WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer institute community

  1. Creating a "culture of research" in a community hospital: Strategies and tools from the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Eileen P; St Germain, Diane; Nacpil, Lianne M; Zaren, Howard A; Swanson, Sandra M; Minnick, Christopher; Carrigan, Angela; Denicoff, Andrea M; Igo, Kathleen E; Acoba, Jared D; Gonzalez, Maria M; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-06-01

    The value of community-based cancer research has long been recognized. In addition to the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical and Minority-Based Oncology Programs established in 1983, and 1991 respectively, the National Cancer Institute established the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 with an aim of enhancing access to high-quality cancer care and clinical research in the community setting where most cancer patients receive their treatment. This article discusses strategies utilized by the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program to build research capacity and create a more entrenched culture of research at the community hospitals participating in the program over a 7-year period. To facilitate development of a research culture at the community hospitals, the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program required leadership or chief executive officer engagement; utilized a collaborative learning structure where best practices, successes, and challenges could be shared; promoted site-to-site mentoring to foster faster learning within and between sites; required research program assessments that spanned clinical trial portfolio, accrual barriers, and outreach; increased identification and use of metrics; and, finally, encouraged research team engagement across hospital departments (navigation, multidisciplinary care, pathology, and disparities) to replace the traditionally siloed approach to clinical trials. The health-care environment is rapidly changing while complexity in research increases. Successful research efforts are impacted by numerous factors (e.g. institutional review board reviews, physician interest, and trial availability). The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program sites, as program participants, had access to the required resources and support to develop and implement the strategies described. Metrics are an important component yet often challenging to

  2. National Cancer Institute's leadership role in promoting State and Community Tobacco Control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Vollinger, Robert E

    2016-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been at the vanguard of funding tobacco control research for decades with major efforts such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in 1988 and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) in 1991, followed by the Tobacco Research Initiative for State and Community Interventions in 1999. Most recently, in 2011, the NCI launched the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative to address gaps in secondhand smoke policies, tax and pricing policies, mass media countermeasures, community and social norms and tobacco marketing. The initiative supported large scale research projects and time-sensitive ancillary pilot studies in response to expressed needs of state and community partners. This special issue of Tobacco Control showcases exciting findings from the SCTC. In this introductory article, we provide a brief account of NCI's historical commitment to promoting research to inform tobacco control policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Why providers participate in clinical trials: considering the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Song, Paula H; Reiter, Kristin L

    2012-11-01

    The translation of research evidence into practice is facilitated by clinical trials such as those sponsored by the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) that help disseminate cancer care innovations to community-based physicians and provider organizations. However, CCOP participation involves unsubsidized costs and organizational challenges that raise concerns about sustained provider participation in clinical trials. This study was designed to improve our understanding of why providers participate in the CCOP in order to inform the decision-making process of administrators, clinicians, organizations, and policy-makers considering CCOP participation. We conducted a multi-site qualitative study of five provider organizations engaged with the CCOP. We interviewed 41 administrative and clinician key informants, asking about what motivated CCOP participation, and what benefits they associated with involvement. We deductively and inductively analyzed verbatim interview transcripts, and explored themes that emerged. Interviewees expressed both "altruistic" and "self-interested" motives for CCOP participation. Altruistic reasons included a desire to increase access to clinical trials and feeling an obligation to patients. Self-interested reasons included the desire to enhance reputation, and a need to integrate disparate cancer care activities. Perceived benefits largely matched expressed motives for CCOP participation, and included internal and external benefits to the organization, and quality of care benefits for both patients and participating physicians. The motives and benefits providers attributed to CCOP participation are consistent with translational research goals, offering evidence that participation can contribute value to providers by expanding access to innovative medical care for patients in need. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Capacity for Cancer Care Delivery Research in National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program Community Practices: Availability of Radiology and Primary Care Research Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Ruth C; Sicks, JoRean D; Chang, George J; Lyss, Alan P; Stewart, Teresa L; Sung, Lillian; Weaver, Kathryn E

    2017-12-01

    Cancer care spans the spectrum from screening and diagnosis through therapy and into survivorship. Delivering appropriate care requires patient transitions across multiple specialties, such as primary care, radiology, and oncology. From the program's inception, the National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) sites were tasked with conducting cancer care delivery research (CCDR) that evaluates structural, organizational, and social factors, including care transitions that determine patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the capacity of the NCORP to conduct multidisciplinary CCDR that includes radiology and primary care practices. The NCORP includes 34 community and 12 minority and underserved community sites. The Landscape Capacity Assessment was conducted in 2015 across these 46 sites, composed of the 401 components and subcomponents designated to conduct CCDR. Each respondent had the opportunity to designate an operational practice group, defined as a group of components and subcomponents with common care practices and resources. The primary outcomes were the proportion of adult oncology practice groups with affiliated radiology and primary care practices. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of those affiliated radiology and primary care groups that participate in research. Eighty-seven percent of components and subcomponents responded to at least some portion of the assessment, representing 230 practice groups. Analyzing the 201 adult oncology practice groups, 85% had affiliated radiologists, 69% of whom participate in research. Seventy-nine percent had affiliated primary care practitioners, 31% of whom participate in research. Institutional size, multidisciplinary group practice, and ownership by large regional or multistate health systems was associated with research participation by affiliated radiology and primary care groups. Research participation by these affiliated specialists was not significantly

  5. Racial Differences in Information Needs During and After Cancer Treatment: a Nationwide, Longitudinal Survey by the University of Rochester Cancer Center National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Matthew; Peppone, Luke J; Roscoe, Joseph A; Kleckner, Ian R; Mustian, Karen M; Heckler, Charles E; Guido, Joseph J; Sborov, Mark; Bushunow, Peter; Onitilo, Adedayo; Kamen, Charles

    2018-02-01

    Before treatment, cancer patients need information about side effects and prognosis, while after treatment they need information to transition to survivorship. Research documenting these needs is limited, especially among racial and ethnic minorities. This study evaluated cancer patients' needs according to race both before and after treatment. We compared white (n = 904) to black (n = 52) patients receiving treatment at 17 National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) sites on their cancer-related concerns and need for information before and after cancer treatment. Two-sample t test and chi-squared analyses were used to assess group differences. Compared to white patients, black patients reported significantly higher concerns about diet (44.3 vs. 25.4 %,) and exercise (40.4 vs. 19.7 %,) during the course of treatment. Compared to whites, blacks also had significantly higher concern about treatment-related issues (white vs. black mean, 25.52 vs. 31.78), self-image issues (7.03 vs. 8.60), family-related issues (10.44 vs. 12.84), and financial concerns (6.42 vs. 8.90, all p < 0.05). Blacks, compared to whites, also had significantly greater post-treatment information needs regarding follow-up tests (8.17 vs. 9.44), stress management (4.12 vs. 4.89), and handling stigma after cancer treatment (4.21 vs. 4.89) [all p < 0.05]. Pre-treatment concerns and post-treatment information needs differed by race, with black patients reporting greater information needs and concerns. In clinical practice, tailored approaches may work particularly well in addressing the needs and concerns of black patients.

  6. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  7. National Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs, and connect with NCI researchers via Twitter chats. Facebook Connect with NCI on its Facebook page to get updates on cancer information, including the latest research, and engage with us on topics of interest to you. View this video on YouTube. On October 18 at 12:00 ...

  8. Thyroid cancer: experiences of Cancer Institute, Madras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R. Ravi; Mahajan, V.; Ganesh, M.S.; Ayyappan, S.; Suresh, V.; Suryasen, S.

    1999-01-01

    It has been long recognized that Thyroid Cancer (TC) envelopes under its umbrella a spectrum of cancers from the relatively indolent well differentiated papillary and follicular cancers to the aggressive and rapidly fatal anaplastic cancers. Medullary cancers fall in between the two extremes. Recently, poor prognostic variants of well-differentiated cancers have been described. There is also a move to define a group of poorly differentiated TC including the insular variants distinguishing them from anaplastic carcinomas. Of the 1168 patients with thyroid nodules seen at the Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai between 1956 and 1996, 670 cases proved to be malignant either cytologically or histologically. This report is based on the follow-up of these patients which at 10 years was 75%

  9. A method for analyzing the business case for provider participation in the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and similar federally funded, provider-based research networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Song, Paula H; Minasian, Lori; Good, Marjorie; Weiner, Bryan J; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-09-01

    The Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) plays an essential role in the efforts of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to increase enrollment in clinical trials. Currently, there is little practical guidance in the literature to assist provider organizations in analyzing the return on investment (ROI), or business case, for establishing and operating a provider-based research network (PBRN) such as the CCOP. In this article, the authors present a conceptual model of the business case for PBRN participation, a spreadsheet-based tool and advice for evaluating the business case for provider participation in a CCOP organization. A comparative, case-study approach was used to identify key components of the business case for hospitals attempting to support a CCOP research infrastructure. Semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and administrators. Key themes were identified and used to develop the financial analysis tool. Key components of the business case included CCOP start-up costs, direct revenue from the NCI CCOP grant, direct expenses required to maintain the CCOP research infrastructure, and incidental benefits, most notably downstream revenues from CCOP patients. The authors recognized the value of incidental benefits as an important contributor to the business case for CCOP participation; however, currently, this component is not calculated. The current results indicated that providing a method for documenting the business case for CCOP or other PBRN involvement will contribute to the long-term sustainability and expansion of these programs by improving providers' understanding of the financial implications of participation. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  10. The Business Case for Provider Participation in Clinical Trials Research: An Application to the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Paula H.; Reiter, Kristin L.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Minasian, Lori; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-01-01

    Background Provider-based research networks (PBRNs) make clinical trials available in community-based practice settings, where most people receive their care, but provider participation requires both financial and in-kind contributions. Purpose This study explores whether providers believe there is a business case for participating in PBRNs and what factors contribute to the business case. Methodology/Approach We use a multiple case study methodology approach to examine the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program, a longstanding federally funded PBRN. Interviews with 41 key informants across five sites, selected on the basis of organizational maturity, were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. We analyzed interview transcripts using an iterative, deductive process to identify themes and subthemes in the data. Findings We found that a business case for provider participation in PBRNs may exist if both direct and indirect financial benefits are identified and included in the analysis, and if the time horizon is long enough to allow those benefits to be realized. We identified specific direct and indirect financial benefits that were perceived as important contributors to the business case and the perceived length of time required for a positive return to accrue. Practice Implications As the lack of a business case may result in provider reluctance to participate in PBRNs, knowledge of the benefits we identified may be crucial to encouraging and sustaining participation, thereby preserving patient access to innovative community-based treatments. The results are also relevant to federally-funded PBRNs outside of oncology or to providers considering participation in any clinical trials research. PMID:23044836

  11. The business case for provider participation in clinical trials research: an application to the National Cancer Institute's community clinical oncology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Paula H; Reiter, Kristin L; Weiner, Bryan J; Minasian, Lori; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2013-01-01

    Provider-based research networks (PBRNs) make clinical trials available in community-based practice settings, where most people receive their care, but provider participation requires both financial and in-kind contributions. The aim of this study was to explore whether providers believe there is a business case for participating in PBRNs and what factors contribute to the business case. We use a multiple case study methodology approach to examine the National Cancer Institute's community clinical oncology program, a long-standing federally funded PBRN. Interviews with 41 key informants across five sites, selected on the basis of organizational maturity, were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. We analyzed interview transcripts using an iterative, deductive process to identify themes and subthemes in the data. We found that a business case for provider participation in PBRNs may exist if both direct and indirect financial benefits are identified and included in the analysis and if the time horizon is long enough to allow those benefits to be realized. We identified specific direct and indirect financial benefits that were perceived as important contributors to the business case and the perceived length of time required for a positive return to accrue. As the lack of a business case may result in provider reluctance to participate in PBRNs, knowledge of the benefits we identified may be crucial to encouraging and sustaining participation, thereby preserving patient access to innovative community-based treatments. The results are also relevant to federally funded PBRNs outside of oncology or to providers considering participation in any clinical trials research.

  12. 77 FR 5029 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Community; Cancer Drug Shortages: Economic, Regulatory, and Manufacturing Issues; The Role of the Cancer... security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before being allowed on campus. Visitors...

  13. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets Across Cancer Types | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dana Farber Cancer Institute CTD2 Center focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  14. Utilization of Community Institutional and Organizational Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of the utilization of community institutional and community organizational resources on the implementation of adult basic literacy and functional literacy programmes in Cross River State. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested. The survey research design was adopted for the study.

  15. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

  16. Communities matter: Institutional preconditions for community renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Energy transitions are high on political agendas. From a practical viewpoint, community approaches are deemed essential in order to transition from a predominantly centralized energy supply to a decentralized one, and to exploit the potential of renewable energies. In this paper, I discuss how the emergence of community-based energy projects can be analyzed from an institutional perspective. In this context, a ‘community’ is treated as an individual institutional order that shapes decisions. I examine how community structures the implementation of biogas cooperatives in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol in Northern Italy. My findings suggest that ‘community spirit’, a cooperative tradition, and the norms of locality and responsibility are central drivers behind the emergence and constitution of biogas cooperatives. Not only do these institutional features of community influence the decision concerning which farmers are in or out but also plant location and scale. I argue that ‘community’ is a necessary analytical category for understanding community energy. - Highlights: • I analyze the emergence and constitution of biogas cooperatives in South Tyrol. • Emerging processes and the principal constitutions are similar. • Institutional forces influenced the biogas cooperatives' emergence and constitution. • Biogas cooperatives are decisively shaped by community spirit and local tradition. • The concept of community is used as an explanatory category for community energy

  17. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phytochemicals in your food Red and processed meat Sugar and cancer risk Alcohol and cancer risk Physical Activity Are ... Updates: Diabetes Rates are High and Rising, That Links with Cancer Apples and Oranges, What Americans are Eating and ...

  18. 77 FR 37742 - Community Development Financial Institutions Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Funding Opportunity... pending for assistance under the FY 2012 round of the Community Development Financial Institutions Program... of the BEA Program. The BEA Program is administered by the Community Development Financial...

  19. 75 FR 14172 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Nucleic Acid Analysis for the Molecular Characterization of... Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  20. 76 FR 14675 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...-7565, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Molecular... Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  1. 77 FR 19674 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Innovative Molecular Analysis Technologies for Cancer (R21). Date: June 26... Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  2. 75 FR 5092 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Quantitative Cell-Based Imaging....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  3. Spatial analyses identify the geographic source of patients at a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Chih; Kanarek, Norma; Fox, Michael G; Guseynova, Alla; Crow, Shirley; Piantadosi, Steven

    2010-02-01

    We examined the geographic distribution of patients to better understand the service area of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, a designated National Cancer Institute (NCI) comprehensive cancer center located in an urban center. Like most NCI cancer centers, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center serves a population beyond city limits. Urban cancer centers are expected to serve their immediate neighborhoods and to address disparities in access to specialty care. Our purpose was to learn the extent and nature of the cancer center service area. Statistical clustering of patient residence in the continental United States was assessed for all patients and by gender, cancer site, and race using SaTScan. Primary clusters detected for all cases and demographically and tumor-defined subpopulations were centered at Baltimore City and consisted of adjacent counties in Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, New Jersey and New York, and the District of Columbia. Primary clusters varied in size by race, gender, and cancer site. Spatial analysis can provide insights into the populations served by urban cancer centers, assess centers' performance relative to their communities, and aid in developing a cancer center business plan that recognizes strengths, regional utility, and referral patterns. Today, 62 NCI cancer centers serve a quarter of the U.S. population in their immediate communities. From the Baltimore experience, we might project that the population served by these centers is actually more extensive and varies by patient characteristics, cancer site, and probably cancer center services offered.

  4. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets in KRAS Driven Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Dana Farber Cancer Institute focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  5. An Open Letter to the Cancer Community Regarding Community Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is in the process of combining its two community-based research networks to create a single network that builds on the strengths of the Community Clinical Oncology Program/Minority-Based Community Clinical Oncology Prog

  6. 76 FR 67021 - Community Development Financial Institutions Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Proposed Collection...)). Currently, the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund (the ``CDFI Fund'') within the Department... Development Financial Institutions Fund, U.S. Department of the Treasury, 601 13th Street NW., Suite 200 South...

  7. 76 FR 9353 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ....gov . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Molecular Pharmacodynamic... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  8. 77 FR 33476 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Biopsy Instruments and Devices That Preserve Molecular Profiles... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  9. Breast cancer: surgery at the South egypt cancer institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed A S; Salem, Mohamed Abou Elmagd; Abbass, Hamza

    2010-09-30

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute's (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital during the period from Janurary 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed .We report the progress of the availability of breast cancer management and evaluation of the quality of care delivered to breast cancer patients. The total number of patients with a breast lump presented to the SECI during the study period was 1,463 patients (32 males and 1431 females); 616 patients from the total number were admitted at the surgical department .There was a decline in advanced cases. Since 2001, facilities for all lines of comprehensive management have been made accessible for all patients. We found that better management could lead to earlier presentation, and better overall outcome in breast cancer patients.The incidence is steadily increasing with a tendency for breast cancer to occur in younger age groups and with advanced stages.

  10. 78 FR 30933 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Emphasis Panel; Validation and Advanced Development of Emerging Molecular Analysis Technologies for Cancer..., Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  11. 76 FR 52960 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Emphasis Panel, Mechanisms of Cell Signaling in Cancer. Date: October 13-14, 2011. Time: 3 to 5 p.m. Agenda..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  12. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  13. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  14. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  15. 76 FR 31619 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Phase IIB...: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive...

  16. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A.S. Salem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI hospital during the period from Janurary 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed .We report the progress of the availability of breast cancer management and evaluation of the quality of care delivered to breast cancer patients. The total number of patients with a breast lump presented to the SECI during the study period was 1,463 patients (32 males and 1431 females; 616 patients from the total number were admitted at the surgical department .There was a decline in advanced cases. Since 2001, facilities for all lines of comprehensive management have been made accessible for all patients. We found that better management could lead to earlier presentation, and better overall outcome in breast cancer patients.The incidence is steadily increasing with a tendency for breast cancer to occur in younger age groups and with advanced stages.

  17. 78 FR 50068 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Strategic Plan; Proposed Organizational Change: Division..., Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis... Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control, National Institutes of Health, HHS...

  18. 77 FR 19024 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI SPORE in Lymphoma, Leukemia, Brain, Esophageal and Gastrointestinal..., Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer...

  19. 78 FR 28235 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Basal- like Breast Cancer. Date: June 13, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.392, Cancer Construction; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  20. Knitting a community: weblogs and institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Torill Elvira

    2013-01-01

    and creation, the knitting weblogs connect individuals and institutions, new designs and tradition. The objects of research are knitting blogs based mainly in Scandinavian countries. On these blogs I look at the use of patterns poached from different institutions (museum, archives, commercial agents...

  1. Ranking Institutional Settings Based on Publications in Community Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Patka, Mazna; Adams, Monica; Morello, Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Two primary outlets for community psychology research, the "American Journal of Community Psychology" and the "Journal of Community Psychology", were assessed to rank institutions based on publication frequency and scientific influence of publications over a 32-year period. Three specific periods were assessed (1973-1983, 1984-1994, 1995-2004).…

  2. 77 FR 4052 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NCI SPORE in Breast, Endometrial, and... Special Emphasis Panel, The Role of Microbial Metabolites in Cancer Prevention and Etiology. Date: March..., Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer...

  3. 75 FR 20370 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Special Emphasis Panel, Breast Cancer Biology. Date: May 20, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To..., [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Molecular... Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399, Cancer Control...

  4. 78 FR 55750 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Innovative Molecular Analysis Technology Development for Cancer Research (R21). Date: October 24, 2013. Time...: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Integrative Cancer Biology. Date: October 29, 2013. Time... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  5. The Situation and Solutions of Institutional and Community-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Institutional and Community-Based Rehabilitation for Persons With Mental and ... regardless of the country and the model, reveals a litany of constraints and ... involvement of all stakeholders in decision making and execution and finally, ...

  6. 76 FR 5597 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Vaccine for Prevention of HIV Infection. Date: February 24, 2011... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute... concerning individuals associated with the grant applications and/or contract proposals, the disclosure of...

  7. Community engagement of the higher education institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in a changing society. Philip H. Coombs, an American economist who had been part of the Kennedy administration and appointed director of the UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, summarized in 1968 many aspects of these discussions and proposed possible solutions in The World Educational...... Crisis: A Systems Analysis (1968). In a parallel development, challenging the traditionally isolated and inward-looking role of the university (the ivory tower), in December 1965, the UNESCO General Assembly adopted a definition of Lifelong Education as: …the animating principle of the whole process...

  8. The First Wave of Community-Engaged Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Lorilee R.; Thornton, Courtney H.; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2009-01-01

    In nature, waves are transmitters of energy. Once the energy moves through the medium, that medium often returns to its previous state. The first wave of community-engaged institutions has transmitted great energy across the U.S. higher education system. And in contrast to what occurs in nature, these classified institutions often do not go back…

  9. Electronic Commerce: Canadian Community Colleges and Institutes of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This paper reports on the Canadian college system's collaboration with industry and community services in the development and delivery of non-credit e-commerce courses offered through continuing education departments at community colleges and institutes of technology. The paper argues that, in today's changing economy, the accelerated need for…

  10. 76 FR 576 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ...; Development of Molecular Diagnostics Assay to Detect Basal- like Breast Cancer. Date: February 15, 2011. Time... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Collaborative Research in Integrative Cancer Biology and the Tumor... Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  11. 75 FR 3242 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Special Emphasis Panel, Developing Research Capacity in Africa for the Studies on HIV-Associated... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute... commercial property such as patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated...

  12. 77 FR 76057 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ..., Scientific Review Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...--Institutional Training and Education Institutional Training and Education Grant. Date: February 25-26, 2013...

  13. 78 FR 64292 - Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Proposed Collection...)). Currently, the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund, Department of the Treasury, is... Loan Requirements for the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Bond Guarantee Program...

  14. Community health centers and community development financial institutions: joining forces to address determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelchuck, Ronda; Lowenstein, Daniel; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2011-11-01

    Community health centers and community development financial institutions share similar origins and missions and are increasingly working together to meet community needs. Addressing the social and economic determinants of health is a common focus. The availability of new federal grants and tax credits has led these financial institutions to invest in the creation and expansion of community health centers. This article reviews the most recent trends in these two sectors and explores opportunities for further collaboration to transform the health and well-being of the nation's low-income communities.

  15. Workforce diversity and community-responsive health-care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivet, Marc A; Berlin, Anne

    2014-01-01

    While the levers for the social determinants of health reside largely outside institutional walls, this does not absolve health professional schools from exercising their influence to improve the communities in which they are located. Fulfilling this charge will require a departure from conventional thinking, particularly when it comes to educating future health professionals. We describe efforts within medical education to transform recruitment, admissions, and classroom environments to emphasize diversity and inclusion. The aim is to cultivate a workforce with the perspectives, aptitudes, and skills needed to fuel community-responsive health-care institutions.

  16. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0531 TITLE: Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0531 Cancer Scholars Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Prostate Cancer Scholars Program is designed to encourage students from under-represented minority groups to enter graduate training and ultimately

  17. 78 FR 8156 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute... proposals. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, Montgomery County Conference Center... Institute, NIH, 6116 Executive Blvd., Suite 703, Room 7072, Bethesda, md 20892-8329, 301-594-1408, Stoicaa2...

  18. Assessment of traditional institutions in community development Ede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concluded by providing some recommendations, among others, that Traditional institutions play significant roles in the socio-economic development and infrastructural amenities for the betterment of people in Ede community and a set of harmonized policies remain critical for a successful battle against rural ...

  19. The national cancer institute (NCI) and cancer biology in a 'post genome world'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klausner, Richard D.

    1996-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) exists to reduce the burden of all cancers through research and discovery. Extensive restructuring of the NCI over the past year has been aimed at assuring that the institution functions in all ways to promote opportunities for discovery in the laboratory, in the clinic, and in the community. To do this well requires the difficult and almost paradoxical problem of planning for scientific discovery which, in turn is based on the freedom to pursue the unanticipated. The intellectual and structural landscape of science is changing and it places new challenges, new demands and new opportunities for facilitating discovery. The nature of cancer as a disease of genomic instability and of accumulated genetic change, coupled with a possibility of the development of new technologies for reading, utilizing, interpreting and manipulating the genome of single cells, provides unprecedented opportunities for a new type of high through-put biology that will change the nature of discovery, cancer detection, diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic decision-making and therapeutic discovery. To capture these new opportunities will require attention to be paid to integrate the development of technology and new scientific discoveries with the ability to apply advances rapidly and efficiently through clinical trials

  20. 76 FR 57748 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard... Crystal City, 2799 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202. Contact Person: Sergei Radaev, PhD..., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National...

  1. Leveraging National Cancer Institute Programmatic Collaboration for Uterine Cervix Cancer Patient Accrual in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Kunos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Women in the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (PR have a higher age-adjusted incidence rate for uterine cervix cancer than the U.S. mainland as well as substantial access and economic barriers to cancer care. The National Cancer Institute (NCI funds a Minority/Underserved NCI Community Oncology Research Program in PR (PRNCORP as part of a national network of community-based health-care systems to conduct multisite cancer clinical trials in diverse populations. Participation by the PRNCORP in NCI’s uterine cervix cancer clinical trials, however, has remained limited. This study reports on the findings of an NCI site visit in PR to assess barriers impeding site activation and accrual to its sponsored gynecologic cancer clinical trials. Qualitative, semi-structured individual, and group interviews were conducted at six PRNCORP-affiliated locations to ascertain: long-term trial accrual objectives; key stakeholders in PR that address uterine cervix cancer care; key challenges or barriers to activating and to enrolling patients in NCI uterine cervix cancer treatment trials; and resources, policies, or procedures in place or needed on the island to support NCI-sponsored clinical trials. An NCI-sponsored uterine cervix cancer radiation–chemotherapy intervention clinical trial (NCT02466971, already activated on the island, served as a test case to identify relevant patient accrual and site barriers. The site visit identified five key barriers to accrual: (1 lack of central personnel to coordinate referrals for treatment plans, medical tests, and medical imaging across the island’s clinical trial access points; (2 patient insurance coverage; (3 lack of a coordinated brachytherapy schedule at San Juan-centric service providers; (4 limited credentialed radiotherapy machines island-wide; and (5 too few radiology medical physicists tasked to credential trial-specified positron emission tomography scanners island-wide. PR offers a unique opportunity to

  2. 75 FR 44274 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Nanotechnology Imaging and Sensing Platforms for Improved Diagnosis of Cancer. Date: August 31, 2010. Time: 12 p.m. to 1:30 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate... 20852 (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Kenneth L. Bielat, PhD, Scientific Review Officer...

  3. 78 FR 64222 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Conference Call). Contact Person: Robert Bird, Ph.D., Chief, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division....D., Scientific Review Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch, Division of Extramural... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute...

  4. 77 FR 68136 - National Cancer Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Regency Bethesda Hotel, Old Georgetown Room, One Metro Center, Bethesda, MD 20814. The NCAB ad hoc... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute..., Building 31C, Wing C, Conference Room 10, 31 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 which was published in the...

  5. HER2-positive male breast cancer with thyroid cancer: an institutional report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Pooja; Bui, Marilyn M; Minton, Susan; Loftus, Loretta; Carter, W Bradford; Laronga, Christine; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare finding of two male breast cancer patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who also developed thyroid cancer. We reviewed 45 male breast cancer patients treated in our institution from 2003 to 2008. Only five male breast cancer patients were HER2-positive. In reviewing the published data, we found no cases of thyroid cancer and concurrent breast cancer in men. However, breast cancer and thyroid cancer have shown close association in women. This finding therefore provokes speculation as to whether we should investigate whether women with HER2-positive breast cancer are at a higher risk for thyroid cancer. Although this observation seems to be clinically prevalent, publications are sparse in clinical research areas linking thyroid cancer to breast cancer.

  6. 78 FR 5870 - Community Development Financial Institutions Fund: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund: Proposed Collection...)). Currently, the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund, an office within the Department of... Kuchar, Associate Program [[Page 5871

  7. Meeting the Challenge: The National Cancer Institute's Central Institutional Review Board for Multi-Site Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Hampp, Sharon L; Goldberg, Jacquelyn L; Mooney, Margaret; Parreco, Linda K; Minasian, Lori; Montello, Mike; Mishkin, Grace E; Davis, Catasha; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2018-03-10

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a new policy that requires a single institutional review board (IRB) of record be used for all protocols funded by the NIH that are carried out at more than one site in the United States, effective January 2018. This policy affects several hundred clinical trials opened annually across the NIH. Limited data exist to compare the use of a single IRB to that of multiple local IRBs, so some institutions are resistant to or distrustful of single IRBs. Since 2001, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has funded a central IRB (CIRB) that provides human patient reviews for its extensive national cancer clinical trials program. This paper presents data to show the adoption, efficiencies gained, and satisfaction of the CIRB among NCI trial networks and reviews key lessons gleaned from 16 years of experience that may be informative for others charged with implementation of the new NIH single-IRB policy.

  8. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/ Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of Expression of Androgen Receptor in ABCG2+ CWR-R1 Prostate Cancer Cells” 4.) Morenike Olu, K Miller, I Gelman, Dept. Cancer Genetics ... rubric for the Directed Readings course sequence. Training in the use of the web conferencing software will be provided by the Project Director at

  9. [The work of Moscow communities of Sisters of Charity in own medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, K V

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the medical activities of Moscow communities of Sisters of Charity in curative and educational institutions organized by the communities themselves. The social ministration of communities on the territory of Moscow is considered.

  10. 75 FR 48699 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group, Subcommittee I--Career Development, NCI-I Career Development. Date: September 21, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and.... Contact Person: Sergei Radaev, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Resources and Training Review Branch...

  11. 76 FR 1625 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Initial Review Group; Subcommittee I--Career Development, Career Development. Date: February 22-23, 2011. Time: February 22, 2011, 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate to review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Alexandria Old Town...

  12. 78 FR 27408 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...., as amended. The contract proposals and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or... with the contract proposals, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Topic 304...

  13. 75 FR 7489 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ...., as amended. The grant applications and/or contract proposals and the discussions could disclose... concerning individuals associated with the grant applications and/or contract proposals, the disclosure [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel, SBIR Topic 258...

  14. 75 FR 7489 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Lalita D. Palekar, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Cancer Nanotechnology Training (R25) and Career Development Award (K99...

  15. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute process of accreditation according to the standards of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Stefano; Di Turi, Annunziata; Caolo, Giuseppina; Pignatelli, Adriana C; Papa, Elena; Branca, Marta; Cerimele, Marina; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    The accreditation process is, on the one hand, a tool used to homogenize procedures, rendering comparable and standardized processes of care, and on the other, a methodology employed to develop a culture of quality improvement. Although not yet proven by evidence-based studies that health outcomes improve as a result of an accreditation to excellence, it is undeniable that better control of healthcare processes results in better quality and safety of diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute underwent the accreditation process in accordance with the standards criteria set by the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI), and it has recently completed the process, acquiring its designation as a Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC). This was an invaluable opportunity for the Regina Elena Institute to create a more cohesive environment, to widely establish a culture of quality, to implement an institutional information system, and to accelerate the process of patient involvement in strategic decisions. The steps of the process allowed us to evaluate the performance and the organization of the institute and put amendments in place designed to be adopted through 26 improvement actions. These actions regarded several aspects of the institute, including quality culture, information communication technology system, care, clinical trials unit, disease management team, nursing, and patient empowerment and involvement. Each area has a timeline. We chose to present the following 3 improvement actions: clinical trial center, computerized ambulatory medical record, and centrality of patient and humanization of clinical pathway.

  16. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Multidisciplinary Management at the Colombian National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garavito, Gloria; Llamas O, Augusto; Cadena, Enrique; De Los Reyes, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant disease of the endocrine system. Two hundred and twenty-one new cases were diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia (NCI) in 2006, roughly 4% of all new cancer cases. Weekly multidisciplinary decision-making meetings on thyroid cancer management have been held at the NCI since 1994. This article covers the body of knowledge gathered through 14 years of interdisciplinary collaboration where experience has been combined with the best available evidence.

  17. Child-adult Creating Community as an Institution of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaikin V.L.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the possibilities of education to overcome infantilism and consumer orientation of the younger generation. Even humanistic “pedagogy of relations” is being eroded in the consumer society. Nowadays, to talk about school and to build the school in which children feel only cozy, comfortable and convenient means to prepare new victims of consumerism. The authors state the need of moving from the usual methods and forms of education (formally ritualized, verbal, leisure and entertainment ones to the creative, activity methods and forms, which cultivate the relationships of responsible care. The new institute of education, which is child-adult creating community, is justified both theoretically and practically. The authors provide the examples of mutually beneficial and developing cooperation of adults and children based on the principles of technology, self-management, social entrepreneurship and social service

  18. 12 CFR 1806.102 - Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Financial Institutions Programs. 1806.102 Section 1806.102 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM General Provisions § 1806.102 Relationship to other Community Development Financial Institutions Programs. Prohibition against double funding...

  19. The flat‐funding years and the National Cancer Institute: Consequences for cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Hitt, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), the principal federal agency for cancer research and training in the US, has contended with a flat budget since 2004, which according to the institute's director is preventing the organisation from keeping pace with the increasing costs of biomedical research. Although the impact of these budget shortfalls are still being debated, Niederhuber believes these so‐called “flat‐funding years” may pave the way for worrying future trends, resulting in a paucity o...

  20. The National Cancer Institute's Physical Sciences - Oncology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Michael Graham

    In 2009, the NCI launched the Physical Sciences - Oncology Centers (PS-OC) initiative with 12 Centers (U54) funded through 2014. The current phase of the Program includes U54 funded Centers with the added feature of soliciting new Physical Science - Oncology Projects (PS-OP) U01 grant applications through 2017; see NCI PAR-15-021. The PS-OPs, individually and along with other PS-OPs and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OCs), comprise the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON). The foundation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology initiative is a high-risk, high-reward program that promotes a `physical sciences perspective' of cancer and fosters the convergence of physical science and cancer research by forming transdisciplinary teams of physical scientists (e.g., physicists, mathematicians, chemists, engineers, computer scientists) and cancer researchers (e.g., cancer biologists, oncologists, pathologists) who work closely together to advance our understanding of cancer. The collaborative PS-ON structure catalyzes transformative science through increased exchange of people, ideas, and approaches. PS-ON resources are leveraged to fund Trans-Network pilot projects to enable synergy and cross-testing of experimental and/or theoretical concepts. This session will include a brief PS-ON overview followed by a strategic discussion with the APS community to exchange perspectives on the progression of trans-disciplinary physical sciences in cancer research.

  1. Community Development as an Approach to Community Engagement in Rural-Based Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netshandama, V. O.

    2010-01-01

    The premise of this article is that the "jury is still out" to describe what effective Community Engagement entails in South African higher education institutions. The current discussions about community engagement and service learning do not cover the primary objective of adding value to the community, particularly of the rural-based…

  2. Role of the National Cancer Institute in the National Cancer Program on environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamm, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the need for the National Cancer Institute to coordinate all cancer-related activities at the federal level and the desirability of programming so as to exploit the best opportunities for alleviating the mortality, morbidity, and incidence of cancer in the United States; need for assessing opportunities for prevention of environmental carcinogenesis; creation of the Smoking and Health Program in the NCI; development of cancer atlases from a nationwide survey; and role of the NCI with respect to waterborne carcinogens. (HLW)

  3. Taking Our Seat at the Table: Community Cancer Survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Katie M; Smith, Caitlin

    Cancer survivors are at risk for occupational performance issues related to activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, work, and social and community participation. Occupational therapy practitioners can address these performance issues by offering services within existing community cancer survivorship programs that focus on adaptive and compensatory strategies to facilitate meaningful lifestyles and optimize health and well-being. Occupational therapy services do not currently exist at these community sites, nor are occupational therapy practitioners recognized as providers in existing community cancer survivorship programs. Recognition of practitioners' distinct value in cancer survivorship, advocacy for occupational therapy services in the community, development of supporting documentation for occupational therapy's role in community survivorship, and research on the efficacy of interventions in community cancer survivorship are needed to expand occupational therapy's role with this growing population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Dedicated researcher brings cancer care to rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Bhuller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an ardent cancer researcher, Dr. Smita Asthana has a vision to create wider awareness on cancer and its prevention, and aims to work on translational research to benefit the general public through the implementation of evidence-based research. “I have been associated with the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO since November 2004 and have progressed over a period of time from being a staff scientist to the current role of a senior scientist,” says Dr. Asthana, who is presently with NICPR’s Biostatistics and Epidemiology division.“I have been working in various positions that deal with the design, execution, and evaluation of medical projects. Recently, we have concluded two major cervical cancer screening projects and conducted a screening of 10,000 women in rural areas,” she tells AMOR. One project, funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, was carried out 100 km west of New Delhi in the rural town of Dadri “as part of an operational research to see the implementation of VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol's iodine screenings with the help of existing healthcare infrastructure,” she explains.As a leading researcher in cervical cancer screening, she completed an Indo-US collaborative project on the clinical performance of a human papillomavirus (HPV test, used as a strategy for screening cervical cancer in rural communities, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation via the international non-profit global health organization PATH. “The primary objective of the project was to observe the performance of careHPV, a new diagnostic kit, in a rural setup,” she says.CareHPV is a highly sensitive DNA test, which detects 14 different types of the human papillomavirus that cause cervical cancer, providing results more rapidly than other DNA tests and is designed especially for use in clinics

  5. Community Stories and Institutional Stewardship: Digital Curation's Dual Roles of Story Creation and Resource Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunda, Sue; Anderson-Wilk, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Our institutions of record are facing a new digital knowledge management challenge: stakeholder communities are now expecting customized Web interfaces to institutional knowledge repositories, online environments where community members can contribute content and see themselves represented, as well as access archived resources. Digital curation…

  6. Towards Sustainable Performance Measurement Frameworks for Applied Research in Canadian Community Colleges and Institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Applied Research (AR) in Canadian community colleges is driven by a mandate, via the collective voice of Colleges and Institutes Canada--a national voluntary membership association of publicly supported colleges and related institutions--to address issues of interest to industry, government, and/or community. AR is supported through significant…

  7. Improving clinical research and cancer care delivery in community settings: evaluating the NCI community cancer centers program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fennell Mary L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this article, we describe the National Cancer Institute (NCI Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP pilot and the evaluation designed to assess its role, function, and relevance to the NCI's research mission. In doing so, we describe the evolution of and rationale for the NCCCP concept, participating sites' characteristics, its multi-faceted aims to enhance clinical research and quality of care in community settings, and the role of strategic partnerships, both within and outside of the NCCCP network, in achieving program objectives. Discussion The evaluation of the NCCCP is conceptualized as a mixed method multi-layered assessment of organizational innovation and performance which includes mapping the evolution of site development as a means of understanding the inter- and intra-organizational change in the pilot, and the application of specific evaluation metrics for assessing the implementation, operations, and performance of the NCCCP pilot. The assessment of the cost of the pilot as an additional means of informing the longer-term feasibility and sustainability of the program is also discussed. Summary The NCCCP is a major systems-level set of organizational innovations to enhance clinical research and care delivery in diverse communities across the United States. Assessment of the extent to which the program achieves its aims will depend on a full understanding of how individual, organizational, and environmental factors align (or fail to align to achieve these improvements, and at what cost.

  8. Improving clinical research and cancer care delivery in community settings: evaluating the NCI community cancer centers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Steven B; Johnson, Maureen R; O'Brien, Donna M; Beveridge, Joy M; Fennell, Mary L; Kaluzny, Arnold D

    2009-09-26

    In this article, we describe the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) pilot and the evaluation designed to assess its role, function, and relevance to the NCI's research mission. In doing so, we describe the evolution of and rationale for the NCCCP concept, participating sites' characteristics, its multi-faceted aims to enhance clinical research and quality of care in community settings, and the role of strategic partnerships, both within and outside of the NCCCP network, in achieving program objectives. The evaluation of the NCCCP is conceptualized as a mixed method multi-layered assessment of organizational innovation and performance which includes mapping the evolution of site development as a means of understanding the inter- and intra-organizational change in the pilot, and the application of specific evaluation metrics for assessing the implementation, operations, and performance of the NCCCP pilot. The assessment of the cost of the pilot as an additional means of informing the longer-term feasibility and sustainability of the program is also discussed. The NCCCP is a major systems-level set of organizational innovations to enhance clinical research and care delivery in diverse communities across the United States. Assessment of the extent to which the program achieves its aims will depend on a full understanding of how individual, organizational, and environmental factors align (or fail to align) to achieve these improvements, and at what cost.

  9. Engaging Institutional Review Boards in Developing a Brief, Community-Responsive Human Subjects Training for Community Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Bogart, Laura M.; Francis, Evelyn; Kornetsky, Susan Z.; Winkler, Sabune J.; Kaberry, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Engaging community partners as co-investigators in community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires certification in the rules, ethics, and principles governing research. Despite developments in making human research protection trainings more convenient and standardized (e.g., self-paced Internet modules), time constraints and the structure of the content (which may favor academic audiences) may hinder the training of community partners. OBJECTIVES This paper is motivated by a case example in which academic and community partners, and stakeholders of a community-based organization actively engaged the leadership of a pediatric hospital-based Institutional Review Board (IRB) in implementing a brief, community-responsive human subjects training session. METHODS A two hour, discussion-based human subjects training was developed via collaborations between the IRB and the community and academic partners. Interviews with trainees and facilitators after the training were used to evaluate its acceptability and possible future applications. CONCLUSIONS Local Institutional Review Boards have the potential to assist community partners in building sufficient knowledge of human subjects research protections to engage in specific projects, thereby expediting the progress of vital research to address community needs. We propose the need for developing truncated human subjects education materials to train and certify community partners, and creating formally organized entities within academic and medical institutions that specialize in community-based research to guide the development and implementation of alternative human subjects training certification opportunities for community partners. PMID:28230554

  10. Prospects of development of modern scientific communities as social institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Radevskaya N. S.

    2017-01-01

    the article examines the science and society in their relations and interrelations, problems of self-organization of science. The author talks about the ways and forms of science as a social institution at the service of the public interest. One of the conclusions is that the level of development of science as an institution corresponds to the level of development of social relations.

  11. Moulding good communities and civilized citizens in Danish child institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilliam, Laura; Gulløv, Eva

    hand upbringing in child-institutions reflect broader cultural ideals and visions, but on the other hand, through the vast institutionalisation of children in Denmark, the framework and conditions of everyday life in these institutions has also made a large impact on the very ideas of proper...

  12. Community health promotion approaches within institutions for disabled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    From a two years study of 3 special educational institutions for disabled in Zealand, Denmark, we have done qualitative studies of the focus-areas that the institutions have pointed out as their Best Practices of Health Promotion in everyday life. We have in general followed research questions......: What practices do special institutions for people with developmental disabilities believe to be health promoting, and will a research based reconstruction of these practices with health promotion concepts have anything to offer for professionals in this area? How will the involved parties experience...... each other practices and is possible to establish a mutual institutional learning process, as a surplus to normal quality control (NPM)? What understandings of psyche, individual, mind-body-spirit, health promotion etc. are involved in these practices, and how do they relate to the institutional...

  13. Demographic pattern of male breast cancer: an institutional based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanseem, S.; Khan, M.M.; Khan, M.M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Male breast cancer incidence rises with age with peak in the sixth and seventh decade. It is one of the rare diseases and accounts for less than 1% of all malignancies worldwide. It is usually diagnosed in the late stage with poor prognosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to know the demographic pattern and tumour characteristic of breast cancer in men reported at Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar. Methods: Retrospective data was collected from the (IRNUM), Peshawar for a period of three years (2006-2008). The evaluation was done from the histopathological reports of mastectomy and biopsy specimens. All male patients in the age group 26 -86 year with breast cancer were included in the study. The age of the patients and tumour characteristics recorded were size, grade, type, skin involvement and stage. Results: Total number of male patients with breast cancer were 31 (2.1%) out of the total patients with breast malignancy during the study period with the mean age of 58.3 years. Tumour size ranged from 2 to 12 Cm. with average of 3.6 Cm. Invasive ductal carcinoma was found in 87% , papillary carcinoma in 6.5%, each of malignant fibrous histocytoma and sarcoma in 3.2% cases. Maximum number of patients was of grade II (41%). Patients in whom stage of the disease was know n were 22 cases with 45.5% had stage III disease and 32% had stage IV disease. Skin involvement was found positive in 8 (25.8%). Conclusion: Due to poor health care system breast cancer is diagnosed in a late stage of the disease and prognosis is poor. (author)

  14. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  15. The Metropolitan Studies Institute at USC Upstate: Translational Research that Drives Community Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The Metropolitan Studies Institute (MSI) at the University of South Carolina Upstate (USC Upstate) demonstrates a robust and unique record of community impact through community indicators research and other translational research. The MSI's work drives programmatic priorities and funding decisions, generates revenue, and increases the community's…

  16. Analysis of the Carnegie Classification of Community Engagement: Patterns and Impact on Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the impact that participation in the Carnegie Classification for Community Engagement had on the institutions of higher learning that applied for the classification. This is described in terms of changes in direct community engagement, monitoring and reporting on community engagement, and levels of student and professor…

  17. Listening to community health workers: how ethnographic research can inform positive relationships among community health workers, health institutions, and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth; Closser, Svea; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2014-05-01

    Many actors in global health are concerned with improving community health worker (CHW) policy and practice to achieve universal health care. Ethnographic research can play an important role in providing information critical to the formation of effective CHW programs, by elucidating the life histories that shape CHWs' desires for alleviation of their own and others' economic and health challenges, and by addressing the working relationships that exist among CHWs, intended beneficiaries, and health officials. We briefly discuss ethnographic research with 3 groups of CHWs: volunteers involved in HIV/AIDS care and treatment support in Ethiopia and Mozambique and Lady Health Workers in Pakistan. We call for a broader application of ethnographic research to inform working relationships among CHWs, communities, and health institutions.

  18. Engaging Institutional Review Boards in Developing a Brief, Community-Responsive Human Subjects Training for Community Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Bogart, Laura M; Francis, Evelyn; Kornetsky, Susan Z; Winkler, Sabune J; Kaberry, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Engaging community partners as co-investigators in community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires certification in the rules, ethics, and principles governing research. Despite developments in making human research protection trainings more convenient and standardized (eg, self-paced Internet modules), time constraints and the structure of the content (which may favor academic audiences) may hinder the training of community partners. This paper is motivated by a case example in which academic and community partners, and stakeholders of a community-based organization actively engaged the leadership of a pediatric hospital-based institutional review board (IRB) in implementing a brief, community-responsive human subjects training session. A 2-hour, discussion-based human subjects training was developed via collaborations between the IRB and the community and academic partners. Interviews with trainees and facilitators after the training were used to evaluate its acceptability and possible future applications. Local IRBs have the potential to assist community partners in building sufficient knowledge of human subjects research protections to engage in specific projects, thereby expediting the progress of vital research to address community needs. We propose the need for developing truncated human subjects education materials to train and certify community partners, and creating formally organized entities within academic and medical institutions that specialize in community-based research to guide the development and implementation of alternative human subjects training certification opportunities for community partners.

  19. Resource-stratified implementation of a community-based breast cancer management programme in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Catherine; Dvaladze, Allison L; Tsu, Vivien; Jeronimo, Jose; Constant, Tara K Hayes; Romanoff, Anya; Scheel, John R; Patel, Shilpen; Gralow, Julie R; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2017-10-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates continue to rise in Peru, with related deaths projected to increase from 1208 in 2012, to 2054 in 2030. Despite improvements in national cancer control plans, various barriers to positive breast cancer outcomes remain. Multiorganisational stakeholder collaboration is needed for the development of functional, sustainable early diagnosis, treatment and supportive care programmes with the potential to achieve measurable outcomes. In 2011, PATH, the Peruvian Ministry of Health, the National Cancer Institute in Lima, and the Regional Cancer Institute in Trujillo collaborated to establish the Community-based Program for Breast Health, the aim of which was to improve breast health-care delivery in Peru. A four-step, resource-stratified implementation strategy was used to establish an effective community-based triage programme and a practical early diagnosis scheme within existing multilevel health-care infrastructure. The phased implementation model was initially developed by the Breast Cancer Initiative 2·5: a group of health and non-governmental organisations who collaborate to improve breast cancer outcomes. To date, the Community-based Program for Breast Health has successfully implemented steps 1, 2, and 3 of the Breast Cancer Initiative 2·5 model in Peru, with reports of increased awareness of breast cancer among women, improved capacity for early diagnosis among health workers, and the creation of stronger and more functional linkages between the primary levels (ie, local or community) and higher levels (ie, district, region, and national) of health care. The Community-based Program for Breast Health is a successful example of stakeholder and collaborator involvement-both internal and external to Peru-in the design and implementation of resource-appropriate interventions to increase breast health-care capacity in a middle-income Latin American country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. AANCART best practices: cancer awareness activities for Seattle's Combodian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Paularita; Acorda, Elizabeth; Carey Jackson, J; Marchand, Ann; Thai, Hue; Tu, Shin-Ping; Taylor, Vicky

    2005-12-15

    Census data indicate that Cambodian Americans are economically disadvantaged and linguistically isolated. In addition, cancer registry data show that Southeast Asians experience several cancer-related health disparities (e.g., markedly elevated risks of cervical and liver cancer). The Seattle regional Asian American Network for Cancer, Awareness, Research, and Training (AANCART) site has implemented a community-based cancer awareness program for Cambodian immigrants in collaboration with a Cambodian community coalition. Our cancer awareness program has the following goals: to assist individuals and organizations in advocating for a healthy community, to provide information within a cultural context, and to deliver information in ways that are useful and meaningful to the community. The program was guided by a community assessment that included the use of published data as well as information from qualitative interviews, focus groups, and quantitative surveys. Examples of community awareness activities include group presentations at community-based organizations (e.g., during English as a second language classes), health fair participation (including at nontraditional venues such as a farmers' market serving Cambodians), and educational displays in neighborhood locations (e.g., at Cambodian video stores). In addition, the Seattle AANCART site has both inventoried and developed culturally appropriate Khmer language cancer education materials and disseminated materials through the ETHNO-MED website. Our approach recognizes that limited English language proficiency may preclude many Cambodians from understanding publicly disseminated information, and Cambodian immigrants are often isolated and tend to stay close to their own neighborhoods. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

  1. Community resources support adherence to treatment for childhood cancer in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Nuria; Salaverria, Carmen; Hernandez, Angelica; Alabi, Soad; Vasquez, Roberto; Bonilla, Miguel; Lam, Catherine G; Ribeiro, Raul; Reis, Ria

    2018-01-01

    In order to reduce nonadherence and treatment abandonment of children with cancer in El Salvador, institutions located nearby the patients' homes were involved to provide support. Methodological approach: Health clinics and municipality offices in the patients' communities were asked to assist families who were not promptly located after missing hospital appointments, or those whose financial limitations were likely to impede continuation of treatment. Data was collected about the number of contacted institutions, the nature of help provided, staff's time investments, and parents' perceptions about the intervention. Local institutions (133 from 206 contacts) conducted home visits (83), and/or provided parents with money (55) or transportation (60). Parents found this support essential for continuing the treatment but they also encountered challenges regarding local institutions' inconsistencies. Nonadherence and abandonment decreased. Economic burden was reduced on both the families and the hospital. Involvement of external institutions might become regular practice to support families of children with cancer.

  2. Small molecules, big players: the National Cancer Institute's Initiative for Chemical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliday, Nicola; Clemons, Paul A; Ferraiolo, Paul; Koehler, Angela N; Lewis, Timothy A; Li, Xiaohua; Schreiber, Stuart L; Gerhard, Daniela S; Eliasof, Scott

    2006-09-15

    In 2002, the National Cancer Institute created the Initiative for Chemical Genetics (ICG), to enable public research using small molecules to accelerate the discovery of cancer-relevant small-molecule probes. The ICG is a public-access research facility consisting of a tightly integrated team of synthetic and analytical chemists, assay developers, high-throughput screening and automation engineers, computational scientists, and software developers. The ICG seeks to facilitate the cross-fertilization of synthetic chemistry and cancer biology by creating a research environment in which new scientific collaborations are possible. To date, the ICG has interacted with 76 biology laboratories from 39 institutions and more than a dozen organic synthetic chemistry laboratories around the country and in Canada. All chemistry and screening data are deposited into the ChemBank web site (http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/) and are available to the entire research community within a year of generation. ChemBank is both a data repository and a data analysis environment, facilitating the exploration of chemical and biological information across many different assays and small molecules. This report outlines how the ICG functions, how researchers can take advantage of its screening, chemistry and informatic capabilities, and provides a brief summary of some of the many important research findings.

  3. Institutional Racism? Roma Children, Local Community and School Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachos, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    This article tries to discuss the conditions Roma pupils face within the Greek educational system. In the first part, through a brief history of Roma groups in Greece followed by a short analysis of their legal status and leaving conditions, I attempt to present a critical approach in Romani Studies. Thereafter, using Institutional Racism as a…

  4. Community College Institutional Effectiveness: Perspectives of Campus Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolits, Gary J.; Graybeal, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses a campus institutional effectiveness (IE) process and its influence on faculty and staff. Although a comprehensive, rational IE process appeals to campus leaders, this study found that it creates significant faculty and staff challenges. Campus leaders, faculty, and staff differ in their (a) knowledge and support of IE; (b)…

  5. Population-based geographic access to parent and satellite National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Wang, Fahui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite facilities of National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer centers have expanded their regional footprints. This study characterized geographic access to parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities nationally overall and by sociodemographics. Parent and satellite NCI cancer center facilities, which were geocoded in ArcGIS, were ascertained. Travel times from every census tract in the continental United States and Hawaii to the nearest parent and satellite facilities were calculated. Census-based population attributes were used to characterize measures of geographic access for sociodemographic groups. From the 62 NCI cancer centers providing clinical care in 2014, 76 unique parent locations and 211 satellite locations were mapped. The overall proportion of the population within 60 minutes of a facility was 22% for parent facilities and 32.7% for satellite facilities. When satellites were included for potential access, the proportion of some racial groups for which a satellite was the closest NCI cancer center facility increased notably (Native Americans, 22.6% with parent facilities and 39.7% with satellite facilities; whites, 34.8% with parent facilities and 50.3% with satellite facilities; and Asians, 40.0% with parent facilities and 54.0% with satellite facilities), with less marked increases for Hispanic and black populations. Rural populations of all categories had dramatically low proportions living within 60 minutes of an NCI cancer center facility of any type (1.0%-6.6%). Approximately 14% of the population (n = 43,033,310) lived more than 180 minutes from a parent or satellite facility, and most of these individuals were Native Americans and/or rural residents (37% of Native Americans and 41.7% of isolated rural residents). Racial/ethnic and rural populations showed markedly improved geographic access to NCI cancer center care when satellite facilities were included. Cancer 2017;123:3305-11. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  6. East African Community Law : Institutional, Substantive and Comparative EU Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ugirashebuja, E.; Ruhangisa, J.E.; Ottervanger, T.R.; Cuyvers, A.

    2017-01-01

    The East African Community (EAC) is a regional intergovernmental and supranational organization currently comprising the Republics of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, the United Republic of Tanzania, and the Republic of Uganda. Established in 2000, the EAC aims at widening and deepening

  7. High Risk Parolees in Transition from Institution to Community Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Harvey L.

    1993-01-01

    Examined parolees released in three central North Carolina counties between July 1 and December 31, 1988. Findings indicated that many parolees wanted change of lifestyle and reported being motivated when released. Community factors (discrimination) and individual factors (finances, low self-esteem, drug use) appeared to hamper successful…

  8. 80 From Traditional Institutions to Community Based Influencers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influencers: The Dynamics of Communicating Development in. Rural Communities ... EJOTMAS: EKPOMA JOURNAL OF THEATRE AND MEDIA ARTS. 81 intervention lie in the ... The emphasis implicitly is on the inclusion of citizens in the process of deciding and turning around the social and material conditions that inhibit ...

  9. 75 FR 678 - Federal Home Loan Bank Membership for Community Development Financial Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... financial support are: (1) Federally regulated insured depository institutions and their holding companies... that provide health care, childcare, educational, cultural, or social services; and (4) community... association, savings and loan association, cooperative bank, homestead association, insurance company, savings...

  10. Prevalence and Predictors of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the National Cancer Database: Importance of Socioeconomic Status and Treating Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: david_sher@rush.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Liptay, Michael J. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Fidler, Mary Jo [Section of Medical Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The optimal locoregional therapy for stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial, with definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery (NT-S) serving as competing strategies. In this study, we used the National Cancer Database to determine the prevalence and predictors of NT in a large, modern cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with CRT or NT-S between 2003 and 2010 at programs accredited by the Commission on Cancer were included. Predictors were categorized as clinical, time/geographic, socioeconomic, and institutional. In accord with the National Cancer Database, institutions were classified as academic/research program and as comprehensive and noncomprehensive community cancer centers. Logistic regression and random effects multilevel logistic regression were performed for univariable and multivariable analyses, respectively. Results: The cohort consisted of 18,581 patients, 3,087 (16.6%) of whom underwent NT-S (10.6% induction CRT, 6% induction chemotherapy). The prevalence of NT-S was constant over time, but there were significant relative 31% and 30% decreases in pneumonectomy and right-sided pneumonectomy, respectively, over time (P trend <.02). In addition to younger age, lower T stage, and favorable comorbidity score, indicators of higher socioeconomic status were strong independent predictors of NT-S, including white race, higher income, and private/managed insurance. The type of institution (academic/research program vs comprehensive or noncomprehensive community cancer centers, odds ratio 1.54 and 2.08, respectively) strongly predicted NT-S, but treatment volume did not. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery was an uncommon treatment approach in Commission on Cancer programs, and the prevalence of postinduction pneumonectomy decreased over time. Higher socioeconomic status and treatment at academic institutions were significant

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the National Cancer Database: Importance of Socioeconomic Status and Treating Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, David J.; Liptay, Michael J.; Fidler, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The optimal locoregional therapy for stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial, with definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery (NT-S) serving as competing strategies. In this study, we used the National Cancer Database to determine the prevalence and predictors of NT in a large, modern cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with CRT or NT-S between 2003 and 2010 at programs accredited by the Commission on Cancer were included. Predictors were categorized as clinical, time/geographic, socioeconomic, and institutional. In accord with the National Cancer Database, institutions were classified as academic/research program and as comprehensive and noncomprehensive community cancer centers. Logistic regression and random effects multilevel logistic regression were performed for univariable and multivariable analyses, respectively. Results: The cohort consisted of 18,581 patients, 3,087 (16.6%) of whom underwent NT-S (10.6% induction CRT, 6% induction chemotherapy). The prevalence of NT-S was constant over time, but there were significant relative 31% and 30% decreases in pneumonectomy and right-sided pneumonectomy, respectively, over time (P trend <.02). In addition to younger age, lower T stage, and favorable comorbidity score, indicators of higher socioeconomic status were strong independent predictors of NT-S, including white race, higher income, and private/managed insurance. The type of institution (academic/research program vs comprehensive or noncomprehensive community cancer centers, odds ratio 1.54 and 2.08, respectively) strongly predicted NT-S, but treatment volume did not. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery was an uncommon treatment approach in Commission on Cancer programs, and the prevalence of postinduction pneumonectomy decreased over time. Higher socioeconomic status and treatment at academic institutions were significant

  12. Addressing cancer disparities via community network mobilization and intersectoral partnerships: a social network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoba Ramanadhan

    Full Text Available Community mobilization and collaboration among diverse partners are vital components of the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities in the United States. We studied the development and impact of intersectoral connections among the members of the Massachusetts Community Network for Cancer Education, Research, and Training (MassCONECT. As one of the Community Network Program sites funded by the National Cancer Institute, this infrastructure-building initiative utilized principles of Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR to unite community coalitions, researchers, policymakers, and other important stakeholders to address cancer disparities in three Massachusetts communities: Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester. We conducted a cross-sectional, sociometric network analysis four years after the network was formed. A total of 38 of 55 members participated in the study (69% response rate. Over four years of collaboration, the number of intersectoral connections reported by members (intersectoral out-degree increased, as did the extent to which such connections were reported reciprocally (intersectoral reciprocity. We assessed relationships between these markers of intersectoral collaboration and three intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities: delivery of community activities, policy engagement, and grants/publications. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral out-degree and community activities and policy engagement (the relationship was borderline significant for grants/publications. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral reciprocity and community activities and grants/publications (the relationship was borderline significant for policy engagement. The study suggests that intersectoral connections may be important drivers of diverse intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities

  13. Time, trust, and transparency: Lessons learned from collecting blood biospecimens for cancer research from the Asian American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Julie H T; Chen, Moon S

    2018-04-01

    Biospecimens from racially diverse groups are needed to advance cancer research. The Asian American Cancer Education Study was developed to increase the number and proportion of blood biospecimen donations from Asian Americans for cancer research. The authors' targeted approach included 2 types of community engagement, in-reach (within institution to Asian American patients with cancer) and outreach (external to institution to the general Asian American community). Participants received in-language biospecimen education followed by the opportunity to donate blood biospecimens. Outreach participants donated through our community biospecimen blood drives, and in-reach participants consented to donating an extra tube of blood during their routine blood draws as a patient. Donated blood biospecimens were spun down to serum and plasma to be stored in a biorepository or were sent to the laboratory to test for cancer-related risk factors. Three hundred eighty-eight Asian Americans donated 1127 blood biospecimens for cancer research. Four hundred twenty tubes of plasma and serum are currently being stored at the cancer center's biorepository, 39 tubes have been used for cancer genomic research, and 668 tubes were used to characterize cancer-related risk factors. Building upon the past decade of the National Cancer Institute-funded Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training's foundation of trust and service among Asian Americans, researchers were able to leverage relationships not only to introduce the idea of biospecimen contribution to the community but to also exceed expectations with regard to the quantity of blood biospecimens collected from Asian Americans. Cancer 2018;124:1614-21. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  14. Community-Based Programming: An Opportunity and Imperative for the Community College. Institutes & Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.

    Community-based programming (CBP) is a cooperative process in which a community college serves as the leader and catalyst in effecting collaboration among the people, leaders and community organizations in its service area. This report discusses the changing role of the community college, the nature of CBP, and expected outcomes of the process,…

  15. Community-based enterprises: The significance of partnerships and institutional linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seixas, Cristiana Simão; Berkes, Fikret

    2010-01-01

    Community-based institutions used to be driven by local needs, but in recent decades, some of them have been responding to national and global economic opportunities. These cases are of interest because they make it possible to investigate how local institutions can evolve in response to new

  16. 78 FR 57400 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Organizational Engagement; and Proposed Organizational Change: Division of Extramural Activities. Place: National....396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399...

  17. 77 FR 70170 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... with the proposed research projects, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398...

  18. 78 FR 41072 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... with the proposed research projects, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted..., Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398...

  19. Game Changers: The Quest to Rethink Institutional Roles and Functions at U.S. Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Bob

    2014-01-01

    When the 10 members of the American Association of Community College's (AACC's) 21st-Century Implementation Team 7 (nine of whom are community college presidents) sat down in 2013 to talk about reforming institutional roles and functions at the nation's two-year career and technical colleges, everyone in the room knew the work before them would be…

  20. Leadership Development Institute: A California Community College Multi-College District Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Bianca R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine a community college district Grow Your Own (GYO) leadership program in the Western United States, the Multi College Leadership Development Institute (MCLDI). The MCLDI was developed in-house for a multi-campus community college district and offered to interested employees at all position levels with the…

  1. Institutional Sustainability Barriers of Community Conservation Agreement as a Collaboration Management in Lore Lindu National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudirman Daeng Massiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of forest institutional arrangement is the issue of institutional sustainability in achieving sustainable forest ecosystem. This study aimed to explain the barriers of institutional sustainability Community Conservation Agreement (CCA designed in Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP, in Indonesia, as a collaborative management of national parks. This study is of descriptive which used qualitative approach, i.e. asking open-ended questions, reviewing documentation and analyzing textual of community conservation agreements. We found that the institutional sustainability barriers of CCA were the local decisions on collective-choice level and that the rules at operational level arranged in CCA were not in line with formal rules of national park management at the constitutional level. Furthermore, the low capacity of local institutions in heterogeneous villages with many migrants in controlling and regulating the forest use, especially in rehabilitation zone areas, also became a barrier to institutional sustainability of CCA. Therefore, institutional sustainability of CCA requires support of national park management policy that accommodates the sustainability of livelihoods of local communities in national parks, strengthening local institution's capacity, and ultimately integrating institution of CCA as part of LLNP management.

  2. Anonymity versus privacy: Selective information sharing in online cancer communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frost, J.H.; Vermeulen, I.E.; Beekers, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient

  3. Disparities in Geographic Accessibility of National Cancer Institute Cancer Centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqing; Fu, Cong; Onega, Tracy; Shi, Xun; Wang, Fahui

    2017-11-11

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Centers form the backbone of the cancer care system in the United States since their inception in the early 1970s. Most studies on their geographic accessibility used primitive measures, and did not examine the disparities across urbanicity or demographic groups. This research uses an advanced accessibility method, termed "2-step floating catchment area (2SFCA)" and implemented in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to capture the degree of geographic access to NCI Cancer Centers by accounting for competition intensity for the services and travel time between residents and the facilities. The results indicate that urban advantage is pronounced as the average accessibility is highest in large central metro areas, declines to large fringe metro, medium metro, small metro, micropolitan and noncore rural areas. Population under the poverty line are disproportionally concentrated in lower accessibility areas. However, on average Non-Hispanic White have the lowest geographic accessibility, followed by Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Black and Asian, and the differences are statistically significant. The "reversed racial disadvantage" in NCI Cancer Center accessibility seems counterintuitive but is consistent with an influential prior study; and it is in contrast to the common observation of co-location of concentration of minority groups and people under the poverty line.

  4. 76 FR 42719 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... with the proposed research projects, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted... and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  5. 76 FR 10381 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... with the proposed research projects, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted... and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397...

  6. Community Engagement for Identifying Cancer Education Needs in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Julio; Ramos, Axel; Ramos-Rivera, Francisco E; Gwede, Clement; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan; Brandon, Thomas; Simmons, Vani; Castro, Eida

    2018-02-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Puerto Rico, suggesting a need for improved strategies, programs, and resources devoted to cancer prevention. Enhanced prevention needs in Puerto Rico were initially identified in pilot studies conducted by the Ponce School of Medicine (PSM) in collaboration with the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC). In the current study, we used community engagement to identify specific needs in cancer prevention and education and strategies to create culturally attuned, effective cancer prevention education programs. A total of 37 participants attended a community forum and were assigned to one of three discussion groups: patients/survivors (n = 14); family/caregivers (n = 11); or healthcare providers (n = 12). Most participants were women (73 %), over 35 years of age, and a majority were married (58 %) and had a university education (81 %). The sessions were recorded and transcribed and analyzed for key themes. Participants wanted improved awareness of cancer prevention in Puerto Rico and believed cancer prevention education should start early, ideally in elementary school. Participants also stressed the importance of creating partnerships with private and government agencies to coordinate educational efforts. Suggested strategies included outreach to communities with limited resources, incorporating the testimony of cancer survivors, and utilizing social media to disseminate cancer prevention information.

  7. Prevalence of bone marrow necrosis in Egyptian cancer patients referring to the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgamal, B.M.; Rashed, R.A.; Raslan, H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow necrosis; Egyptian cancer patients Abstract Background: Bone marrow necrosis is a relatively rare entity which has been associated with a poor prognosis. It is most commonly found in patients with neoplastic disorders and severe infections. Methods: study comprised examination of 5043 bone marrow biopsy specimens performed at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, over 7 years period (March 2004-March 2011). It included 5 years retrospective (2867 archived samples) and 2 years prospective (2176 samples). Results: Bone marrow necrosis was diagnosed in fifteen out of 5043 examined specimens with a percentage of 0.3% and ranged from mild to massive according to semiquantitative estimation. Prognosis of all patients was poor with survival not exceeding 6 months from the date of marrow necrosis diagnosis. Conclusion: In Egyptian patients, bone marrow necrosis in association with malignancy is a rare disorder which is accompanied by a poor outcome

  8. Cancer awareness among community pharmacist: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Kofi Boamah; Oosthuizen, Frasia; Bonsu, Adwoa Bemah

    2018-03-16

    The WHO recognises that community pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare professionals to the general public. Most patients regularly visit community pharmacies for health information and also seek advice from pharmacists with respect to signs and symptoms of cancer. As readily accessible health care professionals, community pharmacists are also in the best position to include cancer-screening initiatives into their practice. Pharmacists are therefore in a good position to raise awareness when they counsel people who buy over-the-counter medication for the control of possible cancer-related symptoms. The aim of this review was to critically appraise evidence gathered from studies that; (1) explore or assess knowledge of community pharmacist on signs and symptoms of cancer, (2) explore or assess knowledge of community pharmacist on cancer screening. EMBASE (ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) and MEDLINE (EBSCOhost) were systematically searched for studies conducted between 2005 to July 2017. Studies that focused on knowledge of community pharmacist in cancer screening, signs and symptoms were included. A total of 1538 articles were identified from the search, of which 4 out of the 28 potentially relevant abstracts were included in the review. Findings of the selected studies revealed lack of sufficient knowledge on breast cancer screening, signs and symptoms. Both studies attributed knowledge limitation as the cause of reason for the key findings of their studies. The selected studies focused largely on breast cancer, which hinder the generalizability and transferability of the findings. Hence there is a need for more studies to be conducted in this area to draw a better conclusion.

  9. Institutions in transitioning peri-urban communities: spatial differences in groundwater access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sharlene L.; Hermans, Leon M.

    2016-05-01

    Urbanization creates challenges for water management in an evolving socio-economic context. This is particularly relevant in transitioning peri-urban areas like Khulna, Bangladesh where competing demands have put pressure on local groundwater resources. Users are unable to sufficiently meet their needs through existing institutions. These institutions provide the rules for service provision and act as guidelines for actors to resolve their water related issues. However, the evolving peri-urban context can produce fragmented institutional arrangements. For example in Khulna, water supply is based on urban and rural boundaries that has created water access issues for peri-urban communities. This has motivated local actors to manage their groundwater needs in various ways. General institutional theories are well developed in literature, yet little is known about institutions in transitioning peri-urban areas. Institutions that fail to adapt to changing dynamics run the risk of becoming obsolete or counter-productive, hence the need for investigating institutional change mechanisms in this context. This paper examines peri-urban case studies from Khulna using the Institutional Analysis and Development framework to demonstrate how institutions have contributed to spatial differences in groundwater access with local actors investing in formal and informal institutional change as a means of accessing groundwater.

  10. High rates of advanced gastric cancer in community of Flushing, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinani, Amreen; Desai, Amit; Kohn, Nina; Gutkin, Ellen; Nussbaum, Michel; Somnay, Kaumudi

    2012-03-01

    Gastric cancer remains a major public health issue and is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 600,000 deaths annually. Over the last decades, there has been a steady decline in the incidence rates of gastric cancer. Furthermore, the incidence rates of gastric cancer in different parts of the country vary due to epidemiological and migration trends. Despite these trends, several studies that have continued to observe high rates of gastric cancer in populations that come from high-risk regions. The aim of the study was to describe the gastric cancer patients presenting NYHQ with an emphasis on those presenting at a young age and advanced disease. A subanalysis of the Asian population was also done, which is considered a high-risk group. Consecutive chart review of patients admitted with gastric cancer from January 2000 to August 2008 was extracted from the Oncology registry at NYHQ. Parameters that were evaluated were age, sex, race, type of gastric cancer, and stage of gastric cancer at initial presentation. The SAS/PC software package (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was employed for statistical analyses. Four hundred fifty-seven patients were diagnosed with gastric cancer. Approximately one third of the total patients were younger than 60 years of age. Of the Asian patients, almost half the patients (48.8%) had advanced disease of which two thirds were under the age of 60 years. The rates of advanced gastric cancer observed at NYHQ are significant and comparable to recent epidemiology literature on rates in Asian populations in Asia. Communities, like Flushing, NY, may benefit from early detection of gastric cancers, similar to those instituted in Japan and Taiwan.

  11. Do Community-based Institutions Build Resilience to Climate Change in Mongolia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gimenez, M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impacts are inherently local, yet relatively little is known about the role of local people and institutions in adapting to climate change. Mongolia has experienced one of the strongest warming trends on Earth over the past 40 years, associated declines in streamflow, and increases in the frequency of extreme winter weather events. Environmental changes are compounded by rapid political, economic and social transformations beginning in 1990. We investigate the complex interactions of social, ecological and climate changes across multiple levels from local to regional to national. We hypothesize that community-based institutions increase resilience by strengthening self-regulating feedbacks between social and ecological systems through development and enforcement of formal management rules, implementation of innovative management practices, strengthening of social networks and information exchange within and across levels of social organization, and enhanced monitoring. These result in better ecological and socio-economic conditions and greater adaptive capacity in areas under formal community-based management compared to adjacent areas without formal community management institutions. Evaluation of this hypothesis involves integrated collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative ecological, social and hydro-climatic data at household, community and regional levels of spatial and social organization. Here, we present preliminary results evaluating these hypotheses from 10 counties (soum) in 3 provinces (aimag) in the Gobi desert-steppe of southern Mongolia based on household-level social data and plot-level ecological data representing. Our initial findings support the hypothesis that community-based institutions are associated with greater household adaptive capacity and healthier pasture ecological conditions, characterized by greater perennial vegetation cover and biomass, especially in the functional group most important for livestock

  12. American Indian Women Cancer Survivor's Needs and Preferences: Community Support for Cancer Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Catherine E; Roh, Soonhee; Liddell, Jessica; Lee, Yeon-Shim

    2018-03-15

    Cancer (the focus of this inquiry) is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native women. The purpose of this study was to identify American Indian women cancer survivors' needs and preferences related to community supports for their cancer experience. This qualitative study examined female American Indian cancer survivors' needs and preferences about community support. The sample included 43 American Indian women cancer survivors (the types of cancer survivors included cervical cancer: n = 14; breast cancer: n = 14; and colon and other types: n = 15) residing in the Northern Plains region, in the state of South Dakota. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and were collected between June of 2014 and February of 2015. When asked about their needs and preferences, 82% of participants (n = 35) of female American Indian cancer survivors reported at least one of the following most commonly reported themes: cancer support groups (n = 31, 72%), infrastructure for community support (n = 17, 40%), and cancer education (n = 11, 26%). In addition to the aforementioned themes, 33% of participants (n = 14) indicated the need for an improved healthcare system, with 11% (n = 5) of participants expressly desiring the integration of spirituality and holistic healing options. The majority of American Indian women cancer survivor participants of this study identified a need for more community-based support systems and infrastructures to aid with the cancer survivor experience. Results warrant a community approach to raise awareness, education, and support for American Indian cancer survivors.

  13. 75 FR 79010 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Leukemia, and Myeloma. Date: February 2-3, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...; 93.393, Cancer Cause and Prevention Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395...

  14. 77 FR 36564 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Prevention Method: State of the, Science and Evidence. Place: Hilton San Francisco Financial District, 750... applicable, the business or professional affiliation of the interested person. Information is also available... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396...

  15. 77 FR 64526 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the disclosure of... Cancer Advisory Board, Ad hoc Subcommittee on Communications. Open: November 28, 2012, 6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Agenda: Discussion on Cancer Information and Communications. Place: Hyatt Regency Bethesda, One...

  16. Environmental entitlements: Dynamics and institutions in community-based natural resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, M.; Mearns, R.; Scoones, I.

    1999-01-01

    Metadata only record While community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) now attracts widespread international attention, its practical implementation frequently falls short of expectations. This paper contributes to emerging critiques by focusing on the implications of intracommunity dynamics and ecological heterogeneity. It builds a conceptual framework highlighting the central role of institutions - regularized patterns of behavior between individuals and groups in society - in me...

  17. Community leaders can improve problem-solving skills at Virginia Tech Institute Feb. 10-12

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    Development of better community problem-solving skills is the goal of the LeadershipPlenty¨ Institute to be hosted by Virginia Tech's Center for Organizational and Technological Advancement Feb. 10-12, 2008, at The Hotel Roanoke and Conference Center in Roanoke, Va.

  18. Performance Accountability and the Community College: Using Institutional Performance to Determine Faculty Salaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas A.; Tran, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Performance accountability systems are increasingly utilized by state legislatures to hold community colleges more accountable for student outcomes and responsible spending through the linking of state funding to specific outputs. Through these actions, it is reasonable expect an emphasis on institutional performance to permeate into a community…

  19. The Community College President: Working with and through the Media to Advance the Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carringer, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how community college presidents successfully work with and through the media to advance their institutions. Four successful cases were studied. These success stories came from the list of Paragon Award winners selected annually by the National Council of Marketing and Public Relations (NCMPR) and be cross…

  20. Cybersecurity Education in Community Colleges across America: A Survey of Four Approaches by Five Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert D.; Hawthorne, Elizabeth K.

    This document describes four distinct approaches to education in the area of cybersecurity currently taught at community colleges across America. The four broad categories of instruction are: (1) degree program--four semesters of study leading to an associate's degree; (2) certificate program--two semesters leading to an institution-conferred…

  1. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  2. Transformative Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Realizing Equity Praxis through Community Connections and Local Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marisol; Valverde, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Schools serve as antidemocratic spaces where teacher, parent, community member, and student voices are typically disregarded. Instead, philanthropists and businesses are allowed to drive school and district agendas. An exploration of 3 local efforts that connect a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) with prekindergarten to Grade 12 students and…

  3. Kids, Cops, and Communities. National Institute of Justice Issues and Practices in Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiken, Marcia R.

    This report is designed to help law enforcement administrators and officers understand and institute a strategy to help prevent violence through community oriented policing services carried out in collaboration with youth-serving organizations. Descriptions of programs are based on a study that involved a survey of 579 affiliates of 7 national…

  4. Preservice Teacher Institute: Developing a Model Learning Community for Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Andrea M.; Simpson, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The Preservice Teacher Institute (PTI) is a budding learning community designed to provide mentoring and support for senior elementary education undergraduate candidates. This program is an effective paradigm for mentoring and inducting new teachers into the profession. PTI is a two-semester program. The first semester is restricted to candidates…

  5. Evaluation of the Radiography Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute--Summer, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipes, V. David

    As part of a periodic evaluation of the occupational programs at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute (CCC&TI), a study of the radiography program was conducted to collect information to facilitate planning, aid in program improvement, and meet accountability demands. The specific objectives of the program evaluation were to…

  6. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, is Chair and Associate Professor in the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Dr. McNeill's research is on the elimination of cancer-related health disparities in minority populations. Her research has particular emphasis on understanding the influence of social contextual determinants of cancer in minorities, with a special focus of the role of physical activity as a key preventive behavior and obesity as a major cancer determinant. Her research takes place in minority and underserved communities such as public housing developments, black churches, community-based clinics and low-income neighborhoods-communities with excess cancer death rates. She has been continuously funded, receiving grants from various funding agencies (i.e., National Institutes of Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, etc.), to better understand and design innovative solutions to address obesity in racial/ethnic minority communities. Dr. McNeill is PI of several community-based studies, primarily working with African American churches. One is a called Project CHURCH, an academic-faith-based partnership established to: 1) identify underlying reasons for health disparities in cancer and cancer risk factors (e.g., screening, diet) among AAs using a cohort study (N=2400), 2) engage AAs as partners in the research process, and 3) to ultimately eliminate disparities among AAs. In 2014 Dr. McNeill furthered her partnership through the Faith, Health, and Family (FHF) Collaborative. The goals of FHF are to enhance the Project CHURCH partnership to address family obesity in African Americans, strengthen the partnership by developing a larger coalition of organizations and stakeholders to address the problem, assess church and community interest in family obesity and develop an agenda to address obesity in faith settings. To date we have 50 churches as members. Dr. McNeill is also director of the Center for Community

  7. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration: A pooling project of studies participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Wright, Lauren B.; McGowan, Craig; Brook, Mark N.; McClain, Kathleen M.; Jones, Michael E.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Agnoli, Claudia; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Blot, William J.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Butler, Lesley; Chen, Yu; Doody, Michele M.; Dossus, Laure; Eliassen, A. Heather; Giles, Graham G.; Gram, Inger T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoffman-Bolton, Judy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Kirsh, Victoria A.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Larsson, Susanna C.; Lund, Eiliv; Ma, Huiyan; Merritt, Melissa A.; Milne, Roger L.; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Ozasa, Kotaro; Palmer, Julie R.; Peeters, Petra H.; Riboli, Elio; Rohan, Thomas E.; Sadakane, Atsuko; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vatten, Lars; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Willett, Walter C.; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Sandler, Dale P.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This paper describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. PMID:28600297

  8. Utility of functional status for classifying community versus institutional discharges after inpatient rehabilitation for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistetter, Timothy A; Graham, James E; Deutsch, Anne; Granger, Carl V; Markello, Samuel; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the ability of patient functional status to differentiate between community and institutional discharges after rehabilitation for stroke. Retrospective cross-sectional design. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities contributing to the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation. Patients (N=157,066) receiving inpatient rehabilitation for stroke from 2006 and 2007. Not applicable. Discharge FIM rating and discharge setting (community vs institutional). Approximately 71% of the sample was discharged to the community. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that FIM total performed as well as or better than FIM motor and FIM cognition subscales in differentiating discharge settings. Area under the curve for FIM total was .85, indicating very good ability to identify persons discharged to the community. A FIM total rating of 78 was identified as the optimal cut point for distinguishing between positive (community) and negative (institution) tests. This cut point yielded balanced sensitivity and specificity (both=.77). Discharge planning is complex, involving many factors. Identifying a functional threshold for classifying discharge settings can provide important information to assist in this process. Additional research is needed to determine if the risks and benefits of classification errors justify shifting the cut point to weight either sensitivity or specificity of FIM ratings. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 5032 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Initiatives; RFA and RFP Concept Reviews; and Scientific Presentations. Place: National Institutes of Health... Group(s); and Budget Presentations; Reports of Special Initiatives; RFA and RFP Concept Reviews; and Scientific Presentations. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive, 6th Floor, Conf...

  10. Community and Institutional Adaptation to Riverbank Erosion along the Jamuna River, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, F. M. M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper examines adaptation to the river erosion hazard in Bangladesh through its most exacting river, the braided Jamuna. The Jamuna River has destroyed and continues to threaten significant areas of settlements, farmed land and infrastructure. Local communities experience a social disintegration and pauperisation which lasts for generations. Although advanced for several decades, the public engineering effort to mitigate the erosion is piecemeal and has had limited success to date. The research takes an interdisciplinary approach to the hazard, in both content and method. Using Remote Sensing data to distinguish regions of dormant, explosive, minimal and constant erosion, the physical morphology of the river is linked to the community adaptation through the creation of PPGIS mapping depicting historical institutional displacement. This spatial information is linked to the qualitative investigation focusing on the expression of values in adaptation by examining social structures and investigating technological development. Drawing on Bourdieu's ideas of fields, capital and habitus, interview data is gathered from: displacees; local elites; the engineering-science community; and the political-administrative structure. The analysis is conducted along four themes; the spatial history of community displacement; social values; institutional operation; and learning in practice. Findings show the marked persistence of displaced local institutions. Dormant erosion zones host the most displaced institutions, acting as refuges once the risk is lowered through engineering or serendipity. The non-material values deeply impacted by the hazard underpin the strong local aspiration for engineering intervention. However, political discontinuity, associated institutional instability and spatial biasing of construction hinders the success of erosion mitigation and the development of appropriate national technological expertise. The small national economic resource base

  11. American Cancer Society: the world's wealthiest "nonprofit" institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S S

    1999-01-01

    The American Cancer Society is fixated on damage control--diagnosis and treatment--and basic molecular biology, with indifference or even hostility to cancer prevention. This myopic mindset is compounded by interlocking conflicts of interest with the cancer drug, mammography, and other industries. The "nonprofit" status of the Society is in sharp conflict with its high overhead and expenses, excessive reserves of assets and contributions to political parties. All attempts to reform the Society over the past two decades have failed; a national economic boycott of the Society is long overdue.

  12. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that

  13. Community strategies to address cancer disparities in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Fields, Nell

    2012-01-01

    Central Appalachian residents suffer disproportionate health disparities, including an all-cancer mortality rate 17% higher than the general population. During 10 focus groups and 19 key informant interviews, 91 Appalachian residents identified cancer screening challenges and strategies. Challenges included (1) inadequate awareness of screening need, (2) insufficient access to screening, and (3) lack of privacy. Strategies included (1) witnessing/storytelling, (2) capitalizing on family history, (3) improving publicity about screening resources, (4) relying on lay health advisors, and (5) bundling preventive services. These insights shaped our community-based participatory research intervention and offered strategies to others working in Appalachia, rural locales, and other traditionally underserved communities.

  14. School Programs To Prevent Smoking: The National Cancer Institute Guide to Strategies That Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    This guide to school-based smoking prevention programs for educators is the product of five years of work to prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently funding 23 coordinated intervention trials directed at youth. Although not all the studies are complete, sufficient results are available to recommend the most effective…

  15. 78 FR 2678 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request (60-Day FRN): The National Cancer Institute (NCI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Request (60-Day FRN): The National Cancer Institute (NCI) SmokefreeTXT (Text Message) Program Evaluation..., Behavioral Scientist/ Health Science Administrator, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, 6130... text message smoking cessation intervention designed for young adult smokers ages 18-29. The Smokefree...

  16. Development of community plans to enhance survivorship from colorectal cancer: community-based participatory research in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerich, Eugene J; Kluhsman, Brenda C; Bencivenga, Marcyann; Allen, Regina; Miele, Mary Beth; Farace, Elana

    2007-09-01

    In 2002, 10.4% of the 10 million persons alive who have ever been diagnosed with cancer had colorectal cancer (CRC). Barriers, such as distance, terrain, access to care and cultural differences, to CRC survivorship may be especially relevant in rural communities. We tested the hypothesis that teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals would develop a Community Plan (CP) to enhance CRC survivorship. We used community-based participatory research and the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to train teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals in Pennsylvania and New York. We measured knowledge at three points in time and tested the change with McNemar's test, corrected for multiple comparisons (p < 0.0167). We also conducted a qualitative review of the CP contents. Fourteen (93.3%) of the 15 coalitions or hospitals initially recruited to the study completed a CP. Knowledge in public health, sponsorship of A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship, and CRC survivorship and treatment increased. Teams identified perceived barriers and community assets. All teams planned to increase awareness of community assets and almost all planned to enhance treatment-related care and psychosocial care for the CRC survivor; 50% planned to enhance primary care and CRC screening. The study demonstrated the interest and ability of rural organizations to plan to enhance CRC survivorship, including linkage of CRC survivorship to primary care. Rural cancer coalitions and hospitals may be a vehicle to develop local action for A National Action Plan. Access to more comprehensive care for CRC cancer survivors in rural communities appears to be facilitated by the community-based initiative described and investigated in this study. Efforts such as these could be replicated in other rural communities and may impact the care and quality of life of survivors with many types of cancers. While access to health services may be increased through community-based initiatives, we still need to measure

  17. Anonymity versus privacy: Selective information sharing in online cancer communities

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, J.H.; Vermeulen, I.E.; Beekers, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients ap...

  18. 77 FR 31627 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... 20892, (301) 496-7628, [email protected] . In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport...

  19. 77 FR 31628 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before being allowed on campus...

  20. 78 FR 53463 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before...

  1. 78 FR 313 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... affiliation of the interested person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be...

  2. 77 FR 64817 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... affiliation of the interested person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be...

  3. 77 FR 31030 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before...

  4. 78 FR 10622 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ..., Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-7628, [email protected] . In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport...

  5. 77 FR 1703 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... professional affiliation of the interested person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport...

  6. 76 FR 62079 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    [email protected] . In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected...

  7. 77 FR 58851 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... of the interested person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be...

  8. 76 FR 26310 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Group(s); and Budget Presentations. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive... entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be...

  9. Building resilience to food insecurity in rural communities: Evidence from traditional institutions in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mavhura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many rural communities that depend on smallholder farming face food insecurity induced by climate-related disasters. In response, some communities are taking the initiative to cope and adapt to climate-related disasters. Using case study material from the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe, this article examines how traditional institutions are enhancing resilience to food insecurity in rural areas. The data were collected through interviews and focus groups involving traditional leaders, ward councillors, village civil protection members and villagers selected in the valley. The findings point to how the Zunde raMambo informal safety net, nhimbe form of collective work and the practice of share-rearing arrangement to access draught power help save lives and alleviate food insecurity induced by flood or drought disasters. The study concludes that the three schemes are evidence of community reorganisation or change in response to food insecurity. They are a form of absorptive capacities enabling the community to cope with food insecurity.

  10. Prostate Cancer Disparities in an Incarcerated Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    diseases, Liver diseases, Cerebrovascular accident , non-Illnesses, and finally AIDS. 30% of inmates incarcerated in the WDOC die from Cancer while it is...are higher among WDOC inmates than the general U.S. population; while Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA) are lower among WDOC inmates than the general

  11. Talking about cancer with confidence: evaluation of cancer awareness training for community-based health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, Chloe; Macherianakis, Alexis; Rendell, Helen; George, Helen; Kaplan, Gwen; Kilgour, Gillian; Power, Emily

    2014-09-01

    To examine the impact of cancer awareness training for community-based health workers on confidence to talk about cancer, and knowledge of cancer risk factors and signs and symptoms. Community-based health workers from Sandwell, Birmingham and Solihull were invited to take part in one of 14 one-day training workshops. Trainees completed questionnaires at the beginning of the workshop and were followed up one month later. Confidence in talking about cancer was examined. Knowledge of cancer risk factors and signs and symptoms was assessed. Trainees were asked to rate the usefulness of the workshop, whether they would recommend it to others and whether they had put what they had learnt into practice. A total of 187 community-based health workers took part in the workshops, and 167 (89%) completed the one-month follow-up. Considerable improvements were observed in confidence to discuss cancer. For example, the proportion of participants reporting feeling 'very confident'/'fairly confident' in discussing signs and symptoms of cancer increased from 32% to 96% (p cancer at one month compared with 21% before training (p cancer signs and symptoms also increased from 2.3 (± 1.6) to 2.7 (± 1.5), (p = .02). Most trainees (83%) rated the workshop as 'very useful', and 89% said they would 'definitely' recommend the workshop. The cancer awareness training was reviewed positively by community-based health workers and led to improvements in confidence to talk about cancer, and knowledge of risk factors and warning signs of cancer. It is hoped that raising awareness among this group will help them to communicate and drive behaviour change in the at-risk populations with whom they work. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  12. Attributions of cancer 'alarm' symptoms in a community sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina L Whitaker

    Full Text Available Attribution of early cancer symptoms to a non-serious cause may lead to longer diagnostic intervals. We investigated attributions of potential cancer 'alarm' and non-alarm symptoms experienced in everyday life in a community sample of adults, without mention of a cancer context.A questionnaire was mailed to 4858 adults (≥50 years old, no cancer diagnosis through primary care, asking about symptom experiences in the past 3 months. The word cancer was not mentioned. Target 'alarm' symptoms, publicised by Cancer Research UK, were embedded in a longer symptom list. For each symptom experienced, respondents were asked for their attribution ('what do you think caused it', concern about seriousness ('not at all' to 'extremely', and help-seeking ('did you contact a doctor about it': Yes/No.The response rate was 35% (n = 1724. Over half the respondents (915/1724; 53% had experienced an 'alarm' symptom, and 20 (2% cited cancer as a possible cause. Cancer attributions were highest for 'unexplained lump'; 7% (6/87. Cancer attributions were lowest for 'unexplained weight loss' (0/47. A higher proportion (375/1638; 23% were concerned their symptom might be 'serious', ranging from 12% (13/112 for change in a mole to 41% (100/247 for unexplained pain. Just over half had contacted their doctor about their symptom (59%, although this varied by symptom. Alarm symptoms were appraised as more serious than non-alarm symptoms, and were more likely to trigger help-seeking.Consistent with retrospective reports from cancer patients, 'alarm' symptoms experienced in daily life were rarely attributed to cancer. These results have implications for understanding how people appraise and act on symptoms that could be early warning signs of cancer.

  13. Associations between successful palliative cancer pathways and community nurse involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most terminally ill cancer patients and their relatives wish that the patient dies at home. Community nurses (CNs) are often frontline workers in the patients' homes and CN involvement may be important in attaining successful palliative pathways at home.The aim of the present...

  14. 78 FR 66034 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance and the competence of individual investigators... Cancer Advisory Board; Ad hoc Subcommittee on Communications. Open: December 9, 2013, 7:45 p.m. to 9:15 p.m. Agenda: Discussion on Communications. Place: Hyatt Regency Bethesda, One Bethesda Metro Center...

  15. 76 FR 69744 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... and Therapeutic Agents Enabled by Nanotechnology. Date: November 29, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference... Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer...

  16. Perceived Risk of Developing Cancer in a Suburban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasi, Hafizah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Azhar Shah, Shamsul

    2018-02-26

    Objective: To determine the perceived risk of developing cancer in a suburban community in Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study using a simple random sampling was conducted among residents aged 18 years old and above (n=520) who had never been diagnosed with cancer, in selected households in a suburban area of Pahang state in Malaysia. The study instruments were a validated questionnaire on risk perception, an automatic blood pressure monitor, a weighing scale and a measuring tape. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0 and the p value was taken at p history of cancer (adjusted OR of 4.80; 95% CI = 1.45-15.82) (p=0.010) among this population. Conclusion: The perceived risk of developing cancer in the selected suburban community of Pahang state in Malaysia is low as compared to that for other non-communicable diseases in this country, whilst the perceived severity was higher than for other diseases. Thus, considering the importance of correct perceptions for behavioral changes, more health education and promotion is needed to make the community better aware of the actual threat of cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. 77 FR 24969 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Emphasis Panel; SBIR Topic 255 Development of Anticancer Agents Meeting I. Date: May 14, 2012. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health... Panel; SBIR Topic 255 Development of Anticancer Agents Meeting II. Date: May 15, 2012. Time: 12 p.m. to...

  18. 78 FR 58322 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, November 06, 2013, 06:30 p.m. to November 07, 2013, 04:00 p.m., Hilton... August 16, 2013, 78 FR 50065. The meeting notice is amended to change the location from the Hilton...

  19. 77 FR 28613 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Nanotechnology. Date: July 11-12, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant.... to 3:30 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health... Call). Contact Person: Adriana Stoica, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Special Review and Logistics...

  20. Institutional Learning and Knowledge Transfer Across Epistemic Communities New Tools of Global Governance

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias G; Popescu, Denisa

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades, as the pace of globalization has accelerated, operational issues of international coordination have often been overlooked.  For example, the global financial crisis that began in 2007 is attributed, in part, to a lack of regulatory oversight.  As a result, supranational organizations, such as the G-20, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, have prioritized strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions. Prevailing characteristics of the global economic systems, such as the increasing power of financial institutions, changes in the structure of global production, decline in the authority of nation-states over their national economy, and  creation of global institutional setting, e.g., global governance have created the conditions for a naturally evolving process towards enabling national epistemic communities to create in...

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine use: Influence of Patients’ Satisfaction with Medical Treatment among Breast Cancer Patients at Uganda Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Kiwanuka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is high among cancer patients especially breast cancer patients. This study sought to evaluate Complementary and alternative medicine use in breast cancer patients and how its use is influencedby patient’s satisfaction with conventional medical treatment among breast cancer patients attending Uganda Cancer Institute. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used in this study. Participants who were diagnosed histologically with breast cancer at Uganda Cancer Institute took part in the study. A questionnaire was developed and used to interview the participants and medical records of the respondents were also reviewed. Results: A total of 235 participants completed the study. The prevalence of CAM use was 77%. CAM therapies used included herbal medicines, prayer for health, vitamins/minerals, native healers, Chinese medicines, massage, yoga, Ayurvedic medicine, Acupuncture, reflexolog, Support group attendance, meditation, Magnetic and Bio-fieldmanipulation. Satisfaction with medical treatment was significantlyassociated with CAM use. Patients who are not satisfiedwith medical treatment were more likely to use CAM. Conclusion: There is a high number of breast cancer patients using CAM, various categories of therapies are being used and patients’ satisfaction with medical treatment triggers off a patients decision to use CAM therapies.

  2. Assessing the Measures of and Defining Community College Institutional Effectiveness: A President's Perspective Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Juliet Adair

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study included two main goals. The first was to provide a common definition for community college institutional effectiveness through a review of the literature and from the personal definitions of a panel of community colleges presidents leading notably effective community colleges. The second purpose was to review the…

  3. Implementing academic detailing for breast cancer screening in underserved communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford Alfred R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American and Hispanic women, such as those living in the northern Manhattan and the South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City, are generally underserved with regard to breast cancer prevention and screening practices, even though they are more likely to die of breast cancer than are other women. Primary care physicians (PCPs are critical for the recommendation of breast cancer screening to their patients. Academic detailing is a promising strategy for improving PCP performance in recommending breast cancer screening, yet little is known about the effects of academic detailing on breast cancer screening among physicians who practice in medically underserved areas. We assessed the effectiveness of an enhanced, multi-component academic detailing intervention in increasing recommendations for breast cancer screening within a sample of community-based urban physicians. Methods Two medically underserved communities were matched and randomized to intervention and control arms. Ninety-four primary care community (i.e., not hospital based physicians in northern Manhattan were compared to 74 physicians in the South Bronx neighborhoods of the New York City metropolitan area. Intervention participants received enhanced physician-directed academic detailing, using the American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer. Control group physicians received no intervention. We conducted interviews to measure primary care physicians' self-reported recommendation of mammography and Clinical Breast Examination (CBE, and whether PCPs taught women how to perform breast self examination (BSE. Results Using multivariate analyses, we found a statistically significant intervention effect on the recommendation of CBE to women patients age 40 and over; mammography and breast self examination reports increased across both arms from baseline to follow-up, according to physician self-report. At post-test, physician

  4. Retrospective study on risk habits among oral cancer patients in Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, D S; Prasad, K V V; Shavi, Girish R; Ariga, Jitendra; Rajesh, G; Krishna, Madhusudan

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective studies on oral cancer patient profiles related to risk habits could provide etiologic clues for prevention in specific geographic areas. To study risk habit characteristics of oral cancer patients. A cross sectional retrospective case record study of oral cancer patients who reported during 1991-2000 to Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India was conducted. Data on socio-demography, histopathology, site of cancer and risk habit profiles of the patients were recorded in a predesigned Performa by one calibrated examiner with internal validity checks. The 1,472 oral cancer patients constituted 11% of total cancer patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years, ranging from 12-88, with a male: female ratio of 2:1. 1,110 (75%) oral cancer patients had risk habits, 55% were habituated for >10 years and 25% were habit free. 751(51%) patients had individual and 359(24%) had combined risk habits. Majority 59% were chewers of betel quid alone (17%)/betel quid with tobacco (42%); smokers were (31%) and alcohol users were (14%) of patients. Chewers of gutkha, khaini were more in 40 years. Risk habituates were highest (87%) in patients with cancer of buccal mucosa, commonly affected site attributed to chewing habit in (51%) of patients. The prevalence of oral cancer was higher among elderly males predominantly with risk habits of betel quid/tobacco chewing and smoking for more than 10 years.

  5. The impact of the government health funding on prescribing behaviors in community health institutions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Lu, Zuxun; Gan, Yong; Dong, Xiaoxin; Li, Yongbin; Wang, Yunxia; Li, Liqing

    2017-11-01

    Government health funding (GHF) is a cosmopolitan problem. It is especially conspicuous in China, where drug sales become a main source of medical institutions' incomes due to limited GHF. This is well known as China's "drug maintain medical institutions (DMMIs)" system which results directly in very high use of antibiotics, injections, and corticosteroids. However, few statistical data existed in China on the association between the GHF and the prevalence of inappropriate drug prescribing, despite widespread acknowledgment of its existence.A multistage sampling strategy was employed to select 442,100 prescriptions written between 2007 and 2011 by urban community health (CH) institutions and check the GHF in 36 key cities (districts) across China. This study examined the association between the GHF and the prevalence of inappropriate drug prescribing, which differs somewhat from previous studies.The data suggested that from 2007 to 2011, with the increase of GHF, prescribing behaviors (PB) gradually improved on the whole although doctors still prescribed a few more drugs than the recommendations from World Health Organization (WHO). This study found that there is significant negative association between GHF and main indicators of PB (correlation coefficients more than 0.5).The findings implied that government should further perfect the compensation mechanism to medical institutions for gradually weakening the compensation function of drug sales in medical institutions.

  6. A new financial budgetary system for community health services institutions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chuanmei; Yao, Lan; Fu, Jiakang; Wang, Fang; Wang, Hongqing; Dai, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The separation of revenue and expenditure budgets (SREB) is a new financial budgetary system that is being implemented in community health services (CHS) institutions in some areas in China. Through literature review, it was found that, derived from the traditional separation of revenue and expenditure budgets (TSREB) implemented in administrative public services units, SREB and TSREB have something in common and yet many more differences. On the basis of some quantitative and qualitative data that were collected by field survey, it was also found that implementation of SREB in CHS institutions brings positive outcomes in terms of the quantity, quality and efficiency of services; residents' satisfaction; and the behavior of CHS institutions. The conclusion can be suggested that SREB, as a system having impact upon the incentives facing CHS institutions and the nature of governmental responsibility for developing CHS in China, will promote CHS institutions to fulfill basic service functions if implemented well. Therefore, it is a system that is worth further development and evaluation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced renal cell cancer: the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rafael Corrêa; Reinert, Tomás; Campos, Franz; Peixoto, Fábio Affonso; de Andrade, Carlos Augusto; Castro, Thalita; Herchenhorn, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sunitinib treatment in a non-screened group of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) treated by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) at a single reference institution. Retrospective cohort study, which evaluated patients with mRCC who received sunitinib between May 2010 and December 2013. Fifty-eight patients were eligible. Most patients were male 41 (71%), with a median age of 58 years. Nephrectomy was performed in 41 (71%) patients with a median interval of 16 months between the surgery and initiation of sunitinib. The most prevalent histological subtype was clear cell carcinoma, present in 52 (91.2%) patients. In 50 patients (86%), sunitinib was the first line of systemic treatment. The main adverse effects were fatigue (57%), hypothyroidism (43%), mucositis (33%) and diarrhea (29%). Grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were infrequent: fatigue (12%), hypertension (12%), thrombocytopenia (7%), neutropenia (5%) and hand-foot syndrome (5%). Forty percent of patients achieved a partial response and 35% stable disease, with a disease control rate of 75%. Median progression free survival was 7.6 months and median overall survival was 14.1 months. Sunitinib treatment was active in the majority of patients, especially those with low and intermediate risk by MSKCC score, with manageable toxicity. Survival rates were inferior in this non-screened population with mRCC treated in the SUS. Copyright© by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  8. Sunitinib treatment in patients with advanced renal cell cancer: the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Corrêa Coelho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sunitinib treatment in a non-screened group of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC treated by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS at a single reference institution. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study, which evaluated patients with mRCC who received sunitinib between May 2010 and December 2013. Results: Fifty-eight patients were eligible. Most patients were male 41 (71%, with a median age of 58 years. Nephrectomy was performed in 41 (71% patients with a median interval of 16 months between the surgery and initiation of sunitinib. The most prevalent histological subtype was clear cell carcinoma, present in 52 (91.2% patients. In 50 patients (86%, sunitinib was the first line of systemic treatment. The main adverse effects were fatigue (57%, hypothyroidism (43%, mucositis (33% and diarrhea (29%. Grade 3 and 4 adverse effects were infrequent: fatigue (12%, hypertension (12%, thrombocytopenia (7%, neutropenia (5% and hand-foot syndrome (5%. Forty percent of patients achieved a partial response and 35% stable disease, with a disease control rate of 75%. Median progression free survival was 7.6 months and median overall survival was 14.1 months. Conclusion: Sunitinib treatment was active in the majority of patients, especially those with low and intermediate risk by MSKCC score, with manageable toxicity. Survival rates were inferior in this non-screened population with mRCC treated in the SUS.

  9. Analysis of Content Shared in Online Cancer Communities: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eenbergen, Mies C; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Krahmer, Emiel; Verberne, Suzan; Mols, Floortje

    2018-04-03

    The content that cancer patients and their relatives (ie, posters) share in online cancer communities has been researched in various ways. In the past decade, researchers have used automated analysis methods in addition to manual coding methods. Patients, providers, researchers, and health care professionals can learn from experienced patients, provided that their experience is findable. The aim of this study was to systematically review all relevant literature that analyzes user-generated content shared within online cancer communities. We reviewed the quality of available research and the kind of content that posters share with each other on the internet. A computerized literature search was performed via PubMed (MEDLINE), PsycINFO (5 and 4 stars), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ScienceDirect. The last search was conducted in July 2017. Papers were selected if they included the following terms: (cancer patient) and (support group or health communities) and (online or internet). We selected 27 papers and then subjected them to a 14-item quality checklist independently scored by 2 investigators. The methodological quality of the selected studies varied: 16 were of high quality and 11 were of adequate quality. Of those 27 studies, 15 were manually coded, 7 automated, and 5 used a combination of methods. The best results can be seen in the papers that combined both analytical methods. The number of analyzed posts ranged from 200 to 1,500,000; the number of analyzed posters ranged from 75 to 90,000. The studies analyzing large numbers of posts mainly related to breast cancer, whereas those analyzing small numbers were related to other types of cancers. A total of 12 studies involved some or entirely automatic analysis of the user-generated content. All the authors referred to two main content categories: informational support and emotional support. In all, 15 studies reported only on the content, 6 studies explicitly reported on content and social

  10. The Inculcation of Loving Reading Quran Values at the Reading Quran Institution, Home, and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdanengsih Wirdanengsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was intended to describe the value of loving reading Al-Quran that was implemented by three education centers; Reading Quran Insitution Awaliyah, Family and Community Education for children between 9-12 years old in Nagari Balai Gurah. Also, this research was to discover how is the implementation of loving reading Al-Quran values and who are involved in it.  The result indicated that the implementation of the values of loving reading Al-Quran basically used surveillance approaches and guidance from the tutors, parents, and community in Reading Al-Quran. The socialization pattern that was used in implementing the value of love reading Al-Quran at Reading Quran Institution and family tended to use flexible patterns between authoritative and permissive patterns. Parties who involved in implementing the value of loving reading Al-Quran were the Awaliyah Institution, teacher and management, and family consisting of fathers, mothers, siblings, and grandparents. The uniqueness came from the roles of cultural social values in the community stating children who did not learn and love Al-Quran will be an embarrassment to the family. Moreover, the ceremony of Khatam Quran became the strong factor for children in implementing loving reading Al-Quran, due to this ceremony there was a process of social acknowledgement to the children who love reading Al-Quran.

  11. Institutional and Community Perceptions of Distance Education in Bangladesh: Preparing for The 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md AKTARUZZAMAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh Open University (BOU, the sole distributor of distance education (DE in Bangladesh, is regarded as one of the mega universities in the world. Nonetheless, the institution faces numerous issues and challenges that revolve around not only its administrative and academic operations, but also the lack of acknowledgement of its sociological value and concomitant recognition within the local community. This study examines the perceived challenges facing DE provision in Bangladesh from the point of view of the local Bangladeshi community as well as senior academics and administrators within the institution. Qualitative case study formed the methodological basis of the study. Using purposeful non-random sampling supplemented with snowballing technique, five senior academics and directors from BOU were selected for individual semi-structured interviews. Four focus groups were also formed using stratified purposeful sampling to determine the perception of the community towards DE. The paper introduces an innovative theoretical model, ‘Adapting Structuration Theory In Distance Education (ASTIDE’, conceptualised as part of a broader study, to address the underlying issues and challenges relating to the future provision of DE in Bangladesh.

  12. Economic institutions and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the Economic Community of West African States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Z. Wanjuu

    2017-12-01

    Background: Economic institutions are considered as the fundamental cause of economic growth. Economic institutions affect economic growth through allocation of resources like physical and human capital. Unfortunately, there is dearth of empirical studies showing the impact of economic institutions on growth of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Aim: This study investigates the impact of economic institutions on economic growth of the ECOWAS. Setting and method: The study applied cause and effect relationship. The study used econometric research techniques of unit root and co-integration tests to establish the time series properties of the data; the vector error correction and co-integration regression models to estimate the population parameters. The research data comprised data obtained from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, the Transparency International (TI and Heritage Foundation databases. The variables employed were the real gross domestic product (GDP per capita (RGDPPC, corruption perception index (CPI, property rights protection (PROPRGT, private investment per capita (INVESPC, government expenditure per capita (GOEXPPC and trade openness (TRAOPN. Results: The results of the data analysed showed that economic institutions represented by the property rights index engender RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The CPI could not stimulate RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The results also show that all the other variables stimulated growth except trade openness. Conclusion: The study concludes that good economic institutions, private investments, and government intervention by providing security, economic and social infrastructural facilities are conducive for economic growth in the ECOWAS region. The study recommended that more efforts be made at curbing corruption in the region

  13. Outcome and treatment strategy in female lung cancer: a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Smailyte, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the survival rate of female lung cancer treated at the Institute of Oncology of the Vilnius University, Lithuania during the period between 1996-2005. Materials and Methods: During the period between 1996-2005, 471 women diagnosed with lung cancer were treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology of the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. Data on morphology, stage and treatment was collected from the medical records. All lung cancer cases by histology were classified in two groups: non-small cell lung cancer (includes squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and other less common types) and small cell lung cancer. The vital status of the study group was assessed as of December 31, 2007, by passive follow-up, using data from the population registry. It was found that 411 (87.3%) of the patients had died. Survival was estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median survival of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show to be 8.7 months (8.4 (95% CI 7.2-10.8) months with non-small cell lung cancer and 9.3 (95% CI 6.3-13.0) months with small-cell lung cancer). Survival was more than 20 months in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (stages I, II, IIIA). Non-small cell lung cancer survival in advanced stages was less than 7 months. Small-cell lung cancer patients median survival at limited and extended stages of the disease were 9.5 (95% CI 2.9-18.4) compared to 9.2 (95% CI 6.2-13.7) months. Non-small cell lung cancer patients most frequently were treated by surgery (27.0%), surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy (19.6%). Small cell lung cancer patient treatment included chemo and radiotherapy (27.0%), chemotherapy (19.0%), radiotherapy (17.5%), surgery (27.9%). Conclusions: The single center study of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show a significantly better chance of survival in resectable non-small cell lung cancer. Advanced stages of

  14. Community-centred Networks and Networking among Companies, Educational and Cultural Institutions and Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Ulla; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2010-01-01

    This article presents visions for community-centred networks and networking among companies, educational and cultural institutions and research based on blended on- and off-line collaboration and communication. Our point of departure is the general vision of networking between government, industry...... and research as formulated in the Triple Helix Model (Etzkowitz 2008). The article draws on a case study of NoEL, a network on e-learning among business, educational and cultural institutions and research, all in all 21 partners from all around Denmark. Focus is how networks and networking change character......’ in Networked Learning, Wenger et al. 2009; The analysis concerns the participation structure and how the network activities connect local work practices and research, and how technology and online communication contribute to a change from participation in offline and physical network activities into online...

  15. Community-based enterprises: The significance of partnerships and institutional linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Simão Seixas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Community-based institutions used to be driven by local needs, but in recent decades, some of them have been responding to national and global economic opportunities. These cases are of interest because they make it possible to investigate how local institutions can evolve in response to new challenges. A promising set of cases comes from the UNDP Equator Initiative, a program that holds biennial searches to find and reward entrepreneurship cases that seek to reduce poverty and conserve biodiversity at the same time. What can we learn from these local entrepreneurship cases that seem to be playing at the global level? Here we focus on partnerships and horizontal and vertical linkages in a sample of ten Equator Initiative projects. We find that successful projects tend to interact with a large array of support groups, typically 10 to 15 partners. Based on information from on-site research, these partners include local and national NGOs; local, regional and (less commonly national governments; international donor agencies and other organizations; and universities and research centers. These partners provide a range of services and support functions, including raising start-up funds; institution building; business networking and marketing; innovation and knowledge transfer; and technical training. These findings indicate that a diverse variety of partners are needed to help satisfy a diversity of needs, and highlight the importance of networks and support groups in the evolution of commons institutions.

  16. Ethical dilemmas in community-based participatory research: recommendations for institutional review boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; McDonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

    2007-07-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development of partnerships between communities and academics to address community-relevant research priorities. As such, it attempts to redress ethical concerns that have emerged out of more traditional paradigms. Nevertheless, new and emerging ethical dilemmas are commonly associated with CBPR and are rarely addressed in traditional ethical reviews. We conducted a content analysis of forms and guidelines commonly used by institutional review boards (IRBs) in the USA and research ethics boards (REBs) in Canada. Our intent was to see if the forms used by boards reflected common CBPR experience. We drew our sample from affiliated members of the US-based Association of Schools of Public Health and from Canadian universities that offered graduate public health training. This convenience sample (n = 30) was garnered from programs where application forms were available online for download between July and August, 2004. Results show that ethical review forms and guidelines overwhelmingly operate within a biomedical framework that rarely takes into account common CBPR experience. They are primarily focused on the principle of assessing risk to individuals and not to communities and continue to perpetuate the notion that the domain of "knowledge production" is the sole right of academic researchers. Consequently, IRBs and REBs may be unintentionally placing communities at risk by continuing to use procedures inappropriate or unsuitable for CBPR. IRB/REB procedures require a new framework more

  17. Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; McDonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

    2007-01-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development of partnerships between communities and academics to address community-relevant research priorities. As such, it attempts to redress ethical concerns that have emerged out of more traditional paradigms. Nevertheless, new and emerging ethical dilemmas are commonly associated with CBPR and are rarely addressed in traditional ethical reviews. We conducted a content analysis of forms and guidelines commonly used by institutional review boards (IRBs) in the USA and research ethics boards (REBs) in Canada. Our intent was to see if the forms used by boards reflected common CBPR experience. We drew our sample from affiliated members of the US-based Association of Schools of Public Health and from Canadian universities that offered graduate public health training. This convenience sample (n = 30) was garnered from programs where application forms were available online for download between July and August, 2004. Results show that ethical review forms and guidelines overwhelmingly operate within a biomedical framework that rarely takes into account common CBPR experience. They are primarily focused on the principle of assessing risk to individuals and not to communities and continue to perpetuate the notion that the domain of “knowledge production” is the sole right of academic researchers. Consequently, IRBs and REBs may be unintentionally placing communities at risk by continuing to use procedures inappropriate or unsuitable for CBPR. IRB/REB procedures require a new framework

  18. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000–2013: a systematic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000–2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Design Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Setting and participants Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000–2013. Main outcome measures Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Results We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded—the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Conclusions Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies

  19. Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institution Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lois A.

    This research attempted to understand the experiences of a cohort of informal and formal science educators and informal science institution (ISI) community representatives during and after completion of a pilot graduate certificate program. Informal science educators (ISEs) find limited opportunities for professional development and support which influence their contributions to America's science literacy and school science education. This emergent design nested case study described how an innovative program provided professional development and enabled growth in participants' abilities to contribute to science literacy. Data were collected through interviews, participant observations, and class artifacts. The program by design and constituency was the overarching entity that accounted for members' experiences. Three principal aspects of the ISI certificate program and cohort which influenced perceptions and reported positive outcomes were (1) the cohort's composition and their collaborative activities which established a vigorous community of practice and fostered community building, mentoring, and networking, (2) long term program design and implementation which promoted experiential learning in a generative classroom, and (3) ability of some members who were able to be independent or autonomous learners to embrace science education reform strategies for greater self-efficacy and career advancement. This research extends the limited literature base for professional development of informal science educators and may benefit informal science institutions, informal and formal science educators, science education reform efforts, and public education and science-technology-society understanding. The study may raise awareness of the need to establish more professional development opportunities for ISEs and to fund professional development. Further, recognizing and appreciating informal science educators as a diverse committed community of professionals who positively

  20. Case Study in International Cooperation: Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Roswell Park Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Reid, Mary; Segal, Brahm; Abrams, Scott I; Lee, Kelvin

    2018-04-01

    In 1961, the USA severed diplomatic relations with Cuba, and in 1962 an embargo was imposed on trade and financial relations with that country. It was not until five decades later that the USA and Cuba would reestablish relations. This opened the way for the New York State Trade Mission to Cuba in April 2015, during which Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Buffalo, New York's Roswell Park Cancer Institute signed a formal agreement that would set in motion biotechnology research collaboration to address one of the most important causes of death in both countries. Significant research from Cuba led to this groundbreaking collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this cooperation, from the Molecular Immunology Center's initial investigations, through the opening of a phase I clinical trial at Roswell Park Cancer Institute with therapies developed at the Center. This cooperation was responsible for the first clinical trial for CIMAvax-EGF involving advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients in the USA. A license was also approved by the US Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control authorizing a commercial partnership for development of biotechnology products, combining the cancer research efforts of both institutions. This unusual collaboration between Cuba and the USA-the US economic embargo and travel restrictions not withstanding-opens good prospects for expanded medical research between the two countries. While political and logistical challenges remain, the shared mission and dedication of these Cuban and US scientists points the way towards relationships that can lead to development, testing, approval and use of promising new therapies for cancer patients. KEYWORDS Biotechnology, clinical trials, cancer vaccines, cancer immunotherapy, non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC, Cuba, USA.

  1. Delivering prostate cancer prevention messages to the public: how the National Cancer Institute (NCI) effectively spread the word about the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Kara Smigel; Ryan, Anne; Morzenti, Thuy; Cave, Lynn; Maze-Gallman, Tamara; Ford, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial was the first clinical trial to show that a direct intervention (5 mg of finasteride daily for 7 years) could reduce a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. Initial results also suggested that men taking finasteride had an increased risk of developing what appeared to be higher-grade disease (Gleason score 7-10). The National Cancer Institute has a congressional mandate to communicate health information to the public and has established methods to reach the public directly and to reach information intermediaries in the media, professional societies, and advocacy groups. The groundbreaking yet complicated results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial were widely disseminated by National Cancer Institute using the social marketing and public-relations strategies and tactics detailed here. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  3. The National LGBT Cancer Action Plan: A White Paper of the 2014 National Summit on Cancer in the LGBT Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Liz; Sigurdsson, Hrafn Oli; Walland, Jonathan; Radix, Asa; Rice, David; Buchting, Francisco O.; Sanchez, Nelson F.; Bare, Michael G.; Boehmer, Ulrike; Cahill, Sean; Griebling, Tomas L.; Bruessow, Diane; Maingi, Shail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite growing social acceptance of lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and transgender (LGBT) persons and the extension of marriage rights for same-sex couples, LGBT persons experience stigma and discrimination, including within the healthcare system. Each population within the LGBT umbrella term is likely at elevated risk for cancer due to prevalent, significant cancer risk factors, such as tobacco use and human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, cancer incidence and mortality data among LGBT persons are lacking. This absence of cancer incidence data impedes research and policy development, LGBT communities' awareness and activation, and interventions to address cancer disparities. In this context, in 2014, a 2-day National Summit on Cancer in the LGBT Communities was convened by a planning committee for the purpose of accelerating progress in identifying and addressing the LGBT communities' concerns and needs in the spheres of cancer research, clinical cancer care, healthcare policy, and advocacy for cancer survivorship and LGBT health equity. Summit participants were 56 invited persons from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada, representatives of diverse identities, experiences, and knowledge about LGBT communities and cancer. Participants shared lessons learned and identified gaps and remedies regarding LGBT cancer concerns across the cancer care continuum from prevention to survivorship. This white paper presents background on each of the Summit themes and 16 recommendations covering the following: sexual orientation and gender identity data collection in national and state health surveys and research on LGBT communities and cancer, the clinical care of LGBT persons, and the education and training of healthcare providers.

  4. The National Institute of Justice's Technology Efforts to Meet the Evolving Needs of the Responder Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D.

    2002-05-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research arm of the Department of Justice. Through its Office of Science & Technology (OS&T), NIJ has actively pursued development of better tools for public safety agencies to combat terrorism since 1997, when, pursuant to the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Penalty Act of 1996 (P.L. 104 -132), it began development of technology to better enable law enforcement agencies to combat terrorism. NIJ quickly realized that effectively combating terrorism required a multi disciplinary, multi agency response. Additionally, it came to understand that, as noted by the Gilmore Commission, the best way to prepare the responder community to deal with the consequences of terrorist incidents, was to ``emphasize programs and initiatives that build appropriately on existing State and local capabilities for other emergencies and disasters.'' For example, an effective critical incident management system is just as important to the ability to deal with a terrorist attack, such as occurred at the World Trade Center, as with a major natural disaster or the crash of a commercial airliner or passenger train. Consequently, NIJ's efforts have evolved to focus on the responder community's common, unaddressed needs for better tools to deal with critical incidents. The Institutes efforts focus on five technology areas: infrastructure security, personnel location, explosives detection and remediation, communications and information technology and training, and development of standards.

  5. THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF GERMAN-BRAZILIAN COMMUNITIES (PICADAS: THE COMMONS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Relly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of German immigration to Brazil knows just a little about the structures that animated social life in Germany before the process of immigration. Therefore, the americanização of the German-Brazilian settlers is considered solely from the perspective of the host society, creating a gap that needs to be filled in order to understand another dimension of German immigration, the European side and influence over it. In this sense, it is possible to perceive that generally the social origins of German-Brazilian settlers is linked to a village context experience, especially those who came from Western and Southwestern Germany. Historically these villages were social organizations able to control natural and economic resources under their jurisdictions with a great political and economic autonomy. The so called commons were a feature of the German agrarian history, and its institutions of participatory, mutual, protectionist, communal management had the effect to generate social capital, one social attribute that supported the formation of the German-Brazilian communities in Southern Brazil. Thus, the German-Brazilian communities were forged under a solid institutional tradition and under a substrate of social capital, facilitating the emergence of autonomous and cooperative behaviors that resulted on the communitarian structures and on the associativism phenomenon. The method was the analytical descriptive based on research in primary sources in Brazilian and German Archives.

  6. Interaction with Institutional Agents in Community College, Predictors of Latino Males' Commitment to Educational Goals: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perezchica, Inez G.

    2017-01-01

    Only 9% of U.S Latino males have bachelor's degrees. Community colleges are the preferred choice for Latinas/os entering the higher education pipeline. Almost half of first-year community college students leave college without achieving their educational goals. Racial inequalities in education are a symptom of lingering institutional racism. In…

  7. Make Change Happen at the Program or Institutional Scale: Converting Community Expertise into Practical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Orr, C. H.

    2016-12-01

    As geoscience and STEM programs address common challenges like increasing the diversity of graduates or implementing active learning pedagogies, it is important to learn from the experiences of others in the community. Individual faculty members embody a wealth of experience on these topics but distilling that experience into practical guidance that has value for a broad audience is not as simple as knowing exactly what one person did. Context is important, not only because activities used in similar contexts are easier to adapt, but also because activities that work across multiple contexts are more robust. The development of any best practices guidance benefits from the engagement of a community. Synthesizing across multiple viewpoints leads to a consensus that builds on the diversity of individual experiences. The Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College has had success generating such resources in geoscience and STEM education. Working with different groups of educators, we have helped develop content around making change happen at the program or institutional levels, increasing the diversity of students graduating in geoscience and STEM, fostering interdisciplinary learning, translating the results of education research into practice, and several others. These resources draw out common practices, situate them in the education research base, and highlight examples of their use in the real world but also communicate the different ways individuals or institutions have adapted these practices for their particular situation. These resources were developed through a group synthesis process involving the contribution of individual or group expertise, a face-to-face meeting of teams working on themes drawn from the contributed work, and asynchronous group revision and review following the meeting. The materials developed via this process provide reliable and adaptable guidance firmly rooted in the community's experience. This presentation will

  8. An institutional ethnography of a feminist organization: a study of community education in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve O'Grady

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A small Irish independent women's community education organisation, founded to provide personal development and community education programmes for women who cannot pay for them, has experienced the struggles of surviving in a patriarchal state that no longer supports women's community building but which funds individual capacity building for 'labour market activation' purposes. The organisation consists of three staff funded to work on a part-time basis, facilitators who work on an ad-hoc basis to meet the needs of groups of participants, the women who participate in different groups in the organisation, the staff of a crèche, and voluntary members. The purpose of the research is to support the need for the organisation to reconceptualise the meaning of the work of the organisation using institutional ethnography methodology to question the extent to which the work can been seen as political and feminist, and adhering to its original ideals. The research consisted of four weeks of fieldwork in the organisation with the participants, followed by a focus group of staff and facilitators reflecting on features that participants valued: making new connections, groupwork, the physical environment, the challenge and support, and the pace of the work. The provision of a space and culture that transgresses the norms of dominant cultural understandings of being a working-class woman is now understood to be the radical outcome, with the original expectation of the possibility of empowering participants to become feminist activists receding but remaining an ideal.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canzian, Federico; Calle, Eugenia E; Chanock, Stephen; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Dossus, Laure; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Haiman, Christopher A; Hankinson, Susan E; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J; Isaacs, Claudine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lenner, Per; Lund, Eiliv; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Quiros, Jose R; Riboli, Elio; Stram, Daniel O; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J; Cox, David G; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Gils, Carla H van; Ziegler, Regina G; Henderson, Katherine D; Henderson, Brian E; Berg, Christine; Bingham, Sheila; Boeing, Heiner; Buring, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1) triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR) in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3). We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS) in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and Women's Health Study (WHS). Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone) were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians

  11. A comparative study of breast cancer mass screening using ultrasonography and mammography at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Tsuguo; Takahashi, Naohiko; Ueda, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonic screening for breast cancer (US group) in comparison with mammographic screening (MMG group), we analyzed 78,214 breast screening examinees presenting between 2007 and 2008 at our institution. The cancer detection rate in the US group was lower than that in the MMG group. However, the average age in the US group was significantly younger than that in the MMG group, and the rate of annual screening was significantly higher in the former than in the latter. In the US subgroup who underwent annual screening, the recall rate and the cancer detection rate were significantly lower, and the rate of detection of early breast cancers was significantly higher than that in the subgroup who underwent screening biennially or at longer intervals, and there was no significant inter-group difference in the cancer detection rate between women in their 40s and those aged 50 or above who underwent annual screening. The proportion of early breast cancers detected was almost the same in the both groups. In summary, US screening as well as MMG screening seems to be useful for detection of early breast cancer. Although a high recall rate for US screening has been reported previously, annual screening and sufficient quality control based on the guidelines proposed by the Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology (JABTS) are considered to reduce the recall rate. (author)

  12. What is the role of community capabilities for maternal health? An exploration of community capabilities as determinants to institutional deliveries in Bangladesh, India, and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Paina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While community capabilities are recognized as important factors in developing resilient health systems and communities, appropriate metrics for these have not yet been developed. Furthermore, the role of community capabilities on access to maternal health services has been underexplored. In this paper, we summarize the development of a community capability score based on the Future Health System (FHS project’s experience in Bangladesh, India, and Uganda, and, examine the role of community capabilities as determinants of institutional delivery in these three contexts. Methods We developed a community capability score using a pooled dataset containing cross-sectional household survey data from Bangladesh, India, and Uganda. Our main outcome of interest was whether the woman delivered in an institution. Our predictor variables included the community capability score, as well as a series of previously identified determinants of maternal health. We calculate both population-averaged effects (using GEE logistic regression, as well as sub-national level effects (using a mixed effects model. Results Our final sample for analysis included 2775 women, of which 1238 were from Bangladesh, 1199 from India, and 338 from Uganda. We found that individual-level determinants of institutional deliveries, such as maternal education, parity, and ante-natal care access were significant in our analysis and had a strong impact on a woman’s odds of delivering in an institution. We also found that, in addition to individual-level determinants, greater community capability was significantly associated with higher odds of institutional delivery. For every additional capability, the odds of institutional delivery would increase by up to almost 6 %. Conclusion Individual-level characteristics are strong determinants of whether a woman delivered in an institution. However, we found that community capability also plays an important role, and should be

  13. Anonymity versus privacy: selective information sharing in online cancer communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jeana; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-05-14

    Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients' prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F1,114=135.59, P=.001, η(2)=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Respondents' information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity information. The results suggest the need to focus on

  14. Anonymity Versus Privacy: Selective Information Sharing in Online Cancer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients’ prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. Objective The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. Methods A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Results Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F 1,114=135.59, P=.001, η2=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Conclusions Respondents’ information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity

  15. Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to Combat Obesity, Heart Disease and Cancer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to combat obesity, heart disease, and cancer are major components of the Community Health Data Initiative. This dataset...

  16. Nutritional status of cancer patients admitted for chemotherapy at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J E; Domingo, F; Luna, C A; Berroya, R M; Catli, C A; Ginete, J K; Sanchez, O S; Juat, N J; Tiangco, B J; Jamias, J D

    2010-11-01

    Malnutrition is common among cancer patients. This study aimed to determine the overall prevalence of malnutrition among patients undergoing chemotherapy and to determine the predictors of malnutrition among cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 88 cancer patients admitted for chemotherapy at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute, Philippines, from October to November 2009. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), anthropometric data and demographic variables were obtained. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and logistic regression analysis were performed between the outcome and variables. A total of 88 cancer patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 55.7 +/- 14.8 years. The mean duration of illness was 9.7 +/- 8.7 months and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.9 kg/m2. The mean Karnofsky performance status was 79.3. 29.55 percent of the patients had breast cancer as the aetiology of their illness. 38 patients (43.2 percent) had SGA B and four (4.5 percent) had SGA C, giving a total malnutrition prevalence of 47.7 percent. The patients were statistically different with regard to their cancer stage (p is less than 0.001), weight (p is 0.01), BMI (p is 0.004), haemoglobin level (p is 0.001) and performance status by Karnofsky score (p is less than 0.001), as evaluated by ANOVA. Logistic regression analysis showed that cancer stage and Karnofsky performance score were predictors of malnutrition. About 47.7 percent of cancer patients suffer from malnutrition, as classified by SGA. Only cancer stage and Karnofsky performance status scoring were predictive of malnutrition in this select group of patients.

  17. Environmental dose in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres U, C. L.; Avila A, O. L.; Medina V, L. A.; Buenfil B, A. E.; Brandan S, M. E.; Trujillo Z, F. E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.

    2009-01-01

    The dosimeters TLD-100 and TLD-900 were used to know the levels of environmental dose in areas of the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer. The dosimeters calibration was carried out in the Metrology Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. The radioisotopes used in the studied areas are 131 I, 18 F, 67 Ga, 99m Tc, 111 In, 201 Tl and 137 Cs with gamma energies between 93 and 662 KeV. Dosimeters were placed during five months in the diagnostic, injection, waiting and PET rooms as well as hot room, waste room, enclosed corridors to patient rooms treated with 131 I and 137 Cs and witness dosimeters to know the bottom. The values found vary between 0.3 and 70 major times that those of bottom. The maximum doses were measured in the waste room and in the enclosed corridor to the patient rooms with cervical uterine cancer treated with 137 Cs. (Author)

  18. Crucial Dimension in Organization Management of Indonesian Islamic Almsgiving (Zakah Institutions: Insights for Community Economic Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Viciawati Machdum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the crucial management dimensions or key elements oforganizations that have been managed as Islamic almsgiving institutions (zakahfunds in Indonesia. Zakah funds are traditionally managed for a limited number ofbeneficiaries. Zakah funds are now collected and managed by professional Islamicor faith-based organizations and institutions at the national or regional level toachieve a wider range of beneficiaries. This article examines how two Islamicor faith-based organizations, herein named CV (commanditaire vennootschap“X” and “Y” Foundation, manage small enterprise programs based on zakah toreach a wider range of beneficiaries. Using qualitative methods, the researchidentifies crucial dimensions in the management of organizational dynamics ofthese Islamic or faith-based organizations, i.e., organizational systems, humanresources, and organizational climate. Those elements are used to manageeconomic empowerment activities with faith as a supra structure or contextualunderlying factor. Field findings also demonstrated the usefulness of religiousvalues in managing sustainable community-empowerment practices in smallenterprise programs. 

  19. Widening higher education participation in rural communities in England: An anchor institution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Geoffrey

    2018-02-01

    Against a United Kingdom policy background of attempts to widen higher education participation in a socially inclusive direction, this article analyses theory, policy and practice to understand why past efforts have had limited success and to propose an alternative: an "anchor institution" model. A university and a private training provider were the principal partners in this venture, known as the South-West Partnership (pseudonym); the model was developed by them to meet the particular needs of mature female students who want and/or need to study part-time in a rural, coastal and isolated area of south-west England. While the concept of "anchor institutions" has previously been used in government social policy, and in higher education to promote knowledge transfer, it has not yet been adopted as a method for widening participation. The research study presented in this article investigated the effectiveness of the model in widening higher education participation in the context of the South-West Partnership. The study was conducted within an interpretivist theoretical framework. It accessed student voices to illustrate the character of education required to widen participation in vocational higher education by mature female students in rural communities, through semi-structured qualitative interviews on a range of topics identified from relevant theoretical literature, and by drawing on the research team's professional knowledge and experience. These topics included student aspirations and career destinations, motivations, access, learning experiences, and peer and tutor support. It is hoped the findings will inform the future development of adult vocational higher education provision in rural areas, where opportunities have been limited, and encourage further application of the anchor institution model for widening participation elsewhere.

  20. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000-2013: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-20

    To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013. Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded-the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies. Funding agencies and industry should openly document their research investments to

  1. Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, N.G.; Anderson, W.; Davis, R.P.; Carden, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Experience gained at the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research has shown that with attention to the design of facilities and procedures and an active personnel monitoring policy, relatively large scale radiation commitments can proceed with individual whole body doses to staff being held well below 15 mSv/annum. In spite of detailed attention to control of radiation work, traumatic radiation incidents may still occur. (H.K.)

  2. Exercise recommendations for childhood cancer survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies: an institutional clinical practice initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Maki; Meeske, Kathleen A; Menteer, Jondavid; Freyer, David R

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have received treatment with anthracyclines are at risk for developing cardiomyopathy in dose-dependent fashion. Historically, restrictions on certain types of physical activity that were intended to preserve cardiac function have been recommended, based on a mixture of evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations. In the LIFE Cancer Survivorship & Transition Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, the authors reevaluated their recommendations for exercise in survivors who were exposed to anthracyclines, with or without irradiation in proximity to the myocardium. The primary goal was to develop consistent, specific, practical, safe, and (where possible) evidence-based recommendations for at-risk survivors in the program. To accomplish this, the authors referred to current exercise guidelines for childhood cancer survivors, consulted recent literature for relevant populations, and obtained input from the program's pediatric cardiology consultant. The resulting risk-based exercise recommendations are designed to complement current published guidelines, maximize safe exercise, and help childhood cancer survivors return to a normal life that emphasizes overall wellness and physical activity. This article describes a single institution's experience in modifying exercise recommendations for at-risk childhood survivors and includes the methods, findings, and current institutional practice recommendations along with sample education materials.

  3. Patterns of use of medical cannabis among Israeli cancer patients: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waissengrin, Barliz; Urban, Damien; Leshem, Yasmin; Garty, Meital; Wolf, Ido

    2015-02-01

    The use of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) for the palliative treatment of cancer patients has been legalized in multiple jurisdictions including Israel. Yet, not much is currently known regarding the efficacy and patterns of use of cannabis in this setting. To analyze the indications for the administration of cannabis among adult Israeli cancer patients and evaluate its efficacy. Efficacy and patterns of use of cannabis were evaluated using physician-completed application forms, medical files, and a detailed questionnaire in adult cancer patients treated at a single institution. Of approximately 17,000 cancer patients seen, 279 (cannabis from an authorized institutional oncologist. The median age of cannabis users was 60 years (range 19-93 years), 160 (57%) were female, and 234 (84%) had metastatic disease. Of 151 (54%) patients alive at six months, 70 (46%) renewed their cannabis permit. Renewal was more common among younger patients and those with metastatic disease. Of 113 patients alive and using cannabis at one month, 69 (61%) responded to the detailed questionnaire. Improvement in pain, general well-being, appetite, and nausea were reported by 70%, 70%, 60%, and 50%, respectively. Side effects were mild and consisted mostly of fatigue and dizziness. Cannabis use is perceived as highly effective by some patients with advanced cancer and its administration can be regulated, even by local authorities. Additional studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of cannabis as part of the palliative treatment of cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Navigating cancer using online communities: a grounded theory of survivor and family experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Lydia Jo; Beaver, Kinta; Dey, Paola; Choong, Kartina

    2017-12-01

    People affected by cancer often have unmet emotional and social support needs. Online cancer communities are a convenient channel for connecting cancer survivors, allowing them to support one another. However, it is unclear whether online community use makes a meaningful contribution to cancer survivorship, as little previous research has examined the experience of using contemporary cancer communities. We aimed to explore the experiences of visitors to online cancer communities. Twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with online cancer community visitors, including cancer survivors (n = 18), family members (n = 2), and individuals who were both a survivor and family member (n = 3). Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A theory developed explaining how individuals 'navigated' the experience of cancer using online cancer communities. Online advice and information led participants on a 'journey to become informed'. Online friendships normalised survivorship and cast participants on a 'journey to recreate identity'. Participants navigated a 'journey through different worlds' as they discovered relevant and hidden communities. This theory highlights virtual paths people affected by cancer can take to self-manage their experience of the disease. Online community experiences can be improved by promoting online evaluation skills and signposting visitors to bereavement support. Cancer survivors can benefit through both lurking and posting in online communities. However, individuals risk becoming distressed when they befriend individuals who may soon die. Additionally, people affected by rarer cancers can struggle to find shared experiences online and may need to look elsewhere for support.

  5. Designing a community-based lay health advisor training curriculum to address cancer health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K; Ashley, Atalie A; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B Lee

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. APPROACH AND STRATEGIES: Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic-community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research.

  6. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

  7. Survey of Policies and Guidelines on Antioxidant Use for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Survivorship in North American Cancer Centers: What Do Institutions Perceive as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gyeongyeon; White, Jennifer; Zhong, Lihong; Carlson, Linda E

    2015-07-01

    Health care policies and guidelines that are clear and consistent with research evidence are important for maximizing clinical outcomes. To determine whether cancer centers in Canada and the United States had policies and/or guidelines about antioxidant use, and whether policies were aligned with the evidence base, we reviewed current research evidence in the field, and we undertook a survey of the policies and guidelines on antioxidant use at cancer institutions across North America. A survey of policies and guidelines on antioxidant use and the development and communication of the policies and guidelines was conducted by contacting cancer institutions in North America. We also conducted a Website search for each institution to explore any online resources. Policies and guidelines on antioxidant use were collected from 78 cancer institutions. Few cancer institutions had policies (5%) but most provided guidelines (69%). Antioxidants from diet were generally encouraged at cancer institutions, consistent with the current research evidence. In contrast, specific antioxidant supplements were generally not recommended at cancer institutions. Policies and guidelines were developed using evidence-based methods (53%), by consulting another source (35%), or through discussions/conference (26%), and communicated mainly through online resources (65%) or written handouts (42%). For cancer institutions that had no policy or guideline on antioxidants, lack of information and lack of time were the most frequently cited reasons. Policies and guidelines on antioxidants from diet were largely consistent with the research evidence. Policies and guidelines on antioxidant supplements during treatment were generally more restrictive than the research evidence might suggest, perhaps due to the specificity of results and the inability to generalize findings across antioxidants, adding to the complexity of their optimal and safe use. Improved communication of comprehensive research

  8. Can Web 2.0 Enhance Community Participation in an Institutional Repository? The Case of PocketKnowledge at Teachers College, Columbia University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciolo, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This project investigates if a Web 2.0 approach to designing an institutional repository can positively impact community participation. To study this, two institutional repositories (one Web 2.0, the other not) are used within the same institution. Results indicate that the use of a Web 2.0 approach significantly enhances community participation.…

  9. Cancer incidence and mortality in children in the Mexican Social Security Institute (1996-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Pachuca-Vázquez, Adriana; Allende-López, Aldo; Fajardo-Yamamoto, Liria Mitzuko; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2016-04-01

    To identify the cancer incidence and mortality in Mexican Social Security Institute beneficiary (MSSI-B) children during 1996-2013. Both cancer cases (n=4 728) and deaths (n=2 378) were analyzed in MSSI-B children who were registered in five states of the Mexican Republic. The incidence and mortality trends and the incidences (rate x 1 000 000 children / year) of the type of cancer, age, sex, and place of residence were obtained. For both indicators (incidence and mortality), there was a downward trend for the period of 1996-2001 and a stable trend for 2002-2013. This occurred in the overall mortality and incidence trends of the Estado de México and Chiapas and in the leukemia and the acute lymphoid subgroups. The annual overall incidence was 128 cases per 1 000 000 children. Leukemia, lymphomas, and central nervous system tumors were the principal cancer groups. Cancer mortality for the period of 2002-2013 did not diminish. Interinstitutional and/or international research should be designed to improve the care of these children.

  10. Adjuvant chemo radiation in completely resected gastric cancer: experience of the National Cancer Institute of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa O, Nicolas; Russo N, Moises; Lopez V, Hernan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal tumors in the Chilean population. Aim: To report the results of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with locoregionally advanced gastric cancer, subjected to a curative resection and treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The treatment was based on he INT 0116/SSWOG protocol, which includes 5-fluorouracil as a single agent. Patients were followed for a median of 58 months. Results: The records of 168 patients (99 men) treated between 2004 nd 2011, were reviewed. Median survival as 41 months. Median lapses between surgery and onset of chemo and radiotherapy were 12 and 17 weeks, respectively. Overall three and five years survival was 53 and 41%, respectively. On multivariate analysis the factors associated with a lower survival were an antral location of the tumor, presence of signet ring cells and more than 5 involved lymph nodes. Conclusions: Three and five years survival of gastric cancer patients subjected to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was 53 and 41% respectively.These results are similar to those reported elsewhere

  11. Lessons learnt from comprehensive evaluation of community-based education in Uganda: a proposal for an ideal model community-based education for health professional training institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atuyambe Lynn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based education (CBE can provide contextual learning that addresses manpower scarcity by enabling trainees acquire requisite experiences, competence, confidence and values. In Uganda, many health professional training institutions conduct some form of community-based education (CBE. However, there is scanty information on the nature of the training: whether a curriculum exists (objectives, intended outcomes, content, implementation strategy, administration and constraints faced. The objective was to make a comprehensive assessment of CBE as implemented by Ugandan health professional training institutions to document the nature of CBE conducted and propose an ideal model with minimum requirements for health professional training institutions in Uganda. Methods We employed several methods: documentary review of curricula of 22 institutions, so as to assess the nature, purpose, outcomes, and methods of instruction and assessment; site visits to these institutions and their CBE sites, to assess the learning environment (infrastructure and resources; in-depth interviews with key people involved in running CBE at the institutions and community, to evaluate CBE implementation, challenges experienced and perceived solutions. Results CBE was perceived differently ranging from a subject, a course, a program or a project. Despite having similar curricula, institutions differ in the administration, implementation and assessment of CBE. Objectives of CBE, the curricula content and implementation strategies differ in similar institutions. On collaborative and social learning, most trainees do not reside in the community, though they work on group projects and write group reports. Lectures and skills demonstrations were the main instruction methods. Assessment involved mainly continuous assessment, oral or written reports and summative examination. Conclusion This assessment identified deficiencies in the design and implementation

  12. Pioneering the Transdisciplinary Team Science Approach: Lessons Learned from National Cancer Institute Grantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Amanda L; Stipelman, Brooke A; Hall, Kara L; Nebeling, Linda; Stokols, Daniel; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute has been a leader in supporting transdisciplinary (TD) team science. From 2005-2010, the NCI supported Transdisciplinary Research on Energetic and Cancer I (TREC I), a center initiative fostering the TD integration of social, behavioral, and biological sciences to examine the relationships among obesity, nutrition, physical activity and cancer. In the final year of TREC I, we conducted qualitative in-depth-interviews with 31 participating investigators and trainees to learn more about their experiences with TD team science, including challenges, facilitating factors, strategies for success, and impacts. Five main challenges emerged: (1) limited published guidance for how to engage in TD team science, when TREC I was implemented; (2) conceptual and scientific challenges inherent to efforts to achieve TD integration; (3) discipline-based differences in values, terminology, methods, and work styles; (4) project management challenges involved in TD team science; and (5) traditional incentive and reward systems that do not recognize or reward TD team science. Four main facilitating factors and strategies for success emerged: (1) beneficial attitudes and beliefs about TD research and team science; (2) effective team processes; (3) brokering and bridge-building activities by individuals holding particular roles in a research center; and (4) funding initiative characteristics that support TD team science. Broad impacts of participating in TD team science in the context of TREC I included: (1) new positive attitudes about TD research and team science; (2) new boundary-crossing collaborations; (3) scientific advances related to research approaches, findings, and dissemination; (4) institutional culture change and resource creation in support of TD team science; and (5) career advancement. Funding agencies, academic institutions, and scholarly journals can help to foster TD team science through funding opportunities, institutional policies on

  13. 78 FR 44136 - Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... award performance and the effectiveness of the program as a whole. The respondents are the Principal Investigators of the awards, along with their institutional business officials. The awards are administered by... costs to respondents other than their time. The estimated annualized burden hours are 72. Estimated...

  14. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Health National Cancer Institute What if the tools you need to quit smoking were as easy ... habits with an easy-to-use calendar Includes motivational reminders that coincide with progress, Sends health milestones ...

  15. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Luca F. [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie [National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania (United States); D' Amico, Thomas A. [Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Pisters, Katherine M. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dexter, Elisabeth U. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Niland, Joyce C. [Department of Information Sciences, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kapadia, Nirav S., E-mail: Nirav.S.Kapadia@hitchcock.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  16. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Luca F.; Jagsi, Reshma; Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Pisters, Katherine M.; Dexter, Elisabeth U.; Niland, Joyce C.; Hayman, James A.; Kapadia, Nirav S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  17. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Ghana: the role of decision-making autonomy and community norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Story, William T; Singh, Kavita

    2014-11-27

    In Ghana, the site of this study, the maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate remain high indicating the need to focus on maternal and child health programming. Ghana has high use of antenatal care (95%) but sub-optimum levels of institutional delivery (about 57%). Numerous barriers to institutional delivery exist including financial, physical, cognitive, organizational, and psychological and social. This study examines the psychological and social barriers to institutional delivery, namely women's decision-making autonomy and their perceptions about social support for institutional delivery in their community. This study uses cross-sectional data collected for the evaluation of the Maternal and Newborn Referrals Project of Project Fives Alive in Northern and Central districts of Ghana. In 2012 and 2013, a total of 2,527 women aged 15 to 49 were surveyed at baseline and midterm (half in 2012 and half in 2013). The analysis sample of 1,606 includes all women who had a birth three years prior to the survey date and who had no missing data. To determine the relationship between institutional delivery and the two key social barriers-women's decision-making autonomy and community perceptions of institutional delivery-we used multi-level logistic regression models, including cross-level interactions between community-level attitudes and individual-level autonomy. All analyses control for the clustered survey design by including robust standard errors in Stata 13 statistical software. The findings show that women who are more autonomous and who perceive positive attitudes toward facility delivery (among women, men and mothers-in-law) were more likely to deliver in a facility. Moreover, the interactions between autonomy and community-level perceptions of institutional delivery among men and mothers-in-law were significant, such that the effect of decision-making autonomy is more important for women who live in communities that are less supportive of

  18. Social Media Use for Cancer Education at a Community-Based Cancer Center in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jaesung; Chun, Mison; Lee, Hyun Woo; Woo, Jeong-Hee

    2016-12-12

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the education system using social media. Eight educational video clips were developed instructing the viewer on cancer-related issues such as prevention, treatment, and survivorship. Each video was made with participation of medical professors and posted on a YouTube channel. A mobile phone application was produced containing a scheduler function, introduction of a community cancer center program, and cancer information. A medical blog was established to provide stationary materials such as images and articles. Descriptive analysis was done by Google analytics. From May of 2014 to June of 2016, 15,247 total views were recorded on the YouTube channel, and the average view duration was about 3 min. The most popular video was about chemotherapy treatment; 5409 (36%) people watched this video, and 3615 (23.5%) people viewed a video on balanced dietary habits. As well as South Korea, 1,113 (7%) views were confirmed in the United States and 175 (1%) in Japan. The equipment used to watch the contents were mobile phones (59%), laptops (33%), and tablets (6%). Five hundred people installed the smartphone application from March of 2015 to July of 2016. Three hundred eighty-three medical contents were posted on the blog since March of 2015. Cancer education is necessary to address the education needs of patients with cancer and their caregivers. Education based on social media could be an effective method that reaches beyond geographical boundaries.

  19. Barriers to prostate cancer prevention and community recommended health education strategies in an urban African American community in Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.

  20. Institutional clinical trial accrual volume and survival of patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrick, Evan J; Zhang, Qiang; Machtay, Mitchell; Rosenthal, David I; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Fortin, André; Silverman, Craig L; Raben, Adam; Kim, Harold E; Horwitz, Eric M; Read, Nancy E; Harris, Jonathan; Wu, Qian; Le, Quynh-Thu; Gillison, Maura L

    2015-01-10

    National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) receive treatment at centers with expertise, but whether provider experience affects survival is unknown. The effect of institutional experience on overall survival (OS) in patients with stage III or IV HNC was investigated within a randomized trial of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG 0129), which compared cisplatin concurrent with standard versus accelerated fractionation radiotherapy. As a surrogate for experience, institutions were classified as historically low- (HLACs) or high-accruing centers (HHACs) based on accrual to 21 RTOG HNC trials (1997 to 2002). The effect of accrual volume on OS was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. Median RTOG accrual (1997 to 2002) at HLACs was four versus 65 patients at HHACs. Analysis included 471 patients in RTOG 0129 (2002 to 2005) with known human papillomavirus and smoking status. Patients at HLACs versus HHACs had better performance status (0: 62% v 52%; P = .04) and lower T stage (T4: 26.5% v 35.3%; P = .002) but were otherwise similar. Radiotherapy protocol deviations were higher at HLACs versus HHACs (18% v 6%; P accounting for radiotherapy protocol deviations. Institutional experience substantially influences survival in locally advanced HNC. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. Innovation in Collaboration: The Summer Institute on Youth Mentoring as a university-community partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Jones

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Summer Institute on Youth Mentoring (SIYM at Portland State University is an intensive week-long seminar designed to offer a highly interactive educational opportunity for experienced professionals and leading researchers in the field of youth mentoring. The current study explores the extent to which SIYM represents an example of a successful university-community partnership and identifies ways in which SIYM innovates on established partnership models. Using grounded theory methods and typological analysis, the researchers analysed questionnaire responses from SIYM participants and research fellows to compare key characteristics of SIYM with the elements of effective partnerships described in the literature. Findings suggest that SIYM reflects many essential partnership qualities, including the presence of a shared vision; strong, mutually beneficial relationships; and a partnering process that includes communication and work for positive change. SIYM also introduces several innovations in format and structure that could inform the improvement or development of effective partnership efforts across disciplines. Implications for service providers, researchers and other stakeholders are discussed. Keywords communication, collaboration, mutually beneficial relationships, innovation

  2. Lumboaortic radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Experience of the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini B, Alejandro; Becerra S, Sergio; Gayan G, Patricio; Carcamo I, Marcela; Bianchi G, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Uterine cancer is still a prevalent disease in Chile. Is common to treat patients with tumors in stages IIB and IIIB where the risk of pelvic and paraortic limph node involvement is very high. Its treatment is radio-chemotherapy. Objective: To present a retrospective analysis of patients that suffered cervix-uterine cancer who were treated with radiotherapy including the aortic-lumbar area. Methods: From the revision of patients who were treated of cervix-uterine cancer between the years 1995 and 2007, 39 were treated including aortic-lumbar chains. Evolution and toxicity were analyzed. Two radiotherapy techniques were used. The first one, during the nineties, included two parallel previous and later and opposed fields, and a second technique, currently used, where pelvis and paraortic are radiated at the same time through four lateral (AP-PA) fields. Results: The dosimeter analysis of both techniques shows that there is a higher volume of radiated normal tissue with the two fields techniques, mainly in the small bowel. On the other hand, the toxicity was significantly different being today's technique less toxic and showing low gastrointestinal

  3. Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors linked to cancer offer great potential for prevention. Previous studies suggest an association between adherence to recommendations on healthy lifestyle and cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is associated with reduced all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality. We built a lifestyle score that included 3 categories, based on the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality; in addition, we included cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We used census- and death registry-linked survey data allowing a mortality follow-up for ≤32 y. Our analysis included 16,722 participants. Information on lifestyle score components and confounders was collected at baseline. Over a mean follow-up of 21.7 y, 3730 deaths were observed (1332 cancer deaths). Comparing best with poorest category of the lifestyle score showed an inverse association with all-cause (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89) and total cancer (men only, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84) mortality. We estimated that ∼13% of premature cancer deaths in men would have been preventable if lifestyle score levels had been high. Inverse associations were observed for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, and prostate cancer mortality [men and women combined, HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.83; HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82 (men only), respectively]. CVD mortality was not associated with the lifestyle score (men and women combined, HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). Our results support the importance of adhering to recommendations for a healthy lifestyle with regard to all-cause and cancer mortality. To reduce the burden of cancer in the

  4. Leading Change: A Case Study of Leadership Practices from the Development of the Niagara County Community College Culinary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Jazmin; Mistriner, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the lessons learned from the development of a project that set out to revitalize an economically depressed area with an innovative approach to workforce development through partnerships. The focus was to utilize the development of the Niagara County Community College Culinary Institute as an example…

  5. Violence Risk Assessment and Facet 4 of the Psychopathy Checklist: Predicting Institutional and Community Aggression in Two Forensic Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL/PCL-R) were used to predict institutional aggression and community violence in two groups of forensic patients. Results showed that Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL/PCL-R or one of its parcels consistently achieved incremental validity relative to the first three facets, whereas the…

  6. MIGRATION AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE: THE CASES OF SOUTHERN MEXICAN STATES AND THEIR EMIGRANT COMMUNITIES IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Krannich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates institutional approaches of emigrant states toward emigrants abroad, and how these approaches can change over time. These can range from absolute exclusion and non-communication, over fractional collaboration in specific matters, to even permanent institutional inclusion, for instance, through representation of migrants in home parliaments or governments. The approach for institutional incorporation can not only take place on the national, but also on the subnational level. This is the case in Mexico, a federal state in which many member states conduct their own emigrant policy, partially in accord with federal efforts, and partially independently or contrary to the national attempt to address the emigrant community abroad. To highlight these different approaches, I would like to take a look at the Southern Mexican states of Oaxaca and Chiapas. Although these states show similar political and social structures, and hold relatively large emigrant populations in the United States of America, the institutional approaches toward their emigrants changed in two different ways: while the institutional opening in Oaxaca goes back to various initiatives by the Oaxacan migrant community in the United States of America, the policy change in Chiapas toward more inclusion of the emigrant community was actively promoted by the government of Chiapas.

  7. Plant collecting program in Southeast Asia under the sponsorship of the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1986-1991)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soejarto, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the funding from the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI)¹, a program was undertaken to collect plant samples in Southeast Asia to be tested for their cancer- and AIDS-arresting properties, for the period of September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1991. The program was implemented with

  8. Brachytherapy or Conformal External Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Single-Institution Matched-Pair Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Tom; Keyes, Mira; Morris, W. James

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the absence of randomized study data, institutional case series have shown brachytherapy (BT) to produce excellent biochemical control (bNED) in patients with localized prostate cancer compared with alternative curative treatments. This study was designed to overcome some of the limitations of case series studies by using a matched-pair design in patients treated contemporaneously with BT and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Six hundred one eligible patients treated between 1998 and 2001 were prospectively followed up in our institutional databases and matched on a 1:1 basis for the following known prognostic variables: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, T stage, the use and duration of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, and the percentage of positive tissue core samples. Two hundred seventy-eight perfect matches of patients (139 in each group) with low- and intermediate-risk cancer were further analyzed. bNED (Phoenix definition) was the primary endpoint. Other endpoints were toxicity, PSA kinetics, and the secondary use of androgen deprivation therapy. Results: The 5-year bNED rates were 95% (BT) and 85% (EBRT) (p < 0.001). After 7 years, the BT bNED result was unchanged, but the rate in EBRT patients had fallen to 75%. The median posttreatment PSA nadirs were 0.04 ng/mL (BT) and 0.62 ng/mL (EBRT, p < 0.001), which predicted a higher ongoing treatment failure rate in association with EBRT use than with BT use. Late urinary toxicity and rectal/bowel toxicity were worse in patients treated with BT and EBRT, respectively. Conclusions: BT for both low-risk and selected intermediate-risk cancers achieves exceptional cure rates. Even with dose escalation, it will be difficult for EBRT to match the proven track record of BT seen over the past decade.

  9. Sexual outcomes after partial penectomy for penile cancer: results from a multi-institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sansalone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy. Surgical treatment is inevitably mutilating. Considering the strong impact on patients′ sexual life we want to evaluate sexual function and satisfaction after partial penectomy. The patients in this study (n = 25 represented all those who attended our institutions and were diagnosed and treated for penile cancer from October 2011 to November 2013. All patients underwent partial penectomy and followed-up (mean: 14 months; range: 12-25. Sexual presurgical baseline was estimated using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction 15 (IIEF-15. Sexual outcomes of each patient were estimated considering four standardized and validated questionnaires. We analyzed the means and ranges of IIEF-15 including erectile function (IIEF-1-5 and -15, orgasmic function (IIEF-9 and -10, sexual desire (IIEF-11 and -12, intercourse satisfaction (IIEF-6-8, and overall satisfaction (IIEF-13 and -14. Then, we also used Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ, Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS and Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR to evaluate the sexual function and satisfaction of our patients. The final results showed that penile cancer leads to several sexual and psychosexual dysfunctions. Nevertheless, patients who undergo partial penectomy for penile cancer can maintain the sexual outcomes at levels slightly lower to those that existed in the period before surgery.

  10. Local breast cancer spatial patterning: a tool for community health resource allocation to address local disparities in breast cancer mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tennessee. Each county in middle Tennessee, and each ZIP code within metropolitan Davidson County, was scored for risk factor prevalence and assigned quartile scores that were used as a metric to identify geographic areas of need. While breast cancer mortality often correlated with age and incidence, geographic areas were identified in which breast cancer mortality rates did not correlate with age and incidence, but correlated with additional risk factors, such as mammography screening and socioeconomic status. Geographical variability in specific risk factors was evident, demonstrating the utility of this approach to identify local areas of risk. This method revealed local patterns in breast cancer mortality that might otherwise be overlooked in a more broadly based analysis. Our data suggest that understanding the geographic distribution of breast cancer mortality, and the distribution of risk factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality, will not only identify communities with the greatest need of support, but will identify the types of resources that would provide the most benefit to reduce breast cancer mortality in the community.

  11. Gene-environment interactions in cancer epidemiology: a National Cancer Institute Think Tank report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carolyn M; Mechanic, Leah E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillanders, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF] > 0.05) and less common (0.01 Think Tank" on January 10-11, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on (1) the state of the science, (2) the goals of G × E interaction studies in cancer epidemiology, and (3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of G × E interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance, and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  12. Black Male Graduation Rates in Community Colleges: Do Institutional Characteristics Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez Urias, Marissa; Wood, J. Luke

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Black male graduation rates in public two-year, degree-granting institutions. Specifically, the researchers were interested in determining the influence (if any) of select institutional characteristics (e.g., attendance intensity, degree of urbanization, geographic region, institutional size) on…

  13. Role of community based local institution for climate change adaptation in the Teesta riverine area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation is one of the most crucial issues in developing countries like Bangladesh. The main objective was to understand the linkage of participation with Community Based Adaptation (CBA to climate change. Institutional framework following different types of conceptual theories (collective action, group, game and social learning theory was utilized to analyze the participatory process in local community level Village Disaster Mangement Committee (VDMC that works in collaboration with local government. Field level data was collected through interview and group discussion during 25 April to 30 May 2015 in the Teesta riverine area of northern Bangladesh. Results showed that flood and drought were the major climate change impacts in the study area, and various participatory tools were used for risk assessment and undertaking action plans to overcome the climate change challenges by the group VDMC. Participation in VDMC generated both relational and technical outcomes. The relational outcomes are the informal institutional changes through which local community adopt technological adaptation measures. Although, limitations like bargaining problem, free riding or conflict were found in collective decision making, but the initiation of local governance like VDMC has brought various institutional change in the communities in terms of adaptation practices. More than 80% VDMC and around 40–55% non-VDMC household respondents agreed that overall community based adaptation process was successful in the previous year. They believed that some innovative practices had been brought in the community through VDMC action for climate change adaptation. No doubt that the CBA has achieved good progress to achieve the government Comprehensive Disaster Management (CDM strategy of climate change adaptation. But, there is still lack of coordination among local government, NGOs and civil partners in working together. Research related to socio

  14. Implementing exercise in cancer care: study protocol to evaluate a community-based exercise program for people with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cormie, Prue; Lamb, Stephanie; Newton, Robert U.; Valentine, Lani; McKiernan, Sandy; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Taaffe, Dennis R.; Doran, Christopher M.; Galv?o, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinical research has established the efficacy of exercise in reducing treatment-related side-effects and increasing wellbeing in people with cancer. Major oncology organisations have identified the importance of incorporating exercise in comprehensive cancer care but information regarding effective approaches to translating evidence into practice is lacking. This paper describes the implementation of a community-based exercise program for people with cancer and the protocol for pr...

  15. Security and privacy requirements for a multi-institutional cancer research data grid: an interview-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Frank J; Robbins, Robert J; Weems, William A; Crowley, Rebecca S

    2009-06-15

    Data protection is important for all information systems that deal with human-subjects data. Grid-based systems--such as the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG)--seek to develop new mechanisms to facilitate real-time federation of cancer-relevant data sources, including sources protected under a variety of regulatory laws, such as HIPAA and 21CFR11. These systems embody new models for data sharing, and hence pose new challenges to the regulatory community, and to those who would develop or adopt them. These challenges must be understood by both systems developers and system adopters. In this paper, we describe our work collecting policy statements, expectations, and requirements from regulatory decision makers at academic cancer centers in the United States. We use these statements to examine fundamental assumptions regarding data sharing using data federations and grid computing. An interview-based study of key stakeholders from a sample of US cancer centers. Interviews were structured, and used an instrument that was developed for the purpose of this study. The instrument included a set of problem scenarios--difficult policy situations that were derived during a full-day discussion of potentially problematic issues by a set of project participants with diverse expertise. Each problem scenario included a set of open-ended questions that were designed to elucidate stakeholder opinions and concerns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. For quantitative analysis, data was aggregated at the individual or institutional unit of analysis, depending on the specific interview question. Thirty-one (31) individuals at six cancer centers were contacted to participate. Twenty-four out of thirty-one (24/31) individuals responded to our request- yielding a total response rate of 77%. Respondents included IRB directors and policy-makers, privacy and security officers, directors of offices of research, information

  16. Security and privacy requirements for a multi-institutional cancer research data grid: an interview-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weems William A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data protection is important for all information systems that deal with human-subjects data. Grid-based systems – such as the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG – seek to develop new mechanisms to facilitate real-time federation of cancer-relevant data sources, including sources protected under a variety of regulatory laws, such as HIPAA and 21CFR11. These systems embody new models for data sharing, and hence pose new challenges to the regulatory community, and to those who would develop or adopt them. These challenges must be understood by both systems developers and system adopters. In this paper, we describe our work collecting policy statements, expectations, and requirements from regulatory decision makers at academic cancer centers in the United States. We use these statements to examine fundamental assumptions regarding data sharing using data federations and grid computing. Methods An interview-based study of key stakeholders from a sample of US cancer centers. Interviews were structured, and used an instrument that was developed for the purpose of this study. The instrument included a set of problem scenarios – difficult policy situations that were derived during a full-day discussion of potentially problematic issues by a set of project participants with diverse expertise. Each problem scenario included a set of open-ended questions that were designed to elucidate stakeholder opinions and concerns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. For quantitative analysis, data was aggregated at the individual or institutional unit of analysis, depending on the specific interview question. Results Thirty-one (31 individuals at six cancer centers were contacted to participate. Twenty-four out of thirty-one (24/31 individuals responded to our request- yielding a total response rate of 77%. Respondents included IRB directors and policy-makers, privacy and

  17. Security and privacy requirements for a multi-institutional cancer research data grid: an interview-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Data protection is important for all information systems that deal with human-subjects data. Grid-based systems – such as the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) – seek to develop new mechanisms to facilitate real-time federation of cancer-relevant data sources, including sources protected under a variety of regulatory laws, such as HIPAA and 21CFR11. These systems embody new models for data sharing, and hence pose new challenges to the regulatory community, and to those who would develop or adopt them. These challenges must be understood by both systems developers and system adopters. In this paper, we describe our work collecting policy statements, expectations, and requirements from regulatory decision makers at academic cancer centers in the United States. We use these statements to examine fundamental assumptions regarding data sharing using data federations and grid computing. Methods An interview-based study of key stakeholders from a sample of US cancer centers. Interviews were structured, and used an instrument that was developed for the purpose of this study. The instrument included a set of problem scenarios – difficult policy situations that were derived during a full-day discussion of potentially problematic issues by a set of project participants with diverse expertise. Each problem scenario included a set of open-ended questions that were designed to elucidate stakeholder opinions and concerns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. For quantitative analysis, data was aggregated at the individual or institutional unit of analysis, depending on the specific interview question. Results Thirty-one (31) individuals at six cancer centers were contacted to participate. Twenty-four out of thirty-one (24/31) individuals responded to our request- yielding a total response rate of 77%. Respondents included IRB directors and policy-makers, privacy and security officers, directors of

  18. Preliminary results of robotic colorectal surgery at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, A.S.; Mahmoud, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The available literature on minimally invasive colorectal cancer demonstrates that laparoscopic approach is feasible and associated with better short term outcomes than open surgery while maintaining equivalent oncologic safety. Reports have shown that robotic surgery may overcome some of the pitfalls of laparoscopic intervention. Objective of the work: To evaluate early results of robotic colorectal surgery, in a cohort of Egyptian patients, regarding operative time, operative and early post-operative complications, hospital stay and pathological results. Patients and methods: A case series study which was carried out in surgical department at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Ten Egyptian cases of colorectal cancer (age ranged from 30 to 67, 5 males and 5 females) were recruited from the period of April 2013 to April 2014. Robotic surgery was performed to all cases. Results: Three patients had low anterior resection, three anterior resection, one total proctectomy, one abdominoperineal resection, one left hemicolectomy and one colostomy. The study reported no mortalities and two morbidities. The mean operative time was 333 min. The conversion to open was done in only one patient. A total mesorectal excision with negative circumferential margin was accomplished in all patients, distal margin was positive in one patient. Mean lymph nodes removed was 10.7. Mean hospital stay was 7.4 days. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the outcomes of robotic colorectal cancer intervention in Egyptian patients. Our preliminary results suggest that robotic- assisted surgery for colorectal cancer can be carried out safely and according to oncological principles

  19. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  20. Breast cancer mammographic diagnosis performance in a public health institution: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Juliana M R B; Bittelbrunn, Fernando P; Rockenbach, Marcio A B C; May, Guilherme G; Vedolin, Leonardo M; Kruger, Marilia S; Soldatelli, Matheus D; Zwetsch, Guilherme; de Miranda, Gabriel T F; Teixeira, Saone I P; Arruda, Bruna S

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the quality assurance of mammography results at a reference institution for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in southern Brazil, based on the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) 5th edition recommendations for auditing purposes. Retrospective cohort and cross-sectional study with 4502 patients (9668 mammographies)) who underwent at least one or both breast mammographies throughout 2013 at a regional public hospital, linked to a federal public university. The results were followed until 31 December 2014, including true positives (TPs), true negatives (TNs), false positives (FPs), false negatives (FNs), positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity and specificity, with a confidence interval of 95%. The study showed high quality assurance, particularly regarding sensitivity (90.22%) and specificity (92.31%). The overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 65.35%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 98.32%. The abnormal interpretation rate (recall rate) was 12.26%. The results are appropriate when compared to the values proposed by the BIRADS 5th edition. Additionally, the study provided self-reflection considering our radiological practice, which is essential for improvements and collaboration regarding breast cancer detection. It may stimulate better radiological practice performance and continuing education, despite possible infrastructure and facility limitations. • Accurate quality performance rates are possible despite financial and governmental limitations. • Low-income institutions should develop standardised teamwork to improve radiological practice. • Regular mammography audits may help to increase the quality of public health systems.

  1. Salvage radical prostatectomy for radiation-recurrent prostate cancer: a multi-institutional collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chade, Daher C; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Cronin, Angel M; Savage, Caroline J; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Blute, Michael L; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco; van der Poel, Henk G; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Joniau, Steven; Godoy, Guilherme; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Gleave, Martin E; Dall'Oglio, Marcos; Srougi, Miguel; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2011-08-01

    Oncologic outcomes in men with radiation-recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) treated with salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) are poorly defined. To identify predictors of biochemical recurrence (BCR), metastasis, and death following SRP to help select patients who may benefit from SRP. This is a retrospective, international, multi-institutional cohort analysis. There was a median follow-up of 4.4 yr following SRP performed on 404 men with radiation-recurrent PCa from 1985 to 2009 in tertiary centers. Open SRP. BCR after SRP was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 0.1 or ≥ 0.2 ng/ml (depending on the institution). Secondary end points included progression to metastasis and cancer-specific death. Median age at SRP was 65 yr of age, and median pre-SRP PSA was 4.5 ng/ml. Following SRP, 195 patients experienced BCR, 64 developed metastases, and 40 died from PCa. At 10 yr after SRP, BCR-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) probabilities were 37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31-43), 77% (95% CI, 71-82), and 83% (95% CI, 76-88), respectively. On preoperative multivariable analysis, pre-SRP PSA and Gleason score at postradiation prostate biopsy predicted BCR (p = 0.022; global p 75% of patients 10 yr after surgery. Patients with lower pre-SRP PSA levels and lower postradiation prostate biopsy Gleason score have the highest probability of cure from SRP. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Managing hospital supplies: process reengineering at Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, K V

    2006-01-01

    Aims to give an overview of the re-engineering of processes and structures at Gujarat Cancer Research Institute (GCRI), Ahmedabad. A general review of the design, development and implementation of reengineered systems in order to address concerns about the existing systems. Findings GCRI is a comprehensive cancer care center with 550 beds and well equipped with modern diagnostic and treatment facilities. It serves about 200,000 outpatients and 16,000 inpatients annually. The approach to a better management of hospital supplies led to the design, development, and implementation of an IT-based reengineered and integrated purchase and inventory management system. The new system has given GCRI a saving of about 8 percent of its annual costs of purchases, and improved the availability of materials to the user departments. Shows that the savings obtained are used not only for buying more hospital supplies, but also to buy better quality of hospital supplies, and thereby satisfactorily address the GCRI responsibility towards meeting its social obligations for cancer care.

  3. Cost comparison of curative therapies for localized prostate cancer in Japan. A single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Takefumi; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kazumasa

    2009-01-01

    In addition to open surgery, curative therapies for prostate cancer now include endoscopic surgery and radiation therapies. Because of the expansion and subdivision of treatment methods for prostate cancer, the medical fee point schedule in Japan was revised in fiscal year 2006. We examined changes in medical income and expenditure after this revision of the medical fee system. We studied income and expenditure, after institution of the new medical fee schedule, for the five types of therapies for prostate cancer performed at our hospital: two surgical therapies (radical retropubic prostatectomy and laparoscopic prostatectomy) and three radiation therapies (three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, 192 Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy, and 125 I low-dose-rate brachytherapy). Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was found to be associated with a profit of 199 yen per patient. Laparoscopic prostatectomy, a highly advanced medical treatment that the fee revision changed from a partially insured to an insured procedure, yielded a profit of 75672 yen per patient. However, high-dose-rate brachytherapy was associated with a loss of 654016 yen per patient. Given the loss in hospital income per patient undergoing high-dose-rate brachytherapy, the medical fee point system for this procedure should be reassessed. (author)

  4. Altered plasma apolipoprotein modifications in patients with pancreatic cancer: protein characterization and multi-institutional validation.

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    Kazufumi Honda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the more common human malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas has the worst prognosis. The poor outcome seems to be attributable to difficulty in early detection. METHODS: We compared the plasma protein profiles of 112 pancreatic cancer patients with those of 103 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (Cohort 1 using a newly developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (oMALDI QqTOF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS system. RESULTS: We found that hemi-truncated apolipoprotein AII dimer (ApoAII-2; 17252 m/z, unglycosylated apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII-0; 8766 m/z, and their summed value were significantly decreased in the pancreatic cancer patients [P = 1.36×10(-21, P = 4.35×10(-14, and P = 1.83×10(-24 (Mann-Whitney U-test; area-under-curve values of 0.877, 0.798, and 0.903, respectively]. The significance was further validated in a total of 1099 plasma/serum samples, consisting of 2 retrospective cohorts [Cohort 2 (n = 103 and Cohort 3 (n = 163] and a prospective cohort [Cohort 4 (n = 833] collected from 8 medical institutions in Japan and Germany. CONCLUSIONS: We have constructed a robust quantitative MS profiling system and used it to validate alterations of modified apolipoproteins in multiple cohorts of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  5. Institutional Clinical Trial Accrual Volume and Survival of Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrick, Evan J.; Zhang, Qiang; Machtay, Mitchell; Rosenthal, David I.; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Fortin, André; Silverman, Craig L.; Raben, Adam; Kim, Harold E.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Read, Nancy E.; Harris, Jonathan; Wu, Qian; Le, Quynh-Thu; Gillison, Maura L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) receive treatment at centers with expertise, but whether provider experience affects survival is unknown. Patients and Methods The effect of institutional experience on overall survival (OS) in patients with stage III or IV HNC was investigated within a randomized trial of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG 0129), which compared cisplatin concurrent with standard versus accelerated fractionation radiotherapy. As a surrogate for experience, institutions were classified as historically low- (HLACs) or high-accruing centers (HHACs) based on accrual to 21 RTOG HNC trials (1997 to 2002). The effect of accrual volume on OS was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. Results Median RTOG accrual (1997 to 2002) at HLACs was four versus 65 patients at HHACs. Analysis included 471 patients in RTOG 0129 (2002 to 2005) with known human papillomavirus and smoking status. Patients at HLACs versus HHACs had better performance status (0: 62% v 52%; P = .04) and lower T stage (T4: 26.5% v 35.3%; P = .002) but were otherwise similar. Radiotherapy protocol deviations were higher at HLACs versus HHACs (18% v 6%; P < .001). When compared with HHACs, patients at HLACs had worse OS (5 years: 51.0% v 69.1%; P = .002). Treatment at HLACs was associated with increased death risk of 91% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.65) after adjustment for prognostic factors and 72% (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.40) after radiotherapy compliance adjustment. Conclusion OS is worse for patients with HNC treated at HLACs versus HHACs to cooperative group trials after accounting for radiotherapy protocol deviations. Institutional experience substantially influences survival in locally advanced HNC. PMID:25488965

  6. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  7. Breast cancer survivors' barriers and motives for participating in a group-based physical activity program offered in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Amanda; St-Aubin, Anik; Brunet, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the barriers and motives experienced by women attending an 8-week group-based physical activity program offered in the community following treatment for breast cancer. Seven women were interviewed during the first and last week of the program. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Factors that hindered women's continued participation could be subdivided into situational barriers, which encompassed community (i.e., distance of center and traffic) and institutional factors (i.e., competing roles and responsibilities), and internal barriers, which consisted of cancer-specific limitations. Motives for initial and continued participation were situational (i.e., gaining social support, networking, and being around similar others) and internal (i.e., feeling a sense of personal fulfillment, acquiring health benefits, and recovering from cancer). The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of women's motives to engage in a group-based physical activity program after treatment for breast cancer. Further, they underscore the necessity of considering situational and internal barriers when developing group-based physical activity programs to increase regular participation, optimize adherence, and reduce drop-out.

  8. Chronological changes in lung cancer surgery in a single Japanese institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Haruhiko Nakamura, Hiroki Sakai, Hiroyuki Kimura, Tomoyuki Miyazawa, Hideki Marushima, Hisashi Saji Department of Chest Surgery, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronological changes in epidemiological factors and surgical outcomes in patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery in a single Japanese institution.Patients and methods: A clinicopathological database of patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery with curative intent from January 1974 to December 2014 was reviewed. The chronological changes in various factors, including patient’s age, sex, histological type, tumor size, pathological stage (p-stage, surgical method, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, 30-day mortality, and postoperative overall survival (OS, were evaluated.Results: A total of 1,616 patients were included. The numbers of resected patients, females, adenocarcinomas, p-stage IA patients, and age at the time of surgery increased with time, but tumor size decreased (all P<0.0001. Concerning surgical methods, the number of sublobar resections increased, but that of pneumonectomies decreased (P<0.0001. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and the postoperative 30-day mortality rate decreased (all P<0.0001. When the patients were divided into two groups (1974–2004 and 2005–2014, the 5-year OS rates for all patients and for p-stage IA patients improved from 44% to 79% and from 73% to 89%, respectively (all P<0.0001. The best 5-year OS rate was obtained for sublobar resection (73%, followed by lobectomy (60%, combined resection (22%, and pneumonectomy (21%; P<0.0001.Conclusion: Changes in epidemiological factors, a trend toward less invasive surgery, and a remarkably improved postoperative OS were confirmed, which demonstrated the increasingly important role of surgery in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. Keywords: lung cancer, surgery, sublobar

  9. Locally advanced cervix cancer: chemotherapy prior to definitive surgery or radiotherapy. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, C.; O'Donnell, A.; Tattersall, M.H.N.; Dalrymple, C.; Firth, I.

    2001-01-01

    Primary or neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy has potential advantages for locally advanced cervix cancer. It can down stage a cancer and allow definitive local therapy to be technically possible (surgery), or potentially more effective (radiotherapy). It can also eradicate subclinical systemic metastases. This report reviews a single institution's experience of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy for cervix cancer over a 13-year period. One hundred and six patients were treated with this intent. The patients were analysed for their response to chemotherapy, treatment received, survival, relapse and toxicity. The chemotherapy was feasible and the majority of patients had a complete or partial response (58.5%). Eight patients did not proceed to local treatment. Forty-six patients had definitive surgery and 52 had definitive radiotherapy. The 5-year overall survival was 27% and the majority of patients died with disease. The first site of relapse was usually in the pelvis (46.2%). Late complications that required ongoing medical therapy (n = 6) or surgical intervention (n = 2) were recorded in eight patients (7.5%). On univariate analysis stage (P= 0.04), tumour size (P = 0.01), lymph node status (P=0.003), response to chemotherapy (P = 0.045) and treatment (P = 0.003) were all significant predictors of survival. On multivariate analysis, tumour size (P < 0.0001) and nodal status (P = 0.02) were significant predictors of survival. Despite the impressive responses to chemotherapy of advanced cervix cancer, there is evidence from randomized trials that it does not improve or compromise survival prior to radiotherapy. As its role prior to surgery remains unclear, it should not be used in this setting outside a prospective randomized trial. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Academic Community Consumer Assessment an Institution of Public Higher Education in Relation to Green it Practices in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernan Contreras Pinochet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is understanding the consumers of the academic community community in a public higher education institution in relation to Green IT practices in organizations. This study aims to confirm the model developed by Lunardi et al. (2011 Lunardi et al. (2014 through the application of multivariate statistical technique of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The survey research was conducted in a public higher education institution, based in the city of Osasco, using structured questionnaire with five point likert scale options and the respondents were: the students and professors from graduate school in Business Administration, in addition to employees administrative technician education. The results confirmed the highly significant and demonstrate that the model is consistent with proper adjustment can be used in future research.

  11. Surpluses and Deficits: How University Partners Perceive University-Community Partnerships at One Ivy League Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Klebanoff Cohen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available University-community partnerships are a critical method for how universities can serve the public interest.  Yet key questions remain: how do these partnerships work in practice, and how can university and fill reciprocal and mutual needs effectively?  A participatory evaluation of university-community partnerships in education at an Ivy League university found that university partners had a surplus perspective of the university and a deficit perspective of community partners; practitioners must shift our paradigm towards mutually beneficial, asset-driven university-community partnerships to ensure success.

  12. Community-led cancer action councils in Queens, New York: process evaluation of an innovative partnership with the Queens library system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Roy, Upal; Michel, Tamara; Carpenter, Alison; Lounsbury, David W; Sabino, Eilleen; Stevenson, Alexis Jurow; Combs, Sarah; Jacobs, Jasmine; Padgett, Deborah; Rapkin, Bruce D

    2014-02-06

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has great potential to address cancer disparities, particularly in racially and ethnically diverse and underserved neighborhoods. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of an innovative academic-community partnership, Queens Library HealthLink, which aimed to reduce cancer disparities through neighborhood groups (Cancer Action Councils) that convened in public libraries in Queens, New York. We used a mixed-methods approach to conduct 69 telephone survey interviews and 4 focus groups (15 participants) with Cancer Action Council members. We used 4 performance criteria to inform data collection: action or attention to sustainability, library support for the council, social cohesion and group leadership, and activity level. Focus group transcripts were independently coded and cross-checked for consensus until saturation was achieved. Members reported benefits and barriers to participation. Thirty-three original focus group transcript codes were organized into 8 main themes related to member experiences: 1) library as a needed resource, 2) library as a reputable and nondenominational institution, 3) value of library staff, 4) need for a HealthLink specialist, 5) generation of ideas and coordination of tasks, 6) participation challenges, 7) use of community connections, and 8) collaboration for sustainability. In response to the process evaluation, Cancer Action Council members and HealthLink staff incorporated member suggestions to improve council sustainability. The councils merged to increase intercouncil collaboration, and institutional changes were made in funding to sustain a HealthLink specialist beyond the grant period.

  13. Institutional Effectiveness Analysis and Student Goal Attainment in the Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marilyn Wertheimer

    In an effort to effect institutional change through an analysis of institutional effectiveness, California's Fresno City College (FCC) undertook a 3-year project to examine student success. In order to determine appropriate measures of and methodologies for improving student success, a Student Success Task was established, developing 13 core…

  14. Building Connections, Collections, and Communities: Increasing the Visibility and Impact of Extension through Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inefuku, Harrison W.; Franz, Nancy K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, university libraries have developed and manage institutional repositories--digital libraries that provide free, public access to the research, scholarship, and publications of their university's faculty, staff, and students. Although underused by Extension professionals, institutional repositories are powerful tools that…

  15. Radiogenomics of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: Multireader Multi-Institutional Study from the Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer Imaging Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Huang, Erich P; Lakhman, Yulia; Ippolito, Joseph E; Bhosale, Priya; Mellnick, Vincent; Shinagare, Atul B; Anello, Maria; Kirby, Justin; Fevrier-Sullivan, Brenda; Freymann, John; Jaffe, C Carl; Sala, Evis

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate interradiologist agreement on assessments of computed tomography (CT) imaging features of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), to assess their associations with time-to-disease progression (TTP) and HGSOC transcriptomic profiles (Classification of Ovarian Cancer [CLOVAR]), and to develop an imaging-based risk score system to predict TTP and CLOVAR profiles. Materials and Methods This study was a multireader, multi-institutional, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 92 patients with HGSOC (median age, 61 years) with abdominopelvic CT before primary cytoreductive surgery available through the Cancer Imaging Archive. Eight radiologists from the Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer Imaging Research Group developed and independently recorded the following CT features: characteristics of primary ovarian mass(es), presence of definable mesenteric implants and infiltration, presence of other implants, presence and distribution of peritoneal spread, presence and size of pleural effusions and ascites, lymphadenopathy, and distant metastases. Interobserver agreement for CT features was assessed, as were univariate and multivariate associations with TTP and CLOVAR mesenchymal profile (worst prognosis). Results Interobserver agreement for some features was strong (eg, α = .78 for pleural effusion and ascites) but was lower for others (eg, α = .08 for intraparenchymal splenic metastases). Presence of peritoneal disease in the right upper quadrant (P = .0003), supradiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy (P = .0004), more peritoneal disease sites (P = .0006), and nonvisualization of a discrete ovarian mass (P = .0037) were associated with shorter TTP. More peritoneal disease sites (P = .0025) and presence of pouch of Douglas implants (P = .0045) were associated with CLOVAR mesenchymal profile. Combinations of imaging features contained predictive signal for TTP (concordance index = 0.658; P = .0006) and CLOVAR profile (mean

  16. Fox Chase Network: Fox Chase Cancer Center's community hospital affiliation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higman, S A; McKay, F J; Engstrom, P F; O'Grady, M A; Young, R C

    2000-01-01

    Fox Chase Cancer Center developed a format for affiliation with community providers in 1986. Fox Chase Network was formed to establish hospital-based community cancer centers to increase access to patients involved in clinical research. Under this program, the Fox Chase Network now contributes 500 patients per year to prevention and clinical research studies. As relationships with community providers form, patient referrals have increased at Fox Chase Cancer Center and for each Fox Chase Network member. A dedicated staff is required to operate the central office on a day-to-day basis as well as at each affiliate. We have found this to be a critical element in each program's success. New challenges in the cancer business-increasing volumes with declining revenue-have caused us to reconfigure the services offered to affiliates, while maintaining true to our mission: to reduce the burden of human cancer.

  17. Analysis of institutional mechanisms that support community response to impacts of floods in the middle-zambezi river basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonda, P.; Mabiza, C.; Makurira, H.; Kujinga, K.; Nhapi, I.; Goldin, J.; Mashauri, D. A.

    In recent years, the frequency of occurrence of floods has increased in Southern Africa. An increase in the frequency of extreme events is partly attributed to climate change. Floods negatively impact on livelihoods, especially those classified as poor, mainly by reducing livelihood options and also contributing to reduced crop yields. In response to these climatic events, governments within Southern Africa have formulated policies which try to mitigate the impacts of floods. Floods can be deadly, often occurring at short notice, lasting for short periods, and causing widespread damage to infrastructure. This study analysed institutional mechanisms in Mbire District of Zimbabwe which aim at mitigating the impact of floods. The study used both quantitative (i.e. questionnaires) and qualitative (i.e. key informant interviews, focus group discussions and observations) data collection methods. Secondary data such as policy and legislation documents and operational manuals of organisations that support communities affected by disasters were reviewed. Qualitative data was analysed using the thematic approach and social network analysis using UCINET 6. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The study found out that there exists institutional framework that has been developed at the national and local level to support communities in the study area in response to the impacts of floods. This is supported by various pieces of legislation that are housed in different government departments. However, the existing institutional framework does not effectively strengthen disaster management mechanisms at the local level. Lack of financial resources and appropriate training and skills to undertake flood management activities reduce the capacity of communities and disaster management organisations to effectively mitigate the impacts of floods. The study also found that there are inadequate hydro-meteorological stations to enable accurate forecasts. Even in those cases

  18. Awareness and behavior of oncologists and support measures in medical institutions related to ongoing employment of cancer patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koji; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako

    2012-04-01

    Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists.

  19. Awareness and behavior of oncologists and support measures in medical institutions related to ongoing employment of cancer patients in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Koji; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako

    2012-01-01

    Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists. (author)

  20. Community Colleges and the Media: Getting Effective Coverage for Your Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Looks at college marketing and promotion from the media's point of view, and addresses the challenges media personnel face in retrieving timely information from colleges and in establishing working relationships with marketing and public relations practitioners in community colleges. Describes what journalists expect from community colleges and…

  1. Community Colleges and Underappreciated Assets: Using Institutional Data to Promote Success in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachey, Alyse; Conway, Katherine; Wladis, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Adapting to the 21st century, community colleges are not adding brick and mortar to meet enrollment demands. Instead, they are expanding services through online learning, with at least 61% of all community college students taking online courses today (Pearson, 2011). As online learning is affording alternate pathways to education for students, it…

  2. Institutional review board community members: who are they, what do they do, and whom do they represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2012-07-01

    The roles of nonaffiliated and nonscientific institutional review board (IRB) members at academic medical centers have received some attention, but questions remain-Who are they, what do they do, and whom, if anyone, do they represent? The author interviewed 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators, and members in 2007-2009. He contacted the leadership of 60 IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), interviewed IRB leaders from 34 of these institutions, then recruited 7 additional members from these IRBs to interview. Regular IRB members often called these individuals community members and were confused as to who these members were, or should be, and whether they did, or should, represent anyone and, if so, whom. IRBs encountered challenges in finding, training, and retaining these community members. Tensions emerged because nonscientific members, by definition, have no scientific training, so they have difficulty understanding key aspects of protocols, making them feel unempowered to contribute to reviews. IRBs varied in how much they encouraged these members to participate, in what ways, and with what success. At academic medical centers, IRBs struggled with how to view, choose, employ, and retain nonaffiliated and nonscientific members, and they varied widely in these regards. Some IRBs had these members review entire protocols, others only limited parts (particularly reading consent forms for comprehension), pro forma. Yet, at times, these members' input proved very important. These findings have critical implications for policy, practice, and research.

  3. Science, institutional archives and open access: an overview and a pilot survey on the Italian cancer research institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Truccolo, Ivana; Di Benedetto, Corrado; Castelli, Mauro; Mazzocut, Mauro; Cognetti, Gaetana

    2010-12-20

    The Open Archive Initiative (OAI) refers to a movement started around the '90 s to guarantee free access to scientific information by removing the barriers to research results, especially those related to the ever increasing journal subscription prices. This new paradigm has reshaped the scholarly communication system and is closely connected to the build up of institutional repositories (IRs) conceived to the benefit of scientists and research bodies as a means to keep possession of their own literary production. The IRs are high-value tools which permit authors to gain visibility by enabling rapid access to scientific material (not only publications) thus increasing impact (citation rate) and permitting a multidimensional assessment of research findings. A survey was conducted in March 2010 to mainly explore the managing system in use for archiving the research finding adopted by the Italian Scientific Institutes for Research, Hospitalization and Health Care (IRCCS) of the oncology area within the Italian National Health Service (Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, SSN). They were asked to respond to a questionnaire intended to collect data about institutional archives, metadata formats and posting of full-text documents. The enquiry concerned also the perceived role of the institutional repository DSpace ISS, built up by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) and based on a XML scheme for encoding metadata. Such a repository aims at acting as a unique reference point for the biomedical information produced by the Italian research institutions. An in-depth analysis has also been performed on the collection of information material addressed to patients produced by the institutions surveyed. The survey respondents were 6 out of 9. The results reveal the use of different practices and standard among the institutions concerning: the type of documentation collected, the software adopted, the use and format of metadata and the conditions of accessibility to the IRs. The

  4. Involvement in Community Extension Program of Business Administration Students in one Higher Education Institution in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Anne May A. Rubio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conducting community service is about relationship on building communities. It is designed for personal and social development. The researchers conduct this investigation to assess the Community Extension program of the College of Business Administration (CBA in one Private Higher Education Institution in the Philippines. The descriptive method of research utilizing the normative survey technique was employed in the study. The results of the study revealed that majority of the respondents are first year level and from Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. It also shows that there are students who are not involve in any organization of the college. This study further shows that community extension program of the college was well implemented. Students were well involved in the said activities. The students can expect benefits that will help them grow to a more productive and efficient students and member of the community. Moreover, there are also some expected problems in joining this kind of activity like funds, location and the logistics. The extension programs may continue to move on and reach out for the sustainable development of the students and community.

  5. Children's cancer camps: a sense of community, a sense of family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J

    2014-05-01

    Childhood cancer is a family affair, and each year in Canada, approximately 1,400 children and adolescents under the age of 20 are diagnosed with cancer. Innumerable challenges accompany this diagnosis, and in recognition of the stress of childhood cancer, children's cancer camps arose in the 1970s to help children and their families escape the rigidity and severity of cancer treatment. Very little is known about these cancer camps, and to that end, a philosophical hermeneutic study was conducted to understand the meaning of children's cancer camps for the child with cancer and the family. Six families were interviewed to bring understanding to this topic. While the research included findings related to the concept of play, fit and acceptance, storytelling, and grief, this paper will detail the finding related to the solidarity of the community--the "camp family"--as one that creates intense, healing bonds.

  6. Commentary: Utilizing Community-Engaged Approaches to Investigate and Address Hmong Women’s Cancer Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M.A. Sparks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a growing concern for women in the Hmong community. Hmong women experience poor health outcomes for both cervical and breast cancer, largely due to low rates of screening and resultant late-stage at diagnosis. Both breast and cervical cancer screening are complicated by a multitude of social, cultural and environmental factors which influence health care decision-making and can otherwise serve to restrict access. We argue that community-engaged research, an orientation which prioritizes collaborative, equitable partnerships and community voice in identifying both problems and solutions, can be a valuable approach to helping address cancer health disparities for Hmong women. Using the Milwaukee-based “Healthy Hmong Women” project as a case example, we detail how the community-engaged approach implemented by the project partners was critical in identifying factors contributing to Hmong cancer disparities and appropriate interventions, as well as the overall acceptance and success of the project. Specifically, we discuss how this approach: (1 promoted community investment and ownership in the project; (2 facilitated the integration of local perspectives and experiences; (3 built capacity to address cancer screening disparities; (4 facilitated the creation of interventions targeting multiple ecological levels; and (5 framed the community as the foundation and driver of positive change.

  7. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women.

  8. Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Cancer Survivors and Their Family Members: Korea Community Health Survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi Ah

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of perceived stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members compared with subjects without cancer and without family members with cancer. The subjects of this cross-sectional study were adults ≥19 years old who participated in the 2012 Korea Community Health Survey. Stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members were assessed and compared to symptoms in control groups by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of the 6783 cancer survivors, 26.9% and 8.7% reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively, and 27.7% and 5.9% of family members of cancer survivors reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively. Cancer survivors showed higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for stress (aOR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-1.37) and depressive symptoms (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.57-2.11) than subjects without cancer history. Family members of cancer survivors showed a higher OR for stress and depressive symptoms than subjects without a family member who survived cancer. Cancer survivors and family members of cancer survivors had more stress and depressive symptoms than controls. Careful management for cancer patients and their family members should include screening for stress and depression to improve mental health associated with cancer survivorship.

  9. Enhancing Cancer Education through the Arts: Building Connections with Alaska Native People, Cultures and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Cueva, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Building upon the dynamic traditions of Alaska Native people, which include the arts as a viable way of knowing, the expressive arts were woven into a five-day cancer education course for Alaska village-based Community Health Workers (CHWs). Cancer is the leading cause of mortality for Alaska Native people. Course learning modalities included…

  10. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National

  11. Differences in cancer mortality rates in Ohio communities with respect to uraniferous geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzik, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Populations in areas of uraniferous geology may be at risk from radon emissions. Twenty-eight municipalities were examined as to their location with respect to uraniferous geology. Communities with possible radon risk had higher rates for all cancers and cancer of the respiratory system, but differences were not statistically significant. Some possible reasons for the results are discussed

  12. The Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of the National Cancer Institute - its resources to assist patients with bone marrow failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabak, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the bone marrow transplantation center of the brazilian National Cancer Institute, which is responsible for the cancer control in Brazil. The document also describes the resources available in the Institute for assisting patients presenting bone marrow failures. The Center provides for allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplants, peripheral stem cell transplants, umbilical cord collections and transplants, and a small experience with unrelated bone marrow transplants. The Center receives patient from all over the country and provides very sophisticated medical care at no direct cost to the patients

  13. Exploration on Planning Methods for Rural Communities in the Local Economic and Institutional Contexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; WANG; Xin; PAN; Zhilun; XIAO; Xiangwei; CHENG; Caige; LI

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the wave of rural community construction, compares the urban and rural areas on the aspects of land property right, financing channels, construction management procedures, and the user-builder difference, and examines the unique characteristics of rural communities. On the basis of that, it proposes some planning methods for the rural community planning and construction, such as encouraging public participation, conducting public facility-oriented planning, and providing house-design menu, and further puts forward some supporting measures and policies.

  14. Proton Beam Reirradiation for Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer: Multi-institutional Report on Feasibility and Early Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romesser, Paul B. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology, New York, New York (United States); Cahlon, Oren [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology, New York, New York (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Scher, Eli D. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology, New York, New York (United States); Hug, Eugen B.; Sine, Kevin [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); DeSelm, Carl [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology, New York, New York (United States); Fox, Jana L. [Montefiore Medical Center, Radiation Oncology, Bronx, New York (United States); Mah, Dennis [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Garg, Madhur K. [Montefiore Medical Center, Radiation Oncology, Bronx, New York (United States); Han-Chih Chang, John [Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Lee, Nancy Y., E-mail: leen2@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Reirradiation therapy (re-RT) is the only potentially curative treatment option for patients with locally recurrent head and neck cancer (HNC). Given the significant morbidity with head and neck re-RT, interest in proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) has increased. We report the first multi-institutional clinical experience using curative-intent PBRT for re-RT in recurrent HNC. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of ongoing prospective data registries from 2 hybrid community practice and academic proton centers was conducted. Patients with recurrent HNC who underwent at least 1 prior course of definitive-intent external beam radiation therapy (RT) were included. Acute and late toxicities were assessed with the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late radiation morbidity scoring system, respectively. The cumulative incidence of locoregional failure was calculated with death as a competing risk. The actuarial 12-month freedom–from–distant metastasis and overall survival rates were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Ninety-two consecutive patients were treated with curative-intent re-RT with PBRT between 2011 and 2014. Median follow-up among surviving patients was 13.3 months and among all patients was 10.4 months. The median time between last RT and PBRT was 34.4 months. There were 76 patients with 1 prior RT course and 16 with 2 or more courses. The median PBRT dose was 60.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness, [RBE]). Eighty-five percent of patients underwent prior HNC RT for an oropharynx primary, and 39% underwent salvage surgery before re-RT. The cumulative incidence of locoregional failure at 12 months, with death as a competing risk, was 25.1%. The actuarial 12-month freedom–from–distant metastasis and overall survival rates were 84.0% and 65.2%, respectively. Acute toxicities of grade 3 or greater included mucositis (9

  15. Proton Beam Reirradiation for Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer: Multi-institutional Report on Feasibility and Early Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romesser, Paul B.; Cahlon, Oren; Scher, Eli D.; Hug, Eugen B.; Sine, Kevin; DeSelm, Carl; Fox, Jana L.; Mah, Dennis; Garg, Madhur K.; Han-Chih Chang, John; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Reirradiation therapy (re-RT) is the only potentially curative treatment option for patients with locally recurrent head and neck cancer (HNC). Given the significant morbidity with head and neck re-RT, interest in proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) has increased. We report the first multi-institutional clinical experience using curative-intent PBRT for re-RT in recurrent HNC. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of ongoing prospective data registries from 2 hybrid community practice and academic proton centers was conducted. Patients with recurrent HNC who underwent at least 1 prior course of definitive-intent external beam radiation therapy (RT) were included. Acute and late toxicities were assessed with the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late radiation morbidity scoring system, respectively. The cumulative incidence of locoregional failure was calculated with death as a competing risk. The actuarial 12-month freedom–from–distant metastasis and overall survival rates were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Ninety-two consecutive patients were treated with curative-intent re-RT with PBRT between 2011 and 2014. Median follow-up among surviving patients was 13.3 months and among all patients was 10.4 months. The median time between last RT and PBRT was 34.4 months. There were 76 patients with 1 prior RT course and 16 with 2 or more courses. The median PBRT dose was 60.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness, [RBE]). Eighty-five percent of patients underwent prior HNC RT for an oropharynx primary, and 39% underwent salvage surgery before re-RT. The cumulative incidence of locoregional failure at 12 months, with death as a competing risk, was 25.1%. The actuarial 12-month freedom–from–distant metastasis and overall survival rates were 84.0% and 65.2%, respectively. Acute toxicities of grade 3 or greater included mucositis (9

  16. [Nutritional status in patients first hospital admissions service hematology National Cancer Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar Luna, E; Omaña Guzmán, L I; Ortiz Hernández, L; Ñamendis-Silva, S A; De Nicola Delfin, L

    2013-01-01

    To determine the nutritional status of patients admitted to hospital for the first time the hematology service and who have not received treatment for cancer, to know if the nutritional status assessed by the EGS-GP and serum albumin related mortality of patients A longitudinal, prospective, analytical. EGS-Through GP assessed the nutritional status of patients, we used SPSS 19.0 for data analysis. Evaluaron 119 patients, 52.1% female and 47.9% male. The most common diagnosis was non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 43.7%. According to the EGS-GP 50.4% of patients had some degree of malnutrition or was at risk of suffering of which: 31.1% had moderate and 19.3% had severe malnutrition. The 49.6% of patients had an adequate nutritional status. 30.3% of the patients who died, 37% had severe malnutrition and 50% severe decrease in albumin concentration. The prevalence of malnutrition in hematological patients treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico that have not received medical treatment was high. There is an association between nutritional status and mortality in this patient group. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronological changes in lung cancer surgery in a single Japanese institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Haruhiko; Sakai, Hiroki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Tomoyuki; Marushima, Hideki; Saji, Hisashi

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronological changes in epidemiological factors and surgical outcomes in patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery in a single Japanese institution. Patients and methods A clinicopathological database of patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery with curative intent from January 1974 to December 2014 was reviewed. The chronological changes in various factors, including patient’s age, sex, histological type, tumor size, pathological stage (p-stage), surgical method, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, 30-day mortality, and postoperative overall survival (OS), were evaluated. Results A total of 1,616 patients were included. The numbers of resected patients, females, adenocarcinomas, p-stage IA patients, and age at the time of surgery increased with time, but tumor size decreased (all P<0.0001). Concerning surgical methods, the number of sublobar resections increased, but that of pneumonectomies decreased (P<0.0001). The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and the postoperative 30-day mortality rate decreased (all P<0.0001). When the patients were divided into two groups (1974–2004 and 2005–2014), the 5-year OS rates for all patients and for p-stage IA patients improved from 44% to 79% and from 73% to 89%, respectively (all P<0.0001). The best 5-year OS rate was obtained for sublobar resection (73%), followed by lobectomy (60%), combined resection (22%), and pneumonectomy (21%; P<0.0001). Conclusion Changes in epidemiological factors, a trend toward less invasive surgery, and a remarkably improved postoperative OS were confirmed, which demonstrated the increasingly important role of surgery in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. PMID:28331339

  18. Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy for early stage prostate cancer: a single-institution review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Simon; Weiß, Susan; Baaske, Dieter; Schöpe, Michael; Stevens, Simon; Bodis, Stephan; Zwahlen, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting the five-year biochemical control, toxicity profile and dosimetric parameters using iodine-125 low dose rate brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer at a single institution. Between April 2006 and December 2010, 169 men with early stage prostate cancer were treated with BT. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL). Treatment-related morbidities, including urinary, rectal and sexual function, were measured, applying the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the 7-grade Quality of Life Scale (QoL) and medical status, the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.03). Seed migration and loss, dosimetric parameters and learning effects were also analyzed. Medium follow-up time was 50 months (range, 1–85 months). The five-year biochemical failure rate was 7%. Acute proctitis rates were 19% (grade 1) and 1% (grade 2), respectively. The overall incidence of incontinence was 19% (mild), 16% (moderate) and < 1% (severe). An increase in IPSS ≥ 5 points was detected in 59% of patients, with 38% regaining their baseline. Seed dislocation was found in 24% of patients and correlated with D90 and V100. A learning curve was found for seed migration, D90 and V100. QoL correlated with the general health condition of patient, incontinence symptoms and IPSS. BT for early stage prostate cancer offers excellent five-year biochemical control with low toxicities. QoL aspects are favorable. A learning curve was detected for procedural aspects but its impact on patient relevant endpoints remains inconclusive

  19. Institutional delivery service utilization in Munisa Woreda, South East Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Abdella; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Birhanu, Zelalem

    2012-10-08

    Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is a global priority which is particularly relevant to developing countries like Ethiopia. One of the key strategies for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is increasing institutional delivery service utilization of mothers under the care of skilled birth attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the level of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 1-20, 2011, among mothers who gave birth 12 months before the study began in Munesa Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Southeast Ethiopia. A stratified cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 855 participants. Out of all deliveries, only 12.3% took place at health facilities. Women who were urban residents (AOR = 2.27, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.40), women of age at interview less than 20 years (AOR = 6.06, 95%CI: 1.54, 23.78), women with first pregnancy (AOR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.97) and, women who had ANC visit during the last pregnancy (AOR = 4.18, 95%CI: 2.54, 6.89) were more likely to deliver at health institutions. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education had also a significant effect on health institution delivery with AOR = 4.31 (95%CI: 1.62, 11.46) and AOR = 2.77 (95%CI: 1.07, 7.19) respectively. Institutional delivery service utilization was found to be low in the study area. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education, urban residence and ANC visit were amongst the main factors that had an influence on health institution delivery. Increasing the awareness of mothers and their partners about the benefits of institutional delivery services are recommended.

  20. Community integration and life satisfaction among individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community after receiving institutional care in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nayeema; Quadir, Mohammad Morshedul; Rahman, Mohammad Akhlasur; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2018-05-01

    This study reports level of community integration and life satisfaction among individuals who sustained traumatic spinal cord injuries, received institutional rehabilitation care services, and went back to live in the community in Bangladesh. It examines the impact of type of injury, demographic characteristics, socio-economic profile, and secondary health conditions on community integration and life satisfaction and explores the association between these two measures. Individuals with spinal cord injury were telephone interviewed by the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed, Bangladesh from February to June of 2014. Data were collected from the subjects on type of injury, demographic and socio-economic profile, and secondary health conditions. The outcome measures were determined by using two validated tools - Community Integration Questionnaire and Life Satisfaction 9 Questionnaire. Total community integration and life satisfaction scores were 15.09 and 3.69, respectively. A significant positive relationship between community integration and life satisfaction was revealed. Type of injury, gender, and age were found to be significant predictors of both community integration and life satisfaction scores. Higher education was significantly related to community integration and life satisfaction scores. Participants scored low in total community integration and life satisfaction, suggesting there is a great need to develop interventions by governmental and non-governmental organizations to better integrate individuals with spinal cord injury in the community. Implications for Rehabilitation Government and non-government organizations should offer disability friendly public transportation facilities for individuals with spinal cord injury so that they can return to education, resume employment, and involve in social activities. Entrepreneurs and businesses should develop assistive devices featuring low technology, considering the rural structure and housing

  1. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)" will be presented by Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, Chair of the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX. Date: 2/20/2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI Shady Grove Campus,

  2. Prostate cancer survivors as community health educators: implications for informed decision making and cancer communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Santosh; Wray, Ricardo J; Jupka, Keri; Clarke, Ryan; Shahid, Mellve

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidence questioning the effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen testing leave community-based prostate cancer (CaP) outreach programs with a dilemma between promoting screening and highlighting screening risks. CaP survivors are uniquely positioned to address this problem by drawing upon real-life experiences to share nuanced information and perspectives. While CaP survivors have historically been incorporated into outreach programs, little is known about their impact on psychosocial outcomes and their effectiveness compared to professional health educators. This study addressed these gaps through a quasi-experimental design where African American men attended a CaP screening session conducted by a health educator (HE) or survivor educator (SV). The presentation included prostate cancer statistics, CaP information, and descriptions of CaP screening tests. SV were encouraged to bolster their presentations with personal stories whereas HE maintained fidelity to the curriculum content. All participants completed pre- and post-test questionnaires. Our sample comprised a total of 63 participants (HE group = 32; SV group = 31) with an age range of 40-70 years. Decision self-efficacy increased significantly in the SV group (p = 0.01) whereas perceived screening risks reduced significantly in the HE group (p communication efforts confronted by the CaP screening controversy. We discuss conceptual and programmatic implications of our findings and present directions for future research.

  3. Benefits of Peer Support in Online Japanese Breast Cancer Communities: Differences Between Lurkers and Posters

    OpenAIRE

    Setoyama, Yoko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Namayama, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 has improved interactions among peers on the Internet, especially for the many online patient communities that have emerged over the past decades. Online communities are said to be particularly beneficial peer support resources for patients with breast cancer. However, most studies of online patient communities have focused on those members who post actively (posters), even though there are many members who participate without posting (lurkers). In addition, little attentio...

  4. Accelerating cancer therapy development: the importance of combination strategies and collaboration. Summary of an Institute of Medicine workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoRusso, Patricia M; Canetta, Renzo; Wagner, John A; Balogh, Erin P; Nass, Sharyl J; Boerner, Scott A; Hohneker, John

    2012-11-15

    Cancer cells contain multiple genetic changes in cell signaling pathways that drive abnormal cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Unfortunately, patients treated with single agents inhibiting only one of these pathways--even if showing an initial response--often develop resistance with subsequent relapse or progression of their cancer, typically via the activation of an alternative uninhibited pathway. Combination therapies offer the potential for inhibiting multiple targets and pathways simultaneously to more effectively kill cancer cells and prevent or delay the emergence of drug resistance. However, there are many unique challenges to developing combination therapies, including devising and applying appropriate preclinical tests and clinical trial designs, prioritizing which combination therapies to test, avoiding overlapping toxicity of multiple agents, and overcoming legal, cultural, and regulatory barriers that impede collaboration among multiple companies, organizations, and/or institutions. More effective strategies to efficiently develop combination cancer therapies are urgently needed. Thus, the Institute of Medicine's National Cancer Policy Forum recently convened a workshop with the goal of identifying barriers that may be impeding the development of combination investigational cancer therapies, as well as potential solutions to overcome those barriers, improve collaboration, and ultimately accelerate the development of promising combinations of investigational cancer therapies. ©2012 AACR.

  5. Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, attitude and practices among nursing staff in a tertiary level teaching institution of rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Sharma, Chanderdeep; Thakur, Sita; Raina, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the nursing staff knowledge, attitude and practices about cervical cancer screening in a tertiary care teaching institute of rural India. A cross sectional, descriptive, interview- based survey was conducted with a pretested questionnaire among 262 staff nurses of a tertiary care teaching and research institute. In this study 77% respondents knew that Pap smear is used for detection of cervical cancer, but less than half knew that Pap smear can detect even precancerous lesions of cervix. Only 23.4% knew human papilloma virus infection as a risk factor. Only 26.7% of the respondents were judged as having adequate knowledge based on scores allotted for questions evaluating knowledge about cervical cancer and screening. Only 17 (7%) of the staff nurses had themselves been screened by Pap smear, while 85% had never taken a Pap smear of a patient. Adequate knowledge of cervical cancer and screening, higher parity and age >30 years were significantly associated with self screening for cervical cancer. Most nurses held a view that Pap test is a doctor procedure, and nearly 90% of nurses had never referred a patient for Pap testing. The majority of nursing staff in rural India may have inadequate knowledge about cervical cancer screening, and their attitude and practices towards cervical cancer screening could not be termed positive.

  6. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-01-01

    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.

  7. Markets and institutions: relations agents/regulators. The new power of Spanish Autonomous Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guayo Castiella, I. de

    2007-01-01

    The implementation in Spain of the 2003 European Directive on common rules for the internal market for electricity implies a more precise determination of who are the regulatory authorities, as well as which powers enjoy each of them; in Spain, also, the implementation process, relating to the regulatory authorities issues, including the competence of the Autonomous Communities. The implementation process has taken place soon after new Statutes of a number of Autonomous Communities have been passed, where energy issues, at least apparently, are subject to a new treatment. (Author) 25 refs

  8. Cancer screening information at community health fairs: What the participants do with information they receive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrose, Erica; Ledergerber, Jessica; Acheampong, Derrick; Jandorf, Lina

    2017-09-21

    To assess participants' reasons for seeking cancer screening information at community health fairs and what they do with the information they receive. Mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was used. Community health fairs are organized in underserved New York City neighbourhoods. From June 14, 2016 to August 26, 2016, cancer prevention tables providing information about various cancer screenings were established at 12 local community health fairs in New York City. In-person and follow up telephone surveys assessing interest in the cancer prevention table, personal cancer screening adherence rates, information-sharing behaviours and demographic variables have been taken into account. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS 22.0: frequencies, descriptive, cross tabulations. All qualitative data was coded by theme so that it could be analysed through SPSS. For example, Were you interested in a specific cancer? may be coded as 2 for yes , breast cancer . One hundred and sixteen patrons participated in the initial survey. Of those, 88 (78%) agreed to give their contact information for the follow-up survey and 60 follow-up surveys were completed (68%). Of those who reported reading the material, 45% shared the information; 15% subsequently spoke to a provider about cancer screenings and 40% intended to speak to a provider. Participants disseminated information without prompting; suggesting the reach of these fairs extends beyond the people who visit our table. Future studies should look at whether patrons would share information at higher rates when they are explicitly encouraged to share the information.

  9. A community intervention: AMBER: Arab American breast cancer education and referral program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayash, Claudia; Axelrod, Deborah; Nejmeh-Khoury, Sana; Aziz, Arwa; Yusr, Afrah; Gany, Francesca M

    2011-12-01

    Although the number of Arab Americans is growing in the United States, there is very little data available on this population's cancer incidence and screening practices. Moreover, there are few interventions addressing their unique needs. This study aims to determine effective strategies for increasing breast cancer screening in at-risk underserved Arab American women. AMBER utilizes a community based participatory approach to conduct formative research and program interventions, including culturally appropriate Arabic language breast cancer education, screening coordination, and cultural competency training for healthcare professionals in New York City. In 2 years, 597 women were educated, 189 underserved women were identified as being in need of assistance, 68 were screened, one new case of breast cancer was detected, and four active cases in need of follow-up reconnected with care. The AMBER model is an important intervention for breast cancer screening and care in the underserved Arab American community.

  10. Dissemination of colorectal cancer screening by Filipino American community health advisors: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Danao, Leda L; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-07-01

    Filipino Americans underutilize life-saving screening tests for colorectal cancer, resulting in late stage of diagnosis and poor survival relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Education regarding colorectal cancer screening and distribution of free fecal occult blood test (FOBT) kits are evidence-based interventions that can significantly increase screening. However, this community will only benefit if the intervention is broadly disseminated. We assessed the feasibility of promoting colorectal cancer screening in Filipino American community settings working with community health advisors, and the practicality of conducting one-on-one or small group education, in addition to passing out free FOBT kits. Twenty community health advisors from 4 organizations engaged in recruitment and education activities with 132 participants. Community health advisors consistently completed screening questionnaires to establish eligibility and kept logs of FOBT distribution. However, they did not consistently record eligible participants who did not consent to participate. Process checklists that indicated what information was covered in each educational session and postsession follow-up logs were partially completed. Almost all participants reported receipt of intervention components and receipt of screening at 4-month follow-up and reported high acceptability of the program. The pilot study established the feasibility of working with community health advisors to promote colorectal cancer screening in Filipino American community settings. Findings informed the design of a dissemination trial that is currently ongoing with regards to monitoring recruitment, intervention implementation and follow-up and allowing flexibility regarding one-on-one or small group education.

  11. Credibility and Social conflicts : Mining Institutions and Rural Community in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.

    2018-01-01

    The mining governance in China features a dilemma: on the one hand, there are various issues inherent in China’s mining institutions: 1) an outdated nature of the current legislation, 2) ambiguity in the regulations, and 3) administrative fragmentation of responsible authorities. On the other hand,

  12. Culturally-Relevant Online Cancer Education Modules Empower Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners to Disseminate Cancer Information and Reduce Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Katie; Revels, Laura; Cueva, Melany; Lanier, Anne P; Dignan, Mark; Viswanath, K; Fung, Teresa T; Geller, Alan C

    2017-04-12

    To address a desire for timely, medically accurate cancer education in rural Alaska, ten culturally relevant online learning modules were developed with, and for, Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps). The project was guided by the framework of Community-Based Participatory Action Research, honored Indigenous Ways of Knowing, and was informed by Empowerment Theory. A total of 428 end-of-module evaluation surveys were completed by 89 unique Alaska CHA/Ps between January and December 2016. CHA/Ps shared that as a result of completing the modules, they were empowered to share cancer information with their patients, families, friends, and communities, as well as engage in cancer risk reduction behaviors such as eating healthier, getting cancer screenings, exercising more, and quitting tobacco. CHA/Ps also reported the modules were informative and respectful of their diverse cultures. These results from end-of-module evaluation surveys suggest that the collaboratively developed, culturally relevant, online cancer education modules have empowered CHA/Ps to reduce cancer risk and disseminate cancer information. "brought me to tears couple of times, and I think it will help in destroying the silence that surrounds cancer".

  13. Vietnamese American women’s beliefs and perceptions on cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines: A community-based participatory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Kim Yen Nguyen-Truong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains commonly diagnosed in Vietnamese American women. Despite efforts to increase cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women, participation rates are persistently lower than the national goal. The objective of this study is to explore beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines. A qualitative descriptive investigation captured group perceptions about meaning and beliefs of cervical cancer, screening, and cancer prevention vaccines, and participants’ stories using a community-based participatory research approach. Forty Vietnamese American women were recruited from the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area into four focus groups. Using a process of directed content analysis, focus group transcripts were coded for themes. We found that cervical cancer continues to be a difficult topic to discuss, and Vietnamese American women may not bring the topic up themselves to their health care providers. Some women experienced intense emotions of fear or shame of having their cervix examined. Women delayed seeking cervical cancer screening and needed to have early warning signs, which guided them as to when to seek health care. Women focused on cleanliness through vaginal and/or perineal washing as primary prevention for cervical cancer. There were limited awareness and knowledge about cancer prevention vaccines, specifically the human papillomavirus. Some women relied heavily on their informal social networks of family, friends, or community for health knowledge. Fear and misunderstanding dominated the beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer screening and prevention. These findings underscored the importance of having culturally-specific findings, which will inform a multicomponent intervention to promote cervical cancer screening and cancer prevention vaccine uptake within this population.

  14. The Subclonal Architecture of Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results from a Prospective Community-Based Rapid Autopsy Program “CASCADE”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensburg, Christoffer; Alsop, Kathryn; Mansour, Mariam; Francis, Prudence A.; Thorne, Heather A.; Silva, Maria Joao; Kanu, Nnennaya; Dietzen, Michelle; Bowtell, David D.; Speed, Terence P.; Swanton, Charles; Loi, Sherene

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the cancer genome is seen as a key step in improving outcomes for cancer patients. Genomic assays are emerging as a possible avenue to personalised medicine in breast cancer. However, evolution of the cancer genome during the natural history of breast cancer is largely unknown, as is the profile of disease at death. We sought to study in detail these aspects of advanced breast cancers that have resulted in lethal disease. Methods and Findings Three patients with oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer and one patient with triple negative breast cancer underwent rapid autopsy as part of an institutional prospective community-based rapid autopsy program (CASCADE). Cases represented a range of management problems in breast cancer, including late relapse after early stage disease, de novo metastatic disease, discordant disease response, and disease refractory to treatment. Between 5 and 12 metastatic sites were collected at autopsy together with available primary tumours and longitudinal metastatic biopsies taken during life. Samples underwent paired tumour-normal whole exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Subclonal architectures were inferred by jointly analysing all samples from each patient. Mutations were validated using high depth amplicon sequencing. Between cases, there were significant differences in mutational burden, driver mutations, mutational processes, and copy number variation. Within each case, we found dramatic heterogeneity in subclonal structure from primary to metastatic disease and between metastatic sites, such that no single lesion captured the breadth of disease. Metastatic cross-seeding was found in each case, and treatment drove subclonal diversification. Subclones displayed parallel evolution of treatment resistance in some cases and apparent augmentation of key oncogenic drivers as an alternative resistance mechanism. We

  15. Differences in Texas Community College Certificate Completion Rates by Ethnicity/Race, Gender, and Institution Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the first study within this journal-ready dissertation was to determine the extent to which ethnicity/race-based differences were present in Texas community college completion rates specifically within workforce certificate programs. Regarding the second study, the purpose was to determine the extent to which gender…

  16. Outcome Data for MICA Clients after Participation in an Institutional Therapeutic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stelle, Kit R.; Moberg, D. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The current study assessed the effectiveness of a prison-based substance abuse treatment therapeutic community (TC) providing treatment to male inmates dually diagnosed with both substance abuse and mental health disorders. The findings show a short-term impact of the program on arrest after release, with program participants significantly less…

  17. Institutional Arrangements in seasonal floodplain management under community-based Aquaculture in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A.B.M.M.; Visser, L.E.; Dey Madan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal floodplains under private and public ownership in the Indo-Ganges river basin provide food and income for millions of people in Bangladesh. Floodplain ownership regimes are diverse, covering the whole spectrum from public to private ownership. The paper compares community-based fish culture

  18. Engaging Fans and the Community in Social Media: Interaction with Institutions of Higher Education on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brech, Felicitas M.; Messer, Uwe; Vander Schee, Brian A.; Rauschnabel, Philipp A.; Ivens, Bjoern S.

    2017-01-01

    Although many universities use social media to interact with stakeholders, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Drawing on theories of self-presentation and community engagement, we develop a theoretical model to explain these crucial outcome factors. We then test the model based on secondary data from 159 universities. Our findings…

  19. Patient Characteristics and Outcomes in Institutional and Community Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined three-way relationships among patient characteristics, type of care (admission to nursing home or community setting), and 6-month outcomes of 352 long-term care patients. Found that patient characteristics influenced type of care received and that substantial portions of variance in outcomes were attributable to initial differences among…

  20. Enabling Persistence of Veteran Students at North Carolina Community Colleges through Institutional Support Programs and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzes, Janice Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Over two million service men and women, returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, will take advantage of the educational benefits of the Post-9/11 GI Bill and will enroll in community colleges. Despite over 70 years of education benefits for U.S. veterans, there has been little research into the availability and effectiveness of…

  1. One Step beyond What the Literature Says on Institutional Effectiveness of Community, Junior, and Technical Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, William F.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the content of the literature on community, junior, and technical colleges, utilizing a matrix with seven major classifications (i.e., governance, organization, staffing, clientele, curriculum, finance, and evaluation) and three dimensions (i.e., structure/form, function/role, and process/operations). Offers observations on effectiveness…

  2. Formal institutions, local arrangements and conflicts in Northern Bolivian communities after forest governance reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano Cardona, W.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, community forest management (CFM) has become an alternative to reach important objectives related to forests sustainability and the improvement of forest dwellers’ wellbeing. In many countries the recognition and development of specific CFM models has been closely related to

  3. Role of institutional entrepreneurship in building adaptive capacity in community-based healthcare organisations: realist review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Sweatha; Katz, Aaron; Durham, Jo

    2016-03-24

    Over the past 3 decades, there has been a substantial shift to the marketisation of government-funded health services. For organisations traditionally buffered from the competitive pressures of for-profit enterprises, such as community-based organisations, this means developing the capacity to adapt to competitive tendering processes, shifting client expectations, and increasing demands for greater accountability. Drawing on ideas of institutional entrepreneurship, we believe that attempts to build adaptive capacity require the transformation of existing institutional arrangements. Key in this may be identifying and fostering institutional entrepreneurs--actors who take the lead in being the impetus for, and giving direction to, structural change. This study focuses on the strategies used by institutional entrepreneurs to build adaptive capacity in the community-based healthcare sector. The research will use an adapted rapid realist review. The review will find underlying theories that explain the circumstances surrounding the implementation of capacity-building strategies that shape organisational response and generate outcomes by activating causal mechanisms. An early scoping of the literature, and consultations with key stakeholders, will be undertaken to identify an initial programme theory. We will search for relevant journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted based on contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes, and their configurations. The analysis will seek patterns and regularities in these configurations and will focus on confirming, refuting or refining our programme theory. The study does not involve primary research and, therefore, does not require formal ethical approval. However, ethical standards of utility, usefulness, feasibility, propriety, accuracy and accountability will be followed. The results will be written up according to the Realist and Meta-Review Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards guidelines. Once completed

  4. Tumor induction following intraoperative radiotherapy: Late results of the National Cancer Institute canine trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.; Duray, P.; DeLuca, A.; Anderson, W.; Sindelar, W.; Kinsella, T.

    1990-01-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy has been employed in human cancer research for over a decade. Since 1979, trials to assess the acute and late toxicity of IORT have been carried out at the National Cancer Institute in an adult dog model in an attempt to establish dose tolerance guidelines for a variety of organs. Of the 170 animals entered on 12 studies with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, 148 dogs received IORT; 22 control animals received only surgery. Animals were sacrificed at designated intervals following IORT, usually at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 60 month intervals. 102 of 148 irradiated dogs were sacrificed less than 24 months; 46 dogs were followed greater than or equal to 24 months after IORT. To date, 34 of the 46 animals have been sacrificed; the 12 remaining animals are to be followed to 5 years. These 12 animals have minimum follow-up of 30 months. In the irradiated group followed for greater than or equal to 24 months, 10 tumors have arisen in 9 animals. One animal developed an incidental spontaneous breast carcinoma outside the IORT port, discovered only at scheduled post-mortem exam. The remaining nine tumors arose within IORT ports. Two tumors were benign neural tumors--a neuroma and a neurofibroma. One animal had a collision tumor comprised of grade I chondrosarcoma adjacent to grade III osteosarcoma arising in lumbar vertebrae. Two other grade III osteosarcomas, one grade III fibrosarcoma, and one grade III malignant fibrous histiocytoma arose in retroperitoneal/paravertebral sites. An embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) arose within the irradiated urinary bladder of one animal. No sham irradiated controls nor IORT animals sacrificed less than 24 months have developed any spontaneous or radiation-induced tumors. The time range of diagnoses of tumors was 24-58 months. The IORT dose range associated with tumor development was 20-35 Gy

  5. Evaluation of the cost of cervical cancer at the National Institute of Oncology, Rabat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Amine; El Majjaoui, Sanaa; Ismaili, Nabil; Cheikh, Zakia; Bouajaj, Jamal; Nejjari, Chakib; El Hassani, Amine; Cherrah, Yahya; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Cervical Cancer (CC) is one of the heavy and costly diseases for the population and the health system. We want to know through this study, the first in Morocco, the annual cost of the treatment of this disease at the National Institute of Oncology (NIO) in Rabat, we also want to explore the possibility of flat-rate management of this disease in order to standardize medical practices and improve reimbursement by health insurance funds. Methods 550 patients were treated for their cervical cancer in the Rabat's NIO. Data of all of medical and surgical services offered to patients were collected from the NIO registry. The cost of care was assessed using the method of micro-costing. We will focus to the total direct cost of all the services lavished to patients in NIO. Results The global cost was about US$ 1,429,673 with an average estimated at US$ 2,599 ± US$ 839. Radiotherapy accounts for 55% of total costs, followed by brachytherapy (27%) and surgery (7%). This three services plus chemotherapy influence the overall cost of care (p <0.001). Other services (radiology, laboratory tests and consultations) represent only 10%. The overall cost is influenced by the stage of the disease, this cost decreased significantly evolving in the stage of CC (p <0.001). Conclusion The standardization of medical practices is essential to the equity and efficiency in access to care. The flat-rate or lump sum by stage of disease is possible and interesting for standardizing medical practices and improving the services of the health insurance plan. PMID:27347298

  6. Tumor induction following intraoperative radiotherapy: Late results of the National Cancer Institute canine trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.; Duray, P.; DeLuca, A.; Anderson, W.; Sindelar, W.; Kinsella, T. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy has been employed in human cancer research for over a decade. Since 1979, trials to assess the acute and late toxicity of IORT have been carried out at the National Cancer Institute in an adult dog model in an attempt to establish dose tolerance guidelines for a variety of organs. Of the 170 animals entered on 12 studies with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, 148 dogs received IORT; 22 control animals received only surgery. Animals were sacrificed at designated intervals following IORT, usually at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 60 month intervals. 102 of 148 irradiated dogs were sacrificed less than 24 months; 46 dogs were followed greater than or equal to 24 months after IORT. To date, 34 of the 46 animals have been sacrificed; the 12 remaining animals are to be followed to 5 years. These 12 animals have minimum follow-up of 30 months. In the irradiated group followed for greater than or equal to 24 months, 10 tumors have arisen in 9 animals. One animal developed an incidental spontaneous breast carcinoma outside the IORT port, discovered only at scheduled post-mortem exam. The remaining nine tumors arose within IORT ports. Two tumors were benign neural tumors--a neuroma and a neurofibroma. One animal had a collision tumor comprised of grade I chondrosarcoma adjacent to grade III osteosarcoma arising in lumbar vertebrae. Two other grade III osteosarcomas, one grade III fibrosarcoma, and one grade III malignant fibrous histiocytoma arose in retroperitoneal/paravertebral sites. An embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) arose within the irradiated urinary bladder of one animal. No sham irradiated controls nor IORT animals sacrificed less than 24 months have developed any spontaneous or radiation-induced tumors. The time range of diagnoses of tumors was 24-58 months. The IORT dose range associated with tumor development was 20-35 Gy.

  7. Promoting community practitioners' use of evidence-based approaches to increase breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Teal, Randall; Barrett, Nadine; Leighton, Ashely; Steckler, Allan

    2013-07-01

    Many women do not get mammography screenings at the intervals recommended for early detection and treatment of breast cancer. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide) recommends a range of evidence-based strategies to improve mammography rates. However, nurses and others working in community-based settings make only limited use of these strategies. We report on a dissemination intervention that partnered the University of North Carolina with the Susan G. Komen Triangle Affiliate to disseminate Community Guide breast cancer screening strategies to community organizations. The intervention was guided by social marketing and diffusion of innovation theory and was designed to provide evidence and support via Komen's existing relationships with grantee organizations. The present study reports the findings from a formative evaluation of the intervention, which included a content analysis of 46 grant applications pre- and post intervention and focus groups with 20 grant recipients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Demographics of Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanova, Martina; Dzhenkov, Deyan L; Ghenev, Peter; Sapundzhiev, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Head and neck cancer (HNC) comprises a diverse group of oncological entities, originating from various tissue types and organ localizations, situated in the topographical regions of the head and neck (H&N). This single institution retrospective study was aimed at establishing the HNC patient demographics and categorizing the individual incidence of H&N malignancies, regarding their organ of origin and main histopathological type. Materials and methods All histologically verified cases of HNC from a single tertiary referral center were reviewed in a descriptive retrospective manner. Data sampling period was 47 months. Results Male to female ratio of the registered HNC cases was 3.24:1. The mean age of diagnosis was 63.84 ± 12.65 years, median 65 years. The most common HNC locations include the larynx 30.37% (n = 188), lips and oral cavity 29.08% (n = 180), pharynx 20.03% (n = 124) and salivary glands 10.94% (n = 68), with other locations such as the external nose, nasal cavity and sinuses and auricle and external ear canal harboring a minority of the cases. The main histopathological groups include squamous cell carcinoma 76.74% (n = 475) and adenocarcinoma 6.14% (n = 38), with other malignant entries such as other epithelial malignancies, primary tonsillar, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue or parenchymal lymphomas, connective tissue neoplasias, neuroendocrine and vascular malignancies diagnosed in a minority of cases. Conclusion Considered to be relatively rare, HNC represents a diverse group of oncological entities with individual and specific demographic characteristics. The reported single institution results appear representative of the national incidence and characteristics of HNC. PMID:28875091

  9. Chemotherapy Regimen in Nonagenarian Cancer Patients: A Bi-Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, Romain; Chargari, Cyrus; Kullab, Sharif; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Moriceau, Guillaume; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Annede, Pierre; Méry, Benoîte; Moncharmont, Coralie; Falk, Alexander Tuan; Vedrine, Lionel; Merrouche, Yacine; Fournel, Pierre; Magné, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population in Western countries is growing and constitutes a public health issue. Concomitantly, age-related diseases such as cancer increase. There are few data on the efficacy, tolerability and toxicity of specific anticancer therapy in the very elderly patients; therefore, their management is not standardized. In this bi-institutional study, we reviewed medical records of patients who received or continued specific anticancer therapy beyond the age of 90 years. Geriatric assessment was not reported for our patients. Twelve patients were enrolled. Their general health condition was good, and half of them were living in elderly institutions. Ten patients had a solid tumor and 2 were treated for hematological malignancies. Most were diagnosed with a locally advanced or metastatic disease, and the goal of treatment was curative for only 1 patient. Six patients received chemotherapy as first-line treatment, 4 patients received targeted therapy and 2 received concomitant chemoradiation. Four patients received a second-line treatment. Despite a significant reduction in treatment posology in half of the patients, 8 acute grade 3/4 toxicities were reported and 2 patients died of treatment-related septic shock. Median duration of first-line treatment was 3.2 months, and progression-free survival ranged from 18 to 311 days. Overall survival ranged from 18 days to 11 years. Aging is a heterogeneous process, and management of elderly patients is a multidisciplinary approach. Geriatric assessment helps to identify older patients with a higher risk of morbidity/mortality and allows to assess the risks and benefits of specific anticancer therapy. The choice of treatment should be based primarily on the expected symptomatic benefit, and treatment should not compromise the quality of life. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Understanding the social and community support networks of American Indian women cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Catherine E; Liddell, Jessica; Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Hee Yun

    2018-04-02

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, and although cancer disparities among AI women are alarming, there is little research focused on the topic of social support and cancer treatment and outcomes. A community advisory board was used to develop and administer the project, and a qualitative descriptive study methodology was used. This research was conducted in partnership with two community-based hospitals in the Northern Plains. The sample included 43 AI female cancer survivors who were interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Emergent themes revealed that AI cancer survivors' non-familial support systems included friends (n = 12), support groups (n = 6), churches (n = 10), co-workers (n = 5), communities (n = 4), support from health practitioners (n = 3) and additional forms of support. Results indicate that survivors' networks are diverse, and support broad prevention programs that reach out to churches, community groups, and online forums. These sources of supports can be enhanced through sustainable community-based infrastructures.

  11. The pattern of performance management of community service learning empowerment in improving the entrepreneurship on the graduation candidate of Vocational Technology Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadromi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the pattern of performance management of Community Service Empowerment Learning-Universitas Negeri Semarang in improving the entrepreneurship of the graduate candidate of Vocational Technology Education Institution. This evaluation research uses Context Evaluation, Input evaluation, Process evaluation and Product evaluation method (CIPP) to evaluate the performance management of Community Service of Empowerment Learning-Universitas Negeri Semarang. The location of research was in Kandri Subdistrict-Indonesia. The subject of research is the Kandri Subdistrict community, especially the groups of the youth, students, subdistrict organizers, community organization, and culinery and handicraft industry, as well as the students who join the program of Community Service of Empowerment Learning-Universitas Negeri Semarang. The object of research is the pattern of perfomance management of Community Service Empowerment Learning-Universitas Negeri Semarang in improving the entrepreneurship of the graduation candidate of Vocational Technology Education Institution. The research result shows the pattern of Community Service Empowerment Learning-Universitas Negeri Semarang is able to improve the enterpreneurship of graduate candidate of Vocational Technology Education Institution. The pattern of Community Service Empowerment Community-Universitas Negeri Semarang which is Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)in the field of education, training, and assistance continuously can grasp and develop competency and balance mindset of students including triple bottom line which mutually connectedamong the sectors of social, economic, cultural, and environment so that it can increase the entrerpreneurship on the graduates candidate of Vocational Technology Education Institution

  12. Population screening for breast cancer in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waard, F. de

    1987-01-01

    Although our understanding of the causes of breast cancer is increasing, it is as yet not possible to recommend measures to decrease its occurrence. Therefore we have to resort to a substitute called secondary prevention which aims at preventing the occurrence of metastatic breast cancer and death by detecting the primary cancer in the breast at an earlier point in its natural history. The question whether this can be achieved can only be answered by scientific study. Such studies are being called: population-based screening programmes. Screening requires one or more tests by which one can partition a population in those who probably have a cancer and those who have not. Since an early breast cancer does not produce symptoms like pain the test has to be some sort of objective assessment. In the field of detecting breast cancer we have been greatly helped by the development of a radiologic technique called mammography. Mammography basically is not an easy technique since there is little contrast between structures in the breast compared with e.g. bone. The quality of mammograms, therefore, was not very high in the pioneering era during the nineteen-fifties and -sixties. This presentation discusses a move of a few doctors in New York city: a radiologist, a surgeon and epidemiologist, to design a scientific study which could answer the question whether mammography, added to a standard clinical examination of the breast would decrease mortality from breast cancer

  13. International Institutions and Domestic Reform: Equal Pay and British Membership in the European Economic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frader, Laura Levine

    2018-03-01

    Despite having been overlooked in the standard histories of the UK and the European Community, gender politics and gender policies played a significant role in Britain's applications for membership in the EEC in the 1960s. Joining the European Community required that Britain comply with Article 119 on equal pay for equal work. A combination of domestic feminist and labour movement activism, the commitment of unions and parties, and the internationalization of formal commitments to women's rights constituted internal and external pressures for the passage of an Equal Pay Act in 1970. The article argues that the formal legislative commitment to gender pay equality, changing public attitudes towards women's employment, and European membership impacted further domestic social policy reform and slowly began to shift government attitudes towards gender equality.

  14. Evaluation of leakage in cobalt-60 unit in National Cancer Institute (NCI) Wad Medani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlellah, R. A.

    2013-08-01

    This study has been conducted primarily to evaluate the leakages radiation in cobalt-60 unit in National Cancer Institute Wad Medani, which represent the basic risky factor in this unit for the radio therapists who spend much time during patient set up, also they need to stand near the head of the machine to fix some accessories. The measurements which done using survey meter give normal level of occupational exposure compared with IAEA references except one situation that the radio therapist to be close contact to the head of unit for long time which may increase the received dose, in this situation. The radio therapist either not well trained, or there is insufficient accessories to reduce the time inside the room. Radiotherapy department need a special considerations from the beginning of construction till starting of treatment. It is important to contain separate rooms, for planning to determine treatment area, another one for molding to shape lead blocks to protect normal parts and an optimum designed room for treatment to enable workers to apply basic radiation protection principles. (Author)

  15. Treatment outcomes of female germ cell tumors: The Egyptian National Cancer Institute experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.M.; Zeeneldin, A.A.; El Gammal, M.M.; Salem, S.E.; Darweesh, A.D.; Abdelaziz, A.A.; Monir, M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Female germ cell tumors (GCTS) are rare tumors that carry a good prognosis. Aim: To report the experience of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute (ENCI) in managing female GCTs. Methods: This retrospective study included 19 females with ovarian GCTs presenting to the ENCI between 2006 and 2010. Results: The median age was 23 years. Ovaries were the primary site in all patients. Dysgerminoma and teratoma were the predominant pathologies followed by mixed GCT in females. Unilateral ovariectomy or ovarian tumorectomy were the classic surgical procedures with R0 resection being feasible in most cases. Surveillance was adopted in six patients with stage I disease. Chemotherapy was administered in 63% of ovarian GCTs with BEP being the commonest regimen with reasonable tolerability and good response rates. The median OS and EFS were not reached. The projected 5-year OS rate was 93.8%. Both OS and EFS were better in patients responding to chemotherapy than non-responders (p< 0.002). Stage of disease did not significantly affect OS or EFS. Conclusions: Female GCTs rarely affect Egyptian females. They have good prognosis.

  16. Physical properties of a linear accelerator-based stereotactic installed at national cancer institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attala, E.M.; Deiab, N.A.; Elawady, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the dosimetry and mechanical accuracy of the first dedicated Siemens PRIMUS M6/6ST linear accelerator-based Stereotactic installed in National Cancer Institute for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy (SRS/SRT). The data were obtained during the installation, acceptance test procedure, and commissioning of the unit. The Primus M6/6ST has a single 6-MV beam with the same beam characteristics as that of the mother unit, the Siemens. The dosimetric data were taken using pin point ion chamber. The cone sizes vary from 12.5 to 40.0 mm diameter. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. The variations in isocenter position with table, gantry, and collimator rotation were found to be < 0.5 mm with a compounded accuracy of < or = 1.0 mm. The beam profiles of all cones in the x and y directions were within +/- 0.5 mm and match with the physical size of the cone. The basic dosimetry parameters such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), off-axis ratio (OAR) and cone factor needed for patient treatment were evaluated. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics including dose linearity of this unit are presented and found to be suitable for SRS/SRT. The difficulty in absolute dose measurement for small cone is discussed

  17. Possible misdiagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma as tuberculosis among patients attending Uganda Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyego, Paul; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Ddungu, Henry; Walimbwa, Stephen; Nalwanga, Damalie; Reynolds, Steven J; Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind

    2017-03-14

    Early diagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma is challenging because the definitive diagnostic procedure of biopsy, requires skills and equipment that are not readily available. As a consequence, diagnosis may be delayed increasing the risk of mortality. We set out to determine the frequency and risk factors associated with the misdiagnosis of HIV associated lymphoma as tuberculosis (TB) among patients attending the Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI). A retrospective cohort study design was used among HIV patients with associated lymphoma patients attending the UCI, Kampala, Uganda between February and March 2015. Eligible patient charts were reviewed for information on TB treatment, socio-demographics, laboratory parameters (Hemoglobin, CD4cells count and lactate dehydrogenase) and clinical presentation using a semi structured data extraction form. A total of 183 charts were reviewed; 106/183 were males (57.9%), the median age was 35 (IQR, 28-45). Fifty six (30.6%) patients had a possible misdiagnosis as TB and their median time on TB treatment was 3.5 (1-5.3) months. In multivariate analysis the presence of chest pain had an odd ratio (OR) of 4.4 (95% CI 1.89-10.58, p HIV associated lymphoma attending UCI are misdiagnosed and treated as TB. Chest pain and stage III and IV of lymphoma were associated with an increased risk of a possible misdiagnosis of lymphoma as TB.

  18. Malignant lymphoma. Prognostic factors and response to treatment of 473 patients at the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.; Simon, R.M.; Berard, C.W.; Canellos, G.P.; Garvin, A.J.; Young, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Treatment results were reviewed in 473 consecutively staged and treated patients at the National Cancer Institute over a 22-year period from 1953 to 1975. Responses correlated with histologic pattern and stage of disease. Complete responses to radiotherapy were frequent in nodular lymphoma patients. Similar treatment regimens were less effective in diffuse lymphoma patients. Using chemotherapy or combined modality approaches, complete responses were obtained in a high proportion of advanced nodular disease patients. Patients with nodular lymphoma tend to have higher complete response rates and longer survivals than their counterparts with diffuse histologic types. Patients with nodular lymphocytic lymphoma had a better survival than those with mixed or ''histiocytic'' histologic types. Patients with diffuse well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma survived significantly longer than patients with other diffuse histologic types. Percentage and prominence of nodularity were not of prognostic significance in those patients with combined nodular and diffuse patterns of disease. When compared by histologic type, patient sex did not appear to be an important prognostic factor. The presence of B-symptoms was associated with a poorer survival in patients with nodular disease and in patients with diffuse disease. Over the years of this study, survival appears to have improved in each histologic subtype except diffuse poorly differentiated lymphoma

  19. How do the Institutes on Teaching and Learning (ITLs) nurture the members of the Physiology Educators Community of Practice (PECOP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E

    2017-09-01

    Do you teach physiology? Do you use best practices when you teach physiology? Have you ever thought about conducting educational research? Do you need collaborators to help with ideas for educational research or to expand your research populations? The American Physiological Society (APS) Teaching Section has developed a biennial Institute on Teaching and Learning (ITL) through the APS Conference Program to address these issues. The first institute was held in June 2014, and the second institute was held in June 2016. A Physiology Education Community of Practice (PECOP) was created to help connect the institute participants and other physiology educators and to share evidence-based teaching in physiology at all education levels. The 2018 APS ITL will be the next meeting to learn best practices, to share ideas with colleagues, and to find collaborators in improving the teaching of physiology for students. The meeting will include workshops modeling best practices, plenary talks about hot new issues in physiology and science education, and poster sessions and informal meals to discuss interests with colleagues. Even if one's primary responsibility is bench research or administration, the training from the institute will improve efficiency and effectiveness when teaching. The two prior ITLs (2014 and 2016) were highly evaluated by educators of both undergraduate and professional students who spent a week together emphasizing improvement in their teaching. This paper reports the outcomes of the 2016 ITL and encourages participation in the upcoming ITL in Madison, WI, June 18-22, 2018. Watch the APS Conference site for more information about the 2018 ITL (http://www.the-aps.org/mm/Conferences/APS-Conferences). Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Community-Based Multidisciplinary Computed Tomography Screening Program Improves Lung Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Mayfield, William R; Luu, Theresa D; Helms, Gerald A; Muster, Alan R; Beckler, Vickie J; Cann, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Overall survival is less than 20%, with the majority of patients presenting with advanced disease. The National Lung Screening Trial, performed mainly in academic medical centers, showed that cancer mortality can be reduced with computed tomography (CT) screening compared with chest radiography in high-risk patients. To determine whether this survival advantage can be duplicated in a community-based multidisciplinary thoracic oncology program, we initiated a CT scan screening program for lung cancer within an established health care system. In 2008, we launched a lung cancer CT screening program within the WellStar Health System (WHS) consisting of five hospitals, three health parks, 140 outpatient medical offices, and 12 imaging centers that provide care in a five-county area of approximately 1.4 million people in Metro-Atlanta. Screening criteria incorporated were the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (2008 to 2010) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines (2011 to 2013) for moderate- and high-risk patients. A total of 1,267 persons underwent CT lung cancer screening in WHS from 2008 through 2013; 53% were men, 87% were 50 years of age or older, and 83% were current or former smokers. Noncalcified indeterminate pulmonary nodules were found in 518 patients (41%). Thirty-six patients (2.8%) underwent a diagnostic procedure for positive findings on their CT scan; 30 proved to have cancer, 28 (2.2%) primary lung cancer and 2 metastatic cancer, and 6 had benign disease. Fourteen patients (50%) had their lung cancer discovered on their initial CT scan, 11 on subsequent scans associated with indeterminate pulmonary nodules growth and 3 patients who had a new indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Only 15 (54%) of these 28 patients would have qualified as a National Lung Screening Trial high-risk patient; 75% had stage I or II disease. Overall 5-year survival was 64% and 5-year

  1. Institutional (mis)trust in colorectal cancer screening: a qualitative study with Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian and Indigenous groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Javanparast, Sara; Wilson, Carlene; Meyer, Samantha B

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer mortality rate in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT), although uptake is low for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups. To present data on trust and mistrust in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake and thus to highlight areas in need of policy change. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia, involving interviews with 94 people from four CALD groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian, and Indigenous peoples. Our study highlights the complexities of institutional trust, which involves considerations of trust at interpersonal, local and national levels. In addition, trust and mistrust was found in more abstract systems such as the medical knowledge of doctors to diagnose or treat cancer or the scientific procedures in laboratories to test the FOBTs. The object of institutional (mis)trust differed between cultural groups - Anglo-Australian and Iranian groups indicated a high level of trust in the government, whereas Indigenous participants were much less trusting. The level and nature of trust in the screening process varied between the CALD groups. Addressing program misconceptions, clarifying the FOBT capabilities and involving medical services in collecting and transporting the samples may increase trust in the NBCSP. However, broader and more enduring mistrust in services and institutions may need to be dealt with in order to increase trust and participation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cancer survivors' experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catt, Susan; Sheward, J; Sheward, E; Harder, H

    2018-04-05

    Exercise levels often decline following cancer diagnosis despite growing evidence of its benefits. Treatment side effects, older age, lack of confidence and opportunity to exercise with others in similar circumstances influence this. Our study explored the experiences of people attending a cancer-specific community-based exercise programme (CU Fitter™). A survey distributed to those attending the programme gathered demographic/clinical information, self-reported exercise levels, information provision and barriers to/benefits of exercise. Sixty surveys were evaluable from 65/100 returned (62% female, 68% > 60 years, 66% breast/prostate cancer). Most (68%) were receiving treatment. Sixty-eight percent attended classes once or twice weekly. Fifty-five percent received exercise advice after diagnosis, usually from their hospital doctor/nurse. More (73%) had read about exercising, but less used the Internet to source information (32%). Self-reported exercise levels were higher currently than before diagnosis (p = 0.05). Forty-eight percent said their primary barrier to exercising was the physical impact of cancer/treatment. Improving fitness/health (40%) and social support (16%) were the most important gains from the programme. Many (67%) had made other lifestyle changes and intented to keep (50%) or increase (30%) exercising. This community-based cancer-specific exercise approach engaged people with cancer and showed physical, psychological, and social benefits. Community-grown exercise initiatives bring cancer survivors together creating their own supportive environment. Combining this with instructors familiar with the population and providing an open-ended service may prove particularly motivating and beneficial. Further work is required to provide evidence for this.

  3. Heat pump centered integrated community energy systems: system development. Georgia Institute of Technology final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D.W.; Trammell, B.C.; Dixit, B.S.; McCurry, D.C.; Rindt, B.A.

    1979-12-01

    Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) show the promise of utilizing low-grade thermal energy for low-quality energy requirements such as space heating and cooling. The Heat Pump - Wastewater Heat Recovery (HP-WHR) scheme is one approach to an HP-ICES that proposes to reclaim low-grade thermal energy from a community's wastewater effluent. This report develops the concept of an HP-WHR system, evaluates the potential performance and economics of such a system, and examines the potential for application. A thermodynamic performance analysis of a hypothetical system projects an overall system Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P.) of from 2.181 to 2.264 for waste-water temperatures varying from 50/sup 0/F to 80/sup 0/F. Primary energy source savings from the nationwide implementation of this system is projected to be 6.0 QUADS-fuel oil, or 8.5 QUADS - natural gas, or 29.7 QUADS - coal for the period 1980 to 2000, depending upon the type and mix of conventional space conditioning systems which could be displaced with the HP-WHR system. Site-specific HP-WHR system designs are presented for two application communities in Georgia. Performance analyses for these systems project annual cycle system C.O.P.'s of 2.049 and 2.519. Economic analysis on the basis of a life cycle cost comparison shows one site-specific system design to be cost competitive in the immediate market with conventional residential and light commercial HVAC systems. The second site-specific system design is shown through a similar economic analysis to be more costly than conventional systems due mainly to the current low energy costs for natural gas. It is anticipated that, as energy costs escalate, this HP-WHR system will also approach the threshold of economic viability.

  4. ESD and Lifelong Learning: A Case Study of the Shangri-La Institute's Current Engagement with the Bazhu Community in Diqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhua; Constable, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that ESD should be integrated into lifelong learning and provides an example of how this might be done. It draws on a case study of a joint project between the Shangri-la Institute and the Bazhu community in Diqing, southwest China, to analyse a community-based approach to Education for Sustainable Development and assess its…

  5. Summary and recommendations of a National Cancer Institute workshop on issues limiting the clinical use of Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithms for megavoltage external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, Benedick A.; Smathers, James; Deye, James

    2003-01-01

    Due to the significant interest in Monte Carlo dose calculations for external beam megavoltage radiation therapy from both the research and commercial communities, a workshop was held in October 2001 to assess the status of this computational method with regard to use for clinical treatment planning. The Radiation Research Program of the National Cancer Institute, in conjunction with the Nuclear Data and Analysis Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, gathered a group of experts in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning and Monte Carlo dose calculations, and examined issues involved in clinical implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation methods in clinical radiotherapy. The workshop examined the current status of Monte Carlo algorithms, the rationale for using Monte Carlo, algorithmic concerns, clinical issues, and verification methodologies. Based on these discussions, the workshop developed recommendations for future NCI-funded research and development efforts. This paper briefly summarizes the issues presented at the workshop and the recommendations developed by the group

  6. Institutional delivery service utilization in Munisa Woreda, South East Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Abdella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is a global priority which is particularly relevant to developing countries like Ethiopia. One of the key strategies for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is increasing institutional delivery service utilization of mothers under the care of skilled birth attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the level of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 1–20, 2011, among mothers who gave birth 12 months before the study began in Munesa Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Southeast Ethiopia. A stratified cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 855 participants. Results Out of all deliveries, only 12.3% took place at health facilities. Women who were urban residents (AOR = 2.27, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.40, women of age at interview less than 20 years (AOR = 6.06, 95%CI: 1.54, 23.78, women with first pregnancy (AOR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.97 and, women who had ANC visit during the last pregnancy (AOR = 4.18, 95%CI: 2.54, 6.89 were more likely to deliver at health institutions. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education had also a significant effect on health institution delivery with AOR = 4.31 (95%CI: 1.62, 11.46 and AOR = 2.77 (95%CI: 1.07, 7.19 respectively. Conclusion Institutional delivery service utilization was found to be low in the study area. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education, urban residence and ANC visit were amongst the main factors that had an influence on health institution delivery. Increasing the awareness of mothers and their partners about the benefits of institutional delivery services are recommended.

  7. How Effective Are Clinical Pathways With and Without Online Peer-Review? An Analysis of Bone Metastases Pathway in a Large, Integrated National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Flickinger, John C.; Rakfal, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rodgers, Edwin [Via Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Clinical pathways are an important tool used to manage the quality in health care by standardizing processes. This study evaluated the impact of the implementation of a peer-reviewed clinical pathway in a large, integrated National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Network. Methods: In 2003, we implemented a clinical pathway for the management of bone metastases with palliative radiation therapy. In 2009, we required the entry of management decisions into an online tool that records pathway choices. The pathway specified 1 or 5 fractions for symptomatic bone metastases with the option of 10-14 fractions for certain clinical situations. The data were obtained from 13 integrated sites (3 central academic, 10 community locations) from 2003 through 2010. Results: In this study, 7905 sites were treated with 64% of courses delivered in community practice and 36% in academic locations. Academic practices were more likely than community practices to treat with 1-5 fractions (63% vs. 23%; p < 0.0001). The number of delivered fractions decreased gradually from 2003 to 2010 for both academic and community practices (p < 0.0001); however, greater numbers of fractions were selected more often in community practices (p < 0.0001). Using multivariate logistic regression, we found that a significantly greater selection of 1-5 fractions developed after implementation online pathway monitoring (2009) with an odds ratio of 1.2 (confidence interval, 1.1-1.4) for community and 1.3 (confidence interval, 1.1-1.6) for academic practices. The mean number of fractions also decreased after online peer review from 6.3 to 6.0 for academic (p = 0.07) and 9.4 to 9.0 for community practices (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to examine the efficacy of a clinical pathway for radiation oncology in an integrated cancer network. Clinical pathway implementation appears to be effective in changing patterns of care, particularly with online clinical

  8. Digital storytelling: a tool for health promotion and cancer awareness in rural Alaskan communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany Cueva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to learn community members’ perspectives about digital storytelling after viewing a digital story created by a Community Health Aide/Practitioner (CHA/P. Methods: Using a qualitative research design, we explored digital storytelling likeability as a health-messaging tool, health information viewers reported learning and, if viewing, cancer-related digital stories facilitated increased comfort in talking about cancer. In addition, we enquired if the digital stories affected how viewers felt about cancer, as well as if viewing the digital stories resulted in health behaviour change or intent to change health behaviour. Findings: A total of 15 adult community members participated in a 30–45 minute interview, 1–5 months post-viewing of a CHA/P digital story. The majority (13 of viewers interviewed were female, all were Alaska Native and they ranged in age from 25 to 54 years with the average age being 40 years. Due to the small size of communities, which ranged in population from 160 to 2,639 people, all viewers knew the story creator or knew of the story creator. Viewers reported digital stories as an acceptable, emotionally engaging way to increase their cancer awareness and begin conversations. These conversations often served as a springboard for reflection, insight, and cancer-prevention and risk-reduction activities.

  9. Digital storytelling: a tool for health promotion and cancer awareness in rural Alaskan communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Revels, Laura; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Dignan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn community members' perspectives about digital storytelling after viewing a digital story created by a Community Health Aide/Practitioner (CHA/P). Using a qualitative research design, we explored digital storytelling likeability as a health-messaging tool, health information viewers reported learning and, if viewing, cancer-related digital stories facilitated increased comfort in talking about cancer. In addition, we enquired if the digital stories affected how viewers felt about cancer, as well as if viewing the digital stories resulted in health behaviour change or intent to change health behaviour. A total of 15 adult community members participated in a 30-45 minute interview, 1-5 months post-viewing of a CHA/P digital story. The majority (13) of viewers interviewed were female, all were Alaska Native and they ranged in age from 25 to 54 years with the average age being 40 years. Due to the small size of communities, which ranged in population from 160 to 2,639 people, all viewers knew the story creator or knew of the story creator. Viewers reported digital stories as an acceptable, emotionally engaging way to increase their cancer awareness and begin conversations. These conversations often served as a springboard for reflection, insight, and cancer-prevention and risk-reduction activities.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward breast cancer screening in a rural South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30–65 years residing in a rural South African community. Method: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program. Results: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods. Conclusion: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of prostate health index to identify aggressive prostate cancer. An Institutional validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, J; Celma, A; Planas, J; Placer, J; Ferrer, R; de Torres, I; Pacciuci, R; Olivan, M

    2016-01-01

    New generations of tumor markers used to detect prostate cancer (PCa) should be able to discriminate men with aggressive PCa of those without PCa or nonaggressive tumors. The objective of this study has been to validate Prostate Health Index (PHI) as a marker of aggressive PCa in one academic institution. PHI was assessed in 357 men scheduled to prostatic biopsy between June of 2013 and July 2014 in one academic institution. Thereafter a subset of 183 men younger than 75 years and total PSA (tPSA) between 3.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, scheduled to it first prostatic biopsy, was retrospectively selected for this study. Twelve cores TRUS guided biopsy, under local anaesthesia, was performed in all cases. Total PSA, free PSA (fPSA), and [-2] proPSA (p2PSA) and prostate volume were determined before the procedure and %fPSA, PSA density (PSAd) and PHI were calculated. Aggressive tumors were considered if any Gleason 4 pattern was found. PHI was compared to %fPSA and PSAd through their ROC curves. Thresholds to detect 90%, 95% of all tumors and 95% and 100% of aggressive tumors were estimated and rates of unnecessary avoided biopsies were calculated and compared. The rate of PCa detection was 37.2% (68) and the rate of aggressive tumors was 24.6% (45). The PHI area under the curve was higher than those of %fPSA and PSAd to detect any PCa (0.749 vs 0.606 and 0.668 respectively) or to detect only aggressive tumors (0.786 vs 0.677 and 0.708 respectively), however, significant differences were not found. The avoided biopsy rates to detect 95% of aggressive tumors were 20.2% for PHI, 14.8% for %fPSA, and 23.5% for PSAd. Even more, to detect all aggressive tumors these rates dropped to 4.9% for PHI, 9.3% for %fPSA, and 7.9% for PSAd. PHI seems a good marker to PCa diagnosis. However, PHI was not superior to %fPSA and PSAd to identify at least 95% of aggressive tumors. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-Institutional Experience of Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Stage I Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Simone, Charles B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gajjar, Sameer R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Zhen, Weining [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Harkenrider, Matthew M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States); Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Matthiesen, Chance L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Braunstein, Steve E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Dilling, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Allen, Bryan G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Nichols, Elizabeth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: For inoperable stage I (T1-T2N0) small cell lung cancer (SCLC), national guidelines recommend chemotherapy with or without conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. The present multi-institutional cohort study investigated the role of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) for this population. Methods and Materials: The clinical and treatment characteristics, toxicities, outcomes, and patterns of failure were assessed in patients with histologically confirmed stage T1-T2N0M0 SCLC. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate the survival outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified predictors of outcomes. Results: From 24 institutions, 76 lesions were treated in 74 patients (median follow-up 18 months). The median age and tumor size was 72 years and 2.5 cm, respectively. Chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation were delivered in 56% and 23% of cases, respectively. The median SABR dose and fractionation was 50 Gy and 5 fractions. The 1- and 3-year local control rate was 97.4% and 96.1%, respectively. The median disease-free survival (DFS) duration was 49.7 months. The DFS rate was 58.3% and 53.2% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. The median, 1-year, and 3-year disease-specific survival was 52.3 months, 84.5%, and 64.4%, respectively. The median, 1-year, and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 17.8 months, 69.9%, and 34.0% respectively. Patients receiving chemotherapy experienced an increased median DFS (61.3 vs 9.0 months; P=.02) and OS (31.4 vs 14.3 months; P=.02). The receipt of chemotherapy independently predicted better outcomes for DFS/OS on multivariate analysis (P=.01). Toxicities were uncommon; 5.2% experienced grade ≥2 pneumonitis. Post-treatment failure was most commonly distant (45.8% of recurrence), followed by nodal (25.0%) and “elsewhere lung” (20.8%). The median time to each was 5 to 7 months. Conclusions: From the findings of the largest report of SABR for stage T1-T2N0 SCLC to date, SABR (≥50

  13. Self-testing for cancer: a community survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Sue; Ryan, Angela V; Greenfield, Sheila M; Clifford, Sue C; Holder, Roger L; Pattison, Helen M; Fitzmaurice, David A; McManus, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Cancer-related self-tests are currently available to buy in pharmacies or over the internet, including tests for faecal occult blood, PSA and haematuria. Self-tests have potential benefits (e.g. convenience) but there are also potential harms (e.g. delays in seeking treatment). The extent of cancer-related self-test use in the UK is not known. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cancer-related self-test use. Adults (n = 5,545) in the West Midlands were sent a questionnaire that collected socio-demographic information and data regarding previous and potential future use of 18 different self-tests. Prevalence rates were directly standardised to the England population. The postcode based Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 was used as a proxy measure of deprivation. 2,925 (54%) usable questionnaires were returned. 1.2% (95% CI 0.83% to 1.66%) of responders reported having used a cancer related self test kit and a further 36% reported that they would consider using one in the future. Logistic regression analyses suggest that increasing age, deprivation category and employment status were associated with cancer-related self-test kit use. We conclude that one in 100 of the adult population have used a cancer-related self-test kit and over a third would consider using one in the future. Self-test kit use could alter perceptions of risk, cause psychological morbidity and impact on the demand for healthcare

  14. Family history record and hereditary cancer risk perception according to National Cancer Institute criteria in a Spanish medical oncology service: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Rodas, Iván; López-Trabada, Daniel; Rupérez Blanco, Ana Belén; Custodio Cabello, Sara; Peligros Gómez, María Isabel; Orera Clemente, María; Calvo, Felipe A; Martín, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Identification of patients at risk of hereditary cancer is an essential component of oncology practice, since it enables clinicians to offer early detection and prevention programs. However, the large number of hereditary syndromes makes it difficult to take them all into account in daily practice. Consequently, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has suggested a series of criteria to guide initial suspicion. It was the aim of this study to assess the perception of the risk of hereditary cancer according to the NCI criteria in our medical oncology service. We retrospectively analyzed the recordings of the family history in new cancer patients seen in our medical oncology service from January to November 2009, only 1 year before the implementation of our multidisciplinary hereditary cancer program. The family history was recorded in only 175/621 (28%) patients. A total of 119 (19%) patients met 1 or more NCI criteria (1 criterion, n = 91; 2 criteria, n = 23; 3 criteria, n = 4; and 4 criteria, n = 1), and only 14 (11.4%) patients were referred to genetic counseling. This study shows that few clinicians record the family history. The perception of the risk of hereditary cancer is low according to the NCI criteria in our medical oncology service. These findings can be explained by the lack of a multidisciplinary hereditary cancer program when the study was performed. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Definitive Radiotherapy for T1–2 Hypopharyngeal Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Aya; Nishiyama, Kinji; Morimoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Satoaki; Suzuki, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yoshifumi; Miyagi, Ken; Fujii, Takashi; Yoshino, Kunitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome in T1–2 hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: A total of 103 patients with T1–2 hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical RT between March 2000 and June 2008 at our institution were analyzed. Pre-RT neck dissection (ND) was performed in 26 patients with advanced neck disease. Chemotherapy was used concurrently with RT in 14 patients. Sixty patients were associated with synchronous or metachronous malignancies. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. Results: The 3-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 70% and 79%, respectively. The 3-year local control rates were 87% for T1 and 83% for T2 disease. The ultimate local control rate was 89%, including 7 patients in whom salvage was successful. The ultimate local control rate with laryngeal preservation was 82%. Tumors of the medial wall of the pyriform sinus tended to have lower control rates compared with tumors of the lateral or posterior pharyngeal wall. Among patients with N2b–3 disease, the 3-year regional control rates were 74% for patients with pre-RT ND and 40% for patients without ND. The 3-year locoregional control rates were as follows: Stage I, 100%; Stage II, 84%; Stage III, 67%; Stage IVA, 43%; Stage IVB, 67%. Forty-two patients developed disease recurrence, with 29 (70%) patients developing recurrence within the first year. Of the 103 patients, 6 developed late complications higher than or equal to Grade 3. Conclusions: Definitive RT accomplished a satisfactory local control rate and contributed to organ preservation.

  16. Benefits of peer support in online Japanese breast cancer communities: differences between lurkers and posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoyama, Yoko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Namayama, Kazuhiro

    2011-12-29

    Web 2.0 has improved interactions among peers on the Internet, especially for the many online patient communities that have emerged over the past decades. Online communities are said to be particularly beneficial peer support resources for patients with breast cancer. However, most studies of online patient communities have focused on those members who post actively (posters), even though there are many members who participate without posting (lurkers). In addition, little attention has been paid to the usage of online communities among non-English-speaking patients. The present study explored the differences in peer support received by lurkers and posters in online breast cancer communities. It also examined the effects of such support on both groups' mental health. We conducted an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional, Web-based survey among members of four Japanese online breast cancer communities. In an online questionnaire, we asked questions regarding sociodemographics, disease-related characteristics, mental health, participation in online communities, and peer support received from those communities. Of the 465 people who accessed the questionnaire, 253 completed it. Of the respondents, 113/220 (51.4%) were lurkers. There was no significant difference between lurkers and posters with regard to sociodemographic variables. About half of the posters had been given a diagnosis of breast cancer less than a year previously, which was a significantly shorter period than that of the lurkers (P = .02). The 5 support functions extracted by factor analysis were the same for both posters and lurkers. These were emotional support/helper therapy, emotional expression, conflict, advice, and insight/universality. When the support scores were calculated, insight/universality scored highest for both posters and lurkers, with scores that were not significantly different between the two groups. Among the 5 support scores, emotional support/helper therapy and emotional

  17. Cancer Centers: Their Relationship to the Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, John W.; Newell, Guy R.

    1976-01-01

    Cancer centers have evolved several types of administrative structures, the most successful using some modification of a matrix system with delegation of significant administrative authority to the center. The author suggests implications for other multidisciplinary centers which find themselves in conflict with traditional discipline…

  18. Information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bee Teng; Butow, Phyllis; Mills, Jill; Miller, Annie; Goldstein, David

    2017-10-01

    The information needs of patients and carers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, including from the Chinese community, are not well understood, and there has been no previous synthesis of the literature. We conducted a systematic review of the information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer. Database, reference list, and author searches were conducted to identify studies reporting information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer. Data synthesis was undertaken to define categories of information needs. Initial searches yielded 2558 articles. Out of the 40 full-text articles reviewed, 26 met all the eligibility criteria. Cancer-specific, treatment, and prognosis information were the most frequently reported information needs across the cancer care continuum. Similarly, this information was the most commonly reported information needs across different health systems, migration statuses, and Chinese cultural values. Though less frequent, information needs related to interpersonal/social, financial/legal, and body image/sexuality were also raised. Thirteen studies quantified the prevalence of unmet needs, and the most frequently reported unmet needs were related to health system and information, followed by psychological, patient care and support, physical daily living, and sexuality needs. Language and cultural factors were identified in all studies involving Chinese migrants living in English-speaking countries. Failing to meet the information needs of the Chinese community members affected by cancer increases the risk for poor cancer outcomes. Potential interventions such as translated resources, bilingual advocates, an online information portal, and communication aids can be helpful in addressing the unmet needs for this community. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Deodutta

    2008-01-01

    This research proposal has two primary objectives which are to (1) increase FIU investigators' research expertise and competitive ability to succeed as independent breast cancer researchers; and (2...

  20. Colon cancer modulation by a diabetic environment: A single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Isabel; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Gonzalez, Nieves; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Zazo, Sandra; Corton, Marta; Minguez, Pablo; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Arce, Jose Miguel; Sanz, Ana Belen; Mas, Sebastian; Aguilera, Oscar; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Esbrit, Pedro; Ortiz, Alberto; Ayuso, Carmen; Egido, Jesus; Rojo, Federico; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Multiple observational studies suggest an increased risk of colon cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This can theoretically be the result of an influence of the diabetic environment on carcinogenesis or the tumor biologic behavior. To gain insight into the influence of a diabetic environment on colon cancer characteristics and outcomes. Retrospective analysis of clinical records in an academic tertiary care hospital with detailed analysis of 81 diabetic patients diagnosed of colon cancer matched with 79 non-diabetic colon cancer patients. The impact of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the growth of colon cancer xenografts was studied in mice. The incidence of DM in 1,137 patients with colorectal cancer was 16%. The diabetic colon cancer cases and non-diabetic colon cancer controls were well matched for demographic and clinical variables. The ECOG Scale Performance Status was higher (worse) in diabetics (ECOG ≥1, 29.1% of controls vs 46.9% of diabetics, p = 0.02), but no significant differences were observed in tumor grade, adjuvant therapy, tumor site, lymphovascular invasion, stage, recurrence, death or cancer-related death. Moreover, no differences in tumor variables were observed between patients treated or not with metformin. In the xenograft model, tumor growth and histopathological characteristics did not differ between diabetic and nondiabetic animals. Our findings point towards a mild or negligible effect of the diabetes environment on colon cancer behavior, once cancer has already developed.

  1. HBCUs inform students and the community about cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julian S; Williams, Deloris G; Scott, Dolores B; Madison, Shirley B; Comer, Kimberly D; Haynes, Joseph A

    2009-12-01

    In summary, HBCUs can no longer remain reactive, but must spearhead efforts to increase both the health of the student body, as well as the community at large. HBCUs should collaboratively initiate a "Call to Action", whereby policies and programs could be created to aid in the prevention of HPV and other STIs. To support this action, HBCUs could more actively pursue funding sources that support both universities and the communities in which they exist. Student orientation could be redefined to include short courses in STI awareness and prevention, and be communicated in a manner that is professional, yet engaging to students. Moreover, university departments which have an interest in the health of communities should supervise these efforts. The knowledge of university faculty members within departments of Nursing, Social Work, Public Health, Rehabilitation Counseling and Physical Education should extend beyond the classroom and into the community. Clark commented, "Perhaps course content across departments could be revised to encompass an increased focus on practice skills which support awareness and prevention efforts". Through employment, volunteerism and student internships, each of these disciplines have established relationships with the surrounding community and understand the associated critical needs. Such relationships provide the best environment for both the creation and implementation of services, and provide students with a model of how to "give back" to the community by utilizing their education. Campus health centers should be more prevention-driven beyond the distribution of condoms and pamphlets, to collaborate with local area high schools and community-based organizations to create an information network accessible to students and community residents. Additionally, health centers should promote the availability of HPV vaccination, which depending on state of residence and age, may be free or available at a discounted cost. According to Bynum

  2. Community Respiratory Viruses as a Cause of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Following Suppressive Chemotherapy in Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Shalaby, L.; Kandil

    2005-01-01

    Community respiratory viruses are an important cause of respiratory disease in the immunocompromised patients with cancer. To evaluate the occurrence and clinical significance of respiratory virus infections in hospitalized cancer patients at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during anticancer treatment, we studied cases that developed episodes of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with LRTI were studied clinically, radiologically, and microbiologically. Sputum cultures were done and an immunofluorescence search for IgM antibodies of influenza A and B, parainfluenza serotypes 1,2 and 3, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnettii, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were performed on serum samples of patients. The main presenting symptom was cough and expectoration. Hematologic malignancy was the underlying disease in 86.6% of cases. Blood cultures were positive in II patients (36.6%) only. Sputum cultures revealed a bacterial pathogen in [3 cases and fungi in 3; whereas viral and atypical bacterial lgM antibodies were detected in 13 and 4 patients; respectively. Influenza virus was the commonest virus detected, being of type B in 4 cases, type A in one case and mixed A and B in another 5 cases; followed by RSV in 5 patients. Taken together, bacteria were identified as a single cause of LRTI in 10 cases, viruses in 6, fungi in 3 and mixed causes in 7. Still, there were 4 undiagnosed cases. This study showed that respiratory viruses are common in LRTI, either as a single cause or mixed with bacterial pathogens. in hospitalized cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Diagnostic tests for respiratory viruses should be incorporated in the routine diagnostic study of patients with hematologic malignancies. Also, it must be emphasized that early CT chest is crucial as a base-line prior to initiation of anti-fungal or anti-viral therapy. In cancer patients with a

  3. Breast cancer amongst Filipino migrants: a review of the literature and ten-year institutional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jory S; Briggs, Kaleigh; George, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    As one migrates from an area of low to high incidence of breast cancer their personal risk of developing breast cancer increases. This is however not equally distributed across all races and ethnicities. This paper specifically examines Filipino migrants. A literature review was conducted to summarize breast cancer incidence, screening practices and trends in treatment amongst Filipino migrants. In addition, a retrospective cohort study was conducted specifically examining the age in which Filipino women were diagnosed with breast cancer compared to Asian and Caucasian counterparts. Filipino women are diagnosed with breast cancer at a statistically significant younger age (53.2) compared to their Asian (55.1) and Caucasian (58.4) counterparts. In addition, they are at an increased risk of developing more aggressive breast cancer with noteworthy disparities in the care they are receiving. The evidence suggest this group is worthy of special focus when diagnosing and treating breast cancer.

  4. Pharmacogenetics in cancer therapy - 8 years of experience at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavic, Milena; Krivokuca, Ana; Boljevic, Ivana; Brotto, Ksenija; Jovanovic, Katarina; Tanic, Miljana; Filipovic, Lana; Zec, Manja; Malisic, Emina; Jankovic, Radmila; Radulovic, Sinisa

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a study of possible mechanism by which an individual's response to drugs is genetically determined by variations in their DNA sequence. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to identify the optimal drug and dose for each individual based on their genetic constitution, i.e. to individualize drug treatment. This leads to achieving the maximal therapeutic response for each patient, while reducing adverse side effects of therapy and the cost of treatment. A centralized pharmacogenetics service was formed at the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia (IORS) with the aim to provide a personalized approach to cancer treatment of Serbian patients. Analyses of KRAS mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer, EGFR mutations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer, CYP2D6 polymorphism in breast cancer, DPD polymorphism in colorectal cancer and MTHFR polymorphism in osteosarcoma have been performed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Mutation testing analyses were successful for 1694 KRAS samples and 1821 EGFR samples, while polymorphism testing was successful for 9 CYP2D6 samples, 65 DPD samples and 35 MTHFR samples. Pharmacogenetic methods presented in this paper provide cancer patients in Serbia the best possible choice of treatment at the moment.

  5. The Peru cervical cancer prevention study (PERCAPS): community-based participatory research in Manchay, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Although technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community-based participatory research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of community-based participatory research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling and cryotherapy were used for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was used for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by (1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, (2) the successful use of research forms provided, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) satisfaction of the participants. (1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; (2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were used correctly with minimal error; (3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV-positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the first vaccine, 97% of those received the second vaccine, and 93% the third; (4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Community-based participatory research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen/treat and vaccinate

  6. Evaluation of the quality of the mammography study in the radio-diagnostic service of the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio Laverde, Alba Lucia; Pineros Petersen, Marion; Betancourt Gil, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    The development of mammography quality control programs at radiology services has had an important progress in the last decades, mainly in developed countries. Although breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality and incidence in Colombia, quality control programs for mammography screening are just beginning to be considered. This article describes the results of a baseline evaluation aimed at establishing a quality control program at the Radiology Unit of the National Cancer Institute, in Colombia. The mammography equipment, the film processing, and all main physical parameters were checked and compared to international standards. Quality of the image in 301 mammographic X-ray plates was evaluated. In order to implement a good quality control program, the need for acquiring essential instruments, improving physical facilities and starting a continuous training program is imperative

  7. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  8. A pilot study to assess the level of depression and the coping strategies adopted by cancer patients receiving treatment in Mizoram State Cancer Institute, Aizawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitumoni Konwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer, the second most common cause of death, has become a major health problem. Depression is the most common psychological problem encountered in patients with cancer. The coping skills adopted may affect the mental health of patients. Therefore, this research is undertaken to assess the level of depression and coping strategy adopted by the patients diagnosed with cancer. Materials and methods: A descriptive study to assess the level of depression and coping strategy adopted by cancer patients receiving treatment in Mizoram State Cancer Institute, Aizawl was carried out from April to May 2014 with 30 convenient samples. Depression was assessed by using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS developed by Zigmond and Snaith in 1983. Coping strategy adopted by patients were assessed by revised version of the Ways of Coping Checklist developed by Folkman and Lazarus in 1985. Results: Findings of the study showed that depression was universal to all the cancer patients. Majority of cancer patients (66.5% had moderate depression while 13.26% of the cancer patients had severe depression, and only 6.7% of them reported to have low depression. The most effective coping strategy adopted was reappraisal, followed by distancing. There is significant correlation between depression and reappraisal (r=-0.538, p<0.002, and also with depression and acceptance (r=-0.415, p<0.022 strategies. Conclusion: As depression is universal to all cancer patients, use of appropriate coping strategy is very essential to improve their quality of life. The recognition of coping strategies by health team may enable appropriate information and interventions to be provided at optimal times for each individual.

  9. Awareness of risk factors for cancer among Omani adults--a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Rasbi, Khadija; Al-Hinai, Mustafa; Davidson, Robin; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of mortality around the world. However, the majority of cancers occur as a result of modifiable risk factors; hence public awareness of cancer risk factors is crucial to reduce the incidence. The objective of this study was to identify the level of public awareness of cancer risk factors among the adult Omani population. A community based survey using the Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) questionnaire was conducted in three areas of Oman to measure public awareness of cancer risk factors. Omani adults aged 18 years and above were invited to participate in the study. SPPSS (ver.20) was used to analyse the data. A total of 384 participated from 500 invited individuals (response rate =77%). The majority of respondents agreed that smoking cigarettes (320, 83.3%), passive smoking (279, 72.7%) and excessive drinking of alcohol (265, 69%) are risks factors for cancer. However, fewer respondents agreed that eating less fruit and vegetables (83, 21.6%), eating more red or processed meat (116, 30.2%), being overweight (BMI>25) (123, 32%), doing less physical exercise (119, 31%), being over 70 years old (72, 18.8%), having a close relative with cancer (134, 34.9%), infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) (117, 30.5%) and getting frequent sunburn during childhood (149, 38.8%) are risk factors for cancer. A significant association was found between participant responses and their educational level. The higher the educational level, the more likely that respondents identified cancer risk factors including smoking (paware of the common risk factors for cancer. It may be possible to reduce the incidence of cancers in Oman by developing strategies to educate the public about these risk factors.

  10. Validity and Reliability of the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Patient-Reported Outcomes Version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueck, Amylou C.; Mendoza, Tito R.; Mitchell, Sandra A.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Castro, Kathleen M.; Rogak, Lauren J.; Atkinson, Thomas M.; Bennett, Antonia V.; Denicoff, Andrea M.; O'Mara, Ann M.; Li, Yuelin; Clauser, Steven B.; Bryant, Donna M.; Bearden, James D.; Gillis, Theresa A.; Harness, Jay K.; Siegel, Robert D.; Paul, Diane B.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Schrag, Deborah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Abernethy, Amy P.; Bruner, Deborah W.; Minasian, Lori M.; Basch, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    Importance Symptomatic adverse events (AEs) in cancer trials are currently reported by clinicians using the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). To integrate the patient perspective, the NCI developed a patient-reported outcomes version of the CTCAE (PRO-CTCAE) to capture symptomatic AEs directly from patients. Objective To assess the construct validity, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness of PRO-CTCAE items. Design Participants completed PRO-CTCAE items on tablet computers in clinic waiting rooms at two visits 1-6 weeks apart. A subset completed PRO-CTCAE items during an additional visit one business day after the first visit. Setting Nine U.S. cancer centers and community oncology practices. Participants 975 adult cancer patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy and/or radiation enrolled between January 2011 and February 2012. Eligibility required participants to read English and be without clinically significant cognitive impairment. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Primary comparators were clinician-reported Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Results 940/975 (96%) and 852/940 (91%) participants completed PRO-CTCAE items at each visit. 938/940 (99.8%) participants (53% female, median age 59, 32% high school education or less, 17% ECOG PS 2-4) reported having at least one symptom. All PRO-CTCAE items had at least one correlation in the expected direction with a QLQ-C30 scale (111/124 P<.05). Stronger correlations were seen between PRO-CTCAE items and conceptually-related QLQ-C30 domains. Scores for 94/124 PRO-CTCAE items were higher in the ECOG PS 2-4 versus 0-1 group (58/124 P<.05). Overall, 119/124 items met at least one construct validity criterion. Test-retest reliability was acceptable for 36/49 pre-specified items (median intra-class correlation coefficient

  11. Community Hospitals Indianapolis creates breast cancer awareness. The hospital joins a partnership with local ABC affiliate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreria, J

    1999-01-01

    Community Hospitals Indianapolis raises the public's awareness of the importance of breast self-examination and mammography as the best tools for early detection of breast cancer. The health system has designed a program called Buddy Check 6 to partner with a local television station.

  12. Demoralization in Opioid Dependent Patients: A Comparative Study with Cancer Patients and Community Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Kissane, D.W.; Geessink, R.J.; Velden, D. van der

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study existential distress or demoralization expressed as meaninglessness and helplessness in opioid dependent patients. xxx Method: Comparison of existential distress between opioid dependent patients (n=131), patients with advanced cancer (n=100) and a community based sample without severe

  13. Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Cervical Cancer Screening among Women with Physical Disabilities Living in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chen, Si-Fan; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…

  14. Developing a Cookbook with Lifestyle Tips: A Community-Engaged Approach to Promoting Diet-Related Cancer Prevention Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Selina A.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Delmoor, Ernestine; Britt, Thomas; Harris, Cassandra L.; Robinson-Flint, Janette; Porche-Smith, L. Monique; Umeakunne, Kayellen Edmonds; Coughlin, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementing nutrition education with skills-building activities may enhance community awareness of diet-related cancer prevention guidelines. To develop a cookbook with lifestyle tips, recipes were solicited from the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer (NBLIC) community coalitions and dietary intake advice from participants in the Educational Program to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening (EPICS). With guidance from a chef and registered dietitian, recipes were tested, assessed,...

  15. Synthesizing community wisdom: A model for sharing cancer-related resources through social networking and collaborative partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jacob B; Lorenzi, Nancy M; Lorenzi, Nancy

    2008-11-06

    Despite the availability of community-based support services, cancer patients and survivors are not aware of many of these resources. Without access to community programs, cancer survivors are at risk for lower quality of care and lower quality of life. At the same time, non-profit community organizations lack access to advanced consumer informatics applications to effectively promote awareness of their services. In addition to the current models of print and online resource guides, new community-driven informatics approaches are needed to achieve the goal of comprehensive care for cancer survivors. We present the formulation of a novel model for synthesizing a local communitys collective wisdom of cancer-related resources through a combination of online social networking technologies and real-world collaborative partnerships. This approach can improve awareness of essential, but underutilized community resources.

  16. Development of a virtual multidisciplinary lung cancer tumor board in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Marvaretta M; Irwin, Tonia; Lowry, Terry; Ahmed, Maleka Z; Walden, Thomas L; Watson, Melanie; Sutton, Linda

    2013-05-01

    Creating an effective platform for multidisciplinary tumor conferences can be challenging in the rural community setting. The Duke Cancer Network created an Internet-based platform for a multidisciplinary conference to enhance the care of patients with lung cancer. This conference incorporates providers from different physical locations within a rural community and affiliated providers from a university-based cancer center 2 hours away. An electronic Web conferencing tool connects providers aurally and visually. Conferences were set up using a commercially available Web conferencing platform. The video platform provides a secure Web site coupled with a secure teleconference platform to ensure patient confidentiality. Multiple disciplines are invited to participate, including radiology, radiation oncology, thoracic surgery, pathology, and medical oncology. Participants only need telephone access and Internet connection to participate. Patient histories and physicals are presented, and the Web conferencing platform allows radiologic and histologic images to be reviewed. Treatment plans for patients are discussed, allowing providers to coordinate care among the different subspecialties. Patients who need referral to the affiliated university-based cancer center for specialized services are identified. Pertinent treatment guidelines and journal articles are reviewed. On average, there are 10 participants with one to two cases presented per session. The use of a Web conferencing platform allows subspecialty providers throughout the community and hours away to discuss lung cancer patient cases. This platform increases convenience for providers, eliminating travel to a central location. Coordination of care for patients requiring multidisciplinary care is facilitated, shortening evaluation time before definitive treatment plan.

  17. Falls in the community-dwelling elderly with a history of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Sandra; Given, Barbara; von Eye, Alexander; Given, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Falls place older adults at risk for injuries, resulting in functional decline, hospitalization, institutionalization, higher healthcare costs, and decreased quality of life. This study examined community-dwelling elderly to identify if individuals with a history of cancer fall at a higher rate than those without cancer, and if the occurrence of falls was influenced by individual characteristics, symptoms, or function. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study, in 2007, examining 7,448 community-dwelling elderly 65 years or older in a state in the Midwest. Fallers were identified based on a diagnosis of cancer, age, sex, race and ethnicity, poor vision, reduced activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs, cognition, incontinence, pain, or depression. Findings indicated that 2,125 (28.5%) had at least 1 fall. Of those who fell, 967 (13.0%) had cancer, and 363 (4.9%) with cancer had a fall. Predictors of falls in this population included race, sex, ADLs, incontinence, depression, and pain, all with P falls in this study. This study found a high frequency of falls and suggests a predictive model for fall risk in the vulnerable, community-dwelling elderly and will be used to inform future studies.

  18. Schools as institutions for peace in Northern Ireland: pupils’, parents’ and teachers’ perspectives on the community relations dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Smith

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the research reported in this paper is to inform the processes of school improvement for better intercommunal relations in Northern Ireland. Notwithstanding the present peace process, the quality of community relations remains a crucial concern for those interested in long-term stability. The research strategy drew on data from nine case study schools and was considered to be part of an interpretist-constructivist paradigm involving an inductive or grounded theory approach to analysis. The views of pupils, parents and teachers on the contribution of schooling towards improved inter-group relationships were explored in some depth and the wealth of rich data shed light on school practices and key institutional factors implicated in effectiveness and improvement. Nineteen themes were identified which appeared not to be discrete or self-contained but interact in complex ways creating different patterns at different organisational sites. Furthermore, the patterns spun by these factors appeared to vary in nature through relationship with identities such as geographical location, socio-economic status, ethnicity and gender. It is argued that this study contributes towards the existing literatures on school effectiveness and improvement and schooling and sectarianism in Northern Ireland. The results suggested that education for community relations in N. Ireland required an alternative concept of school effectiveness to the received model. The emerging organisational picture was more consistent with sensitivity to context models of effectiveness and improvement. The analysis in the final section was designed to offer some broad pointers for school improvement.

  19. Early detection of breast and cervical cancer among indigenous communities in Morelos, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Campero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the perception in relation to when and how to perform actions for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among women and health care providers in communities with a high percentage of indigenous population in Morelos, Mexico. Materials and methods. Ten health providers and 58 women users of health services were interviewed which have a first level of attention in five communities. The analysis was developed under the approach of the Grounded Theory. Results. Providers are poorly informed about current regulations and specific clinical indications for the detection of cervical and breast cancer. Few propitiate health literacy under intercultural sensitization. The users have imprecise or wrong notions of the early detection. Conclusions. The need for training in adherence to norms is evident. It is urgent to assume a culturally relevant approach to enable efficient communication and promote health literacy for early detection of these two cancers.

  20. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently ...biomarker platforms in our multi-center, prospectively accrued prostate cancer active surveillance cohort – the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance...prostate cancers currently diagnosed are low risk tumors for which there is substantial evidence that the cancer will not cause harm if left untreated

  1. Comparison of Serum Selenium Levels in Breast Cancer Patients and Healthy People at a Cancer Institute in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maleki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast Cancer is one of the most important fatal cancers in women. The mean age of breast cancer in Iran is 48.8 years which is very lower than other countries. Selenium can play an important role in reduction of cancer in several ways, for example selenium increases immunity response and protects cells from oxidation of free radicals and also decreases carcinogenic metabolites. Breast cancer is one of the most important cancers in our country because its incidence is very high and the mean age of patients is very low. Different studies have shown the benefits of selenium in prevention of cancer and since many years selenium has been used as a dietary supplement in advanced countries. Several studies regarding relationship between selenium levels and breast cancer have been done in different countries. We therefore planned a study to evaluate serum selenium levels in breast cancer patients and compare them with a healthy control group. Methods: We selected 45 patients younger than 48 years old and 33 patients older than 48 years old who had not yet received any therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, etc for their cancer as a case group and 46 healthy people who were matched with the patients as a control group and included 23 persons younger and 23 persons older than 48 years old. From each participant, 5cc blood was derived and in several stages, serum selenium levels were evaluated using atomic absorption technology. Data about type of cancer, stage, grade, IHC and cigarette smoking were also collected. Results: The mean Se level was 161.20 μg/l (SD=46.27 μg/l in the patients and 189.13 μg/l (SD=48.75 μg/l in the control group that was statistically significant (P48 years old was 155.39 μg/l (SD=46.68 μg/l that was lower than the control groups. Difference in serum selenium levels between patients and controls in the older group was significant (P=0.007, but in the younger group, it was not statistically significant (P=0

  2. Screening mammography. A missed clinical opportunity? Results of the NCI [National Cancer Institute] Breast Cancer Screening Consortium and national health interview survey studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Data from seven studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) were used to determine current rates of breast cancer screening and to identify the characteristics of and reasons for women not being screened. All seven studies were population-based surveys of women aged 50 to 74 years without breast cancer. While over 90% of non-Hispanic white respondents had regular sources of medical care, 46% to 76% had a clinical breast examination within the previous year, and only 25% to 41% had a mammogram. Less educated and poorer women had fewer mammograms. The two most common reasons women gave for never having had a mammogram were that they did not known they needed it and that their physician had not recommended it. Many physicians may have overlooked the opportunity to recommend mammography for older women when performing a clinical breast examination and to educate their patients about the benefit of screening mammography

  3. Developing community based rehabilitation for cancer survivors: Organizing for coordination and coherence in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Cutchin, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Background. Increasing incidence of cancer combined with prolonged survival have raised the need for developing community based rehabilitation. The objectives of the analysis were to describe and interpret the key issues related to coordination and coherence of community-based cancer rehabilitation......-based organization, and informal relationships were fundamental for developing coordination and coherence. Conclusions. Coordination and coherence in community-based rehabilitation relies on increased collaboration, which may best be optimized by use of shared frameworks within and across systems. Results highlight...... in Denmark and to provide insights relevant for other contexts. Methods. Twenty-seven rehabilitation managers across 15 municipalities in Denmark comprised the sample. The study was designed with a combination of data collection methods including questionnaires, individual interviews, and focus groups...

  4. Epidemiology and management of breast carcinoma in Egyptian males: Experience of a single Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshafiey, M.M.; Elsebai, H.I.; Attia, A.A.; Zeeneldin, A.A.; Moneer, M.; Mohamed, D.B.; Gouda, I.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the epidemiological and clinico-pathological features, surgical and reconstructive techniques, adjuvant treatments and clinical outcome of breast carcinoma in males (BCM) at the Egyptian National Cancer Institute (NCI). Patients and methods: Thirty-two males with breast carcinoma presented to NCI between January 2000 and December 2002. They were evaluated by complete history, physical examination, laboratory and radiological investigations. Results: Median age was 59 years. Left sided and retroareolar breast lumps were the commonest presentations. Grade 11 tumors positive for hormone receptors were very common. Stage I, II, 111 and IV disease were encountered in 6.2%, 34.4%, 34.4% and 25.0% of patients, respectively. Curative surgery was done in 22 patients; they received adjuvant hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 22,16 and 10 patients, respectively. Eight metastatic patients were treated with palliative measures. Surgery was done in 25 patients; the most common procedure was modified radical mastectomy (40.6%). Primary closure was feasible in 17 patients (68%), local flaps were needed in 4 cases (16%), while myocutaneous flap was done in 3 cases (12%). The commonest complication was development of seroma (9 cases). The overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 65.4%. The disease free survival (DPS) at 5 years was 53.9%. Stage and curative surgery significantly affected OS, while type of surgery was the only variable significantly affecting DPS. Conclusion: Male breast carcinoma occurs at older ages than females, usually in advanced stage. This necessitates directing attention of males and awareness on the prevalence and risk factors for this disease.needed in 4 cases (16%), while myocutaneous flap was done in 3 cases (12%). The commonest complication was development of seroma (9 cases). The overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 65.4%. The disease free survival (DPS) at 5 years was 53.9%. Stage and curative surgery significantly affected OS

  5. A Comparison of the Wellbeing of Orphans and Abandoned Children Ages 6–12 in Institutional and Community-Based Care Settings in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Kathryn; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel A.; Pence, Brian W.; O'Donnell, Karen; Messer, Lynne C.; Thielman, Nathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Leaders are struggling to care for the estimated 143,000,000 orphans and millions more abandoned children worldwide. Global policy makers are advocating that institution-living orphans and abandoned children (OAC) be moved as quickly as possible to a residential family setting and that institutional care be used as a last resort. This analysis tests the hypothesis that institutional care for OAC aged 6–12 is associated with worse health and wellbeing than community residential care using conservative two-tail tests. Methodology The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) study employed two-stage random sampling survey methodology in 6 sites across 5 countries to identify 1,357 institution-living and 1,480 community-living OAC ages 6–12, 658 of whom were double-orphans or abandoned by both biological parents. Survey analytic techniques were used to compare cognitive functioning, emotion, behavior, physical health, and growth. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the proportion of variability in child outcomes attributable to the study site, care setting, and child levels and institutional versus community care settings. Conservative analyses limited the community living children to double-orphans or abandoned children. Principal Findings Health, emotional and cognitive functioning, and physical growth were no worse for institution-living than community-living OAC, and generally better than for community-living OAC cared for by persons other than a biological parent. Differences between study sites explained 2–23% of the total variability in child outcomes, while differences between care settings within sites explained 8–21%. Differences among children within care settings explained 64–87%. After adjusting for sites, age, and gender, institution vs. community-living explained only 0.3–7% of the variability in child outcomes. Conclusion This study does not support the hypothesis that institutional care is systematically associated with

  6. Assessing Community Cancer care after insurance ExpanSionS (ACCESS study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Angier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is the second most common cause of mortality in the United States. Cancer screening and prevention services have contributed to improved overall cancer survival rates in the past 40 years. Vulnerable populations (i.e., uninsured, low-income, and racial/ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by cancer, receive significantly fewer cancer prevention services, poorer healthcare, and subsequently lower survival rates than insured, white, non-Hispanic populations. The Affordable Care Act (ACA aims to provide health insurance to all low-income citizens and legal residents, including an expansion of Medicaid eligibility for those earning ≤138% of federal poverty level. As of 2012, Medicaid was expanded in 32 states and the District of Columbia, while 18 states did not expand, creating a ‘natural experiment’ to assess the impact of Medicaid expansion on cancer prevention and care. Methods: We will use electronic health record data from up to 990 community health centers available up to 24-months before and at least one year after Medicaid expansion. Primary outcomes include health insurance and coverage status, and type of insurance. Additional outcomes include healthcare delivery, number and types of encounters, and receipt of cancer prevention and screening for all patients and preventive care and screening services for cancer survivors. Discussion: Cancer morbidity and mortality is greatly reduced through screening and prevention, but uninsured patients are much less likely than insured patients to receive these services as recommended. This natural policy experiment will provide valuable information about cancer-related healthcare services as the US tackles the distribution of healthcare resources and future health reform. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrails.gov identifier NCT02936609. Keywords: Cancer, Medicaid, Affordable Care Act, Natural experiment, Screening, Preventive services

  7. How do patients with cancer pain view community pharmacy services? An interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Zoe; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Ziegler, Lucy; Bennett, Michael I

    2018-02-26

    Pain experienced by many patients with advanced cancer is often not well controlled and community pharmacists are potentially well placed to provide support. The study objective was to explore the views and experiences of patients with advanced cancer about community pharmacies, their services and attitudes towards having a community pharmacist pain medicines consultation. Purposive sampling of GP clinical information systems was used to recruit patients with advanced cancer, living in the community and receiving opioid analgesics in one area of England, UK between January 2015 and July 2016. Thirteen patients had a semi-structured interview which was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed deductively and inductively using Framework analysis and incorporating new themes as they emerged. The framework comprised Pain management, Experiences and expectations, Access to care and Communication. All patients reported using one regular community pharmacy citing convenience, service and staff friendliness as influential factors. The idea of a community pharmacy medicines consultation was acceptable to most patients. The idea of telephone consultations was positively received but electronic media such as Skype was not feasible or acceptable for most. Patients perceived a hierarchy of health professionals with specialist palliative care nurses at the top (due to their combined knowledge of their condition and medicines) followed by GPs then pharmacists. Patients receiving specialist palliative care described pain that was better controlled than those who were not. They thought medicines consultations with a pharmacist could be useful for patients before referral for palliative care. There is a need for pain medicines support for patients with advanced cancer, and unmet need appears greater for those not under the care of specialist services. Medicines consultations, in principle, are acceptable to patients both in person and by telephone, and the latter

  8. Analyzing quality of colorectal cancer care through registry statistics: a small community hospital example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewood, Ian

    2011-01-01

    As the quantity of elderly Americans requiring oncologic care grows, and as cancer treatment and medicine become more advanced, assessing quality of cancer care becomes a necessary and advantageous practice for any facility.' Such analysis is especially practical in small community hospitals, which may not have the resources of their larger academic counterparts to ensure that the care being provided is current and competitive in terms of both technique and outcome. This study is a comparison of the colorectal cancer care at one such center, Falmouth Community Hospital (FCH)--located in Falmouth, Massachusetts, about an hour and a half away from the nearest metropolitan center--to the care provided at a major nearby Boston Tertiary Center (BTC) and at teaching and research facilities across New England and the United States. The metrics used to measure performance encompass both outcome (survival rate data) as well as technique, including quality of surgery (number of lymph nodes removed) and the administration of adjuvant treatments, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, as per national guidelines. All data for comparison between FCH and BTC were culled from those hospitals' tumor registries. Data for the comparison between FCH and national tertiary/referral centers were taken from the American College of Surgeons' Commission on Cancer, namely National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) statistics, Hospital Benchmark Reports and Practice Profile Reports. The results showed that, while patients at FCH were diagnosed at both a higher age and at a more advanced stage of colorectal cancer than their BTC counterparts, FCH stands up favorably to BTC and other large centers in terms of the metrics referenced above. Quality assessment such as the analysis conducted here can be used at other community facilities to spotlight, and ultimately eliminate, deficiencies in cancer programs.

  9. Retrospective assessment of occupational asbestos exposure among 220 patients with respiratory cancer hospitalized at Vilnius University Institute of Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrauskaite Everatt, R.; Jankauskas, R.; Tossavainen, A.; Cicenas, S.; Smolianskiene, G.

    2005-01-01

    No cases of lung cancer or mesothelioma have ever been diagnosed or compensated as asbestos-related in Lithuania. This paper attempts to estimate the proportion of those occupationally exposed to asbestos among respiratory cancer patients. Occupational exposure to asbestos was assessed retrospectively for 218 lung cancer and 2 mesothelioma patients admitted to Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. The evaluation was based on personal interview data using an internationally established questionnaire. Cumulative exposure to asbestos at work was evaluated in fibre-years. A cumulative asbestos exposure of ≥25 fibre-years was found for 7 patients (3.2%), in further 135 (61.2%) a cumulative exposure from 0.01 to 24.99 fibre-years was assessed. The most common occupations among heavily (≥25 fibre-years) exposed patients were smith, welder or insulator in foundries, construction, shipyard as well as asbestos cement and glass industry. Preliminary findings indicate that a fraction (3.2%) of the respiratory cancer cases could be attributed to occupational exposure to asbestos. Since 1560 or more cases of lung cancer are registered every year in Lithuania, about 50 cases per year could be predicted to be asbestos-related. (author)

  10. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  11. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  12. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    25 4 1. INTRODUCTION Although prostate - specific antigen (PSA) testing and the resulting treatment of...details of this work are described in the attached paper titled “Refined analysis of prostate specific antigen kinetics to predict prostate cancer...Wagner; Daniel W. Lin,; and Yingye Zheng. “Refined analysis of prostate specific antigen kinetics to predict prostate cancer active surveillance outcomes

  13. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanidi, Anouar; Ferrari, Pietro; Biessy, Carine; Ortega, Carolina; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Torres-Mejia, Gabriella; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association between adherence to the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study in a Mexican population. Population-based case-control study. Incident BC cases (n 1000) and controls (n 1074) matched on age, region and health-care system were recruited. In-person interviews were conducted to assess BC risk factors and habitual diet was assessed with an FFQ. Conformity to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was evaluated through a score incorporating seven WCRF/AICR components (body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and breast-feeding), with high scores indicating adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations. No statistically significant associations between WCRF/AICR score and risk of BC were observed. After excluding BMI from the WCRF/AICR score, the top quartile was associated with a decreased BC risk overall, with ORQ4-Q1=0.68 (95% CI 0.49, 0.92, P trend=0.03), and among postmenopausal women, with ORQ4-Q1=0.60 (95% CI 0.39, 0.94, P trend=0.03). Inverse associations were observed between BMI and risk of BC overall and among premenopausal women, with OR=0.57 (95% CI 0.42, 0.76, P trend <0.01) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.31, 0.73, P trend<0.01), respectively. Physical activity level was inversely associated with BC risk. The WCRF/AICR index was not related with BC risk in the CAMA study. A combination of six components excluding BMI showed strong protective associations, particularly in postmenopausal women. Further prospective studies are required to clarify the role of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations, particularly with respect to BMI, in the Mexican population.

  14. The Utility of Expert Diagnosis in Surgical Neuropathology: Analysis of Consultations Reviewed at 5 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Janet M; Louis, David N; McLendon, Roger; Rosenblum, Marc K; Archambault, W Tad; Most, Susan; Tihan, Tarik

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the type and degree of discrepancies between non-expert and expert diagnoses of CNS tumors to identify the value of consultations in surgical neuropathology. Neuropathology experts from 5 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions participated in the review of 1281 consultations selected based on inclusion criteria. The consultation cases were re-reviewed at the NCCN headquarters to determine concordance with the original diagnoses. Among all consultations, 249 (19.4%) were submitted for expert diagnoses without final diagnoses from the submitting institution. Within the remaining 1032 patients, the serious/major discrepancy rate was 4.8%, and less serious and minor discrepancies were seen in 19.4% of the cases. The discrepancy rate was higher among patients who were referred to NCCN institutions for consultation compared to those who were referred for treatment only. The discrepancy rates, patient demographics, type of consultations and submitting institutions varied among participating NCCN institutions. Expert consultations identified a subset of cases with significant diagnostic discrepancies, and constituted the initial diagnoses in some cases. These data indicate that expert consultations in glial tumors and all types of pediatric CNS tumors can improve accurate diagnosis and enable appropriate management. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the Academic and Social Experiences of Latino Engineering Community College Transfer Students at a 4-Year Institution: A Qualitative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, LaTesha R.

    As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.

  16. The role of community-based and philanthropic organizations in meeting cancer patient and caregiver needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Rebecca A; Taylor, Kathryn L; Kerner, Jon F; Coleman, Ellen; Blum, Diane

    2002-01-01

    We examined information from community-based and philanthropic organizations to document the cancer-related services that are currently available, establish which services are still needed, and determine who utilizes these formal support networks. In Phase I, 32 of 41 eligible organizations participated in a survey conducted from December 1999 to March 2000. The most common mission focus among participating organizations was information/referral-centered. The most common services provided were referrals to information resources and provision of cancer-related information. Only two of the organizations in Phase I provided client demographic information and both indicated that client populations were predominantly white, female, and over age 40. Phase II of the study involved analyzing patient data from Cancer Care, Inc., a national service organizations for cancer patients. Between 1983 and 1997, there were 2,714 prostate cancer patients and 9,451 breast cancer patients included in the Cancer Care database. Their most commonly reported problems were related to personal adjustment to illness, financial, home care, and transportation needs. There were significant differences in problems reported depending upon age and disease status. In addition, the results of this study support the idea that those at highest risk for developing and dying of cancer are the least likely to utilize formal support networks. Further, a gap in service provision for assistance with practical needs (e.g., transportation, home care, child care, psychosocial support) was identified. Due to the increasing use of outpatient care for cancer patients, a greater demand for practical assistance can be expected in the future. The availability of practical services will need to be increased in order to effectively meet cancer patient needs.

  17. Using Comics to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2017-06-23

    There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.

  18. Development of a community-based participatory colorectal cancer screening intervention to address disparities, Arkansas, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen; Flowers, Eric; Ford, Gemessia; Burroughs, Desiree; Burton, Jackie; Woods, Delores; Stewart, Chara; Mehta, Paulette; Greene, Paul; Henry-Tillman, Ronda

    2011-03-01

    The death rate from colorectal cancer is high and affects poor and medically underserved populations disproportionately. In the United States, health disparities are particularly acute in the Lower Mississippi River Delta region. Because many in the region have limited access to basic health care resources, they are not screened for cancer, even though screening is one of the most effective strategies to prevent colorectal cancer. Community-based participatory research is a promising approach to prevent colorectal cancer in this population. The Empowering Communities for Life program was implemented in 2 underserved counties in the Arkansas Lower Mississippi River Delta. The program arose from a 9-year partnership between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and 9 cancer councils across Arkansas. Empowering Communities for Life is a community-based participatory intervention designed to increase colorectal cancer screening in rural, underserved communities through fecal occult blood testing. Community and academic partners collaborated to develop research infrastructure, intervention materials and methods, and the assessment instrument. Project outcomes were strengthened community-academic partnerships, certification of community partners in conducting human subjects research, development of a randomized controlled design to test the intervention's efficacy, an interactive PowerPoint presentation, an informational pamphlet, the certification of 6 lay health advisors and 22 role models to provide the intervention, and an assessment tool using an audience response system. Lessons learned in working collaboratively with diverse groups include the importance of meeting face to face and listening.

  19. Understanding Cancer Worry Among Patients in a Community Clinic-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Schmidt, Alyssa; Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Sutton, Steven K; Davis, Stacy N; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Abdulla, Rania; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard; Shibata, David; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K

    2018-06-04

    To reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) screening disparities, it is important to understand correlates of different types of cancer worry among ethnically diverse individuals. The current study examined the prevalence of three types of cancer worry (i.e., general cancer worry, CRC-specific worry, and worry about CRC test results) as well as sociodemographic and health-related predictors for each type of cancer worry. Participants were aged 50-75, at average CRC risk, nonadherent to CRC screening guidelines, and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to increase CRC screening. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire assessing sociodemographics, health beliefs, healthcare experiences, and three cancer worry measures. Associations between study variables were examined with separate univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Responses from a total of 416 participants were used. Of these, 47% reported experiencing moderate-to-high levels of general cancer worry. Predictors of general cancer worry were salience and coherence (aOR = 1.1, 95% CI [1.0, 1.3]), perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.2, 95% CI [1.1, 1.3), and social influence (aOR = 1.1, 95% CI [1.0, 0.1]). Fewer (23%) reported moderate-to-high levels of CRC-specific worry or CRC test worry (35%). Predictors of CRC worry were perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.3, 1.6]) and social influence (aOR = 1.1, 95% CI [1.0, 1.2]); predictors of CRC test result worry were perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.2, 95% CI [1.1, 1.3) and marital status (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI [1.1, 3.7] for married/partnered vs. single and aOR = 2.3, 95% CI [1.3, 4.1] for divorced/widowed vs. single). Perceived susceptibility consistently predicted the three types of cancer worry, whereas other predictors varied between cancer worry types and in magnitude of association. The three types of cancer worry were generally predicted by health beliefs, suggesting potential malleability. Future research should include multiple

  20. A cancer mortality study in Bombay-based atomic energy community: 1975-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Mayya, Y.S.; Soman, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    Cancer deaths recorded by the centralized health services of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) among its employees and their families stationed in Bombay during 1975-1987 have been analysed. Expected number of deaths due to cancer in the study group has been estimated by using the age -sex -specific cancer death rates reported for Bombay resident population for the year 1983. The size of the database for the entire DAE community is about 702,000 person years and the number of cancer deaths observed in 154. Analysis has been done separately for employees and their families, individually for important groups of cancer sites such as respiratory organs, digestive organs, breast, genito-urinary organs and lymphatic and haematopoietic systems. The standardised mortality ratios are generally lower than 100, which may partly be due to the 'healthy worker effect' in the DAE community and partly because of its differences in the social class distribution and the concomitant differences in lifestyle with respect to the comparison group of Bombay city. (author). 4 tabs., 2 figs., 9 refs

  1. Identifying gender-preferred communication styles within online cancer communities: a retrospective, longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Kathleen T; McCray, Alexa T; Safran, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research is to determine if different gender-preferred social styles can be observed within the user interactions at an online cancer community. To achieve this goal, we identify and measure variables that pertain to each gender-specific social style. We perform social network and statistical analysis on the communication flow of 8,388 members at six different cancer forums over eight years. Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to measure the difference between the number of intimate (and highly intimate) dyads, relationship length, and number of communications. We determine that two patients are more likely to form an intimate bond on a gender-specific cancer forum (ovarian P = communicates with more members than a female patient (Ovarian forum P = 0.0406, Breast forum P = 0.0013). A relationship between two patients is longer on the gender-specific cancer forums than a connection between two members not identified as patients (ovarian forum P = 0.00406, breast forum P = 0.00013, prostate forum P = .0.0003). The high level of interconnectedness among the prostate patients supports the hypothesis that men prefer to socialize in large, interconnected, less-intimate groups. A female patient is more likely to form a highly intimate connection with another female patient; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis that woman prefer fewer, more intimate connections. The relationships of same-gender cancer patients last longer than other relationships; this finding demonstrates homophily within these online communities. Our findings regarding online communication preferences are in agreement with research findings from person-to-person communication preference studies. These findings should be considered when designing online communities as well as designing and evaluating psychosocial and educational interventions for cancer patients.

  2. The Impact of Participation in Online Cancer Communities on Patient Reported Outcomes: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eenbergen, Mies C; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Heine, Peter; Mols, Floortje

    2017-09-28

    In recent years, the question of how patients' participating in online communities affects various patient reported outcomes (PROs) has been investigated in several ways. This study aimed to systematically review all relevant literature identified using key search terms, with regard to, first, changes in PROs for cancer patients who participate in online communities and, second, the characteristics of patients who report such effects. A computerized search of the literature via PubMed (MEDLINE), PsycINFO (5 and 4 stars), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ScienceDirect was performed. Last search was conducted in June 2017. Studies with the following terms were included: (cancer patient) and (support group or health communities) and (online or Internet). A total of 21 studies were included and independently assessed by 2 investigators using an 11-item quality checklist. The methodological quality of the selected studies varied: 12 were of high quality, eight were of adequate quality, and only one was of low quality. Most of the respondents were women (about 80%), most with breast cancer; their mean age was 50 years. The patients who were active in online support groups were mostly younger and more highly educated than the nonusers. The investigated PROs included general well-being (ie, mood and health), anxiety, depression, quality of life, posttraumatic growth, and cancer-related concerns. Only marginal effects-that is, PRO improvements-were found; in most cases they were insignificant, and in some cases they were contradictory. The main shortcoming of this kind of study is the lack of methodological instruments for reliable measurements. Furthermore, some patients who participate in online communities or interact with peers via Internet do not expect to measure changes in their PROs. If cancer survivors want to meet other survivors and share information or get support, online communities can be a trustworthy and reliable platform to facilitate

  3. Critical appraisal of the suitability of translational research models for performance assessment of cancer institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.

  4. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer. A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    aim 2: Evaluate a panel of four-kallikrein plasma-based markers to determine the presence of or progression to clinically relevant prostate cancer...and sent to Genomic Health, Inc. for processing. Task 3: Analysis of scientific Aim 2: Evaluate a panel of four-kallikrein plasma-based markers to...site: FHCRC) PCA3 and the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion are prostate cancer-specific biomarkers that hold promise for stratifying risk in the setting of AS

  5. Colon cancer modulation by a diabetic environment: A single institutional experience

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Isabel; del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Gonzalez, Nieves; Portal-Nu?ez, Sergio; Zazo, Sandra; Corton, Marta; Minguez, Pablo; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Arce, Jose Miguel; Sanz, Ana Belen; Mas, Sebastian; Aguilera, Oscar; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Esbrit, Pedro; Ortiz, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple observational studies suggest an increased risk of colon cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This can theoretically be the result of an influence of the diabetic environment on carcinogenesis or the tumor biologic behavior. Aim To gain insight into the influence of a diabetic environment on colon cancer characteristics and outcomes. Material and methods Retrospective analysis of clinical records in an academic tertiary care hospital with detailed analysis of 81...

  6. Faculty Development for Medical School Community-Based Faculty: A Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance Study Exploring Institutional Requirements and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drowos, Joanna; Baker, Suzanne; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard; Minor, Suzanne; Chessman, Alexander W; Baker, Dennis

    2017-08-01

    Community-based faculty play a large role in training medical students nationwide and require faculty development. The authors hypothesized that positive relationships exist between clerkships paying preceptors and requiring faculty development, and between protected clerkship directors' time and delivering face-to-face preceptor training, as well as with the number or length of community-based preceptor visits. Through under standing the quantity, delivery methods, barriers, and institutional support for faculty development provided to community-based preceptors teaching in family medicine clerkships, best practices can be developed. Data from the 2015 Council of Academic Family Medicine's Educational Research Alliance survey of Family Medicine Clerkship Directors were analyzed. The cross-sectional survey of clerkship directors is distributed annually to institutional representatives of U.S. and Canadian accredited medical schools. Survey questions focused on the requirements, delivery methods, barriers, and institutional support available for providing faculty development to community-based preceptors. Paying community-based preceptors was positively correlated with requiring faculty development in family medicine clerkships. The greatest barrier to providing faculty development was community-based preceptor time availability; however, face-to-face methods remain the most common delivery strategy. Many family medicine clerkship directors perform informal or no needs assessment in developing faculty development topics for community-based faculty. Providing payment to community preceptors may allow schools to enhance faculty development program activities and effectiveness. Medical schools could benefit from constructing a formal curriculum for faculty development, including formal preceptor needs assessment and program evaluation. Clerkship directors may consider recruiting and retaining community-based faculty by employing innovative faculty development delivery

  7. Connecting the Dots: A Comparative Global Multi-Institutional Study of Prohibitive Factors Affecting Cancer Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoatey Odonkor, Charles; Addison, William; Smith, Sean; Osei-Bonsu, Ernest; Tang, Teresa; Erdek, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the attitudes, beliefs, and barriers interfering with cancer pain management, the degree of barrier interference with trainees’ care of patients, and the relationships among prohibitive factors to pain management for physicians in a low–middle-income countries (LMICs) vs high-income countries (HICs). A multi-institutional cross-sectional survey of physicians in specialties with a focus in pain management training was performed. All surveys were completed anonymously from July 1, 2015, to November 30, 2015. One hundred and twenty physicians participated in the survey. Surveys were based on prior questionnaires published in the literature. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and chi-square (ℵ2) analysis, Fisher’s exact test, and Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed. Compared with their peers in HICs, physicians in LMICs reported less experience with cancer pain management despite seeing more cancer patients with advanced disease (41% vs 15.2%, p pain (84% vs 76%) and lack of training and expertise (87% vs 78%) were significantly more prohibitive for physicians in LMICs than those in HICs; p pain management among trainee physicians in low- vs high-resource environments. Understanding these differences may spur further collaboration in the design of contextually relevant solutions, which could potentially help improve the adequacy of cancer pain management

  8. One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification in Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node: A Single Institutional Experience and a Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brambilla, Tatiana; Fiamengo, Barbara; Tinterri, Corrado; Testori, Alberto; Grassi, Massimo Maria; Sciarra, Amedeo; Abbate, Tommaso; Gatzemeier, Wolfgang; Roncalli, Massimo; Di Tommaso, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) examination is a standard in breast cancer patients, with several methods employed along its 20 years history, the last one represented by one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA). The latter is a intra-operative molecular assay searching for CK19 mRNA as a surrogate of metastatic cells. Our 3 years experience with OSNA (1122 patients) showed results overlapping those recorded in the same institution with a morphological evaluation (930 patients) of SLN. In detail,...

  9. Difficult aspects in the e-social pre implementation fase in higher education community institutions in Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zanin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian financial control is changing, mainly because of the implementation of new control tools which try to regulate the relation between the revenue and contributors. One of these changes is the EFD- Social implementation, which the organizations are putting a huge effort, because it is something new, where its demands is not only of processes but also of the management culture. Under this context, this study had as objective analyse the difficulties of the Higher Education Community Institutions  - ICES – in Santa Catarina, associated to ACAFE, in the accession adaptation of E-social in the pre implementation fase. The research is exploratory, descritive and quantitative. The sample is composed with about 60% of the researched population and the data collect was made through questionaries collected from february to may of 2015. The data analysis revealed that ICES are in distintives fases of EFD-Social implementation. It is also possible to verify, in the perspective of the researched  ICES, that the EFD-Social implementation will bring more advantages than disadvantages, suggesting the beginning of a cultural change in the organizations, which realize this instrument as a management tool not only financial control.

  10. Use of Community Health Workers and Patient Navigators to Improve Cancer Outcomes Among Patients Served by Federally Qualified Health Centers: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Katherine B; Milliken, Erin L; Rohan, Elizabeth A; DeGroff, Amy; White, Susan; Melillo, Stephanie; Rorie, William E; Signes, Carmita-Anita C; Young, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the United States, disparities in cancer screening, morbidity, and mortality are well documented, and often are related to race/ethnicity and socioeconomic indicators including income, education, and healthcare access. Public health approaches that address social determinants of health have the greatest potential public health benefit, and can positively impact health disparities. As public health interventions, community health workers (CHWs), and patient navigators (PNs) work to address disparities and improve cancer outcomes through education, connecting patients to and navigating them through the healthcare system, supporting patient adherence to screening and diagnostic services, and providing social support and linkages to financial and community resources. Clinical settings, such as federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) are mandated to provide care to medically underserved communities, and thus are also valuable in the effort to address health disparities. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies of cancer-related CHW/PN interventions in FQHCs, and to describe the components and characteristics of those interventions in order to guide future intervention development and evaluation. Method: We searched five databases for peer-reviewed CHW/PN intervention studies conducted in partnership with FQHCs with a focus on cancer, carried out in the United States, and published in English between January 1990 and December 2013. Results: We identified 24 articles, all reporting positive outcomes of CHW/PNs interventions in FQHCs. CHW/PN interventions most commonly promoted breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening and/or referral for diagnostic resolution. Studies were supported largely through federal funding. Partnerships with academic institutions and community-based organizations provided support and helped develop capacity among FQHC clinic leadership and community members. Discussion: Both the FQHC system and CHW

  11. Breast cancer in women aging 35 years old and younger: The Egyptian National Cancer Institute (NCI) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, A D; Helal, A M; Aly El-Din, N H; Solaiman, L L; Amin, A

    2017-02-01

    The aim is to identify the epidemiological and clinicopathological features associated with young breast cancer (BC) patients and to discuss factors affecting tumor recurrence and DFS. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on medical records from young females patients aged ≤35 years with pathologically confirmed primary breast cancer treated during 2008-2010 at NCI. Cases with non invasive cancer and non carcinoma histology are excluded. Of the 5408 cases diagnosed with breast cancer, 554 were young. Four hundred & fifty eight patients representing 9.2% were within our inclusion criteria. Almost half of the patients (45.9%) presented with stage III. Axillary nodes involvement was in 63.9%, 83.3% were grade 2. More than one quarter of tumors was hormone receptors negative (28.8%) & Her2 was over-expressed in 30%. Mastectomy was offered in 72% while conservative breast surgery in 26%, 69.2% received chemotherapy either adjuvant, neoadjuvant or both, 82.5% received adjuvant radiotherapy, 68.6% received hormonal therapy. Metastatic disease developed in 51.3%, with 31% having more than one site of metastases. After a median follow up period of 66 months, the median DFS of patients was 60 months. The median DFS was significantly shorter among patients with positive lymph nodes (P Breast cancer in young women is aggressive from the time of diagnosis. Our results provide baseline data of young BC in the Middle East & North Africa region; thus, contributing to future epidemiological and hospital-based researches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Awareness on cytology procedure in oral cancer detection among undergraduates: An institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Pathak, Rajeev; Pathak, Sunita; Raj, Amrita; Kumar, Amit; Katiyar, Anuradha

    2017-11-01

    The screening and the early detection of the premalignant and malignant lesions are the only means for controlling the oral cancer which is known to be one of the leading causes for mortality worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology though not a substitute for biopsy can be a powerful tool for its early detection. Dental Surgeons can play a great role in this direction. The present study was undertaken to assess the self-reported knowledge and attitude regarding the early detection of oral cancer and exfoliative cytology among the undergraduates of Rama Dental College, Kanpur. A pretested questionnaire based cross sectional study consisting of twenty four questions was conducted among hundred randomly selected students from third year, final year and intern's batch. According to 73% of students biopsy was the special test done in oral cancer detection and only 59% had heard regarding oral cytology technique. Formalin was the fixative known for cytology smears among 61%. Significance of toluidine blue staining was not known by 62%. Seventy seven percent of students were not aware about classes of cytology reporting. Eighty six percent of students felt that the adequacy of training in cytology was lagging. This survey identified an existing gap in the knowledge among the dental students regarding cytology as a diagnostic aid in oral cancer detection. This emphasizes the need to provide training for undergraduates at clinical level on regular basis and also through CDE and oral can-cer detection workshops.

  13. Decreased early mortality associated with the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia at National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gwendolyn; Wun, Ted; Muffly, Lori; Li, Qian; Brunson, Ann; Rosenberg, Aaron S; Jonas, Brian A; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2018-05-01

    To the authors' knowledge, few population-based studies to date have evaluated the association between location of care, complications with induction therapy, and early mortality in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and Patient Discharge Dataset (1999-2014), the authors identified adult (aged ≥18 years) patients with AML who received inpatient treatment within 30 days of diagnosis. A propensity score was created for treatment at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center (NCI-CC). Inverse probability-weighted, multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine associations between location of care, complications, and early mortality (death ≤60 days from diagnosis). Of the 7007 patients with AML, 1762 (25%) were treated at an NCI-CC. Patients with AML who were treated at NCI-CCs were more likely to be aged ≤65 years, live in higher socioeconomic status neighborhoods, have fewer comorbidities, and have public health insurance. Patients treated at NCI-CCs had higher rates of renal failure (23% vs 20%; P = .010) and lower rates of respiratory failure (11% vs 14%; P = .003) and cardiac arrest (1% vs 2%; P = .014). After adjustment for baseline characteristics, treatment at an NCI-CC was associated with lower early mortality (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.57). The impact of complications on early mortality did not differ by location of care except for higher early mortality noted among patients with respiratory failure treated at non-NCI-CCs. The initial treatment of adult patients with AML at NCI-CCs is associated with a 53% reduction in the odds of early mortality compared with treatment at non-NCI-CCs. Lower early mortality may result from differences in hospital or provider experience and supportive care. Cancer 2018;124:1938-45. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  14. Medical care costs incurred by patients with smoking-related non-small cell lung cancer treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Oscar; Quintana-Carrillo, Roger Humberto; Ahumada-Curiel, Gabriel; Corona-Cruz, Jose Francisco; Correa-Acevedo, Elma; Zinser-Sierra, Juan; de la Mata-Moya, Dolores; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a public health problem in Mexico and worldwide; its economic impact on developing countries has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the direct medical costs attributable to smoking incurred by lung cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The study was conducted at INCan in 2009. We carried out a cost of illness (COI) methodology, using data derived from an expert panel consensus and from medical chart review. A panel of experts developed a diagnostic-therapeutic guide that combined the hospital patient pathways and the infrastructure, human resources, technology, and services provided by the medical units at INCan. Cost estimates in Mexican pesos were adjusted by inflation and converted into US Dollars using the 2013 FIX exchange rate for foreign transactions (1 USD = 13.06 Mexican pesos). A 297 incident cases diagnosed with any type of lung cancer were analyzed. According to clinical stage, the costs per patient were 13,456; 35,648; 106,186; and 144,555 USD, for lung cancer stages I, II, III, and IV respectively. The weighted average annual cost/patient was and 139,801 USD and the average annual cost/patient that was attributable to smoking was 92,269 USD. This cost was independent of the clinical stage, with stage IV representing 96% of the annual cost. The total annual cost of smoking-related lung cancer at INCan was 19,969,781 USD. The medical care costs of lung cancer attributable to smoking represent a high cost both for INCan and the Mexican health sector. These costs could be reduced if all provisions established in the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control of the World Health Organization were implemented in Mexico.

  15. Implementing UK Autism Policy & National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidance--Assessing the Impact of Autism Training for Frontline Staff in Community Learning Disabilities Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alex; Browne, Sarah; Boardman, Liz; Hewitt, Lealah; Light, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    UK National Autism Strategy (Department of Health, 2010 and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance (NICE, 2012) states that frontline staff should have a good understanding of Autism. Fifty-six clinical and administrative staff from a multidisciplinary community Learning Disability service completed an electronic questionnaire…

  16. Dealing with the state, the market and NGOs : the impact of institutions on the constitution and performance of Community Forest Enterprises (CFE) in the lowlands of Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneker, C.E.B.

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to determine whether and how the institutional environment
    influences the establishment and performance of Community Forest Enterprises (CFEs) in Bolivia.
    This study defines CFEs as organizations that: (1) manage collectively owned forests in

  17. Threat Assessment and Targeted Violence at Institutions of Higher Education: Implications for Policy and Practice Including Unique Considerations for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Laura; Bates, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the research on targeted violence, including campus violence, and the implications for policy and practice at institutions of higher education. Unique challenges of threat assessment in the community college setting are explored, and an overview of an effective threat assessment policy and team at William…

  18. Assessing the Impact of a Program Designed to Develop Sustainability Leadership amongst Staff Members in Higher Education Institutes: A Case Study from a Community of Practice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaher, Iris; Avissar, Ilana

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of a sustainability leadership development program (SLDP) designed to develop staff members as leaders who encourage sustainability practices within institutions of higher education (IHE). Using the framework of community of practice (CoP), we explored the program's contribution by interviewing 16 staff members who…

  19. Food Insecurities and Student Success: Maryland's Community Colleges. National Institutes of Health Phase Two Report. ASCEND Training Model to Increase Diversity in Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Leah P.

    2017-01-01

    Community colleges nationwide rally to meet President Obama's challenge of adding five million graduates by 2020. However, many institutions continue to experience declining retention and attempt lackluster solutions to bolster student success. One often overlooked factor in need of investigation is the impact of food insecurity, an inadequate…

  20. Health-related physical fitness assessment in a community-based cancer rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Amy A; Neil-Sztramko, Sarah E; Morgan, Joanne; Hodson, Sara; Weller, Sarah; McRae, Tasha; Campbell, Kristin L

    2015-09-01

    Assessment of physical fitness is important in order to set goals, appropriately prescribe exercise, and monitor change over time. This study aimed to determine the utility of a standardized physical fitness assessment for use in cancer-specific, community-based exercise programs. Tests anticipated to be feasible and suitable for a community setting and a wide range of ages and physical function were chosen to measure body composition, aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility, and balance. Cancer Exercise Trainers/Specialists at cancer-specific, community-based exercise programs assessed new clients (n = 60) at enrollment, designed individualized exercise programs, and then performed a re-assessment 3-6 months later (n = 34). Resting heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, handgrip strength, chair stands, sit-and-reach, back scratch, single-leg standing, and timed up-and-go tests were considered suitable and feasible tests/measures, as they were performed in most (≥88 %) participants. The ability to capture change was also noted for resting blood pressure (-7/-5 mmHg, p = 0.02), chair stands (+4, p exercise program setting. However, a shorter treadmill protocol and more sensitive balance and upper body flexibility tests should be investigated.

  1. Improving the Deaf community's access to prostate and testicular cancer information: a survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkins, Ann; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine; Branz, Patricia; Marsh, Shane; Bovee, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background Members of the Deaf community face communication barriers to accessing health information. To resolve these inequalities, educational programs must be designed in the appropriate format and language to meet their needs. Methods Deaf men (102) were surveyed before, immediately following, and two months after viewing a 52-minute prostate and testicular cancer video in American Sign Language (ASL) with open text captioning and voice overlay. To provide the Deaf community with information equivalent to that available to the hearing community, the video addressed two cancer topics in depth. While the inclusion of two cancer topics lengthened the video, it was anticipated to reduce redundancy and encourage men of diverse ages to learn in a supportive, culturally aligned environment while also covering more topics within the partnership's limited budget. Survey data were analyzed to evaluate the video's impact on viewers' pre- and post-intervention understanding of prostate and testicular cancers, as well as respondents' satisfaction with the video, exposure to and use of early detection services, and sources of cancer information. Results From baseline to immediately post-intervention, participants' overall knowledge increased significantly, and this gain was maintained at the two-month follow-up. Men of diverse ages were successfully recruited, and this worked effectively as a support group. However, combining two complex cancer topics, in depth, in one video appeared to make it more difficult for participants to retain as many relevant details specific to each cancer. Participants related that there was so much information that they would need to watch the video more than once to understand each topic fully. When surveyed about their best sources of health information, participants ranked doctors first and showed a preference for active rather than passive methods of learning. Conclusion After viewing this ASL video, participants showed significant increases

  2. Integrating the child into home and community following the completion of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, Larissa E; Mayans, Sherri; Harris, Michael B

    2004-01-01

    The present article examines the period of time immediately following the completion of treatment for childhood cancer. The unique concerns experienced by families at this stage of the cancer treatment are examined, and the specific challenges that children face as they renegotiate roles and relationships that are necessary for successful reintegration into family, school, and community settings are discussed. Obstacles to successful reintegration that are frequently encountered by patients and families are reviewed, as well as variables that may promote optimal adjustment during this transitional period. The need for continued research in this area is highlighted, and specific research questions are identified. An emphasis is placed on applying a socioecological framework to research and clinical work with pediatric oncology patients at this stage of the cancer experience.

  3. Whom to treat? Factors associated with chemotherapy recommendations and outcomes among patients with NHL at the Uganda Cancer Institute.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Menon

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment options in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce despite an increasing burden of disease. Identification of those cancer patients who would benefit most from the limited resources available would allow broader and more effective therapy.We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients over the age of 18 at the time of a pathologic diagnosis of NHL between 2003 and 2010 who were residents of Kyandondo County (Uganda and presented to the Uganda Cancer Institute for care.A total of 128 patients were included in this analysis. Chemotherapy was recommended to 117 (91.4% of the patients; the odds of recommending chemotherapy decreased for each additional month of reported symptoms prior to diagnosis. Of the 117 patients to whom chemotherapy was recommended, 111 (86.7% patients received at least 1 cycle of chemotherapy; HIV infected patients, as well as those with a lower hemoglobin and advanced disease at the time of diagnosis were significantly less likely to complete therapy. Among the patients who initiated chemotherapy, twenty patients died prior to treatment completion (including nine who died within 30 days. Hemoglobin level at the time of presentation was the only variable associated with early mortality in the adjusted model.In resource-poor areas, it is essential to align health care expenditures with interventions likely to provide benefit to affected populations. Targeting cancer therapy to those with a favorable chance of responding will not only save limited resources, but will also prevent harm in those patients unlikely to realize an effect of cancer-directed therapy.

  4. Mentoring and Training of Cancer-Related Health Disparities Researchers Committed to Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Tisha M; Braun, Kathryn L; Brandt, Heather M; Khan, Samira; Tanjasiri, Sora; Friedman, Daniela B; Armstead, Cheryl A; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Hébert, James R

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs) provide community-based participatory research (CBPR)-oriented mentoring and training to prepare early-stage/midcareer investigators and student trainees (trainees) in disparities reduction. This paper describes the academic, mentoring, training, and work-life balance experiences of CNPC-affiliated trainees. We used a collaborative and iterative process to develop a 57-item, web-based questionnaire completed by trainees from the 23 CNPCs between August 2012 and February 2013. Their CNPC mentors completed a 47-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated. The final analytic sample included 189 of 269 individuals (70%) identified as active participants in CNPC research or training/mentoring. Mentors (n=45) were mostly non-Hispanic White (77.8%) and 48.9% were male. Mentors published a median of 6 (interquartile range [IQR], 3-12) first-authored and 15 (IQR, 6-25) senior authored manuscripts, and secured 15 (IQR, 11-29) grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other sources in the previous 5 years. Most trainees (n=144) were female (79.2%), 43.7% were underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities, and 36.8% were first-generation college graduates. Over the previous 5 years, trainees reported a median of 4 (IQR, 1-6) publications as first author and 4 (IQR, 2-8) as co-author; 27.1% reported having one or more NIH R01s. Trainees reported satisfaction with their CNPC mentor (79.1%) and confidence in demonstrating most CBPR competencies. The CNPC training program consists of a scientifically productive pool of mentors and trainees. Trainees reported rates of scholarly productivity comparable to other national training programs and provided insights into relationships with mentors, academic pressures, and professional-personal life balance.

  5. Transition from Hospital to Community Care: The Experience of Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Admi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines care transition experiences of cancer patients and assesses barriers to effective transitions.Methods: Participants were adult Hebrew, Arabic, or Russian speaking oncology patients and health care providers from hospital and community settings. Qualitative (n=77 and quantitative (n=422 methods such as focus groups, interviews and self-administered questionnaires were used. Qualitative analysis showed that patients faced difficulties navigating a complex and fragmented healthcare system.Results: Mechanisms to overcome barriers included informal routes such as personal relationships, coordinating roles by nurse coordinators and the patients' general practitioners (GPs. The most significant variable was GPs involvement, which affected transition process quality as rated on the CTM (p<0.001. Our findings point to the important interpersonal role of oncology nurses to coordinate and facilitate the care transition process.Conclusion: Interventions targeted towards supporting the care transition process should emphasize ongoing counseling throughout a patient’s care, during and after hospitalization.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Admi H, Muller E, Shadmi E. Transition from Hospital to Community Care: The Experience of Cancer Patients. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:34011.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.

  6. Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Fujita, Hirofumi; Kunimoto, Yukihiro; Kimura, Taisei; Hayashi, Tomomi; Maeda, Toshiyuki; Yamakawa, Junichi; Mizumoto, Takuya; Ogino, Kazunori

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility, safety and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers in a community hospital setting were evaluated. Twenty-six patients with transverse or descending colon cancers who underwent laparoscopic surgery at our hospital were included in this retrospective analysis (group A). Their outcomes were compared with those of 71 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer at other tumor sites (group B). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of operative time, estimated blood loss, postoperative hospital stay and morbidity rate. Extended lymphadenectomy was performed more frequently and the number of harvested lymph nodes was significantly higher in group B than in group A. However, no recurrence developed in group A, while recurrence occurred in four patients from group B. The 3-year disease-free survival rates were 100% for group A and 93.5% for group B. The 3-year overall survival rates were 100% for group A and 91.6% for group B. Laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers can be performed safely with oncological validity in a community hospital setting, provided there is careful selection of the patients and adequate lymphadenectomy considering the clinical stage of their disease. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Evaluating the impact of a community-based cancer awareness roadshow on awareness, attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Osborne, Kirstie; Tring, Sophie; George, Helen; Power, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Improving public awareness of cancer and encouraging health behavior change are important aspects of cancer control. We investigated whether a community-based roadshow was an effective way of communicating with the public about cancer and encouraging behavior change. Data were from 1196 people who completed questionnaires at a Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Roadshow in 2013. Of these, 511 (43%) completed questionnaires immediately before their visit (pre-visit group) and 685 (57%) completed questionnaires immediately after their visit (post-visit group). Among the post-visit sample, 217 (32%) were retained after two months. Self-reported data were available on risk factor and symptom awareness, help-seeking barriers, use of healthcare services and health behaviors. Compared with the pre-visit sample, the post-visit group had greater awareness of cancer risk factors and was more positive about aspects of help-seeking but awareness of potential symptoms was similar. Most effects were maintained over two months. Intentions to eat more fruit and vegetables and to exercise more were comparable between the groups but more people in the post-visit sample intended to quit smoking. At 2-month follow-up, smoking prevalence had significantly reduced but fruit and vegetable consumption decreased and there was no change to physical activity. User of weight loss services and general practitioner visits were high at follow-up and largely attributed to the Roadshow. The Cancer Research UK Roadshow appears to improve risk factor awareness, promote positive attitudes towards help-seeking and increase smoking cessation. This approach could be a useful building block for additional cancer prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Meningiomas after cranial radiotherapy for childhood cancer: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Francesco; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Garbossa, Diego; Biasin, Eleonora; Rudà, Roberta; Daniele, Dino; Arvat, Emanuela; Corrias, Andrea; Fagioli, Franca; Brignardello, Enrico

    2015-07-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) are at risk of developing meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence of meningiomas in a cohort of CCS who previously underwent CRT. We considered all CCS who received CRT and were followed up at the "Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors" in Turin. Even though asymptomatic, they had at least one brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed at a minimum interval of 10 years after treatment for pediatric cancer. We identified 90 patients (median follow-up 24.6 years). Fifteen patients developed meningioma (median time from pediatric cancer, 22.5 years). In four patients, it was suspected on the basis of neurological symptoms (i.e., headache or seizures), whereas all other cases, including five giant meningiomas, were discovered in otherwise asymptomatic patients. Multiple meningiomas were discovered in four CCS. Ten patients underwent surgical resection. An atypical meningioma (grade II WHO) was reported in four patients. One patient with multiple meningiomas died for a rapid growth of the intracranial lesions. A second neoplasm (SN) other than meningioma was diagnosed in five out of the 15 patients with meningioma and in ten out of the 75 CCS without meningioma. Cox multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of meningioma was associated with the development of other SNs, whereas age, sex, or CRT dose had no influence. CCS at risk of the development of meningioma deserve close clinical follow-up, especially those affected by other SNs.

  9. Perceived Stress in Online Prostate Cancer Community Participants: Examining Relationships with Stigmatization, Social Support Network Preference, and Social Support Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine; Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Rains, Stephen; Wright, Kevin B

    2017-06-01

    Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate cancer-related stigma, weak-tie support preference, and online community use for social support in a survey of online prostate cancer community participants (n = 149). Findings revealed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress. This relationship, however, was moderated by weak-tie support preference and online community use for social support. Specifically, stigma was positively related to perceived stress when weak-tie support was preferred. Analyses also showed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress in those who used their online community for advice or emotional support. Health communication scholars should work collaboratively with diagnosed men, clinicians, and online community administrators to develop online interventions that optimally match social support needs.

  10. “It's because it's cancer, not because you're a Traveller”-exploring lay understanding of cancer in English Romany Gypsy and Irish Traveller communities

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Jenni; Smith, David; Newton, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The lay understanding of cancer among English Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers, has not been\\ud studied in depth before. Lay understandings of cancer, and illness in general, varies between different ethnic\\ud groups suggesting that procedures that work for one community may not work for another. Therefore, the\\ud measures that are in place in the UK to educate and treat people with cancer may not work for the - often hard to\\ud reach - Gypsy and Traveller communities. This study ...

  11. Developing community based rehabilitation for cancer survivors: organizing for coordination and coherence in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing incidences of cancer combined with prolonged survival have raised the need for developing community based rehabilitation. The objectives of the analysis were to describe and interpret the key issues related to coordination and coherence of community-based cancer rehabilitation in Denmark and to provide insights relevant for other contexts. Methods Twenty-seven rehabilitation managers across 15 municipalities in Denmark comprised the sample. The study was designed with a combination of data collection methods including questionnaires, individual interviews, and focus groups. A Grounded Theory approach was used to analyze the data. Results A lack of shared cultures among health care providers and systems of delivery was a primary barrier to collaboration which was essential for establishing coordination of care. Formal multidisciplinary steering committees, team-based organization, and informal relationships were fundamental for developing coordination and coherence. Conclusions Coordination and coherence in community-based rehabilitation relies on increased collaboration, which may best be optimized by use of shared frameworks within and across systems. Results highlight the challenges faced in practical implementation of community rehabilitation and point to possible strategies for its enhancement. PMID:24004881

  12. Addressing unmet mental health and substance abuse needs: a partnered planning effort between grassroots community agencies, faith-based organizations, service providers, and academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eunice C; Chung, Bowen; Stover, Gabriel; Stockdale, Susan; Jones, Felica; Litt, Paula; Klap, Ruth S; Patel, Kavita; Wells, Kenneth B

    2011-01-01

    To conduct a process evaluation of the Restoration Center Los Angeles, a community-academic partnered planning effort aimed at holistically addressing the unmet mental health and substance abuse needs of the Los Angeles African American community. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions on key domains of partnership effectiveness were conducted with a random stratified sample of participants varying by level of involvement. Eleven partners representing grassroots community agencies, faith-based organizations, service providers, and academic institutions. Common themes identified by an evaluation consultant and partners relating to partnership effectiveness, perceived benefits and costs, and future expectations. Findings underscore the importance of considering the potential issues that may arise with the increasing diversity of partners and perspectives. Many of the challenges and facilitating factors that arise within academic-community partnerships were similarly experienced between the diverse set of community partners. Challenges that affected partnership development between community-to-community partners included differences in expectations regarding the final goal of the project, trust-building, and the distribution of funds. Despite such challenges, partners were able to jointly develop a final set of recommendations for the creation of restoration centers, which was viewed as a major accomplishment. Limited guidance exists on how to navigate differences that arise between community members who have shared identities on some dimensions (eg, African American ethnicity, Los Angeles residence) but divergent identities on other dimensions (eg, formal church affiliation). With increasing diversity of community representation, careful attention needs to be dedicated to not only the development of academic-community partnerships but also community-community partnerships.

  13. Cancer screening education: can it change knowledge and attitudes among culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Queensland, Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullerton, Katherine; Gallegos, Danielle; Ashley, Ella; Do, Hong; Voloschenko, Anna; Fleming, MaryLou; Ramsey, Rebecca; Gould, Trish

    2016-06-29

    Issue addressed: Screening for cancer of the cervix, breast and bowel can reduce morbidity and mortality. Low participation rates in cancer screening have been identified among migrant communities internationally. Attempting to improve low rates of cancer screening, the Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland developed a pilot Cancer Screening Education Program for breast, bowel and cervical cancer. This study determines the impact of education sessions on knowledge, attitudes and intentions to participate in screening for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities living in Brisbane, Queensland. Methods: Seven CALD groups (Arabic-speaking, Bosnian, South Asian (including Indian and Bhutanese), Samoan and Pacific Island, Spanish-speaking, Sudanese and Vietnamese) participated in a culturally-tailored cancer screening education pilot program that was developed using the Health Belief Model. A pre- and post-education evaluation session measured changes in knowledge, attitudes and intention related to breast, bowel and cervical cancer and screening. The evaluation focussed on perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness and the target population's beliefs about reducing risk by cancer screening. Results: There were 159 participants in the three cancer screening education sessions. Overall participants' knowledge increased, some attitudes toward participation in cancer screening became more positive and intent to participate in future screening increased (n=146). Conclusion: These results indicate the importance of developing screening approaches that address the barriers to participation among CALD communities and that a culturally-tailored education program is effective in improving knowledge, attitudes about and intentions to participate in cancer screening. So what?: It is important that culturally-tailored programs are developed in conjunction with communities to improve health outcomes.

  14. Increasing colon cancer testing in rural Colorado: evaluation of the exposure to a community-based awareness campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Ned

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite effective prevention and early detection screening methods, colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Colorectal cancer screening community-based interventions are rare, and the literature lacks information about community-based intervention processes. Using participatory research methods, the High Plains Research Network developed a community-based awareness and educational intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening rates in rural northeastern Colorado. This study describes the program components and implementation and explores whether the target population was exposed to the intervention, the reach of the individual intervention components, and the effect on screening intentions. Methods A random digit dial survey was conducted of residents age 40 and older in the first 3 communities to receive the intervention to estimate exposure to the intervention and its effect on colorectal cancer screening intentions. Results Exposure to at least intervention component was reported by 68% of respondents (n = 460. As the level of exposure increased, intentions to talk to a doctor about colorectal cancer screening increased significantly more in respondents who had not been tested in the past 5 years than those who had (p = .025. Intentions to get tested increased significantly in both groups at the same rate as level of exposure increased (p Conclusion Using local community members led to the successful implementation of the intervention. Program materials and messages reached a high percentage of the target population and increased colorectal cancer screening intentions.

  15. Risk-reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy in Women at Higher Risk of Ovarian and Breast Cancer: A Single Institution Prospective Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Enzo; Tomao, Federica; Aletti, Giovanni; Bazzurini, Luca; Bocciolone, Luca; Boveri, Sara; Landoni, Fabio; Lapresa, Maria Teresa; Maruccio, Matteo; Parma, Gabriella; Peccatori, Fedro; Petrella, Maria Cristina; Zanagnolo, Vanna; Colombo, Nicoletta; Maggioni, Angelo

    2017-09-01

    Occult cancers' reported rates vary from 2-12% and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been identified in 3-12% of the prophylactically removed tubes of women carrying a BRCA mutation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of tubal minor epithelial atypia (STIL), STIC, and occult invasive cancer and to evaluate the cancer-specific mortality in a prospective series of women at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancer undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) n a tertiary cancer center. A series of RRSO specimens (including endometrial biopsy) from women carrying a BRCA mutation, BRCA-unknown and BRCA-negative were collected between January 1998 and April 2016 at the Division of Gynecology at the European Institute of Oncology. Inclusion criteria were: asymptomatic women who had a negative gynecologic screening within 3 months prior to RRSO. Exclusion criteria were: women with ovarian/tubal cancer prior to RRSO. A total of 411 women underwent RRSO. Median age at RRSO was 47.0 years (range=32-70 years); 75.2% had a history of breast cancer. Fifteen women were diagnosed with an occult cancer (7 STIC, 4 invasive cancers, 2 breast cancers metastatic to the adnexa, 2 endometrial cancer) (3.6%). Sixteen showed a STIL (3.9%). When excluding cases with preoperative positive markers, the occult invasive cancer rate drops to 1.5%. Our study, covering an 18-year period, shows a substantial low risk of occult cancer among a high-risk population of women undergoing RRSO. Our data still support the indication for RRSO in higher-risk patients. An endometrial biopsy should also be routinely obtained as it raises the chances of detecting occult endometrial cancers that may be otherwise missed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of HIV-related stigma among institutional- and community-based caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children living in five less-wealthy countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messer Lynne C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of the HIV/AIDS epidemic that has contributed to the dramatic increase in orphans and abandoned children (OAC worldwide, caregiver attitudes about HIV, and HIV-related stigma, are two attributes that may affect caregiving. Little research has considered the relationship between caregiver attributes and caregiver-reported HIV-related stigma. In light of the paucity of this literature, this paper will describe HIV-related stigma among caregivers of OAC in five less wealthy nations. Methods Baseline data were collected between May 2006 through February 2008. The sample included 1,480 community-based and 192 institution-based caregivers. Characteristics of the community-based and institution-based caregivers are described using means and standard deviations for continuous variables or counts and percentages for categorical variables. We fit logistic regression models, both for the full sample and separately for community-based and institution-based caregivers, to explore predictors of acceptance of HIV. Results Approximately 80% of both community-based and institution-based caregivers were female; and 84% of institution-based caregivers, compared to 66% of community-based caregivers, said that they would be willing to care for a relative with HIV. Similar proportions were reported when caregivers were asked if they were willing to let their child play with an HIV-infected child. In a multivariable model predicting willingness to care for an HIV-infected relative, adjusted for site fixed effects, being an institution-based caregiver was associated with greater willingness (less stigma than community-based caregivers. Decreased willingness was reported by older respondents, while willingness increased with greater formal education. In the adjusted models predicting willingness to allow one's child to play with an HIV-infected child, female gender and older age was associated with less willingness. However, willingness

  17. Evaluation of intratumoral HER-2 heterogeneity by fluorescence in situ hybridization in invasive breast cancer: a single institution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Jung, Woohee; Hong, Soon-Won; Koo, Ja Seung

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence and characteristics of HER-2 gene heterogeneity in invasive breast cancer in a single institution. Included were 971 cases of primary invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 2008 and 2010. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) image files were retrospectively reviewed and HER-2 gene heterogeneity was defined as more than 5% but less than 50% of analyzed invasive tumor cells with a HER-2/Chr17 ratio higher than 2.2, according to the College of American Pathologists guidelines. HER-2 gene heterogeneity was identified in 24 (2.5%) cases. The mean proportion of invasive tumor cells with a HER-2/chromosome 17 ratio higher than 2.2 was 11.6% (range: 5%-25%). Of 24 cases, HER-2 gene status was not amplified in 8, showed borderline amplification in 2, and amplification in 14. All HER-2 amplification cases were low-grade. In conclusion, HER-2 gene heterogeneity of invasive breast cancer is identified in routine FISH examination. This may affect the results of HER-2 gene amplification status in FISH studies.

  18. Overview of the National Cancer Institute's activities related to exposure of the public to fallout from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachholz, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) was directed by Congress to assess the risk of thyroid cancer from 131I associated with fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) was requested by DHHS to address Public Law 97-414, Section 7 (a), which directs DHHS to (1) conduct scientific research and prepare analyses necessary to develop valid and credible assessments of the risks of thyroid cancer that are associated with thyroid doses of Iodine 131; (2)...develop...methods to estimate the thyroid doses of Iodine 131 that are received by individuals from nuclear bomb fallout; (and) (3)...develop...assessments of the exposure to Iodine 131 that the American people received from the Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. In addition, the University of Utah, under contract with the NCI, is carrying out a study to determine if the incidence of thyroid disease and leukemia among identified populations in Utah may be related to exposure from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site

  19. Enhancing Psychosocial Outcomes for Young Adult Childhood CNS Cancer Survivors: Importance of Addressing Vocational Identity and Community Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational identity, community integration, positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life in a group of young adult central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors. Participants in this study included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors who ranged in age from 18 to 30 years…

  20. Understanding low colorectal cancer screening uptake in South Asian faith communities in England--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Cecily K; Thomas, Mary C; McGregor, Lesley M; von Wagner, Christian; Raine, Rosalind

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer screening uptake within the South Asian population in England is approximately half that of the general population (33 % vs 61 %), and varies by Muslim (31.9 %), Sikh (34.6 %) and Hindu (43.7 %) faith background. This study sought to explore reasons for low uptake of CRC screening in South Asian communities and for the variability of low uptake between three faith communities; and to identify strategies by which uptake might be improved. We interviewed 16 'key informants' representing communities from the three largest South Asian faith backgrounds (Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism) in London, England. Reasons for low colorectal cancer screening uptake were overwhelmingly shared across South Asian faith groups. These were: limitations posed by written English; limitations posed by any written language; reliance on younger family members; low awareness of colorectal cancer and screening; and difficulties associated with faeces. Non-written information delivered verbally and interactively within faith or community settings was preferred across faith communities. Efforts to increase accessibility to colorectal cancer screening in South Asian communities should use local language broadcasts on ethnic media and face-to-face approaches within community and faith settings to increase awareness of colorectal cancer and screening, and address challenges posed by written materials.

  1. Accounting for Heritage, Cultural and Community Assets – Alternative Metrics from a New Zealand Māori Educational Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Wild

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s, with the rise to dominance of governments with neoliberal economic and social agendas, the public sector in major western countries underwent a process of fundamental reforms. A key aspect of the change imposed was the implementation of a market-oriented, cost-efficiency focus towards the management of public sector organisations, described collectively as the New Public Management (NPM model (Kelsey, 1995; Boston et al, 1996; Easton 1996; Barton, 2002, 2005a, 2005b; Carnegie & West, 2005; Ball & Grubnic, 2008; Davis, 2010. This reform process included the imposition of regulatory measures requiring public sector organisations to provide annual financial reports prepared on an accounting basis comparable to those for the private sector, and incorporated an obligation to disclose (at economic values all assets held. For public benefit entities holding heritage, cultural and community assets (HCA, this reporting requirement has been particularly problematic, entailing substantive changes to public accounting policy.This paper critiques the political ideologies and practices of the NPM model, and challenges its assumptions that private sector financial reporting requirements, based on international accounting standards and Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (GAAP, are appropriate for universal application to public benefit and other not-for-profit entities holding HCA. In particular, the paper argues against the NPM assumption that reporting all HCA in economic terms improves accountability in public benefit entities. Instead, the paper proposes an alternative reporting model based on a set of cultural rather than economic values for reporting HCA. It suggests as an exemplar the ‘Wellbeing of Communities’ reporting and accountability framework devised for application by an indigenous New Zealand Māori educational institution, Te Wānanga-o-Raukawa.

  2. Identifying gender-preferred communication styles within online cancer communities: a retrospective, longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen T Durant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of this research is to determine if different gender-preferred social styles can be observed within the user interactions at an online cancer community. To achieve this goal, we identify and measure variables that pertain to each gender-specific social style. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We perform social network and statistical analysis on the communication flow of 8,388 members at six different cancer forums over eight years. Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to measure the difference between the number of intimate (and highly intimate dyads, relationship length, and number of communications. We determine that two patients are more likely to form an intimate bond on a gender-specific cancer forum (ovarian P = <0.0001, breast P = 0.0089, prostate P = 0.0021. Two female patients are more likely to form a highly intimate bond on a female-specific cancer forum (Ovarian P<0.0001, Breast P<0.01. Typically a male patient communicates with more members than a female patient (Ovarian forum P = 0.0406, Breast forum P = 0.0013. A relationship between two patients is longer on the gender-specific cancer forums than a connection between two members not identified as patients (ovarian forum P = 0.00406, breast forum P = 0.00013, prostate forum P = .0.0003. CONCLUSION: The high level of interconnectedness among the prostate patients supports the hypothesis that men prefer to socialize in large, interconnected, less-intimate groups. A female patient is more likely to form a highly intimate connection with another female patient; this finding is consistent with the hypothesis that woman prefer fewer, more intimate connections. The relationships of same-gender cancer patients last longer than other relationships; this finding demonstrates homophily within these online communities. Our findings regarding online communication preferences are in agreement with research findings from person-to-person communication

  3. Comparative analysis of the incidence of bladder cancer in the communities of Andalusia, Catalonia and Madrid in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, J M; Miñana, B; Palou-Redorta, J; Medina, R A; de la Rosa-Kehrmann, F; Lozano-Palacio, F; Ribal-Caparrós, M J; Hernández-Fernández, C; Castiñeiras-Fernández, J J; Requena, M J; Moreno-Sierra, J; Carballido-Rodríguez, J; Baena-González, V

    2015-09-01

    To determine the incidence of bladder cancer (BC) in the autonomous communities that include the largest number of cases in the national hospital BC registry (Andalusia, Catalonia and Madrid) and report the clinical, pathological and diagnostic differences and similarities of BC in these regions. An observational epidemiological study was performed in 2011 in 12 public hospitals with reference population areas according to the National Health System (Spain). Demographic and clinical variables were collected from new cases and relapses, with histopathologic confirmation of BC. The raw incidence rate was calculated using the number of diagnosed cases in all the participating centers compared with the aggregate total population assigned to each center. The raw rates by age and sex were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics (2011) by weighting the assigned population with the distribution by age and sex. The 3 autonomous communities recorded 51% of the 4285 cases included in the national registration, with relapses corresponding to 42.8% of these cases. The raw annual incidence rate for new episodes was 22.6 (95% CI: 20.7; 24.6) in Andalusia, 23.5 (95% CI: 20.9; 26.0) in Catalonia and 22.0 (95% CI: 19.9; 24.1) in Madrid. Except for the larger proportion of smokers and lower tumor grade of lesions in Andalusia, the 3 autonomous communities studied are similar in terms of clinical characteristics, comorbidities, patient symptoms and diagnostic processes for BC. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality assurance target for community-based breast cancer screening in China: a model simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lan; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Juan; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Wenli

    2018-03-07

    We aimed to clarify the feasibility of a community-based screening strategy for breast cancer in Tianjin, China; to identify the factors that most significantly influenced its feasibility; and to identify the reference range for quality control. A state-transition Markov model simulated a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 healthy women, the start aged was set at 35 years and the time horizon was set to 50 years. The primary outcome for the model was the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), defined as the program's cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Three screening strategies providing by community health service for women aged 35 to 69 years was compared regarding to different intervals. The probability of the ICUR being below 20 272USD (i.e., triple the annual gross domestic product [3 GDPs]) per QALY saved was 100% for annual screening strategy and screening every three years. Only when the attendance rate was > 50%, the probability for annual screening would be cost effective > 95%. The probability for the annual screening strategy being cost effective could reach to 95% for a willingness-to-pay (WTP) of 2 GDPs when the compliance rate for transfer was > 80%. When 10% stage I tumors were detected by screening, the probability of the annual screening strategy being cost effective would be up to 95% for a WTP > 3 GDPs. Annual community-based breast cancer screening was cost effective for a WTP of 3 GDP based on the incidence of breast cancer in Tianjin, China. Measures are needed to ensure performance indicators to a desirable level for the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening.

  5. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in community health centers: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Robert H

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer screening rates are low among disadvantaged patients; few studies have explored barriers to screening in community health centers. The purpose of this study was to describe barriers to/facilitators of colorectal cancer screening among diverse patients served by community health centers. Methods We identified twenty-three outpatients who were eligible for colorectal cancer screening and their 10 primary care physicians. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, we asked patients to describe factors influencing their screening decisions. For each unscreened patient, we asked his or her physician to describe barriers to screening. We conducted patient interviews in English (n = 8, Spanish (n = 2, Portuguese (n = 5, Portuguese Creole (n = 1, and Haitian Creole (n = 7. We audiotaped and transcribed the interviews, and then identified major themes in the interviews. Results Four themes emerged: 1 Unscreened patients cited lack of trust in doctors as a barrier to screening whereas few physicians identified this barrier; 2 Unscreened patients identified lack of symptoms as the reason they had not been screened; 3 A doctor's recommendation, or lack thereof, significantly influenced patients' decisions to be screened; 4 Patients, but not their physicians, cited fatalistic views about cancer as a barrier. Conversely, physicians identified competing priorities, such as psychosocial stressors or comorbid medical illness, as barriers to screening. In this culturally diverse group of patients seen at community health centers, similar barriers to screening were reported by patients of different backgrounds, but physicians perceived other factors as more important. Conclusion Further study of these barriers is warranted.

  6. Community Oncologists' Decision-Making for Treatment of Older Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohile, Supriya G; Magnuson, Allison; Pandya, Chintan; Velarde, Carla; Duberstein, Paul; Hurria, Arti; Loh, Kah Poh; Wells, Megan; Plumb, Sandy; Gilmore, Nikesha; Flannery, Marie; Wittink, Marsha; Epstein, Ronald; Heckler, Charles E; Janelsins, Michelle; Mustian, Karen; Hopkins, Judith O; Liu, Jane; Peri, Srihari; Dale, William

    2018-03-01

    Background: This study's objectives were to describe community oncologists' beliefs about and confidence with geriatric care and to determine whether geriatric-relevant information influences cancer treatment decisions. Methods: Community oncologists were recruited to participate in 2 multisite geriatric oncology trials. Participants shared their beliefs about and confidence in caring for older adults. They were also asked to make a first-line chemotherapy recommendation (combination vs single-agent vs no chemotherapy) for a hypothetical vignette of an older patient with advanced pancreatic cancer. Each oncologist received one randomly chosen vignette that varied on 3 variables: age (72/84 years), impaired function (yes/no), and cognitive impairment (yes/no). Other patient characteristics were held constant. Logistic regression models were used to identify associations between oncologist/vignette-patient characteristics and treatment decisions. Results: Oncologist response rate was 61% (n=305/498). Most oncologists agreed that "the care of older adults with cancer needs to be improved" (89%) and that "geriatrics training is essential" (72%). However, decision to treat: younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.01; 95% CI, 2.73-9.20), normal cognition (aOR, 5.42; 95% CI, 3.01-9.76), and being functionally intact (aOR, 3.85; 95% CI, 2.12-7.00). Accounting for all vignettes across all scenarios, 161 oncologists (52%) said they would offer chemotherapy. All variables were independently associated with prescribing single-agent over combination chemotherapy (older age: aOR, 3.22; 95% CI 1.43-7.25, impaired cognition: aOR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.36-7.20, impaired function: aOR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.12-5.72). Oncologists' characteristics were not associated with decisions about providing chemotherapy. Conclusion: Geriatric-relevant information, when available, strongly influences community oncologists' treatment decisions. Copyright © 2018 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  7. Place of death of pediatric cancer patients in a single institute during 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Tomoko; Hirase, Satoshi; Matsunoshita, Natsuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ninchoji, Takeshi; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Iijima, Kazumoto; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2012-06-27

    Place of death is an important issue at the end-of-life. It is poorly understood in pediatric cancer patients in Japan. This study aimed to clarify place of death of children with cancer as well as variables associated with place of death. Study population was pediatric cancer patients who died in the Department of Pediatrics at Kobe University Hospital during the last 7 years. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed regardless of cause of death to derive data relating to patients' characteristics and disease. 18 patients were included. Median age at death was 12.2 years old. 6 patients including 5 children in complete remission had hematological disease and 12 patients suffered from solid tumors. 4 patients (22.2%) died at home, whereas 14 patients (77.8%) died in the hospital including 6 ICU deaths. No one died in hospices. Preference of patients was unavailable due to the lack of inquiry. Factors influencing place of death (home, ICU, non-ICU) were disease (hematological disease vs. solid tumor, p=0.010, brain tumor vs. non-brain tumor, p=0.023), disease status (complete remission vs. non-complete remission, p=0.0014) and preference of families (p=0.029). Among 6 families who expressed preference, no disparity was observed between actual and preferred place of death. This is the first English publication of place of death of pediatric cancer patients in Japan. The low percentage of home death, factors influencing place of death and the lack of disparity between actual and preferred place of death were indicated. Further studies are required to better understand place of death.

  8. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    size, diagnostic Gleason (3+3 or 3+4), BMI ( obese , overweight or normal), race (Caucasian, African American or other), ethnicity (Hispanic versus...results were presented at the 2016 Meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA) and have been published in European Urology (v72, pp448-454.) A...prostate cancer in men in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study (PASS).” Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association; 2016 May 6-10, San

  9. Platinum-Based Therapy in Adenosquamous Pancreatic Cancer: Experience at Two Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Luiz De Souza; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2014-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare type of pancreatic cancer. Although its molecular biology profile hasbeen shown to be similar to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumors, it has different prognostic features. There is noconsensus or guidelines to treat this tumor differently from pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but therapies based on gemcitabineand platinum chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin and oxaliplatin have been used based on results of a few case reports. Wediscuss the Abst...

  10. CPRIT/Johnson Space Center, September, 2011 (Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey; Lane, Helen; Baker, Tracey; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    JSC researchers study carcinogenesis, cancer prevention and treatment along with epidemiological (primarily retrospective and longitudinal) studies, modeling, and interactions with the environment such as radiation, nutritional, and endocrine changes related to space flight along with behaviors such as smoking. Cancer research is a major focus for human space flight due to the exposure to space radiation which consists of particles of varying charges and energies, and secondary neutrons. The JSC laboratories collaborate with investigators from the U.S. as well as our European and Japanese partners. We use accelerator facilities at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Loma Linda University and Los Alamos National Laboratory that generate high energy charged particles and neutrons to simulate cosmic radiation and solar particle events. The research using cultured cells and animals concentrates on damage and repair from the level of DNA to organ tissues, due to exposure to simulated space radiation exposure, that contribute to the induction of leukemia and solid tumors in most major tissues such as lung, colon, liver and breast. The goal of the research is to develop a mathematical model that can predict cancer morbidity and mortality risks with sufficient accuracy for a given space mission.

  11. Metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors with high carbohydrate consumption: The first report in community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kong, Sun-Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Moo Hyun; Lee, Eun Sook

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of and lifestyle factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors and to compare those factors with controls without cancer in a community setting. This study included 584 female breast cancer survivors ≥3 years after the initial diagnosis and 2336 age-matched cancer-free female controls from 39 community health examination centers located in 14 urban areas in Korea. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is shown. Factors associated with the metabolic syndrome were analyzed as odds ratios (ORs) in cancer survivors and controls; differences between the two groups in the ORs of associated factors were evaluated by calculating p-heterogeneity values. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls were 26.8% and 26.9%, respectively. Higher percentage of caloric intake from carbohydrates was associated with increased metabolic syndrome only in the breast cancer survivors (OR for the highest vs. lowest quartile for survivors = 2.48 [95% CI = 1.20-5.14]; OR for controls = 1.11 [95% CI = 0.81-1.51]; P-heterogeneity = 0.046). Sweat-inducing exercise for ≥150 min/week was associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome only in controls (controls: OR = 0.72 [95% CI = 0.58-0.89]; survivors: OR = 0.88 [95% CI = 0.57-1.36]). Older age, higher body mass index, and a lower education level (≤12 years) was associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both groups. Our results suggest that, in regions with excess carbohydrate intake, the association of the metabolic syndrome with percentage of caloric intake from carbohydrate might be more prominent than exercise in breast cancer survivors, compared with general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.villeneuve@umontreal.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Despres, Philippe; Fortin, Bernard; Filion, Edith; Donath, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulieres, Denis [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guertin, Louis; Ayad, Tarek; Christopoulos, Apostolos [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness and rate of complications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Between February 2005 and November 2008, 25 patients with an unknown primary cancer underwent IMRT, with a median radiation dose of 70 Gy. The bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa were included in the target volume. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, except for 1 patient who had adenosquamous differentiation. They were all treated with curative intent. Of the 25 included patients, 20 were men and 5 were women, with a median age of 54 years. Of these patients, 3 had Stage III, 18 had Stage IVa, and 4 had Stage IVb. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) received platinum-based chemotherapy in a combined-modality setting. Neck dissection was reserved for residual disease after definitive IMRT. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: With a median follow-up of 38 months, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were all 100% at 3 years. No occurrence of primary cancer was observed during the follow-up period. The reported rates of xerostomia reduced with the interval from the completion of treatment. Nine patients (36%) reported Grade 2 or greater xerostomia at 6 months, and only 2 (8%) of them reported the same grade of salivary function toxicity after 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: In our institution, IMRT for unknown primary cancer has provided good overall and disease-free survival in all the patients with an acceptable rate of complications. IMRT allowed us to address the bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa with minimal late salivary function toxicity. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for more advanced disease led to good clinical results with reasonable toxicities.

  13. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2016-11-15

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. HDR and LDR Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Lip Cancer: the Experience of the Catalan Institute of Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerra, Arrate Querejeta; Mena, Estefanía Palacios; Fabregas, Joan Pera; Miguelez, Cristina Gutiérrez; Guedea, Ferran

    2010-03-01

    Lip cancer can be treated by surgery, external radiotherapy, and/or brachytherapy (BT). In recent years, BT has become increasingly favored for this type of cancer. The aim of the present study was to analyze local control and survival of patients treated at our institution between July 1989 and June 2008. We performed a retrospective study of 121 patients (109 males and 12 females) who underwent lip cancer brachytherapy from July 1989 to June 2008. Median age was 67 years and median follow-up was 31.8 months (range 20-188 months). Out of 121 patients, 100 (82.6%) were treated with low dose rate (LDR) BT while the remaining 21 patients (17.4%) received high dose rate (HDR) BT. The most common cell type was squamous cell carcinoma (115 cases; 95%) and most tumors were located on the lower lip (107 patients; 88.4%). Most cases were either stage T1 (62 patients; 51.2%), or T2 (44 cases; 36.4%). After 15 years of follow-up, overall survival was 89.5%, cause-specific survival 97.8%, and disease-free survival 86.6%. Local, regional, and distant control at 15 years were 90%, 92%, and 98.8%, respectively. Grade 3 mucosal toxicity was observed in 23% of patients treated with LDR compared to 33% of HDR patients, and grade 4 mucosal toxicity in 9% versus 0% in the HDR group. Our findings confirm that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for lip cancer. The results from our series are in line with those published elsewhere. Based on our limited data, HDR appears to be equally as good as LDR, although this needs to be confirmed by further studies.

  15. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status of breast cancer patients of eastern India: A multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Koushik; Bhaumik, Gautam; Chattopadhyay, Bhargab

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity of any significant data on the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of breast cancer patients from the eastern part of India. This study aims to document the ER and PR status of breast cancer patients in the eastern Indian population, as catered by two premier tertiary care hospitals in Kolkata. All breast cancer patients registered between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015, in the Departments of Oncology, of IPGMER and SSKM Hospitals and R. G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, who had at least undergone a core biopsy or surgery, were analyzed retrospectively for documentation of their ER and PR status, using the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) interpretation guidelines. Over a period of 3 years, a total of 927 patients were included for the study. A total of 825 (89%) patients had their ER and PR data available for evaluation. ER and PR positive was seen in 312 (37.82%) patients, ER and PR negative in 399 (48.36%) patients, ER positive and PR negative in 71 (8.6%) patients, and ER negative and PR positive results was found in 43 (5.21%) patients. This is the first multi-institutional documentation of ER and PR status from eastern India, having a modest number of patients and one of the earliest documentations using the latest ASCO/CAP interpretation guidelines. These findings resemble the data from the south and also reiterate the fact that majority of the Indian breast cancer patients are still ER and PR negative in spite of the changes in the interpretation guidelines.

  16. An outline of the need for psychology knowledge in health professionals: implications for community development and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Saidu, Mohammed Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.

  17. Developing a Cookbook with Lifestyle Tips: A Community-Engaged Approach to Promoting Diet-Related Cancer Prevention Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selina A; Sheats, Joyce Q; Whitehead, Mary S; Delmoor, Ernestine; Britt, Thomas; Harris, Cassandra L; Robinson-Flint, Janette; Porche-Smith, L Monique; Umeakunne, Kayellen Edmonds; Coughlin, Steven S

    Supplementing nutrition education with skills-building activities may enhance community awareness of diet-related cancer prevention guidelines. To develop a cookbook with lifestyle tips, recipes were solicited from the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer (NBLIC) community coalitions and dietary intake advice from participants in the Educational Program to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening (EPICS). With guidance from a chef and registered dietitian, recipes were tested, assessed, and transformed; lifestyle advice was obtained from focus groups. The cookbook with lifestyle tips, named "Down Home Healthy Living (DHHL) 2.0," was distributed in print form to 2,500 EPICS participants and shared electronically through websites and social media.

  18. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonaro, Luca A., E-mail: luca.carbonaro@gmail.com [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Azzarone, Antonio [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Paskeh, Bijan Babaei [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Brambilla, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Brunelli, Silvia [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Calori, Anna [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Caumo, Francesca [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Malerba, Paolo [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Menicagli, Laura [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca M. [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Vadalà, Giuseppe [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Brambilla, Gelma; Fantini, Luigi [Servizio di Medicina Preventiva delle Comunità, ASL Milano 2, Via Friuli 2, Lacchiarella (Mi) 20084 (Italy); Ciatto, Stefano [Screening Program, ULSS 16, Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  19. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaro, Luca A.; Azzarone, Antonio; Paskeh, Bijan Babaei; Brambilla, Giorgio; Brunelli, Silvia; Calori, Anna; Caumo, Francesca; Malerba, Paolo; Menicagli, Laura; Sconfienza, Luca M.; Vadalà, Giuseppe; Brambilla, Gelma; Fantini, Luigi; Ciatto, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  20. Chemo-radiotherapy plus hyperthermia in locally advanced cervical cancer: preliminary results of an institutional phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbani, M.; Marciai, N.; Maluta, S.; Griso, C.; Merlin, F.; Cassandrini, P.; Giudici, S.; Franchi, M.; Zanini, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy given concurrently with a cisplatin-based regimen has shown a benefit in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer so becoming the new standard treatment according to EBM criteria. Addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy has also been proved to yield an advantage in survival and local control in pts affected by recurrent and local advanced cervical cancer in the Dutch Phase III trial so that the Consensus Forum of Kadota (Osaha June 2004) included cervical cancer among tumors treatable with hyperthermia. In our institutional multidisciplinary team a pilot study has been designed in order to evaluate feasibility, outcome and toxicity of tri-modality treatment in pts with locally advanced cervical cancer in our daily practice. Since January 2003 to now eight patients affected by cervical cancer with stage IB2 through IVA N0-N+ pelvic or paraaortic were entered the study. Six patients were treated at initial diagnosis and two patients after chemotherapy which had achieved stable disease. Treatment regimen consisted in 5 courses of weekly chemotherapy (cisplatin 40 mg/mq) with concurrent external radiotherapy to a total dose of 64-66 Gy on CTV1 and 45 Gy on para-aortic nodes plus boost in pts with enlarged nodes identified by imaging. Five weekly sessions of hyperthermia were performed by using BSD 2000 system and sigma 60 applicator. No significant toxicity occurred and all of the patients completed tri-modality treatment in accordance with the study protocol. Seven pts experienced a complete clinical remission and one patient a partial remission as defined by clinical and imaging examinations. After four months from the end of the treatment a patient with Stage IIB bulky tumor plus one pelvic positive node who was in complete remission (Clinical examination, MRI and TAC-PET three months from the end of the treatment were negative for evidence of disease) developed a bleeding recto-vaginal fistula plus central pelvic necrosis for which an

  1. Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Timing of Relapse and Overall Survival for Children Treated on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocols (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Kira; Blonquist, Traci M; Neuberg, Donna S; Silverman, Lewis B; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Population-based evidence suggests that lower socioeconomic status (SES) negatively impacts the overall survival (OS) of children with leukemia; however, the relationships between SES and treatment-related mortality, relapse, and timing of relapse remain unclear. We examined OS, event-free survival (EFS) and cumulative incidence (CI) and timing of relapse by community-level poverty for 575 children aged 1-18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated on consecutive phase III multicenter Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocols between 2000 and 2010. Children were categorized into high- and low-poverty areas for the analysis using aggregate U.S. Census data linked to zip code. Children living in high-poverty areas experienced a 5-year OS of 85% as compared with 92% for those in low-poverty areas (P = 0.02); poverty remained marginally significant (P = 0.07) after adjustment for immunophenotype, age, and white blood cell count. There were no differences detected in EFS or CI relapse by poverty area. However, 92% of the relapses observed in children from high-poverty areas occurred <36 months from complete remission, compared to 48% of those in children from low-poverty areas (P = 0.008). U.S. children with ALL living in high-poverty areas have a higher risk of early relapse when compared with those living in low-poverty areas despite uniform treatment. This may in part explain decreased OS observed in these children. This finding highlights disparities in childhood cancer outcomes by SES despite uniform treatment. Further investigations of the mechanistic pathways underlying this finding are needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Improving cancer control through a community-based cancer awareness initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Rendell, Helen; George, Helen; Power, Emily

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Roadshow on intentions to change health behaviours and use local health services related to cancer. Feedback forms from visitors to three Roadshows collected data on anticipated lifestyle changes and health service use following their visit to the Roadshow. Demographic predictors of intentions were investigated. A total of 6009 individuals completed a feedback form. On average, respondents intended to make between two and three (2.55; SD=1.77) lifestyle changes, and use between none and one (0.59; SD=0.77) local health services following their visit. Multivariable analysis showed that age (p=0.001), ethnicity (p=0.006), and occupation (p=0.043) were significant predictors of anticipated lifestyle changes. Anticipated health service use was higher among men (p=0.001), younger groups (p<0.001), and smokers (p<0.001). Overall effects of ethnicity (p=0.001) and occupation (p<0.001) on anticipated health service use were also observed. Post-hoc analyses indicated stronger effects of the Roadshow among disadvantaged groups. High levels of anticipated health behaviour change and health service use were observed among Roadshow visitors. Disadvantaged groups such as lower socioeconomic groups, ethnic minorities, and smokers showed particularly high levels of intention. A more in-depth evaluation of the Roadshow is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Local recurrence after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer: a recursive partitioning analysis of multi-institutional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Chris R; Higgins, Kristin A; Peterson, Bercedis L; Chino, Junzo P; Marks, Lawrence B; D'Amico, Thomas A; Varlotto, John M

    2013-10-01

    To define subgroups at high risk of local recurrence (LR) after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer using a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). This Institutional Review Board-approved study included patients who underwent upfront surgery for I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer at Duke Cancer Institute (primary set) or at other participating institutions (validation set). The 2 data sets were analyzed separately and identically. Disease recurrence at the surgical margin, ipsilateral hilum, and/or mediastinum was considered an LR. Recursive partitioning was used to build regression trees for the prediction of local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) from standard clinical and pathological factors. LRFS distributions were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The 1411 patients in the primary set had a 5-year LRFS rate of 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.81), and the 889 patients in the validation set had a 5-year LRFS rate of 76% (95% CI, 0.72-0.80). The RPA of the primary data set identified 3 terminal nodes based on stage and histology. These nodes and their 5-year LRFS rates were as follows: (1) stage I/adenocarcinoma, 87% (95% CI, 0.83-0.90); (2) stage I/squamous or large cell, 72% (95% CI, 0.65-0.79); and (3) stage II-IIIA, 62% (95% CI, 0.55-0.69). The validation RPA identified 3 terminal nodes based on lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and stage: (1) no LVI/stage IA, 82% (95% CI, 0.76-0.88); (2) no LVI/stage IB-IIIA, 73% (95% CI, 0.69-0.80); and (3) LVI, 58% (95% CI, 0.47-0.69). The risk of LR was similar in the primary and validation patient data sets. There was discordance between the 2 data sets regarding the clinical factors that best segregate patients into risk groups. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Sean; O'Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-07-18

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  5. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Sean; O’Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  6. Differences in CT features of peritoneal carcinomatosis, sarcomatosis, and lymphomatosis: Retrospective analysis of 122 cases at a tertiary cancer institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, A.C.; Shinagare, A.B.; Rosenthal, M.H.; Tirumani, S.H.; Jagannathan, J.P.; Ramaiya, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To study the differences in the imaging features of spread from the three cancer cell lines, namely epithelial, sarcomatoid, and lymphoid, resulting in peritoneal carcinomatosis, peritoneal sarcomatosis, and peritoneal lymphomatosis, respectively. Materials and methods: In this institutional review board-approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study, an electronic radiology database was searched to identify patients with peritoneal tumour spread who underwent CT imaging at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, a tertiary cancer institution, between January 2011 and December 2012. Out of 1214 patients with possible peritoneal tumour spread on the radiology reports, 122 patients were included with histopathologically confirmed peritoneal disease (50 randomly selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis each, and all 22 patients with lymphomatosis). Two blinded, fellowship-trained radiologists in consensus reviewed the CT images in random order and recorded the imaging findings of peritoneal tumour spread. The statistical analysis was performed in two steps: the first comparing incidence of various features in each group and the second step was a pairwise analysis between each cohort. Results: Peritoneal carcinomatosis more frequently had ascites, peritoneal thickening, and omental cake (all p ≤ 0.001). Measurable nodules were less common in peritoneal carcinomatosis (p < 0.001), and when present, were ill-defined and had an irregular outline (p ≤ 0.002). Peritoneal sarcomatosis more often had discrete nodules that were well defined and had a smooth outline and less frequently had ascites, peritoneal thickening, omental caking, serosal implants, and lymphadenopathy (all p ≤ 0.005). Peritoneal lymphomatosis frequently involved the omentum and mesentery, and often had associated lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly (all p ≤ 0.002). Conclusion: Peritoneal carcinomatosis, sarcomatosis

  7. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and the risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Blánaid M; Yin, Hui; Bladou, Franck; Ernst, Pierre; Azoulay, Laurent

    2017-07-01

    Androgens have been shown to influence both the immune system and lung tissue, raising the hypothesis that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer may increase the risk of pneumonia. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether ADT is associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia in patients with prostate cancer. This was a population-based cohort study using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics repository. The cohort consisted of 20 310 men newly diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer between 1 April 1998 and 31 March 2015. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia associated with current and past use of ADT compared with non-use. During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, there were 621 incident hospitalisations for community-acquired pneumonia (incidence rate: 7.2/1000 person-years). Current ADT use was associated with an 81% increased risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia (12.1 vs 3.8 per 1000 person-years, respectively; HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.23). The association was observed within the first six months of use (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.42) and remained elevated with increasing durations of use (≥25 months; HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.30). In contrast, past ADT use was not associated with an increased risk (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.60). The use of ADT is associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia in men with prostate cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. How do Policy and Institutional Settings Shape Opportunities for Community-Based Primary Health Care? A Comparison of Ontario, Québec and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Tenbensel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-based primary health care describes a model of service provision that is oriented to the population health needs and wants of service users and communities, and has particular relevance to supporting the growing proportion of the population with multiple chronic conditions. Internationally, aspirations for community-based primary health care have stimulated local initiatives and influenced the design of policy solutions. However, the ways in which these ideas and influences find their way into policy and practice is strongly mediated by policy settings and institutional legacies of particular jurisdictions. This paper seeks to compare the key institutional and policy features of Ontario, Québec and New Zealand that shape the ‘space available’ for models of community-based primary health care to take root and develop. Our analysis suggests that two key conditions are the integration of relevant health and social sector organisations, and the range of policy levers that are available and used by governments. New Zealand has the most favourable conditions, and Ontario the least favourable. All jurisdictions, however, share a crucial barrier, namely the ‘barbed-wire fence’ that separates funding of medical and ‘non-medical’ primary care services, and the clear interests primary care doctors have in maintaining this fence. Moves in the direction of system-wide community-based primary health care require a gradual dismantling of this fence.

  9. Barriers beyond words: cancer, culture, and translation in a community of Russian speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Daniel; Levintova, Marya

    2007-11-01

    Language and culture relate in complex ways. Addressing this complexity in the context of language translation is a challenge when caring for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). To examine processes of care related to language, culture and translation in an LEP population is the objective of this study. We used community based participatory research to examine the experiences of Russian-speaking cancer patients in San Francisco, California. A Russian Cancer Information Taskforce (RCIT), including community-based organizations, local government, and clinics, participated in all phases of the study. A purposeful sample of 74 individuals were the participants of the study. The RCIT shaped research themes and facilitated access to participants. Methods were focus groups, individual interviews, and participant observation. RCIT reviewed data and provided guidance in interpreting results. Four themes emerged. (1) Local Russian-language resources were seen as inadequate and relatively unavailable compared to other non-English languages; (2) a taboo about the word "cancer" led to language "games" surrounding disclosure; (3) this taboo, and other dynamics of care, reflected expectations that Russian speakers derived from experiences in their countries of origin; (4) using interpreters as cultural brokers or establishing support groups for Russian speakers could help address barriers. The language barriers experienced by this LEP population reflect cultural and linguistic issues. Providers should consider partnering with trained interpreters to address the intertwining of language and culture.

  10. Dose escalation by hypo fractionation in localized prostate cancer - a large single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, A.; Klein, E.; Kupelian, P.

    2003-01-01

    To report the outcomes of high dose radiation therapy using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) with hypo fractionation in localized prostate cancer at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. A total of 278 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with IMRT between 1998 and 2001. All cases had available pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and biopsy Gleason scores (bGS), no nodal metastasis, a minimum 2 year follow-up, and >5 follow-up PSA levels. The frequency by T-stage was: T1-T2A in 86%, T2B-T2C in 9%, and T3 in 5%. The median iPSA was 8.35. The frequency by bGS was: =7 in 45%. The age range for the patients was from 48 to 85 years (median 68 years). The median follow-up was 33 months (range: 24-49 months). The median doses delivered were 83Gy (delivered at 2.5Gy per fraction to 70 Gy; this being equivalent to 83 Gy at standard fractionation of 1.8 Gy using an alpha/beta of 2). The ASTRO definition for biochemical failure was used. Toxicity was assessed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. The 3-year biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) for the entire cohort at three years was 91%. Any (grade 1 or higher) acute genito-urinary (GU) side effects were seen in 79% of patients. Grade 2 or higher acute GU toxicity was seen in 18% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) acute gastro-intestinal (GI) side effects were seen in 65% of patients. Grade 2 or higher acute GI toxicity was seen in 11% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) late GU side effects were seen in 3% of patients. Grade 2 or higher late GU toxicity was seen in 1.5% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) late GI side effects were seen in 13% of patients. Grade 2 or higher late GI toxicity was seen in 5% of patients. Higher doses of radiation delivered by IMRT resulted in excellent bRFS outcomes in patients with localized prostate cancer receiving external beam radiation therapy. IMRT can be effectively used to safely increase dose delivery without compromising on quality of life

  11. Using community engagement to inform and implement a community-randomized controlled trial in the Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne eWood

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Social, political, and economic factors are directly and indirectly associated with the quality and distribution of health resources across Canada. First Nations (FN women in particular endure a disproportionate burden of ill health in contrast to the mainstream population. The complex relationship of health, social, and historical determinants are inherent to increased cervical cancer in FN women. This can be traced back to the colonial oppression suffered by Canadian FN and the social inequalities they have since faced. Screening - the Papinacolaou (Pap test – and early immunization have rendered cervical cancer almost entirely preventable but despite these options, FN women endure notably higher rates of diagnosis and mortality due to cervical cancer. The Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS is a participatory action research project investigating the factors underlying the cervical cancer burden in FN women. ACCSS is a collaboration with 11 FN communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada and a multidisciplinary research team from across Canada with expertise in cancer biology, epidemiology, medical anthropology, public health, virology, women’s health, and pathology. Interviews with healthcare providers and community members revealed that prior to any formal data collection education must be offered. Consequently, an educational component was integrated into the existing quantitative design of the study: a two-armed, community-randomized trial that compares the uptake of two different cervical screening modalities. In ACCSS, the Research Team integrates community engagement and the flexible nature of participatory research with the scientific rigor of a randomized controlled trial. ACCSS findings will inform culturally appropriate screening strategies, aiming to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical disease in concert with priorities of the partner FN communities.

  12. A Pragmatic Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ)®-Based Brief Counseling on Cancer-Related Fatigue among Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Joshua; Xie, Sharon X; Penn, Courtney; Desai, Krupali; Dong, Kimberly W; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Vapiwala, Neha; Mao, Jun James

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Cancer-Related Fatigue (CRF) negatively affects quality of life among cancer patients. This study seeks to evaluate the outcome and patient receptiveness of a brief counseling program based on National Cancer Institute (NCI) PDQ® information to manage CRF when integrated into Radiation Therapy (RT). Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among patients undergoing non-palliative RT. Patients with stage I–III tumors and with Karnofsky score 60 or better were given a ten-minute behavioral counseling session during the first two weeks of RT. The Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) was administered at baseline/end of RT. Results Of 93 patients enrolled, 89% found the counseling useful and practical. By the end of RT, 59% reported increased exercise, 41.6% sought nutrition counseling, 72.7% prioritized daily activities, 74.4% took daytime naps, and 70.5% talked with other cancer patients. Regarding counseling, patients who had received chemotherapy prior to RT had no change in fatigue (−0.2), those who received RT alone had mild increase in fatigue (0.7, p=0.02), and those who received concurrent chemotherapy experienced a substantial increase in fatigue (3.0 to 5.2, p=0.05). Higher baseline fatigue and receipt of chemotherapy were predictive of worsened fatigue in a multivariate model (both p<0.01). Conclusion Our data suggests that brief behavioral counseling based on NCI guidelines is well accepted by patients showing an uptake in many activities to cope with CRF. Those who receive concurrent chemotherapy and with higher baseline fatigue are at risk for worsening fatigue despite of guideline-based therapy. PMID:29479490

  13. Multidisciplinary Service Utilization Pattern by Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C. Junn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the patterns and associations of adjunctive service visits by head and neck cancer patients receiving primary, concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients receiving adjunctive support during a uniform chemoradiation regimen for stages III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate models for each outcome were obtained from simple and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Fifty-two consecutive patients were assessed. Female gender, single marital status, and nonprivate insurance were factors associated with an increased number of social work visits. In a multivariate analysis, female gender and marital status were related to increased social work services. Female gender and stage IV disease were significant for increased nursing visits. In a multivariate analysis for nursing visits, living greater than 20 miles between home and hospital was a negative predictive factor. Conclusion. Treatment of advanced stage head and neck cancer with concurrent chemoradiation warrants a multidisciplinary approach. Female gender, single marital status, and stage IV disease were correlated with increased utilization of social work and nursing services. Distance over 20 miles from the center was a negative factor. This information may help guide the treatment team to allocate resources for the comprehensive care of patients.

  14. The Convergence of Institutional Logics on the Community College Sector and the Normalization of Emotional Labor: A New Theoretical Approach for Considering the Community College Faculty Labor Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Leslie D.; Ayers, David F.

    2018-01-01

    Little empirical research has systematically focused on, or interrogated, the labor expectations set forth for community college faculty. Thus, in this paper, we present a theoretical argument, which we formed by (re) reading several community college focused studies through various theoretical lenses. Ultimately, we merged two…

  15. The impact of community health educators on uptake of cervical and breast cancer prevention services in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Onyeka, Tonia C; Odugu, Boniface U; Dim, Cyril C

    2017-06-01

    To determine the impact of trained community health educators on the uptake of cervical and breast cancer screening, and HPV vaccination in rural communities in southeast Nigeria. A prospective population-based intervention study, with a before-and-after design, involved four randomly selected communities in southeast Nigeria from February 2014 to February 2016. Before the intervention, baseline data were collected on the uptake of cervical and breast cancer prevention services. The intervention was house-to-house education on cervical cancer and breast cancer prevention. Postintervention outcome measures included the uptake of cervical and breast cancer screening, and HPV vaccination within 6 months of intervention. In total, 1327 women were enrolled. Before the intervention, 42 (3.2%) women had undergone cervical cancer screening; afterwards, 897 (67.6%) women had received screening (Pbreast examination was performed for 59 (4.4%) women before and 897 (67.6%) after the intervention (Pbreast cancer prevention education was associated with significant increases in the uptake of cervical cancer screening, clinical breast examination, and HPV vaccination. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  16. Treatment of Pancreatic and Periampullary Cancers at a Community Hospital: Successful Application of Tertiary Care Treatment Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesinger, Robert C.; Davis, Jan W.; Hill, Britani; Johnston, W. Cory; Gray, Carl; Johnson, Harold; Ingersoll, Leslye; Whipple, Gary; Reilly, Mark; Harris, Robert; Hansen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Background. The treatment of pancreatic cancer and other periampullary neoplasms is complex and challenging. Major high-volume cancer centers can provide excellent multidisciplinary care of these patients but almost two-thirds of pancreatic cancer patients are treated at low volume centers. There is very little published data from low volume community cancer programs in regards to the treatment of periampullary cancer. In this study, a review of comprehensive periampullary cancer care at two low volume hospitals with comparison to national standards is presented. Methods. This is a retrospective review of 70 consecutive patients with periampullary neoplasms who underwent surgery over a 5-year period (2006–2010) at two community hospitals. Results. There were 51 successful resections of 70 explorations (73%) including 34 Whipple procedures. Mortality rate was 2.9%. Comparison of these patients to national standards was made in terms of operative mortality, resectability rate, administration of adjuvant therapy, clinical trial participation and overall survival. The results in these patients were comparable to national standards. Conclusions. With adequate commitment of resources and experienced surgical and oncologic practitioners, community cancer centers can meet national tertiary care standards in terms of pancreatic and periampullary cancer care. PMID:22312532

  17. Student-centred learning in Community Medicine: An experience from Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, S S; Premarajan, K C; L, Subitha; Archana, R; Iswarya, S; A, Sujiv

    2014-01-01

    Student-centred learning (SCL) places the student at the centre of policies, practices and decision-making in the teaching-learning process. SCL methodology also advocates active involvement of students in the curriculum planning, selection of teaching-learning methods and assessment process. We planned an education innovation project to assess the perception of fifth semester undergraduate medical students towards implementation of an SCL methodology. The study was done among 87 fifth semester undergraduate medical students (batch of 2010-11) in the noncommunicable disease epidemiology section of Community Medicine at the Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry. The students divided themselves into seven groups and developed the learning objectives, selected teaching-learning methods and assessment process for each session. The facilitators had 3-5 rounds of interaction with each group before the session. Qualitative analysis of feedback collected from students and external faculty after each session was done. The effect of implementing the SCL methodology was assessed by the reaction level of Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model by using a rating scale Results. Of the 87 eligible students, 73 (83.9%) returned the forms for evaluation. All seven groups were able to formulate the learning objectives. Most of the groups had used PowerPoint slides and videos as a teaching-learning tool. Innovative assessment methods such as crosswords and 'chocopati' were used by some groups. In general, the perception of students was favourable towards SCL compared to conventional methods and they felt that this methodology should be adopted more often. Time management and organization of sessions were the main problems encountered by the students. The mean (SD) score for the items 'sessions were useful', 'sessions were enjoyable' and 'sessions improved my knowledge' were 6.2 (1.8), 7.1 (1.8) and 6.3 (1.9), respectively. The

  18. Improving cancer control through a community-based cancer awareness initiative☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G.; Rendell, Helen; George, Helen; Power, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Roadshow on intentions to change health behaviours and use local health services related to cancer. Method Feedback forms from visitors to three Roadshows collected data on anticipated lifestyle changes and health service use following their visit to the Roadshow. Demographic predictors of intentions were investigated. Results A total of 6009 individuals completed a feedback form. On average, respondents intended to make between two and three (2.55; SD = 1.77) lifestyle changes, and use between none and one (0.59; SD = 0.77) local health services following their visit. Multivariable analysis showed that age (p = 0.001), ethnicity (p = 0.006), and occupation (p = 0.043) were significant predictors of anticipated lifestyle changes. Anticipated health service use was higher among men (p = 0.001), younger groups (p < 0.001), and smokers (p < 0.001). Overall effects of ethnicity (p = 0.001) and occupation (p < 0.001) on anticipated health service use were also observed. Post-hoc analyses indicated stronger effects of the Roadshow among disadvantaged groups. Conclusion High levels of anticipated health behaviour change and health service use were observed among Roadshow visitors. Disadvantaged groups such as lower socioeconomic groups, ethnic minorities, and smokers showed particularly high levels of intention. A more in-depth evaluation of the Roadshow is warranted. PMID:24239683

  19. Biomedical information @ the speed of light: implementing desktop access to publishers' resources at the Paterson Institute for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, S W

    2001-06-01

    Shortly after midnight every Thursday morning, a list server in Massachusetts delivers an electronic table of contents message to the Kostoris Medical Library at the Paterson Institute for Cancer Research in Manchester, UK. The messageins details of the latest edition of the New England Journal of Medicine, complete with hyperlinks to the full text of the content online. Publishers' electronic current awareness services have been integrated into the dissemination process of the Library service to enhance the speed of communication and access to full text content. As a means of promoting electronic journal use, a system of e-mail delivery coupled with fast Internet access has allowed a migration from paper-based current awareness alerting to a seamless online product.

  20. Present state of studies on FFAG accelerator for radiotherapy of cancer in National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misu, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    From 2001, developmental contract studies with Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for a compact accelerator for heavy ion radiotherapy of cancer started in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) with use of fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator, which had been developed in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). This paper describes the present state of those studies. Described are FFAG accelerator design for repeated acceleration for 200 Hz or more toward the carbon ion at 400 MeV/u with the range of 25 cm in water, FFAG optical systems for these purposes by linear analyses, and the present situation of the design. Technological problems yielded and future study plan are also commented. (N.I.)

  1. Community Awareness - A Key to the Early Detection of Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Manickam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Mortality and morbidity associated with head and neck cancers have decreased to a great extent in many developed countries of the world due to early diagnosis and treatment with advances in surgical techniques and better availability of radiotherapist and oncologists. But the situation in developing countries like India is quite different. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This study was conducted amongst the patients attending the Otolaryngology department of a teaching hospital in Kolkata to find the incidence of various types and sites of head and neck cancer, to assess time delay from the date of onset of symptom to the final disease confirmation in relation to patients’ demographic profile, to assess time delay in histopathological diagnosis after reaching a tertiary care setup and also to correlate tobacco consumption and alcohol intake as risk factors for head and neck cancer and to note the reasons for late presentation, as described by the patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS The descriptive study was conducted at a tertiary level teaching hospital, in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology for a period from August 2013 to August 2015 with a study population of 133.  OBSERVATIONS  An average time lag from the onset of symptom to final diagnosis as malignancy was found to be 6 months to one year in nearly 72% of cases. Most of the patients were uneducated males of more than 50 years of age, hailing from rural areas. Cancer larynx was found to be the commonest of all head and neck cancers (31.6%. More than 65% of the patients were addicted to tobacco chewing or smoking or consumption of alcohol.  DISCUSSION  Poverty, lack of education, poor communication, lack of health care infrastructure in rural areas, community awareness about various risk factors, lack of effective health policy to achieve early diagnosis of head neck cancer were common factors related to delay in diagnosis.  CONCLUSION  Tobacco use and alcohol intake are the

  2. Evolution of accesses to information on breast cancer and screening on the Brazilian National Cancer Institute website: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Sormunen, Taina; Craftman, Åsa Gransjön

    2018-04-01

    Delays in diagnosis due to low Breast Cancer awareness are widespread in Brazil maybe owing to ineffective strategies to raise attention on early diagnosis. As a proxy of collective interest in BC screanning (BCS) we studied the monthly accesses to BC and BCS webpages in INCA's website along 48 months. A log analyzer built a time serie (2006-2009) of BC and BCS monthly means, which oscilations were studied by analysis of variance (ANOVA). We found significant increasing accesses to BC and transient "attention peaks". Enlargement in BC/BCS differences along all period were caused by increasing accesses to BC and decreasing/minor/stable oscillations to SBC pages. These results are consistent with previous reports on increasing interest to BC contrasting with indifference on BCS. In the context of an exploratory study, we discussed some aspects: weakness of a "prevention culture"; lack of confidence in health system and screening programs; "celebrity effect" in the context of media framing; collective perception of risks heightened by perception of social vulnerability. Findings suggest that culture-tailored communication strategies would be necessary to inform Brazilian people about BCS. Future research is needed to study social perceptions and constructions on BC topics.

  3. Evolution of accesses to information on breast cancer and screening on the Brazilian National Cancer Institute website: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Vasconcellos-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Delays in diagnosis due to low Breast Cancer awareness are widespread in Brazil maybe owing to ineffective strategies to raise attention on early diagnosis. As a proxy of collective interest in BC screanning (BCS we studied the monthly accesses to BC and BCS webpages in INCA's website along 48 months. A log analyzer built a time serie (2006-2009 of BC and BCS monthly means, which oscilations were studied by analysis of variance (ANOVA. We found significant increasing accesses to BC and transient “attention peaks”. Enlargement in BC/BCS differences along all period were caused by increasing accesses to BC and decreasing/minor/stable oscillations to SBC pages. These results are consistent with previous reports on increasing interest to BC contrasting with indifference on BCS. In the context of an exploratory study, we discussed some aspects: weakness of a “prevention culture”; lack of confidence in health system and screening programs; “celebrity effect” in the context of media framing; collective perception of risks heightened by perception of social vulnerability. Findings suggest that culture-tailored communication strategies would be necessary to inform Brazilian people about BCS. Future research is needed to study social perceptions and constructions on BC topics.

  4. Identity, community and care in online accounts of hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Emily; Broer, Tineke; Kerr, Anne; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sociological literature has explored how shifts in the point at which individuals may be designated as diseased impact upon experiences of ill health. Research has shown that experiences of being genetically "at risk" are shaped by and shape familial relations, coping strategies, and new forms of biosociality. Less is known about how living with genetic risk is negotiated in the everyday and over time, and the wider forms of identity, communities and care this involves. This article explores these arrangements drawing on online bloggers' accounts of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). We show how accounts of genetic risk co-exist with more palpable experiences of FAP in everyday life, notably the consequences of prophylactic surgeries. We consider how the act of blogging represents but also constitutes everyday experiences of hereditary cancer syndrome as simultaneously ordinary and exceptional, and reflect on the implications of our analysis for understanding experiences of genetic cancer risk.

  5. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  6. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  7. [Evaluation of breast cancer treatment at a tertiary-level institution with Popular Health Insurance in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Lara-Medina, Fernando Ulises; Alvarado-Miranda, Alberto; Castañeda-Soto, Noel; Bargalló-Rocha, Enrique; Ramírez-Ugalde, María Teresa; Pérez-Sánchez, Víctor; Rivera, Lesbia; Gambo-Vignole, Carlos; Santamaría-Galicia, Julieta; Nieves-Casas, Rosa Isela; Morán-Muñoz, Héctor; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    In our country breast cancer represents a major health problem. Only 45% of all population has access to health services, the consequence is delay in diagnosis and treatment. In Mexico, 66% of all new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in locally advanced stages. From May 2007 the Health System Protection Against Catastrophic Expenses, called Seguro Popular (SP), breast cancer was included in covering the treatment of this neoplasm in any patient without access to social security. To evaluate the results and impact of SP in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment of a group of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at an institution of national reference. We analyzed a group of 259 patients in stages (I-IIIC). The clinical stages I and II (55 patients) were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy FAC -T (fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, adriamycin 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 (FAC) followed by 12 weeks of paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 +/- trastuzumab loading dose of 4 mg/kg followed by 2 mg/kg); 204 patients in locally advanced stages (IIB-IIIC) received FAC-T +/- trastuzumab followed by surgery. Adjuvant treatment consisted of endocrine therapy for hormone-sensitive patients and radiotherapy 50 cGy according to international standards. The age at diagnosis was 47 years (range 23-68). 80% of them were locally advanced stages (IIB-IIIC) and were treated in a neoadjuvant setting, 20% was in early stages, treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy The disease-free survival and overall survival at 30 months was 85.7 and 90% respectively. Overall pathologic complete response was obtained in 15% of cases. In the subgroup analysis showed that 41% of patients HER2 (+), 29% of triple-negative patients and 9% of hormone-sensitive tumors achieved complete pathological response (p = 0.0001). This is the first analysis of efficacy of adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer since the introduction of popular secure non-entitled population. It is clear that treatment efficacy

  8. A community-based trial of educational interventions with fecal immunochemical tests for colorectal cancer screening uptake among blacks in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Davis, Stacy N; Williams, Kimberly R; Zhao, Xiuhua; Govindaraju, Swapomthi K; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Lin, Hui-Yi; Sutton, Steven K; Roethzeim, Richard R; Shibata, David; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K

    2016-11-15

    Intervention studies among individuals in diverse community settings are needed to reduce health disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and mortality rates. The current study compared the efficacy of 2 intervention conditions promoting CRC screening among black individuals. Black individuals ages 50 to 75 years (N = 330) were recruited in community settings in 4 Tampa Bay counties. After obtaining consent and conducting a baseline interview to assess sociodemographic and health-related variables, participants received either a culturally targeted CRC photonovella booklet plus a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kit or a standard CRC screening brochure plus an FIT kit. The primary outcome was FIT kit screening uptake. FIT screening uptake at 6 months was 86.7% overall (90.3% in the brochure group and 81.9% in the photonovella group). Controlling for baseline between-group differences, there was no influence of intervention on FIT kit uptake (P = .756). Significant predictors of not returning an FIT kit included being unable to work (P = .010), having higher religious belief scores (P = .015), and living farther from the cancer center (P = .015). Providing FIT kits and educational print materials to black individuals in community settings resulted in high rates of CRC screening. The study also identified subgroups of participants who were less likely to return an FIT kit and provides insight for future interventions. Cancer 2016;122:3288-3296. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. Audience segmentation to promote lifestyle for cancer prevention in the Korean community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Jung, Su-Mi

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to segment the audience group of '10 lifestyle for cancer prevention' based on demographic characteristics and the level of knowledge about each guideline for cancer prevention among the community in South Korea. Participants were chosen through stratified random sampling according to the age and gender distribution of Gangwon province in South Korea. A telephone survey was conducted from 6 to 15 calls among 2,025 persons on October 2008. A total of 1,687 persons completed the survey (response rate: 83.3%). Survey items were composed of socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, income, education, and residence area and the knowledge level of '10 guidelines for cancer prevention', developed by 'Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare' and covering smoking cessation, appropriate drinking, condom use, and regular physical activity and so on. We selected the priority needed to promote awareness and segmented the audience group based on the demographic characteristics, homogeneous with respect to the knowledge level using Answer Tree 3.0 with CHAID as a data mining algorithm. The results of analysis showed that each guideline of ' 10 lifestyle for cancer prevention' had its own segmented subgroup characterized by each demographic. Especially, residence area, city or county, and ages were the first split on the perceived level of knowledge and these findings suggested that segmentation of audiences for targeting is needed to deliver more effective education of patients and community people. In developing the strategy for effective education, the method of social marketing using the decision tree analysis could be a useful and appropriate tool. The study findings demonstrate the potential value of using more sophisticated strategies of designing and providing health information based on audience segmentation.

  10. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle

    2015-01-01

    Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A "faller" was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher's exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with Pfalls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was Pfalls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594-29.074) (Pfalls were 74% and 69%, respectively. Current findings suggested that for community-dwelling older cancer survivors with mixed diagnoses, asking about the history of falls may help detect individuals at risk of falling.

  11. Intraoperative radiation therapy in gynecologic cancer: update of the experience at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, Graciela R.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Webb, Maurice J.; Wilson, Timothy O.; Cha, Stephen S.; Podratz, Karl C.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To update the Mayo Clinic experience with intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in patients with gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1983 and June 1991, 39 patients with recurrent or locally advanced gynecologic malignancies received intraoperative radiation therapy with electrons. The anatomical area treated was pelvis (side walls or presacrum) or periaortic nodes or a combination of both. In addition to intraoperative radiation therapy, 28 patients received external beam irradiation (median dose, 45 Gy; range, 0.9 to 65.7 Gy), and 13 received chemotherapy preoperatively. At the time of intraoperative radiation therapy and after maximum debulking operation, 23 patients had microscopic residual disease and 16 had gross residual disease up to 5 cm in thickness. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 43.4 months (range, 27.1 to 125.4 months). Results: The 5-year actuarial local control with or without central control was 67.4%, and the control within the IORT field (central control) was 81%. The risk of distant metastases at 5 years was 52% (82% in patients with gross residual disease and 33% in patients with only microscopic disease postoperatively). Actuarial 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival was 31.5 and 40.5%, respectively. Patients with microscopic disease had 5-year disease-free and overall survival of 55 and 50%, respectively. Grade 3 toxicity was directly associated with IORT in six patients (15%). Conclusion: Patients with local, regionally recurrent gynecologic cancer may benefit from maximal surgical debulking and IORT with or without external beam irradiation, especially those with microscopic residual disease

  12. The costs of breast cancer in a Mexican public health institut