic the peritoneal cavity microenvironment. After adding 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), a specific inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), to the co-culture system, we found that the differentiation of T reg cells, mainly IL-10 + T reg cells, decreased. Therefore, 1-MT-pretreated ESCs-educated T reg cells performed impaired suppressive function. Moreover, estrogen promoted the differentiation of T reg cells by elevating IDO1 expression in the ectopic lesion. Subsequently, we examined mannose receptor C, type 2 (MRC2), which is an up-stream molecule of IL-10, by bioinformatics analysis and real-time PCR validation. MRC2 expression in ectopic ESCs was notably lower than that in normal ESCs, which further negatively regulated the expression of IDO1 and Ki-67 in ESCs. Furthermore, MRC2 is required for T reg differentiation in the ectopic lesion, especially that for CD4 high T reg . Therefore, MRC2-silenced ESCs-educated T reg manifested a stronger suppressive function in vitro. Consistently, the percentage of T reg increased when MRC2-shRNA was administered in the peritoneal cavity of endometriosis-disease mice model. Besides, 1-MT improved the condition of endometriosis, in terms of reducing the number and weight of total ectopic lesions in vivo. These results indicate that the estrogen-IDO1-MRC2 axis participates in the differentiation and function of T reg and is involved in the development of

  19. On the performance of arbitrary transmit selection for threshold-based receive MRC with and without co-channel interference

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-11-01

    The performance of multiple-antenna diversity systems in which the receiver combines signal replicas per threshold-based maximal ratio combining (MRC) and transmitter uses only a single antenna according to receive combined signal strength is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation and the effect of phase and time misalignments between desired and undesired signals are implicitly investigated. It is assumed that the desired signal replicas and interfering signals undergo statistically independent flat Rayleigh fading. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection, based either on receive combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or receive combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). For the scenario of identical multiple-antenna channels, closed-form analytical results for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are first presented. The SNR-based and SINR-based selection algorithms are then employed to obtain expressions for the distribution of combined SINR and outage probability performance, which are applicable for different statistical models of interfering signals. The adopted system models herein as well as the analytical development add enhancements on many existing results, and can be used to study the performance of different architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Performance of Overlaid MIMO Cellular Networks with TAS/MRC under Hybrid-Access Small Cells and Poisson Field Interference

    AbdelNabi, Amr A.

    2018-02-12

    This paper presents new approaches to characterize the achieved performance of hybrid control-access small cells in the context of two-tier multi-input multi-output (MIMO) cellular networks with random interference distributions. The hybrid scheme at small cells (such as femtocells) allows for sharing radio resources between the two network tiers according to the densities of small cells and their associated users, as well as the observed interference power levels in the two network tiers. The analysis considers MIMO transceivers at all nodes, for which antenna arrays can be utilized to implement transmit antenna selection (TAS) and receive maximal ratio combining (MRC) under MIMO point-to-point channels. Moreover, it tar-gets network-level models of interference sources inside each tier and between the two tiers, which are assumed to follow Poisson field processes. To fully capture the occasions for Poisson field distribution on MIMO spatial domain. Two practical scenarios of interference sources are addressed including highly-correlated or uncorrelated transmit antenna arrays of the serving macrocell base station. The analysis presents new analytical approaches that can characterize the downlink outage probability performance in any tier. Furthermore, the outage performance in high signal-to-noise (SNR) regime is also obtained, which can be useful to deduce diversity and/or coding gains.

  1. Performance of Overlaid MIMO Cellular Networks with TAS/MRC under Hybrid-Access Small Cells and Poisson Field Interference

    AbdelNabi, Amr A.; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz S.; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Manna, Raed F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents new approaches to characterize the achieved performance of hybrid control-access small cells in the context of two-tier multi-input multi-output (MIMO) cellular networks with random interference distributions. The hybrid scheme at small cells (such as femtocells) allows for sharing radio resources between the two network tiers according to the densities of small cells and their associated users, as well as the observed interference power levels in the two network tiers. The analysis considers MIMO transceivers at all nodes, for which antenna arrays can be utilized to implement transmit antenna selection (TAS) and receive maximal ratio combining (MRC) under MIMO point-to-point channels. Moreover, it tar-gets network-level models of interference sources inside each tier and between the two tiers, which are assumed to follow Poisson field processes. To fully capture the occasions for Poisson field distribution on MIMO spatial domain. Two practical scenarios of interference sources are addressed including highly-correlated or uncorrelated transmit antenna arrays of the serving macrocell base station. The analysis presents new analytical approaches that can characterize the downlink outage probability performance in any tier. Furthermore, the outage performance in high signal-to-noise (SNR) regime is also obtained, which can be useful to deduce diversity and/or coding gains.

  2. On the performance of arbitrary transmit selection for threshold-based receive MRC with and without co-channel interference

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    The performance of multiple-antenna diversity systems in which the receiver combines signal replicas per threshold-based maximal ratio combining (MRC) and transmitter uses only a single antenna according to receive combined signal strength is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation and the effect of phase and time misalignments between desired and undesired signals are implicitly investigated. It is assumed that the desired signal replicas and interfering signals undergo statistically independent flat Rayleigh fading. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection, based either on receive combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or receive combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). For the scenario of identical multiple-antenna channels, closed-form analytical results for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are first presented. The SNR-based and SINR-based selection algorithms are then employed to obtain expressions for the distribution of combined SINR and outage probability performance, which are applicable for different statistical models of interfering signals. The adopted system models herein as well as the analytical development add enhancements on many existing results, and can be used to study the performance of different architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Hiperplasias epiteliais em espécimes de mamoplastia redutora estética bilateral e mamoplastia redutora contralateral a câncer de mama Epithelial hyperplasia in specimens from bilateral reduction aesthetic mammaplasty and reduction mammaplasty contralateral to breast cancer

    Luciene Simões de Assis Tafuri

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A mamoplastia redutora estética bilateral (MEB é uma cirurgia que tem como objetivo reduzir o volume mamário, melhorando problemas estéticos e posturais, ou obter equilíbrio estético em pacientes submetidas a mamoplastia contralateral (MRC a câncer de mama. A incidência de lesões mamárias nestes espécimes é variável, e a presença de câncer em uma das mamas é fator de risco conhecido para desenvolvimento de câncer na mama contralateral. OBJETIVOS: Comparar a freqüência de lesões proliferativas epiteliais e outras alterações histopatológicas em espécimes de MEB e MRC. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram revistas lâminas de 867 peças cirúrgicas de MEB e 72 de MRC, anotando-se as alterações histopatológicas, com ênfase nas hiperplasias epiteliais, e relacionando-as com a faixa etária das pacientes. RESULTADOS: A idade média das pacientes submetidas a MEB foi de 34 anos, e das submetidas a MRC, de 50,3 anos. Alterações fibrocísticas foram as lesões mais comumente diagnosticadas. Cistos e ectasia ductal estavam presentes em 50,9% das MEB e em 59,7% das MRC. Hiperplasias epiteliais foram diagnosticadas em 10,1% das MEB e em 43,1% das MRC, principalmente em mulheres com idade superior a 40 anos. Entre as hiperplasias, o tipo usual foi o mais freqüente nos dois grupos (MEB = 9,8% e MRC = 33,3%. Hiperplasias atípicas estavam presentes em 9,7% dos casos de MRC e em 0,3% de MEB. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de hiperplasias epiteliais com e sem atipias foi maior nos casos de MRC do que nos de MEB mesmo quando as pacientes foram pareadas pela faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Reduction mammaplasty is a surgery whose objective is to reduce the mammary size, improving aesthetic (MEB, or to attain of aesthetic balance in patients submitted to mammaplasty contralateral to breast cancer (MRC. The incidence of breast lesions in these specimens is variable and the previous cancer in one breast is a known risk factor for cancer in

  4. Exploring cellular uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles associated with rhodium citrate in breast cancer cells.

    Chaves, Natalia L; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Böttner, Julia; Lopes, Cláudio Ap; Guido, Bruna C; de Sousa, Aparecido R; Báo, Sônia N

    2017-01-01

    Nanocarriers have the potential to improve the therapeutic index of currently available drugs by improving their efficacy and achieving therapeutic steady-state levels over an extended period. The association of maghemite-rhodium citrate (MRC) nanoparticles (NPs) has the potential to increase specificity of the cytotoxic action. However, the interaction of these NPs with cells, their uptake mechanism, and subcellular localization need to be elucidated. This work evaluates the uptake mechanism of MRC NPs in metastatic and nonmetastatic breast cancer-cell models, comparing them to a nontumor cell line. MRC NPs uptake in breast cancer cells was more effective than in normal cells, with regard to both the amount of internalized material and the achievement of more strategic intracellular distribution. Moreover, this process occurred through a clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway with different basal expression levels of this protein in the cell lines tested.

  5. Radiation in MRC supported research in the 1950s and 1960s. Report of a committee inquiry[Medical research; Radiation exposure

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    On 6 July 1995, a television documentary entitled 'Deadly Experiments' was broadcast on Channel 4 as part of the 'True Stories' series. The programme, produced by Twenty-Twenty Television, featured a number of research projects conducted between 1950 and 1970 in which either measurements were made of the amount of radiation absorbed by, or radioactive substances were administered to, human subjects in the UK and USA. The level of public concern generated by the broadcast and the implication of unethical practices in the conduct of some of the research sponsored by the MRC, has acted as the trigger for the MRC to establish this independent Committee of Inquiry. Its remit has been to clarify the facts surrounding the research and to examine issues of 'acceptability and consent in the context of the scientific and ethical standards of the period in, which the research was carried out. The following studies featured in the programme were funded by the MRC. The study measuring levels of Strontium 90 uptake, in which samples of bone were taken at autopsy (the programme featured a case in North Wales where the femora were removed from a deceased infant). The work carried out at University College London and reported in 1952 and 1958, in which radioiodine was administered to women in order to measure thyroid function throughout the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. The work carried out at the Hammersmith Hospital, London, in 1953, in which radioactive sodium was used to measure maternal placental blood flow in normal and hypertensive women. The studies at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, which investigated iodine metabolism and maternal thyroid function during pregnancy, and the development of the human fetal thyroid. The Coventry study in which women from the Asian community were asked to consume specially prepared chapattis in order to measure levels of iron absorption, with a view to investigating the problem of anaemia.

  6. Inactivation of p16INK4a, with retention of pRB and p53/p21cip1 function, in human MRC5 fibroblasts that overcome a telomere-independent crisis during immortalization.

    Taylor, Lisa M; James, Alexander; Schuller, Christine E; Brce, Jesena; Lock, Richard B; Mackenzie, Karen L

    2004-10-15

    Recent investigations, including our own, have shown that specific strains of fibroblasts expressing telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) have an extended lifespan, but are not immortal. We previously demonstrated that hTERT-transduced MRC5 fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC5hTERTs) bypassed senescence but eventually succumbed to a second mortality barrier (crisis). In the present study, 67 MRC5hTERT clones were established by limiting dilution of a mass culture. Whereas 39/67 clones had an extended lifespan, all 39 extended lifespan clones underwent crisis. 11 of 39 clones escaped crisis and were immortalized. There was no apparent relationship between the fate of clones at crisis and the level of telomerase activity. Telomeres were hyperextended in the majority of the clones analyzed. There was no difference in telomere length of pre-crisis compared with post-crisis and immortal clones, indicating that hyperextended telomeres were conducive for immortalization and confirming that crisis was independent of telomere length. Immortalization of MRC5hTERT cells was associated with repression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a and up-regulation of pRB. However, the regulation of pRB phosphorylation and the response of the p53/p21cip1/waf1 pathway were normal in immortal cells subject to genotoxic stress. Overexpression of oncogenic ras failed to de-repress p16INK4a in immortal cells. Furthermore, expression of ras enforced senescent-like growth arrest in p16INK4a-positive, but not p16INK4a-negative MRC5hTERT cells. Immortal cells expressing ras formed small, infrequent colonies in soft agarose, but were non-tumorigenic. Overall, these results implicate the inactivation of p16INK4a as a critical event for overcoming telomere-independent crisis, immortalizing MRC5 fibroblasts and overcoming ras-induced premature senescence.

  7. Metabolic cooperation between co-cultured lung cancer cells and lung fibroblasts.

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Kalamida, Dimitra; Mitrakas, Achilleas G; Liousia, Maria; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Sivridis, Efthimios; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    Cooperation of cancer cells with stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), has been revealed as a mechanism sustaining cancer cell survival and growth. In the current study, we focus on the metabolic interactions of MRC5 lung fibroblasts with lung cancer cells (A549 and H1299) using co-culture experiments and studying changes of the metabolic protein expression profile and of their growth and migration abilities. Using western blotting, confocal microscopy and RT-PCR, we observed that in co-cultures MRC5 respond by upregulating pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1. In contrast, cancer cells increase the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT1), LDH5, PDH kinase and the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated pPDH. H1299 cells growing in the same culture medium with fibroblasts exhibit a 'metastasis-like' phenomenon by forming nests within the fibroblast area. LDH5 and pPDH were drastically upregulated in these nests. The growth rate of both MRC5 and cancer cells increased in co-cultures. Suppression of LDHA or PDK1 in cancer cells abrogates the stimulatory signal from cancer cells to fibroblasts. Incubation of MRC5 fibroblasts with lactate resulted in an increase of LDHB and of PDH expression. Silencing of PDH gene in fibroblasts, or silencing of PDK1 or LDHA gene in tumor cells, impedes cancer cell's migration ability. Overall, a metabolic cooperation between lung cancer cells and fibroblasts has been confirmed in the context of direct Warburg effect, thus the fibroblasts reinforce aerobic metabolism to support the intensified anaerobic glycolytic pathways exploited by cancer cells.

  8. Perioperative Colonic Evaluation in Patients with Rectal Cancer; MR Colonography Versus Standard Care

    Achiam, Michael Patrick; Løgager, Vibeke; Lund Rasmussen, Vera

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Preoperative colonic evaluation is often inadequate because of cancer stenosis making a full conventional colonoscopy (CC) impossible. In several studies, cancer stenosis has been shown in up to 16%-34% of patients with colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study...... was to prospectively evaluate the completion rate of preoperative colonic evaluation and the quality of perioperative colonic evaluation using magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) in patients with rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer were randomized to either group A: standard...... preoperative diagnostic work-up or group B: preoperative MR diagnostic work-up (standard preoperative diagnostic work-up + MRC). A complete and adequate perioperative clean-colon evaluation (PCE) was defined as either a complete preoperative colonic evaluation or a complete colonic evaluation within 3 months...

  9. MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes

    Salt Alison

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Research Council (MRC ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate. Methods The MRC ORACLE Children's Study will follow up UK children at age 7 years born to 4809 women with PROM and the 4266 women with SPL enrolled in the earlier ORACLE trials. We will use a parental questionnaire including validated tools to assess disability and behaviour. We will collect the frequency of specific medical conditions: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, respiratory illness including asthma, diabetes, admission to hospital in last year and other diseases, as reported by parents. National standard test results will be collected to assess educational attainment at Key Stage 1 for children in England. Discussion This study is designed to investigate whether or not peripartum antibiotics improve health and disability for children at 7 years of age. Trial registration The ORACLE Trial and Children

  10. MRC ORACLE Children Study. Long term outcomes following prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with either spontaneous preterm labour or preterm rupture of the membranes.

    Kenyon, Sara; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jones, David; Marlow, Neil; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David

    2008-04-24

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) ORACLE trial evaluated the use of co-amoxiclav 375 mg and/or erythromycin 250 mg in women presenting with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) ORACLE I or in spontaneous preterm labour (SPL) ORACLE II using a factorial design. The results showed that for women with a singleton baby with PROM the prescription of erythromycin is associated with improvements in short term neonatal outcomes, although co-amoxiclav is associated with prolongation of pregnancy, a significantly higher rate of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis was found in these babies. Prescription of erythromycin is now established practice for women with PROM. For women with SPL antibiotics demonstrated no improvements in short term neonatal outcomes and are not recommended treatment. There is evidence that both these conditions are associated with subclinical infection so perinatal antibiotic administration may reduce the risk of later disabilities, including cerebral palsy, although the risk may be increased through exposure to inflammatory cytokines, so assessment of longer term functional and educational outcomes is appropriate. The MRC ORACLE Children's Study will follow up UK children at age 7 years born to 4809 women with PROM and the 4266 women with SPL enrolled in the earlier ORACLE trials. We will use a parental questionnaire including validated tools to assess disability and behaviour. We will collect the frequency of specific medical conditions: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, respiratory illness including asthma, diabetes, admission to hospital in last year and other diseases, as reported by parents. National standard test results will be collected to assess educational attainment at Key Stage 1 for children in England. This study is designed to investigate whether or not peripartum antibiotics improve health and disability for children at 7 years of age. The ORACLE Trial and Children Study is registered in the Current Controlled Trials registry. ISCRTN 52995660.

  11. Neuronal protein gene product 9.5 (IEF SSP 6104) is expressed in cultured human MRC-5 fibroblasts of normal origin and is strongly down-regulated in their SV40 transformed counterparts

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vandekerckhove, J

    1991-01-01

    of proteins recovered from 2D gels we have identified PGP 9.5 UCH-L1 as polypeptide IEF SSP 6104 (Mr = 27,000, pI = 5.49) in the comprehensive 2D gel cellular protein database of human embryonal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts [(1989) Electrophoresis 10, 76 115; (1990) Electrophoresis 11, 1072 1113]. This protein...

  12. The impact of therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on intelligence quotients; results of the risk-stratified randomized central nervous system treatment trial MRC UKALL XI

    Vargha-Khadem Faraneh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MRC UKALLXI trial tested the efficacy of different central nervous system (CNS directed therapies in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. To evaluate morbidity 555/1826 randomised children underwent prospective psychological evaluations. Full Scale, verbal and performance IQs were measured at 5 months, 3 years and 5 years. Scores were compared in; (1 all patients (n = 555 versus related controls (n = 311, (2 low-risk children (presenting white cell count (WCC 9/l randomised to intrathecal methotrexate (n = 197 versus intrathecal and high-dose intravenous methotrexate (HDM (n = 202, and (3 high-risk children (WCC ≥ 50 × 109/l, age ≥ 2 years randomised to HDM (n = 79 versus cranial irradiation (n = 77. Results There were no significant differences in IQ scores between the treatment arms in either low- or high-risk groups. Despite similar scores at baseline, results at 3 and 5 years showed a significant reduction of between 3.6 and 7.3 points in all three IQ scores in all patient groups compared to controls (P Conclusion Children with ALL are at risk of CNS morbidity, regardless of the mode of CNS-directed therapy. Further work needs to identify individuals at high-risk of adverse CNS outcomes. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN16757172

  13. Prospective associations of psychosocial adversity in childhood with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood: the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Anderson, Emma L; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-09-07

    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. We aimed to assess associations of various forms of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. Participants were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Childhood psychosocial risk factors were reported prospectively by parents from 1950-1957, and retrospectively by participants at mean age 43 years in 1989. CVD risk factors were assessed at mean age 60-64 years in 2006-2011. Associations of a summary score of total psychosocial adversity and CVD risk in adulthood were assessed. There was no consistent evidence that cumulative psychosocial adversity, nor any specific form of psychosocial adversity in childhood, was associated with CVD risk factors in late adulthood. There was some evidence that parental death in the first 15 years was associated with higher SBP (Beta: 0.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.40, P=0.01) and DBP (Beta: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.01 to 0.32, P=0.07). We found no evidence that exposure to greater psychosocial adversity, or specific forms of psychosocial adversity during childhood is associated with adult CVD risk factors. Further large population studies are needed to clarify whether parental death is associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  14. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Stafford, Mai; Gale, Catharine R; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Kuh, Diana L

    2015-01-01

    Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention. Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64. Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered. Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  15. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Mai Stafford

    Full Text Available Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention.Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64.Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered.Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  16. Dose-Volume Constraints to Reduce Rectal Side Effects From Prostate Radiotherapy: Evidence From MRC RT01 Trial ISRCTN 47772397

    Gulliford, Sarah L.; Foo, Kerwyn; Morgan, Rachel C.; Aird, Edwin G.; Bidmead, A. Margaret; Critchley, Helen; Evans, Philip M. D.Phil.; Gianolini, Stefano; Mayles, W. Philip; Moore, A. Rollo; Sanchez-Nieto, Beatriz; Partridge, Mike; Sydes, Matthew R. C.Stat; Webb, Steve; Dearnaley, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer is effective but dose limited because of the proximity of normal tissues. Comprehensive dose-volume analysis of the incidence of clinically relevant late rectal toxicities could indicate how the dose to the rectum should be constrained. Previous emphasis has been on constraining the mid-to-high dose range (≥50 Gy). Evidence is emerging that lower doses could also be important. Methods and Materials: Data from a large multicenter randomized trial were used to investigate the correlation between seven clinically relevant rectal toxicity endpoints (including patient- and clinician-reported outcomes) and an absolute 5% increase in the volume of rectum receiving the specified doses. The results were quantified using odds ratios. Rectal dose-volume constraints were applied retrospectively to investigate the association of constraints with the incidence of late rectal toxicity. Results: A statistically significant dose-volume response was observed for six of the seven endpoints for at least one of the dose levels tested in the range of 30-70 Gy. Statistically significant reductions in the incidence of these late rectal toxicities were observed for the group of patients whose treatment plans met specific proposed dose-volume constraints. The incidence of moderate/severe toxicity (any endpoint) decreased incrementally for patients whose treatment plans met increasing numbers of dose-volume constraints from the set of V30≤80%, V40≤65%, V50≤55%, V60≤40%, V65≤30%, V70≤15%, and V75≤3%. Conclusion: Considering the entire dose distribution to the rectum by applying dose-volume constraints such as those tested here in the present will reduce the incidence of late rectal toxicity.

  17. Detecção da citotoxicidade de materiais biocompatíveis nas linhagens celulares MRC-5, HeLa e RC-IAL MRC-5, HeLa and RC-IAL cell lines sensitivity for detection of cytotoxicity of biocompatible materials

    Aurea S. Cruz

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de uma linhagem celular diplóide e duas heteroplóides, para a detecção de citotoxicidade através do método de difusão em camada de ágar sobre culturas celulares, foi avaliada experimentalmente com solução de ácido ascórbico em diferentes concentrações e, na prática, frente a 562 amostras de 21 diferentes materiais industriais enviados para análise na Seção de Culturas Celulares do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. A linhagem celular heteroplóide designada RC-IAL apresentou, em relação às linhagens MRC-5 e HeLa, maior sensibilidade porque revelou a presença de efeito citotóxico nas menores concentrações utilizadas (10 e 25 ug/ml do ácido ascórbico e apresentou maior diâmetro do halo citotóxico em 15 amostras e igual diâmetro em 16 das 43 amostras (7,6% que resultaram positivas. Nas 43 amostras positivas, a linhagem MRC-5 não revelou citotoxicidade em 3 amostras de espuma e 1 de resina acrílica. O polivinilcloreto (PVC e o polietileno, raramente revelaram positividade, enquanto plástico, algodão e resinas acrílicas revelaram citotoxicidade ao redor de 5%. Em vista dos resultados é discutida a proposta da utilização da linhagem RC-IAL e HeLa para a continuidade das futuras análises solicitadas ao Instituto Adolfo LutzThe sensitivity of diploid and heteroploid cell lines for detection of cytotoxicity using the agar diffusion method on cell culture, was tested with ascorbic acid solution of different concentrations. A total of 562 samples of 21 various materials were tested. The heteroploid cell line, RC-IAL, showed in relation to the MRC-5 and HeLa cell lines, greater sensitivity because it showed the presence of cytotoxic effect with the lowest concentration used (10 and 25ug/ml of ascorbic acid and showed greater diameter of cytotoxic halo in 15 samples and equal diameter in 16 of the 43 positive samples (7.6%. Out of 43 positive samples, the MRC-5 line did not show cytotoxicity in 3 sponge samples and

  18. Cancer

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  19. The MRC-5 human embryonal lung fibroblast two-dimensional gel cellular protein database: quantitative identification of polypeptides whose relative abundance differs between quiescent, proliferating and SV40 transformed cells

    Celis, J E; Dejgaard, K; Madsen, Peder

    1990-01-01

    interferon-induced proteins, were not detected in the master MRC-5 images. The identity of 36 of the transformation-sensitive proteins whose levels are up or down regulated by two times or more was determined and additional information can be transferred from the master transformed human epithelial amnion......, this comprehensive database will outline an integrated picture of the expression levels and properties of the thousands of protein components of organelles, pathways and cytoskeletal systems that may be directly or indirectly involved in properties associated with the transformed state. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-Dec...

  20. Adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy as a part of management in early endometrial cancer.

    Kellas-Ślęczka, Sylwia; Wojcieszek, Piotr; Białas, Brygida

    2012-12-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most frequent cancer of female genital tract. Metro- and menorrhagia or postmenopausal bleeding results in its early presentation. It allows radical treatment. However, controversies remain on surgery coverage or adjuvant therapies in early endometrial women cancer. Optimal management should minimize intervention instead of aggressive approach, as showed by recent studies. There is a role for brachytherapy as an adjuvant irradiation. Crucial publications including PORTEC-1, GOG 99, MRC ASTEC, ASTEC/EN.5, PORTEC-2 or Italian lymphadenectomy trial are discussed. Moreover, there is attention paid on adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy analyses for the past fifteen years.

  1. Researching experiences of cancer: the importance of methodology.

    Entwistle, V; Tritter, J Q; Calnan, M

    2002-09-01

    This paper draws on contributions to and discussions at a recent MRC HSRC-sponsored workshop 'Researching users' experiences of health care: the case of cancer'. We focus on the methodological and ethical challenges that currently face researchers who use self-report methods to investigate experiences of cancer and cancer care. These challenges relate to: the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of research; participation rates and participant profiles; data collection methods (the retrospective nature of accounts, description and measurement, and data collection as intervention); social desirability considerations; relationship considerations; the experiences of contributing to research; and the synthesis and presentation of findings. We suggest that methodological research to tackle these challenges should be integrated into substantive research projects to promote the development of a strong knowledge base about experiences of cancer and cancer care.

  2. Spiritual Well-Being and Correlated Factors in Subjects With Advanced COPD or Lung Cancer.

    Hasegawa, Takaaki; Kawai, Momoko; Kuzuya, Nanori; Futamura, Yohei; Horiba, Akane; Ishiguro, Takashi; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki

    2017-05-01

    Spiritual care for patients with COPD has rarely been discussed, and thus much remains unknown about their needs. The aims of this study were to identify the factors associated with spiritual well-being and to compare the levels of spiritual well-being between subjects with advanced COPD and those with inoperable lung cancer. A total of 96 subjects with COPD or lung cancer participated in this study, which was conducted between December 2014 and April 2016. Measures included the Japanese version of the 12-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp-12) scale, the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire (MQOL), the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, and various other medico-social factors. No significant differences were found between subjects with COPD and those with lung cancer in median FACIT-Sp-12 scores (COPD, 27; lung cancer, 26; P = .81). However, significant differences were found in the 2 MQOL domains, suggesting that subjects with COPD had a better psychological state ( P = .01) and that subjects with lung cancer had a better support state ( P = .002). Multiple regression analysis revealed that mMRC was significantly associated with FACIT-Sp-12 scores in subjects with COPD. These results suggest that subjects with advanced COPD experience spiritual well-being similar to that of subjects with inoperable lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Phenolic Profiling of Duchesnea indica Combining Macroporous Resin Chromatography (MRC with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS

    Mingzhi Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchesnea indica (D. indica is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been clinically used to treat cancer in Asian countries. It has been described previously as a rich source of phenolic compounds with a broad array of diversified structures, which are the major active ingredients. However, an accurate and complete phenolic profiling has not been determined yet. In the present work, the total phenolic compounds in crude extracts from D. indica were enriched and fractionated over a macroporous resin column, then identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS (ion trap MS. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in D. indica, of which 21 compounds were identified for the first time. These 27 phenolic compounds encompassing four phenolic groups, including ellagitannins, ellagic acid and ellagic acid glycosides, hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and flavonols, were then successfully quantified using peak areas against those of the corresponding standards with good linearity (R2 > 0.998 in the range of the tested concentrations. As a result, the contents of individual phenolic compounds varied from 6.69 mg per 100 g dry weight (DW for ellagic acid to 71.36 mg per 100 g DW for brevifolin carboxylate. Not only did this study provide the first phenolic profiling of D. indica, but both the qualitative identification and the subsequent quantitative analysis of 27 phenolic compounds from D. indica should provide a good basis for future exploration of this valuable medicinal plant.

  4. Triiodothyronine (T3)-associated upregulation and downregulation of nuclear T3 binding in the human fibroblast cell (MRC-5)--stimulation of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase by insulin, but not by T3

    Matzen, L E; Kristensen, S R; Kvetny, J

    1991-01-01

    The specific nuclear binding of triiodothyronine (T3) (NBT3) and the activity of malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), and 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase (6PGD) were studied in the human fibroblast cell (MRC-5). The overall apparent binding affinity (Ka) was 2.7 x 10(9) L.......mol-1 estimated from kinetic studies of nuclear T3 binding, and 2.5 x 10(9) L.mol-1 estimated from equilibrium studies. The scatchard plots were curvilinear and composed of a high-affinity binding site with Ka1 3.4 +/- 0.7 x 10(9) L.mol-1 and maximal binding capacity (MBC) MBC1 57.0 +/- 11.9 fmol/mg DNA...... and a low-affinity binding site with Ka2 2.9 +/- 1.1 x 10(8) L.mol-1 and MBC2 124.7 +/- 22.1 fmol/mg DNA (n = 6). Incubation of cells with 6 nmol/L T3 for 20 hours reduced NBT3 to 62.2% +/- 15.7% (P less than .01, n = 11). The Ka estimated from kinetic studies was reduced to 6.7 x 10(7) L.mol-1...

  5. Comparison of the amount of bioaccessible fumonisin B1 and B2 in maize and rice inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826) and determined by in vitro digestion-preliminary results.

    Szabó-Fodor, J; Bors, I; Szabó, A; Kovács, M

    2016-08-01

    In this study the occurrence of hidden fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) was analysed, on two cereal substrates (maize and rice), inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826), in order to determine the ratio of hidden FB1 and FB2. Two parallel methods were applied: an in vitro human digestion sample pre-treatment and the routine extraction procedure, in both cases with subsequent LC-MS analysis. It was found that all samples showed higher concentration of total fumonisin B1 after digestion, as compared to that of free fumonisin analysed only after extraction. The percentage of the hidden form by maize was 18.8 % (±2.4) for FB1 and 36.8 % (±3.8) for FB2, while for rice it was 32.3 % (±11.3) and 58.0 (±6.8), respectively, expressed as the proportion to total fumonisin B1, for the total dataset. Significant differences were found in the FB1 and FB2 concentration measured after the different digestion phases (saliva, gastric and duodenal) in case of both matrixes. The results are useful for human risk assessment, since both humans and animals may be exposed to markedly higher toxin load, as determined merely by conventional analytical methods.

  6. Six key topics informal carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease want to learn about and why: MRC phase I study to inform an educational intervention.

    Morag Farquhar

    Full Text Available Breathlessness is a common symptom of advanced disease placing a huge burden on patients, health systems and informal carers (families and friends providing daily help and support. It causes distress and isolation. Carers provide complex personal, practical and emotional support yet often feel ill-prepared to care. They lack knowledge and confidence in their caring role. The need to educate carers and families about breathlessness is established, yet we lack robustly developed carer-targeted educational interventions to meet their needs.We conducted a qualitative interview study with twenty five purposively-sampled patient-carer dyads living with breathlessness in advanced disease (half living with advanced cancer and half with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We sought to identify carers' educational needs (including what they wanted to learn about and explore differences by diagnostic group in order to inform an educational intervention for carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease.There was a strong desire among carers for an educational intervention on breathlessness. Six key topics emerged as salient for them: 1 understanding breathlessness, 2 managing anxiety, panic and breathlessness, 3 managing infections, 4 keeping active, 5 living positively and 6 knowing what to expect in the future. A cross-cutting theme was relationship management: there were tensions within dyads resulting from mismatched expectations related to most topics. Carers felt that knowledge-gains would not only help them to support the patient better, but also help them to manage their own frustrations, anxieties, and quality of life. Different drivers for education need were identified by diagnostic group, possibly related to differences in caring role duration and resulting impacts.Meeting the educational needs of carers requires robustly developed and evaluated interventions. This study provides the evidence-base for the content

  7. An investigation of whether factors associated with short-term attrition change or persist over ten years: data from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS

    Chatfield Mark

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with the loss of participants in long-term longitudinal studies of ageing, due to refusal or moves, have been discussed less than those with short term follow-up. Methods In a population-based study of cognition and ageing (the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS, factors associated with dropout due to refusal and moving in the first follow-up period (over two years are compared with factors associated with dropout over ten years. Participants at 10-year follow-up are compared with their age-standardised baseline contemporaries. Results Some consistent trends are found over the longer term. Refusers tended to have poorer cognition, less years of education, not have a family history of dementia and be women. Characteristics of people who moved differed between waves, but the oldest and people in worse health moved more. When surviving and responding individuals at ten years are compared with those of the same age at baseline many differences are found. Individuals of lower social class, education, cognitive ability, in residential care, with sight/hearing problems and poor/fair self-reported health are less likely to be seen after 10 years of follow-up. Individuals report more health problems when they participate in multiple interviews. Conclusion The characteristics of refusers in the longer term are similar to those refusing to participate over the shorter term. Long-term follow-up studies will under represent the disadvantaged and disabled but represent full health status of participating individuals better. There are advantages and disadvantages to both short-term and long-term follow-up.

  8. Formoterol attenuates increased oxidative stress and myosin protein loss in respiratory and limb muscles of cancer cachectic rats

    Anna Salazar-Degracia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Muscle mass loss and wasting are characteristic features of patients with chronic conditions including cancer. Therapeutic options are still scarce. We hypothesized that cachexia-induced muscle oxidative stress may be attenuated in response to treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor-selective agonist formoterol in rats. In diaphragm and gastrocnemius of tumor-bearing rats (108 AH-130 Yoshida ascites hepatoma cells inoculated intraperitoneally with and without treatment with formoterol (0.3 mg/kg body weight/day for seven days, daily subcutaneous injection, redox balance (protein oxidation and nitration and antioxidants and muscle proteins (1-dimensional immunoblots, carbonylated proteins (2-dimensional immunoblots, inflammatory cells (immunohistochemistry, and mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC complex activities were explored. In the gastrocnemius, but not the diaphragm, of cancer cachectic rats compared to the controls, protein oxidation and nitration levels were increased, several functional and structural proteins were carbonylated, and in both study muscles, myosin content was reduced, inflammatory cell counts were greater, while no significant differences were seen in MRC complex activities (I, II, and IV. Treatment of cachectic rats with formoterol attenuated all the events in both respiratory and limb muscles. In this in vivo model of cancer-cachectic rats, the diaphragm is more resistant to oxidative stress. Formoterol treatment attenuated the rise in oxidative stress in the limb muscles, inflammatory cell infiltration, and the loss of myosin content seen in both study muscles, whereas no effects were observed in the MRC complex activities. These findings have therapeutic implications as they demonstrate beneficial effects of the beta2 agonist through decreased protein oxidation and inflammation in cachectic muscles, especially the gastrocnemius.

  9. Modelo de mercadeo de retención del cliente industrial de alto consumo de Enelven a través de servicios de agregación de valor (MRC-SAV

    Migdalia Caridad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como propósito diseñar un Modelo de Mercadeo de Retención de Clientes a través de Servicios de Agregación de Valor (MRC-SAV, dirigido a clientes industriales de alto consumo de ENELVEN, que contribuya con la rentabilidad de la empresa. Se siguieron los modelos teóricos que sobre retención del clieent desarrollaron Salinas, Vavra y Menconi; además se revisaron otros autores especialistas tales como Pride y Ferrel, Bravo, Grande, Cravens y Woodruff. El tipo de investigación se definió como exploratoria, de campo, transversal, de diseño no experimental. La población estuvo conformado por 61 agentes, 50 correspondientes a las empresas de alto consumo eléctrico, y 11 pertenecientes a líderes de ENELVEN, tomando como muestra la totalidad de la población. Como instrumento de recolección de datos se aplicaron dos cuestionarios, uno dirigido a los clientes, conformado por cuatro secciones y cuarenta y nueve items, y el segundo a los líderes conformado por 17 items, ambos con preguntas abiertas y cerradas, de tipo dicotómicas y de selección múltiple los cuales fueron sometidos a evaluación de expertos y a la prueba de la confiabilidad mediante prueba piloto de cuyos datos se aplicó la fórmula para el coeficiente de la estabilidad, resultando un nivel de 0.90 como margen de confiabilidad. Entre lo resultados se obtuvo, a través de la técnica del análisis del contenido, que el 76% de los clientes opina que ENELVEN sólo ofrece lo básico del servicio, el 58% señala que la misma sólo conoce las necesidades básicas de sus clientes y el 40% opinó que cambiarían de empresa con la apertura del mercado eléctrico. Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad del Modelo de Retención de Clientes Industriales integrado por un Sistema de Información, canales interactivos de comunicación directa, como Internet y el Ejecutivo de Cuenta, y servicios de agregación de valor que incluyan asesoramiento, adiestramiento

  10. Oral cancer

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  11. Cancer Statistics

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  12. Colon cancer

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  13. Fisetin inhibits cellular proliferation and induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    Sabarwal, Akash; Agarwal, Rajesh; Singh, Rana P

    2017-02-01

    The anticancer effects of fisetin, a dietary agent, are largely unknown against human gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms of fisetin-induced inhibition of growth and survival of human gastric carcinoma AGS and SNU-1 cells. Fisetin (25-100 μM) caused significant decrease in the levels of G1 phase cyclins and CDKs, and increased the levels of p53 and its S15 phosphorylation in gastric cancer cells. We also observed that growth suppression and death of non-neoplastic human intestinal FHs74int cells were minimally affected by fisetin. Fisetin strongly increased apoptotic cells and showed mitochondrial membrane depolarization in gastric cancer cells. DNA damage was observed as early as 3 h after fisetin treatment which was accompanied with gamma-H2A.X(S139) phosphorylation and cleavage of PARP. Fisetin-induced apoptosis was observed to be independent of p53. DCFDA and MitoSOX analyses showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS generation in time- and dose-dependent fashion. It also increased cellular nitrite and superoxide generation. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) inhibited ROS generation and also caused protection from fisetin-induced DNA damage. The formation of comets were observed in only fisetin treated cells which was blocked by NAC pre-treatment. Further investigation of the source of ROS, using mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex inhibitors, suggested that fisetin caused ROS generation specifically through complex I. Collectively, these results for the first time demonstrated that fisetin possesses anticancer potential through ROS production most likely via MRC complex I leading to apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  15. Stromal cell derived factor-1: its influence on invasiveness and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro, and its association with prognosis and survival in human breast cancer

    Kang, Hua; Watkins, Gareth; Parr, Christian; Douglas-Jones, Anthony; Mansel, Robert E; Jiang, Wen G

    2005-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 (CXC chemokine ligand-12) is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines, which, through its cognate receptor (CXC chemokine receptor [CXCR]4), plays an important role in chemotaxis of cancer cells and in tumour metastasis. We conducted the present study to evaluate the effect of SDF-1 on the invasiveness and migration of breast cancer cells, and we analyzed the expression of SDF-1 and its relation to clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes in human breast cancer. Expression of SDF-1 mRNA in breast cancer, endothelial (HECV) and fibroblast (MRC5) cell lines and in human breast tissues were studied using RT-PCR. MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with a SDF-1 expression vector, and their invasiveness and migration was tested in vitro. In addition, the expression of SDF-1 was investigated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR in samples of normal human mammary tissue (n = 32) and mammary tumour (n = 120). SDF-1 expression was identified in MRC5, MDA-MB-435s and MDA-MB-436 cell lines, but CXCR4 expression was detected in all cell lines and breast tissues. An autocrine loop was created following transfection of MDA-MB-231 (which was CXCR4 positive and SDF-1 negative) with a mammalian expression cassette encoding SDF-1 (MDA-MB-231SDF1 +/+ ) or with control plasmid pcDNA4/GFP (MDA-MB-231 +/- ). MDA-MB-231SDF1 +/+ cells exhibited significantly greater invasion and migration potential (in transfected cells versus in wild type and empty MDA-MB-231 +/- ; P < 0.01). In mammary tissues SDF-1 staining was primarily seen in stromal cells and weakly in mammary epithelial cells. Significantly higher levels of SDF-1 were seen in node-positive than in node-negative tumours (P = 0.05), in tumours that metastasized (P = 0.05), and tumours from patients who died (P = 0.03) than in tumours from patients who were disease free. It was most notable that levels of SDF-1 correlated significantly with overall survival (P = 0.001) and

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health ...

  18. Eyelid Cancer

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  19. Anal Cancer

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  20. Thyroid Cancer

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  1. Appendix Cancer

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  2. Obstruction of the esophagus 5 months after radiotherapy for a central lung cancer

    Zips, D.; Baumann, M.; Herrmann, T.

    2001-01-01

    Dysphagia after radiotherapy of thoracic tumors may be caused by recurrences or by radiation damage to the esophagus. Case Report: A 75-year-old patient presented with a complete obstruction of the esophagus 5 months after CHARTWEL radiotherapy for a non-small cell lung cancer. During the last week of radiotherapy mild dysphagia (Grade 1 EORTC/RTOG, Grade 2 MRC-CHART-Score) occurred that persisted over the following months. X-ray and endoscopic investigations revealed an easily removable food bolus without evidence of esophageal stricture or ulceration. Conclusion: The case report describes a mild but prolonged early radiation reaction of the esophagus. In comparison with conventional fractionation the incidence of dysphagia is higher after accelerated fractionation schedules. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying persistent dysphagia are currently unknown. Beside of recurrences, radiation effects to the esophagus should be considered if dysphagia after irradiation of thoracic tumors occurs, because, as in this case, therapy may rapidly improve the symptoms. (orig.) [de

  3. Testicular cancer

    ... Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 86. National Cancer Institute. PDQ testicular cancer treatment. Updated February 17, 2016. www.cancer. ...

  4. p21 promotes oncolytic adenoviral activity in ovarian cancer and is a potential biomarker

    Lockley Michelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947 replicates selectively within and lyses cells with a dysregulated Rb pathway, a finding seen in > 90% human cancers. dl922-947 is more potent than wild type adenovirus and the E1B-deletion mutant dl1520 (Onyx-015. We wished to determine which host cell factors influence cytotoxicity. SV40 large T-transformed MRC5-VA cells are 3-logs more sensitive to dl922-947 than isogenic parental MRC5 cells, confirming that an abnormal G1/S checkpoint increases viral efficacy. The sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to dl922-947 varied widely: IC50 values ranged from 51 (SKOV3ip1 to 0.03 pfu/cell (TOV21G. Cells sensitive to dl922-947 had higher S phase populations and supported earlier E1A expression. Cytotoxicity correlated poorly with both infectivity and replication, but well with expression of p21 by microarray and western blot analyses. Matched p21+/+ and -/- Hct116 cells confirmed that p21 influences dl922-947 activity in vitro and in vivo. siRNA-mediated p21 knockdown in sensitive TOV21G cells decreases E1A expression and viral cytotoxicity, whilst expression of p21 in resistant A2780CP cells increases virus activity in vitro and in intraperitoneal xenografts. These results highlight that host cell factors beyond simple infectivity can influence the efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses. p21 expression may be an important biomarker of response in clinical trials.

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  8. A randomised phase 2 trial of intensive induction chemotherapy (CBOP/BEP) and standard BEP in poor-prognosis germ cell tumours (MRC TE23, CRUK 05/014, ISRCTN 53643604).

    Huddart, Robert A; Gabe, Rhian; Cafferty, Fay H; Pollock, Philip; White, Jeff D; Shamash, Jonathan; Cullen, Michael H; Stenning, Sally P

    2015-03-01

    Standard chemotherapy for poor-prognosis metastatic nonseminoma has remained bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) for many years; more effective regimens are required. To explore whether response rates with a new intensive chemotherapy regimen, CBOP/BEP (carboplatin, bleomycin, vincristine, cisplatin/BEP), versus those in concurrent patients treated with standard BEP justify a phase 3 trial. We conducted a phase 2 open-label randomised trial in patients with germ cell tumours of any extracranial primary site and one or more International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group poor-prognosis features. Patients were randomised between 2005 and 2009 at 16 UK centres. BEP (bleomycin 30,000 IU) was composed of four cycles over 12 wk. CBOP/BEP was composed of 2×CBOP, 2×BO, and 3×BEP (bleomycin 15,000 IU). Primary end point was favourable response rate (FRR) comprising complete response or partial response and normal markers. Success required the lower two-sided 90% confidence limit to exclude FRRs <60%; 44 patients on CBOP/BEP gives 90% power to achieve this if the true FRR is ≥80%. Equal numbers were randomised to BEP to benchmark contemporary response rates. A total of 89 patients were randomised (43 CBOP/BEP, 46 BEP); 40 and 41, respectively, completed treatment. CBOP/BEP toxicity, largely haematologic, was high (96% vs 63% on BEP had Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.3 grade ≥3). FRRs were 74% (90% confidence interval [CI], 61-85) with CBOP/BEP, 61% with BEP (90% CI, 48-73). After a median of 58-mo follow-up, 1-yr progression-free survival (PFS) was 65% and 43%, respectively (hazard ratio: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.33-1.06); 2-yr overall survival (OS) was 67% and 61%. Overall, 3 of 14 CBOP/BEP and 2 of 18 BEP deaths were attributed to toxicity, one after an overdose of bleomycin during CBOP/BEP. The trial was not powered to compare PFS. The primary outcome was met, the CI for CBOP/BEP excluding FRRs <61%, but CBOP/BEP was more toxic. PFS and OS data

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  11. Lung Cancer Prevention

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  13. Assessing correlations between the spatial distribution of the dose to the rectal wall and late rectal toxicity after prostate radiotherapy: an analysis of data from the MRC RT01 trial (ISRCTN 47772397)

    Buettner, Florian; Gulliford, Sarah L; Webb, Steve; Partridge, Mike; Sydes, Matthew R; Dearnaley, David P

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been performed to assess correlations between measures derived from dose-volume histograms and late rectal toxicities for radiotherapy of prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to quantify correlations between measures describing the shape and location of the dose distribution and different outcomes. The dose to the rectal wall was projected on a two-dimensional map. In order to characterize the dose distribution, its centre of mass, longitudinal and lateral extent, and eccentricity were calculated at different dose levels. Furthermore, the dose-surface histogram (DSH) was determined. Correlations between these measures and seven clinically relevant rectal-toxicity endpoints were quantified by maximally selected standardized Wilcoxon rank statistics. The analysis was performed using data from the RT01 prostate radiotherapy trial. For some endpoints, the shape of the dose distribution is more strongly correlated with the outcome than simple DSHs. Rectal bleeding was most strongly correlated with the lateral extent of the dose distribution. For loose stools, the strongest correlations were found for longitudinal extent; proctitis was most strongly correlated with DSH. For the other endpoints no statistically significant correlations could be found. The strengths of the correlations between the shape of the dose distribution and outcome differed considerably between the different endpoints. Due to these significant correlations, it is desirable to use shape-based tools in order to assess the quality of a dose distribution.

  14. Metastatic Cancer

    Metastatic cancer is cancer that spreads from its site of origin to another part of the body. Learn how cancer spreads, possible symptoms, common sites where cancer spreads, and how to find out about treatment options.

  15. Prostate Cancer

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  16. Cervical Cancer

    ... I find more information about cervical and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  17. Ovarian Cancer

    ... I find more information about ovarian and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  18. Lung cancer

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer ... to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers ... Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s ...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  4. Prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes: important regulators of cancer metabolism

    Yang M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ming Yang,1 Huizhong Su,1 Tomoyoshi Soga,2 Kamil R Kranc,3 Patrick J Pollard1 1Cancer Biology and Metabolism Group, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Mizukami, Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan; 3MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs regulate the stability of HIF protein by post-translational hydroxylation of two conserved prolyl residues in its α subunit in an oxygen-dependent manner. Trans-4-prolyl hydroxylation of HIFα under normal oxygen (O2 availability enables its association with the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor pVHL E3 ligase complex, leading to the degradation of HIFα via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Due to the obligatory requirement of molecular O2 as a co-substrate, the activity of PHDs is inhibited under hypoxic conditions, resulting in stabilized HIFα, which dimerizes with HIFβ and, together with transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300, activates the transcription of its target genes. As a key molecular regulator of adaptive response to hypoxia, HIF plays important roles in multiple cellular processes and its overexpression has been detected in various cancers. The HIF1α isoform in particular has a strong impact on cellular metabolism, most notably by promoting anaerobic, whilst inhibiting O2-dependent, metabolism of glucose. The PHD enzymes also seem to have HIF-independent functions and are subject to regulation by factors other than O2, such as by metabolic status, oxidative stress, and abnormal levels of endogenous metabolites (oncometabolites that have been observed in some types of cancers. In this review, we aim to summarize current understandings of the function and regulation of PHDs in cancer with an emphasis on their roles in metabolism. Keywords: prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD

  5. Cardiac Glycoside Glucoevatromonoside Induces Cancer Type-Specific Cell Death

    Naira F. Z. Schneider

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides (CGs are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations repositioned CGs as potential anticancer agents. To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV out of 46 CGs for its low nanomolar anti-lung cancer activity. GEV presented reduced toxicity toward non-cancerous cell types (lung MRC-5 and PBMC and high-affinity binding to the Na+/K+-ATPase α subunit, assessed by computational docking. GEV-induced cell death was caspase-independent, as investigated by a multiparametric approach, and culminates in severe morphological alterations in A549 cells, monitored by transmission electron microscopy, live cell imaging and flow cytometry. This non-canonical cell death was not preceded or accompanied by exacerbation of autophagy. In the presence of GEV, markers of autophagic flux (e.g. LC3I-II conversion were impacted, even in presence of bafilomycin A1. Cell death induction remained unaffected by calpain, cathepsin, parthanatos, or necroptosis inhibitors. Interestingly, GEV triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis in U937 acute myeloid leukemia cells, witnessing cancer-type specific cell death induction. Differential cell cycle modulation by this CG led to a G2/M arrest, cyclin B1 and p53 downregulation in A549, but not in U937 cells. We further extended the anti-cancer potential of GEV to 3D cell culture using clonogenic and spheroid formation assays and validated our findings in vivo by zebrafish xenografts. Altogether, GEV shows an interesting anticancer profile with the ability to exert cytotoxic effects via induction of different cell death modalities.

  6. Urological Cancers

    Results. A total of 8829 cancers were diagnosed over the 15 year study period, 749 (8.4%) were Urological malignancies. The male to female ratio of the. Urological cancers was 10.7 to 1. Cancer of the prostate was the most common urological malignancy (54.6%), followed by cancer of the bladder (21.1%) and cancer of ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid ... and where it is in your body The stage of the cancer, which refers to the size ...

  13. Cancer and Women

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  14. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  15. Cancer and Men

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ... Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  20. Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening ... Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials ...

  4. Stomach Cancer

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  5. Cancer Research

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  6. Cancer Immunotherapy

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  7. Uterine Cancer

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  8. Bone Cancer

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  9. Thyroid Cancer

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  10. Childhood Cancer

    ... toxins. In children, a genetic condition, such as Down syndrome , can sometimes increase the risk of cancer. Kids who have had chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer are more likely to get cancer ...

  11. Stomach Cancer

    ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Men, Seniors, WomenTags: cancer, gastric cancer, stomach cancer May 1, 1999 Copyright © American Academy ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  12. Eye Cancer

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  13. Oral Cancer

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  14. Skin Cancer

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  15. Kidney Cancer

    ... common cancers in the United States. Cancer Home Kidney Cancer Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and ...

  16. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  17. Cancer Technology - Cancer Currents Blog

    Blog posts on technologies that affect cancer research and care—including new technologies for detecting cancer, testing treatments, storing/analyzing data, and improving patient care—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  18. Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the Uterus

    ... Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Uterine cancer Cancer of the uterus (uterine cancer) is cancer ... Institute . Expand all | Collapse all What is uterine cancer? Cancer is a disease in which certain body ...

  19. Apoptotic induction activity of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. extracts on human lung and cervical cancer cell lines

    Pintusorn Hansakul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. (Yaa paak khwaai and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. (Yaa teen-ka have long been used in traditional Thai medicine because of their diuretic, anti-inflamatory, and antipyretic effects. The present study examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of the hexane and butanolic extracts of these two grass species. All the grass extracts exhibited selective growth inhibition effect on human lung cancer (A549 and cervical cancer (HeLa cells relative to normal human lung MRC-5 fibroblasts with IC50 values in a range of 202 to 845 mg/ml. Apparently, HeLa cellswere more sensitive to the extracts than A549 cells. Moreover, all the extracts induced lethality in both cancer cell lines atconcentrations close to 1,000 mg/ml, indicating their selective cytotoxicity effects. ELISA assay showed that only the hexaneextract of D. aegyptium (L. P.B. and E. indica (L. Gaerth. significantly increased the apoptotic level in extract-treatedA549 cells. However, DNA ladder assay detected classic DNA ladder patterns, a characteristic feature of apoptosis, in both cancer cell lines treated with all the extracts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicatethat the cytotoxic activity of the grass extracts against lung and cervical cancer cells is mediated through the induction ofapoptosis.

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Cancer Research Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy ...

  1. Lung Cancer

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  2. Vaginal Cancer

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  3. Gastric cancer

    Douglass, H.O.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer

  4. Diet and cancer

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood ... A to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic ...

  7. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...

  8. Stages of Rectal Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  9. Stages of Colon Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  10. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... hormone therapy and for tumors that express hormone receptors . Obesity is also a risk factor for breast ...

  11. Testicular Cancer Screening

    ... undescended testicle) is a risk factor for testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information about testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men ...

  12. Occupational cancer

    Nelson, N.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer resulting from occupational exposure is now receiving major attention, focusing on identification, regulation, and control of cancer-causing agents. Such cancer can result from exposure to chemicals and ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Extended exposure (often years) and an extended latent period of perhaps decades may intervene before tumor appearance. Although the actual extent of occupational cancer is in debate, estimates have ranged from 4 to 15 per cent of all cancer

  13. Occupational cancer

    Alderson, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book aims to review the occurrence and causes of occupational cancer and is aimed at assisting medical and safety staff, management and health and safety representatives. It is presented in the following chapters: 1) Epidemiological method 2) Agents causing occupationally induced cancer, including radiation 3) Occupations associated with risk of cancer 4) Aetiology of cancer 5) Control of occupationally induced cancer, research, prevention, legislation, national and international bodies, control of specific occupational carcinogens, including irradiation. (U.K.)

  14. Predictors of Lymph Node Metastasis and Prognosis in pT1 Colorectal Cancer Patients with Signet-Ring Cell and Mucinous Adenocarcinomas

    Bao-Rong Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The local excision of early colorectal cancer is limited by the presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM. Signet-ring cell carcinomas (SRC and mucinous adenocarcinomas (MAC are two relatively infrequent histological subtypes. However, little is known about the predictors of LNM and prognosis to support the feasibility of local excision in early-stage SRC and MAC. Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Database were used to identify all patients with pT1 adenocarcinomas, including conventional adenocarcinoma (AC, MAC, and SRC. The prevalence of LNM was assessed, and the long-term survival rate in the above three types of colorectal cancer was calculated. Results: SRC accounted for 0.3% and MAC accounted for 4.4% of the entire cohort of colorectal adenocarcinomas. Compared to AC, MRC and SRC were more often located in the proximal colon, and exhibited a higher grade. The incidence of LNM in AC, MAC, and SRC was 10.6%, 17.2%, and 33.3% for colon cancers and 14.8%, 25.9%, and 46.2% for rectal cancers, respectively. In patients with lymph nodes resected no less than 12, incidence of LNM in AC, MRC, and SRC was 12%, 21%, and 44% for colon tumors and 17%, 30%, and 14% for rectal tumors, respectively. Although, colon patients MAC showed an entirely worse survival rate than AC, rectum patients MAC showed a similar prognosis to AC. We found that in patients with rectal tumors, SRC had a worse 3 and 5-year prognosis than AC. However, for colon cancers, the prognosis of SRC was similar to that of AC. Histology was not found to be an independent prognostic factor in multivariate survival analysis. Conclusions: MAC and SRC are two distinct subtypes of colorectal cancer that require special attention despite their relatively rare prevalence. pT1 patients with SRC of the rectum and patients with MAC of the colon have higher incidences of LNM, and with these adverse outcomes, local excision is not recommended. AlthoughMAC of the

  15. Prostate Cancer

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  16. Colorectal Cancer

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  17. Gallbladder Cancer

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  18. Nasal Cancer

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  19. Cancer Disparities

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  20. Thymus Cancer

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  1. Pancreatic Cancer

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  2. Intestinal Cancer

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  3. Esophageal Cancer

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  4. Cancer treatments

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000901.htm Cancer treatments To use the sharing features on this page, ... or IV. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that relies on the body's ability to fight ...

  5. Bladder Cancer

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  6. Breast cancer

    ... can help you know how to prevent breast cancer. Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not increase the risk for breast cancer. There is also no evidence of a direct ...

  7. Kidney Cancer

    ... kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One ... doesn't go away Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Tiredness Fever, which usually comes and goes ( ...

  8. Endometrial Cancer

    ... thick and show changes that look like cancer. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common sign of EIN. Diagnosis and ... The most common symptom of endometrial cancer is abnormal uterine bleeding. For women who are premenopausal, this includes irregular ...

  9. Breast cancer

    A collaborative article gives an overview of breast cancer in LICs, ... approach to the problem; therefore they are published as two separate ... attached to the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Their founding statement in its early form is included.

  10. Cancer - vulva

    ... freckle, which may be pink, red, white, or gray Skin thickening or lump Skin sore (ulcer) Other ... vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer Images Female perineal anatomy References Jhingran A, Russell AH, Seiden MV, et ...

  11. Cancer - penis

    ... an organ that makes up part of the male reproductive system. Causes Cancer of the penis is rare. Its ... penis; Glansectomy; Partial penectomy Images Male reproductive anatomy Male reproductive system References Heinlen JE, Culkin DJ. Cancer of the ...

  12. Cervical Cancer

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  13. Cancer Basics

    ... The treatment of cancer using medication is called chemotherapy . Certain cancers respond well to chemo, which often can be given on an outpatient basis. Someone who is having chemotherapy may experience nausea, fatigue, hair loss, or other ...

  14. Prostate cancer

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  15. Prostate cancer

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  16. Profiling cancer

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  17. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Lung Cancer Screening

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  19. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  1. Throat or larynx cancer

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Coping with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality ... Talking about Your Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced ...

  3. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  4. Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  5. Testicular Cancer

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  6. Breast cancer

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by ... Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early ... Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  10. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    ... Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  11. Lung Cancer

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  12. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  13. General Information About Endometrial Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Endometrial Cancer)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  15. Cancer immunotherapy

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  16. Oral cancer.

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  17. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Chae-Ok [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Deok-Jong [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Young, E-mail: choieun@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-04

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  18. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Han, Deok-Jong; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  19. Salivary Gland Cancer

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  20. Gallbladder Cancer Overview

    ... Content Español ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  1. Vulvar Cancer Overview

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer ... cancer’s grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  3. Breast cancer

    Gablerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    In this work the topic of breast cancer treated more generally and mainly focused on risk factors for the development. The theoretical part describes the general knowledge about breast cancer as a stage or treatment. The practical part is to have clarified the risk factors that have some bearing on the diagnosis of breast cancer. What level are involved in the probability of occurrence? Can we eliminate them? As a comparison of risk factors examined in the Czech Republic, England, Australia a...

  4. Cervical Cancer

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  5. Cancer cachexia

    Nada Rotovnik Kozjek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the Slovenian multidisciplinary agreement statement on the definition, staging, clinical classification and multimodal approach to the treatment of cachexia in cancer patients. The consensus was reached during a multidisciplinary plenary session, and is based on the international definition of cancer cachexia adopted in 2011. Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle with or without concomitant loss of fat, which cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment. Its pathophysiology is characterized by a negative energy and protein balance due to a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes. In cancer patients, the cachexia syndrome can develop progressively through various stages – from precachexia to cachexia and finally, to refractory cachexia–represent-ing a continuum of metabolic changes, clini-cal signs and symptoms. Patients can progress from precachexia to cachexia, and reverse from cachexia into precachectic stages, while (as the term itself implies, the condition of refractory or irreversible cachexia has poor therapeutic response. A clinical algorithm for recognition and treatment of cachexia in cancer patients is presented. All cancer patients should be screened for cachexia and precachexia on presentation. Patients who fulfil diagnostic criteria for cancer cachexia should have its clinical stage determined. According to phenotype / clinical stage, a multimodal approach should be adopted in the treatment of all cases of cancer cachexia. A typical multimodal management plan in cachectic patients consists of early dietary intervention, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapy and early cancer-related symptom relief. The cachexia treatment pathway should be adopted as a pathway parallel to conventional cancer treatment. Practical implementation of cancer cachexia

  6. Prostate cancer

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  7. Esophagus cancer

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Ways of metastatic spreading of esophagus cancer, depending on segmental division of esophagus are considered. Classification of esophagus cancer according to morphological structure, domestic clinical classification according to stages and international classification according to TNM system are presented. Diagnosis of esophagus cancer should be complex and based on results of clinical examination of patients, radiological, endoscopic and morphological investigations. Radiological, surgical and combined (preoperative radiotherapy with successive operation) methods of treatment are used in the case of esophagus cancer. Versions of preoperative radiotherapy are given. Favourable results of applying combined surgical treatment with preoperative radiotherapy are shown

  8. Gastric cancer

    Salek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Primarily due to early detection of the disease, the results of treatment for gastric cancer have improved in Japan, Korea and several specialized Western centres. Surgery offers excellent long-term survival results for early gastric cancer (EGC). In the Western world, however more than 80 % of patients at diagnosis have an advanced gastric cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of surgery is the complete removal of the tumour (UICC R0-resection), which is known to be the only proven, effective treatment modality and the most important treatmentrelated prognostic factor. The prognosis after surgical treatment of gastric cancer remains poor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a rising option in locally advanced gastric cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiation has been shown to be beneficial in gastric cancer patients who have undergone suboptimal surgical resection. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy alone seem to be very small, Untreated metastatic gastric cancer is associated with a median survival of only 3 - 4 months, but this can be increased to 8 - 10 months, associated with improved quality of life, with combination chemotherapy. Currently, no standard combination chemotherapy regimen exists, although regimens utilizing both cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, such as epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) or docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (DCF) are amongst the most active. Newer chemotherapeutic agents, including irinotecan, oxaliplatin and taxanes, show promising activity, and are currently being tested with biologics in clinical trials. (author)

  9. Endometrial cancer.

    Porter, Stephanie

    2002-08-01

    To provide an update for nurses involved in the care of women at risk or being treated for endometrial cancer. Review articles, research reports, and medical and nursing text-books. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Although most women with endometrial cancer present with early stage disease and have an excellent chance of cure, approximately 6,600 women in the United States are expected to die from the disease in 2002. Treatment of patients with advanced or recurrent disease remains challenging, with no proven best standard of treatment. Nursing plays an important role in prevention and early detection of endometrial cancer, patient education, patient care, and rehabilitation.

  10. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  11. Cancer during Pregnancy

    ... Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us You are here Home > Navigating Cancer Care > Dating, Sex, and Reproduction > Cancer During Pregnancy Request Permissions Cancer ...

  12. Skin Cancer Screening

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  16. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators ... Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System ... The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy Progress Annual Report to the Nation Milestones in Cancer Research and ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  2. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  3. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Your Advanced Cancer Coping with Your ... to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance ...

  5. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma). Use the menu below to ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical ... Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs ...

  7. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  8. Breast Cancer Prevention

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Advanced ... Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing ...

  10. Cytotoxic effect of Alpinia scabra (Blume) Náves extracts on human breast and ovarian cancer cells.

    Reddy, Annushuya Subba; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Ibrahim, Halijah; Sim, Kae Shin

    2013-11-12

    Alpinia scabra, locally known as 'Lengkuas raya', is an aromatic, perennial and rhizomatous herb from the family Zingiberaceae. It is a wild species which grows largely on mountains at moderate elevations in Peninsular Malaysia, but it can also survive in the lowlands like in the states of Terengganu and Northern Johor. The present study reports the cytotoxic potential of A. scabra extracts from different parts of the plant. The experimental approach in the present study was based on a bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform and water) from different parts of A. scabra (leaves, rhizomes, roots and pseudo stems) were prepared prior to the cytotoxicity evaluation against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and hormone-dependent breast (MCF7) carcinoma cells. The identified cytotoxic extracts were then subjected to chemical investigations in order to identify the active ingredients. A normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) was used to determine the specificity for cancerous cells. The cytotoxic extracts and fractions were also subjected to morphological assessment, DNA fragmentation analysis and DAPI nuclear staining. The leaf (hexane and chloroform) and rhizome (chloroform) extracts showed high inhibitory effect against the tested cells. Ten fractions (LC1-LC10) were yielded after purification of the leaf chloroform extract. Fraction LC4 which showed excellent cytotoxic activity was further purified and resulted in 17 sub-fractions (VLC1-VLC17). Sub-fraction VLC9 showed excellent cytotoxicity against MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells but not toxic against normal MRC-5 cells. Meanwhile, eighteen fractions (RC1-RC18) were obtained after purification of the rhizome chloroform extract, of which fraction RC5 showed cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 cells with high selectivity index. There were marked morphological changes when observed using phase-contrast inverted microscope, DAPI nuclear staining and also DNA fragmentations in MCF7 and

  11. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induced by safranal in human prostate cancer cell line

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Apoptosis, an important mechanism that contributes to cell growth reduction, is reported to be induced by Crocus sativus (Saffron in different cancer types. However, limited effort has been made to correlate these effects to the active ingredients of saffron. The present study was designed to elucidate cytotoxic and apoptosis induction by safranal, the major coloring compound in saffron, in a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3. Materials and Methods: PC-3 and human fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5 cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was performed to assess cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of safranal, and cell morphologic changes and apoptosis were determined by the normal inverted microscope, Annexin V, and propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Results: MTT assay revealed a remarkable and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of safranal on PC-3 cells in comparison with non-malignant cell line. The morphologic alterations of the cells confirmed the MTT results. The IC 50 values against PC-3 cells were found to be 13.0 ΁ 0.07 and 6.4 ΁ 0.09 μg/ml at 48 and 72 h, respectively. Safranal induced an early and late apoptosis in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating apoptosis is involved in this toxicity. DNA analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 48 and 72 h after treatment, indicative of apoptosis. Conclusions: Our preclinical study demonstrated a prostate cancer cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent.

  12. Skin Cancer.

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer Clusters

    ... and number of cases of each type, the age of the people with cancer, and the area and time period over which the cancers were diagnosed. They also ask about specific environmental hazards or concerns in the affected area. If the review of ...

  14. Renal cancer.

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  15. Skin cancer

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  16. Cervical Cancer

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.

  17. Eye Cancer

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  18. Renal cancer

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  19. MTH1 deficiency selectively increases non-cytotoxic oxidative DNA damage in lung cancer cells: more bad news than good?

    Abbas, Hussein H K; Alhamoudi, Kheloud M H; Evans, Mark D; Jones, George D D; Foster, Steven S

    2018-04-16

    Targeted therapies are based on exploiting cancer-cell-specific genetic features or phenotypic traits to selectively kill cancer cells while leaving normal cells unaffected. Oxidative stress is a cancer hallmark phenotype. Given that free nucleotide pools are particularly vulnerable to oxidation, the nucleotide pool sanitising enzyme, MTH1, is potentially conditionally essential in cancer cells. However, findings from previous MTH1 studies have been contradictory, meaning the relevance of MTH1 in cancer is still to be determined. Here we ascertained the role of MTH1 specifically in lung cancer cell maintenance, and the potential of MTH1 inhibition as a targeted therapy strategy to improve lung cancer treatments. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown or small-molecule inhibition, we tested the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of MTH1 deficiency on H23 (p53-mutated), H522 (p53-mutated) and A549 (wildtype p53) non-small cell lung cancer cell lines relative to normal MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. We also assessed if MTH1 inhibition augments current therapies. MTH1 knockdown increased levels of oxidatively damaged DNA and DNA damage signaling alterations in all lung cancer cell lines but not normal fibroblasts, despite no detectable differences in reactive oxygen species levels between any cell lines. Furthermore, MTH1 knockdown reduced H23 cell proliferation. However, unexpectedly, it did not induce apoptosis in any cell line or enhance the effects of gemcitabine, cisplatin or radiation in combination treatments. Contrastingly, TH287 and TH588 MTH1 inhibitors induced apoptosis in H23 and H522 cells, but only increased oxidative DNA damage levels in H23, indicating that they kill cells independently of DNA oxidation and seemingly via MTH1-distinct mechanisms. MTH1 has a NSCLC-specific p53-independent role for suppressing DNA oxidation and genomic instability, though surprisingly the basis of this may not be reactive-oxygen-species-associated oxidative stress. Despite this, overall

  20. Occupational cancer

    Choril, A.C.; McCracken, W.J.; Dowd, E.C.; Stewart, Charles; Burton, D.F.; Dyer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario in identifying cases of cancer that could be attributed to occupational hazards. Workers' claims for compensation are allowed if there is reasonable medical evidence that their cancer was caused by exposure to risk factors associated with their occupation. Details of the types of cancers associated with specific carcinogens or fields of employment are discussed. About 50% of the cases were related to exposure in particular industrial operations that functioned for relatively brief periods. The number of deaths from cancer identified as being caused by occupational factors is compared with the total for cancer from all causes in Ontario during the period 1971 through 1975. Although all workers eligible for compensation may not have been identified, the data suggest that less than 1% is presently caused by occupational factors

  1. Breast cancer

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  2. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  3. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Cervical ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  4. General Information about Rectal Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  5. General Information about Colon Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Rectal Cancer)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... only hormone therapy after a hysterectomy . Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Aromatase inhibitors . Less exposure of breast ...

  9. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... compete with androgens for binding to the androgen receptor. By competing for binding to the androgen receptor, ...

  10. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Vaginal Cancer Vaginal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and ...

  11. Breast Cancer Overview

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  12. Breast Cancer -- Male

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  13. Cancer world

    Koch, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    The author attempts to point out the relationships between various factors of our environment favouring disease (profession, chemicals, air pollution, nuclear power plants, ultra-violet rays etc.) respectively our ways of living (nutrition, drink, smoking), and the incidence and frequence of cancer. In his opinion, cancer is the toll man has to pay for industrialization and the destruction of the environment, and cancer therapy must begin long before the patient's treatment by changing that same einvironment. The different carcinogenous factors are discussed in detail and each chapter concludes with recommendations to those concerned and request for legislation. (MG) [de

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Questions ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer ... 1: Application Development & Submission Step 2: Application Receipt & Assignment Step 3: ...

  16. Physical Activity and Cancer

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  17. Breast cancer

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  18. Lung cancer

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  19. Lung cancer

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  20. Bladder Cancer

    ... chemicals used in the manufacture of dyes, rubber, leather, textiles and paint products. Previous cancer treatment. Treatment ... instructions to avoid exposure. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables. Choose a diet rich in a ...

  1. Testicular Cancer

    ... getting it in the other one? Is my son more likely to get testicular cancer if I ... and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  2. Colorectal cancer

    Akiba, Suminori

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes colorectal cancer risk in relation to A-bomb radiation. The RERF Life Span Study has revealed the incidence of colorectal cancer to be significantly high in the group of A-bomb survivors than the control group. With regard to relative risk or excess relative risk, there is no definitive difference among sites in the colon. Risk for colon cancer is found to be linearly increased with increasing radiation doses, and in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Risk associated with one Gy is estimated to be increased by double. There is no definitive variation between sex and between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Excess relative risk would be increased rapidly with aging in the whole group of A-bomb survivors and with the cancer-prone age in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. (N.K.)

  3. Colorectal Cancer

    ... possible. Research will help us better understand whether chemotherapy can benefit elderly colorectal cancer patients. Such patients often do not receive chemotherapy due to concerns about side effects. We will ...

  4. Adrenocortical cancer

    Payabyab, Eden C.; Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve; Edgerly, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    The development of new therapies has lagged behind for rare cancers without defined therapeutic targets. Adrenocortical cancer is no exception. Mitotane, an older agent considered "adrenolytic," is used both to control symptoms in advanced disease and as adjuvant therapy after surgical resection....... Molecular characterization of adrenocortical cancer has deepened our understanding of this genetically complex disease while identifying subgroups whose importance remains to be determined. Unfortunately, such studies have yet to demonstrate a therapeutic target for drug development, and to date......, no targeted therapy has achieved meaningful outcomes. Consequently, first-line therapy for metastatic disease remains a combination regimen of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatinum established in a randomized clinical trial. In addition to evaluating recent studies in adrenocortical cancer, we raise one...

  5. Cervical cancer

    ... bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, ... Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - ... Images Cervical cancer Cervical neoplasia ...

  6. Esophageal Cancer

    ... up of several layers of tissue, including muscle, connective tissue that supports the framework of the body, and an inner lining called the mucosa. Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells (the building ...

  7. Vaginal cancer

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  8. Skin Cancer

    ... sunlamps. There are 2 types of UV rays: UVA rays (long-wave) – UVA rays penetrate clouds and glass. They penetrate the ... to cancer. But studies have shown that both UVA and UVB damage the skin and can cause ...

  9. Breast Cancer

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  10. Cancer nanotheranostics

    Gopinath, P; Matai, Ishita; Bhushan, Bharat; Malwal, Deepika; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

  11. Prostate cancer

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  12. Stomach cancer

    Ito, Chikako

    1992-01-01

    Malignant tumors have received much attention as delayed effects of A-bomb radiation. Above all, it is of a major concern to determine how the incidence of stomach cancer, commonly observed among Japanese, is influenced by A-bomb radiation. This article focusses on the relationship between A-bomb radiation and the incidence of stomach cancer, and its histological features with a brief review of the literature. Mass screening for stomach cancer has showed in 1973 that the incidence of stomach cancer is definitely high among the heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. Since then, data analyses using the T65DR have showed it to be higher in the 100 rad exposed group than the 0 rad exposed group. On the basis of death certificates, the incidence of stomach cancer is found to be increased around 1976. When using DS86, the calculated lowest dose that produces a significantly high mortality incidence from stomach cancer is 1 Gy at the sheilding kerma and 0.5 Gy at organ absorbed dose. Histopathologically, the incidence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma is increased with increasing radiation doses; it is significantly increased in the 1 rad exposed group. The incidence of medullary type is decreased and the incidence of scirrhous type is increased with increasing radiation doses. (N.K.)

  13. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  14. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...

  15. Basic Cancer Terms

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  16. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  17. Screening for Cancer

    Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.

  18. What Is Lung Cancer?

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  19. Prostate cancer - treatment

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  20. Lung cancer - small cell

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  2. Stages of Vulvar Cancer

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available Skip to content Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer ...

  4. Cancer and Obesity

    ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cancer and obesity Overweight and obesity are associated with cancer Language: ... a cancer associated with overweight and obesity. Problem Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. What’s happening? ...

  5. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  6. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship ... Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers ...

  8. Oral Cancer Screening

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer ... can talk about it in a clear and supportive way. Two viewer guides are also available: for ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  11. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  12. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  13. Stephenson Cancer Center

    Stephenson Cancer Center at the University of Oklahoma in Oklahoma City is an NCI-designated cancer center at the forefront of NCI-supported cancer research. Learn more about the Stephenson Cancer Center's mission.

  14. Skin Cancer Foundation

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ... Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  19. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    ... Doing AMIGAS Stay Informed Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool The Data Visualizations tool makes ...

  20. Cancer in Older Adults

    ... Home > Navigating Cancer Care > For Older Adults For Older Adults A full-text transcript is available. More than ... Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Aging and Cancer Cancer Care Decisions for ...

  1. Breast cancer screening

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  2. Stages of Breast Cancer

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  3. Breast Cancer Treatment

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  4. Chemotherapy to Treat Cancer

    Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Learn how chemotherapy works against cancer, why it causes side effects, and how it is used with other cancer treatments.

  5. Lung Cancer Trends

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  6. Cancer Surgery: Physically Removing Cancer

    ... in the hospital for a time before going home. Your health care team will give you specific directions for your ... Cancer.Net. ... robotics, electronics. In: Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological ...

  7. More Cancer Types - SEER Cancer Stat Facts

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  8. Comparison of lung cancer cell lines representing four histopathological subtypes with gene expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR

    Kawaguchi Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancers are the most common type of human malignancy and are intractable. Lung cancers are generally classified into four histopathological subtypes: adenocarcinoma (AD, squamous cell carcinoma (SQ, large cell carcinoma (LC, and small cell carcinoma (SC. Molecular biological characterization of these subtypes has been performed mainly using DNA microarrays. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of these four subtypes using twelve human lung cancer cell lines and the more reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Results We selected 100 genes from public DNA microarray data and examined them by DNA microarray analysis in eight test cell lines (A549, ABC-1, EBC-1, LK-2, LU65, LU99, STC 1, RERF-LC-MA and a normal control lung cell line (MRC-9. From this, we extracted 19 candidate genes. We quantified the expression of the 19 genes and a housekeeping gene, GAPDH, with qPCR, using the same eight cell lines plus four additional validation lung cancer cell lines (RERF-LC-MS, LC-1/sq, 86-2, and MS-1-L. Finally, we characterized the four subtypes of lung cancer cell lines using principal component analysis (PCA of gene expression profiling for 12 of the 19 genes (AMY2A, CDH1, FOXG1, IGSF3, ISL1, MALL, PLAU, RAB25, S100P, SLCO4A1, STMN1, and TGM2. The combined PCA and gene pathway analyses suggested that these genes were related to cell adhesion, growth, and invasion. S100P in AD cells and CDH1 in AD and SQ cells were identified as candidate markers of these lung cancer subtypes based on their upregulation and the results of PCA analysis. Immunohistochemistry for S100P and RAB25 was closely correlated to gene expression. Conclusions These results show that the four subtypes, represented by 12 lung cancer cell lines, were well characterized using qPCR and PCA for the 12 genes examined. Certain genes, in particular S100P and CDH1, may be especially important for distinguishing the different subtypes. Our results

  9. Gynecologic cancer

    Uehara, Takashi; Katsumata, Noriyuki

    2008-01-01

    Surgery and radiation therapy have been the main types of treatment for gynecologic cancer. However, chemotherapy in gynecologic oncology has recently made dramatic progress and presently is becoming the most widespread treatment. After the discovery of cisplatin in the field of chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer, it has now become the leading treatment modality. According to the result of several important phase III randomized control trials (RCTs), the platinum-taxane combined therapy has now become the standard treatment regimen. Regarding endometrial cancer, Cisplatin-Adriamycin-Cyclophosphamide (CAP) therapy has been used as an effective adjuvant chemotherapy in Japan. The adjuvant chemotherapy (Adriamycin-Cisplatin therapy) for the endometrial cancer has now been recognized worldwide as the standard therapy based on the findings of a phase III RCT. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer has also been recommended as the standard therapy in Japan since 1999 based on the successful results of numerous RCTs which proved its efficacy. The chemotherapy for gynecologic cancers has been investigated and standardized based on the results of numerous clinical trials. These trials have been conducted by many clinical trial groups, such as the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) throughout the world, in addition to the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) and the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG) in Japan. The valuable contributions of these clinical trials are helping in the development of new drug therapies, thus leading to such treatment regimens playing increasingly important and wider roles in the field of gynecologic oncology treatment in the future. (author)

  10. Concurrent Targeting of KRAS and AKT by MiR-4689 Is a Novel Treatment Against Mutant KRAS Colorectal Cancer

    Masayuki Hiraki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available KRAS mutations are a major cause of drug resistance to molecular-targeted therapies. Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling may cause dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA and gene regulatory networks, which leads to cancer initiation and progression. To address the functional relevance of miRNAs in mutant KRAS cancers, we transfected exogenous KRASG12V into human embryonic kidney 293 and MRC5 cells with wild-type KRAS and BRAF genes, and we comprehensively profiled the dysregulated miRNAs. The result showed that mature miRNA oligonucleotide (miR-4689, one of the significantly down-regulated miRNAs in KRASG12V overexpressed cells, was found to exhibit a potent growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effect both in vitro and in vivo. miR-4689 expression was significantly down-regulated in cancer tissues compared to normal mucosa, and it was particularly decreased in mutant KRAS CRC tissues. miR-4689 directly targets v-ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1(AKT1, key components of two major branches in EGFR pathway, suggesting KRAS overdrives this signaling pathway through inhibition of miR-4689. Overall, this study provided additional evidence that mutant KRAS functions as a broad regulator of the EGFR signaling cascade by inhibiting miR-4689, which negatively regulates both RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT pathways. These activities indicated that miR-4689 may be a promising therapeutic agent in mutant KRAS CRC.

  11. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  12. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  13. Cancer section

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of the program at ORNL which is concerned with the study of cancer. The studies range from those at the molecular level and the control of gene expression to those concerning cell interactions and the role of immune responses. Since the agents capable of inducing cancer are multiple, the approaches must encompass the specific characteristics of chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation and viruses. The approach of the molecular biological studies is centered on the role of activation of transposable gene elements. One investigation is concerned with the study of radiation-induced myelogenous leukemia. The other radiation carcinogenesis studies fall into two major groups. First, there are investigations of various facets of the mechanisms of cancer induction. The molecular and chromosomal studies fall into this category. The second group of studies includes those that are concerned with risk estimates

  14. Oncolytic herpes viruses, chemotherapeutics, and other cancer drugs

    Braidwood L

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lynne Braidwood,1 Sheila V Graham,2 Alex Graham,1 Joe Conner11Virttu Biologics Ltd, Department of Neurology, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, UK; 2MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Jarrett Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UKAbstract: Oncolytic viruses are emerging as a potential new way of treating cancers. They are selectively replication-competent viruses that propagate only in actively dividing tumor cells but not in normal cells and, as a result, destroy the tumor cells by consequence of lytic infection. At least six different oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSVs have undergone clinical trials worldwide to date, and they have demonstrated an excellent safety profile and intimations of efficacy. The first pivotal Phase III trial with an oHSV, talimogene laherparepvec (T-Vec [OncoVexGM-CSF], is almost complete, with extremely positive early results reported. Intuitively, therapeutically beneficial interactions between oHSV and chemotherapeutic and targeted therapeutic drugs would be limited as the virus requires actively dividing cells for maximum replication efficiency and most anticancer agents are cytotoxic or cytostatic. However, combinations of such agents display a range of responses, with antagonistic, additive, or, perhaps most surprisingly, synergistic enhancement of antitumor activity. When synergistic interactions in cancer cell killing are observed, chemotherapy dose reductions that achieve the same overall efficacy may be possible, resulting in a valuable reduction of adverse side effects. Therefore, the combination of an oHSV with “standard-of-care” drugs makes a logical and reasonable approach to improved therapy, and the addition of a targeted oncolytic therapy with “standard-of-care” drugs merits further investigation, both preclinically and in the clinic. Numerous publications report

  15. Cervix cancer

    Pointreau, Y.; Ruffier Loubiere, A.; Barillot, I.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.; Barillot, I.

    2010-01-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated. (authors)

  16. Gastric cancer

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  17. Esophageal cancer

    Dupuis, O.; Ganem, G.; Denis, F.; Bera, G.; Pointreau, Y.; Pradier, O.; Martin, P.; Mirabel, X.

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal cancers are highly malignant tumours with often a poor prognosis, except for minimal lesions treated with surgery. Radiation therapy, or combined radiation and chemotherapy is the most used therapeutic modality, alone or before oesophagectomy. The delineation of target volumes is now more accurate owing the possibility to use routinely the new imaging techniques (mainly PET). The aim of this work is to precise the radio-anatomical particularities, the pattern of spread of esophageal cancer and the principles of 3D conformal radiotherapy illustrated with a clinical case. (authors)

  18. Penile Cancer

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  19. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    ... Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types ... Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted ...

  20. Pancreas cancer

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kato, Hirotoshi; Hara, Ryusuke

    2006-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas continues to be a significant source of cancer mortality in Japan, resulting in approximately 19,000 deaths a year. It is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan, with a less than 5% 5-year expected survival rate. About 70-75% of patients with pancreas cancer present with locally advanced disease or distant metastases and have a median survival time of only 6 months. For unresectable pancreas cancer, the median survival time with external beam radiation (EBRT) was better than with surgical bypass or stents alone. The median survival of EBRT alone was 4 to 7 months. The median survival with combined EBRT and chemotherapy for locally unresectable tumor are 8 to 10 months and better than with the EBRT alone. Local failure of these combined therapies was still 26 to 48%. On the other hand, surgery with curative intent is undertaken in 15-20% of patients. Even after resection, the predicted 5-year survival rates are still less than 20%. Local recurrences in the pancreatic bed are seen in 50% of the patients undergoing presumed curative resection. We examined the effect of carbon ion therapy in terms of reducing the rate of local recurrence in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or undergoing resection for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. (author)

  1. Breast Cancer

    ... right away. He or she will do a physical exam. They will ask you about your health history and your family’s history of breast cancer. ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  2. Nasopharyngeal cancer

    Fleury, B.; Biston, M.C.; Montbarbon, X.; Pommier, P.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to propose recommendations concerning the delineation of the target volume of the nasopharyngeal cancers, the planning of the treatment, and describe the expected results about the efficiency and the toxicities. Theses recommendations are based upon anatomy, natural history of theses tumors, and upon published experiences from different teams working with IMRT. (authors)

  3. Prostate cancer

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  4. Lung cancer

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  5. Esophageal cancer

    Mortensen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in esophageal cancer (EC) has changed, and focus directed towards tumors of the distal esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. The genetic events leading to EC are not fully clarified, but important risk factors have been...

  6. Vulvar Cancer

    ... is not your period Changes in the vulvar skin, such as color changes or growths that look like a wart or ulcer You are at greater risk if you've had a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or have a history of genital warts. Your health care provider diagnoses vulvar cancer with a physical exam ...

  7. Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Lafond, C.; Denis, F.; Pointreau, Y.; Calais, G.; Pointreau, Y.; Debelleix, C.; Bourhis, J.; Thariat, J.

    2010-01-01

    Cancers of the oropharynx are common lesions. Their treatment often includes radiation therapy either exclusively or in combination with chemotherapy or after surgery. The definition of target volumes is made difficult by the complex anatomy of this area. The aim of this work is to clarify the principles of 3D conformal radiation illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  8. Kidney Cancer

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  9. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J., E-mail: christiane.bruns@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377, Munich (Germany)

    2010-08-19

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  10. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24281178

  11. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Karl-Walter Jauch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  12. Reports on Cancer - Cancer Statistics

    Interactive tools for access to statistics for a cancer site by gender, race, ethnicity, calendar year, age, state, county, stage, and histology. Statistics include incidence, mortality, prevalence, cost, risk factors, behaviors, tobacco use, and policies and are presented as graphs, tables, or maps.

  13. Surveillance of rare cancers

    van der Zwan, Johannes Martinus

    2016-01-01

    The widespread incidence and effects of cancer have led to a growing development in cancer prevention in the form of screening and research programs and cancer registries. Because of the low number of patients with rare cancers this improvement is not applied to the same extent to all cancer

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... content Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes ... and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late ...

  16. Cancer and its management

    Tobias, Jeffrey S; Hochhauser, Daniel; Souhami, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    ... cancer, 328 19 Testicular cancer, 357 20 Thyroid and adrenal cancer, 374 v9781405170154_1_pre.qxd 28/10/09 16:01 Page vi vi Contents 21 Cancer from an unknown primary site, 388 22 Skin cancer, 393 23...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Endometrial Cancer)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  19. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  20. Magnetic resonance cholangiography: comparison of two- and three-dimensional sequences for assessment of malignant biliary obstruction

    Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Ki Whang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to retrospectively compare two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) including breath-hold single-shot rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and multislice half-Fourier RARE versus navigator-triggered 3D-RARE MRC in the evaluation of biliary malignancy. MRC findings were evaluated in 31 patients with malignant biliary obstruction, including biliary malignancy, gallbladder carcinoma, and ampullary cancer. Two observers independently reviewed the images to assess the overall image quality, artifacts, ductal conspicuity, extent of disease, diagnostic confidence of tumor extent, and origin of tumor. The results were compared with surgical and histopathologic findings. Studies obtained with 3D-MRC were of significantly higher technical quality than those obtained with 2D-MRC. However, the accuracy between two sequences for classification of tumor showed no statistical significance. There was no significant difference between the Az values of 2D- and 3D-MRC for overall tumor extent in bilateral second order branch, intrapancreatic common bile duct (CBD) involvement (Az = 0.889, 0.881 for 2D and Az = 0.903, 0.864 for 3D). Nor was there a significant difference between two sequences in the assessment of the origin of tumor. Although 3D-MRC has superior image quality over 2D-MRC, 3D-MRC showed no statistically significant difference in accuracy compared with 2D-MRC for evaluating the extent of disease in malignant biliary obstructions. (orig.)

  1. Stomach Cancer Following Hodgkin Lymphoma, Testicular Cancer and Cervical Cancer

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Curtis, Rochelle E; Hauptmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To further understand the risk of stomach cancer after fractionated high-dose radiotherapy, we pooled individual-level data from three recent stomach cancer case-control studies. These studies were nested in cohorts of five-year survivors of first primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), testicular cancer...... (TC) or cervical cancer (CX) from seven countries. Detailed data were abstracted from patient records and radiation doses were reconstructed to the site of the stomach cancer for cases and to the corresponding sites for matched controls. Among 327 cases and 678 controls, mean doses to the stomach were...... 15.3 Gy, 24.7 Gy and 1.9 Gy, respectively, for Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer and cervical cancer survivors, with an overall mean dose of 10.3 Gy. Risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach cancer site (P

  2. Cervix cancer

    Davila Gomez, Heenry Luis; Garcia Valdes, Abel; Alvarez Castillo, Felix

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted to characterize the behavior of cervix cancer in a sample of 162 patients with this diagnosis during 2003-2009 in the Isla de la Juventud municipality. From the review of case reports from the National Unit of Cancer the individual medical records of Teaching General Hospital of this municipality and from the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology, as well as the deceased persons, it was possible to note that the 63% of cases were women aged 34-57 and that the 20% was in ages outside the screening program. The NIC and/or infection by HPV and smoking were the more frequent risk factors. There was predominance of large cells epidermoid non-keratinized carcinoma and the O stage or in situ. Most of patients were operated on is initial therapy. The great mortality was between fifth and sixth decades of life with a acceptable survival at 5 years

  3. [Cervix cancer].

    Pointreau, Y; Ruffier Loubière, A; Denis, F; Barillot, I

    2010-11-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. PANCREATIC CANCER

    Alojz Pleskovič

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pancreatic cancer is quite common malignant tumor of gastointestinal tract and its incidence is increasing in well developed part of the world. Despite of all advanced diagnostic methods the disease is in most cases recognised too late when the tumor is not resectable.Conclusions. Only in 20–30% of patients with pancreatic cancer surgical resection is possible, and even in this group 5year survival is very low. In the patients where the tumor is not resectable, sometimes only palliative procedures are indicated and sometimes only simptomatic therapy is possible. The average survival period in this group of patients is 12–20 months. Adjuvant chemo and radiotherapy has not shown much of benefit and the prognosis is still very bad.

  5. "Cancer tumor".

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  6. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Cancer

    2013-02-21

    Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Research Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z List of ... Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping ...

  8. Male Breast Cancer

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  9. Cancer in Children

    Cancer is a group related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body's cells begin to divide ... can be benign or malignant. Benign tumorsaren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Training at NCI Funding for Cancer Training Building a Diverse Workforce Other Fellowships and Internships About ... at NCI (Intramural) Funding for Cancer Training (Extramural) Building a Diverse Workforce Other Fellowships & Internships Training Program ...

  11. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    VAGINAL & VULVAR CANCER Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer There are five main types of cancer that affect a woman’s reproductive organs: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar. As a group, they are referred ...

  12. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics ... Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Diagnosis ...

  14. Working during cancer treatment

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000834.htm Working during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Many people continue to work throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer, or the side effects of treatment, may ...

  15. After Cancer Treatment

    ... Better Home Your Health Resources Healthcare Management After Cancer Treatment After Cancer Treatment Share Print From the day you were diagnosed ... of the questions you may have after your cancer treatment ends. Path to well being Will I need ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  17. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- ... Important aspects of cervical cancer screening include the age at which .... High-risk types HPV (16,18) are impli- cated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Resources for ... Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy ...

  1. Male Breast Cancer

    ... types of breast cancer that can occur in men include Paget's disease of the nipple and inflammatory breast cancer. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from their parents that ...

  2. Cancer Nanotechnology Plan

    The Cancer Nanotechnology Plan serves as a strategic document to the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer as well as a guiding document to the cancer nanotechnology and oncology fields, as a whole.

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Trainees Funding for Cancer Training Building a Diverse Workforce About Center for Cancer Training (CCT) CCT Staff & ... Funding for Cancer Training (Extramural) Building a Diverse Workforce Training Program Contacts News & Events Press Releases Resources ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment ... Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of ...

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    ... peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the uterus and fallopian tube. The second panel (stage IIB) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the colon. The third ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... NCI Resources for Trainees Funding for Cancer Training Building a Diverse Workforce About Center for Cancer Training ( ... Resources for Trainees Funding for Cancer Training (Extramural) Building a Diverse Workforce Training Program Contacts News & Events ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System ...

  8. Understanding your cancer prognosis

    ... about: Treatment Palliative care Personal matters such as finances Knowing what to expect may make it easier ... treatment. www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/cancer-basics/understanding-statistics-used-guide-prognosis-and-evaluate-treatment . ...

  9. What Are Cancer Disparities?

    This infographic shows the factors associated with cancer disparities, examples of how the cancer burden differs across certain population groups, and NCI actions to understand and reduce cancer disparities.

  10. Psychosocial cancer care

    family members to cancer is an increasing interest in education, ... all stages of the cancer journey and is passionate about enabling more professionals in South Africa to provide psychosocial cancer .... therapeutic support together with more.

  11. Skin Cancer Treatment

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  12. Stages of Skin Cancer

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  13. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    Squamous cell cancer involves cancerous changes to the cells of the middle portion of the epidermal skin layer. It is ... malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System ...

  15. What Is Cancer?

    ... on the head causes brain cancer or that bad people get cancer. This isn't true! Kids don't do anything wrong to get cancer. But some unhealthy habits, especially cigarette smoking or drinking too much alcohol ...

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  17. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  18. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  19. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  20. Cancer - renal pelvis or ureter

    ... ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer Images Kidney anatomy References National Cancer Institute website. Transitional cell cancer (kidney/ureter) treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer. ...

  1. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  2. Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of large tissue volumes based on composing series of high-resolution confocal images by GlueMRC and LinkMRC software

    Karen, Petr; Jirkovská, M.; Tomori, Z.; Demjénová, E.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2003), s. 415-422 ISSN 1059-910X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/01/0257 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/1146/21; CZ-SK GA MŠk(CZ) KONTAKT 126/184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : 3D reconstruction * confocal microscopy * image processing Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.307, year: 2003

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Media Outreach Program Cancer Reporting Fellowships Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press ...

  4. Types of Cancer Research

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  5. Colon cancer screening

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Funding for Cancer Training ... Media Resources Media ...

  7. Squamous cell skin cancer

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Prostate Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Colorectal Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Bladder Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Kidney Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Cancer research and radiotherapy

    Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1978-01-01

    An actual condition of cancer, and the basis and a future view of radiotherapy were described by adding generally established biological and biochemical knowledge to the author's research. It was described that the relapse of cancer after irradiation was induced from outside of cancerous mass, and the nature of relapsed cancerous cells group was also stated. The histological structure of cancer from a view of cell movement and radioresistant cancerous cells group were described. The differentiation of cancerous cells were described, and a study of inhibition of cancer by redifferentiation was considered. It is important to grasp characteristics and a limit of radiotherapy for cancer, to systematize and materialize reasonable therapy which uses drug and immunotherapy together with surgery, and to use radiotherapy reasonably together with redifferentiation therapy of cancerous cells by extracting characteristics and a limit of radiationtherapy from an actual condition of cancer. (Serizawa, K.)

  16. Cancer prevention.

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  17. HPV and Cancer

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 200 related viruses that can cause several cancers including cervical cancer, anal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Learn more about how HPV is transmitted, the different types of HPV, HPV vaccines, and HPV treatment.

  18. Breast cancer in men

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  19. Staging of Lung Cancer

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  20. Radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    Rich, T.A.; Ajani, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings contain 33 papers grouped under the headings of: Heath memorial award lecture; Large bowel cancer; Esophageal cancer; Pancreatic, Endocrime, and Hepatobiliary cancer; Gastric cancer; Joanne Vandenberge hill award and William O. Russell lectureship in anatomic pathology; and Jeffrey A. Gottlieb memorial lecture

  1. Helicobacter pyloriand gastric cancer

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... only common but is second to lung cancer as a leading cause of cancer-related ... in the developing world,4 although cancer records are not readily available for .... gastric cancers are identified at a late stage due to lack of ...

  2. Breast Cancer Surgery

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  3. Current cancer research 1998

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  4. Current cancer research 1998

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H.

    1998-01-01

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  6. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ...

  8. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... interactions of pregnancy-related mammotrophic factors, ligands, and receptors? What is the time course of pregnancy-related ...

  9. Treatment Options by Stage (Rectal Cancer)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  11. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  12. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  13. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Tests may include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  14. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  15. Telomerers rolle i cancer

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are a double-edged sword when it comes to cancer. On one hand, telomeres limit the cells' ability to divide and thereby restrict the uninhibited growth seen in cancer. On the other hand, short telomeres can initiate the chromosome instability that characterizes cancer. Diseases...... with the combination of short telomeres and high cancer risk are seen, but until now the use of telomeres as predictors of cancer has, in general, been unsuccessful. Telomeres and telomerase play an important role in further cancer development. Researchers are trying to exploit this in the development of new cancer...

  16. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-10-01

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer and tumour markers

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  18. Thyroid cancer: experiences of Cancer Institute, Madras

    Kannan, R. Ravi; Mahajan, V.; Ganesh, M.S.; Ayyappan, S.; Suresh, V.; Suryasen, S.

    1999-01-01

    It has been long recognized that Thyroid Cancer (TC) envelopes under its umbrella a spectrum of cancers from the relatively indolent well differentiated papillary and follicular cancers to the aggressive and rapidly fatal anaplastic cancers. Medullary cancers fall in between the two extremes. Recently, poor prognostic variants of well-differentiated cancers have been described. There is also a move to define a group of poorly differentiated TC including the insular variants distinguishing them from anaplastic carcinomas. Of the 1168 patients with thyroid nodules seen at the Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai between 1956 and 1996, 670 cases proved to be malignant either cytologically or histologically. This report is based on the follow-up of these patients which at 10 years was 75%

  19. The Globalisation of Cancer

    Potterton, L.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer has gone global. Once seen as the disease of the rich and old, cancer now kills over seven million people a year, with 70% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. The number of cancer cases is growing globally, but developing countries are worst hit by the cancer crisis, since the resources needed to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer are severely limited or nonexistent.

  20. Cancer Data and Statistics Tools

    ... Educational Campaigns Initiatives Stay Informed Cancer Data and Statistics Tools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cancer Statistics Tools United States Cancer Statistics: Data Visualizations The ...

  1. Pancreatic cancer

    Diamond, D.; Fisher, B.

    1975-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic advances of the last 30 years have left unchanged the course and prognosis of carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas. The most important reasons for this are the anatomic location and biologic nature of the tumor. An additional factor of importance is the consistently reported 4 to 9 month delay in diagnosis, also unchanged in 30 years. Recent controversy has developed concerning the mainstay of our current surgical treatment surgical treatment, the Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy and its modifications, and its role as the most efficacious surgical approach to this disease. It is the purpose of this paper to review and summarize the clinical characteristics of carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and to review and reassess the standard operative approach. Cancer of the head, body, and tail of the pancreas will be considered together because they have many features in common

  2. Multiple primary cancer

    Jung, Gyu Sik; Lee, Ouk; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duck

    1989-01-01

    It is rare for one human being to be afflicted with more than one cancer. However with further advances in therapeutic regimens, histopathologic observation, diagnostic modalities, and increased curiosity, there are increasing number of case reports of multiple primary cancer. The present study evaluates 25 histologically confirmed cases of multiple primary cancer from 1974 to 1988 at Kosin Medical Center. The most frequent site of the first primary cancer in male was stomach and in female, uterine cervix. The first primary cancer in female occurred in endocrine-related organs (breast, uterus and thyroid) in 63.6 percent. Synchronous cancers are diagnosed simultaneously or within an interval of about six months and synchronous cancers were 16 out of 25 cases. Metachronous cancers are diagnosed at interval of more than six months. There were 9 metachronous cancers and average interval between the first and second primary cancer was 22.8 months. The incidence of multiple primary cancer was 0.11 percent. The average age was 51.9 years at the time of the first primary cancer (53.1 years in male and 50.3 years in female). CT scan was most helpful in early detection of multiple primary cancers facilitating biopsy and surgery. Multiple primary cancers are beyond the medical curiosity. Early diagnosis of the disease and careful follow-up study, based on an awareness of the possibility of second cancers, will substantially increase the survival of these patients

  3. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer.

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-12-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research.

  4. Cancer in Children and Adolescents | Office of Cancer Genomics

    View a fact sheet that has statistics as well as information about types, causes, and treatments of cancers in children and adolescents in the United States. https://www.cancer.gov/types/childhood-cancers/child-adolescent-cancers-fact-sheet

  5. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation

    Handberg, Charlotte; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors...

  6. Cancer--Living with Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... during cancer treatment (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Cancer--Living with ... care plan Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Cancer Cancer Chemotherapy Palliative Care National Institutes of ...

  7. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer

    Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that transforms them into adenocarcinomas. There have been major advances in our understanding of cancer epigenetics over the last decade, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation. Assessment of the colon cancer epigenome has revealed that virtually all colorectal cancers have aberrantly methylated genes and the average colorectal cancer methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these methylated genes, called driver genes, is presumed to play a functional role in colorectal cancer. The assessment of methylated genes in colorectal cancers has also revealed a unique molecular subgroup of colorectal cancers called CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) cancers; these tumors have a particularly high frequency of methylated genes. The advances in our understanding of aberrant methylation in colorectal cancer has led to epigenetic alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in the assessment of epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer and their clinical applications has shown that these alterations will be commonly used in the near future as molecular markers to direct the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22009203

  8. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  9. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  10. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  11. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  12. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  13. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  14. PET scan for breast cancer

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  15. Cancer rehabilitation in Denmark

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption behind cancer rehabilitation in many Western societies is that cancer survivors can return to normal life by learning to deal with the consequences of their illness and their treatment. This assumption is supported by increasing political attention to cancer rehabilitation...... and a growth in residential cancer-rehabilitation initiatives in Denmark (Danish Cancer Society 1999; Government of Denmark 2003). On the basis of their ethnographic fieldwork in residential-cancer rehabilitation courses, the authors examine the new rehabilitation discourse. They argue that this discourse has...

  16. Physics of Cancer

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2015-09-01

    Physics of Cancer focuses on the mechanical properties of cancer cells and their role in cancer disease and metastasis. It discusses the role of the mechanical properties of interacting cells and the connective tissue microenvironment and describes the role of an inflammation during cancer disease. This outstanding book is the first to describe cancer disease from a biophysical point of view without being incomplete in describing the biological site of cancer. Originating in part from the author's own courses on tumor biology and cellular biophysics, this book is suitable for both students and researchers in this dynamic interdisciplinary field, be they from a physical, biological or medical sciences background.

  17. OPT-821 With or Without Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer in Second or Third Complete Remission

    2017-09-12

    Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  18. Cancer-Related Fatigue in Cancer Survivorship.

    Ebede, Chidinma C; Jang, Yongchang; Escalante, Carmen P

    2017-11-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) significantly interferes with usual functioning because of the distressing sense of physical, emotional, and cognitive exhaustion. Assessment of CRF is important and should be performed during the initial cancer diagnosis, throughout cancer treatment, and after treatment using a fatigue scoring scale (mild-severe). The general approach to CRF management applies to cancer survivors at all fatigue levels and includes education, counseling, and other strategies. Nonpharmacologic interventions include psychosocial interventions, exercise, yoga, physically based therapy, dietary management, and sleep therapy. Pharmacologic interventions include psychostimulants. Antidepressants may also benefit when CRF is accompanied by depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer in Punjab: evidence from cancer atlas

    Satyanarayana Labani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer in Punjab has been a news item in the recent past. It was thought that cases in Punjab exceeded the national average and felt that “Punjab the country’s food bowl was in throes of cancer” (1. This presumption was perhaps incorrect. In order to have clarity on the issue, we aimed to review the report of Cancer Atlas in Punjab state for the year 2012-13, recently released by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR. The main idea of generating data through Cancer Atlas approach is to assess patterns of cancer in various parts of Punjab state and to estimate cancer incidence at various districts in Punjab. The sources of data collection in the state are all medical colleges, pathology labs, civil hospitals and individual oncologist throughout the state. These data collection sources are considered important as over 80-85% of registered cases of cancer are generally with a microscopic diagnosis (2. Patient data details in the Atlas approach included are Cancer site and morphology of the cancer as per guidelines for collecting information on all malignant cases. The similar approach that adopted in Cancer Atlas in India such as internet approach is used in entering core patient data for Punjab Atlas by standardized procedures. 

  20. Kidney cancer

    Rajer, M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the epidemiology, diagnostic workup and treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with an emphasis on the Slovenian epidemiological data. RCC represents 2% of all cancers and is the third most common genitourinary tract tumour. It most frequently occurs among people of ages, between 50 and 60 years. Male patients are more prone to it than female. A number of environmental, occupational and genetic factors have been found to be associated with the development of RCC. Patients often have nonspecific symptoms and this is the reason why for half of them the disease is already metastatic when diagnosed. The most common sites of metastases are lungs (75%), followed by soft tissues (36%), bones (20%), liver (18%), skin (8%) and central nerve system (8%). In the evaluation of RCC multiple diagnostic procedures are needed with obligatory image diagnostics. Radical nephrectomy is still the mainstream treatment of localized disease. Nephron sparing techniques have been used in cases, where radical operation would result in an anephric patient. Efficient adjuvant therapy has not been discovered yet. Until recently interpherone and interleukin were the only known effective treatments for metastatic disease, but now new and more efficient biologic agents are being discovered. The most important prognostic factor for survival is stage at the beginning of treatment. The 5-year survival rate is 95% for patients with stage I disease, 88% for stage II, 59% for stage III and 20% for stage IV. (author)

  1. Colorectal cancer

    Gunderson, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Data have been accumulating to support an increased role for combined radiation therapy and surgery in the initial treatment of many rectal and some colonic carcinomas. These include the following findings: 1. Improvements in surgical survival rates have been minimal in the past 25 to 30 years and are the result of an increase in operability with little change by stage of disease in those patients who have survived a ''curative resection.'' 2. The incidence of local recurrence after potentially curative surgery is high in more advanced stages of disease for both rectal and colon cancer. Although palliation of local recurrence can frequently be obtained, its duration is often limited and the curative potential is low. Therefore, prevention of local recurrence with adjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy is imperative. 3. When patients present with fixed, unresectable tumors, aggressive treatment combinations appear to improve both local control and survival. Close interaction is required between the surgeon and the radiation oncologist to achieve these results with an acceptable risk of complications

  2. Prostate cancer

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  3. Cancer screening guidelines.

    Zoorob, R; Anderson, R; Cefalu, C; Sidani, M

    2001-03-15

    Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.

  4. What You Need to Know about Lung Cancer

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Lung Cancer This booklet is about lung cancer. Learning about ...

  5. What You Need to Know about Kidney Cancer

    ... Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Kidney Cancer This booklet is about cancer that starts in ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... and where it is in your body The stage of the cancer, which refers to the size ... percentage of patients with a specific type and stage of cancer who have not died from their ...

  7. Prostate cancer staging

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    ... Finding a Doctor Treatment Options Side Effects Managing Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Side Effects Clinical Trials Patient Resources Guides Videos Prostate Cancer FAQs Information by Stage Newly Diagnosed with Prostate ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Screening

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  10. Lung cancer in elderly

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Centered Approach View this video on YouTube. Anthony L. Back, M.D., ... Most text on the National Cancer Institute website may be reproduced or reused freely. The National Cancer ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy ... Information Legislative Activities Hearings & Testimonies Current Congress Legislative History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws ...

  13. Advanced Cancer Detection Center

    Ruckdeschel, John

    1999-01-01

    ... through screening, and the testing of methods to prevent cancer. In addition, the Center created and supports education programs to provide increased cancer awareness and established working collaborations with the James...

  14. Cancer Alternative Therapies

    You have many choices to make about your cancer treatment. One choice you might be thinking about ... are acupuncture, chiropractic, and herbal medicines. People with cancer may use CAM to Help cope with the ...

  15. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... spread. Certain traits of the cancer cells Your age and how healthy you were before cancer How ... free survival. Because statistics are based on large groups of people, they cannot be used to predict ...

  17. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... of Discovery Research Tools, Specimens, and Data Grants & Training Research Grants Research Funding Opportunities Research Program Contacts ... and Auditing Transfer of a Grant Grant Closeout Training Cancer Training at NCI Funding for Cancer Training ...

  19. Breast Cancer in Men

    ... ultrasound or a breast MRI cannot rule out breast cancer then you will need a biopsy to confirm diagnosis. If diagnosed When first diagnosed with breast cancer, many men are in shock. After all, ...

  20. CDC WONDER: Cancer Statistics

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) online databases in WONDER provide cancer incidence and mortality data for the United States for the years since 1999, by...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn ... Cancer Institute USA.gov NIH ... Turning Discovery Into Health ® TOP

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy Director's Page Previous NCI Directors ... History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Deputy Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, ...

  4. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Resources for ... Staging Prognosis Questions to Ask ... This statistic is another method used to estimate cancer-specific survival that does ...

  6. The physics of cancer

    La Porta, Caterina A M

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of theoretical and experimental contributions to cancer research from different fields of physics, from biomechanics and soft-condensed matter physics to the statistical mechanics of complex systems. Reviewing these contributions and providing a sophisticated overview of the topic, this is the first book devoted to the emerging interdisciplinary field of cancer physics. Systematically integrating approaches from physics and biology, it includes topics such as cancer initiation and progression, metastasis, angiogenesis, cancer stem cells, tumor immunology, cancer cell mechanics and migration. Biological hallmarks of cancer are presented in an intuitive yet comprehensive way, providing graduate-level students and researchers in physics with a thorough introduction to this important subject. The impact of the physical mechanisms of cancer are explained through analytical and computational models, making this an essential reference for cancer biologists interested ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Contacts Monitoring Prior Approvals Annual Reporting and Auditing Transfer of a Grant Grant Closeout Training Cancer Training ... Contacts Monitoring Prior Approvals Annual Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training ...

  8. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    ... child or being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb. The cancer may occur as soon as 5 years ... thyroid cancer, drugs may be given to prevent the body from making thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that can ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... that there are no signs of cancer at this time. Because of the chance that cancer can come back, your doctor will monitor you for many years and do tests to look for signs of ...

  10. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    ... that fruits and nonstarchy vegetables may protect against cancers of the mouth, esophagus , and stomach . Fruits may also protect against lung cancer . Some studies have shown that a diet high ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... 2013 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy Director's Page Previous NCI ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... spread. Certain traits of the cancer cells Your age and how healthy you were before cancer How ... how to discuss prognosis with their patients. Good communication, he says, is part of providing good care. ...

  13. Immunotherapy for cancer

    ... 2017. Accessed February 15, 2018. Pardoll D. Cancer immunology. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan ... D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Immunotherapy Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  14. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  15. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  16. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  17. Stages of Anal Cancer

    ... outside of the body. This is called a colostomy . Lymph nodes that contain cancer may also be ... this operation. Enlarge Resection of the colon with colostomy. Part of the colon containing the cancer and ...

  18. Kidney Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    ... NCI Cancer Information A to Z Treatment Roles Cancer Types Bladder Brain/Spine Breast Cervical Colorectal Esophageal Gallbladder Head/Neck Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Multiple Myeloma Ovarian Pancreatic ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... cancer-specific survival is based on causes of death listed in medical records. Relative survival This statistic ... does not use information about the cause of death. It is the percentage of cancer patients who ...

  20. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...