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Sample records for cancer intergroup gcig

  1. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2007-01-01

    practice. Different scenarios were queried including advanced cervical cancer, postoperative patients, and para-aortic-positive lymph node cases. Items focused on indications for radiation therapy, radiation fields, dose, use of chemotherapy, brachytherapy and others. The cooperative groups from North......PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...... America were compared with the other groups to evaluate potential differences in radiotherapy doses. RESULTS: A total of 39 surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of advanced cervical cancer, external beam pelvic doses and total doses to point A were 47 + 3.5 Gy...

  2. International Brachytherapy Practice Patterns: A Survey of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine current practice patterns with regard to gynecologic high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy among international members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) in Japan/Korea (Asia), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Europe (E), and North America (NAm). Methods and Materials: A 32-item survey was developed requesting information on brachytherapy practice patterns and standard management for Stage IB–IVA cervical cancer. The chair of each GCIG member cooperative group selected radiation oncology members to receive the survey. Results: A total of 72 responses were analyzed; 61 respondents (85%) used HDR. The three most common HDR brachytherapy fractionation regimens for Stage IB–IIA patients were 6 Gy for five fractions (18%), 6 Gy for four fractions (15%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (11%); for Stage IIB–IVA patients they were 6 Gy for five fractions (19%), 7 Gy for four fractions (8%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (8%). Overall, the mean combined external-beam and brachytherapy equivalent dose (EQD2) was 81.1 (standard deviation [SD] 10.16). The mean EQD2 recommended for Stage IB–IIA patients was 78.9 Gy (SD 10.7) and for Stage IIB–IVA was 83.3 Gy (SD 11.2) (p = 0.02). By region, the mean combined EQD2 was as follows: Asia, 71.2 Gy (SD 12.65); ANZ, 81.18 (SD 4.96); E, 83.24 (SD 10.75); and NAm, 81.66 (SD, 6.05; p = 0.02 for Asia vs. other regions).The ratio of brachytherapy to total prescribed dose was significantly higher for Japan (p = 0.0002). Conclusion: Although fractionation patterns may vary, the overall mean doses administered for cervical cancer are similar in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and North America, with practitioners in Japan administering a significantly lower external-beam dose but higher brachytherapy dose to the cervix. Given common goals, standardization should be possible in future clinical trials.

  3. Definitions for response and progression in ovarian cancer clinical trials incorporating RECIST 1.1 and CA 125 agreed by the Gynecological Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustin, Gordon John Sampson; Vergote, Ignace; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth;

    2011-01-01

    The Gynecological Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) has previously reached consensus regarding the criteria that should be used in clinical trial protocols to define progression-free survival after first-line therapy as well as the criteria to define response to treatment in recurrent disease using the se...

  4. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of endometrial cancer in members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG. The GCIG is a global association of cooperative groups involved in the research...

  5. The strong prognostic value of KELIM, a model-based parameter from CA 125 kinetics in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Benoit; Colomban, Olivier; Heywood, Mark;

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected results were recently reported about the poor surrogacy of Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) defined CA-125 response in recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC) patients. Mathematical modeling may help describe CA-125 decline dynamically and discriminate prognostic kinetic parameters....

  6. First-line therapy in ovarian cancer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Tate; duBois, Andreas; McAlpine, Jessica; DiSaia, Philip; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Hoskins, William; Kristensen, Gunnar; Mannel, Robert; Markman, Maurie; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Quinn, Michael; Reed, Nick; Swart, Ann Marie; Berek, Jonathan; Colombo, Nicoletta; Freyer, Gilles; Gallardo, Dolores; Plante, Marie; Poveda, Andres; Rubinstein, Lawrence; Bacon, Monica; Kitchener, Henry; Stuart, Gavin C E

    2011-05-01

    At the 4th Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) held in Vancouver, Canada, in June 2010, representatives of 23 cooperative research groups studying gynecologic cancers gathered to establish international consensus on issues critical to the conduct of large randomized trials. The process focused on 13 predetermined questions. Group A, 1 of the 3 discussion groups, addressed the first 5 questions, examining first-line therapies in newly diagnosed ovarian cancer patients. A1: What are the appropriate end points for different trials (maintenance, upfront chemotherapy trials including molecular drugs)? A2: Are there any subgroups defined by tumor biology who need specific treatment options/trials? A3: Is the 2004 GCIG-recommended standard comparator arm still valid? A4: What is the role of modifying dose, schedule, and delivery of chemotherapy? A5: What role does surgery play today?

  7. The anatomy of Intergroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter; Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2014-01-01

    Intergroups are key components in the European Parliament's modus operandi, allowing members from different political groups to focus on specific political topics. Hitherto, the defining characteristics of Intergroups have not received much attention in academic literature. This article remedies ...

  8. Reducing aggressive intergroup action tendencies : effects of intergroup contact via perceived intergroup threat

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, K.; Hewstone, M.; Küpper, B.; Zick, A.; Tausch, N.

    2014-01-01

    Katharina Schmid and Miles Hewstone gratefully acknowledge support from the Leverhulme Trust that facilitated the writing of this paper. Two studies tested the prediction that more positive intergroup contact would be associated with reduced aggressive intergroup action tendencies, an effect predicted to occur indirectly via reduced intergroup threat perceptions, and over and above well-established effects of contact on intergroup attitudes. Study 1, using data based on a cross-section of ...

  9. Children's Intergroup Relations and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Rohrbach, John M; Sanchez, Kiara L

    2016-01-01

    The existence of warm, intimate, supportive, and egalitarian relationships between members of differing social outgroups is likely, at the societal level, to facilitate cooperation and cohesion, and at the individual level, to promote positive social, educational, and occupational outcomes. The developmental pathway from intergroup contact to intergroup attitudes as it operates among children is not, however, well understood. In our chapter, we review and integrate selected social and developmental science related to intergroup relations and attitudes with the goal of proposing a conceptual model of the pathway from intergroup contact to positive intergroup attitudes among youth.

  10. The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN: Increasing access to cancer clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita eSuneja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The burden of cervical cancer is large and growing in developing countries, due in large part to limited access to screening services and lack of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination. In spite of modern advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes from cervical cancer have not markedly improved in recent years. Novel clinical trials are urgently needed to improve outcomes from cervical cancer worldwide. Methods: The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN, a subsidiary of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG, is a multi-national, multi-institutional consortium of physicians and scientists focused on improving cervical cancer outcomes worldwide by making cancer clinical trials available in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Standard operating procedures for participation in CCRN include a pre-qualifying questionnaire to evaluate clinical activities and research infrastructure, followed by a site visit. Once a site is approved, they may choose to participate in one of four currently accruing clinical trials.Results: To date, 13 different CCRN site visits have been performed. Of these 13 sites visited, 10 have been approved as CCRN sites including Tata Memorial Hospital, India; Bangalore, India; Trivandrum, India; Ramathibodi, Thailand; Siriaj, Thailand; Pramongkutklao, Thailand; Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam; Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center; the Hertzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute; and the Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenoradiology. The four currently accruing clinical trials are TACO, OUTBACK, INTERLACE, and SHAPE.Discussion: The CCRN has successfully enrolled 10 sites in developing countries to participate in four randomized clinical trials. The primary objectives are to provide novel therapeutics to regions with the greatest need and to improve the validity and generalizability of clinical trial results by enrolling a diverse sample of patients.

  11. Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Intergroup Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that ethnolinguistic vitality depends on four crucial social psychological factors: perceived strength differential, intergroup distance, utilitarianism and intergroup discordance. The influence of these factors on the vitality of subordinate and dominant groups is outlined. It is proposed that the vitality of both types of groups…

  12. Structural embeddedness and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, K

    2001-01-01

    Social structure affects the likelihood of group conflicts, although it has been disregarded by previous explanations. This study extends the intergroup public goods game model and integrates the influence of structural embeddedness and social incentives in the analysis of harmful group conflict. Th

  13. Managing Intergroup Emotions: How Intergroup Ideologies and Emotion Regulation Can Stifle Positive Emotions and Intergroup Friendships

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor , Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In interracial settings, a chief concern among majority group members is whether they appear prejudiced. These concerns often elicit feelings of anxiety and threat, which, ironically, run the risk of being interpreted as prejudice. One of the challenges majority group members face in intergroup interactions is the regulation of these negative emotions. Drawing on Gross's (1998, 2002) emotion regulation framework, I examine individual differences in how people manage negative emotions during i...

  14. Intergroup leadership in organizations: Leading across group and organizational boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, Michael; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Rast, David E.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntergroup leadership-leadership of collaborative performance of different organizational groups or organizations-is associated with unique intergroup challenges that are not addressed by traditional leadership theories. To address this lacuna, we describe a theory of intergroup leadership. Firmly grounded in research on social identity and intergroup relations, the theory proposes that effective intergroup performance rests on the leader's ability to construct an intergroup relat...

  15. RESEARCH BULLETIN ON INTERGROUP RELATIONS, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSE, PETER I.

    THIS ABSTRACTED BIBLIOGRAPHY WAS DEVELOPED TO REVIEW CURRENT PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED RESEARCH REPORTS AND ONGOING PROJECTS IN INTERGROUP RELATIONS. DATA WAS COLLECTED BY AN ANNUAL CENSUS OF RESEARCH SENT TO EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS, BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS, CITIZENS' COMMITTEES, CHURCH GROUPS, MARKET RESEARCH AGENCIES, AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS…

  16. Classroom Climates and Students' Intergroup Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, Robert C.; Solomon, Daniel

    1979-01-01

    Observations were conducted in desegregated elementary school classes to determine the relationship between classroom conditions and pupils' interracial behaviors. Diffuse positive intergroup contacts were more likely to occur when teachers emphasized interpersonal concerns. Purposeful intergroup contacts were facilitated by teacher patience and…

  17. Affective dimensions of intergroup humiliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leidner

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame, and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger. Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed.

  18. Improving Intergroup Attitudes via Mediated Intergroup Contact in a Bilingual Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Laszlo; Harwood, Jake

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of mediated intergroup contact in improving intergroup attitudes between Italian speakers and German speakers in South Tyrol, Italy. Specifically, we examine how German-language television consumption affects attitudes towards the German-speaking group among Italian- speaking youth. The data ("N" = 229) were…

  19. Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.

  20. Intergroup differentiation in computer-mediated communication : Effects of depersonalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined intergroup discussions via computer-mediated communication systems. It was hypothesized that depersonalization, in comparison with individuated interaction, would increase the tendency for intergroup differentiation in attitudes and stereotypes, In Study 1, 24 groups communicate

  1. Intergroup leadership in organizations: Leading across group and organizational boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hogg (Michael); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); D.E. Rast (David E.)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntergroup leadership-leadership of collaborative performance of different organizational groups or organizations-is associated with unique intergroup challenges that are not addressed by traditional leadership theories. To address this lacuna, we describe a theory of intergroup leadersh

  2. Measuring Intergroup Attitudes in Community Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald J.

    Contemporary social psychology takes a simplistic approach to the conceptualization and measurement of intergroup attitudes. Most definitions involve only the affective component of attitudes, and most measurement devices are restricted self-report, paper and pencil questionnaires. A broader and more flexible approach is required to adequately…

  3. Imagining intergroup contact reduces implicit prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rhiannon N; Crisp, Richard J

    2010-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that imagining intergroup contact can be sufficient to reduce explicit prejudice directed towards out-groups. In this research, we examined the impact of contact-related mental imagery on implicit prejudice as measured by the implicit association test. We found that, relative to a control condition, young participants who imagined talking to an elderly stranger subsequently showed more positive implicit attitudes towards elderly people in general. In a second study, we demonstrated that, relative to a control condition, non-Muslim participants who imagined talking to a Muslim stranger subsequently showed more positive implicit attitudes towards Muslims in general. We discuss the implications of these findings for furthering the application of indirect contact strategies aimed at improving intergroup relations.

  4. Micro-ecological behavior and intergroup contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Shelley; Cairns, Ed; Stringer, Maurice; Rae, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Research evaluating intergroup contact has tended to rely on self-report measures. Drawing on recent micro-ecological research, the two studies reported here used a multi-method approach to examine contact in a more holistic fashion. This involved the measurement of observable behavior at the micro-level, intergroup attitudes via infrahumanization and focus groups. Participants were taking part in a community intervention program in Northern Ireland. We conclude that micro-ecological behavior is not necessarily indicative of outgroup attitudes. Although behavior and attitudes changed in line with one another in Study 1 (less aggregation and significantly less infrahumanization), there were no infrahumanization differences between those who sat beside an outgroup member and those who did not. Importantly, the work presented here illustrates a unique method that allows micro-ecological behavioral observations to be made for the first time in non-racial settings. PMID:22558828

  5. How can intergroup interaction be bad if intergroup contact is good? Exploring and reconciling an apparent paradox in the science of intergroup relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Cara C; Page-Gould, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The outcomes of social interactions among members of different groups (e.g., racial groups, political groups, sexual orientation groups) have long been of interest to psychologists. Two related literatures on the topic have emerged-the intergroup interaction literature and the intergroup contact literature-in which divergent conclusions have been reported. Intergroup interaction is typically found to have negative effects tied to intergroup bias, producing heightened stress, intergroup anxiety, or outgroup avoidance, whereas intergroup contact is typically found to have positive effects tied to intergroup bias, predicting lower intergroup anxiety and lower prejudice. We examine these paradoxical findings, proposing that researchers contributing to the two literatures are examining different levels of the same phenomenon and that methodological differences can account for the divide between the literatures. Further, we introduce a mathematical model by which the findings of the two literatures can be reconciled. We believe that adopting this model will streamline thinking in the field and will generate integrative new research in which investigators examine how a person's experiences with diversity unfold. PMID:25987510

  6. First-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer with paclitaxel/carboplatin with or without epirubicin (TEC versus TC)-a gynecologic cancer intergroup study of the NSGO, EORTC GCG and NCIC CTG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, K.; Christensen, R. D.; Vergote, I.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The addition of anthracyclines to platinum-based chemotherapy may provide benefit in survival in ovarian cancer patients. We evaluated the effect on survival of adding epirubicin to standard carboplatin and paclitaxel. Patients and methods: We carried out a prospectively randomized...... phase III study comparing carboplatin plus paclitaxel (TC; area under the curve 5 and 175 mg/m(2)) with the same combination and epirubicin (TEC; 75 mg/m(2) i.v.). Between March 1999 and August 2001, 887 patients with epithelial ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer International Federation of Gynecology...... addition of epirubicin to standard carboplatin and paclitaxel treatment did not improve survival in patients with advanced ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer....

  7. Developmental Dynamics of Intergroup Contact and Intergroup Attitudes: Long-Term Effects in Adolescence and Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; van Zalk, Maarten

    2016-09-01

    Intergroup contact represents a powerful way to improve intergroup attitudes and to overcome prejudice and discrimination. However, long-term effects of intergroup contact that consider social network dynamics have rarely been studied at a young age. Study 1 validated an optimized social network approach to investigate intergroup contact (N = 6,457; Mage  = 14.91 years). Study 2 explored the developmental trajectories of intergroup contact by applying this validated network approach in a cross-sequential design (four-cohort-four-wave; N = 3,815; 13-26 years). Accelerated growth curve models showed that contact predicts the development of attitudes in adolescence, whereas acquired attitudes buffer against decreasing contact in adulthood. Findings highlight the potential of social network analysis and the developmental importance of early intergroup contact experiences. PMID:27684399

  8. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melliar-Smith, P. Michael [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moser, Louise E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  9. Relative Group Position and Intergroup Attitudes in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minescu, A.

    2012-01-01

    The studies in this book investigate the impact of structural arrangements of power on intergroup attitudes. The disintegration of the Soviet Union altered the political borders of the region and raised concerns about the quality of intergroup relationships between Russian and ethnically non-Russian

  10. Intergroup Attitudes of European American Children Attending Ethnically Homogeneous Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlothlin, Heidi; Killen, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Intergroup attitudes were assessed in European American 1st-grade (M=6.99 years, SD=0.32) and 4th-grade (M=10.01 years, SD=0.36) children (N=138) attending ethnically homogeneous schools to test hypotheses about racial biases and interracial friendships. An Ambiguous Situations Task and an Intergroup Contact Assessment were administered to all…

  11. Types of Identification and Intergroup Differentiation in the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minescu, Anca; Hagendoorn, Louk; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The fall of the Soviet Union affected the established identity patterns and intergroup relations in the Russian Federation. A survey investigates the effect of Russians’ and titulars’ identifications with their ethnic group, their republic, and the Russian Federation on intergroup stereotypes.We hyp

  12. Linking social identities to intergroup behavior in diverse teams: the role of intergroup emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Prieto Sol, Patricia; Tran, Véronique; Marcus M. Stewart; Mackie, Diane

    2009-01-01

    We apply Intergroup Emotion Theory – a theory that considers emotion as a group-based phenomenon - to argue that the way diverse team members cognitively appraise a situation (concerning relationships or the task at hand) and react emotionally about it, and the extent to which they intend to act on it or not, will be a function of their identification with a salient categorization. The proposed extension by applying IET offers the advantage of being able to predict more specifically when and ...

  13. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  14. 20 CFR 638.518 - Intergroup relations program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.518 Intergroup... reduce prejudice, prevent discriminatory behavior by staff and students, and increase understanding...

  15. Is risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse related to adjuvant taxane treatment in node-positive breast cancer? Results of the CNS substudy in the intergroup Phase III BIG 02-98 Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pestalozzi, B.C.; Francis, P.; Quinaux, E.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer central nervous system (CNS) metastases are an increasingly important problem because of high CNS relapse rates in patients treated with trastuzumab and/or taxanes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated data from 2887 node-positive breast cancer patients randomised in the BIG...

  16. Costly punishment prevails in intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sääksvuori, Lauri; Mappes, Tapio; Puurtinen, Mikael

    2011-11-22

    Understanding how societies resolve conflicts between individual and common interests remains one of the most fundamental issues across disciplines. The observation that humans readily incur costs to sanction uncooperative individuals without tangible individual benefits has attracted considerable attention as a proximate cause as to why cooperative behaviours might evolve. However, the proliferation of individually costly punishment has been difficult to explain. Several studies over the last decade employing experimental designs with isolated groups have found clear evidence that the costs of punishment often nullify the benefits of increased cooperation, rendering the strong human tendency to punish a thorny evolutionary puzzle. Here, we show that group competition enhances the effectiveness of punishment so that when groups are in direct competition, individuals belonging to a group with punishment opportunity prevail over individuals in a group without this opportunity. In addition to competitive superiority in between-group competition, punishment reduces within-group variation in success, creating circumstances that are highly favourable for the evolution of accompanying group-functional behaviours. We find that the individual willingness to engage in costly punishment increases with tightening competitive pressure between groups. Our results suggest the importance of intergroup conflict behind the emergence of costly punishment and human cooperation.

  17. Intergroup Cooperation in Common Pool Resource Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Jathan; Spierre, Susan G; Selinger, Evan; Seager, Thomas P; Adams, Elizabeth A; Berardy, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental problems of environmental sustainability, including climate change and fisheries management, require collective action on a scale that transcends the political and cultural boundaries of the nation-state. Rational, self-interested neoclassical economic theories of human behavior predict tragedy in the absence of third party enforcement of agreements and practical difficulties that prevent privatization. Evolutionary biology offers a theory of cooperation, but more often than not in a context of discrimination against other groups. That is, in-group boundaries are necessarily defined by those excluded as members of out-groups. However, in some settings human's exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with both rational economic and group driven cooperation of evolutionary biological theory. This paper reports the results of a non-cooperative game-theoretic exercise that models a tragedy of the commons problem in which groups of players may advance their own positions only at the expense of other groups. Students enrolled from multiple universities and assigned to different multi-university identity groups participated in experiments that repeatedly resulted in cooperative outcomes despite intergroup conflicts and expressions of group identity. We offer three possible explanations: (1) students were cooperative because they were in an academic setting; (2) students may have viewed their instructors as the out-group; or (3) the emergence of a small number of influential, ethical leaders is sufficient to ensure cooperation amongst the larger groups. From our data and analysis, we draw out lessons that may help to inform approaches for institutional design and policy negotiations, particularly in climate change management.

  18. [The role of collective victimhood in intergroup aggression: Japan-China relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    This study examines an effect of collective victimhood in intergroup relations. Collective victimhood is the belief that an ingroup has been harmed by an outgroup. Previous studies focusing on collective victimhood have shown that collective victimhood escalates intergroup conflict. We predicted that the effect of collective victimhood on intergroup aggression would involve two different emotional processes: anger and fear. To test this hypothesis, Japanese attitudes toward the Chinese were examined in the context of Japan-China relations. The results of structural equation modeling showed that collective victimhood enhanced both anger and fear. However, intergroup emotions had converse effects on intergroup aggression. While anger promoted intergroup aggression, fear inhibited it. Nationalism promoted collective victimhood. These findings suggest that, in intergroup conflict, collective victimhood affects intergroup aggression through two emotional processes, which have inverse effects on the aggression. PMID:23379087

  19. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among pol...

  20. Intergroup Conflict in Russia: Testing the Group Position Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minescu, Anca; Poppe, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The group position model (Blumer 1958; Bobo and Tuan 2006) assumes that attempting to secure a privileged position for the ingroup is a main determinant of perceived intergroup conflict. This assumption is tested with survey data collected in 1999 and 2000 among eight titular groups in autonomous republics of the Russian Federation. The survey…

  1. Peer Effects, Social Networks, and Intergroup Competition in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Shu, Pian

    to intergroup competition as a powerful source of the peer effects. Such peer effects across the social network, combined with the presence of incentive to outperform teammates at this firm, are largely consistent with recent experimental evidence on the important role that group identities play in facilitating...... altruistic behaviors....

  2. Echoing emotions: reactions to emotional displays in intergroup context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Schalk

    2010-01-01

    The findings of the current dissertation show that emotional displays in particular negative emotional displays bring individuals together when they share group membership, but drive individuals apart when they do not share group membership. Intergroup interactions can be emotional, and if members o

  3. Intergroup Contact and Beliefs about Homosexuality in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around…

  4. The intergroup protocols: Scalable group communication for the internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, K.

    2000-11-01

    Reliable group ordered delivery of multicast messages in a distributed system is a useful service that simplifies the programming of distributed applications. Such a service helps to maintain the consistency of replicated information and to coordinate the activities of the various processes. With the increasing popularity of the Internet, there is an increasing interest in scaling the protocols that provide this service to the environment of the Internet. The InterGroup protocol suite, described in this dissertation, provides such a service, and is intended for the environment of the Internet with scalability to large numbers of nodes and high latency links. The InterGroup protocols approach the scalability problem from various directions. They redefine the meaning of group membership, allow voluntary membership changes, add a receiver-oriented selection of delivery guarantees that permits heterogeneity of the receiver set, and provide a scalable reliability service. The InterGroup system comprises several components, executing at various sites within the system. Each component provides part of the services necessary to implement a group communication system for the wide-area. The components can be categorized as: (1) control hierarchy, (2) reliable multicast, (3) message distribution and delivery, and (4) process group membership. We have implemented a prototype of the InterGroup protocols in Java, and have tested the system performance in both local-area and wide-area networks.

  5. Intragroup and intergroup evaluation effects on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branscombe, NR; Spears, R; Ellemers, N; Doosje, B

    2002-01-01

    Groups differ in the prestige they are accorded by outgroups, and individuals differ in how much respect they receive from their group. The authors orthogonally varied both types of social evaluation-intergroup and intragroup-to assess their joint effects on reward allocations and the amount of tune

  6. Intergroup contact and prejudice against people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles; Lolliot, Simon

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness that responses to mental health disorders differ according to the label. Still, research on contact and prejudice against people with mental health disorders has generally focused on the broader label, "mental illness," as though various disorders were interchangeable. The present research specifically investigated the relationship between intergroup contact and avoidance of people with schizophrenia--a particularly stigmatized and challenging group--as well as mediators of that relationship. In Study 1, 78 students completed measures of their prior contact with and prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Prior contact predicted less desired avoidance of people with schizophrenia, and this relationship was mediated by more favorable attitudes. Study 2 (N = 122) replicated the results of Study 1, and also found that less fear and less intergroup anxiety mediated the relationship between contact and avoidance. This suggests that contact may effectively reduce prejudice, even against this highly stigmatized group.

  7. Conservatism, institutionalism, and the social control of intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ryan D

    2008-03-01

    This research investigates the state social control of intergroup conflict by assessing the sociopolitical determinants of hate crime prosecutions. Consistent with insights from the political sociology of punishment, group-threat accounts of intergroup relations and the state, and neoinstitutional theory, the findings suggest that hate crime prosecutions are fewer where political conservatism, Christian fundamentalism, and black population size are higher, although this last effect is nonlinear. Linkages between district attorneys' offices and communities, on the other hand, increase hate crime prosecutions and the likelihood of offices' creating hate crime policies. Yet these policies are sometimes decoupled from actual enforcement, and such decoupling is more likely in politically conservative districts. The results indicate that common correlates of criminal punishment have very different effects on types of state social control that are protective of minority groups, and also suggest conditions under which policy and practice become decoupled in organizational settings.

  8. Political ideology and American intergroup discrimination: A patriotism perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Hoyt, Crystal; Goldin, Aleah

    2016-01-01

    In this research we demonstrate the powerful role of ingroup favoritism, rather than hostility, in American intergroup biases. Specifically, we take a novel perspective to understanding the relationship between political ideology and discrimination against ethnic-minority Americans by focusing on the role of patriotism. Across three studies, we show that political ideology is a strong predictor of resource allocation biases, and this effect is mediated by American patriotism and not by prejudice or nationalism. Conservatives report greater levels of patriotism than liberals, and patriotism is associated with donating more to American, as opposed to ethnic-minority American, organizations. We further show that the link between patriotism and partiality to the national group is mediated by stronger "American = White" associations. These findings have important implications for intergroup relations and diversity-related policy issues in the United States. PMID:26467846

  9. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  10. Asymmetry within social groups: division of labour and intergroup competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J L; Loope, K J; Reeve, H K

    2016-03-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account for observations that group members invest differentially in cooperation and that there are often within-group competitive or power asymmetries. We present a game theoretic model of intergroup competition that investigates how such asymmetries affect within-group cooperation. In this model, group members adopt one of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles) is higher, due to increased cooperation from the competitively inferior individuals. For extreme asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency, per capita cooperation is highest in groups with a single competitively superior individual and many competitively inferior individuals, because the latter acquiesce and invest in cooperation rather than within-group competition. These predictions are consistent with observed features of many societies, such as monogynous Hymenoptera with many workers and caste dimorphism.

  11. Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma with Intragroup Power Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lebiere

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma with Intragroup Power Dynamics (IPD^2 is a new game paradigm for studying human behavior in conflict situations. IPD^2 adds the concept of intragroup power to an intergroup version of the standard Repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We conducted a laboratory study in which individual human participants played the game against computer strategies of various complexities. The results show that participants tend to cooperate more when they have greater power status within their groups. IPD^2 yields increasing levels of mutual cooperation and decreasing levels of mutual defection, in contrast to a variant of Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma without intragroup power dynamics where mutual cooperation and mutual defection are equally likely. We developed a cognitive model of human decision making in this game inspired by the Instance-Based Learning Theory (IBLT and implemented within the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This model was run in place of a human participant using the same paradigm as the human study. The results from the model show a pattern of behavior similar to that of human data. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the IPD^2 paradigm can be applied to studying human behavior in conflict situations. In particular, we present the current study as a possible contribution to corroborating the conjecture that democracy reduces the risk of wars.

  12. INTER-GROUP IMAGE REGISTRATION BY HIERARCHICAL GRAPH SHRINKAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shihui; Wu, Guorong; Liao, Shu; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-12-31

    In this paper, we propose a novel inter-group image registration method to register different groups of images (e.g., young and elderly brains) simultaneously. Specifically, we use a hierarchical two-level graph to model the distribution of entire images on the manifold, with intra-graph representing the image distribution in each group and the inter-graph describing the relationship between two groups. Then the procedure of inter-group registration is formulated as a dynamic evolution of graph shrinkage. The advantage of our method is that the topology of entire image distribution is explored to guide the image registration. In this way, each image coordinates with its neighboring images on the manifold to deform towards the population center, by following the deformation pathway simultaneously optimized within the graph. Our proposed method has been also compared with other state-of-the-art inter-group registration methods, where our method achieves better registration results in terms of registration accuracy and robustness.

  13. Intergroup competition may not be needed for shaping group cooperation and cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Balliet, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Because intergroup interactions often are mixed-motive rather than strictly zero-sum, groups often negotiate settlements that enable both cultures to thrive. Moreover, group prosperity rests on in-group love (rather than out-group hate) that emerges also absent intergroup competition or comparison. It follows that cultural group selection (CGS) reflects group effectiveness in organizing in-group trust and cooperation, rather than winning (in)direct intergroup competitions. PMID:27562414

  14. Perceptions of Interpersonal Versus Intergroup Violence: The Case of Sexual Assault

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Droogendyk; Wright, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime"), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim b...

  15. Panitumumab and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer with KRAS wild-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Pallisgård, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The increasing number of negative trials for ovarian cancer treatment has prompted an evaluation of new biologic agents, which in combination with chemotherapy may improve survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the response rate in platinum-resistant, KRAS wild-type ovarian...... cancer patients treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) supplemented with panitumumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Major eligibility criteria were relapsed ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with platinum-resistant disease, measurable disease by GCIG CA125 criteria and KRAS wild-type......-free and overall survival in the intention-to-treat population was 2.7 months (2.5-3.2 months, 95% confidence interval) and 8.1 months (5.6-11.7 months, 95% confidence interval), respectively. The most common treatment-related grade 3 toxicities included skin toxicity (42%), fatigue (19%), and vomiting (12...

  16. Illegitimacy and identity threat in (inter)action : Predicting intergroup orientations among minority group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone, Andrew G.; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Bruder, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that intergroup orientations among minority group members are shaped by the interaction between the perceived illegitimacy of intergroup relations and identity threat appraisals, as well as their main effects. This is because together they serve to focus emotion-mediated react

  17. Communicating anger and contempt in intergroup conflict : Exploring their relational functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Bartholomeus

    2015-01-01

    Although the experience of anger in intergroup conflict is typically viewed as a destructive force that is best kept under wraps, the current dissertation suggests that its communication can help de-escalate intergroup conflict because of its relational function. Specifically, this entails that the

  18. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  19. Fostering a Commitment to Social Action: How Talking, Thinking, and Feeling Make a Difference in Intergroup Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurin-Sands, Chloe; Gurin, Patricia; Nagda, Biren A.; Osuna, Shardae

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is designed to foster commitment to action. This article analyzes papers written by students in 52 intergroup dialogue courses (N = 739) to test a theoretical model of how intergroup dialogue is expected to encourage frequency of acting to educate others and to collaborate with others. The theoretical model posits that dialogue…

  20. Role of information asymmetry and situational salience in reducing intergroup bias: the case of ultimatum games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Ana; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2012-12-01

    While majority of the literature documents the preponderance of social identity-related biases in favor of in-group members, this research investigates factors that may attenuate the bias. Examining intergroup bias within the realm of information availability and accessibility, this research highlights malleability of judgments and decisions as a function of social identity in both complete and incomplete information situations in the context of ultimatum games. Study 1 replicates the positive bias toward in-group members even in situations where individuals know that the counterpart is behaving unfairly. Study 2 shows that the intergroup bias is attenuated for relatively unfavorable offers in incomplete information situations. However, the intergroup bias is persistent for relatively favorable offers. Study 3 shows that making situational constraints salient also attenuates the intergroup bias for relatively favorable offers. Together, the findings identify conditions, based on information availability and accessibility, under which the intergroup bias can be corrected.

  1. Perceptions of interpersonal versus intergroup violence: the case of sexual assault.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Droogendyk

    Full Text Available The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime", crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.

  2. Perceptions of interpersonal versus intergroup violence: the case of sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime"), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger. PMID:25419567

  3. Perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in intergroup contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia S Wang

    Full Text Available The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man, but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent. Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members.

  4. Inferring Identity From Language: Linguistic Intergroup Bias Informs Social Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Shanette C; Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined whether a communicator's verbal, implicit message regarding a target is used as a cue for inferring that communicator's social identity. Previous research has found linguistic intergroup bias (LIB) in individuals' speech: They use abstract language to describe in-group targets' desirable behaviors and concrete language to describe their undesirable behaviors (favorable LIB), but use concrete language for out-group targets' desirable behaviors and abstract language for their undesirable behaviors (unfavorable LIB). Consequently, one can infer the type of language a communicator is likely to use to describe in-group and out-group targets. We hypothesized and found evidence for the reverse inference. Across four studies, individuals inferred a communicator's social identity on the basis of the communicator's use of an LIB. Specifically, participants more strongly believed that a communicator and target shared a social identity when the communicator used the favorable, rather than the unfavorable, LIB in describing that target.

  5. The nondiscriminating heart: lovingkindness meditation training decreases implicit intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoona; Gray, Jeremy R; Dovidio, John F

    2014-06-01

    Although meditation is increasingly accepted as having personal benefits, less is known about the broader impact of meditation on social and intergroup relations. We tested the effect of lovingkindness meditation training on improving implicit attitudes toward members of 2 stigmatized social outgroups: Blacks and homeless people. Healthy non-Black, nonhomeless adults (N = 101) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: 6-week lovingkindness practice, 6-week lovingkindness discussion (a closely matched active control), or waitlist control. Decreases in implicit bias against stigmatized outgroups (as measured by Implicit Association Test) were observed only in the lovingkindness practice condition. Reduced psychological stress mediated the effect of lovingkindness practice on implicit bias against homeless people, but it did not mediate the reduced bias against Black people. These results suggest that lovingkindness meditation can improve automatically activated, implicit attitudes toward stigmatized social groups and that this effect occurs through distinctive mechanisms for different stigmatized social groups. PMID:23957283

  6. Group Member Prototypicality and Intergroup Negotiation: How One's Standing in the Group Affects Negotiation Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); W. Steinel (Wolfgang); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); M.A. Hogg (Michael); A. Svensson

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHow does a representative's position in the group influence behaviour in intergroup negotiation? Applying insights from the social identity approach (specifically self-categorization theory), the effects of group member prototypicality, accountability, and group attractiveness on competi

  7. Reducing intergroup prejudice and conflict with the media: A field experiment in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Levy Paluck

    2007-01-01

    Can the media reduce intergroup prejudice and conflict? Despite the high stakes of this question, understanding of the mass media’s role in shaping prejudiced beliefs, norms, and behaviors is very limited. A yearlong field experiment in Rwanda tested the impact of a radio soap opera about two Rwandan communities in conflict, which featured messages about reducing intergroup prejudice, violence, and trauma. Compared to communities who listened to a control radio soap opera, listeners’ percepti...

  8. Collective narcissism and intergroup hostility: the dark side of 'in group love'.

    OpenAIRE

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between ‘in-group love’ and ‘out-group hate’ and integrates findings of psychology of intergroup relations with findings regarding psychological outcomes of narcissism. It reviews current research on intergroup consequences of collective narcissism – an emotional investment in an unrealistic belief in exaggerated greatness of an in-group - which indicates that the differentiation between narcissistic and genuine positive group regard uncovers the potentia...

  9. Group Member Prototypicality and Intergroup Negotiation: How One's Standing in the Group Affects Negotiation Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kleef, Gerben; Steinel, Wolfgang; van Knippenberg, Daan; Hogg, Michael; Svensson, A.

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHow does a representative's position in the group influence behaviour in intergroup negotiation? Applying insights from the social identity approach (specifically self-categorization theory), the effects of group member prototypicality, accountability, and group attractiveness on competitiveness in intergroup bargaining were examined. As representatives of their group, participants engaged in a computer-mediated negotiation with a simulated outgroup opponent. In Exp. 1 (N = 114), ...

  10. Longitudinal intergroup contact effects on prejudice using self- and observer-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Neuroanatomy of intergroup bias: A white matter microstructure study of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Nash, Kyle; Hill, Christopher; Knoch, Daria

    2015-11-15

    Intergroup bias-the tendency to behave more positively toward an ingroup member than an outgroup member-is a powerful social force, for good and ill. Although it is widely demonstrated, intergroup bias is not universal, as it is characterized by significant individual differences. Recently, attention has begun to turn to whether neuroanatomy might explain these individual differences in intergroup bias. However, no research to date has examined whether white matter microstructure could help determine differences in behavior toward ingroup and outgroup members. In the current research, we examine intergroup bias with the third-party punishment paradigm and white matter integrity and connectivity strength as determined by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We found that both increased white matter integrity at the right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and connectivity strength between the right TPJ and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) were associated with increased impartiality in the third-party punishment paradigm, i.e., reduced intergroup bias. Further, consistent with the role that these brain regions play in the mentalizing network, we found that these effects were mediated by mentalizing processes. Participants with greater white matter integrity at the right TPJ and connectivity strength between the right TPJ and the DMPFC employed mentalizing processes more equally for ingroup and outgroup members, and this non-biased use of mentalizing was associated with increased impartiality. The current results help shed light on the mechanisms of bias and, potentially, on interventions that promote impartiality over intergroup bias. PMID:26275384

  12. Children’s prosocial behavioural intentions toward outgroup members: The effects of intergroup competition, empathy and social perspective taking.

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Dominic; Pelletier, Joseph; Van de Vyer, Julie; Cameron, Lindsey; Lee, E

    2015-01-01

    When will children decide to help outgroup peers? We examined how intergroup competition, social perspective taking (SPT), and empathy influence children's (5–10 years, N = 287) prosocial intentions towards outgroup members. Study 1 showed that, in a minimal group situation, prosociality was lower in an intergroup competitive than in a non-competitive or interpersonal context. Study 2 revealed that, in a real groups situation involving intergroup competition, prosociality was associated with ...

  13. Noradrenaline effects on social behaviour, intergroup relations, and moral decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbeck, S; Savulescu, J; Chesterman, L P; Cowen, P J

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has begun to elucidate the neural basis of higher order social concepts, such as the mechanisms involved in intergroup relations, and moral judgments. Most theories have concentrated on higher order emotions, such as guilt, shame, or empathy, as core mechanisms. Accordingly, psychopharmacological and neurobiological studies have investigated the effects of manipulating serotonin or oxytocin activity on moral and social decisions and attitudes. However, recently it has been determined that changes in more basic emotions, such as fear and anger, might also have a significant role in social and moral cognition. This article summarizes psychopharmacological and fMRI research on the role of noradrenaline in higher order social cognition suggesting that indeed noradrenergic mediated affective changes might play key - and probably causal - role in certain social attitudes and moral judgments. Social judgments may also be directly influenced by numerous neurotransmitter manipulations but these effects could be mediated by modulation of basic emotions which appear to play an essential role in the formation of social concepts and moral behaviour. PMID:27126289

  14. Variation in intergroup encounters among two provisioned free-ranging populations of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Kunio WATANABE

    2012-01-01

    Typically,Japanese macaques are thought to avoid encountering other groups wherever possible.Intergroup relations between macaques on Shodoshima Island,however,appear exceptional.We show that neighboring groups of Shodoshima monkeys spent 32.8% of their active time in proximity to (<100 m) and even foraged simultaneously at the same provisioning site with another group.The average duration and rate of intergroup encounters at Shodoshima (59.8 min,0.33 times/hour,n=269)were approximately ten times longer and 16.5 times more frequent than those at Jigokudani (6.1 min,0.02 times/hour,n=14).Since both populations have similar provisioning and ecological conditions,such variation cannot be explained by the socioecology model alone.Compared with other populations of Japanese macaques,intergroup relations of Shodoshima monkeys are also characterized by more frequent neutral encounters,less frequent agonistic encounters,more frequent unsuccessful displacement,a lower intensity of aggression,and more frequent counter-aggression between groups.These characteristics suggest that intergroup relationships on Shodoshima Island are more tolerant than those in other Japanese macaque populations.This study reveals considerable differences in intergroup encounters within local populations of Japanese macaques living in similar environments,and emphasizes the role of social factors in such intra-specific variation.

  15. Asymmetric intergroup bullying: The enactment and maintenance of societal inequality at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Soydan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    What does inequality mean for dysfunctional organizational behaviours, such as workplace bullying? This article argues that workplace bullying can be understood as a manifestation of intergroup dynamics originating beyond the organization. We introduce the construct of asymmetric intergroup bullying: the disproportionate mistreatment of members of low status groups, with the intended effect of enhancing the subordination of that group in society at large. Analysis of data from 38 interviews with public and private sector workers in Turkey depicts a pattern of asymmetric intergroup bullying, undertaken to achieve organizational and broader sociopolitical goals. Respondents reported bullying acts used to get rid of unwanted personnel, with the goal of avoiding severance pay, or of removing supporters of the former government from positions of political and economic influence. Bullying was also described as working towards the dominance of the sociocultural worldview of one political group over another. We discuss asymmetric intergroup bullying as one mechanism through which acute intergroup hierarchy in the broader society corrupts management practice and employee interactions, in turn exacerbating economic inequality along group lines. PMID:26819482

  16. Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena

    2013-06-01

    Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain.

  17. A statistical framework for inter-group image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-10-01

    Groupwise image registration plays an important role in medical image analysis. The principle of groupwise image registration is to align a given set of images to a hidden template space in an iteratively manner without explicitly selecting any individual image as the template. Although many approaches have been proposed to address the groupwise image registration problem for registering a single group of images, few attentions and efforts have been paid to the registration problem between two or more different groups of images. In this paper, we propose a statistical framework to address the registration problems between two different image groups. The main contributions of this paper lie in the following aspects: (1) In this paper, we demonstrate that directly registering the group mean images estimated from two different image groups is not sufficient to establish the reliable transformation from one image group to the other image group. (2) A novel statistical framework is proposed to extract anatomical features from the white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid tissue maps of all aligned images as morphological signatures for each voxel. The extracted features provide much richer anatomical information than the voxel intensity of the group mean image, and can be integrated with the multi-channel Demons registration algorithm to perform the registration process. (3) The proposed method has been extensively evaluated on two publicly available brain MRI databases: the LONI LPBA40 and the IXI databases, and it is also compared with a conventional inter-group image registration approach which directly performs deformable registration between the group mean images of two image groups. Experimental results show that the proposed method consistently achieves higher registration accuracy than the method under comparison.

  18. A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Liben, Lynn S

    2006-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory specifies the mechanisms and rules that govern the processes by which children single out groups as targets of stereotyping and prejudice, and by which children learn and construct both the characteristics (i.e., stereotypes) and affective responses (i.e., prejudices) that are associated with these groups in their culture. Specifically, we argue that children have a drive to understand their world, and that this drive is manifested in their tendency to classify natural and non-natural stimuli into categories, and to search the environment for cues about which of the great number of potential bases for categorization are important. The first step in the process of stereotype and prejudice formation is, therefore, the establishment of the psychological salience of some particular set of dimensions. Four factors are hypothesized to affect the establishment of the psychological salience of person attributes: (1) perceptual discriminability of social groups, (2) proportional group size, (3) explicit labeling and use of social groups, and (4) implicit use of social groups. We argue that person characteristics that are perceptually discriminable are more likely than other characteristics to become the basis of stereotyping, but that perceptual discriminability alone is insufficient to trigger psychological salience. Thus, for example, young children's ability to detect race or gender does not mean that these distinctions will inevitably become the bases of stereotypes and prejudice. Instead, for perceptually salient groups to become psychologically salient, one or more additional circumstances must hold, including being characterized by minority status, by adults' use of different labels for different groups, by adults using group divisions functionally, or by segregation. After a particular characteristic that may be used to differentiate among individuals becomes salient, we propose that children who have the ability to sort consistently

  19. A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Liben, Lynn S

    2006-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory specifies the mechanisms and rules that govern the processes by which children single out groups as targets of stereotyping and prejudice, and by which children learn and construct both the characteristics (i.e., stereotypes) and affective responses (i.e., prejudices) that are associated with these groups in their culture. Specifically, we argue that children have a drive to understand their world, and that this drive is manifested in their tendency to classify natural and non-natural stimuli into categories, and to search the environment for cues about which of the great number of potential bases for categorization are important. The first step in the process of stereotype and prejudice formation is, therefore, the establishment of the psychological salience of some particular set of dimensions. Four factors are hypothesized to affect the establishment of the psychological salience of person attributes: (1) perceptual discriminability of social groups, (2) proportional group size, (3) explicit labeling and use of social groups, and (4) implicit use of social groups. We argue that person characteristics that are perceptually discriminable are more likely than other characteristics to become the basis of stereotyping, but that perceptual discriminability alone is insufficient to trigger psychological salience. Thus, for example, young children's ability to detect race or gender does not mean that these distinctions will inevitably become the bases of stereotypes and prejudice. Instead, for perceptually salient groups to become psychologically salient, one or more additional circumstances must hold, including being characterized by minority status, by adults' use of different labels for different groups, by adults using group divisions functionally, or by segregation. After a particular characteristic that may be used to differentiate among individuals becomes salient, we propose that children who have the ability to sort consistently

  20. Embodying imagined contact: facial feedback moderates the intergroup consequences of mental simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilewicz, Michal; Kogan, Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Imagined contact is a fruitful strategy of improving intergroup attitudes. There are several mechanisms responsible for the effectiveness of such contact. This article presents a test of an affective mechanism of imagined contact by applying a facial feedback procedure. We used a physical blockade of the zygomaticus major muscle, known to constrain people's experience of emotional states. Participants imagining intergroup contact expressed more positive attitudes towards an outgroup when they could physically mimic a positive affective state by smiling, but there was no such effect when embodiment was constrained. The interactive effects on attitudes appeared due to greater perception of outgroup warmth. This study presents the first attempt to explain the role of embodiment in the improvement of intergroup relations.

  1. Intergroup anxiety, cultural sensitivity and socio-cultural diverse leaders’ effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Peruginni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This intended to analyze differences in the level of perception –of general population participants- in regards to leaders with diverse socio-cultural characteristics (gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, nationality and also verify by means of structural equations, the influence of intergroup anxiety and the cultural sensitivity in terms of the level of effectiveness perception. Participants: 481 adults from Argentina (52.8% female, 47.2% male; age average = 35.45 years old. Instruments: Intergroup Anxiety scale, Cultural Sensitivity scale, and an ad hoc protocol designed to assess level of effectiveness perception in socio-culturally diverse leaders. Results: Differences in the level of perception of effectiveness according to sociocultural characteristics could not be confirmed. However, a direct effect of cultural sensitivity and an indirect effect of intergroup anxiety on the levels of effectiveness perception were confirmed. This work contributes to previous studies on prejudice and leadership.

  2. Embodying imagined contact: facial feedback moderates the intergroup consequences of mental simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilewicz, Michal; Kogan, Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Imagined contact is a fruitful strategy of improving intergroup attitudes. There are several mechanisms responsible for the effectiveness of such contact. This article presents a test of an affective mechanism of imagined contact by applying a facial feedback procedure. We used a physical blockade of the zygomaticus major muscle, known to constrain people's experience of emotional states. Participants imagining intergroup contact expressed more positive attitudes towards an outgroup when they could physically mimic a positive affective state by smiling, but there was no such effect when embodiment was constrained. The interactive effects on attitudes appeared due to greater perception of outgroup warmth. This study presents the first attempt to explain the role of embodiment in the improvement of intergroup relations. PMID:24313834

  3. Raising Ethnic-Racial Consciousness: The Relationship between Intergroup Dialogues and Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity and Racism Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…

  4. Improving Ethnic Balance and Intergroup Relations; An Advisory Report to the Board of Education, Corona Unified School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Intergroup Relations.

    This report contains the findings of a field study of the ethnic and racial composition and intergroup relations in the schools in the Corona Unified School District, California. These findings are information on (1) the district's approaches to desegregation and its policy on intergroup relations, (2) students' achievement differences, (3)…

  5. Minority group members' theories of intergroup contact: a case study of British Muslims' conceptualizations of 'Islamophobia' and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2006-06-01

    Much research in intergroup relations concerns the potential for interventions (e.g. intergroup contact) to reduce majorities' discrimination against minorities. In this paper we focus on how minority group members construe such interventions, especially as they affect their abilities to act in terms of their collective identity to realize social change. In addressing this issue, we focus on a minority's beliefs and theories concerning the intergroup dynamics lying behind their marginalization. Our data are qualitative and concern British Muslims' analyses of the dynamics of Islamophobia. Specifically, we explore two theorizations of Muslims' marginalization. Both share a concern with improving Muslims' collective position in Britain. However, they construe the dynamics to Islamophobia in very different ways, and this shapes their approach to intergroup contact and dialogue. Our analysis is informed by, and seeks to complement, social psychological theorizing on social change and intergroup contact. PMID:16762100

  6. [Relation between perception of differences and intergroup anxiety: moderator and mediator variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, María N; Rodríguez, Armando; Navas, Marisol; Rodríguez, Ramón; Betancor, Verónica; Coello, Efrén

    2006-02-01

    This research has two aims: first, to determine the relationship between the intergroup differences perceived and the anxiety experienced by ingroup members in their contact with members of the outgroup. Second, to examine the moderator and/or mediator role of a series of variables considered relevant in the literature on intergroup prejudice, take into account Baron and Kenny's (1986) requeriments. This analysis is carried out from the perspective of the minority group, in this case Moroccan inmigrants to Almería. The results confirm the moderating role of the variables pressure to assimilate and perception of xenophobia and the mediating role of inmigrants' attitude towards local people and social paranoia.

  7. Negative intergroup contact is more influential, but positive intergroup contact is more common: Assessing contact prominence and contact prevalence in five Central European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, S.; Paolini, S.; Rubin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present research tested the idea that the ecological impact of intergroup contact on outgroup attitudes can be fully understood only when relative frequency and relative influence of positive and negative contact are considered simultaneously. Participants from five European countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland and Slovakia; N = 1276) freely described their contact experiences with people of neighboring nationalities and then reported on their outgroup attitudes. Contac...

  8. Athletes and Sedentary Individuals: An Intergroup Comparison Utilizing a Pulmonary Function Ratio Obtained During Submaximal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maud, Peter J.

    A pulmonary function ratio describing oxygen extraction from alveolar ventilation was used for an intergroup comparison between three groups of athletes (rugby, basketball, and football players) and one group of sedentary subjects during steady-state submaximal exercise. The ratio and its component parts are determined from only three gas…

  9. Effects of Physical Atypicality on Children's Social Identities and Intergroup Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals vary in the degree to which they are representative, or typical, of their social groups. To investigate the effects of atypicality on intergroup attitudes, elementary-school-age children (N = 97) attending a summer school program were assigned to novel color groups that included typical (blue or green) and atypical (light blue or light…

  10. Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu (Carsten); S. Shalvi (Shaul); L.L. Greer (Lindred); G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); M.J.J. Handgraaf (Michael)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to

  11. Education and Intergroup Attitudes: Moral Enlightenment, Superficial Democratic Commitment, or Ideological Refinement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary R.; Muha, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides evidence challenging the notions that education produces liberation from intergroup negativism or a superficial democratic commitment. Instead, suggests that the well educated are but one step ahead of their peers in developing a defense of their interests resting on qualification, individualism, obfuscation, and symbolic concessions.…

  12. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  13. The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict among humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; L.L. Greer; M.J.J. Handgraaf; S. Shalvi; G.A. van Kleef; M. Baas; F.S. ten Velden; E. van Dijk; S.W.W. Feith

    2010-01-01

    Humans regulate intergroup conflict through parochial altruism; they self-sacrifice to contribute to in-group welfare and to aggress against competing out-groups. Parochial altruism has distinct survival functions, and the brain may have evolved to sustain and promote in-group cohesion and effective

  14. Aid in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Inferences of Secondary Emotions and Intergroup Helping

    OpenAIRE

    Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Rock, Mindi S.; Norton, Michael I.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This research examines inferences about the emotional states of ingroup and outgroup victims after a natural disaster, and whether these inferences predict intergroup helping. Two weeks after Hurricane Katrina struck the southern United States, White and non-White participants were asked to infer the emotional states of an individualized Black or White victim, and were asked to report their intenti...

  15. Engaged Listening in Race/Ethnicity and Gender Intergroup Dialogue Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Ximena; Mildred, Jane; Varghese, Rani; DeJong, Keri; Keehn, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of engaged listening in intergroup dialogue (IGD) is recognized, we know relatively little about when or why participants in IGD actually listen or what they gain from listening. Using qualitative analyses of interviews conducted with undergraduates who had recently completed a race/ethnicity or gender focused IGD course,…

  16. Children's Intergroup Empathic Processing: The Roles of Novel Ingroup Identification, Situational Distress, and Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Brown, Christia Spears

    2010-01-01

    Individuals often feel more empathy toward members of their own social groups than toward members of other social groups. However, individual factors contributing to this empathy bias remain largely unexplored among children. This study examined intergroup empathic processing among 94 children (mean age = 8.74 years, SD = 1.76) assigned to novel…

  17. The social identity perspective - Intergroup relations, self-conception, and small groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, MA; Abrams, D; Otten, S; Hinkle, S

    2004-01-01

    The historical development, metatheoretical background, and current state of the social identity perspective in social psychology are described. Although originally, an analysis mainly of intergroup relations between large-scale social categories, and more recently an analysis with a strong social c

  18. Moral Judgments about Jewish-Arab Intergroup Exclusion: The Role of Cultural Identity and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination as justifications for social exclusion are often viewed as violations of the moral principles of welfare, justice, and equality, but intergroup exclusion can also often be viewed as a necessary and legitimate means to maintain group identity and cohesion (Rutland, Killen, & Abrams, 2010). The current study was…

  19. Cohesion from Conflict: Does Intergroup Conflict Motivate Intragroup Norm Enforcement and Support for Centralized Leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Classic work suggests that intergroup conflict increases intragroup cohesion and cooperation. But how do group members respond when their peers refuse to cooperate? Simmel ([1908] 1955) argued that groups in conflict quell dissent by sanctioning group members and supporting centralized leadership systems. This claim has important implications, but…

  20. Social Identity Complexity, Cross-Ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious…

  1. The development of bystander intentions and social-moral reasoning about intergroup verbal aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sally B; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey

    2015-11-01

    A developmental intergroup approach was taken to examine the development of prosocial bystander intentions among children and adolescents. Participants as bystanders (N = 260) aged 8-10 and 13-15 years were presented with scenarios of direct aggression between individuals from different social groups (i.e., intergroup verbal aggression). These situations involved either an ingroup aggressor and an outgroup victim or an outgroup aggressor and an ingroup victim. This study focussed on the role of intergroup factors (group membership, ingroup identification, group norms, and social-moral reasoning) in the development of prosocial bystander intentions. Findings showed that prosocial bystander intentions declined with age. This effect was partially mediated by the ingroup norm to intervene and perceived severity of the verbal aggression. However, a moderated mediation analysis showed that only when the victim was an ingroup member and the aggressor an outgroup member did participants become more likely with age to report prosocial bystander intentions due to increased ingroup identification. Results also showed that younger children focussed on moral concerns and adolescents focussed more on psychological concerns when reasoning about their bystander intention. These novel findings help explain the developmental decline in prosocial bystander intentions from middle childhood into early adolescence when observing direct intergroup aggression.

  2. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunham, Y.; Srinivasan, M.; Dotsch, R.; Barner, D.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of

  3. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations : the development of intergroup attitudes in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dotsch, Ron; Barner, David

    2014-01-01

    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of

  4. Threat by association : Do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the thre

  5. Patterns of care for radiotherapy in vulvar cancer: a Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2009-01-01

    , pelvic doses were 48.2 +/- 5.0 Gy (mean +/- SD). The upper border of the pelvic field was L4/5 in 4, L5/S1 in 12, and not specified in 4. Of 21 groups that perform neoadjuvant RT, 17 use concomitant chemotherapy and 4 individualize treatment. Weekly cisplatin was the most commonly used chemotherapy...

  6. Clinical neurological outcome and quality of life among patients with limited small-cell cancer treated with two different doses of prophylactic cranial irradiation in the intergroup phase III trial (PCI99-01, EORTC 22003-08004, RTOG 0212 and IFCT 99-01)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechoux, C. Le; Laplanche, A.; Faivre-Finn, C.; Ciuleanu, T.; Wanders, R.; Lerouge, D.; Keus, R.; Hatton, M.; Videtic, G.M.; Senan, S.; Wolfson, A.; Jones, R.; Arriagada, R.; Quoix, E.; Dunant, A.; Bussink, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently published the results of the PCI99 randomised trial comparing the effect of a prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) at 25 or 36 Gy on the incidence of brain metastases (BM) in 720 patients with limited small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). As concerns about neurotoxicity were a maj

  7. Being similar versus being equal: intergroup similarity moderates the influence of in-group norms on discrimination and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrot, Fabrice; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Mugny, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    In two studies, we examined the influence of in-group norms of anti- and pro-discrimination on prejudice and discrimination as a function of intergroup similarity (Studies 1 and 2) and in-group identification (Study 2). In a condition where there was no information about intergroup similarity (Study 1) or intergroup similarity was low (Study 2), prejudice and discrimination were lower when norms prescribe anti-discrimination compared to pro-discrimination. In contrast, when intergroup similarity was high, prejudice and discrimination were higher when the in-group norm represents anti-discrimination compared to pro-discrimination. This pattern was most apparent among highly identified in-group members (Study 2). The paradoxical effect of the anti-discrimination norm in the high similarity condition is interpreted as a response to the threat this situation introduces to in-group distinctiveness.

  8. The psychology of diaspora experiences: intergroup contact, perceived discrimination, and the ethnic identity of Koreans in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard M; Noh, Chi-Young; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Doh, Hyun-Sim

    2007-04-01

    The moderating role of intergroup contact on the relationship between perceived discrimination and ethnic identity was examined in a diaspora community of Koreans living in China. It was hypothesized that Koreans with higher intergroup contact would have a lower ethnic identity under higher discrimination, whereas Koreans with lower intergroup contact would have a higher ethnic identity. Across two separate college samples, Koreans who were more willing to interact with Han Chinese had a lower ethnic identity when discrimination was higher, but this finding was not replicated within one college setting. These findings challenge the linear rejection-identification model and suggest displaced people may minimize ingroup-outgroup differences, depending on their willingness to seek intergroup contact.

  9. Rejected! Cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety as mediators of the impact of cross-group friendships on prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Louis, Winnifred R; Hewstone, Miles

    2009-09-01

    In a sample of White Australians (N=273), cross-group friendship with Aboriginal Australians was associated with reduced cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety, and these variables fully mediated the effect of cross-group friendship on conversational avoidance of sensitive intergroup topics, active avoidance of the outgroup, and old-fashioned prejudice. The novel mediator proposed here, cognitions of rejection, predicted intergroup anxiety, and also predicted the three outcome variables via intergroup anxiety. Over and above its indirect effects via anxiety, cognitions of rejection directly predicted both conversational and active avoidance, suggesting that whilst the cognitive and affective mediators are linked, they predict intergroup outcomes in different ways. The results demonstrate the beneficial impact of cross group friendship in reducing prejudice and avoidance by diminishing cognitions of rejection and intergroup anxiety. We also highlight that individuals without cross-group friends may perceive the outgroup as rejecting, feel anxious about cross-group interaction, and desire both conversational and physical avoidance of the outgroup.

  10. The downsides of national identification for minority groups in intergroup conflicts in assimilationist societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilali, Rezarta

    2014-03-01

    The current study considered the downsides of national identification for minority groups in intergroup conflicts in assimilationist societies. This study examined how, in the Turkish national context, the national and ethnic identifications of ethnic Turks (N = 103) and ethnic Kurds (N = 58) predict construals (i.e., conflict frames, attributions of responsibility, and severity of harm) of Turkish-Kurdish conflict. The results indicated that, across groups, a shared national identification was associated with similar conflict construals in line with the official Turkish narrative, whereas ethnic identification was associated with opposing conflict construals that might help maintain the conflict. However, the conflict narrative related to national identification might produce a shared understanding of the conflict (i.e., more intergroup harmony) at the cost of neglecting the minority group's grievances in the conflict and legitimizing the status-quo, thus hindering efforts to enhance the minority group's disadvantaged status. PMID:23072347

  11. Reducing intergroup prejudice and conflict using the media: a field experiment in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy

    2009-03-01

    Can the media reduce intergroup prejudice and conflict? Despite the high stakes of this question, understanding of the mass media's role in shaping prejudiced beliefs, norms, and behavior is limited. A yearlong field experiment in Rwanda tested the impact of a radio soap opera featuring messages about reducing intergroup prejudice, violence, and trauma in 2 fictional Rwandan communities. Compared with a control group who listened to a health radio soap opera, listeners' perceptions of social norms and their behaviors changed with respect to intermarriage, open dissent, trust, empathy, cooperation, and trauma healing. However, the radio program did little to change listeners' personal beliefs. Group discussion and emotion were implicated in the process of media influence. Taken together, the results point to an integrated model of behavioral prejudice and conflict reduction that prioritizes the communication of social norms over changes in personal beliefs. PMID:19254104

  12. Patterns of Intergroup Contact in Public Spaces: Micro-Ecology of Segregation in Australian Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Priest

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.

  13. Dehumanization, retributive and restorative justice, and aggressive versus diplomatic intergroup conflict resolution strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Bernhard; Castano, Emanuele; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    The desire for justice can escalate or facilitate resolution of intergroup conflicts. Two studies investigated retributive and restorative notions of justice as the mediating factor of the effect of perceived outgroup sentience-an aspect of (mechanistic) dehumanization referring to the emotional depth attributed to others-on intergroup conflict resolution. Study 1 showed that for Palestinians, who see themselves as victims, perceived sentience of Israelis decreased retributive but increased restorative notions of justice, which, ultimately, increased support for conflict resolution by negotiation rather than political violence. Study 2 partially replicated Study 1's findings with Jewish Israelis. The role of perceived sentience and its relationship to retributive and restorative notions of justice in protracted and nonprotracted conflicts and their resolution is discussed.

  14. [Relation between perception of differences and intergroup anxiety: moderator and mediator variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, María N; Rodríguez, Armando; Navas, Marisol; Rodríguez, Ramón; Betancor, Verónica; Coello, Efrén

    2006-02-01

    This research has two aims: first, to determine the relationship between the intergroup differences perceived and the anxiety experienced by ingroup members in their contact with members of the outgroup. Second, to examine the moderator and/or mediator role of a series of variables considered relevant in the literature on intergroup prejudice, take into account Baron and Kenny's (1986) requeriments. This analysis is carried out from the perspective of the minority group, in this case Moroccan inmigrants to Almería. The results confirm the moderating role of the variables pressure to assimilate and perception of xenophobia and the mediating role of inmigrants' attitude towards local people and social paranoia. PMID:17296017

  15. Advantaged group's emotional reactions to intergroup inequality: the dynamics of pride, guilt, and sympathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Nicole Syringa; Kessler, Thomas; Leach, Colin Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Three studies establish intergroup inequality to investigate how it is emotionally experienced by the advantaged. Studies 1 and 2 examine psychology students' emotional experience of their unequal job situation with worse-off pedagogy students. When inequality is ingroup focused and legitimate, participants experience more pride. However, when inequality is ingroup focused and illegitimate, participants experience more guilt. Sympathy is increased when inequality is outgroup focused and illegitimate. These emotions have particular effects on behavioral tendencies. In Study 2 group-based pride predicts greater ingroup favoritism in a resource distribution task, whereas group-based sympathy predicts less ingroup favoritism. Study 3 replicates these findings in the context of students' willingness to let young immigrants take part in a university sport. Pride predicts less willingness to let immigrants take part whereas sympathy predicts greater willingness. Guilt is a weak predictor of behavioral tendencies in all studies. This shows the specificity of emotions experienced about intergroup inequality. PMID:18162660

  16. Threat by association: do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the threatening group, carry over to other groups that individuals actually do encounter in their local environment (e.g., immigrants). The main goal of our studies was to experimentally identify this carry-over effect of intergroup threat. Specifically, we hypothesized that (by definition relatively abstract) symbolic threats (e.g., threats to the ingroup's worldview) have an especially strong carry-over potential because those threats can be easily attributed to other outgroups. We tested these predictions in one correlational and two experimental studies. The results of all three studies confirmed our hypothesis that particularly distant symbolic threats were predictive of intolerance towards local outgroups.

  17. Cooperation Improves Success during Intergroup Competition: An Analysis Using Data from Professional Soccer Tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    David, Gwendolyn Kim; Wilson, Robbie Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The benefit mutually gained by cooperators is considered the ultimate explanation for why cooperation evolved among non-relatives. During intergroup competition, cooperative behaviours within groups that provide a competitive edge over their opposition should be favoured by selection, particularly in lethal human warfare. Aside from forming larger groups, three other ways that individuals within a group can cooperate to improve their chances of gaining a mutual benefit are: (i) greater networ...

  18. Threat, prejudice and stereotyping in the context of Japanese, North Korean, and South Korean intergroup relations.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Chris; Abrams, Dominic; Rosenthal, Harriet E.S.; Christian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Integrated threat theory, realistic conflict theory, and group justification (based on social identity theory) were evaluated in the international context of Japanese prejudice toward North Korea and South Korea. Military threat emerged as an important addition to the four threats outlined by integrated threat theory. Three perceived North Korean threats (realistic [domestic] threat; intergroup anxiety; military threat) predicted prejudice toward North Korea. North Korean preju...

  19. The creative power of language in social cognition and intergroup relations.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Robbie M.

    2010-01-01

    This book chapter reviews the relation of language to thought and its implications for intergroup relations. Following recent advances in social psychology, the chapter argues that language, far from merely being a medium for the transmission of stereotypes and prejudices, has the power to create, augment, and transform them. In particular, I examine the implications of the ability of language to contain thought (like a vessel), to focus thought (like a lens), and to reveal thought (like a ba...

  20. Recognition of shared past sufferings, trust and improving intergroup attitudes in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Alarcón-Henríquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of intergroup trust and recognition of past sufferings on intergroup attitudes. We conducted an experiment among Dutch-speaking students in which we manipulated the degree of importance that French-speakers gave to historical episodes of past victimizations in order to test its impact on the attitudes towards the French-speakers. Results show that intergroup attitudes were most favorable among the high-trusting Dutch-speaking participants when they were led to believe that the French speakers judged important the events where both communities were considered as victims, compared to the conditions where only French-speaking or only Dutch-speaking sufferings were considered important. This suggests some level of intergroup trust is a condition for the positive effect of shared memories of victimization on attitudes.---Este artículo examina el rol de la confianza intergrupal y el reconocimiento del sufrimiento pasado en las relaciones intergrupales. Un experimento con estudiantes belgas flamencos manipuló la importancia que belgas francófonos otorgaban a episodios del pasado de victimización para contrastar su impacto en las actitudes hacia los francófonos. Los resultado smostraron que las actitudes intergrupales eran más favorables en los belgas flamencos con alta confianza intergrupal cuando se les presentaba información que los francófonos juzgaban como importantes los sufrimientos de ambos comunidades, en comparación cuando la información solo enfatizaba el sufrimiento de los flamencos o de los francófonos. Estosugiere que un nivel de confianza intergrupo es necesario para que memorias compartidas de sufrimiento mejoren las actitudes.

  1. Inter-group aggression: the multi-individual organism and the survival instinct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Jones, N

    2000-01-01

    Inter-group aggression, carried out at the level of the in-groups and out-groups of ethnocentric theory, continued unabated throughout the twentieth century. Its frequency, together with its ferocity, indicates a potent biological cause. We have evolved as social animals, and it is postulated that evolution has proceeded to such an extent that 'multi-individual social organisms', that is, 'social groups that fight each other are self-sustaining, self-replicating whole containing interdependent parts'. This results from the total integration of individuals into the social structure and culture of the in-group; individuals are inseparable from their society and evidence for this proposal is given. Cohesion is given through the collective consciousness and collective memory. The analogy is to multicellular organisms that evolved from the association of single cell organisms. All biological organisms are subject to the survival instinct, which is thus the potent biological cause of inter-group aggression. Groups compete for territory and see other groups as a threat. Prevention of inter-group aggression should come from the insight that threatening behaviour endangers the integrity of the society of out-groups, initiating conflict. PMID:10893943

  2. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers: evaluating the chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Glowacki, Luke

    2012-03-01

    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species-selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result from cultural systems of reward, punishment, and coercion rather than evolved adaptations to greater risk-taking. To test this "chimpanzee model," we review intergroup fighting in chimpanzees and nomadic hunter-gatherers living with other nomadic hunter-gatherers as neighbors. Whether humans have evolved specific psychological adaptations for war is unknown, but current evidence suggests that the chimpanzee model is an appropriate starting point for analyzing the biological and cultural evolution of warfare. PMID:22388773

  3. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eZhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes-Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed.

  4. Individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Sarie; Scarry, Clara J

    2015-12-01

    Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost-benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities.

  5. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  6. the effect of intergroup threat and social identity salience on the belief in conspiracy theories over terrorism in indonesia: collective angst as a mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested how intergroup threat (high versus low and social identity as a Muslim (salient versus non-salient affected belief in conspiracy theories. Data among Indonesian Muslim students (N = 139 from this study demonstrated that intergroup threat and social identity salience interacted to influence belief in conspiracy theories. High intergroup threat triggered greater belief in conspiracy theories than low intergroup threat, more prominently in the condition in which participants’ Muslim identity was made salient. Collective angst also proved to mediate the effect of intergroup threat on the belief. However, in line with the prediction, evidence of this mediation effect of collective angst was only on the salient social identity condition. Discussions on these research findings build on both theoretical and practical implications.

  7. Compensation in intergroup relations: an investigation of its structural and strategic foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, Laurent; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Yakimova, Sonya

    2015-03-01

    Recent work in intergroup relations stresses the role of two fundamental dimensions, competence and warmth, which organize the perception of social groups. A pattern often encountered in people's ratings is one of compensation in that a group that is evaluated higher than another group on one of the two fundamental dimensions is also judged lower on the other fundamental dimension. Based on Social Identity Theory, the present work extends previous research on compensation by examining boundary conditions as well as underlying psychological processes. Two studies involving experimental and correlational evidence, minimal and real groups, and different kinds of conflict, reveal that compensation is more likely when the groups are in asymmetrical relation and share a cooperative view of the intergroup setting. Our data also suggest that, among members of low status groups, compensation is associated with social creativity. In contrast, and in line with the 'noblesse oblige' effect, members of the high status group would seem to rely on compensation as a means to appear non-discriminatory.

  8. Oxytocin motivates non-cooperation in intergroup conflict to protect vulnerable in-group members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K W De Dreu

    Full Text Available Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i immediate self-interest, (ii vulnerable in-group members, or (iii both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability, and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.

  9. Oxytocin motivates non-cooperation in intergroup conflict to protect vulnerable in-group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Shalvi, Shaul; Greer, Lindred L; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Handgraaf, Michel J J

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i) immediate self-interest, (ii) vulnerable in-group members, or (iii) both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled) and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability), and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability). When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.

  10. Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin eIbanez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Implicit Association Test (IAT is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs in response to face- and word- processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members and words (positive and negative valence as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face-words implicitly associated in the task had an influence on the N170 amplitude modulation. On the one hand, in face categorization, right N170 showed differences according to the association between social categories of faces and affective valence of words. On the other, in word categorization, left N170 presented a similar modulation when the task implied a negative valence associated with ingroup faces. Only indigenous participants showed a significant IAT effect and N170 differences. Our results demonstrate an early ERP blending of stimuli processing with both intergroup and evaluative contexts, suggesting an integration of contextual information related to intergroup attitudes during the early stages of word and face processing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of early ERPs during an ethnicity IAT, opening a new branch of exchange between social neuroscience and social psychology of attitudes.

  11. Collective self and individual choice : The effects of inter-group comparative context on environmental values and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A.; Postmes, Tom; Verplanken, Bas

    2012-01-01

    Self-categorization theory suggests that inter-group comparisons inform individual behaviour by affecting perceived in-group stereotypes that are internalized by group members. The present paper provides evidence for this chain of effects in the domain of environmental behaviour. In two studies, int

  12. The Effect of Diversity Courses on International Students from China and Hong Kong: A Focus on Intergroup Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sonja Gail

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the perceptions and experiences of international students from China and Hong Kong with diversity courses. Using theoretical frameworks that examine the diversity classroom, informal interactional diversity, a diversity typology used to categorize diversity courses, intergroup peer relationships and student…

  13. Warriors and Peacekeepers: Testing a Biosocial Implicit Leadership Hypothesis of Intergroup Relations Using Masculine and Feminine Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Brian R. Spisak; Peter H Dekker; Max Krüger; Mark van Vugt

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. W...

  14. Health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression in the diagnostic phase of suspected cancer, and the influence of diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Frøsig Moseholm; Rydahl Hansen, Susan; Overgaard, Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    suspected to have cancer based on non-specific symptoms was performed. Participants completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30 quality of life scale, HADS, SOC-13 and self-rated health before and after completing diagnostic evaluations. Intra- and inter-group differences between patients diagnosed with cancer versus....... There were no intra- or inter-group differences in the depression scores. The strongest predictors of global QL, anxiety, and depression after a known diagnosis were baseline scores, co-morbidity and poor self-rated health. Conclusions Patients undergoing diagnostic evaluations for cancer based on non...

  15. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dotsch, Ron; Barner, David

    2014-03-01

    Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of implicit and explicit attitudes towards these groups in minority-status Muslim children and majority-status Hindu children, the latter drawn from various positions in the Hindu caste system. Results from two tests of implicit attitudes find that caste attitudes parallel previous findings for race: higher-caste children as well as lower-caste children have robust high-caste preferences. However, results for religion were strikingly different: both lower-status Muslim children and higher-status Hindu children show strong implicit ingroup preferences. We suggest that religion may play a protective role in insulating children from the internalization of stigma.

  16. Imagining intergroup contact can combat mental health stigma by reducing anxiety, avoidance and negative stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathi, Sofia; Tsantila, Katerina; Crisp, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated widespread negative attitudes held toward people with mental health problems. Our study investigated whether a new prejudice reduction technique, imagined intergroup contact (Crisp & Turner, 2009), could combat stigma against people with mental illness, and the mediating processes through which it may exert this beneficial effect. We found that compared to a control condition, participants who imagined a positive encounter with a schizophrenic person reported weakened stereotypes and formed stronger intentions to engage in future social interactions with schizophrenic people in general. Importantly, these intentions were formed due to reduced feelings of anxiety about future interactions. We discuss the implications of these findings for improving the social inclusion of people with mental health problems.

  17. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality. PMID:25326475

  18. Increasing Intergroup Cooperation Toward Social Change by Restoring Advantaged and Disadvantaged Groups’ Positive Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Shnabel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we develop a perspective on social change as cooperation between advantaged and disadvantaged groups to facilitate not only redistribution of power and wealth but also restoration of threatened identity dimensions. We argue that disadvantaged groups experience threats to their agency whereas advantaged groups experience threats to their morality. Restoration of these aspects of groups’ identities can unlock the potential for collective action among members of disadvantaged groups and for a greater willingness to change the status quo toward equality among members of advantaged groups. A major theoretical implication of these findings is that social psychological theorizing should pay greater attention to morally based motivations as critical factors in the facilitation of change. A prime practical implication is that interventions designed to improve intergroup relations should consider not only acceptance-related but also agency-related motivations (e.g., through a “common stigmatizers identity” re-categorization strategy.

  19. 'They will not control us': Ingroup positivity and belief in intergroup conspiracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Marchlewska, Marta; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Olechowski, Mateusz

    2016-08-01

    This research examined the role of different forms of positive regard for the ingroup in predicting beliefs in intergroup conspiracies. Collective narcissism reflects a belief in ingroup greatness contingent on others' recognition. We hypothesized that collective narcissism should be especially likely to foster outgroup conspiracy beliefs. Non-narcissistic ingroup positivity, on the other hand, should predict a weaker tendency to believe in conspiracy theories. In Study 1, the endorsement of conspiratorial explanations of outgroup actions was positively predicted by collective narcissism but negatively by non-narcissistic ingroup positivity. Study 2 showed that the opposite effects of collective narcissism and non-narcissistic ingroup positivity on conspiracy beliefs were mediated via differential perceptions of threat. Study 3 manipulated whether conspiracy theories implicated ingroup or outgroup members. Collective narcissism predicted belief in outgroup conspiracies but not in ingroup conspiracies, while non-narcissistic ingroup positivity predicted lower conspiracy beliefs, regardless of them being ascribed to the ingroup or the outgroup. PMID:26511288

  20. Measuring intergroup ideologies: positive and negative aspects of emphasizing versus looking beyond group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2015-12-01

    Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes. PMID:26453053

  1. Cooperation Improves Success during Intergroup Competition: An Analysis Using Data from Professional Soccer Tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Gwendolyn Kim; Wilson, Robbie Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The benefit mutually gained by cooperators is considered the ultimate explanation for why cooperation evolved among non-relatives. During intergroup competition, cooperative behaviours within groups that provide a competitive edge over their opposition should be favoured by selection, particularly in lethal human warfare. Aside from forming larger groups, three other ways that individuals within a group can cooperate to improve their chances of gaining a mutual benefit are: (i) greater networking, (ii) contributing more effort, and (iii) dividing labour. Greater cooperation is expected to increase the chances of gaining a group benefit by improving proficiency in the tasks critical to success-yet empirical tests of this prediction using real-world cases are absent. In this study, we used data derived from 12 international and professional soccer competitions to test the predictions that: 1) greater levels of cooperative behaviour are associated with winning group contests, 2) the three forms of cooperation differ in relative importance for winning matches, 3) competition and tournament-type affect the levels of cooperation and shooting proficiency in matches, and 4) greater levels of networking behaviour are associated with increased proficiency in the most critical task linked with winning success in soccer-shooting at goal. Winners were best predicted by higher shooting proficiency, followed by greater frequencies of networking interactions within a team but unexpectedly, fewer networking partners and less division of labour. Although significant variation was detected across competitions and tournament-types, greater levels of networking behaviour were consistently associated with increased proficiency in shooting at goal, which in turn was linked with winning success. This study empirically supports the idea that intergroup competition can favour cooperation among non-relatives. PMID:26313929

  2. Cooperation Improves Success during Intergroup Competition: An Analysis Using Data from Professional Soccer Tournaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn Kim David

    Full Text Available The benefit mutually gained by cooperators is considered the ultimate explanation for why cooperation evolved among non-relatives. During intergroup competition, cooperative behaviours within groups that provide a competitive edge over their opposition should be favoured by selection, particularly in lethal human warfare. Aside from forming larger groups, three other ways that individuals within a group can cooperate to improve their chances of gaining a mutual benefit are: (i greater networking, (ii contributing more effort, and (iii dividing labour. Greater cooperation is expected to increase the chances of gaining a group benefit by improving proficiency in the tasks critical to success-yet empirical tests of this prediction using real-world cases are absent. In this study, we used data derived from 12 international and professional soccer competitions to test the predictions that: 1 greater levels of cooperative behaviour are associated with winning group contests, 2 the three forms of cooperation differ in relative importance for winning matches, 3 competition and tournament-type affect the levels of cooperation and shooting proficiency in matches, and 4 greater levels of networking behaviour are associated with increased proficiency in the most critical task linked with winning success in soccer-shooting at goal. Winners were best predicted by higher shooting proficiency, followed by greater frequencies of networking interactions within a team but unexpectedly, fewer networking partners and less division of labour. Although significant variation was detected across competitions and tournament-types, greater levels of networking behaviour were consistently associated with increased proficiency in shooting at goal, which in turn was linked with winning success. This study empirically supports the idea that intergroup competition can favour cooperation among non-relatives.

  3. Gastric cancer; Cancer de l'estomac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E. [Unite de cancerologie digestive, Institut Sainte Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France); Pointreau, Y. [Clinique d' oncologie radiotherapie, Centre Henry-S.-Kaplan, CHU Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, Clinique Victor-Hugo, 72 - Le Mans (France)

    2010-07-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  4. It’s Who You Know. Political Influence on Anti-Immigrant Attitudes and the Moderating Role of Intergroup Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Bohman

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether political frames influence anti-immigrant attitudes among native populations in 21 European countries, and if this relationship is somehow moderated by personal experiences of intergroup contact. Using data from the Comparative Manifesto Project and European Social Survey, two indicators of intergroup contact are tested: immigrant friends and immigrant colleagues, to see whether they can counter the effect of nationalistic political framing. The analysis reveals a ...

  5. “Ingroup Love" and “Outgroup Hate" as Motives for Individual Participation in Intergroup Conflict: A New Game Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Halevy; Gary Bornstein; Lilach Sagiv

    2007-01-01

    What motivates individual self-sacrificial behavior in intergroup conflicts? Is it the altruistic desire to help the ingroup or the aggressive drive to hurt the outgroup? This paper introduces a new game paradigm, the Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma – Maximizing Difference (IPD-MD) game, designed specifically to distinguish between these two motives. The game involves two groups. Each group member is given a monetary endowment and can decide how much of it to contribute. Contribution can be mad...

  6. A randomised, phase II trial of the DNA-hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine) in combination with carboplatin vs carboplatin alone in patients with recurrent, partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasspool, R M; Brown, R; Gore, M E; Rustin, G J S; McNeish, I A; Wilson, R H; Pledge, S; Paul, J; Mackean, M; Hall, G D; Gabra, H; Halford, S E R; Walker, J; Appleton, K; Ullah, R; Kaye, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our previous laboratory and clinical data suggested that one mechanism underlying the development of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer is the acquisition of DNA methylation. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytodine (decitabine) can reverse resistance to carboplatin in women with relapsed ovarian cancer. Methods: Patients progressing 6–12 months after previous platinum therapy were randomised to decitabine on day 1 and carboplatin (AUC 6) on day 8, every 28 days or carboplatin alone. The primary objective was response rate in patients with methylated hMLH1 tumour DNA in plasma. Results: After a pre-defined interim analysis, the study closed due to lack of efficacy and poor treatment deliverability in 15 patients treated with the combination. Responses by GCIG criteria were 9 out of 14 vs 3 out of 15 and by RECIST were 6 out of 13 vs 1 out of 12 for carboplatin and carboplatin/decitabine, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was more common with the combination (60% vs 15.4%) as was G2/3 carboplatin hypersensitivity (47% vs 21%). Conclusions: With this schedule, the addition of decitabine appears to reduce rather than increase the efficacy of carboplatin in partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer and is difficult to deliver. Patient-selection strategies, different schedules and other demethylating agents should be considered in future combination studies. PMID:24642620

  7. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  8. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  9. From outgroups to allied forces: Effect of intergroup cooperation in violent and nonviolent video games on boosting favorable outgroup attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Hodson, Gordon; Willoughby, Teena; Blank, Carolyn; Ha, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Here we addressed whether even violent video games can improve intergroup attitudes if played cooperatively with an outgroup, in keeping with the Contact Hypothesis. In addition, we examined potential mechanisms of this effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 77), Canadians played a violent video game (Call of Duty: Black Ops) against zombies, either cooperatively or independently (i.e., at the same time but solo) with a (supposed) University of Buffalo participant. As expected, cooperative (vs. solo) play significantly improved outgroup attitudes and pro-outgroup participant behavior, effects explained by heightened 1-group recategorization (i.e., feeling psychologically on the same team and connected with the outgroup member). In Experiment 2 (N = 239), effects of cooperation (vs. solo play) held whether playing a violent or nonviolent video game. Importantly, our findings offer an engaging and pragmatic solution to the pervasive issue of setting up and negotiating opportunities for successful intergroup cooperation.

  10. Ethnic Self-Esteem and Intergroup Attitudes Among the Estonian Majority and the non-Estonian Minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaris Raudsepp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was focussed on the relationships between ethnic self-esteem and various indicators of intergroup attitudes in a representative sample of adult population of Estonia (N=1142. Attitudinal variables that discriminated most between persons with high and low ethnic self-esteem were identified. Among Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to positive ingroup bias, readiness for outgroup contact, perceived threat from the outgroup, attitudes to non-Estonian minority, and attitudes toward minority integration. Among non-Estonians ethnic self-esteem was related to readiness for outgroup contact, ethnic sterotypes, and various attitudes towards minority integration. An attempt was made to reconstruct the system of intergroup attidues of prototypical persons with high and low ethnic selfesteem and to describe psychological implications of high and low ethnic self-esteem for members of majority and minority groups. Various theoretical models (social identity theory, integrated threat theory, social dominane theory were used for interpretation of the results.

  11. From outgroups to allied forces: Effect of intergroup cooperation in violent and nonviolent video games on boosting favorable outgroup attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Hodson, Gordon; Willoughby, Teena; Blank, Carolyn; Ha, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Here we addressed whether even violent video games can improve intergroup attitudes if played cooperatively with an outgroup, in keeping with the Contact Hypothesis. In addition, we examined potential mechanisms of this effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 77), Canadians played a violent video game (Call of Duty: Black Ops) against zombies, either cooperatively or independently (i.e., at the same time but solo) with a (supposed) University of Buffalo participant. As expected, cooperative (vs. solo) play significantly improved outgroup attitudes and pro-outgroup participant behavior, effects explained by heightened 1-group recategorization (i.e., feeling psychologically on the same team and connected with the outgroup member). In Experiment 2 (N = 239), effects of cooperation (vs. solo play) held whether playing a violent or nonviolent video game. Importantly, our findings offer an engaging and pragmatic solution to the pervasive issue of setting up and negotiating opportunities for successful intergroup cooperation. PMID:26881988

  12. No effect of inter-group conflict on within-group harmony in non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Cyril C. Grueter

    2013-01-01

    It has been a longstanding assumption that the threat of extra-group conflict can promote the expression of socio-positive behavior and cohesion within animal groups. I conducted a comparative analysis on the effect of inter-group conflict (indexed by home range overlap) on within-group affiliation levels (indexed by time engaged in allogrooming) in a sample of 48 primate species. There was no association between the 2 variables in a phylogenetic generalized least squares regression. I conclu...

  13. PSYCHOLOGY OF INTERGROUP ADAPTATION IN ORGANIZATIONS AS THE INTEGRATION OF SOCIOPSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE PARADIGMS: SOME RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Bulgakov

    2014-01-01

    Article represents the review of empirical researches (2000-2013) based on the authoring concept of psychology of intergroup adaptation (PIA) in the organizations. Some results of study of groups with different status of 45 crews of the ships of Navy of Russia (1129 servicemen), 7 rural schools of the Moscow region (351 people), 6 trade enterprises, productions, services sectors (140 employees) are provided. The system and situational analysis (the retrospective standardized interview), quest...

  14. Inter-group conflict and cooperation: field experiments before, during and after sectarian riots in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e. in-group altruism and out-group hostility by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation – charity and school donations – sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  15. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation-charity and school donations-sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  16. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antonio S.; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation—charity and school donations—sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism. PMID:26640449

  17. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R; Dekker, Peter H; Krüger, Max; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war) and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace). Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership. PMID:22276190

  18. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Spisak

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace. Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership.

  19. Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A. Bäck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The default ideological position is status quo maintaining, and challenging the status quo is associated with increased efforts and risks. Nonetheless, some people choose to challenge the status quo. Therefore, to challenge the status quo should imply a strong belief in one’s position as the correct one, and thus efforts may be undertaken to undermine the position of others. Study 1 (N = 311 showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Studies 2 (N = 135 and 3 (N = 109 tested if these effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Study 3 also revealed that challengers felt more negatively toward their opponents (possibly due to greater social identification with like-minded others, and these negative emotions in turn predicted biased attributions. Results are important as they add to the understanding of how intergroup conflict may arise, providing explanations for why challengers are less tolerant of others’ point of view.

  20. Oxytocin Conditions Intergroup Relations Through Upregulated In-Group Empathy, Cooperation, Conformity, and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Kret, Mariska E

    2016-02-01

    Humans live in, rely on, and contribute to groups. Evolution may have biologically prepared them to quickly identify others as belonging to the in-group (vs. not), to decode emotional states, and to empathize with in-group members; to learn and conform to group norms and cultural practices; to extend and reciprocate trust and cooperation; and to aggressively protect the in-group against outside threat. We review evidence that these components of human group psychology rest on and are modulated by the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin. It appears that oxytocin motivates and enables humans to 1) like and empathize with others in their groups, 2) comply with group norms and cultural practices, and 3) extend and reciprocate trust and cooperation, which may give rise to intergroup discrimination and sometimes defensive aggression against threatening (members of) out-groups. We explore the possibility that deficiencies in (components of) group psychology, seen in autistic spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and borderline personality and social anxiety disorders, may be reduced by oxytocin administration. Avenues for new research are highlighted, and implications for the role of oxytocin in cooperation and competition within and between groups are discussed.

  1. Political disagreement in intergroup terms: contextual variation and the influence of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBrien, Léan V; McGarty, Craig

    2009-03-01

    In two studies we examined justified attributions made in the face of political disagreement. Study 1 showed that Australian supporters and opponents of Australian involvement in the 2003 invasion of Iraq made stereotypical attributions that justified the superiority of the in-group over the out-group. Stereotypical attributions were consistent with the justification that the supporters of the war had been misled by dishonest political leaders. Study 2 replicated this pattern with supporters and opponents of Australia's policy of mandatory detention of asylum seekers. It also identified pragmatism as a dimension that dominant, government-aligned, groups may use to justify the superiority of the in-group over the out-group. In both studies political leaders were seen as more competent than members of the public. The results show the influence of intergroup power and within-group leader/supporter distinctions on people's attributions about political disagreement. They point to the power of social psychological theory to help analyse important contemporary political concerns.

  2. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  3. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations.

  4. In-group defense, out-group aggression, and coordination failures in intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor; Giffin, Michael; Prochazkova, Eliska; Krikeb, Jonathan; Columbus, Simon

    2016-09-20

    Intergroup conflict persists when and because individuals make costly contributions to their group's fighting capacity, but how groups organize contributions into effective collective action remains poorly understood. Here we distinguish between contributions aimed at subordinating out-groups (out-group aggression) from those aimed at defending the in-group against possible out-group aggression (in-group defense). We conducted two experiments in which three-person aggressor groups confronted three-person defender groups in a multiround contest game (n = 276; 92 aggressor-defender contests). Individuals received an endowment from which they could contribute to their group's fighting capacity. Contributions were always wasted, but when the aggressor group's fighting capacity exceeded that of the defender group, the aggressor group acquired the defender group's remaining resources (otherwise, individuals on both sides were left with the remainders of their endowment). In-group defense appeared stronger and better coordinated than out-group aggression, and defender groups survived roughly 70% of the attacks. This low success rate for aggressor groups mirrored that of group-hunting predators such as wolves and chimpanzees (n = 1,382 cases), hostile takeovers in industry (n = 1,637 cases), and interstate conflicts (n = 2,586). Furthermore, whereas peer punishment increased out-group aggression more than in-group defense without affecting success rates (Exp. 1), sequential (vs. simultaneous) decision-making increased coordination of collective action for out-group aggression, doubling the aggressor's success rate (Exp. 2). The relatively high success rate of in-group defense suggests evolutionary and cultural pressures may have favored capacities for cooperation and coordination when the group goal is to defend, rather than to expand, dominate, and exploit. PMID:27601640

  5. In-group defense, out-group aggression, and coordination failures in intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor; Giffin, Michael; Prochazkova, Eliska; Krikeb, Jonathan; Columbus, Simon

    2016-09-20

    Intergroup conflict persists when and because individuals make costly contributions to their group's fighting capacity, but how groups organize contributions into effective collective action remains poorly understood. Here we distinguish between contributions aimed at subordinating out-groups (out-group aggression) from those aimed at defending the in-group against possible out-group aggression (in-group defense). We conducted two experiments in which three-person aggressor groups confronted three-person defender groups in a multiround contest game (n = 276; 92 aggressor-defender contests). Individuals received an endowment from which they could contribute to their group's fighting capacity. Contributions were always wasted, but when the aggressor group's fighting capacity exceeded that of the defender group, the aggressor group acquired the defender group's remaining resources (otherwise, individuals on both sides were left with the remainders of their endowment). In-group defense appeared stronger and better coordinated than out-group aggression, and defender groups survived roughly 70% of the attacks. This low success rate for aggressor groups mirrored that of group-hunting predators such as wolves and chimpanzees (n = 1,382 cases), hostile takeovers in industry (n = 1,637 cases), and interstate conflicts (n = 2,586). Furthermore, whereas peer punishment increased out-group aggression more than in-group defense without affecting success rates (Exp. 1), sequential (vs. simultaneous) decision-making increased coordination of collective action for out-group aggression, doubling the aggressor's success rate (Exp. 2). The relatively high success rate of in-group defense suggests evolutionary and cultural pressures may have favored capacities for cooperation and coordination when the group goal is to defend, rather than to expand, dominate, and exploit.

  6. Why Does Existential Threat Promote Intergroup Violence? Examining the Role of Retributive Justice and Cost-Benefit Utility Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eHirschberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current research examined the role of retributive justice and cost-benefit utility motivations in the process through which mortality salience increases support for violent responses to intergroup conflict. Specifically, previous research has shown that mortality salience often encourages political violence, especially when perceptions of retributive justice are activated. The current research examined whether mortality salience directly activates a justice mindset over a cost-benefit utility mindset, and whether this justice mindset is associated with support for political violence. In Study 1 (N=209, mortality salience was manipulated among Israeli participants who then read about a Hamas attack on Israel with either no casualties or many casualties, after which justice and utility motivations for retribution were assessed. Study 2 (N=112, examined whether the link between death primes and support for an Israeli preemptive strike on Iran’s nuclear facilities is mediated by justice or cost-benefit utility considerations. Results of both studies revealed that primes of death increased justice-related motivations, and these motives, rather than utility motives, were associated with support for violence. Findings suggest that existential concerns often fuel violent intergroup conflict because they increase desire for retributive justice, rather than increase belief that violence is an effective strategy. These findings expand our knowledge on the motivations for intergroup violence, and shed experimental light on real-life eruptions of violent conflict indicating that when existential concerns are salient, as they often are during violent conflict, the decision to engage in violence often disregards the utility of violence, and leads to the preference for violent solutions to political problems – even when these solutions make little practical sense.

  7. Group consensus in generic linear multi-agent systems with inter-group non-identical inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilun Shang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the group consensus problem for generic linear multi-agent systems under directed information flow. External adapted inputs are introduced to realize the intra-group synchronization as well as the inter-group separation. Without imposing complicated algebraic criteria or restrictive graphic conditions on the interaction topology, we show that the group consensus can be achieved by designing appropriate gains given any magnitude of the coupling strengths among the agents. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the availability of our results.

  8. 从群际接触视角探析亲子关系%Analysis of Parent-child Relationship from the Perspective of Intergroup Contacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚芬; 宋烨

    2014-01-01

    Parent-child relationship has always been educators, psychologists' hot topic. In this paper, intergroup contact with background, we try to explore the parent-child relationship from contact motivation, interaction style with intergroup contact background.%亲子关系一直是教育学家、心理学家关注的热门话题。本文在群际接触背景下,试从接触动机、互动方式两方面探究亲子关系。

  9. They see us as less than human: Metadehumanization predicts intergroup conflict via reciprocal dehumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Hodson, Gordon; Bruneau, Emile

    2016-03-01

    Although the act of dehumanizing an outgroup is a pervasive and potent intergroup process that drives discrimination and conflict, no formal research has examined the consequences of being dehumanized by an outgroup-that is, "metadehumanization." Across 10 studies (N = 3,440) involving several real-world conflicts spanning 3 continents, we provide the first empirical evidence that metadehumanization (a) plays a central role in outgroup aggression that is (b) mediated by outgroup dehumanization, and (c) distinct from metaprejudice. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate experimentally that Americans who learn that Arabs (Study 1a) or Muslims (Study 1b) blatantly dehumanize Americans are more likely to dehumanize that outgroup in return; by contrast, experimentally increasing outgroup dehumanization did not increase metadehumanization (Study 1c). Using correlational data, Study 2 documents indirect effects of metadehumanization on Americans' support for aggressive policies toward Arabs (e.g., torture) via Arab dehumanization. In the context of Hungarians and ethnic minority Roma, Study 3 shows that the pathway for Hungarians from metadehumanization to aggression through outgroup dehumanization holds controlling for outgroup prejudice. Study 4 examines Israelis' metaperceptions with respect to Palestinians, showing that: (a) feeling dehumanized (i.e., metadehumanization) is distinct from feeling disliked (i.e., metaprejudice), and (b) metadehumanization uniquely influences aggression through outgroup dehumanization, controlling for metaprejudice. Studies 5a and 5b explore Americans' metaperceptions regarding ISIS and Iran. We document a dehumanization-specific pathway from metadehumanization to aggressive attitudes and behavior that is distinct from the path from metaprejudice through prejudice to aggression. In Study 6, American participants learning that Muslims humanize Americans (i.e., metahumanization) humanize Muslims in turn. Finally, Study 7 experimentally contrasts

  10. They see us as less than human: Metadehumanization predicts intergroup conflict via reciprocal dehumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Hodson, Gordon; Bruneau, Emile

    2016-03-01

    Although the act of dehumanizing an outgroup is a pervasive and potent intergroup process that drives discrimination and conflict, no formal research has examined the consequences of being dehumanized by an outgroup-that is, "metadehumanization." Across 10 studies (N = 3,440) involving several real-world conflicts spanning 3 continents, we provide the first empirical evidence that metadehumanization (a) plays a central role in outgroup aggression that is (b) mediated by outgroup dehumanization, and (c) distinct from metaprejudice. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate experimentally that Americans who learn that Arabs (Study 1a) or Muslims (Study 1b) blatantly dehumanize Americans are more likely to dehumanize that outgroup in return; by contrast, experimentally increasing outgroup dehumanization did not increase metadehumanization (Study 1c). Using correlational data, Study 2 documents indirect effects of metadehumanization on Americans' support for aggressive policies toward Arabs (e.g., torture) via Arab dehumanization. In the context of Hungarians and ethnic minority Roma, Study 3 shows that the pathway for Hungarians from metadehumanization to aggression through outgroup dehumanization holds controlling for outgroup prejudice. Study 4 examines Israelis' metaperceptions with respect to Palestinians, showing that: (a) feeling dehumanized (i.e., metadehumanization) is distinct from feeling disliked (i.e., metaprejudice), and (b) metadehumanization uniquely influences aggression through outgroup dehumanization, controlling for metaprejudice. Studies 5a and 5b explore Americans' metaperceptions regarding ISIS and Iran. We document a dehumanization-specific pathway from metadehumanization to aggressive attitudes and behavior that is distinct from the path from metaprejudice through prejudice to aggression. In Study 6, American participants learning that Muslims humanize Americans (i.e., metahumanization) humanize Muslims in turn. Finally, Study 7 experimentally contrasts

  11. When votes depend on who's listening: Voters' intragroup status and voting procedure predict representative endorsement in intergroup contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Catia P; Demoulin, Stephanie; Yzerbyt, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Three experiments investigated whether the selection of a representative in intergroup interdependence settings can reflect group members' strategic behaviour. We tested the impact of an individual's intragroup status (normative vs. pro-out-group deviant, Experiments 1-3) and of voting procedure (Experiments 2 and 3) on the choice of an in-group representative. Experiment 1 shows that normative members prefer normative representatives, whereas pro-out-group deviant members equally like normative and pro-out-group deviant representatives. Experiment 2 extends these results and shows that voting procedure (private vs. in-group audience) moderates this effect. Pro-out-group deviant members' preferences and behaviours appear more strategic and context-sensitive than normative ones. Specifically, pro-out-group deviants vote more for normative representatives than for pro-out-group deviants when facing an in-group audience, whereas the reverse pattern emerges in private. Experiment 3 shows that this moderation effect is specific to in-group audiences compared to out-group ones, reinforcing the idea that normative members 'stick to their guns'. Implications of these findings for leader endorsement and intergroup relations are discussed.

  12. Group composition, intergroup conflicts and use of space in Callithrix penicillata (Geoffroy, 1812 introduced in an urban patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Zago

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of space by the Callithix genus can be related to different factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of different factors on the use of space in C. penicillata introduced in an urban patch. Two groups, called GL and GG, were monitored in two six-month phases at Parque Ecológico do Córrego Grande, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Both groups consisted of eight individuals at the beginning of the study. Throughout Phase I some GL individuals disappeared and births occurred among GG, changing the groups’ composition to five and 11 individuals, respectively. In Phase II, GL moved to an inaccessible area preventing sufficient observations. Three GG individuals disappeared and two others were born. Intergroup agonistic behaviors were recorded in all Phase I months, while an abrupt reduction occurred in Phase II. Home range overlaps occurred throughout Phase I. Between Phases I and II, GL left the overlapping area and GG occupied the GL spaces. These changes seem to be related to the increase in GG individuals and their need to access food resources. The use of space dynamics seems to result from spatial limitations, intergroup conflicts, group compositions and availability of food resources.

  13. Us versus Them in Context: Meta-Analysis as a Tool for Geotemporal Trends in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania B. Huedo-Medina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The increasing availability of studies from many nations offers important potential insights into group-based psychology and behavior, conflict, and violence. Nonetheless, to date, few cross-national or cultural comparisons of study findings have been made, representing a gap in our understanding of the historical causes and courses of inter-group conflict in current comparative approaches. Meta-analytic methods offer researchers the ability to combine data from studies with groups as well as across time. Our review of statistical methods available for comparative analyses in inter-group research found strengths and limitations for understanding group differences, conflict, and violence, and meta-analytic methods address these limitations by exploring potential structural-level moderators and by identifying how temporal and geographical variations may relate directly to group-based variables. Such methods can contribute to our understanding of broad structural effects on group-based variables by elucidating the mechanisms underlying them.

  14. From Dialogue to Action: The Impact of Cross-Race Intergroup Dialogue on the Development of White College Students as Racial Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimo, Craig John

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of postsecondary education are poised to leverage the presence of racial diversity to educate for social change. The purpose of this study was to examine how a race/ethnicity intergroup dialogue facilitates the development of confidence and frequency of white college students' engagement in actions that are congruent with the…

  15. Interracial Contact and Racial Constancy: A Multi-Site Study of Racial Intergroup Bias in 3-5 Year Old Anglo-British Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Bennett, Laura; Ferrell, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative,…

  16. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  17. Same spaces, different races: what can cafeteria seating patterns tell us about intergroup relations in middle school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie; Solomon, Brett J; Graham, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    Using 2 segregation indices--an exposure index previously used in cafeteria studies and an entropy index used for the first time, to our knowledge, in this study--we examined racial segregation in seating patterns among ethnically diverse middle school students in their school cafeteria over a 2-week period. Given the representation of groups in the cafeteria each day, results indicated the expected amount of contact between Asian and White students, but more limited contact between Asian and Latino students and between White and Latino students. Latino students, who were in the numerical majority in the sample, appeared least likely to contribute to overall segregation in the cafeteria. Implications for using the cafeteria methodology to examine intergroup relations were discussed. PMID:25111541

  18. Belief in the malleability of groups strengthens the tenuous link between a collective apology and intergroup forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Michael J A; Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Halperin, Eran; Caouette, Julie; Hayes, Nicole; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    Although it is widely assumed that collective apologies for intergroup harms facilitate forgiveness, evidence for a strong link between the two remains elusive. In four studies we tested the proposition that the apology-forgiveness link exists, but only among people who hold an implicit belief that groups can change. In Studies 1 and 2, perceived group malleability (measured and manipulated, respectively) moderated the responses to an apology by Palestinian leadership toward Israelis: Positive responses such as forgiveness increased with greater belief in group malleability. In Study 3, university students who believed in group malleability were more forgiving of a rival university's derogatory comments in the presence (as opposed to the absence) of an apology. In Study 4, perceived perpetrator group remorse mediated the moderating effect of group malleability on the apology-forgiveness link (assessed in the context of a corporate transgression). Implications for collective apologies and movement toward reconciliation are discussed. PMID:25767157

  19. Anal Carcinoma: Impact of TN Category of Disease on Survival, Disease Relapse, and Colostomy Failure in US Gastrointestinal Intergroup RTOG 98-11 Phase 3 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, Leonard L., E-mail: gunderson.leonard@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Pedersen, John E. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Winter, Kathryn A. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Benson, Al B. [Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Knight Cancer Institute/Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Mayer, Robert J. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haddock, Michael G. [Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Rich, Tyvin A. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The long-term update of US GI Intergroup RTOG 98-11 anal cancer trial found that concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin had a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with induction plus concurrent 5-FU plus cisplatin. The intent of the current analysis was to determine the impact of tumor node (TN) category of disease on survival (DFS and OS), colostomy failure (CF), and relapse (local-regional failure [LRF] and distant metastases [DM]) in this patient group. Methods and Materials: DFS and OS were estimated univariately by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and 6 TN categories were compared by the log–rank test (T2N0, T3N0, T4N0, T2N1-3, T3N1-3, and T4N1-3). Time to relapse and colostomy were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, and TN categories were compared using Gray's test. Results: Of 682 patients, 620 were analyzable for outcomes by TN category. All endpoints showed statistically significant differences among the TN categories of disease (OS, P<.0001; DFS, P<.0001; LRF, P<.0001; DM, P=.0011; CF, P=.01). Patients with the poorest OS, DFS, and LRF outcomes were those with T3-4N-positive (+) disease. CF was lowest for T2N0 and T2N+ (11%, 11%, respectively) and worst for the T4N0, T3N+, and T4N+ categories (26%, 27%, 24%, respectively). Conclusions: TN category of disease has a statistically significant impact on OS, DFS, LRF, DM, and CF in patients treated with CCRT and provides excellent prognostic information for outcomes in patients with anal carcinoma. Significant challenges remain for patients with T4N0 and T3-4N+ categories of disease with regard to survival, relapse, and CF and lesser challenges for T2-3N0/T2N+ categories.

  20. Interracial contact and racial constancy: A multi-site study of racial intergroup bias in 3-5 year old Anglo-British children

    OpenAIRE

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Bennett, Laura; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative, valence attributions. Anglo-British children (N = 136) between 3 and 5 years of age with different levels of interracial contact undertook a racial stere...

  1. The relationship between outgroup size and anti-outgroup attitudes: a theoretical synthesis and empirical test of group threat and intergroup contact theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schlueter, E.; Scheepers, P.

    2010-01-01

    Although anti-immigrant attitudes represent a widespread social problem in many European societies, research has only partially understood the role the demographic size of the immigrant population plays for the prevalence of such attitudes. In this study, we use group threat- and intergroup contact theory to derive competing hypotheses on the role the size of the immigrant population plays for explaining the anti-immigrant attitudes of Dutch citizens. To this end, we used structural equation ...

  2. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: Exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori eWeisel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help.Previous work established that this distinction---whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive---has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict.The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behaviour of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup.Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced.The main results are that(1 behaviour is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2 People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3 emph{Groupness}---the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being---is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it. In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate.

  3. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  4. Intergroup variation in stable isotope ratios reflects anthropogenic impact on the Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Mark R; Fuentes, Agustín; Luecke, Ellen; Cortes, John; Shaw, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with humans impact many aspects of behavior and ecology in nonhuman primates. Because of the complexities of the human-nonhuman primate interface, methods are needed to quantify the effects of anthropogenic interactions, including their intensity and differential impacts between nonhuman primate groups. Stable isotopes can be used to quickly and economically assess intergroup dietary variation, and provide a framework for the development of specific hypotheses about anthropogenic impact. This study uses stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to examine intraspecific variation in diet between five groups of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in the Upper Rock Nature Reserve, Gibraltar. Analysis of hair from 135 macaques showed significant differences in δ(13)C and δ(15)N values between a group with minimal tourist contact and groups that were main tourist attractions. Because we observed no overt physiological or substantial behavioral differences between the groups, feeding ecology is the most likely cause of any differences in stable isotope ratios. Haphazard provisioning by tourists and Gibraltarians is a likely source of dietary variation between groups. Stable isotope analysis and observational data facilitate a deeper understanding of the feeding ecology of the Barbary macaques relevant to the role of an anthropogenic ecology for the species. PMID:21881959

  5. Are Japanese groups more competitive than Japanese individuals? A cross-cultural validation of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2007-02-01

    The interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect is the tendency for relationships between groups to be more competitive than the relationships between individuals. It has been observed robustly in studies conducted in the United States, which is a society characterized as "individualistic." In this study, it was explored whether the effect was replicable in a "collectivistic" society such as Japan. From the traditional view in cross-cultural psychology, which emphasizes the collectivistic nature of East Asian peoples, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be greater in Japan than in the United States. On the other hand, based on recent empirical findings suggesting that North Americans are no less group-oriented than East Asians, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be no greater in Japan than in the United States. One hundred and sixty Japanese university students played a 10-trial repeated prisoner's dilemma game: 26 sessions of interindividual and 18 sessions of intergroup. Following exactly the procedure of prior experiments in the US, individuals and groups were allowed face-to-face communication with their opponents before making their decisions, and participants in the intergroup condition were further allowed to converse freely with their in-group members. Results replicated previous findings in the United States; groups made more competitive choices than did individuals. In addition, neither the magnitude of the discontinuity effect, nor the frequency of competitive choices made by the groups, were larger in Japan than they were in the majority of prior studies conducted in the United States. These findings suggest cross-cultural robustness of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect. Also, interestingly, they contradict the simple distinction between individualism and collectivism. Implications for studies of culture and group processes are discussed. This research was supported by grants from the Center for the

  6. The influence of social preferences and reputational concerns on intergroup prosocial behaviour in gains and losses contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jim A C; Faber, Nadira S; Crockett, Molly J

    2015-12-01

    To what extent do people help ingroup members based on a social preference to improve ingroup members' outcomes, versus strategic concerns about preserving their reputation within their group? And do these motives manifest differently when a prosocial behaviour occurs in the context of helping another gain a positive outcome (study 1), versus helping another to avoid losing a positive outcome (study 2)? In both contexts, we find that participants are more prosocial towards ingroup (versus outgroup members) and more prosocial when decisions are public (versus private) but find no interaction between group membership and either anonymity of the decision or expected economic value of helping. Therefore, consistent with a preference-based account of ingroup favouritism, people appear to prefer to help ingroup members more than outgroup members, regardless of whether helping can improve their reputation within their group. Moreover, this preference to help ingroup members appears to take the form of an intuitive social heuristic to help ingroup members, regardless of the economic incentives or possibility of reputation management. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of intergroup prosocial behaviour are discussed.

  7. The influence of social preferences and reputational concerns on intergroup prosocial behaviour in gains and losses contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jim A C; Faber, Nadira S; Crockett, Molly J

    2015-12-01

    To what extent do people help ingroup members based on a social preference to improve ingroup members' outcomes, versus strategic concerns about preserving their reputation within their group? And do these motives manifest differently when a prosocial behaviour occurs in the context of helping another gain a positive outcome (study 1), versus helping another to avoid losing a positive outcome (study 2)? In both contexts, we find that participants are more prosocial towards ingroup (versus outgroup members) and more prosocial when decisions are public (versus private) but find no interaction between group membership and either anonymity of the decision or expected economic value of helping. Therefore, consistent with a preference-based account of ingroup favouritism, people appear to prefer to help ingroup members more than outgroup members, regardless of whether helping can improve their reputation within their group. Moreover, this preference to help ingroup members appears to take the form of an intuitive social heuristic to help ingroup members, regardless of the economic incentives or possibility of reputation management. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of intergroup prosocial behaviour are discussed. PMID:27019739

  8. Chemotherapy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Sastre; Jose Angel García-Saenz; Eduardo Díaz-Rubio

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic gastric cancer remains a non-curative disease.Palliative chemotherapy has been demonstrated to prolong survival without quality of life compromise. Many single-agents and combinations have been confirmed to be active in the treatment of metastatic disease. Objective response rates ranged from 10-30% for single-agent therapy and 30-60% for polychemotherapy. Results of phase Ⅱ and Ⅲ studies are reviewed in this paper as well as the potential efficacy of new drugs. For patients with localized disease, the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy is discussed.Most studies on adjuvant chemotherapy failed to demonstrate a survival advantage, and therefore, it is not considered as standard treatment in most centres. Adjuvant immunochemotherapy has been developed fundamentally in Korea and Japan. A meta-analysis of phase Ⅲ trials with OK-432 suggested that immunochemotherapy may improve survival of patients with curatively resected gastric cancer. Based on the results of US Intergroup 0116study, postoperative chemoradiation has been Accepted as standard care in patients with resected gastric cancer in North America. However, the results are somewhat confounded by the fact that patients underwent less than a recommended D1 lymph node dissection and the pattern of recurrence suggested a positive effect derived from local radiotherapy without any effect on micrometastatic disease.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy remains experimental, but several phase Ⅱstudies are showing promising results. Phase Ⅲ trials are needed.

  9. Are Japanese groups more competitive than Japanese individuals? A cross-cultural validation of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2007-02-01

    The interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect is the tendency for relationships between groups to be more competitive than the relationships between individuals. It has been observed robustly in studies conducted in the United States, which is a society characterized as "individualistic." In this study, it was explored whether the effect was replicable in a "collectivistic" society such as Japan. From the traditional view in cross-cultural psychology, which emphasizes the collectivistic nature of East Asian peoples, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be greater in Japan than in the United States. On the other hand, based on recent empirical findings suggesting that North Americans are no less group-oriented than East Asians, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be no greater in Japan than in the United States. One hundred and sixty Japanese university students played a 10-trial repeated prisoner's dilemma game: 26 sessions of interindividual and 18 sessions of intergroup. Following exactly the procedure of prior experiments in the US, individuals and groups were allowed face-to-face communication with their opponents before making their decisions, and participants in the intergroup condition were further allowed to converse freely with their in-group members. Results replicated previous findings in the United States; groups made more competitive choices than did individuals. In addition, neither the magnitude of the discontinuity effect, nor the frequency of competitive choices made by the groups, were larger in Japan than they were in the majority of prior studies conducted in the United States. These findings suggest cross-cultural robustness of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect. Also, interestingly, they contradict the simple distinction between individualism and collectivism. Implications for studies of culture and group processes are discussed. This research was supported by grants from the Center for the

  10. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreu, Carsten K W De; Dussel, D Berno; Velden, Femke S Ten

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma-Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged-in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups. PMID:25999888

  11. In Intergroup Conflict, Self-sacrifice is Stronger among Pro-social Individuals and Parochial Altruism Emerges specially among Cognitively Taxed Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K.W. De Dreu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma—Maximizing Differences Game (IPD-MD with ninety-five subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that decisions to contribute and self-sacrifice were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that longer decision time associated with less positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (versus pro-self individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged—in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups.

  12. The consequences of treatment and disease in patients with primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: cognitive function and performance status. North Central Cancer Treatment Group.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, B.P.; C. H. Wang; O'Fallon, J.R.; Colgan, J P; Earle, J. D.; Krigel, R. L.; Brown, L D; McGinnis, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    Per protocol, patients with primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in an intergroup phase II trial conducted by the North Central Cancer Treatment Group and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group had their cognitive functions measured using the Folstein and Folstein Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and their physical functions measured using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Score (PS) at study entry, at each treatment evaluation, and at quarterly intervals thereafter until ...

  13. Refusing intergroup help from the morally superior: How one group's moral superiority leads to another group's reluctance to seek their help. : How one group's moral superiority leads to another group's reluctance to seek their help

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Täuber, Susanne; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    We examine how group members paradoxically refuse intergroup help where they might need it most: in the moral status domain. Based on the Sacred Value Protection Model (Tetlock, 2002), we predicted and found that group members felt stronger group-based anger and a stronger motivation to reaffirm the

  14. Long-term Follow-up of the RTOG 9501/Intergroup Phase III Trial: Postoperative Concurrent Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in High-Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previous analysis of this Intergroup trial demonstrated that with a median follow-up among surviving patients of 45.9 months, the concurrent postoperative administration of cisplatin and radiation therapy improved local-regional control and disease-free survival of patients who had high-risk resectable head-and-neck carcinomas. With a minimum of 10 years of follow-up potentially now available for all patients, these results are updated here to examine long-term outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 410 analyzable patients who had high-risk resected head-and-neck cancers were prospectively randomized to receive either radiation therapy (RT: 60 Gy in 6 weeks) or identical RT plus cisplatin, 100 mg/m2i.v. on days 1, 22, and 43 (RT + CT). Results: At 10 years, the local-regional failure rates were 28.8% vs 22.3% (P=.10), disease-free survival was 19.1% vs 20.1% (P=.25), and overall survival was 27.0% vs 29.1% (P=.31) for patients treated by RT vs RT + CT, respectively. In the unplanned subset analysis limited to patients who had microscopically involved resection margins and/or extracapsular spread of disease, local-regional failure occurred in 33.1% vs 21.0% (P=.02), disease-free survival was 12.3% vs 18.4% (P=.05), and overall survival was 19.6% vs 27.1% (P=.07), respectively. Conclusion: At a median follow-up of 9.4 years for surviving patients, no significant differences in outcome were observed in the analysis of all randomized eligible patients. However, analysis of the subgroup of patients who had either microscopically involved resection margins and/or extracapsular spread of disease showed improved local-regional control and disease-free survival with concurrent administration of chemotherapy. The remaining subgroup of patients who were enrolled only because they had tumor in 2 or more lymph nodes did not benefit from the addition of CT to RT.

  15. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Cancer - Did you know that endometrial cancer ... mfhs0vbvWi8?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Endometrial Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ...

  16. Cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  17. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  18. Neoadjuvant therapy and surgical resection for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, J; Rusch, V W

    2000-10-01

    During the past 15 years, treatment of stage IIIA (N2) non-small cell lung cancer has evolved considerably because of improvements in patients selection, staging, and combined modality therapy. Results of several clinical trials suggest that induction chemotherapy or chemoradiation and surgical resection is superior to surgery alone. However, the optimal induction regimen has not been defined. An intergroup trial is also underway to determine whether chemoradiation and surgical resection leads to better survival than chemotherapy and radiation alone. Future studies will assess ways to combine radiation and novel chemotherapeutic agents, and will identify molecular abnormalities that predict response to induction therapy.

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA tests. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 10 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain people. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 11 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  1. Vulva cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are: Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Sarcoma Vulvar ...

  2. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  4. Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  5. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  6. Enhanced sensitization to animal, interpersonal, and intergroup fear-relevant stimuli (but no evidence for selective one-trial fear learning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Cronin, Sophie L; Alhadad, Sakinah S J; Luck, Camilla C

    2015-11-01

    Selective sensitization has been proposed as an alternative explanation for enhanced responding to animal fear-relevant stimuli--snakes and spiders--during extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. The current study sought to replicate the phenomenon using a shock workup procedure as the sensitizing manipulation and to extend it to interpersonal and intergroup fear-relevant stimuli--angry faces and other-race faces. Assessment of selective sensitization was followed by a one-trial fear learning procedure. Selective sensitization, larger electrodermal responses to fear-relevant than to control stimuli after sensitization, or a larger increase in electrodermal responding to fear-relevant than to control stimuli after sensitization was observed across stimulus domains. However, the one-trial fear learning procedure failed to provide evidence for enhanced fear conditioning to fear-relevant stimuli. One-trial fear learning was either absent or present for fear-relevant and nonfear-relevant stimuli. The current study confirms that electrodermal responses to fear-relevant stimuli across stimulus domains are subject to selective sensitization. PMID:26283264

  7. Standard chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer (ICON7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oza, Amit M; Cook, Adrian D; Pfisterer, Jacobus;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ICON7 trial previously reported improved progression-free survival in women with ovarian cancer with the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy, with the greatest effect in patients at high risk of disease progression. We report the final overall survival results...... of the trial. METHODS: ICON7 was an international, phase 3, open-label, randomised trial undertaken at 263 centres in 11 countries across Europe, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Eligible adult women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer that was either high-risk early-stage disease (International Federation...... by a minimisation algorithm stratified by FIGO stage, residual disease, interval between surgery and chemotherapy, and Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup group. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival; the study was also powered to detect a difference in overall survival. Analysis was by intention to treat...

  8. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  9. Prostate radiotherapy clinical trial quality assurance: How real should real time review be? (A TROG-OCOG Intergroup Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Review of plans early in treatment offers the potential to reduce the chance of sub-optimal treatment delivery. We compare the use of real time reviews (RTR) either before randomization (pre-rand 3D RTR) or following randomization (post-rand 2D RTR). Materials and methods: PROFIT is an international randomised trial for men with prostate cancer which had credentialing via multiple dummy runs. In Australia, but not Canada, all plans were submitted for pre-rand 3D RTR using 3D software, and resubmission was requested if significant protocol deviations (PD) were seen. All plans from Canada and Australia then underwent post-rand 2D RTR using a 2D assessment. Results: For 147 Australian patients, pre-rand 3D RTR was fast (median 1 day, 95% range 0–4 days). 51 minor and 5 major PD were observed and 15 of the 147 cases (10%) required resubmission. Of the 5 major PD, 4 were remedied on resubmission and 1 was withdrawn from study. For the post-rand 2D RTR, reports from 147 Australian cases and 193 Canadian cases were reviewed. No major PD were reported from Australian cases, but 3 were seen in Canadian cases (0% versus 1.5%; p = 0.26). There was also no difference in the rate of minor PD (14.3% versus 15.3%; p = NS). Conclusions: In a study using relatively simple treatment volumes after comprehensive credentialing, pre-rand 3D RTR offers only modest benefits compared with post-rand 2D RTR. In the future the intensity of RTR may need to vary according to protocol and site specific factors

  10. Fluorouracil Based Chemoradiation with Either Gemcitabine or Fluorouracil Chemotherapy Following Resection of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: 5-Year Analysis of the US Intergroup/RTOG 9704 Phase III Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regine, William F.; Winter, K.A.; Abrams, R.; Safran, H.; Hoffman, J.P.; Konski, A.; Benson, A.B.; Macdonald, J.S.; Rich, T.A.; Willett, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The impact of the addition of gemcitabine (G) to 5-FU chemoradiation (CRT) on 5-year overall survival (OS) in resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma are presented with updated results of a phase III trial. Methods Following resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients were randomized to pre and post CRT 5-FU vs. pre and post CRT G. 5-FU = continuous (CI) at 250 mg/m2/day. G = 1000 mg/m2 weekly; both given over 3 weeks pre and 12 weeks post - CRT. CRT = 50.4 Gy with CI 5-FU. Primary endpoint was survival for all patients and for pancreatic head tumor patients. Results Four hundred and fifty-one patients were eligible. Univariate analysis showed no difference in OS. Pancreatic head tumor patients (n=388) had a median survival and 5-year OS of 20.5 months and 22% with G vs. 17.1 months and 18% with 5-FU. On multivariate analysis, patients on the G arm with pancreatic head tumors experienced a trend towards improved OS (p=0.08). First site of relapse local recurrence in 28% of patients vs. distant relapse in 73%. Conclusion(s) The sequencing of 5-FU CRT with G as done in this trial is not associated with a statistically significant improvement in OS. Despite local recurrence being approximately half of that reported in previous adjuvant trials, distant disease relapse still occurs in ≥ 70% of patients. These findings serve as the basis for the recently activated EORTC/US Intergroup RTOG 0848 phase III adjuvant trial evaluating the impact of CRT after completion of a full course of G. PMID:21499862

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  12. Adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Present the results of the 1995 World Overview which will be held in Oxford England two weeks before ASTRO. Discuss the interpretation and application of these results. Review current research topics on the use of adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy for early breast cancer. The survival benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women and adjuvant tamoxifen in postmenopausal women are well established. Each will reduce the annual odds of death by about 25% resulting in a 10 year survival difference of 8-10%. By the time of this presentation, the results of the 1995 Adjuvant Therapy Overview should be with 10+ years of follow-up, and if possible these will be summarized. Current efforts to improve on previous results are focused on the following areas: Optimal chemotherapy dose. Decreasing dose will compromise patient survival. It is not as certain that increasing dose will have as much impact in improving survival. The NSABP was unable to demonstrate an improvement in survival by modestly increasing the dose of cyclophosphamide alone. However, recent results of a Canadian study of CEF (cyclophosphamide, epidoxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil) and an Intergroup trial of an intense 16 week polychemotherapy program keep alive the possibility that dose escalation is still a very important question. An NSABP trial evaluating even greater cyclophosphamide dose escalation, an Intergroup evaluation of different doxorubicin doses, and two Intergroup trials evaluating very high dose chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation should provide definitive evidence regarding the importance of dose. Drug sequence. A study from Milan suggests that initial treatment with single agent doxorubicin followed by CMF will be superior to alternating doxorubicin and CMF. This has not been confirmed yet, and the reason for increased benefit from such a sequence is not entirely clear. This concept is being explored further in an Intergroup trial comparing four cycles of

  13. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qnad9A-rfcw?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Pancreas Cancer Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Pancreas Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia ...

  16. Changes in serum cellular adhesion molecule and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in patients with cerebral infarction following hyperbaric oxygen therapy A case and intergroup control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renliang Zhao; Chunxia Wang; Yongjun Wang

    2008-01-01

    group, compared with the routine treatment group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Intergroup comparison and case-control results indicated that HBO noticeably reduced serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, soluble E-selectin, and matrix metalloproteinase-9.

  17. A comparative study of breast cancer mass screening using ultrasonography and mammography at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonic screening for breast cancer (US group) in comparison with mammographic screening (MMG group), we analyzed 78,214 breast screening examinees presenting between 2007 and 2008 at our institution. The cancer detection rate in the US group was lower than that in the MMG group. However, the average age in the US group was significantly younger than that in the MMG group, and the rate of annual screening was significantly higher in the former than in the latter. In the US subgroup who underwent annual screening, the recall rate and the cancer detection rate were significantly lower, and the rate of detection of early breast cancers was significantly higher than that in the subgroup who underwent screening biennially or at longer intervals, and there was no significant inter-group difference in the cancer detection rate between women in their 40s and those aged 50 or above who underwent annual screening. The proportion of early breast cancers detected was almost the same in the both groups. In summary, US screening as well as MMG screening seems to be useful for detection of early breast cancer. Although a high recall rate for US screening has been reported previously, annual screening and sufficient quality control based on the guidelines proposed by the Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology (JABTS) are considered to reduce the recall rate. (author)

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Photo: AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  20. Relative deprivation and intergroup prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.F. Pettigrew; O. Christ; U. Wagner; R.W. Meertens; R. van Dick; A. Zick

    2008-01-01

    Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically alienate

  1. Health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression in the diagnostic phase of suspected cancer, and the influence of diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Frøsig Moseholm; Rydahl Hansen, Susan; Overgaard, Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Background Undergoing diagnostic evaluation for cancer has been associated with a high prevalence of anxiety and depression and affected health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to assess HRQoL, anxiety, and depression pre- and post-diagnosis in patients undergoing...... patients with non-cancer diagnoses were calculated. The impact of baseline psychological, socio-demographic, and medical factors on HRQoL, anxiety and depression at follow-up was explored by bootstrapped multivariate linear regression analyses and logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 838...... were no intra- or inter-group differences in the depression scores. The strongest predictors of global QL, anxiety, and depression after a known diagnosis were baseline scores, co-morbidity and poor self-rated health. Conclusions Patients undergoing diagnostic evaluations for cancer based on non...

  2. Spatial Distrubiton of Children Treated by Cancer in Zonguldak, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topan, Aysel; Bayram, Dilek; Özendi, Mustafa; Cam, Ali; Öztürk, Cam; Kuzlu Ayyıldız, Tülay; Kulakçı, Hülya; Veren, Funda

    2016-06-01

    This research is focused on the examination of child cancer cases in Zonguldak (Turkey) descriptively in epidemiological aspect thanks to GIS. Universe of the study is composed of 60 children between 0-19 years old, treated in Children Oncology Clinic of Health Application and Research Center in BEU. Whole universe was reached without selecting a sample in the study. Data were collected by using a form prepared by obtaining expert advice and they were applied to children and their parents at study dates. Results were expressed as percentages. Chi-Square test was used in intergroup comparisons, results were assessed within 95% confidence interval and pmaps were produced. When disease diagnosis of the children participated in the study were evaluated, it was observed that 33.3% (n=20) were being treated for ALL, 13.3% (n=8) for Medullablastoma and 11.7% (n=7) for Hodgkin-nonHodgkin Lymphoma. It was detected that 31.7% (n=19) were in Ereğli, 31.7% (n=19) were in Central district and 18.3% (n=11) were in Çaycuma, when the places where children were living were evaluated. Statistically significant difference was found (p=0.016) comparing disease diagnosis with living place, and overall distribution map of the number of cancer cases was produced in this context. This is the first research subjecting the distribution of cancer cases for Zonguldak province.

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  6. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  7. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Surgery is often the main treatment for bone cancer. Other treatments may include amputation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Because bone cancer can come back after treatment, regular follow-up visits are important. NIH: National ...

  8. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testicular cancer is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. ... developing testicular cancer increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals Family history of ...

  9. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  10. Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  11. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  12. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  13. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  14. The Structural Characteristics of Intergroup Relationship and Identity Managenent Strategies of the New Generation Migrant Workers%群际关系的社会结构与新生代农民工的认同管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴民权; 管健

    2015-01-01

    There are two ways towards migrant workers research recently:social structure and identity management. Combining the two ways together,this research explores the relationship of the structural characteristic of intergroup relation and identity management strat-egies of the new generation migrant workers based on the social identity theory,and pay sufficient attention to the mediation effect of the social identity in this process. The results indicate that:(1)There are complex influencing factors and deep psychological mechanisms in the relation of social structure and the social identity management of the new generation migrant workers.(2)The legitimacy of inter-group status has important influence to the social identity construct of the new generation migrant workers.(3)The citizenship identity also plays an important role in the new generation migrant workers’social identity as their rural identity and the construction and man-agement of the new generation migrant workers’social identity have typically subjective characters.%通过社会认同的结构路径与认同管理的有效整合,对群际关系的社会结构特征和新生代农民工的社会认同管理策略与中介作用予以探讨,发现社会结构与新生代农民工社会认同的建构和管理之间存在着复杂的影响因素和深刻的心理机制;群际地位的合理性对新生代农民工的社会认同建构产生重要影响;新生代农民工社会认同的建构和管理具有典型的主体性特征。

  15. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  16. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  17. Rituximab Maintenance Treatment of Relapsed/Resistant Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Long-Term Outcome of the EORTC 20981 Phase III Randomized Intergroup Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.J. van Oers; M. van Glabbeke; L. Giurgea; R. Klasa; R.E. Marcus; M. Wolf; E. Kimby; M. van't Veer; A. Vranovsky; H. Holte; A. Hagenbeek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In 2006, we published the results of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial EORTC 20981 on the role of rituximab in remission induction and maintenance treatment of relapsed/resistant follicular lymphoma (FL). At that time, the median follow-up for the

  18. Survival and safety of exemestane versus tamoxifen after 2-3 years' tamoxifen treatment (Intergroup Exemestane Study): a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coombes, R C; Kilburn, L S; Snowdon, C F;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early improvements in disease-free survival have been noted when an aromatase inhibitor is given either instead of or sequentially after tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with oestrogen-receptor-positive early breast cancer. However, little information exists on the long-term effects ...

  19. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  20. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  1. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  2. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spreads in different ways, and each is treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer grows more quickly and is more likely to spread to other organs in the body. Learn more about non-small cell lung cancer. Learn ...

  3. Esophageal cancer management controversies: Radiation oncology point of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Tai; Edward; Yu

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy.There are some controversies of the role,target volumes and dose of radiotherapy(RT)in the literature over decades.The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities,and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer.The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation(CRT)trial,intergroup trial(INT 0116)enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction.They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone.Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT.The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study(CROSS)used a lower RT dose of41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result.Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists.Pre-operative and postoperative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control.Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia,but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT.The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation.On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include:ZTOG1201 trial(a phaseⅡtrial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT)and QUINTETT(a phaseⅢtrial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis).These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer.

  4. Aerodigestive cancers: laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Cancers of the larynx account for approximately 12,000 new cancer cases per year in the United States. The most common risk factors are tobacco and alcohol use, but human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified in 26.6% of laryngeal cancers. Symptoms develop as the tumor infiltrates the vocal cords and/or surrounding structures, and patients commonly present with hoarseness or cough. Histologically, the vast majority of tumors are squamous cell carcinomas, which, for staging purposes, are categorized by subsite. These develop most often from the glottis, followed by the supraglottis and subglottis. Survival rates for early- and late-stage disease range from 56% to 93% and 29% to 56%, respectively. Unlike with other head and neck cancers, the prognostic significance of HPV-related laryngeal cancer is unclear. Advances in organ-preserving surgical techniques allow patients to maintain physiologic functions without compromising survival rates, especially for early-stage disease. Patients requiring more intensive treatment, including total laryngectomy and chemoradiation, will experience significant morbidity and lifestyle changes. The ability to communicate using a voice prosthesis is of primary importance, and the prosthesis must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. For patients with metastatic or nonresectable disease, palliative care should be considered. PMID:25198384

  5. Prostate cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & ...

  8. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  9. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery-prostate cancer; Cryoablation-prostate cancer ... Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-treating-cryosurgery. Accessed August 31, 2015. Horwich ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  12. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  14. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  15. Preoperative radiotherapy in gastric cancer: CTV definition for conformal therapy according to tumor location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Francesco; Valentini, Vincenzo; Pacelli, Fabio; D'Ugo, Domenico; Mantini, Giovanna; Balducci, Mario; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Nori, Stefania

    2003-01-01

    In the past radiation oncologists had not a major interest in the treatment of gastric cancer, but the positive outcomes of the Intergroup Study (INT-0116) supported the role of locoregional control in promoting better survival. To reduce the toxicity and the risk of residual disease in locally advanced tumors after surgery,a preoperative approach was tentatively considered. The aim of this manuscript is to define the location of nodal area at risk for cancer involvement according to the tumor location (cardias, corpus, antrum) on CT images to help the radiotherapist in the contouring process of the CTV for preoperative conformal treatment of gastric cancer. The analysis of both the percentage of nodal involvement detected at surgery and of the site of recurrence after radical surgery can direct to the areas to be considered at risk with its contouring on CT. Preoperative conformal-three dimensional radiotherapy of gastric cancer requires clear and well defined contouring guide-lines to allow the evaluation of clinical outcomes and the analysis if the area at risk for recurrence has changed after the preoperative approach. PMID:15018320

  16. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... focused beam of light to destroy cancer cells. Laser therapy can be used to: Destroy tumors and precancerous growths Shrink tumors that are blocking the stomach, colon, or esophagus Help treat cancer symptoms, such as bleeding Seal nerve endings after ...

  17. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  18. Occupational Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Carcinogens NIOSH Pocket Guide Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) Recent NIOSH Research on Cancer Risk Factors Regulation and Policy OSHA Standards Surveillance NIOSH Data & Statistics by Industry Sector - Cancer Click on one ...

  19. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  20. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  1. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The virus spreads through sexual contact. Most women's bodies are able to fight HPV infection. But sometimes the virus leads to cancer. You're at higher risk ...

  2. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  3. Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  4. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  5. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  6. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  7. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  8. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  9. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  10. Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  11. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  12. Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eggener, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, many elements regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with prostate cancer remain enigmatic. In this Prostate Cancer special issue, o...

  13. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  14. Colon cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Financial Toxicity ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What ... Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents ...

  18. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  19. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  20. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Information on Prostate Cancer What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American ... of page Additional Resources of Information on Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer [nlm.nih.gov] From Medline Plus Medical ...

  1. What is Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » Detailed Guide » What is prostate cancer? Share ... how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland ...

  2. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  3. Throat or larynx cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/ ... the Precision Medicine Initiative® Cancer Moonshot Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer ...

  6. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  7. Cancer Triptych.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Sandra L

    2016-08-01

    The author uses personal narrative to show how the cold cloak of cancer covered her family during the polar vortex of 2013-2014. The use of a triptych form hinges together related themes of containment, coping, communicative responses, and social support after a cancer diagnosis. This narrative demonstrates the multiple responses and communicative coping strategies to a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26752448

  8. Pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Alrawashdeh, Wasfi

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in higher-income countries, with 5-year survival only 10% (range 7%–25%), even in people presenting with early-stage cancer. Risk factors include age, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, a family history, and dietary factors. Diabetes mellitus may also increase the risk.

  9. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks ... the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested ...

  10. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  11. The Changes of Blood Coagulation in Surgical Patients with Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangning FU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients with malignant tumor are at high risk of thrombophilia, which contributes to thromboembolism. Surgical treatment is one of the critical risk factors. In this study, changes and clinical significances of blood coagulation of lung cancer patients pre- and post operation were investigated. Methods A prospective, controlled study were carried out in 74 lung disease patients, who were divided into lung cancer group and benign lung disease group. In each group, pre-and postoperative changes in prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, platelet count (PLT, D-dimer (D-D and fibrinogen (Fib and clinical performances were observed and compared in intra- and intergroups. Results The concentration of Fib both in lung cancer group and its subgroup (adenocarcinoma of lung increased, preoperative differences between benign lung disease group and subgroup (squamous cell carcinoma of lung was significant (P < 0.05. PT(postoperative 1st to7th day in lung cancer group prolonged, APTT (postoperative 3rd to7th day reduced, Fib (postoperative 3rd to7th day and D-D (postoperative 1st to 7th day increased, PLT reduced on the 1st, 3rd day but then increased on the 5th, 7th day after operation, the difference between pre- and post-operation was significant (P < 0.05. D-D and PT in lung cancer group on the 7th day was longer than in benign lung disease group (P < 0.05. One pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE case in lung cancer group occurred, while in benign lung disease group none venous thromboembolism (VTE appeared. Conclusion Patients with lung cancer are in high hypercoagulable state, and prone to VTE. It is necessary to take some interventions to avoid VTE.

  12. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  13. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  14. Cancer cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Raghu Dhanapal; T R Saraswathi; N Govind Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a wasting syndrome characterized by weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. The pathogenicity of this syndrome is multifactorial, due to a complex interaction of tumor and host factors. The signs and symptoms of cachexia are considered as the prognostic parameters in cancer patients. This review gives an emphasis on the various mechanisms involved in cachexia and an insight into head and neck cancer cachexia.

  15. SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Made Putri Hendaria; AAGN Asmarajaya; Sri Maliawan

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases ...

  16. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... on YouTube. Barbara’s attitude since her diagnosis with pancreatic cancer? No doctor is going to tell her how ...

  18. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  19. What Is Bone Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our document called Osteosarcoma . Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma (KON-droh-sar-KOH-muh) is a cancer of cartilage cells. ... AdditionalResources Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & ...

  20. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy and stem cell transplant for testicular cancer Chemotherapy for testicular cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  1. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Thyroid cancer risk factors What causes thyroid cancer? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be prevented? What ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings ... to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes ...

  7. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  9. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer overview? What are my treatment options? What ... any new developments in treating my disease? Prostate cancer overview Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  10. Progress against Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives ... Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics > Oral Cancer > The Oral Cancer Exam The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  15. Children's cancer centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  16. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  18. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  19. Final report of Intergroup Trial 0122 (ECOG PE-289, RTOG 90-12): Phase II trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy and high-dose radiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the outcome of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemotherapy plus high-dose radiation therapy in patients with local/regional squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: Forty-five patients with clinical Stage T1-4N0-1M0 squamous cell carcinoma were entered on a prospective single-arm study, of which 38 were eligible. Patients received 3 monthly cycles of 5-FU (1000 mg/m2/24 h x 5 days) and cisplatin (100 mg/m2 day 1; neoadjuvant segment) followed by 2 additional monthly cycles of 5-FU (1000 mg/m2/24 h x 5 days) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2 day 1) plus concurrent 6480 cGy (combined modality segment). The median follow-up in surviving patients was 59 months. Results: For the 38 eligible patients, the primary tumor response rate was 47% complete, 8% partial, and 3% stable disease. The first site of clinical failure was 39% local/regional and 24% distant. For the total patient group, there were 6 deaths during treatment, of which 9% (4/45) were treatment related. The median survival was 20 months. Actuarial survival at 3 years was 30%, and at 5 years, 20%. Conclusion: This intensive neoadjuvant approach does not appear to offer a benefit compared with conventional doses and techniques of combined modality therapy. However, high dose radiation (6480 cGy) appears to be tolerable, and is being tested further in Intergroup Trial INT 0123

  20. Five Year Results of US Intergroup/RTOG 9704 With Postoperative CA 19-9 {<=}90 U/mL and Comparison to the CONKO-001 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Adam C., E-mail: adam.berger@jefferson.edu [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Regine, William F. [University of Maryland Medical Systems, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Safran, Howard [Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Benson, Alan B. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States); MacDonald, John [St. Vincent' s Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 9704 was the largest randomized trial to use adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer. This report analyzes 5-year survival by serum level of tumor marker CA 19-9 of {<=}90 vs >90 U/mL and compares results to the those of the CONKO-001 trial. Methods and Materials: CA 19-9 expression was analyzed as a dichotomized variable ({<=}90 vs >90 U/mL). Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the impact of the CA 19-9 value on overall survival (OS). Actuarial estimates of OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Both univariate (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-4.3, P<.0001) and multivariate (HR = 3.1; 95% CI, 2.2-4.2, P<.0001) analyses demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in OS for CA 19-9 serum level of {>=}90 U/mL. For patients in the gemcitabine (Gem) treatment arm with CA 19-9 <90 U/mL, median survival was 21 months. For patients with CA 19-9 {>=}90 U/mL, this number dropped to 10 months. In patients with pancreatic head tumors in the Gem treatment arm with RT quality assurance per protocol and CA 19-9 of <90 U/mL, median survival and 5-year rate were 24 months and 34%. In comparison, the median survival and 5-year OS rate for patients in the Gem arm of the CONKO trial were 22 months and 21%. Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that patients with postresection CA 19-9 values {>=}90 U/mL had a significantly worse survival. Patients with pancreatic head tumors treated with Gem with CA 19-9 serum level of <90 U/mL and per protocol RT had favorable survival compared to that seen in the CONKO trial. CA 19-9 is a stratification factor for the current RTOG adjuvant pancreas trial (0848).

  1. Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.

  2. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  3. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  4. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... the affected area). Damage to the bowels, causing diarrhea and ... a second cancer caused by radiation exposure. Second cancers that develop ...

  5. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  6. Cancer world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author attempts to point out the relationships between various factors of our environment favouring disease (profession, chemicals, air pollution, nuclear power plants, ultra-violet rays etc.) respectively our ways of living (nutrition, drink, smoking), and the incidence and frequence of cancer. In his opinion, cancer is the toll man has to pay for industrialization and the destruction of the environment, and cancer therapy must begin long before the patient's treatment by changing that same einvironment. The different carcinogenous factors are discussed in detail and each chapter concludes with recommendations to those concerned and request for legislation. (MG)

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ...

  8. Malnutrition in remission of childhood cancers as assessed by bioelectric impedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of our cross-sectional bioimpedance study of children aged 7–17 years cured of cancer during follow-up (patients’ group, n = 552, remission time range 0–15 years and of age-matched healthy controls (n = 1,500 show significant intergroup differences in body height and body composition parameters. The most pronounced alterations in the patients’ group were observed in standardized values of phase angle reflecting a sharp decrease in the percentage of metabolically active body cell mass in fat-free mass. Malnutrition, judged from the prevalence of obesity and low phase angle, was observed in 52.7 % of our patients reaching a maximum of 76.8 % in a subgroup of children with CNS tumors. In view of known association that exists between malnutrition and reduced tolerance to chemotherapy, increased susceptibility to infections and adverse outcomes rate, we recommend using bioimpedance analysis in remission of childhood cancers in order to monitoring and timely correction of nutritional state as well as for prevention of delayed cardiovascular risks.

  9. Malnutrition in remission of childhood cancers as assessed by bioelectric impedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of our cross-sectional bioimpedance study of children aged 7–17 years cured of cancer during follow-up (patients’ group, n = 552, remission time range 0–15 years and of age-matched healthy controls (n = 1,500 show significant intergroup differences in body height and body composition parameters. The most pronounced alterations in the patients’ group were observed in standardized values of phase angle reflecting a sharp decrease in the percentage of metabolically active body cell mass in fat-free mass. Malnutrition, judged from the prevalence of obesity and low phase angle, was observed in 52.7 % of our patients reaching a maximum of 76.8 % in a subgroup of children with CNS tumors. In view of known association that exists between malnutrition and reduced tolerance to chemotherapy, increased susceptibility to infections and adverse outcomes rate, we recommend using bioimpedance analysis in remission of childhood cancers in order to monitoring and timely correction of nutritional state as well as for prevention of delayed cardiovascular risks.

  10. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner of the video screen. To reduce the videos, ... with breast cancer are under way. With early detection, and prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for ...

  11. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or ... use Visiting the dentist regularly and practicing good oral hygiene

  13. Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or have a history of genital warts. Your health care provider diagnoses vulvar cancer with a physical exam and a biopsy. Treatment varies, depending on your overall health and ...

  14. Cancer nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, P; Matai, Ishita; Bhushan, Bharat; Malwal, Deepika; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

  15. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  16. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162 KB) This information in Spanish (en español) Female reproductive system Select image to view larger Related ... D., FACS, Captain, U.S. Public Health Service Medical Director, National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, ...

  17. Surviving Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... his or her health status, when diagnosed with cancer may have an effect on their survival and recovery. Older adults are more likely to have other health conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Managing these conditions can complicate ...

  18. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  19. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  20. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  1. Tolerability of intensified intravenous interferon alfa-2b versus the ECOG 1684 schedule as adjuvant therapy for stage III melanoma: a randomized phase III Italian Melanoma Inter-group trial (IMI – Mel.A.) [ISRCTN75125874

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-dose interferon alfa-2b (IFNalfa-2b), according to the ECOG 1684 schedule, is the only approved adjuvant treatment for stage III melanoma patients by the FDA and EMEA. However, the risk/benefit profile has been questioned limiting its world-wide use. In the late nineties, the Italian Melanoma Inter-group started a spontaneous randomized clinical trial (RCT) to verify if a more intense, but shorter than the ECOG 1684 regimen, could improve survival without increasing the toxicity profile. The safety analysis in the first 169 patients who completed the treatment is here described. Stage III melanoma patients were randomized to receive IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d intravenously (IV) 5 days/week × 4 weeks, repeated for three times on weeks 9 to 12, 17 to 20, 25 to 28 (Dose-Dense/Dose-Intense, DD/DI, arm), or IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d IV 5 days/week × 4 weeks followed by 10 MU/m2 subcutaneously (SC) three times per week × 48 weeks (High Dose Interferon, HDI, arm). Toxicity was recorded and graded, according to the WHO criteria, as the worst grade that occurred during each cycle. The most common toxicities in both arms were flu-like and gastrointestinal symptoms, leukopenia, liver and neuro-psichiatric morbidities; with regard to severe toxicity, only leukopenia was statistically more frequent in DD/DI arm than in HDI arm (24% vs 9%) (p = 0.0074), yet, this did not cause an increase in the infection risk. Discontinuation of treatment, due to toxicity, was observed in 13 and 17% of the patients in the DD/DI and HDI arm, respectively. The median actual dose intensity delivered in the DD/DI arm (36.4 MU/m2/week) was statistically higher than that delivered in the HDI arm (30.7 MU/m2/week) (p = 0.003). Four cycles of intravenous high-dose IFNalfa-2b can be safely delivered with an increase in the median dose intensity. Efficacy results from this trial are eagerly awaited

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions ...

  4. Is Pancreatic Cancer Hereditary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Is pancreatic cancer hereditary? Cancer of the pancreas is a genetic ... found in cigarette smoke. The genetics of hereditary pancreatic cancer is a focus of research at Johns Hopkins. ...

  5. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  6. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  7. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  8. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  10. American Cancer Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about why this happens. Fight Breast Cancer with Fashion Shop Lane Bryant's cause collection and 10% of ... Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & ...

  11. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An inset shows cancer cells in the pelvic peritoneum. Also shown are the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, ... c) cancer cells are found in the pelvic peritoneum. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Ovarian Cancer ...

  12. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primary peritoneal cancer) shows cancer in the pelvic peritoneum. Also shown are the cervix and vagina. In ... peritoneal cancer, cancer is found in the pelvic peritoneum and has not spread there from another part ...

  13. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  14. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  15. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  16. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  17. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  18. Cancer of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will die of this disease. Who Gets This Cancer? Prostate cancer occurs only in men, and it is ... Percent of New Cases by Age Group: Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is most frequently diagnosed among men aged ...

  19. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research ...

  2. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  3. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  4. Dealing with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schoolwork and Hospital Stays Chemotherapy Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Radiation Therapy When Cancer Keeps You Home Can I Have Children After Cancer Treatments? Steroids and Cancer Treatment Cancer ...

  5. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic Targeted therapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship ... Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers ...

  7. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  8. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unneeded cells. Cancer cells may be able to influence the normal cells, molecules, and blood vessels that ... Cancers . We also have collections of information on childhood cancers and cancers in adolescents and young adults . ...

  9. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer Foundation's Champions for Change Gala 2016 Learn ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative NCI and ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's ...

  11. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... daily. Lower your intake of processed meats, smoked, nitrite-cured, and salt-preserved foods; emphasize plant-based ...

  12. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  13. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other less common types of breast cancer include: Medullary Mucinous Tubular Metaplastic Papillary breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is a faster-growing type of cancer that accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers. Paget’s disease is a type of cancer that begins in ...

  14. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... but these effects are uncommon ( 1 , 3 , 7 ). Diarrhea , nausea, and vomiting ... a standard treatment for cancer ( 1 , 3 , 6 , 7 ). Many clinical trials are ...

  15. Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  16. [Gastrointestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yutaka

    2004-08-01

    Although their sensitivity is not high, SCC, TPA and IAP are useful for esophageal cancer. The sensitivity of CEA, CA 19-9, is relatively high, especially in well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis. AFP is specific to liver metastasis from gastric cancer, and CA 125 is also specific to peritoneal dissemination. CA 72-4 and NCC-ST-439 are useful markers for advanced staging. CEA, CA 19-9, is useful for colon cancer, especially for predicting preoperative staging. Half-life and doubling time of tumor markers is useful in some cases for the evaluation of operation and chemotherapy. We showed our data concerning postoperative CEA and/or CA 19-9 monitoring after operation for gastric cancer in 120 recurrent patients. Positivities of CEA and CA 19-9 for recurrence were 65.8% and 85.0%, respectively, both of which were significantly higher than the preoperative sensitivities (28.3% and 45.0%, respectively). In most patients with high levels of preoperative CEA and/or CA 19-9, these tumor markers increased again at recurrence. Recurrent diseases were detected between 5 months after detection by diagnostic imagings and 12 months before detection by diagnostic imagings (mean of 3.1+/-3.6 months before detection by diagnostic imagings) and between 10 months after detection by diagnostic imagings and 13 months before detection by diagnostic imagings (mean 2.2+/-3.9 months before detection by diagnostic imagings) by CEA and CA 19-9 monitorings, respectively. These results suggest that CEA and/or CA 19-9 monitoring after operation was useful to predict the recurrence of gastric cancer, especially in almost all the patients with high preoperative levels of these markers.

  17. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Key statistics for thyroid cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  18. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer ... true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more ...

  19. Cancer cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze Philipp

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years many efforts of researchers and clinicians were made to improve our knowledge of cachexia syndrome. Not only cancer, but also many chronic or end-stage diseases such as AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis and Crohn's disease are associated with cachexia, a condition of abnormally low weight, weakness, and general bodily decline which deteriorates quality of life and reduces the prognosis of the patients who suffer from it. In the present editorial we will focus cachexia related on cancer and provide some insight into this prognosis-limiting syndrome.

  20. [Cervix cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointreau, Y; Ruffier Loubière, A; Denis, F; Barillot, I

    2010-11-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated.

  1. Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  2. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24085715

  4. Intercultural Conflict and Mediation: An Intergroup Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenfeld, Sara; Clement, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of components of intercultural competence in the use of intercultural mediation behaviors. Through the use of the Revised Intercultural Mediation Measure, an instrument revised by the authors, 291 Anglophone and 161 Francophone participants in Canada were asked to indicate their likelihood of employing various…

  5. Intergroup Relations and Predictors of Immigrant Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, Kofi; Lum, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from 1,036 participants, which included 4 immigrant groups, we examined the factors that influence immigrants' experiences as they interact with nonimmigrant Americans. Logistic and multinomial regression results indicate that non-European immigrants were more likely to report negative experiences with Americans. The odds of…

  6. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  7. Cancer Data and Statistics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Cancer Data and Statistics Tools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir United States Cancer Statistics The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS): Incidence and ...

  8. Esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in esophageal cancer (EC) has changed, and focus directed towards tumors of the distal esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. The genetic events leading to EC are not fully clarified, but important risk factors have been...

  9. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  10. Colon Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses colon cancer and the importance of early detection.  Created: 11/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  11. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of lung cancer. Before the treatment the histological samples allowing the diagnosis as well as its histological variety. The diagnosis include techniques such as bronchoscopy, ultrasound, tomography, puncture and endoscopic thoracotomy. The chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the main techniques used for the treatment

  12. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  13. Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancers of the oropharynx are common lesions. Their treatment often includes radiation therapy either exclusively or in combination with chemotherapy or after surgery. The definition of target volumes is made difficult by the complex anatomy of this area. The aim of this work is to clarify the principles of 3D conformal radiation illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  14. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  15. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer

  16. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and chemotherapy or by surgery and chemoradiotherapy for patients with resectable gastric cancer (CRITICS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical surgery is the cornerstone in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. The Intergroup 0116 and MAGIC trials have shown benefit of postoperative chemoradiation and perioperative chemotherapy, respectively. Since these trials cannot be compared directly, both regimens are evaluated prospectively in the CRITICS trial. This study aims to obtain an improved overall survival for patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy and surgery by incorporating radiotherapy concurrently with chemotherapy postoperatively. In this phase III multicentre study, patients with resectable gastric cancer are treated with three cycles of preoperative ECC (epirubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine), followed by surgery with adequate lymph node dissection, and then either another three cycles of ECC or concurrent chemoradiation (45 Gy, cisplatin and capecitabine). Surgical, pathological, and radiotherapeutic quality control is performed. The primary endpoint is overall survival, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival (DFS), toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL), prediction of response, and recurrence risk assessed by genomic and expression profiling. Accrual for the CRITICS trial is from the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark, and more countries are invited to participate. Results of this study will demonstrate whether the combination of preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiotherapy will improve the clinical outcome of the current European standard of perioperative chemotherapy, and will therefore play a key role in the future management of patients with resectable gastric cancer. clinicaltrials.gov http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00407186

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  18. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  19. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  20. How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000845.htm How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers To use ... children with cancer can be cured. Types of Childhood Cancers Cancer in children is rare, but some ...

  1. Identifying cancer genes from cancer mutation profiles by cancer functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YanHui; GUO Zheng; PENG ChunFang; LIU Qing; MA WenCai; WANG Jing; YAO Chen; ZHANG Min; ZHU Jing

    2008-01-01

    It is of great importance to identify new cancer genes from the data of large scale genome screenings of gene mutations in cancers. Considering the alternations of some essential functions are indispensable for oncogenesis, we define them as cancer functions and select, as their approximations, a group of detailed functions in GO (Gene Ontology) highly enriched with known cancer genes. To evaluate the efficiency of using cancer functions as features to identify cancer genes, we define, in the screened genes, the known protein kinase cancer genes as gold standard positives and the other kinase genes as gold standard negatives. The results show that cancer associated functions are more efficient in identifying cancer genes than the selection pressure feature. Furthermore, combining cancer functions with the number of non-silent mutations can generate more reliable positive predictions. Finally, with precision 0.42, we suggest a list of 46 kinase genes as candidate cancer genes which are annotated to cancer functions and carry at least 3 non-silent mutations.

  2. NCI Designated Cancer Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  3. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... side effects from the cancer treatments you received. Video Series This video series offers the perspectives of ... care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three cancer patients ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Caregivers A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  7. Esophagus Cancer: Palliative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in our document Guide to Controlling Cancer Pain . Nutritional support Nutrition is another concern for many patients with esophagus cancer. The cancer or its treatment might affect how you swallow ... supplements and information about your individual nutritional needs. ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research ... Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  9. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... research about a specific cancer type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of Discovery Grants & Training Research Grants Funding Opportunities Funding Strategy Research Program ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in ...

  12. What Is Vaginal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the uterus) to open up at the vulva (the external female genitals). The vagina is lined ... cancer. Likewise, if the cancer involves both the vulva and the vagina, it’s considered a vulvar cancer. ...

  13. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type ... cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Images Bowen's disease on the hand Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma Skin cancer, squamous ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Caregivers A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Series This video series offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor. The videos explain ... Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three cancer patients and their doctor, Anthony L. Back, ...

  16. What Is Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the key statistics about stomach cancer? What is stomach cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... normal structure and function of the stomach. The stomach After food is chewed and swallowed, it enters ...

  17. Snapshot of Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Discovery Stories of Discovery A Snapshot of Stomach Cancer Incidence and Mortality Stomach (gastric) cancer is ... at the SEER Web site. NCI’s Investment in Stomach Cancer Research To learn more about the research ...

  18. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  19. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  20. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no such thing as one type of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases where on ... very benevolent in its behavior. Men will develop prostate cancer and live the rest of their lives -- 20, ...

  1. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  2. CancerCare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn more A cancer diagnosis turns a person’s world upside down — emotionally, physically and financially. Cancer Care ® ... Caregiving When Your Loved One Has Triple Negative Breast Cancer Connect Education Workshop Reiki Community Program Oct 27 ...

  3. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  4. What Is Pancreatic Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very important to distinguish between exocrine and endocrine cancers of the pancreas. They have distinct risk factors and causes, have ... are by far the most common type of pancreas cancer. If you are told you have pancreatic cancer, ...

  5. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future bladder cancer research through the Patient Survey Network. Read More... The JPB Foundation 2016 Bladder Cancer ... 2016 Young Investigator Awardees The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) has announced the recipients of the 2016 ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  7. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Cancer Home Skin Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P 2 rovocative Questions PCCTC Scientific Retreat Coffey-Holden Research News Faces of Prostate Cancer [4] Survivors ... Foundation News The Prostate Cancer Foundation’s 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting accelerates advances in the ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an ...

  11. 1985 Cancer Facts and Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Cancer Society, Inc., New York, NY.

    Information and statistical data about cancer are provided in seven categories. They include: (1) basic cancer data (considering how cancer works, trends in diagnosis and treatment, new cancer cases and deaths for 1985, and other areas); (2) major cancer sites (discussing lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, 5-year survival rates/trends…

  12. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  13. Living with Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Cancer is regarded as a formidable threat to mankind. Every yem’ in Shanghai, which has a high cancer rate, 15,000 people are diagnosed with the disease and 12,000 die of cancer. Because many people believe that "cancer equals death," a special cancer rehabilitation center has appeared in Shanghai. The center creates an environment where cancer patients can exchange experiences and receive psychological group therapy. In this way those patients

  14. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics for melanoma skin cancer What is melanoma skin cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...

  15. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  17. Find a Cancer Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biostatistics/Epidemiology Developmental Therapeutics Endocrine Tumors Gastroenterology Gastrointestinal Cancer (not Liver & Pancreas) General Oncology Genetics/Gene Therapy Genitourinary Cancer Geriatrics ...

  18. Global cancer statistics, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Bray, Freddie; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ferlay, Jacques; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-03-01

    Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly

  19. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Small Intestine Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Or More after Being Diagnosed with Small Intestine Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  20. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Stomach Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Stomach Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  1. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Vulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Vulvar Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Vulvar Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  2. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  3. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Karl-Walter Jauch; Hendrik Seeliger; Hanno Niess; Qi Bao; Andrea Renner; Yue Zhao; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC t...

  4. Cancer stem cells in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Moltzahn, Felix; Thalmann, George N

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (P-Ca) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Lately, increasing evidence for a hierarchically organized cancer stem cell (CSC) model emerged for different tumors entities, including P-Ca. CSCs are defined by several characteristics including self-renewal, pluripotency and tumorigenicity and are thought to be responsible for tumor recurrence, metastasis and cancer related death. In this review we discuss the recent research in the field of CSCs, its limitation...

  5. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, S.; Grooters, H.G.; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kampman, E.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Vries, E. de; Wigger, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 com

  6. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  7. Report: Human cancer genetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Marilyn; ALBERTSON Donna

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  8. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  10. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Grooters, Hilda G; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A Sandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kampman, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Peeters, Petra H M; de Vries, Esther; Wigger, Stefan; Kiemeney, L A L M Bart

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 common types of cancer. The test provides an estimate of individual risk of a specific type of cancer and gives specific lifestyle advice that could lower that risk. This paper describes the development of the test, how it works, and its strengths and limitations.

  11. Telomerers rolle i cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are a double-edged sword when it comes to cancer. On one hand, telomeres limit the cells' ability to divide and thereby restrict the uninhibited growth seen in cancer. On the other hand, short telomeres can initiate the chromosome instability that characterizes cancer. Diseases...... with the combination of short telomeres and high cancer risk are seen, but until now the use of telomeres as predictors of cancer has, in general, been unsuccessful. Telomeres and telomerase play an important role in further cancer development. Researchers are trying to exploit this in the development of new cancer...

  12. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  13. Can Prostate Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » Detailed Guide » Can prostate cancer be found ... and symptoms of prostate cancer Tests for prostate cancer Prostate cancer stages Survival rates for prostate cancer Previous ...

  14. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer » Detailed Guide » What are ... how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? Oral cavity cancer, or just oral cancer, is cancer ...

  15. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  16. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  17. Human cancer databases (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Michalopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the four major non-communicable diseases (NCD), responsible for ~14.6% of all human deaths. Currently, there are >100 different known types of cancer and >500 genes involved in cancer. Ongoing research efforts have been focused on cancer etiology and therapy. As a result, there is an exponential growth of cancer-associated data from diverse resources, such as scientific publications, genome-wide association studies, gene expression experiments, gene-gene or protein-protein in...

  18. Breast cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to th...

  19. Chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer remains a disease associated with a poor prognosis. Chemoradiotherapy is performed for unresectable stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and inoperable limited-disease small cell lung cancer. In this lecture, chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer is outlined primary according to the 2014 edition of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Lung Cancer, and also referring to molecular targeted drugs, radiation pneumonitis, and particle radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  1. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Sha Chen; An-Xin Wang; Bing Dong; Ke-Feng Pu; Li-Hua Yuan; Yi-Min Zhu

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory,cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells.This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention.Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer.In this review,we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells,and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells,a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research.

  2. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Min Zhu; Li-Hua Yuan; Ke-Feng Pu; Bing Dong; An-Xin Wang; Li-Sha Chen

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell resea...

  3. What are cancer registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinov-Mikov Marica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Population-based cancer registries attempt to collect, process, analyze, store and interpret data on persons with cancer in a certain population (most frequently a geographical area. Hospital-based cancer registries register all cases in a given hospital, usually without knowledge of the background population; the emphasis is to serve the needs of the hospital administration, the hospital cancer program, and, above all, the individual patient. History of Cancer Registries Registration of persons suffering from cancer is a slow process. Around the year 1900, England and Germany demanded improvement of statistical investigation on spread of cancer in population in order to undertake etiological researches. The oldest example of a modern cancer registry is that in Hamburg. Today there are more than 200 population-based cancer registries, but they cover only 5% of the world population, mainly in developed countries of the world. Cancer registry of Vojvodina Cancer registry of Vojvodina was established in 1966; it is a member of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC and it is still the only cancer registry from our country whose data are cited in scientific monographs of IARC. The main purpose of cancer registries is to produce statistics on the occurrence of cancer in a defined populatin and to provide a framework for assessing and controlling the impact of cancer on the community. Cancer registries are essential parts of any rational program of cancer control. Their data can be used in a wide variety of areas of cancer control, ranging from etiological research in epidemiology, through primary and secondary prevention to health-care planning and patient care, so benefiting both the individual and society.

  4. A Study on the Intergroup Contact Hypothesis:Interaction Between the New Immigrants and the Local Citizens in Shanghai%上海城市新移民与本地人群体关系的交往策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷开春

    2012-01-01

    The Contact Hypothesis contends that "equal status," "common goals," "intergroup cooperation," "supportive norms," "interpersonal contact," and "genuine friendship" are six optimal conditions for intergroup relational improvement.According to the depth of contact,this paper reduces the six contact elements to three,namely,"equal status," "rational contact," and "actuarial contact." Based on the 2007 survey data from Shanghai,this study took social distance as the index of group relationships and analyzed the contact patterns between the new immigrants and the local residents in Shanghai to test the effects of the three contact elements.The results indicated that,in regards to the group relationship between the new urban immigrants and the local citizens,and with respect to equal status,institutional identity was more important than occupational identity;job competition was more prominent than job cooperation;and practical contact was more effective than emotional contact.These findings have shown us:(1) Not all contact strategies can improve intergroup relationships;further empirical research to test the contact hypothesis will improve the validity and pertinence of the social inclusion policies;2) from the perspective of pluralistic social integration,promoting mutual adaptation of the immigrants and the native citizens can effectively lead to a harmonious society;3) migration with social rationality may gradually replace migration with economic rationality;and 4) the local immigration government should facilitate supportive communication between the newcomers,especially those at the bottom layer,and the local citizens.%交往策略一直是改善族群关系的最佳策略之一。基于2007年上海市的调查数据,本研究以社会距离作为群体关系的替代性测量指标,通过分析上海城市新移民与本地人的交往情况,分别验证了平等交往、理性交往与实际交往等交往策略

  5. Evaluation of the Rituximab Maintenance Improves Clinical Outcome of Relapsed/Resistant Follicular Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Both in Patients with and without Rituximab during Induction: Results of A Prospective Randomized Phase Ⅲ Intergroup Trial%无论诱导阶段是否曾使用过利妥昔单抗维持治疗均可改善复发/难治滤泡性淋巴瘤临床预后Ⅲ期随机对照研究的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏忠军; 李文瑜

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 文献类型 治疗. 2 证据水平 1b. 3 文献来源 Oers MHJ, Klasa R, Marcus RE, et al.Rituximab maintenance improves clinical outcome of relapsed/resistant follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,both in patients with and without rituximab during induction: results of a prospective randomized phase Ⅲ intergroup trial [J]. Blood, 2006,108(10):3295-3301.

  6. Skipping Breakfast and Risk of Mortality from Cancer, Circulatory Diseases and All Causes: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yae; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Amano, Hiroki; Otani, Shinji; Kurozawa, Youichi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Breakfast eating habits are a dietary pattern marker and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Many studies have reported the unhealthy effects of skipping breakfast. However, there are few studies on the association between skipping breakfast and mortality. In the present study, we examined the association between skipping breakfast and mortality from cancer, circulatory diseases and all causes using data from a large-scale cohort study, the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC) Study. Methods A cohort study of 34,128 men and 49,282 women aged 40–79 years was conducted, to explore the association between lifestyle and cancer in Japan. Participants completed a baseline survey during 1988 to 1990 and were followed until the end of 2009. We classified participants into two groups according to dietary habits with respect to eating or skipping breakfast and carried out intergroup comparisons of lifestyle. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results There were 5,768 deaths from cancer and 5,133 cases of death owing to circulatory diseases and 17,112 cases for all causes of mortality during the median 19.4 years follow-up. Skipping breakfast was related to unhealthy lifestyle habits. After adjusting for confounding factors, skipping breakfast significantly increased the risk of mortality from circulatory diseases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42] and all causes (HR = 1.43) in men and all causes mortality (HR = 1.34) in women. Conclusion Our findings showed that skipping breakfast is associated with increasing risk of mortality from circulatory diseases and all causes among men and all causes mortality among women in Japan. PMID:27046951

  7. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection + - Text Size Download Printable Version [ ... coverage for prostate cancer screening Additional resources for prostate cancer prevention and early detection References: Prostate cancer prevention and ...

  8. How Are Cervical Cancers and Pre-Cancers Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some find disturbing. Some places provide headphones with music to block this noise out. A mild sedative ... in Cervical Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms ...

  9. Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  10. Cancer rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption behind cancer rehabilitation in many Western societies is that cancer survivors can return to normal life by learning to deal with the consequences of their illness and their treatment. This assumption is supported by increasing political attention to cancer rehabilitation...... and a growth in residential cancer-rehabilitation initiatives in Denmark (Danish Cancer Society 1999; Government of Denmark 2003). On the basis of their ethnographic fieldwork in residential-cancer rehabilitation courses, the authors examine the new rehabilitation discourse. They argue that this discourse has...

  11. [Cancer and health economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinuma, N

    1996-01-01

    Health economics on cancer medicine is a supportive tool of cancer care and is becoming one of the essential weapons against cancer. Its principal roles are to enhance the quality and efficacy and to secure the finance necessary to the cancer care. The economic aspects of cancer medicine and the methods of economic evaluation are overviewed with emphasis on cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. The operational and interpretational checkpoints are introduced, and the problems and prospects of the practical use of the methods on clinical settings such as cancer chemotherapy are discussed. PMID:8546457

  12. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  13. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview ... cancer screening tests . Does it hurt to get tested? Some people find the tests for colorectal cancer ...

  14. Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD: In the list of cancers that cause death in this country, pancreas cancer is number four. ... it is the fourth leading cause of cancer death, principally because it is a very tough cancer ...

  15. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers affect men more often ...

  16. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  17. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  18. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...

  19. Lung cancer screening: radiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Lung Cancer Screening: Radiological Aspects Multiple lung cancer screening studies are currently being conducted to study whether lung cancer screening with Computed Tomography (CT) can decrease lung cancer mortality. This thesis addresses radiological methods that can increase efficacy and efficien

  20. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  4. Cancer risks in thyroid cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, P.; Holm, L E; Lundell, G.; Bjelkengren, G.; Larsson, L. G.; Lindberg, S.; Tennvall, J.; Wicklund, H.; Boice, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Cancer risks were studied in 834 thyroid cancer patients given 131I (4,551 MBq, average) and in 1,121 patients treated by other means in Sweden between 1950 and 1975. Record-linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register identified 99 new cancers more than 2 years after 131I therapy [standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.75] vs 122 (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.88-1.42) in patients not receiving 131I. In females treated with 131I overall SIR was 1.45 (95% CI 1.14-1....

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  6. General Information about Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions to Ask About ...

  8. Breast cancer (metastatic)

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbing, Justin; Slater, Sarah; Slevin, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered very unusual.

  9. Cancer Treatment Scams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Items Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Miracle Health Claims Discount Plan or Health Insurance? Cancer ... Talk to Your Doctor First. Tagged with: health , miracle claims , scam September 2008 You Might Also Like ...

  10. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the more likely he is to develop the disease. Physician: Come on back, first room. Narrator: Most ... cancer. Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases where on one end of the spectrum there ...

  11. Cancer and Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏涓

    2011-01-01

    @@ Relationship between cancer and thromboembolic disease, the research has been going on for more than a century.Armand trousseau in 1865 first reported the formation of venous thrombosis prone patients with gastric cancer.

  12. Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has an increasing focus on pharmacoepidemiology related to pharmaceutical use and cancer risk, recurrence and survival, as well as pharmacoepidemiology related to treatment response and adverse outcomes from chemotherapeutic agents and other medications used to treat cancer.

  13. Tests for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has come back after treatment Alpha-fetoprotein blood (AFP) test AFP is normally present at high levels in the ... liver disease, liver cancer, or other cancers. If AFP levels are very high in someone with a ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you have cancer, you and your loved ones face many unknowns. Understanding your cancer and knowing what ... make decisions. Some of the decisions you may face include: Which treatment is best for you If ...

  15. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contacts Multicultural Media Outreach Program Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research ... Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog About ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by ... been diagnosed with oral cancer, this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Contact Overview History of NCI Contributing to Cancer ... History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer ...

  19. Cancer during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protection during x-rays. Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scans. CT scans are similar to x-rays ... a Baby After Cancer: Pregnancy Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Being a Young Adult with Cancer When the ...

  20. HPV and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research HPV and Cancer On This Page What are human ... hpv/ E-mail: cdcinfo@cdc.gov Human Papillomavirus (HPV) | Did You Know? View this video on YouTube. ...