Sample records for cancer health empowerment

  1. The cancer empowerment questionnaire: psychological empowerment in breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    van den Berg, Sanne W; van Amstel, Floortje K Ploos; Ottevanger, Petronella B; Gielissen, Marieke F M; Prins, Judith B


    New models of cancer care and survivorship ask for empowered patients. But how do we measure that patients can derive strength from themselves (intrapersonal) and their perceived social support (interpersonal)? The 40-item Cancer Empowerment Questionnaire (CEQ) measures psychological empowerment as an individual outcome measure. The CEQ was validated in 140 nonmetastatic female breast cancer survivors (mean 5.5 years postsurgery). Principal component analysis elicited four factors representing intrapersonal (personal strength) and interpersonal (social support, community, health care) aspects of empowerment. The CEQ provides a reliable (Cronbach's α=0.73-0.94) and valid first attempt to operationalize psychological empowerment in cancer care.

  2. The cancer empowerment questionnaire: psychological empowerment in breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, S.W. van den; Amstel, F.K. Ploos van; Ottevanger, P.B.; Gielissen, M.F.M.; Prins, J.B.


    New models of cancer care and survivorship ask for empowered patients. But how do we measure that patients can derive strength from themselves (intrapersonal) and their perceived social support (interpersonal)? The 40-item Cancer Empowerment Questionnaire (CEQ) measures psychological empowerment as

  3. Empowerment to reduce health disparities. (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nina


    This article articulates the theoretical construct of empowerment and its importance for health-enhancing strategies to reduce health disparities. Powerlessness is explored as a risk factor in the context of social determinants, such as poverty, discrimination, workplace hazards, and income inequities. Empowerment is presented and compared with social capital and community capacity as strategies to strengthen social protective factors. A case study of a youth empowerment and policy project in New Mexico illustrates the usefulness of empowerment strategies in both targeting social determinants, such as public policies which are detrimental to youth, and improving community capacities of youth to be advocates for social change. Challenges for future practice and research are articulated.

  4. The Nexus Between Health Literacy and Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Crondahl


    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to explore what is known about the assumed connection between health literacy and empowerment and how this connection is portrayed in the scientific literature. If empowerment is an outcome of health literacy, what are the mechanisms behind this process? A literature search conducted in 2013 yielded 216 hits, of which five met the inclusion criteria, and thus were read in depth and analyzed through a narrative-review approach. The findings indicate that health literacy might be regarded as a tool for empowerment but does not automatically lead to empowerment. Health literacy might be increased by health education. Crucial for empowerment is to achieve the critical level of health literacy including an ability to question and reflect on the prevailing power relations and societal conditions; increased senses of power, self-esteem, and self-efficacy; and an ability to utilize these resources to engage in social and political action for change. This article suggests that for health literacy to be critical to empowerment, there must be a focus on social health determinants and individuals’ subjective perceptions of health and health needs. The article proposes functional and interactive health literacy as a form of capacity building for health and empowerment and critical health literacy as a way to describe empowerment. This scoping review indicates a research gap and a need for future research examining the relationship between health literacy and empowerment.

  5. The Nexus Between Health Literacy and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crondahl, Kristine; Eklund Karlsson, Leena


    literacy might be increased by health education. Crucial for empowerment is to achieve the critical level of health literacy including an ability to question and reflect on the prevailing power relations and societal conditions; increased senses of power, selfesteem, and self-efficacy; and an ability...... to utilize these resources to engage in social and political action for change. This article suggests that for health literacy to be critical to empowerment, there must be a focus on social health determinants and individuals’ subjective perceptions of health and health needs. The article proposes functional...... and interactive health literacy as a form of capacity building for health and empowerment and critical health literacy as a way to describe empowerment. This scoping review indicates a research gap and a need for future research examining the relationship between Health literacy and empowerment....

  6. Empowerment of cancer survivors through information technology: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.G.; Kuijpers, W.; Oldenburg, H.S.A.; Wouters, M.W.J.M.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, W.H.


    Background: Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute

  7. Empowerment of Cancer Survivors Through Information Technology: An Integrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Wim G.; Kuijpers, Wilma; Oldenburg, Hester S.A.; Wouters, Michel W.J.M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Harten, van Wim H.


    Background: Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute

  8. [Empowerment in the public health practice]. (United States)

    Chia, Shu-Li


    Public health personnel are the first-line workers of preventive care and medical services. In the face of rapid social and demographic changes, empowerment and on-job training have become important approaches to enhance the function of nurses. Health centers act like the "peripheral nerves" of the government healthcare system, as they must both reflect the needs of community residents and fully implement government mandated services. While widely distributed, health centers face manpower shortages and disorderly information collection and distribution systems. Empowerment and on-job training programs can enhance public heath staff knowledge in order to cope with heavy workloads and shift toward multi-dimensional development. This paper examines the experience of the New Taipei City Public Health Bureau in conducting health center empowerment programs from four perspectives, including personal cultivation and organizational cultivation. It was found that public health staff self-recognition of professional values can also be further strengthened through alliances within the community, and that establishing personal relationships with patients by "treating patients as relatives" was effective in realizing health center objectives. This paper also reminds agency supervisors that staff training is a critical management task. Health authorities should thus introduce in a timely manner organizational management, on-job training, service reengineering, and other related corporate philosophies; facilitate staff empowerment; consolidate core professional knowledge; and construct intellectual and social capital that meets health unit needs in order to enhance health center competitiveness and public health staff knowledge.

  9. Conceptualising patient empowerment in cancer follow-up by combining theory and qualitative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna Thit; Eskildsen, Nanna Bjerg; Thomsen, Thora Grothe;


    and sensitive questionnaire for this population. Material and Methods: A theoretical model of PE was made, based on Zimmerman’s theory of psychological empowerment. Patients who were in follow-up after first line treatment for their cancer (n = 16) were interviewed about their experiences with follow......Background: Patient empowerment (PE) may be defined as the opportunity for patients to master issues important to their own health. The aim of this study was to conceptualise PE and how the concept manifests itself for cancer patients attending follow-up, in order to develop a relevant......-up. A deductive thematic analysis was conducted to contextualise the theory and find concrete manifestations of empowerment. Data were analysed to find situations that expressed empowerment or lack of empowerment. Then we analysed what abilities these situations called for and we further analysed how...

  10. Patient empowerment – a systematic review of questionnaires measuring empowerment in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Nanna Bjerg; Joergensen, Clara R; Thomsen, Thora Grothe;


    not intended to measure the concept of empowerment, but focused on patient-centred care, patient competence, self-efficacy, etc. However, they were included because part of the instrument (at least five items) was considered to measure empowerment or manifestations of empowerment. Conclusion Our study provides......-reported outcome measure for adult cancer patients. Results Database searches identified 831 records. Title and abstract screening resulted in 482 records being excluded. The remaining 349 full text articles were retrieved and assessed for eligibility. This led to the inclusion of 33 individual instruments...... an overview of the available questionnaires, which can be used by researchers and practitioners who wish to measure the concept of empowerment among cancer patients. Very few questionnaires were explicitly developed to explore empowerment, and the review brings to light a significant lack of questionnaires...

  11. The Nexus Between Health Literacy and Empowerment: A Scoping Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crondahl, Kristine; Eklund Karlsson, Leena


    The aim of this article was to explore what is known about the assumed connection between health literacy and empowerment and how this connection is portrayed in the scientific literature. If empowerment is an outcome of health literacy, what are the mechanisms behind this process? A literature...... search onducted in 2013 yielded 216 hits, of which five met the inclusion criteria, and thus were read in depth and analyzed through a narrative-review approach. The findings indicate that Health literacy might be regarded as a tool for empowerment but does not automatically lead to empowerment. Health...... literacy might be increased by health education. Crucial for empowerment is to achieve the critical level of health literacy including an ability to question and reflect on the prevailing power relations and societal conditions; increased senses of power, selfesteem, and self-efficacy; and an ability...

  12. Concept analysis of empowerment from survivor and nurse perspectives within the context of cancer survivorship. (United States)

    Jerofke, Teresa A


    The liberal usage of the concept of empowerment has led to the development of a broad and ambiguous term. In health care, empowerment is a core principle of patient-centered care that promotes patient engagement in health management. This is an analysis of the concept of empowerment within the context of cancer survivorship using both Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis and Caron and Bower's dimensional analysis. The dimensional analysis followed the evolutionary concept analysis as the perspectives of patients and nurse providers emerged in the analysis. Data sources included a sample of 249 papers from multiple disciplines covering the period 2000-2013. Empowerment is defined as power-with that is actualized through a beneficial relationship of mutual trust and respect for autonomy that develops within a dynamic and patient-centered process. The attributes, along with the antecedents and consequences, provide a foundation for future theory development of empowerment in the context of cancer survivorship. This analysis demonstrated that although nurses and survivors may have a similar definition of the concept of empowerment, the uses and assumptions of that definition may differ. Future studies should be conducted measuring the effectiveness of an intervention that uses the components of the process of empowerment from survivors' perspectives.

  13. Toward a Model of Psychological Health Empowerment: Implications for Health Care in Multicultural Communities. (United States)

    Menon, Sanjay T.


    The context for health empowerment includes individuals, health providers, and the regulatory environment. Psychological health empowerment consists of perceived control, perceived competence, and goal internalization. In multicultural communities, barriers to empowerment include locus of control, access to health care, and language and cultural…

  14. Empowerment: a goal or a means for health promotion? (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders


    Empowerment is a concept that has been much used and discussed for a number of years. However, it is not always explicitly clarified what its central meaning is. The present paper intends to clarify what empowerment means, and relate it to the goals of health promotion. The paper starts with the claim that health-related quality of life is the ultimate general goal for health promotion, and continues by briefly presenting definitions of some central concepts: "welfare", "health" and "quality of life". Several suggestions as to what empowerment is are then discussed: autonomy, freedom, knowledge, self-esteem, self-confidence, and control over health or life. One conclusion of this discussion is that empowerment can be seen as a complex goal which includes aspects of the three central concepts welfare, health and quality of life. To the extent that the empowerment goals aimed at are health-related, it is concluded that empowerment is a legitimate goal for health promotion. But empowerment is not only a goal, it can also be described as a process or as an approach. This process, or approach, in a fundamental way involves the participants in problem formulation, decision making and action, which means that the experts have to relinquish some of their control and power.

  15. Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maja Lundemark


    et inspirationspapir om empowerment som tilgang i det beskæftigelsesrettede arbejde - især til regioner og kommuner og med henblik på samarbejde mellem professionelle og inspirationspapir om empowerment som tilgang i det beskæftigelsesrettede arbejde - især til regioner og kommuner og med henblik på samarbejde mellem professionelle og borgere...

  16. [The practical applicability of empowerment in health promotion strategies]. (United States)

    de Souza, Janaina Medeiros; Tholl, Adriana Dutra; Córdova, Fernanda Peixoto; Heidemann, Ivonete Teresinha Schülter Buss; Boehs, Astrid Eggert; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves


    The scope of this study is to identify what empowerment strategies were addressed for the promotion of health in health research, characterizing them from a socio-critical and post-structuralist standpoint. It involved an Integrative Review conducted in May 2011 of the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases. The inclusion criteria were complete research articles, case reports or experience reports, published between 2002 and 2011 in Portuguese, Spanish and English. The research criteria included the key words "empowerment" and "health promotion" (DeCS/BIREME). Twenty articles, which presented strategies of individual and/or social empowerment that were characterized by a socio-critical perspective, were selected. It is considered that some activities, mainly those that included thematic discussion groups, represented a mobilization and empowerment strategy. These included theater, culture circles, community therapy, therapeutic learning workshops, home visits, university extension and social action projects. It is considered that all empowerment strategies are inherently health promotion strategies, but not all health promotion strategies effectively result in empowerment.

  17. "When We Learn Better, We Do Better": Describing Changes in Empowerment through Photovoice among Community Health Advisors in a Breast and Cervical Cancer Health Promotion Program in Mississippi and Alabama (United States)

    Mayfield-Johnson, Susan; Rachal, John R.; Butler, James, III.


    As change agents in the community, community health advisors (CHAs) are a viable solution to bridge the gap between health service delivery systems and the community. With many CHAs members of the underserved and minority populations they serve, change and empowerment experienced by CHAs should be documented. This phenomenological study describes…

  18. Patient Empowerment (United States)

    ... ONS Journals Research Medical Advisors Young Investigator Award Patient Empowerment What’s Empowerment? Patients and families have rights, ... organizations for your type of cancer. Contact Your Patient Organization The Kidney Cancer Association (KCA) serves kidney ...

  19. Patient empowerment in cancer pain management: an integrative literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boveldt, N.D. te; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Leppink, I.; Samwel, H.; Vissers, K.; Engels, Y.M.


    OBJECTIVE: More than 50% of patients with cancer experience pain. Patient empowerment has been highlighted as central to success in pain management. Up to now, no clear model for this patient group exists, yet several strategies to empower patients have been used in clinical practice. This review ex

  20. Developing e-Health Information by Empowerment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Bodil; Engberg, Axel; Barlach, Anders


    This innovative study relates patient empowerment to strategies for education and e-health information to support self-care to patients with knee surgery in a Danish university hospital outpatient clinic. Interdisciplinary teamwork and Information and Communication Technology are integral parts....... The website was evaluated for the implemented effects and factors for empowering interactions between health professionals and patients....

  1. Empowerment Education: Freire's Ideas Adapted to Health Education. (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nina; Bernstein, Edward


    This article contains three sections: (1) a literature review demonstrating that powerlessness is linked to disease and empowerment to health; (2) an exposition of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire's empowering education theory with a comparison to traditional health education; and (3) a case study of an empowering education substance abuse…

  2. 授权理论在病人健康教育中的应用进展%Progress on empowerment of empowerment theory in health education for patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪志红; 薛小玲; 邱艳芬


    介绍了授权理论的概念、理论框架、授权的实施步骤、授权教育的特点、授权的内涵及授权健康教育研究现状.%It introduced the concept and theory frame of empowerment theory, empowerment implementation steps, characteristics of empowerment education, connotation of empowerment and research status of empowerment health education.

  3. Empowerment and Health: The Theory and Practice of Community Change. (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nina


    Empowerment as social action addresses lack of control by enhancing participation in community action. An alcohol and substance abuse prevention program for New Mexico adolescents used Freire's problem posing and critical thinking philosophy and methods to empower young people to change their health behavior. (SK)

  4. The shifting landscape of health care: toward a model of health care empowerment. (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O


    In a rapidly changing world of health care information access and patients' rights, there is limited conceptual infrastructure available to understand how people approach and engage in treatment of medical conditions. The construct of health care empowerment is defined as the process and state of being engaged, informed, collaborative, committed, and tolerant of uncertainty regarding health care. I present a model in which health care empowerment is influenced by an interplay of cultural, social, and environmental factors; personal resources; and intrapersonal factors. The model offers a framework to understand patient and provider roles in facilitating health care empowerment and presents opportunities for investigation into the role of health care empowerment in multiple outcomes across populations and settings, including inquiries into the sources and consequences of health disparities.

  5. Young people and health: towards a new conceptual framework for understanding empowerment. (United States)

    Spencer, Grace


    In recent times, empowerment has become the focus of much work with young people amidst increasing concerns about their health. Empowerment is often offered as a 'solution' to such concerns, with the uncritical assumption being made that empowerment unproblematically results in positive health outcomes. While much of the health promotion literature advocates 'empowerment', it often does so without offering a clear conceptualisation of the word itself or indeed addressing the thorny theoretical tensions surrounding the concept's root word of power. In light of this omission, this article offers a more theoretically informed conceptualisation of empowerment and considers the relationship to young people's health. This article outlines a more dynamic and generative conceptualisation of empowerment than hitherto articulated in the literature, informed by Lukes' multidimensional perspective of power. Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study on empowerment and young people's health, this article develops six conceptually distinct forms of empowerment (impositional, dispositional, concessional, oppositional, normative and transformative). Data were collected from 55 young men and women aged 15-16 years through group discussions, individual interviews and observational work in a school and surrounding community settings in England. Crucially, these six new forms of empowerment capture and synthesise individual, structural and ideological elements of power that differentially, and sometimes inconsistently, shape the possibilities for young people's empowerment. Of significance is the way in which these different forms of empowerment intersect to (re)produce relations of power and may offer different possibilities for health promotion.

  6. Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of Health Care Empowerment: development and validation of the Health Care Empowerment inventory. (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O; Rose, Carol Dawson; Dilworth, Samantha E; Neilands, Torsten B


    The Health Care Empowerment Model offers direction for the investigation of patient-controlled engagement and involvement in health care. At the core of the model is the construct of Health Care Empowerment (HCE), for which there exist no validated measures. A set of 27 candidate self-report survey items was constructed to capture five hypothesized inter-related facets of HCE (informed, engaged, committed, collaborative, and tolerant of uncertainty). The full item set was administered to 644 HIV-infected persons enrolled in three ongoing research studies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a two factor solution comprising four items each on two subscales: (1) HCE: Informed, Committed, Collaborative, and Engaged HCE ICCE) and (2) HCE Tolerance of Uncertainty (HCE TU). Subscale scores were evaluated for relationships with relevant constructs measured in the three studies, including depression, provider relationships, medication adherence, and HIV-1 viral load. Findings suggest the utility of this 8-item Health Care Empowerment Inventory (HCEI) in efforts to measure, understand, and track changes in the ways in which individuals engage in health care.

  7. [The application in public health nursing of the employee empowerment model and relevant considerations]. (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun; Yen, Wan-Chuan; Lu, Su-Ying


    Empowerment, rooted in the black civil rights and other civic movements of the 1960s, has greatly impacted thought and theories on health promotion activities, management strategies, and educational reform. Public health nurses are vital facilitators to the introduction and implementation of the empowerment concept in the health care field. Employee empowerment, based on the concept of empowerment, comprises the two domains of ability and power, which may be assessed through psychological and organizational empowerment. This article illustrates the employee empowerment model, the combination of cognitive empowerment model, and its application in public health nursing. The empowering process includes confirming feelings of powerlessness during the dialogue phase; empowerment education and organizational dialogue during the development phase; and collective action for goal-setting during the action phase. This paper also notes issues that should be considered related to model implementation, including new technology of old paradigm, the risk for more disempowered status, and an appropriate methodology for research paradigms. The employee empowerment model presented in this paper may be used as a guide to design empowerment education curricula for public health nurses.

  8. E-health applications and services for patient empowerment: Directions for best practices in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, L.L.; Henkemans, O.B.; Otten, W.; Rövekamp, T.A.J.M.; Dumay, A.C.M.


    Objective: E-health may enable the empowerment process for patients, particularly the chronically ill. However, e-health is not always designed with the requirements of patient empowerment in mind. Drawing on evidence-based e-health studies, we propose directions for best practices to develop e-heal

  9. E-health Applications and Services for Patient Empowerment: Directions for Best Practices in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, L.L.; Blanson Henkemans, O.; Otten, W.; Rövekamp, T.A.J.M.; Dumay, A.C.M.


    Objective: E-health may enable the empowerment process for patients, particularly the chronically ill. However, e-health is not always designed with the requirements of patient empowerment in mind. Drawing on evidence-based e-health studies, we propose directions for best practices to develop e-heal

  10. The Women's Health Care Empowerment Model as a Catalyst for Change in Developing Countries. (United States)

    Mitroi, Lavinia R; Sahak, Medina; Sherzai, Ayesha Z; Sherzai, Dean


    Women's empowerment has been attempted through a number of different fields including the realms of politics, finance, and education, yet none of these domains are as promising as health care. Here we review preliminary work in this domain and introduce a model for women's empowerment through involvement in health care, titled the "women's health care empowerment model." Principles upon which our model is built include: acknowledging the appropriate definition of empowerment within the cultural context, creating a women's network for communication, integrating local culture and tradition into training women, and increasing the capability of women to care for their children and other women.

  11. Australian health promotion practitioners' perceptions on evaluation of empowerment and participation. (United States)

    Brandstetter, Susanne; McCool, Megan; Wise, Marilyn; Loss, Julika


    Although participation and empowerment are hallmarks of the WHO vision of health promotion, it is acknowledged that they are difficult to evaluate. Devising adequate study designs, indicators and methods for the assessment of participation and empowerment should consider the experiences, concerns and constraints of health promotion practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate health promotion practitioners' perspectives on general and methodological aspects of evaluation of empowerment and participation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 experienced practitioners in community-based health promotion in New South Wales, Australia. The interviews covered benefits of and barriers to the evaluation of participation and empowerment, key indicators and methodological aspects. Interview transcripts were examined using thematic content analysis. The idea of evaluating empowerment and participation is supported by health promotion practitioners. Including indicators of empowerment and participation in the evaluation could also emphasise-to practitioners and citizens alike-the value of involving and enabling community members. The interviews highlighted the importance of a receptive environment for evaluation of empowerment and participation to take root. The resistance of health authorities towards empowerment indicators was seen as a challenge for funding evaluations. Community members should be included in the evaluation process, although interviewees found it difficult to do so in a representative way and empowering approach. Qualitative methods might capture best whether empowerment and participation have occurred in a programme. The positive experiences that the interviewees made with innovative qualitative methods encourage further investment in developing new research designs.

  12. Religion, spirituality, and cancer: the question of individual empowerment. (United States)

    Vonarx, Nicolas; Hyppolite, Shelley-Rose


    It has often been noted that people with a severe illness endeavor to deepen their religious and spiritual practice and knowledge. It is generally accepted that spiritual and religious factors help sick people confront their suffering. The authors conducted a qualitative research on the role of religious and spiritual practices and knowledge among 10 cancer patients in Québec, Canada. Individual interviews focused on their illness experience confirmed that religion and spirituality can be present and contribute to coping when life is threatened. More precisely, the analyses of the place and use of these resources during the patient's illness showed that these resources contributed to an individual empowerment process that was undertaken in response to a biographic and existential disruption induced by the illness diagnosis. The sick people took advantage of religious and spiritual content in their quest for meaning and a cure, progressing from a stage of despair and powerlessness to a stage of hope, a critical analysis of the disease, and a better management and control of it and its evolution. This article describes how people suffering from cancer use and participate in religious and spiritual content. It demonstrates the contribution of this content to an individual empowerment process. The use of religion and spirituality constitutes a quest for self-mastery, an acquiring of power and control. We understand that religious and spiritual phenomena do not always prevent people from fighting against their suffering, limit their freedom, or systematically reduce people's viewpoints and worldviews.

  13. Empowerment in the field of health promotion: recognizing challenges in working toward equity. (United States)

    Berry, Nicole S; Murphy, Jill; Coser, Larissa


    Over the last 25 years, the language of empowerment has been woven into the guiding missions and descriptions of institutions, funding and projects globally. Although theoretical understandings of empowerment within the domain of health promotion remain contentious, we have little idea of how a shift toward an empowerment agenda has affected the daily work of those in the field of health promotion. A systematic examination of the implementation of the empowerment agenda is important as it can help us understand how redistributive agendas are received within the multiple institutional contexts in which health promotion work is carried out. The goal of this study, therefore, was to try to understand the empowerment agenda within the context of everyday health promotion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with health promoters from a variety of geographical regions, institutional backgrounds, and job capacities. Essentially we found that empowerment remains conceptually dear to health promoters' understanding of their work, yet at the same time, mainstreaming empowerment is at odds with central trends and initiatives that govern this work. We argue that many of the stumbling blocks that have hindered this specific agenda are actually central stumbling blocks for the wider field of health promotion. We examine some of the barriers to implementing transformational change. Overcoming the primary limitations uncovered in this exploration of empowerment is actually crucial to progressive work in health promotion in general, particularly work that would seek to lessen inequities.

  14. Factors of collective psychological empowerment of active users in the online health community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovčič Andraž


    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the collective psychological empowerment of users of online health communities, which has been often overlooked in literature. Drawing on the theories of empowerment in the context of community psychology, it explores the factors - that are also an important characteristic of online health communities - that are associated with the collective psychological empowerment of online health community users.

  15. A framework linking community empowerment and health equity: it is a matter of CHOICE. (United States)

    Rifkin, Susan B


    This paper presents a framework to explore the relationship between health equity and community empowerment. It traces the progression of the concept of participation to the present term of empowerment and the links among empowerment, equity, and health outcomes. It argues that the relationship can best be described by using the acronym CHOICE (Capacity-building, Human rights, Organizational sustainability, Institutional accountability, Contribution, and Enabling environment). Based on the concept of development as freedom put forward by Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen, the paper describes how each factor illustrates the relationship between equity and empowerment in positive health outcomes, giving appropriate examples. In conclusion, it is suggested that these factors might form the basis of a tool to assess the relationship between equity and empowerment and its impact on health outcomes.

  16. Women's empowerment and its differential impact on health in low-income communities in Mumbai, India. (United States)

    Moonzwe Davis, Lwendo; Schensul, Stephen L; Schensul, Jean J; Verma, Ravi K; Nastasi, Bonnie K; Singh, Rajendra


    This paper examines the relationship of empowerment to women's self-reported general health status and women's self-reported health during pregnancy in low-income communities in Mumbai. The data on which this paper is based were collected in three study communities located in a marginalised area of Mumbai. We draw on two data sources: in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 66 married women and a survey sample of 260 married women. Our analysis shows that empowerment functions differently in relation to women's reproductive status. Non-pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment experience greater general health problems, while pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment are less likely to experience pregnancy-related health problems. We explain this non-intuitive finding and suggest that a globally defined empowerment measure for women may be less useful that one that is contextually and situationally defined.

  17. Assessing psychological health and empowerment in women: the Personal Progress Scale Revised. (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M; Worell, Judith; Chandler, Redonna K


    Empowerment is a primary outcome of many health interventions with women. Typical outcome measures, however focus exclusively on specific symptoms, neglecting the clinically important attitudes and behaviors associated with increased empowerment and well-being. Empowerment is conceptualized as enabling women to access skills and resources to cope more effectively with current as well as future stress and trauma. This study investigated a new measure of personal empowerment in women, the Personal Progress Scale-Revised (PPS-R). Results suggest that the PPS-R is a promising measure of empowerment in women, demonstrating excellent reliability and validity in diverse sample of women. Additionally, the PPS-R demonstrated preliminary utility with a subgroup of abused women, a vulnerable group of women for whom empowerment is a variable of high importance.

  18. Toward the assessment of psychological empowerment in health promotion: initial tests of validity and reliability. (United States)

    Rissel, C; Perry, C; Finnegan, J


    Because of the importance of empowerment in health promotion, the measurement of empowerment is a priority for health promotion research. The present study sought to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess psychological empowerment and to resolve the theoretical question of whether psychological empowerment is a topic-specific or general construct. University of Minnesota employees (n = 160) completed two different versions of empowerment questionnaires. One of the questionnaires measured general empowerment; the other was specific to alcohol use prevention. Reasonable reliability was demonstrated in a previously developed general empowerment instrument (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.84) and for an alcohol-specific instrument (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.78). Construct validity for the alcohol-specific instrument was demonstrated by appropriate significant correlations between subscales and overall scores for both instruments. Predictive validity tests partially supported the concept that psychological empowerment is topic-specific, although further testing with a more representative population may be needed to resolve this question. The results suggest that the alcohol-specific psychological empowerment instrument could be used in the evaluation of community alcohol abuse prevention programmes.

  19. Measurement of staff empowerment within health service organizations. (United States)

    Irvine, D; Leatt, P; Evans, M G; Baker, R G


    A measure of empowerment was developed and its psychometric properties evaluated. Employees (n = 52) of two hospitals participated in semistructured interviews and a pilot test of the research instrument. A second study was undertaken with professional, support, and administrative staff (n = 405) of four community hospitals. Psychometric evaluation included factor analysis, reliability estimation, and validity assessment. Subjects responded to questionnaires measuring empowerment, leadership behavior, organizational citizenship behavior and job behaviors related to quality improvement. Factor analysis indicated three dimensions of empowerment: behavioral, verbal, and outcome empowerment. Coefficient alphas ranged from .83 to .87. The three dimensions were positively related to leadership behavior that encouraged self-leadership and negatively related to directive leadership. The three dimensions discriminated between the empowerment level of managers compared to that of nonmanagement staff. Empowerment predicted organizational citizenship behavior and job behaviors related to quality improvement.

  20. [Correlation between social status, empowerment processes and the development of psychological health]. (United States)

    Sperlich, S


    The aim of this paper is to deepen our knowledge about empirical evidence of empowerment on the basis of follow-up data from mother-child rehabilitation centres. The study focusses on three questions: i) to what extent can psychological health in different socioeconomic groups be improved by the intervention?, ii) Is there an impact of social position on the success of empowerment and iii) Is there any relevance of empowerment for sustainable improvement of psychological health? The study is based on data from 6 095 patients of 39 mother-child rehabilitation centres in Germany, collected up to one year after intervention. Empowerment was assessed by two self-defined scales, measuring positive changes i) in living circumstances, such as partnership or household ('Verhältnis-Empowerment') and ii) in health-related behaviours and competencies, such as better coping with problems and higher health awareness ('Verhaltens-Empowerment'). Health status was assessed by psychological symptoms and measured by SCL-K-9, a short form of the SCL-90-R. The socioeconomic position was determined by cluster analysis, the influence of social position and empowerment for psychological health was computed by analysis of regression. Before intervention mothers from the lower class showed higher degrees of psychological symptoms. After intervention they reached higher short-term effects, but six months later psychological symptoms increased again. In particular improvement of health-related behaviours and competencies was associated with better psychological health. The highest impact on health was found among mothers from the middle and lower class. These mothers, however, showed less success in optimising health-related behaviours and competencies. Twelve months after treatment the health-related impact of empowerment decreased. The theoretical evidence of empowerment could be empirically confirmed. However, decreasing health effects of empowerment after twelve months show that

  1. Intervention to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. (United States)

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B


    As arduous psychological reactions and loss of control almost inevitably represent a challenge for women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, a participatory intervention study was initiated that aimed to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were invited to participate. The intervention encompassed three professionally led self-help groups running sequentially, each group for approximately 4 months. Each group of five to seven participants met weekly. Several empowerment strategies were initiated by two professional facilitators, aiming to promote empowerment processes and to manage stress. The participants experienced group participation as both empowering and as a valuable source of support, and although the group processes developed very differently, a strong sense of fellowship developed in all three groups. The discussion highlights the findings in relation to several theoretical perspectives including social capital, social cohesion, risky agreements, helper-therapy and power/empowerment. We conclude that empowerment strategies that are implemented in professionally led breast cancer self-help groups can contribute to participant empowerment and function as an important source of re-discovery and confirmation of the participants' strengths and abilities.

  2. Mutuality, empowerment and the health-wealth model: the Scottish context. (United States)

    Howieson, Brian


    This paper will offer an alternative paradigm to healthcare delivery by introducing the concept of mutuality and empowerment into the existing health-wealth model. The backdrop is provided by Better Health, Better Care (Scottish Government 2007), Section 1 of which is entitled 'Towards a Mutual NHS'. In detail, the paper will: revisit what is meant by mutuality; advance the meaning of the 'public interest'; explore empowerment and community empowerment and its relationship to health; and introduce a model, which tries to link these concepts and terms together. It is hoped that this analysis will help researchers and practitioners alike further appreciate the important concept of mutuality and empowerment into the existing health-wealth model.

  3. The ethics of Community Empowerment: tensions in health promotion theory and practice. (United States)

    Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Louise, Jennie


    The concepts of community participation, empowerment and capacity building are central tenets of contemporary health promotion theory. They reflect the view that health and well-being are shaped by a wide range of social, economic, political and organisational forces that are outside the control of individuals.Despite its theoretical appeal, the practice of Community Empowerment is ethically contentious and can produce ethical dilemmas for health promotion practitioners. In this paper we relate these dilemmas to theoretical considerations, and argue that the empowerment of communities should be understood as a means rather than an end . This leads us to argue for the adoption of what we call a Reflective Equilibrium Community Empowerment approach, which draws on both "top-down" and "bottom-up" methods to help resolve the ethical tensions in health promotion programmes.

  4. Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP): effects of a tailored education and coaching intervention on pain and impairment. (United States)

    Kravitz, Richard L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Grennan, Tim; Kalauokalani, Donna; Street, Richard L; Slee, Christina K; Wun, Ted; Oliver, Jennifer Wright; Lorig, Kate; Franks, Peter


    We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a lay-administered tailored education and coaching (TEC) intervention (aimed at reducing pain misconceptions and enhancing self-efficacy for communicating with physicians) on cancer pain severity, pain-related impairment, and quality of life. Cancer patients with baseline "worst pain" of ≥4 on a 0-10 scale or at least moderate functional impairment due to pain were randomly assigned to TEC or enhanced usual care (EUC) during a telephone interview conducted in advance of a planned oncology office visit (265 patients randomized to TEC or EUC; 258 completed at least one follow-up). Patients completed questionnaires before and after the visit and were interviewed by telephone at 2, 6, and 12 weeks. Mixed effects regressions were used to evaluate the intervention adjusting for patient, practice, and site characteristics. Compared to EUC, TEC was associated with increased pain communication self-efficacy after the intervention (Ppain misconceptions. At 2 weeks, assignment to TEC was associated with improvement in pain-related impairment (-0.25 points on a 5-point scale, 95% confidence interval -0.43 to -0.06, P=.01) but not in pain severity (-0.21 points on an 11-point scale, -0.60 to 0.17, P=.27). The improvement in pain-related impairment was not sustained at 6 and 12 weeks. There were no significant intervention by subgroup interactions (P>.10). We conclude that TEC, compared with EUC, resulted in improved pain communication self-efficacy and temporary improvement in pain-related impairment, but no improvement in pain severity.

  5. Development of a Scale to Measure the Empowerment of Youth Consumers of Mental Health Services (United States)

    Walker, Janet S.; Thorne, Elizabeth K.; Powers, Laurie E.; Gaonkar, Rujuta


    Within the field of children's mental health, there is increasing emphasis on the idea that young people who experience mental health difficulties should be encouraged to take an active role in shaping not only their own treatment but also mental health services and systems. The terms "empowerment" and, to a lesser extent, "self-efficacy" have…

  6. Discussing Women's Reproductive Health, Religion, Roles and Rights: Achieving Women's Empowerment. (United States)

    Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix de


    A health education program in Brazil trained 26 women as community health educators. Only four used their roles to foster social change. Discussing women's reproductive health in the context of religion and social values contributed to successful training; economic and political empowerment was hampered by perpetuation of traditional role…

  7. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela. (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac


    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women's breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women's breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela.

  8. Cancer and Cancer Prevention and Control Programs in the Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service. (United States)

    Welty, Thomas K.


    Describes cancer control activities by the Indian Health Service in North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Nebraska, including risk factor assessment and cancer screening using a modified Health Risk Appraisal; interventions to reduce smoking; community empowerment; development of health education materials; and clinical preventive services. (SV)

  9. Equity, empowerment and choice: from theory to practice in public health. (United States)

    Ratna, Jalpa; Rifkin, Susanb


    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how a framework that links equity and empowerment to improved health outcomes for those who live in poverty can be a useful tool for planning and managing health programmes. Using the work of Amartya Sen, Susan Rifkin has developed a framework described in the acronym CHOICE. The article applies the framework to two case studies from Kenya seeking to reduce the disease burdens of malaria and HIV/AIDS. The article examines how the process of pursuing equity and empowerment either supports the positive health outcomes identified as objectives and/or strengthens these outcomes.

  10. Intervention to Enhance Empowerment in Breast Cancer Self-Help Groups


    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B.


    As arduous psychological reactions and loss of control almost inevitably represent a challenge for women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, a participatory intervention study was initiated that aimed to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were invited to participate. The intervention encompassed three professionally led self-help groups running sequentially, each group for approximately four months. Each group of...

  11. 'Take control or lean back?' : barriers to practicing empowerment in health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Gaby


    Over the last few decades health promotion has increasingly focused on the empowerment of deprived communities and is shifting from a 'top-down' approach to a participatory practice, aimed at helping people to gain control over their lives and health. Previous research shows that this shift is not w

  12. Promoting the health of Aboriginal Australians through empowerment: eliciting the components of the family well-being empowerment and leadership programme. (United States)

    Laliberté, Arlene; Haswell, Melissa; Tsey, Komla


    Most policies addressing Aboriginal health in Australia promote initiatives that are based on empowerment principles. Articulated programme components are necessary to support personal and group empowerment and to assist individuals in gaining the sense of control and purposefulness needed to exert their political and personal power in the face of the severe stress and powerlessness faced by the Australian Aboriginal people. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of the mechanisms underpinning a 'bottom-up' empowerment initiative, the Family well-being empowerment and leadership programme (FWB), and to analyze how the programme supports empowerment. The five stages of FWB were described and the validity of this model was assessed through the combination of participatory observation, documentation analysis, literature review, semi-structured interviews and iterative feedback with different analytical perspectives. Our study results articulated four distinct programme components: the setting plus inter-relational, educational and experiential actions. FWB is an example of the promotion of both outcome and process pathways towards empowerment. Potential applications of the programme are discussed.

  13. Behavior Change or Empowerment: On the Ethics of Health-Promotion Goals. (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders


    One important ethical issue for health promotion and public health work is to determine what the goals for these practices should be. This paper will try to clarify what some of these goals are thought to be, and what they ought to be. It will specifically discuss two different approaches to health promotion, such as, behavior change and empowerment. The general aim of this paper is, thus, to compare the behavior-change approach and the empowerment approach, concerning their immediate (instrumental) goals or aims, and to morally evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these two goal models, in relation to the ultimate goal of health promotion. The investigation shows that the behavior-change approach has several moral problems. First of all, it is overly paternalistic and often disregards the individual's or group's own perception of what is important-something that also increases the risk of failed interventions. Furthermore, it risks leading to 'victim blaming' and stigmatization, and to increased inequalities in health, and it puts focus on the 'wrong' problems, i.e., behavior instead of the 'causes of the causes'. It is thereafter shown that the empowerment approach does not have any of these problems. Finally, some specific problems for the empowerment approach are discussed and resolved, such as, the idea that empowering some groups might lead to power over others, the objection that the focus is not primarily on health (which it should be), and the fact that empowered people might choose to live lives that risk reducing their health.

  14. The influence of women's empowerment on maternal health care utilization: evidence from Albania. (United States)

    Sado, Lantona; Spaho, Alma; Hotchkiss, David R


    Women in Albania receive antenatal care and postnatal care at lower levels than in other countries in Europe. Moreover, there are large socio-economic and regional disparities in maternal health care use. Previous research in low- and middle-income countries has found that women's status within the household can be a powerful force for improving the health, longevity, and mental and physical capacity of mothers and the well-being of children, but there is very little research on this issue in the Balkans. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of women's empowerment within the household on antenatal and postnatal care utilization in Albania. The research questions are explored through the use of bivariate and multivariate analyses based on nationally representative data from the 2008-09 Albania Demographic and Health Survey. The linkages between women's empowerment and maternal health care utilization are analyzed using two types of indicators of women's empowerment: decision making power and attitudes toward domestic violence. The outcome variables are indicators of the utilization of antenatal care and postnatal care. The findings suggest that use of maternal health care services is influenced by women's roles in decision-making and the attitudes of women towards domestic violence, after controlling for a number of socio-economic and demographic factors which are organized at individual, household, and community level. The study results suggest that policy actions that increase women's empowerment at home could be effective in helping assure good maternal health.

  15. Diabetes empowerment related to Pender's Health Promotion Model: a meta-synthesis. (United States)

    Ho, Agnes Yin Kwan; Berggren, Ingela; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth


    Diabetes self-management is a challenge for both clients and health-care professionals. Empowerment plays a vital role in helping clients to achieve successful self-management. This study adopted a meta-ethnographic approach. Nine qualitative studies were synthesized in order to contribute to a deeper understanding of what clients perceive as being important in an effective empowerment strategy for diabetes self-management. Four central metaphors that influenced empowerment were identified: trust in nurses' competence and awareness, striving for control, a desire to share experiences, and nurses' attitudes and ability to personalize. The lines-of-argument synthesis suggested the need for an evaluation system to appraise clients' diabetes knowledge, health beliefs, and negative emotions, as well as the outcome of interventions. Based on Pender's Health Promotion Model, this study emphasizes the fact that health-care professionals need to understand and address modifiable behavior-specific variables. The study suggests that an effective empowerment strategy would be to use activity-related affect, as well as interpersonal and situational influences, as a means of facilitating and enhancing clients' health-promoting behaviors.

  16. Subject to empowerment: the constitution of power in an educational program for health professionals. (United States)

    Juritzen, Truls I; Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin


    Empowerment and user participation represents an ideal of power with a strong position in the health sector. In this article we use text analysis to investigate notions of power in a program plan for health workers focusing on empowerment. Issues addressed include: How are relationships of power between users and helpers described in the program plan? Which notions of user participation are embedded in the plan? The analysis is based on Foucault's idea that power which is made subject to attempts of redistribution will re-emerge in other forms. How this happens, and with what consequences, is our analytical concern. The analysis is contrasted with 'snapshots' from everyday life in a nursing home. The program plan communicates empowerment as a democracy-building instrument that the users need. It is a tool for providing expert assistance to the user's self-help. User participation is made into a tool which is external to the user him-/herself. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the plan's image of empowerment presupposes an 'élite user' able to articulate personal needs and desires. This is not very applicable to the most vulnerable user groups, who thereby may end up in an even weaker position. By way of conclusion, we argue that an exchange of undesirable dominating paternalism for a desirable empowerment will not abolish power, but may result in more covert and subtle forms of power that are less open to criticism. The paper offers insights that will facilitate reflections on the premises for practising empowerment-oriented health care.

  17. The empowerment and quality health value propositions of e-health. (United States)

    Asoh, Derek A; Rivers, Patrick A


    E-health, as well as its value and benefits, has been characterized as a concept defined in various ways depending on intended audience and use. Attempts to define, characterize and appreciate e-health inadvertently portray it as something out of main stream academia; thus, undermining the relevance and importance of the transformation capabilities of e-health on the practice of health care from the individual and organizational perspectives. In order to contribute towards an understanding and appreciation of e-health as a main stream concept, we propose the use of existing models, theories and principles in support of e-health. Specifically, the empowerment theory and the principles of quality health will be used to discuss the value proposition of e-health. An understanding of the e-health value proposition is important, because it helps organizations to develop a shared vision and context, which in turn keeps organizations focused and realistic as they expend resources and adopt e-health. It also helps e-health consumers understand what is possible and impossible, and how they can best participate in e-health for the betterment of their health and health care.

  18. The Influence of Family Empowerment on the Health Status of Low Birth Weight Infant in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Rustina


    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW infant is susceptible to health problems since the infant born, during in the hospital and continue after discharge. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of family empowerment on the health status of LBW infant. Action research using qualitative and quantitative method was used in this study. Qualitative approach was used to identify the experience of mothers of LBW infants as a data based for intervention development, and quantitative approach was used to evaluate the influence of family empowerment program on the health status of LBW infants. There were 7 participants, 20 mothers and their infants in the intervention group and 27 in the control group involved in this study. The study showed that family empowerment was effective in improving the immunization status and follow- up care attendance, reducing the frequency of acute care visits, increasing mothers' knowledge and skill in providing care. In conclusion, mothers need information on providing a proper care for LBW, and family empowerment can significantly improve maternal knowledge and health status of LBW infants.

  19. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1, universal primary education (MDG 2, and women

  20. Barriers of Health News Producers’ Empowerment: A Qualitative Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashoorkhani


    Full Text Available Background: Studies show that raising news producers’ knowledge and skills are influential and necessary for promoting the quality of health news. This study aimed to investigate the barriers to implementing empowerment programs for news producers and to identify their respective solutions. Methods: In this qualitative content analysis the opinion of 14 journalists, one translator, 10 editors or editors-in-chief of health news agencies were gathered through 12 in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions. Purposive sampling was done and interviews continued up to the point of saturation. Data were analyzed with Open Code software. Results: The barriers to the implementation of empowerment programs were identified as: a individual factors, b deficiency of certain facilitators, and c organizational and macro policymakings. Various solutions were suggested for the barriers respectively. Conclusion: The implementation of empowerment programs for news producers requires a system approach toward its determinant factors. This will be more likely if measures at other concerned levels are also taken. Creating incentives on behalf of the news-producing organizations can also contribute to this end and create a suitable context for news producers. Training and empowerment alone will not be sufficient.

  1. The Empowerment of Patients with Mental Conditions and Addictions through e-Health. (United States)

    Nakos, Giorgos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna; Mantas, John


    The aim of the current paper is the imparting of useful information to both patients and people in general regarding the development of mental conditions based on drug addictions, through e-health. It will provide all related information in order to achieve the empowerment of the selected sample regarding their conditions in terms of conceptualizing their health status. The general part is consisting of an overview on patient empowerment and e-health. The special part refers to the details of developing and presenting the above mentioned website. The information presented in the web site is addressing the general population and not only patients suffering a mental condition or addiction. The website contains the related articles and information obtained from the related bibliographical search. The main goal of the website is to impart concise information on the related issues.

  2. Correlation between Social Determinants of Health and Women’s Empowerment in Reproductive Decision-Making among Iranian Women (United States)

    Kiani, Zahra; Simbar, Masuomeh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Zayeri, Farid


    Background and Objectives: Women empowerment is one of millennium development goals which is effective on fertility, population’s stability and wellbeing. The influence of social determinants of health (SDH) on women empowerment is documented, however the correlation between SDH and women’s empowerment in fertility has not been figured out yet. This study was conducted to assess correlation between social determinants of health and women’s empowerment in reproductive decisions. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive-correlation study on 400 women who attended health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Tehran-Iran. Four hundred women were recruited using multistage cluster sampling method. The tools for data collection were 6 questionnaires including; 1) socio-demographic characteristics 2) women’s empowerment in reproductive decision-making, 3) perceived social support, 4) self-esteem, 5) marital satisfaction, 6) access to health services. Data were analyzed by SPSS-17 and using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests. Results: Results showed 82.54 ± 14.00 (Mean±SD) of total score 152 of women’s empowerment in reproductive decision making. All structural and intermediate variables were correlated with women’s empowerment in reproductive decisions. The highest correlations were demonstrated between education (among structural determinants; r= 0.44, PSelf-esteem (among intermediate determinants; r= 0.34, P< 0.001) with women’s empowerment in fertility decision making. Conclusion: Social determinants of health have a significant correlation with women’s empowerment in reproductive decision-making. PMID:27157184

  3. Evaluation of empowerment processes in a workplace health promotion intervention based on learning in Sweden. (United States)

    Arneson, Hanna; Ekberg, Kerstin


    The aim of this study was to evaluate a theory-based method for workplace health promotion (WHP) with regard to possible facilitation of empowerment processes. The intervention tool was the pedagogic method known as problem-based learning (PBL). The aim of the intervention was to promote empowerment and health among the employees. The intervention was implemented in three organizations within the public sector in Sweden, in a bottom-up approach. All employees, including management, in each organization, were offered the opportunity to participate (n = 113) and 87% (n = 97) participated. The intervention was implemented in 13 groups of six to eight participants who met once a week over a period of 4 months. The predetermined overall goal of the intervention was to promote employee health within the organizational setting. A facilitator in each group and a group-specific mutual agreement guided the intervention, as did the problem solving process. The participants set goals and developed strategies to reach their goals between the meetings. Thirty informants were interviewed in seven focus groups after the intervention about the intervention method and the process, following a semi-structured theme guide. The phenomenographic analysis resulted in six descriptive categories: reflection, awareness and insight, self-direction and self-management, group coherence, social support and actions. The results correspond to established theories of components of empowerment processes. The method initiated processes of change at organizational, workplace and individual levels as the participants examined their work situation, determined problems and initiated solutions. Social support and group coherence were expressed as essential in order to transform challenging strategies into action and goal realization. The findings indicate that systematic improvements of social support and group coherence among employees ought to be facilitated by the organization as a health

  4. A critical perspective of health empowerment: the breakdown of theory-to-practice in one Hispanic subculture. (United States)

    Reybold, L Earle; Polacek, Georgia N L Johnston


    Health continues to be a distinct advantage for the educated, correlating to differential access to preventive services and comprehensive healthcare. From a critical perspective, effective health education encourages lifelong health through personal, social, and political empowerment. Without attention to cultural issues that impact program planning, though, an ideology of health empowerment is insufficient to challenge inequities. We offer our experience of the breakdown of theory-to-practice, believing that critique of failure is an essential feature of reflective practice and improved educational programming. We challenge health educators to be constantly mindful of politics of partnerships that span diverse experiences and expectations.

  5. Young People's Perspectives on Health: Empowerment, or Risk? (United States)

    Spencer, Grace


    Purpose: Research to date has identified young people's perspectives on a number of health-related topics such as smoking, alcohol, sexual health, physical activity and healthy eating. Whilst this body of research draws important attention towards young people's views on topical health concerns, it arguably remains located within a pre-defined…

  6. Health literacy and community empowerment: it is more than just reading, writing and counting. (United States)

    Estacio, Emee Vida


    The concept of health literacy is evolving. The re-emergence of Freireian-inspired health literacy projects moves the conceptualisation of health literacy from merely the ability to apply functional literacy skills in a health-care context to a wider ability to exert control over the determinants of health. This article presents an example of a community-based project that adopts an empowerment education model in health literacy. Based within a small indigenous community in the Philippines, participants were engaged in critical reflection to gain a better understanding of how health is conceptualised within their socio-economic and political environment and its implications for practice, power relations and subjective experiences. The article concludes with the assertion that although developing health literacy skills is important, we must never lose sight of unbalanced power relations and unfair structures that hinder positive social change.

  7. Adopting customers' empowerment and social networks to encourage participations in e-health services. (United States)

    Anshari, Muhammad; Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Low, Patrick Kim Cheng; Wint, Zaw; Younis, Mustafa Z


    The aim of this article is to present an e-health model that embeds empowerment and social network intervention that may extend the role of customers in health care settings. A 25-item Likert-type survey instrument was specifically developed for this study and administered to a sample of 108 participants in Indonesia from October to November 2012. The data were analyzed to provide ideas on how to move forward with the e-health initiative as a means to improve e-health services. The survey revealed that there is a high demand for customers' empowerment and involvement in social networks to improve their health literacy and customer satisfaction. Regardless of the limitations of the study, the participants have responded with great support for the abilities of the prototype systems drawn from the survey. The survey results were used as requirements to develop a system prototype that incorporates the expectations of the people. The prototype (namely Clinic 2.0) was derived from the model and confirmed from the survey. Participants were selected to use the system for three months, after which we measured its impact towards their health literacy and customer satisfaction. The results show that the system intervention through Clinic 2.0 leads to a high level of customer satisfaction and health literacy.

  8. Privatizing health care in times of new public management: Investigating the role of psychological empowerment using cluster analysis. (United States)

    Hansen, Niklas; Baraldi, Stephan; Berntson, Erik; Andersson, Håkan


    Although privatization within health care is usually justified using arguments based on efficiency and productivity, the empirical investigations underpinning such arguments are few and ambiguous in their results. Presenting a new theoretical and analytical approach to this research field, we argue that psychological empowerment, reflecting individuals' intrinsic change motivation state, is a crucial prerequisite for the transformation of a nonprofit health care organization to a for-profit one. The general aims of this study were to explore empowerment cognitions during a privatization, to relate these to a selection of key work-related outcome variables, and to identify the effects of privatization in terms of individual level changes in empowerment after privatization. A sample of health care workers (n = 210) provided survey longitudinal data that were analyzed using cluster analysis. Eight clusters were identified at both pre- and postprivatization with each cluster mirroring specific empowerment patterns: Empowered, In Control, Quasi-Empowered, Competent/Normed, Reference, Underused, Misfit, and Powerless. The clusters discriminated on positive work attitudes, mental health complaints, and turnover intentions. The analysis also revealed the complexity of privatization in that a homogenization as well as a differentiation tendency was observed, thereby implicating both socio-structural equality and inequality effects. The results highlighted the relevance of allocating importance to health care workers' psychological empowerment during the privatization process, and of viewing such organizational transformations not as simple shifts in the state of affairs, but as nonlinear processes involving dynamic changes in individual perceptions over time.

  9. Professional Empowerment and Teaching Sociology to Health Care Professionals. (United States)

    Iphofen, Ron; Poland, Fiona


    Provides an overview of the design, implementation, and evaluation of sociology courses in health-care-professional education in England. Discusses the policy changes that led to the inclusion of these courses into medical, nursing, midwifery, and radiography curricula. Examines pedagogical and logistical issues as well as course content. (MJP)

  10. Cyprus Health Education Curriculum from "Victim Blaming to Empowerment" (United States)

    Ioannou, Soula; Kouta, Christiana; Andreou, Angeliki


    Purpose: Health promotion can fall into a victim blaming approach and put social pressure on particular students who could be marginalized due to their personal, economical, cultural, social or ethnic characteristics, for example, students who are obese, drug users or HIV carriers. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss ways in which…

  11. Health empowerment through activity trackers: An empirical smart wristband study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Elizabeth C.; Verhagen, Tibert; Noordzij, Matthijs L.


    The increasing popularity of activity trackers has shown a remarkable shift in human computer interaction; individuals seem willing to wear a device that constantly tracks health related metrics such as movement, exercise, sleep, and calorie burn. Using the insights derived from their activity track

  12. Early Empowerment Strategies Boost Self-Efficacy to Improve Cardiovascular Health Behaviors (United States)

    Kashani, Mariam; Eliasson, Arn H; Walizer, Elaine M; Fuller, Clarie E; Engler, Renata J; Villines, Todd C; Vernalis, Marina N


    Background: Self-efficacy, defined as confidence in the ability to carry out behavior to achieve a desired goal, is considered to be a prerequisite for behavior change. Self-efficacy correlates with cardiovascular health although optimal timing to incorporate self-efficacy strategies is not well established. We sought to study the effect of an empowerment approach implemented in the introductory phase of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular health outcomes. Design: Prospective intervention cohort study. Methods: Patients in the Integrative Cardiac Health Project Registry, a prospective lifestyle change program for the prevention of cardiovascular disease were analyzed for behavioral changes by survey, at baseline and one year, in the domains of nutrition, exercise, stress management and sleep. Self-efficacy questionnaires were administered at baseline and after the empowerment intervention, at 8 weeks. Results: Of 119 consecutive registry completers, 60 comprised a high self-efficacy group (scoring at or above the median of 36 points) and 59 the low self-efficacy group (scoring below median). Self-efficacy scores increased irrespective of baseline self-efficacy but the largest gains in self-efficacy occurred in patients who ranked in the lower half for self-efficacy at baseline. This lower self-efficacy group demonstrated behavioral gains that erased differences between the high and low self-efficacy groups. Conclusions: A boost to self-efficacy early in a lifestyle intervention program produces significant improvements in behavioral outcomes. Employing empowerment in an early phase may be a critical strategy to improve self-efficacy and lower risk in individuals vulnerable to cardiovascular disease. PMID:27157185

  13. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health of Korean older adults with hypertension: effect of an empowerment intervention. (United States)

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Fritschi, Cynthia; Kim, Mi Ja


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week empowerment intervention on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Using a quasi-experimental design, older adults participated in either an experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 21). The experimental group received an empowerment intervention including lifestyle modification education, group discussion, and exercise training for 8 weeks, and the control group received standard hypertension education. After 8 weeks, participants in the experimental group had significantly decreased sedentary behavior, increased physical activity, increased self-efficacy for physical activity, and increased perceived health (p < 0.05). However, no significant group difference was found for depression. Findings from this study suggest that empowerment interventions may be more effective than standard education in decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and perceived health in Korean older adults with hypertension.

  14. Patient-empowerment interactive technologies. (United States)

    Bruggers, Carol S; Altizer, Roger A; Kessler, Robert R; Caldwell, Craig B; Coppersmith, Kurt; Warner, Laura; Davies, Brandon; Paterson, Wade; Wilcken, Jordan; D'Ambrosio, Troy A; German, Massiell L; Hanson, Glen R; Gershan, Lynn A; Korenberg, Julie R; Bulaj, Grzegorz


    Video games capture the rapt attention of an individual player's mind and body, providing new opportunities for personalized health care. An example of therapeutic interactive technologies is an incentive-based video game that translates physical exercise into mental empowerment via motivational metaphoric visualization in order to help patients psychologically overcome cancer. Such nonpharmacological interventions may enhance patients' resilience toward various chronic disorders via neuronal mechanisms that activate positive emotions and the reward system.

  15. For the sake of health! Reflections on the contemporary use of social capital and empowerment in Danish health promotion policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P. T.; Jorgensen, S. K.; Larsen, E. L.


    consist of. This may lead health professionals to participate in political projects dressed as pure health promotion that risk neglecting the various ways people may become empowered or socially engaged in their communities. We use two examples to illustrate these tendencies. Both examples arise from......Social capital and empowerment are increasingly used as key concepts integrated into methods of building healthy communities and as means of explaining inequities in health status within the field of Health Promotion. Although applying these concepts in a public health context offers a more...... holistic and socially oriented approach to health, problems arise when they are used in an imprecise and inconsistent manner. Health Promotion ideology tends to be transformed into politico-ideological complexes of power that enforce either a republican or a neoliberal perception of what the good life...

  16. Revisiting empowerment: a study of improvement work in health care teams. (United States)

    Müllern, Tomas; Nordin, Annika


    This article reports on a study of team empowerment in a large clinic at a Swedish hospital. The focus of the study was to understand how a high degree of empowerment enabled the teams to develop and sustain a high level of performance. More specifically, a model of empowerment was used to identify important factors that contribute to team empowerment in 3 teams at the clinic. In the analysis of the empirical data, 21 factors were identified and the degree of empowerment in the 3 teams was assessed.

  17. Empowerment of health professionals: how high level security education can raise awareness and confidence. (United States)

    Herbst, Matthias; Busch, Christoph; Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd


    Setting up networks among physicians and other health professionals in virtually any medical discipline is an important part of establishing eHealth world-wide. Medical research strategies nowadays advance diagnostic and therapeutic knowledge and guidelines allowing patients to benefits. Patient data and samples are among the most sensitive information and must carefully be protected according to rules of ethics and professional discretion as well as national and international privacy legislation. A lot has been said about "patient involvement, patient empowerment". What about health professionals? How can they be involved and empowered to address the paradigm shift towards a personalized health service provision? Information and communication technology (ICT), medical devices, and software applications are not among the topics health professionals typically deal with while being theoretically and practically trained to diagnose diseases and treat patients. An ICT-based training and information provision is required to update the ICT skills of health professionals. The German CAST association provides such an information platform where health professionals attend applied computer security education events. This article aims at describing how ICT and security education is provided to health professionals, and how these training courses are designed, structured, performed, and assessed.

  18. Patient Satisfaction, Empowerment, and Health and Disability Status Effects of a Disease Management-Health Promotion Nurse Intervention among Medicare Beneficiaries with Disabilities (United States)

    Friedman, Bruce; Wamsley, Brenda R.; Liebel, Dianne V.; Saad, Zabedah B.; Eggert, Gerald M.


    Purpose: To report the impact on patient and informal caregiver satisfaction, patient empowerment, and health and disability status of a primary care-affiliated disease self-management-health promotion nurse intervention for Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities and recent significant health services use. Design and Methods: The Medicare…

  19. Patient empowerment by the means of citizen-managed Electronic Health Records: web 2.0 health digital identity scenarios. (United States)

    Falcão-Reis, Filipa; Correia, Manuel E


    With the advent of more sophisticated and comprehensive healthcare information systems, system builders are becoming more interested in patient interaction and what he can do to help to improve his own health care. Information systems play nowadays a crucial and fundamental role in hospital work-flows, thus providing great opportunities to introduce and improve upon "patient empowerment" processes for the personalization and management of Electronic Health Records (EHRs). In this paper, we present a patient's privacy generic control mechanisms scenarios based on the Extended OpenID (eOID), a user centric digital identity provider previously developed by our group, which leverages a secured OpenID 2.0 infrastructure with the recently released Portuguese Citizen Card (CC) for secure authentication in a distributed health information environment. eOID also takes advantage of Oauth assertion based mechanisms to implement patient controlled secure qualified role based access to his EHR, by third parties.

  20. Consumer and case manager perspectives of service empowerment: relationship to mental health recovery. (United States)

    Crane-Ross, Dushka; Lutz, Wilma J; Roth, Dee


    This study examines the relationship between service empowerment and recovery. Service empowerment is defined as the extent to which consumers participate in service decisions and the level of reciprocity and respect within the relationship with their case managers. Assessments were made from two perspectives: consumers and their case managers. Structural equation models were developed to examine the direct and indirect effects of service empowerment on four recovery outcomes: Quality of Life, Level of Functioning, Consumer-Reported Symptomatology, and Case Manager-Reported Symptomatology. Consumers' perceptions of service empowerment were the most powerful predictor of recovery outcomes across the four models. Consumers' and case managers' perceptions were related but the magnitude of the relationship was small, indicating that considerable differences exist between their perceptions of service empowerment.

  1. Empowerment of women and mental health promotion: a qualitative study in rural Maharashtra, India

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    White Joshua


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of mental illness is high and opportunities for promoting mental health are neglected in most parts of the world. Many people affected by mental illness live in developing countries, where treatment and care options are limited. In this context, primary health care (PHC programs can indirectly promote mental health by addressing its determinants i.e. by enhancing social unity, minimising discrimination and generating income opportunities. The objectives of this study were to: 1. Describe concepts of mental health and beliefs about determinants of mental health and illness among women involved with a PHC project in rural Maharashtra, India; 2. Identify perceived mental health problems in this community, specifically depression, suicide and violence, their perceived causes, and existing and potential community strategies to respond to them and; 3. Investigate the impact of the PHC program on individual and community factors associated with mental health Method We undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 32 women associated with the PHC project regarding: their concepts of mental health and its determinants; suicide, depression and violence; and the perceived impact of the PHC project on the determinants of mental health. The interviews were taped, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results Mental health and illness were understood by these women to be the product of cultural and socio-economic factors. Mental health was commonly conceptualised as an absence of stress and the commonest stressors were conflict with husbands and mother-in-laws, domestic violence and poverty. Links between empowerment of women through income generation and education, reduction of discrimination based on caste and sex, and promotion of individual and community mental health were recognised. However, mental health problems such as suicide and violence were well-described by participants. Conclusion While it is

  2. A Model for Health Promotion in Rural Communities through the Development of Personal Agency and Intrinsic Empowerment


    Pick Steiner, Susan; UNAM, Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población (IMIFAP); García Rodríguez, Georgina; UNAM, Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población (IMIFAP); Leenen, Iwin; Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población (IMIFAP)


    Based on the program “Yo quiero, yo puedo… mejorar mi salud y ejercer mis derechos” [I want to, I can…improve my health and exercise my rights], a pilot model was designed and implemented in three States of Mexico. This model aims to change nutrition and hygiene behaviors in the inhabitants of marginalized communities, through knowledge and psychosocial skills development facilitating personal agency and intrinsic empowerment. Evaluation of the program showed an effect on knowledge, assertive...

  3. Multivariate determinants of self-management in Health Care: assessing Health Empowerment Model by comparison between structural equation and graphical models approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Trentini


    Full Text Available Backgroung. In public health one debated issue is related to consequences of improper self-management in health care.  Some theoretical models have been proposed in Health Communication theory which highlight how components such general literacy and specific knowledge of the disease might be very important for effective actions in healthcare system.  Methods. This  paper aims at investigating the consistency of Health Empowerment Model by means of both graphical models approach, which is a “data driven” method and a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM approach, which is instead “theory driven”, showing the different information pattern that can be revealed in a health care research context.The analyzed dataset provides data on the relationship between the Health Empowerment Model constructs and the behavioral and health status in 263 chronic low back pain (cLBP patients. We used the graphical models approach to evaluate the dependence structure in a “blind” way, thus learning the structure from the data.Results. From the estimation results dependence structure confirms links design assumed in SEM approach directly from researchers, thus validating the hypotheses which generated the Health Empowerment Model constructs.Conclusions. This models comparison helps in avoiding confirmation bias. In Structural Equation Modeling, we used SPSS AMOS 21 software. Graphical modeling algorithms were implemented in a R software environment.

  4. A Worksite Health Education Workshop as Empowerment Intervention for Health Promotion in the National Research Centre of Egypt

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    Nagat Mohamed Amer


    Full Text Available AIM: The study aimed to assess worksite health education workshops as a successful tool for health promotion of employees. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A one day workshop was held for individuals engaged in research activities in the National research Centre of Egypt at the worksite. Its main objective was to highlight the nature, causes, symptoms and management of job stress. Participants were asked to fill a personality assessment sheet, a self-reported questionnaire for job satisfaction. Other questionnaires for assessment of falsification of type and some socio-demographic data were filled by the attendants. A concise survey was introduced at the end of the workshop for feedback collection. RESULTS: Attendants of the workshop were 36 subjects mainly females (94.4%. Mean age was 40.5 years with 63.9% of participants at their postdoctoral studies stage. Participants were at midway in the scale of job satisfaction (3.3 and did not suffer from falsification (0.3. The feedback survey score (11.5 showed great acceptance for the intervention. Special interest in the topic of stress was reported by 35.1% of attendants who found it the best item in the workshop and the interactive manipulation came next as declared by 18.9% of the participants. CONCLUSION: Worksite health education workshops seem to be a successful practice for empowerment in the Egyptian workplace.

  5. Conceptualising patient empowerment: a mixed methods study


    Bravo, P.; A. Edwards; Barr, P.J.; Scholl, I.; Elwyn, G; Mcallister, M.


    BACKGROUND: In recent years, interventions and health policy programmes have been established to promote patient empowerment, with a particular focus on patients affected by long-term conditions. However, a clear definition of patient empowerment is lacking, making it difficult to assess effectiveness of interventions designed to promote it. The aim in this study was to develop a conceptual map of patient empowerment, including components of patient empowerment and relationships with other co...

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction for African-American Men through Health Empowerment and Anger Management (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Harold; Johnson, Larry; Harris, Catrell; Katkowsky, Steven; Troutman, Adewale


    Objective: To examine impact of CVD risk reduction intervention for African-American men in the Atlanta Empowerment Zone (AEZ) designed to target anger management. Design: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was employed as a non-parametric alternative to the t-test for independent samples. This test was employed because the data used in this analysis…

  7. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy. (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders


    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  8. Investigating the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity of the elderly in Rezaeian Health Center, Iran, in 2014 (United States)

    Manavi, Narges; Abedi, Heidarali


    Background: Reaching geriatric period is one of the greatest successes in human Beings. The older adults are predisposed to risk of many diseases and disabilities, and physical activity is one of the most efficient methods to prevent geriatric period disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed define the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity of the elderly residing in Shahid Rezaian health care center in 2014. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 older adults, age 65 years and over, selected through convenient sampling and assigned to groups of study and control. Study group was divided into 5 seven-member subgroups and a one-hour session of physical exercises was administrated for them once a week for eight sequential weeks. All subjects evaluated before and after intervention by International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Subjects’ physical activity was scored, based on the personal activity protocol,and the results were compared. Significance level was considered as P<0.05. Results: Frequency distributions of the female subjects were 29 (82%) and 28 (80%) in study and control groups respectively. Mean (SD) scores of physical activity were 347.8 (174.1) and 321.7 (119.2) before intervention, and 641.3 (240.6) and 331.3 (101.5) after intervention in study and control groups respectively. Independent t-test showed a significant increase in physical activity score in study group, compared to control (t=4.06, P<0.001). Conclusions: The level of physical activity can be improved in the elderly through application of an empowerment program so as to take steps toward solving their immobility related problems and promoting their health through application of an empowerment program at this period of their life. PMID:27563315

  9. Investigating the Relationship between Employees' Psychological Empowerment with Their Mental Health in Headquarters Staff of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

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    Ghader Parshak


    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between employees' psychological empowerment with their mental health in headquarters staff of Tabriz University of medical sciences. Study population consisted of all the employees working in headquarters section with a total number of 215 in 2014. Material and Methods : For sampling, stratified sampling method was used. Sample size was estimated 170 participants according to (Krejcie & Morgan table which consisted of 80 female and 90 male. The research method is descriptive –correlation. For data collecting, standard psychological capability questionnaire (PEQ and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results : Data analysis showed that there is a meaningful relationship between three items of psychological capability (competence-reliance-the right of choice and mental health, while there is no meaningful relationship between the sense of being effective and mental health. Also, according to the multiple regression, competence, reliance and the right of choice items have a meaningful effect on mental health and based on standardized coefficient (beta coefficient, the right of choice, competence and reliance have the most effects on the employees’ mental health respectively. Conclusion : Mental health depends on thinking, feeling and behavior of individuals. In general, people who are mentally healthy, have a positive attitude on life and are prepared to face challenges in life, have good feeling about themselves and others and are responsible towards their relationship and in the workplace. In this study, employees' psychological empowerment of headquarters staff of Tabriz University of medical sciences may predict their mental health.

  10. Empowerment como forma de prevenção de problemas de saúde em trabalhadores de abatedouros Empowerment as a way to prevent work-related health conditions in slaughterhouse workers

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    Paula Tavolaro


    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo foi ressaltar a necessidade de esforços educativos que visem ao empowerment de funcionários de abatedouros, baseado nos principais problemas de saúde por eles enfrentados. A rotina em abatedouros consiste em tarefas estressantes e cansativas. As conseqüências incluem problemas músculo-esqueléticos, transmissão de zoonoses, problemas de pele e acidentes com materiais pérfuro-cortantes e animais. Esses trabalhadores geralmente não são especializados, não têm controle sobre suas tarefas, e podem não estar conscientes dos determinantes que afetam sua saúde. Os veterinários são geralmente responsáveis pela rotina de trabalho nesses locais e conhecem os riscos à saúde que a execução dessas tarefas representam. Portanto, esses profissionais poderiam participar mais ativamente na educação para o empowerment dos trabalhadores e não se concentrarem apenas em questões referentes à segurança alimentar.The objective of the review was to emphasize the need for educational efforts aiming at the empowerment of slaughterhouse workers based on their major work-related conditions. Slaughterhouse work involves stressful and tiring tasks. These workers suffer from serious occupational injuries and health problems including musculoskeletal disorders, zoonoses, skin conditions and injuries related to animals and sharp instruments. Slaughterhouse workers are generally low-skill staff, have no control over their job tasks and may not be aware of the determinants affecting their health. While working for the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, veterinarians are greatly responsible for the work routine in slaughterhouses and are aware of health risks involved in these workers' job. Besides focusing their activities on food safety, veterinarians they should take an active role in educating slaughterhouse workers for their empowerment.

  11. Psychological Empowerment


    Flohrer, Nick


    Instilling psychological empowerment in employees is one of the most important tasks of modern leadership. Building on quantitative research and the development of a new psychometric scale related to project management this thesis shows: First, individuals' characteristics and their work team environment influence perceptions of access to information and resources – two important antecedents of psychological empowerment. Second, while a project briefing strengthens the link of the psychologic...

  12. 新媒体赋权:健康传播的机遇与挑战%New Media Empowerment:Opportunities and Challenges for Health Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳丽; 房姗


    As a practical social research, new media empowerment can solve the real problem of health communication——By virtue of new media technology,Audience can convenient to obtain health information, develop positive health awareness and promote more equal communication between doctors and patients, so as to realize the individual's health empowerment and Influence public health policy as well as achieve the the ul⁃timate goal of improving the audience’s health literacy comprehensively. New media empowerment health communication not only have the possibility of combining with reality, also faced with a series of problems. This paper focuses on the opportunities and challenges of the new media empowerment health communication and analyzed the meaning and strategy of new media empowerment health communication.%新媒体赋权作为一种实践性的社会研究,在很大程度上可以解决健康传播中存在的现实问题——通过新媒体的技术优势赋予受众通过新媒体主动获得健康信息、发展积极的健康意识,促进医患之间更加平等的对话与交流,从而在有效实现个体健康赋权的同时,以集体的方式影响公共健康政策、实现赋权健康传播的终极目标,即全面提高受众健康素养。新媒体赋权健康传播既具有现实结合的可能性,也面临着一系列问题,需要有针对性地加以解决。

  13. Concepts and measures of patient empowerment: a comprehensive review


    Paloma Garcimartín Cerezo; Maria-Eulália Juvé-Udina; Pilar Delgado-Hito


    Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyze the definitions and dimensions of empowerment. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of empowerment measures based on the conceptual model. METHOD This was a comprehensive literature review of publications on the MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. RESULTS Twenty-nine articles were selected. Seventeen definitions and seven dimensions of empowerment, and 10 empowerment measures were selected. Empowerment can be ...

  14. Testing for the Endogenous Nature between Women’s Empowerment and Antenatal Health Care Utilization: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study in Egypt

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    Hassan H. M. Zaky


    Full Text Available Women’s relative lack of decision-making power and their unequal access to employment, finances, education, basic health care, and other resources are considered to be the root causes of their ill-health and that of their children. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive relation between women’s empowerment and the use of maternal health care. Two model specifications are tested. One assumes no correlation between empowerment and antenatal care while the second specification allows for correlation. Both the univariate and the recursive bivariate probit models are tested. The data used in this study is EDHS 2008. Factor Analysis Technique is also used to construct some of the explanatory variables such as the availability and quality of health services indicators. The findings show that women’s empowerment and receiving regular antenatal care are simultaneously determined and the recursive bivariate probit is a better approximation to the relationship between them. Women’s empowerment has significant and positive impact on receiving regular antenatal care. The availability and quality of health services do significantly increase the likelihood of receiving regular antenatal care.

  15. Testing for the endogenous nature between women's empowerment and antenatal health care utilization: evidence from a cross-sectional study in Egypt. (United States)

    Zaky, Hassan H M; Armanious, Dina M; Hussein, Mohamed Ali


    Women's relative lack of decision-making power and their unequal access to employment, finances, education, basic health care, and other resources are considered to be the root causes of their ill-health and that of their children. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive relation between women's empowerment and the use of maternal health care. Two model specifications are tested. One assumes no correlation between empowerment and antenatal care while the second specification allows for correlation. Both the univariate and the recursive bivariate probit models are tested. The data used in this study is EDHS 2008. Factor Analysis Technique is also used to construct some of the explanatory variables such as the availability and quality of health services indicators. The findings show that women's empowerment and receiving regular antenatal care are simultaneously determined and the recursive bivariate probit is a better approximation to the relationship between them. Women's empowerment has significant and positive impact on receiving regular antenatal care. The availability and quality of health services do significantly increase the likelihood of receiving regular antenatal care.

  16. Parents as Teachers Health Literacy Demonstration project: integrating an empowerment model of health literacy promotion into home-based parent education. (United States)

    Carroll, Lauren N; Smith, Sandra A; Thomson, Nicole R


    The Parents as Teachers (PAT) Health Literacy Demonstration project assessed the impact of integrating data-driven reflective practices into the PAT home visitation model to promote maternal health literacy. PAT is a federally approved Maternal, Infant, Early Childhood Home Visiting program with the goal of promoting school readiness and healthy child development. This 2-year demonstration project used an open-cohort longitudinal design to promote parents' interactive and reflective skills, enhance health education, and provide direct assistance to personalize and act on information by integrating an empowerment paradigm into PAT's parent education model. Eight parent educators used the Life Skills Progression instrument to tailor the intervention to each of 103 parent-child dyads. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t tests, and logistic regression combined with qualitative data demonstrated that mothers achieved overall significant improvements in health literacy, and that home visitors are important catalysts for these improvements. These findings support the use of an empowerment model of health education, skill building, and direct information support to enable parents to better manage personal and child health and health care.

  17. The empowerment paradox as a central challenge to patient centered medical home implementation in the veteran's health administration. (United States)

    Solimeo, Samantha L; Ono, Sarah S; Lampman, Michelle A M; Paez, Monica B W; Stewart, Gregory L


    In this paper we present results of a mixed methods study conducted to identify barriers to team function among staff implementing patient aligned care teams - the Department of Veterans Affairs' patient centered medical home (PCMH) model. Using a convergent mixed methods design, we administered a standardized survey measure (Team and Individual Role Perception Survey) to assess work role challenge and engagement; and conducted discussion groups to gather context pertaining to role change. We found that the role of primary care providers is highly challenging and did not become less difficult over the initial year of implementation. Unexpectedly over the course of the first year nurse care managers reported a decrease in their perceptions of empowerment and clerical associates reported less skill variety. Qualitative data suggest that more skilled team members fail to delegate and share tasks within their teams. We characterize this interprofessional knowledge factor as an empowerment paradox where team members find it difficult to share tasks in ways that are counter to traditionally structured hierarchical roles. Health care systems seeking to implement PCMH should dedicate resources to facilitating within-team role knowledge and negotiation.

  18. School Health Promotion to Increase Empowerment, Gender Equality and Pupil Participation: A Focus Group Study of a Swedish Elementary School Initiative (United States)

    Gadin, Katja Gillander; Weiner, Gaby; Ahlgren, Christina


    A school health promotion project was carried out in an elementary school in Sweden where active participation, gender equality, and empowerment were leading principles. The objective of the study was to understand challenges and to identify social processes of importance for such a project. Focus group interviews were conducted with 6 single-sex…

  19. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women


    Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi


    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...

  20. A Model for Health Promotion in Rural Communities through the Development of Personal Agency and Intrinsic Empowerment

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    Iwin Leenen


    Full Text Available ConBased on the program “Yo quiero, yo puedo… mejorar mi salud y ejercer mis derechos” [I want to, I can…improve my health and exercise my rights], a pilot model was designed and implemented in three States of Mexico. This model aims to change nutrition and hygiene behaviors in the inhabitants of marginalized communities, through knowledge and psychosocial skills development facilitating personal agency and intrinsic empowerment. Evaluation of the program showed an effect on knowledge, assertive communication, personal agency and gender equity among the personnel in charge of the warehouses that provide the rural stores, and on knowledge, assertive communication, decision making and personal agency in the target population. Life skills training, knowledge and personal agency promotion enhance opportunities for poverty reduction.


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    Cynthia Cecilia Carrillo-De la Cruz


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes from a gender perspective, the process of empowerment of indigenous women participating in the Health House "Manos Unidas", located in the Coastal- Mountainous region of Guerrero, Mexico. Research is based on the approach of Rowlands (1997 and focuses on the personal, collective and close relations dimensions in the fields of Leadership and Decision Making. The methodology is based on observation, interviews and accounts of those who were employed as promoters, midwives and/or coordinators in that organization, and living with a partner - Spouse under civil or religious or "cohabitation" Rituals. More than ten years of activities have passed and it is observed a process towards empowering women, who depends heavily on personal and individual experiences, their intervention in the organization and training support from the gender perspective.

  2. Which empowerment, which Health Promotion?Conceptual convergences and divergences in preventive health practices Que empowerment, qual Promoção da Saúde?Convergências e divergências conceituais em práticas preventivas em saúde

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    Marcos Santos Ferreira


    Full Text Available Based on the multiple meanings, "empowerment" can be identified with either conservative or critical Health Promotion approaches. From a conservative approach, the concept is viewed as an essentially individual phenomenon, centered on the provision of information and the external transfer of power in the name of the collective good. From this approach, the relationship between "psychological" and "community" empowerment is not considered. From a critical approach, the concept is viewed as a relational phenomenon that manifests itself in the dialectic conflict of interests between individuals, groups, and social classes. From this approach, "psychological" and "community" empowerment are seen as micro and macro levels of analysis, and social transformations are the result of simultaneous changes at these levels. The use of the notion of empowerment without critical reflection or political analysis of power relations in society disseminates vague, romantic, and homogeneous views of "community". Therefore, to assume the relational nature of empowerment means to accept its interdependence with the notion of participation, without which there can be no social transformation. Thus, one should be vigilant about multiple meanings that empowerment can given in Health Promotion discourse.Os múltiplos sentidos conferidos ao empowerment podem aproximá-lo de abordagens tanto conservadoras quanto críticas de Promoção da Saúde. Em roupagem conservadora, empowerment é tomado como fenômeno essencialmente individual, baseado na provisão de informação, e como transferência externa de poder em nome do bem comum. Nessa perspectiva, não são consideradas as relações entre "empowerment psicológico" e "comunitário". Em abordagem crítica, empowerment é visto como fenômeno relacional, que só se manifesta no jogo dialético de conflitos de interesses entre sujeitos, grupos e classes sociais. Nessa perspectiva, "empowerment psicológico" e "comunit

  3. A pilot study to evaluate the magnitude of association of the use of electronic personal health records with patient activation and empowerment in HIV-infected veterans

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    Pierre-Cédric B. Crouch


    Full Text Available The HITECH Act signed into law in 2009 requires hospitals to provide patients with electronic access to their health information through an electronic personal health record (ePHR in order to receive Medicare/Medicaid incentive payments. Little is known about who uses these systems or the impact these systems will have on patient outcomes in HIV care. The health care empowerment model provides rationale for the hypothesis that knowledge from an electronic personal health record can lead to greater patient empowerment resulting in improved outcomes. The objective was to determine the patient characteristics and patient activation, empowerment, satisfaction, knowledge of their CD4, Viral Loads, and antiretroviral medication, and medication adherence outcomes associated with electronic personal health record use in Veterans living with HIV at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. The participants included HIV-Infected Veterans receiving care in a low volume HIV-clinic at the San Francisco VA Medical Center, divided into two groups of users and non-users of electronic personal health records. The research was conducted using in-person surveys either online or on paper and data abstraction from medical records for current anti-retroviral therapy (ART, CD4 count, and plasma HIV-1 viral load. The measures included the Patient Activation Measure, Health Care Empowerment Inventory, ART adherence, provider satisfaction, current CD4 count, current plasma viral load, knowledge of current ART, knowledge of CD4 counts, and knowledge of viral load. In all, 40 participants were recruited. The use of electronic personal health records was associated with significantly higher levels of patient activation and levels of patient satisfaction for getting timely appointments, care, and information. ePHR was also associated with greater proportions of undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral loads, of knowledge of current CD4 count, and of knowledge of current viral load. The

  4. An outline of the need for psychology knowledge in health professionals: implications for community development and breast cancer prevention. (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Saidu, Mohammed Bashir


    Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.

  5. Impact of Psychological Empowerment on Nonfinancial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological empowerment on nonfinancial performance of organizations. The sample of the research consists of 70 employees of an enterprise serving in health sector. “Impact”, “competence” and “meaning” dimensions for psychological empowerment and “customer perspective”, “internal processes perspective” and “learning and growth perspective” dimensions for nonfinancial performance are derived from factor analysis. There is a significant negative relationship between internal processes perspective, one of nonfinancial performance dimensions, and impact dimension, one of psychological empowerment dimensions. Moreover, there are significant positive relationships between learning and growth perspective, one of nonfinancial performance dimensions, and psychological empowerment, impact dimension and meaning dimension of psychological empowerment. According to regression analysis, psychological empowerment does not have impact on nonfinancial performance.

  6. Problematization of perspectives on health promotion and empowerment in mental health nursing--within the research network "MeHNuRse" and the Horatio conference, 2012. (United States)

    Jönsson, Patrik D; Nunstedt, Håkan; Berglund, Inger J; Ahlström, Britt H; Hedelin, Birgitta; Skärsäter, Ingela; Jormfeldt, Henrika


    Mental illness is increasing worldwide, while society's response seems to be a trend toward narrower and more specialized mental health care. This development is creating great demands on mental health nurses to include a health promotion perspective in care and support of persons with mental illness. A health promotion perspective emphasizes cooperation and communication with people who suffer from long-term mental illness, focusing on their independence and health. From a health perspective, every human being is an actor in his/her own life, with an inherent ability to make his/her own choices. However, persons who suffer from long-term mental illness are at risk of losing power and control over areas of their lives and their health. Mental health nurses are in a position to support these individuals in promoting health and in maintaining or regaining control over their lives. The emphasis of this paper is to problematize mental health nurses' responsibility to provide health-promoting nursing care in relation to empowerment by means of emancipation, self-efficacy, and self-management. We argue that mental health nurses can work from a health-promoting perspective by using these concepts and that this challenges some of the traditional ideas of health promotion in mental health nursing. The theoretical background discussions in this paper have their origin in the research network "Mental Health Nursing Research in Scandinavia" (MeHNuRse) and from the professional discussions developed during a 2012 workshop that included mental health nurses and researchers at the European Horatio Festival in Stockholm.

  7. Partnership and empowerment program: a model for patient-centered, comprehensive, and cost-effective care. (United States)

    Brown, Corinne; Bornstein, Elizabeth; Wilcox, Catina


    The Partnership and Empowerment Program model offers a comprehensive, patient-centered, and cost-effective template for coordinating care for underinsured and uninsured patients with cancer. Attention to effective coordination, including use of internal and external resources, may result in decreased costs of care and improved patient compliance and health outcomes.

  8. Dimensions of women's empowerment and their influence on the utilization of maternal health services in an Egyptian village: a multivariate analysis. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Leo; Fouad, Nawal Abdel Moneim; Chiang, Chifa; Elshair, Inass Helmy Hassan; Abdou, Nagah Mahmoud; El Banna, Saneya Rizk; Aoyama, Atsuko


    This study investigated the association between women's empowerment and the utilization of maternal health services by women in Egypt and analyzed the dimensions of women's empowerment that are associated with increased health service utilization. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village in Egypt in November 2007. A total of 189 women, who had ever been married and had at least one child, were interviewed to collect data on the utilization of maternal health services, such as the number of antenatal care (ANC) visits during their pregnancies and whether delivery of their child was attended by skilled health personnel. Proxy variables on five different dimensions of women's empowerment were obtained by principal component analysis, and were tested for an association with the utilization of maternal health services, using logistic regression models. The five dimensions extracted from the data were freedom of movement, economic security and stability, support by family and freedom from domination, decision-making in daily life, and relationship with the community/participation in society. Among these dimensions, support by family and freedom from domination was the only factor that was positively associated with maternal health service utilization (regular ANC: OR = 1.38, P = 0.05; deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel: OR = 1.71, P = 0.01). Current age was also associated with the latter, possibly influenced by the recent rapid increase in the provision of health services in the village studied. Furthermore, this study revealed that a relatively high proportion of younger women still only limited access to maternal health services in Egypt.

  9. Conceptualising patient empowerment: a mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, P.; Edwards, A.; Barr, P.J.; Scholl, I.; Elwyn, G.; Mcallister, M.


    BACKGROUND: In recent years, interventions and health policy programmes have been established to promote patient empowerment, with a particular focus on patients affected by long-term conditions. However, a clear definition of patient empowerment is lacking, making it difficult to assess effectivene

  10. La Palabra Es Salud: A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Popular Education vs. Traditional Education for Enhancing Health Knowledge and Skills and Increasing Empowerment among Parish-Based Community Health Workers (United States)

    Wiggins, Noelle


    Popular education is a mode of teaching and learning which seeks to bring about more equitable social conditions by creating settings in which people can identify and solve their own problems. While the public health literature offers evidence to suggest that popular education is an effective strategy for increasing empowerment and improving…

  11. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion. (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders


    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  12. Psychology as a theoretical foundation for health education in nursing: empowerment or social control? (United States)

    Piper, S M; Brown, P A


    This article explores the relationship between psychology and health education and illustrates how ostensibly 'neutral' models and theories of psychology can be used by conflicting health education philosophies and ideologies. We contend both that health education is an intrinsic element of nursing (which, for the purpose of this article, also includes health visiting and midwifery) and that psychology legitimately underpins practice. Our concern in this article is in the potential application of models and theories of health-related behaviour such as the health belief model (Rosenstock et al 1988), the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen 1985) and the stages of change model (Prochaska & DiClemente 1982) to the health education elements of nursing practice without an awareness and scrutiny of their particular ideological standpoint, and contrasting relationships to power, and thus an understanding of the potential ambiguity regarding their role and function.

  13. Empowerment in nursing: paternalism or maternalism? (United States)

    Christensen, Martin; Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

    The aim of this article is to explore whether patient empowerment flourishes in the wake of current health reforms or if there is a power struggle between nursing and medicine as to what is in the patients' best interest. Shifting the balance of power from healthcare professionals to patients has become a key element of healthcare policy in England. The RCN's definition of nursing places patient empowerment as a central remit of nurses. However, achieving genuine patient empowerment is not easy and requires individuals and organizations to alter their beliefs, values and behaviours. To empower patients nurses must be in a position to share power and this may require a realignment of the traditional power base within health care. Although empowerment is often viewed on a one-to-one level between professionals and patients, for true patient empowerment to occur, issues of power and control must also be addressed at a national and political level.

  14. [Global lessons of the Mexican health reform: empowerment through the use of evidence]. (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio


    This paper illustrates, using as an example the recent reform of the Mexican health system, the potential of knowledge in the design and implementation of public policies. In the first part the relationship between knowledge and health is described. In part two, the efforts in Mexico to generate evidence that would eventually nourish the design and implementation of health policies are discussed. In the following sections the content and the guiding concept of the reform, the democratization of health, are analyzed. The paper concludes with the discussion of the main global lessons of this reform experience.

  15. An empowerment-based approach to developing innovative e-health tools for self-management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, L.; Boog, P. van der; Dumaij, A.


    E-health is seen as an important technological tool in achieving self-management; however, there is little evidence of how effective e-health is for self-management. Example tools remain experimental and there is limited knowledge yet about the design, use, and effects of this class of tools. By way

  16. Examples of Cancer Health Disparities (United States)

    ... ethnicity. SES factors include access to education, certain occupations, health insurance, and living conditions—including exposure to ... will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime. ( ACS ) African American men have the highest incidence ...

  17. An innovative geographical approach: health promotion and empowerment in a context of extreme urban poverty. (United States)

    Becker, Daniel; Edmundo, Kátia; Nunes, Nilza Rogéria; Bonatto, Daniella; de Souza, Rosane


    This article describes and analyses a territorial intervention, the Vila Paciencia Initiative--a local development/health promotion programme implemented in a context of extreme poverty in the western district of Rio de Janeiro. The main goal of the programme was to empower individuals and communities. We emphasise the lessons learned and the potential for integrating them into local and regional health services, which could strengthen community participation and capacity-building and improve the effectiveness and community orientation of primary health care and other public policies directed to geographical development.

  18. Women’s Empowerment through Self-help Groups and its Impact on Health Issues: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assist. Prof. Sudipta De


    Full Text Available Based on an empirical study in West Bengal, this paper attempts toexamine whether women’s involvement in the microcredit programmethrough SHGs makes any positive change on women’s empowerment.From the assessment of various criteria of empowerment(power,autonomy and self-reliance, entitlement, participation and awarenessand capacity-building, the study suggests that if women participatingin the microcredit programme through SHGs sustain for some longerperiod (eight years or more, such programme might contribute tohigher level of women’s empowerment than women’s empowermentunder all types of control group. This paper also finds that women’searnings from saving and credit have positive and significant effect onnutritional status of the children of women members of SHGs and onthe protein-intake for their household compared with that of amongcontrol groups.

  19. Gender, empowerment, and health: what is it? How does it work? (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Anke A; Sawires, Sharif; McGovern, Terry; Peacock, Dean; Weston, Mark


    As the HIV/AIDS epidemic has progressed, the role of gender inequality in its transmission has become increasingly apparent. Nearly half of those living with the virus worldwide are women, and women's subordination to men increases their risk of infection and makes it harder for them to access treatment once infected. Men, too, suffer from harmful gender norms-the expectation that they will behave in ways that heighten their risk of HIV infection and that they will be cavalier about seeking health care increases their vulnerability to the disease. In the Middle East and North Africa, HIV infection rates are low, but changing gender norms have the potential to accelerate the spread of the disease if gender inequality is not addressed. Improving women's education, workforce participation, and social and political opportunities is crucial to strengthening health in the region. Work with men to shift gender imbalances is a further important task for the region's policy-makers and civil society groups.

  20. Concepts and measures of patient empowerment: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Garcimartín Cerezo

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyze the definitions and dimensions of empowerment. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of empowerment measures based on the conceptual model. METHOD This was a comprehensive literature review of publications on the MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL databases. RESULTS Twenty-nine articles were selected. Seventeen definitions and seven dimensions of empowerment, and 10 empowerment measures were selected. Empowerment can be seen as an enabling process involving a shift in the balance of power, or as an outcome of this process. The dimensions reflect outcome indicators, such as participation in decision-making and control, and process indicators, such as knowledge acquisition and coping skills. Six of the tools analyzed by this study could be said to provide a robust measure of patient empowerment. CONCLUSION we propose a definition of empowerment that helps to deepen understanding of the term and, therefore, its operationalization.

  1. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  2. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M


    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  3. Impact of Psychological Empowerment on Nonfinancial Performance


    Hemedoğlu, Enis; KOÇAK, Mahmut; ÖZKAN, Aslıhan; Başak Melek BERBEROĞLUGİL


    This study examines the effects of psychological empowerment on nonfinancial performance of organizations. The sample of the research consists of 70 employees of an enterprise serving in health sector. “Impact”, “competence” and “meaning” dimensions for psychological empowerment and “customer perspective”, “internal processes perspective” and “learning and growth perspective” dimensions for nonfinancial performance are derived from factor analysis. There is a significant negative relationship...

  4. Cultura e empowerment: promoção à saúde e prevenção da Aids entre prostitutas no Rio de Janeiro Culture and empowerment: health promotion and Aids prevention among prostitutes in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla De Meis


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discutimos as dificuldades encontradas na realização de projetos de promoção à saúde entre grupos marginalizados, a partir de questionários e grupos de discussão realizados no trabalho de prevenção da aids entre prostitutas, no Mangue, no Rio de Janeiro (RJ, em 1989, passando pelas histórias de vida das prostitutas da Praça São João, em Niterói (RJ, e pelo movimento de prostitutas do Rio de Janeiro, durante a década de noventa. Na análise dos dados, observamos que, apesar de a saúde pública ver as prostitutas como um "grupo", estas raramente se viam dessa forma. Ou seja, enquanto a meta das agências de promoção à saúde e do movimento de prostitutas era a de construir uma comunidade de prostitutas que pudesse se organizar, lutando por seus direitos e cidadania, a maioria das prostitutas estudadas tinham uma representação negativa da sua atividade e, consequentemente, criavam narrativas que negavam o seu pertencimento ao grupo das prostitutas. Diante desse impasse, fica evidente a necessidade de se pensar o processo de empowerment e de organização comunitária, sempre levando em conta o contexto cultural do grupo em que se quer promover a saúde.This paper discusses the difficulties that can arise when health promotion projects are developed within marginalized groups. This could be documented using the example of aids prevention among prostitutes. We applied questionnaires and focus group interviews were performed with prostitutes in Mangue, Rio de Janeiro in 1989. Later, during the decade of 1990, we accomplished open interviews with prostitutes who frequented São João Square in Niterói and with the leaders of the prostitutes' movement of Rio de Janeiro. During the analysis of the interviews we observed that although, from a public health point of view, prostitutes are considered as a group, they seldom represent themselves in this way. In other words, while the goal of health promotion agencies and

  5. Empowerment in people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disler RT


    Full Text Available Rebecca T Disler,1–3 Jessica Appleton,1 Tracy A Smith,4,5 Matthew Hodson,6 Sally C Inglis,1,2 DorAnne Donesky,7 Patricia M Davidson8 1Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, 2Centre for Cardiovascular and Chronic Care, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, 3Improving Palliative Care through Clinical Trials (ImPACCT, Sydney, 4Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, 5Faculty of Medicine, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6ACERS, Integrated Medicine and Rehabilitation Services Division, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 7Department of Physiological Nursing, UCSF School of Nursing, San Francisco, CA, 8School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Patient empowerment is recognized as an important aspect of chronic disease management. There is an increasing expectation that health providers engage patients as active participants in their own self-management. This engagement is crucial to the chronic care model as patients with COPD and their families manage the majority of the care in the community. Understanding what influences empowerment will help health care professionals to better engage in collaborative care planning and decision making that meet the needs of this new generation of health consumers. Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify interventions or approaches that empower patients in the management of COPD. Methods: An integrative review was undertaken following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses approach. Papers were included if they 1 provided a definition or conceptualization of empowerment, and 2 reported interventions or approaches fostering empowerment in patients with COPD. Thematic analysis was used to develop conceptual themes on patient empowerment in COPD. These conceptual themes were validated by a panel of specialists in COPD, chronic disease

  6. Illusions of empowerment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomba, Susan Wangui; Nathan, Iben; Minang, Peter A.;


    The extent to which community forestry (CF) contributes to empowerment of local communities remains hotly contested. We develop a unified theory of empowerment at the intersection of asset-based agency and institution-based opportunity and apply it to examine the extent to which the implementatio...

  7. Empowerment and organizational structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn


    This paper provides an analysis of empowerment and the conditions for empowerment that exists at different levels of the organization in various Easten and Western countries. The analysis of the data collected by the Quality and Economic Development Project indicates that there are considerable d...

  8. Empowerment: Hotel employees’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartinah Ayupp


    Full Text Available An empowered worker is a knowledgeable worker. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine how empowerment is perceived by the front-line hotel employees and secondly, to identify the factors affecting empowerment within the industry. Factors such as communication, coaching, participation, training and reward were examined for any significant relationship with empowerment, along with whether the employee’s socio-demographic characteristics affected their perceptions of empowerment. The findings indicated that except for gender, socio-demographic factors were not a strong influence on the diffusion of empowerment among employees. In order to ensure that the employees feel empowered, factors such as communication, coaching, participation, training and reward should be given due attention by the management.  Based on the findings, implications for companies are discussed and further research is suggested.

  9. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour


    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  10. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women (United States)

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi


    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  11. Mental Health May Affect Chances Against Cancer (United States)

    ... page: Mental Health May Affect Chances Against Cancer Early research suggests ... Our findings contribute to the evidence that poor mental health might have some predictive capacity for certain physical ...

  12. Illusions of empowerment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomba, Susan Wangui; Nathan, Iben; Minang, Peter A.;


    The extent to which community forestry (CF) contributes to empowerment of local communities remains hotly contested. We develop a unified theory of empowerment at the intersection of asset-based agency and institution-based opportunity and apply it to examine the extent to which the implementation...... of CF has led to local empowerment. Our empirical data are drawn from review of national level policies and a field study of Ngare Ndare Community Forest Association (CFA) in Kenya. We investigated what types of powers were transferred to the local level, how representative the local institution...... was of the local community, and how its formation and composition affected the empowerment of socially and economically differentiated groups, with competing claims over the forest resource. We found that national forest policies and actors transferred minimal powers that enabled local communities to execute...

  13. Empowerment through teaching. (United States)

    Chally, P S


    Empowerment through teaching is built on the feminist belief that successful and effective teaching is a cointentional process, emerging from meaningful connections between students and faculty. Empowerment results from teaching characterized by caring, commitment, creativity, interaction, and a recognition of the humanity of both teacher and students. Teaching is conceptualized as a directional process emerging from the energy of both student and teacher. There must be continued, intense, and frequent exchange of these energies. The tools that students and teacher must possess or acquire for empowerment include positive self-concept, creativity, resources, information, and support. This perspective permits a new understanding of teaching that results in empowerment of both parties involved in the process of learning.

  14. [Empowerment of users and family members in mental health care and in evaluative/interventional research: a brief comparison between the Anglo-Saxon tradition and the Brazilian experience]. (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Eduardo Mourão


    The scope of this article is to assess the main characteristics of the traditions and experiences of empowerment of users and family members in mental health treatment and services in Anglo-Saxon countries and in Brazil and the repercussions and strategies thereof in the field of evaluative and interventional research in mental health. Based on a brief bibliographical review of the literature, the aim is to compare how the empowerment tradition has developed in the two realities, based on the characteristics of the economic, political, social - and especially cultural - context. The review revealed how these contexts induce different perspectives on how to foster the autonomy and empowerment of users and family members in social policies and mental health, as well as their appropriation in the field of evaluative and interventional research. In Anglo-Saxon countries, this tradition has been vigorously promoted over the past four decades, and in Brazil the participative strategies emphasize mixed mechanisms - professionals, users and family members together - with the dominant presence of the professionals. The strategies in Brazil more directly designed for users and family members are recent and have been implemented from 2005 onwards.

  15. Psychological empowerment: issues and illustrations. (United States)

    Zimmerman, M A


    Discussed several issues related to psychological empowerment. The thesis of this paper is that the development of a universal and global measure of psychological empowerment may not be a feasible or appropriate goal. I begin by distinguishing between empowerment processes and outcomes. Underlying assumptions are discussed including the notion that empowerment differs across people, contexts, and times. A nomological network that includes intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioral components is also presented. Two examples of psychological empowerment for voluntary service organization members and members of a mutual help organization are described to help illustrate differences in the specific variables that may be used to measure psychological empowerment in different populations and settings.

  16. CNA empowerment: effects on job performance and work attitudes. (United States)

    Cready, Cynthia M; Yeatts, Dale E; Gosdin, Melissa M; Potts, Helen F


    In this analysis, the effects of empowerment were examined among a sample of certified nursing assistants (CNAs) representing a wide range of empowerment levels. On the basis of survey responses from 298 CNAs and 136 nurses in five nursing homes where CNA-empowered work teams had been implemented and five nursing homes with more traditional management approaches, the results indicated that CNA empowerment had a variety of effects. CNAs with high empowerment and the nurses who worked with them tended to report better CNA performance and work-related attitudes. Both were also less likely to be thinking about leaving their jobs. With the help of lessons learned from new culture change initiatives, and with commitment, effort, and attention, nursing homes and other health care providers can reap the benefits associated with employee empowerment strategies, such as CNA-empowered work teams.

  17. Rationale of the BREAst cancer e-healTH [BREATH] multicentre randomised controlled trial: An Internet-based self-management intervention to foster adjustment after curative breast cancer by decreasing distress and increasing empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Sanne W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background After completion of curative breast cancer treatment, patients go through a transition from patient to survivor. During this re-entry phase, patients are faced with a broad range of re-entry topics, concerning physical and emotional recovery, returning to work and fear of recurrence. Standard and easy-accessible care to facilitate this transition is lacking. In order to facilitate adjustment for all breast cancer patients after primary treatment, the BREATH intervention is aimed at 1 decreasing psychological distress, and 2 increasing empowerment, defined as patients’ intra- and interpersonal strengths. Methods/design The non-guided Internet-based self-management intervention is based on cognitive behavioural therapy techniques and covers four phases of recovery after breast cancer (Looking back; Emotional processing; Strengthening; Looking ahead. Each phase of the fully automated intervention has a fixed structure that targets consecutively psychoeducation, problems in everyday life, social environment, and empowerment. Working ingredients include Information (25 scripts, Assignment (48 tasks, Assessment (10 tests and Video (39 clips extracted from recorded interviews. A non-blinded, multicentre randomised controlled, parallel-group, superiority trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the BREATH intervention. In six hospitals in the Netherlands, a consecutive sample of 170 will be recruited of women who completed primary curative treatment for breast cancer within 4 months. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either usual care or usual care plus access to the online BREATH intervention (1:1. Changes in self-report questionnaires from baseline to 4 (post-intervention, 6 and 10 months will be measured. Discussion The BREATH intervention provides a psychological self-management approach to the disease management of breast cancer survivors. Innovative is the use of patients’ own strengths

  18. The Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention Based on the Health Belief Model in the Empowerment of Stockbreeders Against High-Risk Behaviors Associated with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Babaei


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is among the most common zoonotic diseases. Educational programs can be effective in the prevention of this disease in humans. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM in the empowerment of stockbreeders against high risk behaviors associated with brucellosis in Charuymaq county, East Azerbaijan. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 in Charuymaq county. A total of 200 people selected through stratified random sampling participated in the study. Data were collected using a researcher-designed questionnaire including items on participants' demographic information, knowledge and the HBM constructs. Training sessions were then designed and held for the intervention group. Three months after the intervention was held, data were collected from both groups and then analyzed using descriptive statistics including the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon test. Results: The mean scores obtained for knowledge, HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits and self-efficacy and brucellosis preventive behaviors showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention however, after the educational intervention, significant differences were observed between the mean scores obtained by the intervention group and the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The cooperation of charismatic individuals with intervention programs and the use of education theories can be more effective in modifying high-risk behaviors these programs should therefore be widely implemented across the country.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Sutajaya


    Full Text Available Background: Until recently, data applied for reference of Balinese workers in their work stations and processes, including anthropometric data still applying secondary data source from literature review. This was probably inappropriate due to different size, since the literature data generally on the basis of western size of anthropometry. The objective of this research, therefore, was to establish community empowerment through ergonomics training with local wisdom oriented to improve the sculptor health care quality and productivity. Ergonomics training through workshops conducted with a systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary, and participatory (SHIP approach. The training is done to make people aware of the work as a sculptor that is very important to apply ergonomics in the workplace. The results showed that ( a participants judge that ergonomics workshop can open their insights about the importance of the application of ergonomics in the workplace, (b work equipment is not in accordance with sculptor anthropometric, (c inadequate working conditions, because the workers were exposed to noise working tool more than 80 decibel and the room temperature exceeds 34OC and work a lot of cockroaches and rats roam, and (d the data of sculptor health quality is very poor, increase the workload at about13.5 %, musculoskeletal complaints at about 41.3 % , and fatigue at about 46.8 % ( p < 0.05 between before and after working. That means the work is very necessary sculptor redesigned in order to achieve comfort, safe, healthy, effective, and efficient of working conditions. It can be concluded that the ergonomics training with local wisdom oriented is required in an effort to implement the principles of ergonomics to achieve adequate health care quality sculptors and maximum productivity.

  20. Empowerment: The Emperor's New Clothes. (United States)

    Argyris, Chris


    Discusses why there has been little growth in empowerment over the past 30 years. Suggests that executives often work against empowerment both consciously and unconsciously and that they often do not seem to want what they say they need. Makes some recommendations that may help executives think more sensibly about empowerment. (JOW)

  1. Cancer survival disparities by health insurance status. (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoling; Roche, Lisa M; Pawlish, Karen S; Henry, Kevin A


    Previous studies found that uninsured and Medicaid insured cancer patients have poorer outcomes than cancer patients with private insurance. We examined the association between health insurance status and survival of New Jersey patients 18-64 diagnosed with seven common cancers during 1999-2004. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals for 5-year cause-specific survival were calculated from Cox proportional hazards regression models; health insurance status was the primary predictor with adjustment for other significant factors in univariate chi-square or Kaplan-Meier survival log-rank tests. Two diagnosis periods by health insurance status were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival log-rank tests. For breast, colorectal, lung, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and prostate cancer, uninsured and Medicaid insured patients had significantly higher risks of death than privately insured patients. For bladder cancer, uninsured patients had a significantly higher risk of death than privately insured patients. Survival improved between the two diagnosis periods for privately insured patients with breast, colorectal, or lung cancer and NHL, for Medicaid insured patients with NHL, and not at all for uninsured patients. Survival from cancer appears to be related to a complex set of demographic and clinical factors of which insurance status is a part. While ensuring that everyone has adequate health insurance is an important step, additional measures must be taken to address cancer survival disparities.

  2. Interdisciplinary information design with an empowerment strategy. (United States)

    Barlach, Anders; Engberg, Axel; Pallesen, Bodil


    An innovative research into a model for ICT enabled Empowerment. By deliberate use of ICT and a feedback-focused communication model in a prototyping process, e-health information based on an empowerment strategy is evaluated. Overall a risk-driven spiral model is applied for Progress and Complexity handling in order to ensure success. The process model devised has a proactive approach to interdisciplinary teamwork, organisational web maturity, and the post-modern user's interaction with ICT. The research is performed and evaluated in cooperation with an interdisciplinary team of health professionals, and voluntary groups of patients from an athletic clinic in a Danish University Hospital.Results are as follows: INDIVIDUAL LEVEL: Empowerment is evaluated as successful using Empiric reception analysis, based on social and humanistic sciences, and showing traces of Empowerment from the patient's perspective. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL: Nursing Informatics becomes a tool in the interdisciplinary understanding, allowing the nurses to take responsibility for core nursing themes regarding the healthy and the diseased phases of the patients' lives. Iterative modelling ensuring the results is evident and derived from the patient's perspective.

  3. Structural violence and simplified paternalistic ideas of patient empowerment decreases health care access, quality & outcome for ethnic minority patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    Increasing complexity of health care organization, rapid hyperspecialization of medical care, lack of ’patient literacy’ and pressure on patients to take over responsibility, challenges political dreams of equal access to patient centered high quality secure care....

  4. Internet health resources and the cancer patient. (United States)

    Huang, George J; Penson, David F


    The last decade has witnessed an explosion of online information regarding cancer and healthcare. Accompanying this has been a large body of research analyzing the quality of this information, how patients perceive these data and how this affects the doctor-patient relationship. This report reviews this literature, summarizing the current state of internet health resources available to the cancer patient and identifying areas for future research. Studies indicate that there are considerable internet resources available to cancer patients and that patients are using these resources as secondary information sources. Specifically, studies indicate that 16-64% of patients are using the internet to obtain health information. For the most part, patients perceive the online information to be reliable but maintain a healthy degree of skepticism. Studies objectively evaluating cancer information on the internet indicate that there is reasonable quality, although the language level of many sites is higher than that of the average American, which may limit the utility of the websites. Finally, while there is widespread internet use by physicians, healthcare providers are skeptical of their patients' ability to use the internet and may even be somewhat threatened by it. In summary, while there is a fairly large literature on internet resources available to the cancer patient, more research is needed. Specifically, it is important to better understand how patients access health information online and their associated preferences so that we can improve cancer patient's access to high quality health information on the internet to facilitate decision-making and health outcomes.

  5. Multiplicity and Regression-Empowerment-Control Model of Health Education%健康教育多元化和归元-赋权-控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 健康教育多元化及其归元-赋权-控制模型(Mu tiple Health Education, Empowerment and Control),是在对以往我国健康教育实践研究的基础上引入当代社会学、管理学、健康促进等理论建立的着重描述健康教育宏观管理的策略. 健康教育多元化属于社会多元化范畴.管理学的不同学派对多元化有不同的观点.古典学派认为多元化会限制组织的同质性而予以排斥;这之后出现的人力资源学派、系统学派、文化学派等都对多元化予以了不同程度的肯定,并且从不同层面次探讨了多元化管理的规律.1990年,莫里森和冯*格力诺(Morrison & Von Glinow)提出多元文化组织是"丰富资源",以此解释多元文化组织对工作场所的影响.1991年,考克斯和布莱克(Cox & Blake)从对多元化进行的多层面的分析,阐述了多元化带来的机遇、挑战和管理策略,提出多元化既可以带来竞争优势,也可以带来协同优势[1].

  6. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite


    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  7. Empowerment--A Strategy for Change. (United States)

    von Dran, Gisela M.


    Examines the concept of empowerment as a movement to foster the democratization of the workplace and staff development. Empowerment versus participative management, the relationship of empowerment to organizational theory, factors influencing empowerment in organizations, and possible consequences of successful empowerment for employees and…

  8. Compliance or patient empowerment in online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann


    of the discussion is complementary data from quantitative research on characteristics of patient support groups, and from two qualitative, in depth studies of the impact of patient networks for lung patients and for women with fertility problems. We conclude that in spite of the potential of online communities......New technologies enable a different organization of the public’s admission to health care services. The article discusses whether online support groups in patient treatment are to be understood in the light of patient empowerment or within the tradition of compliance. The back-ground material...... of opening up health care to the critical voice of the public, the quantitative and qualitative studies surprisingly point to a synthesis of the otherwise opposite positions of empowerment and compliance in patient care. Thereby the critical potential of online communities in health care services seems...

  9. The Effect of Customer Empowerment on Adherence to Expert Advice


    Camacho, Nuno; Jong, Martijn; Stremersch, Stefan


    textabstractCustomers often receive expert advice related to their health, finances, taxes or legal procedures, to name just a few. A noble stance taken by some is that experts should empower customers to make their own decisions. In this article, we distinguish informational from decisional empowerment and study whether empowerment leads customers to adhere more or less to expert advice. We empirically test our model using a unique dataset involving 11,735 respondents in 17 countries on four...

  10. Management on Patients with Pregnancy-induced Hypertension and Depression based on Empowerment Model Health Education%基于赋能模型健康教育对妊娠高血压患者抑郁的管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏慧华; 曾海霞; 张玮


    目的探讨基于赋能模型的健康教育对妊娠高血压患者抑郁的影响。方法将140名妊娠高血压伴抑郁的产妇按诊断时间先后分为对照组(n=70)和干预组(n=70),对照组实施常规干预,干预组以赋能模型为指导进行健康教育,并比较干预效果。结果分娩6个月后,干预组患者的EPDS得分低于对照组患者,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论基于赋能模型的健康教育,能够有效改善妊娠高血压患者产后的抑郁水平。%Objective To explore the effect of health education based on empowerment model on patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension and depression.Methods 140 puerperae with pregnancy-induced hypertension and depression were divided into the control group (n=70) and the treatment group (n=70) and depression in accordance with diagnosis date. The control group was implemented routine intervention while the treatment group was implemented health education based on empowerment model. Compared the intervention effect between two groups.Results 6 months after delivery, EPDS scores of patients in treatment group was lower than those in control group with statistically significant difference (P <0.05). Conclusion Health education based on empowerment model can effectively improve the postpartum depression level of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  11. Health Disparity and Cancer Health Disparity in China (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Jiao, Jie


    China is one of the largest and most populated countries in the world. It has undergone rapid economic growth in recent years. However, the development is not equitable, and the distribution of wealth significantly varies among the regions in China. Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities, together with the lack of an equitable national social support system, cause the high variance of health outcomes among the regions. Furthermore, the fast growth of the economy has evoked many environmental challenges and puts much pressure on the population. The severe environmental deterioration, especially of the atmosphere and water bodies, has affected the health of the people living in China. As a result, cancer has become a major public health issue, and an alarming increase in incidence and mortality has been reported. However, cancer incidence and mortality vary in different areas in China. Cancer and cancer treatment disparities have existed for years. This article will discuss the existing health and cancer disparities associated with the risk factors and how these disparities are managed in China. PMID:28083550

  12. Health disparity and cancer health disparity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang


    Full Text Available China is one of the largest and most populated countries in the world. It has undergone rapid economic growth in recent years. However, the development is not equitable, and the distribution of wealth significantly varies among the regions in China. Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities, together with the lack of an equitable national social support system, cause the high variance of health outcomes among the regions. Furthermore, the fast growth of the economy has evoked many environmental challenges and puts much pressure on the population. The severe environmental deterioration, especially of the atmosphere and water bodies, has affected the health of the people living in China. As a result, cancer has become a major public health issue, and an alarming increase in incidence and mortality has been reported. However, cancer incidence and mortality vary in different areas in China. Cancer and cancer treatment disparities have existed for years. This article will discuss the existing health and cancer disparities associated with the risk factors and how these disparities are managed in China.

  13. Does economic empowerment protect women against domestic violence? Evidence from the Philippines


    S. Quimbo; Javier, X.


    Using data from the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, we ask whether women's economic empowerment -defined alternatively as having the ability to decide on (i) daily needs, (ii) major purchases, and (iii) spending own income - protects women against domestic violence. Using a simple model of choice of conflict resolution technology among spouses, we find evidence that economic empowerment protects women in a non-linear way. Low and high levels of empowerment reduce the likelihood o...

  14. Transition to a New Cancer Care Delivery System: Opportunity for Empowerment of the Role of the Advanced Practice Provider (United States)

    McCorkle, Ruth; Engelking, Constance; Knobf, M. Tish; Lazenby, Mark; Davies, Marianne; Sipples, Rebecca; Ercolano, Ellyn; Lyons, Catherine


    The purpose of the study was to obtain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of advanced practice providers (APPs) with respect to their current roles in the context of the transition to a new cancer care delivery system, as well as factors that may influence their ability to practice at their level of training and education. Five focus groups were conducted with 15 APPs (11 nurse practitioners, 4 physician assistants). Data were collected by a recorder at each focus group. Four investigators reviewed the data from each group for accuracy and to generate an initial set of codes. Codes were compared across reviewers until consensus was reached and final themes were agreed upon. The mean age of the participants was 43.5 years (range: 27 to 63 years). The APPs practiced for an average of 11 years (range: 1 to 27 years), with a mean of 6.5 years in oncology (range: 1 to 11 years). Six themes were generated from the data related to the APP role during the transition to a new oncology care system: experiencing role tension, facing communication barriers, seeking mentorship, dealing with fragmented care, recognizing the need for professional growth, and navigating a new system. Our findings may inform administrators about the role of the APP in quality care delivery. These findings may empower APPs to practice to the full scope of their training and educational preparation, thereby facilitating their goals for professional development. PMID:25031925

  15. Performance consequences of psychological empowerment


    Tuuli, MM; Rowlinson, S


    The relationship between psychological empowerment and job performance, and whether three intermediate performance determinants; motivation, ability, and opportunity to perform hold the key to unlocking the empowerment-performance relationship dilemma are addressed. Using hierarchical linear modeling to analyze responses from 380 project management-level staff, the results show that psychological empowerment not only has direct and positive performance consequences, but also indirect effects,...

  16. Engagement, Exploration, Empowerment. (United States)

    Stoffel, Virginia Ginny


    Engagement, exploration, and empowerment are significant practice strategies used by occupational therapy practitioners as a means of getting to know what matters to clients and how to facilitate their participation in everyday life. Applied to the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) as an organization, professional engagement, exploration of new service contexts, and empowerment of members to take an active role in shaping the profession's future are examined. This address, given at the 2015 AOTA Annual Convention & Expo, looks to the future in terms of engaging greater numbers of members; participating in Vision 2025, a strategic planning initiative that will be unveiled at the 2016 AOTA Annual Conference & Expo; and empowering members to achieve excellence in occupational therapy.

  17. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women (United States)

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari


    Introduction Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. Results The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). Conclusion By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women’s power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy.

  18. Empowered: Objectification and Empowerment


    Brøndum Reeh, Emilie; Kirpekar-Sauer, Sarah Rashmi; Ziebe, Sarah Kebedech; Klostergaard, Luna; Remo Finderup, Nicoline; Zlate, Roxana Gabriela


    The project is about feminism, objectification and empowerment as portrayed through the comic Empowered from 2007. The discussion centers around the repercussions of objectification in the comic, and how it illustrates women’s position in a postmodern society. Objectification identification theories by Nussbaum, Langton and Heldman have been applied to the comic to establish how objectification is displayed in the comic. The analysis found that the protagonist of the comic is both objectified...

  19. A model for empowerment of nursing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsali Mahvash


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the Iranian nursing profession tries to reach to its full capacity for participating in the maintenance of public health, its desire to develop is strongly influenced by cultural, economic, and religious factors. The concept of empowerment is frequently used in nursing and the health services, particularly in relation to the quality of care, since the mission of nursing is to provide safe and quality nursing care thereby enabling patients to achieve their maximum level of wellness. When considering the importance of nursing services in any health system, the 54th World Health Assembly recommended that programs be designed to strengthen and promote the nursing profession. Since empowerment is crucial to the role of nurses, a qualitative study was conducted and aimed at designing a model for empowering nurses in Iran. Methods A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the participants' experiences, their perceptions and the strategies affecting empowerment. Data collection was done through Semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Forty-four participants were interviewed and 12 sessions of observation were carried out. Results Three main categories emerged from the data collected; these are "personal empowerment", "collective empowerment", and "the culture and structure of the organization." From the participants' perspective, empowerment is a dynamic process that results from mutual interaction between personal and collective traits of nurses as well as the culture and the structure of the organization. Impediments, such as power dynamics within the health care system hinder nurses from demonstrating that they possess the essential ingredients of empowerment. Conclusion A model was designed for empowering the nursing profession in Iran. Implementing this model will not only define nursing roles, identify territories in the national healthcare system, but it will restructure nursing systems, sub

  20. Clinical and Neurobiological Perspectives of Empowering Pediatric Cancer Patients Using Videogames. (United States)

    Govender, Meveshni; Bowen, Randy C; German, Massiell L; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Bruggers, Carol S


    Pediatric oncology patients often experience fatigue and physical and mental deconditioning during and following chemotherapy treatments, contributing to diminished quality of life. Patient empowerment is a core principle of patient-centered care and reflects one's ability to positively affect his or her own health behavior and health status. Empowerment interventions may enhance patients' internal locus of control, resilience, coping skills, and self-management of symptoms related to disease and therapy. Clinical and technological advancements in therapeutic videogames and mobile medical applications (mobile health) can facilitate delivery of the empowerment interventions for medical purposes. This review summarizes clinical strategies for empowering pediatric cancer patients, as well as their relationship with developing a "fighting spirit" in physical and mental health. To better understand physiological aspects of empowerment and to elucidate videogame-based intervention strategies, brain neuronal circuits and neurotransmitters during stress, fear, and resilience are also discussed. Neuroimaging studies point to the role of the reward system pathways in resilience and empowerment in patients. Taken together, videogames and mobile health applications open translational research opportunities to develop and deliver empowerment interventions to pediatric cancer patients and also to those with other chronic diseases.

  1. The empowerment of low-income parents engaged in a childhood obesity intervention. (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M; Lawson, Hal A; Green Mills, Lisa L; Wilner, Paul G; Davison, Kirsten K


    Parents influence children's obesity risk factors but are infrequently targeted for interventions. This study targeting low-income parents integrated a community-based participatory research approach with the Family Ecological Model and Empowerment Theory to develop a childhood obesity intervention. This article (1) examines pre- to postintervention changes in parents' empowerment; (2) determines the effects of intervention dose on empowerment, and (3) determines whether changes in parent empowerment mediate previous changes identified in food-, physical activity-, and screen-related parenting. The pre-post quasi-experimental design evaluation demonstrated positive changes in parent empowerment and empowerment predicted improvement in parenting practices. The integrated model applied in this study provides a means to enhance intervention relevance and guide translation to other childhood obesity and health disparities studies.

  2. Health Management of Breast Cancer Survivors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Juan Chen; Zhendong Chen


    Breast cancer is defined as a chronic disease.Increasing amounts of attention have been paid to the health management of breast cancer survivors. An important issue is how to find the most appropriate method of follow-up in order to detect long-term complications of treatment, local recurrence and distant metastasis and to administer appropriate treatment to the survivors with recurrence in a timely fashion. Different oncology organizations have published guidelines for following up breast cancer survivors. However, there are few articles on this issue in China. Using the published follow-up guidelines,we analyzed their main limitations and discussed the content,follow-up interval and economic benefits of following up breast cancer survivors in an effort to provide suggestions to physicians.Based on a large number of clinical trials, we discussed the role of physical examination, mammography, liver echograph, chest radiography, bone scan and so on. We evaluated the effects of the above factors on detection of distant disease, survival time,improvement in quality of life and time to diagnosis of recurrence.The results of follow-up carried out by oncologists and primary health care physicians were compared. We also analyzed the correlation factors for the cost of such follow-up. It appears that follow-up for breast cancer survivors can be carried out effectively by trained primary health care physicians. If anything unusual arises, the patients should be transferred to specialists.

  3. Empowerment Evaluation as Evaluation Ideology (United States)

    Smith, Nick L.


    As with many forms of evaluation, empowerment evaluation can be viewed as an ideology that promotes a particular set of social and professional values. Judging the quality and utility of empowerment evaluation thus requires a critical appraisal of the implications of adopting those values.

  4. Habermas, Empowerment, and Professional Discourse. (United States)

    Blyler, Nancy Roundy


    Uses Jurgen Habermas' theory of communicative action to explore the issue of empowerment. Describes a communicative situation now common in public life (scientific and technical forces arrayed against citizenry). Applies Habermas' theory to that situation. Claims that empowerment remains only a communicative ideal. (HB)

  5. An interactive portal to empower cancer survivors: a qualitative study on user expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, W.; Groen, W.G.; Loos, R.; Oldenburg, H.S.A.; Wouters, M.W.J.M.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, W.H.


    Purpose: Portals are increasingly used to improve patient empowerment, but are still uncommon in oncology. In this study, we explored cancer survivors’ and health professionals’ expectations of possible features of an interactive portal. Methods: We conducted three focus groups with breast cancer su

  6. An interactive portal to empower cancer survivors: a qualitative study on user expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Wilma; Groen, Wim G.; Loos, Romy; Oldenburg, Hester S.A.; Wouters, Michel W.J.M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Harten, van W.H.


    Purpose Portals are increasingly used to improve patient empowerment, but are still uncommon in oncology. In this study, we explored cancer survivors’ and health professionals’ expectations of possible features of an interactive portal. Methods We conducted three focus groups with breast cancer sur

  7. Mental health of patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Τogas Κ.


    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer is a very common type of cancer. The psychological reactions of these patients haven't been studied yet. Aim: The examination of the mental health of lung cancer patients. Methods: A bibliographical review of relevant articles was conducted at the electronic data bases of Pubmed, Pcych Info and Scholar Google by key-words. The quest included researches and reviews which have been published in Greek and English language between 1990- 2013. Results: Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer and the main cause of death from cancer. The psychological reaction depends on the symptomatology, the co- morbidity, the cell type, the physical and social functionality, the therapy. The most important needs of the patients are the emotional ones as well as the need of information. The patients mention the highest levels of psychological discontent and stigmatization in comparison to other types of cancer. They show lots of psychological disorders, with depression to be the most common (11%- 44%. Very few researches have examine the confrontation strategies. Health professionals are the main source of information for the patients and the help that they provide is correlated with all the dimensions of the quality of life (except of the social ones. Oncologists don't recognize in a satisfying degree the patients with distress. Most of the patients use in a limited degree the mental health services. Important determinants of survival are the emotional distress, depression and the coping strategies. Different methods of psychotherapy can be applied in order to diminish the psychological distress. The behavioural interventions decrease nausea and sickness and the disturbance of pain and anxiety. The palliative and supportive care have to be applied as sooner as possible. Conclusion: The psychological reaction in lung cancer is complicated. There is need for appliance of psychotherapeutic interventions at the patients, in order to

  8. The application of an empowerment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E; van Delft, B; Slomp, J


    In this study we applied an empowerment model that focuses on (a) the need for empowerment in light of organizational strategy, (b) job design issues such as job enlargement and job enrichment that facilitate empowerment, and (c) the abilities, and (d) the attitudes of workers that make empowerment

  9. Making healthy choices easy choices: the role of empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelen, M.A.; Lindström, B.


    An important goal of health promotion is to make it easier for people to make healthy choices. However, this may be difficult if people do not feel control over their environment and their personal circumstances. An important concept in relation to this is empowerment. Health professionals are expec

  10. Dimensions of patient empowerment: implications for professional services marketing. (United States)

    Ouschan, R; Sweeney, J C; Johnson, L W


    The focus on preventive health care and self care coupled with the public's improved access to health care information has pushed patient empowerment to the forefront. This has prompted several medical scholars to identify and stipulate the multiple dimensions of patient empowerment. These dimensions (patient participation, patient control and patient education) have already been recognised on an individual basis by service marketers. What is proposed here is to consider all three dimensions simultaneously to manage clients of professional services that demand a significant amount of client input.

  11. Danish cancer patients’ perspective on health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager, Mette; Sperling, Cecilie; Jensen, Henry;


    of the health care they have received, in regard to access to diagnostics, coordination and continuity of care, information and communication and involvement of patients and relatives. Questions and the opportunity to comment in free text were distributed to 6,720 newly diagnosed cancer patients in the summer...... for improvements with regard to better access to diagnostics, healthcare professionals’ responsiveness to patients, improved coordination and involvement of patient and relatives. There is a need to focus more on individual needs and patient-centered care.......Patient’s experiences and patient surveys are increasingly being used for the evaluation of the quality of health care. Patient information is valuable input when we aim to improve healthcare services. The aim of this study was to assess Danish cancer patients’ experiences and assessment...

  12. On power and empowerment. (United States)

    Pratto, Felicia


    This study presents a conceptual analysis of social power. The most common theories of power are social-relational, an approach instantiated in a range of contemporary experiments that give participants the chance to control other people's outcomes. The relational approach is also reflected in various analyses of international relations. In comparing and contrasting relational theories of power, I identify logical inconsistencies and shortcomings in their ability to address empowerment and reductions in inequality. In turn, I propose a new ecological conceptualization of empowerment as the state of being able to achieve one's goals and of power as stemming from a combination of the capacity of the party and the affordances of the environment. I explain how this new conceptualization can describe the main kinds of power social relations, avoid logical contradictions, and moreover, distinguish power from agency and from control. This new conceptualization of power as the possibility of meeting goals, coupled with recognizing survival as the fundamental goal of all living things, implies an absolute and not relative or relational standard for power, namely well-being. It also allows us to conceive of power in ways that help address the many social concerns that have motivated research on power.

  13. 授权式教育在行PICC化疗患儿家属健康教育中的应用%Application of empowerment education in health education of families of children receiving chemotherapy with percutaneously inserted central catheter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈燕; 周玉峰; 王娟


    Objective To study the application effects of empowerment education in health education for families of children receiving chemotherapy with percutaneously inserted central catheter .Method Thirty five families of chil-dren diagnosed with malignancy and placed with percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) were enrolled in this study .Anxiety indexes of families of children before and after placed with PICC were assessed by Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) established by Zung .Knowledge level of before and after PICC placement was evaluated by homemade health education evaluation .Result Compared with the parents of children before PICC treatment ,they known better of PICC after empowerment education (P< 0 .05) .Parents'anxiety was significantly reduced after PICC treatment ,There was significant differences between the two (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Empowerment education makes the families to participate in all aspects of health care ,changing their behavior and mental fitness and impro-ving their autonomy participation significantly .%目的:探讨授权式教育在行PICC化疗患儿家属健康教育中应用的效果。方法选取确诊为恶性肿瘤患儿行PICC置管的家属35例,分别在置管前和置管后采用Zung焦虑自评量表(SAS)测定家属焦虑指数,应用自制健康教育评价表观察比较置管前后家属对置管相关知识的掌握情况。结果置管后患儿家属对授权式教育获得的PICC知识掌握情况优于置管前(P<0.05),焦虑情绪明显减轻,与置管前相比差异有显著意义(P<0.05)。结论授权式教育让家庭参与健康照顾的各个方面,改变患儿家属行为方式和心理适应度,明显提升了患儿家属的自主性和参与性。

  14. An empowerment-based educational program improves psychological well-being and health-related quality of life in Type 1 diabetes. (United States)

    Forlani, G; Zannoni, C; Tarrini, G; Melchionda, N; Marchesini, G


    Educational programs are reported to improve metabolic control and well-being in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), but the effects of newly- structured interventions, aimed at promoting empowerment in educated patients in active selfcare, have received little attention. Ninety patients with Type 1 DM in intensive insulin treatment were invited to an empowerment-based educational intervention. Changes in quality of life and psychological well-being in the 54 patients participating in the program (median age, 44 yr) were compared with those measured in patients who refused. The following questionnaires were administered at baseline and 12 months later: Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), Medical Outcome Survey Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and Well-Being Enquiry for Diabetics (WED). Baseline values were indicative of moderate, but significant, psychological distress in the whole cohort. At follow-up, the experimental group had a better metabolic control {glycosylated hemoglobin, -0.4% [time x treatment analysis of variance (ANOVA), p = 0.005 vs controls]}, and a general improvement in comprehensive indices and most scales of PGWB and SF-36. Vitality (p = 0.042) and Social Functioning (p = 0.039) were no longer different from population norm. Similarly, the Symptoms (p = 0.005), Discomfort (p = 0.043) and Impact scales (p = 0.032) of WED, reflecting physical functioning, diabetes-related worries and familial relationships, role functioning and social network, improved significantly in treated patients. An educational empowerment-based intervention significantly improves the psychosocial aspects of diabetes and quality of life also in patients in active and effective self-care. Repeated educational interventions are the way towards a normal life with Type 1 DM.

  15. Environment and Health: Not Only Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colao


    Full Text Available The Hippocratic tradition emphasized environmental causes of diseases and the need for harmony between the individual and the natural environment as the right philosophy to maintain a good health status. Public awareness and scientific attention concerning environmental pollution is usually focused on the consequent increased risk of developing cancer. Air pollution has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO to cause cardiovascular and respiratroy diseases, as well as lung cancer, after acute/chronic exposure to fine particulates (PM2.5 and PM10 even at concentrations which are 50% lower than those accepted as legal limits in many developed countries. An increase of 10 µg/m3 of PM2.5 produces a +4%–6% of overall mortality, a +10% of cardiovascular disease prevalence (arithmyas, acute myocardial infarctions, and heart failure and a +22% of lung cancer prevalence. In addition to these chronic effects, acute hospitalizations are also affected, especially among susceptible populations such as children and diabetic patients. Water and soil contamination also have an additional detrimental effect on people’s health. Other issues concerning environment contamination and human health include male/female fertility, metabolic and thyroid conditions, but also professional exposures resulting in occupational diseases. Moreover, in the perspective of “gender medicine”, different acute or chronic effects of environmental pollution should be specifically assessed both in men and in women. This special issue on “Environmental Diseases” is aimed at providing a global overview about different threats to human health possibily originating from environmental contamination.

  16. Validating an Agency-based Tool for Measuring Women’s Empowerment in a Complex Public Health Trial in Rural Nepal (United States)

    Gram, Lu; Morrison, Joanna; Sharma, Neha; Shrestha, Bhim; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Saville, Naomi; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene


    Abstract Despite the rising popularity of indicators of women’s empowerment in global development programmes, little work has been done on the validity of existing measures of such a complex concept. We present a mixed methods validation of the use of the Relative Autonomy Index for measuring Amartya Sen’s notion of agency freedom in rural Nepal. Analysis of think-aloud interviews (n = 7) indicated adequate respondent understanding of questionnaire items, but multiple problems of interpretation including difficulties with the four-point Likert scale, questionnaire item ambiguity and difficulties with translation. Exploratory Factor Analysis of a calibration sample (n = 511) suggested two positively correlated factors (r = 0.64) loading on internally and externally motivated behaviour. Both factors increased with decreasing education and decision-making power on large expenditures and food preparation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis on a validation sample (n = 509) revealed good fit (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation 0.05–0.08, Comparative Fit Index 0.91–0.99). In conclusion, we caution against uncritical use of agency-based quantification of women’s empowerment. While qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed overall satisfactory construct and content validity, the positive correlation between external and internal motivations suggests the existence of adaptive preferences. High scores on internally motivated behaviour may reflect internalized oppression rather than agency freedom.

  17. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte


    The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...... identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment...

  18. Healthcare IT and Patient Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danholt, Peter; Bødker, Keld; Hertzum, Morten;


    This short paper outlines a recently initiated research project that concerns healthcare information systems and patient empowerment. Drawing on various theoretical backgrounds, Participatory Design (PD), Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Computer Mediated Communication (CMC), and Science...

  19. Empowerment: a nursing management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Booyens


    Full Text Available Empowerment as a term and empowerment in nursing management is presently an issue that is frequently addressed in the literature regarding management.

    Bemagtiging as a term, en bemagtiging in verpleegbestuur is 'n kwessie wat tans gereeld aangespreek word in literatuur oor bestuur. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  20. Assessing women empowerment in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour


    This review discusses the religious and cultural challenges to the empowerment of women in some patriarchal societies in Africa. The article takes a critical reflection on some of the contextual deficiencies of the gender empowerment measure (GEM) developed by the United Nations Development Progr...... empowerment measures and indicators should be sensitive to the context and values of those it seeks to assess rather than adopting abstract mappings that tend to reduce and universalise all women in all societies.......This review discusses the religious and cultural challenges to the empowerment of women in some patriarchal societies in Africa. The article takes a critical reflection on some of the contextual deficiencies of the gender empowerment measure (GEM) developed by the United Nations Development...... Programme (UNDP) as a universal benchmark for assessing gender inequality. It has been highlighted that agency is a necessary component in the conceptualisation and realisation of women empowerment particularly in Africa. The article further demonstrates that the GEM has capitalist, elitist and Eurocentric...

  1. Learning about health: The pupils' and the school health nurses assessment of the health dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina K.

    Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialouge, school health nurse......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialouge, school health nurse...

  2. Learning about health: The pupils' and the school health nurses assessment of the health dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina K.

    Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiental learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialogue, school health nurse......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiental learning, HBSC, health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children, adolescents, health dialogue, school health nurse...

  3. ”Det monitorerede mig – empowerment eller patologisering?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Lisbeth Højbjerg


    mig» en mulighed for frisættende autonomi – en empowerment? Eller bidrager monitoreringen i stedet til individualisering eller patologisering, hvor vi gennem ejerskabet af vores egen fortælling, producerer et overansvar for eksempelvis hvilken behandling vi skal modtage, eller hvordan vores...... arbejdsmiljø bør være? Nøgleord: Etik, humanistisk sundhedsforskning, selvmonitorering, Ecological Momentary Storytelling English summary: The Monitored Me - empowerment or pathologization? Healthcare apps have become a major industry. We can freely download thousands of apps, that enable us to monitor...... the "monitored me” and hereafter discuss how these self-interpretations position the user. Is “the monitored me” an opportunity for liberating autonomy – for empowerment? Or does it contribute to individualization or pathologization? Keywords: Ethics, humanistic health research, self-monitoring, Ecological...

  4. [Fusing empowerment concept into patient-centered collaborative care model]. (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Lin, Chiu-Chu


    Chronic diseases are incurable, long-term illnesses. To improve quality of life, patients with chronic diseases must adjust their own personal lifestyle to cope with their diseases and eventually learn to achieve a balance between disease control and daily life. Therefore, self-management necessarily plays a key role in chronic disease management. Different from physician-centered healthcare, the self-management practiced by chronic disease patients is more patient-centered with a greater emphasis on active patient participation. The main goal of this article is to elucidate the essence of the empowerment concept. An example of diabetes care, this article introduces a detailed five-step application as a basic model for incorporating the empowerment concept into the healthcare of patients with chronic disease. The author suggests that healthcare providers apply the empowerment model in clinical practice to assist patients to maintain an optimal balance between their health status and personal lives.

  5. Roma Empowerment and Social Inclusion Through Work-Integrated Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Crondahl, Kristine


    The basis for this article was a health promotion program based on participatory action research and work-integrated learning (WIL). Seven Roma people were employed and trained to work as local coordinators to empower the local Roma community by strengthening their participation in society...... and their sense of community, as well as to promote self-led integration. The study aimed to analyze the program from the Roma coordinators’ perspectives, focusing on perceived individual empowerment and perceptions of contribution to the common good and to community empowerment. The findings, based...... on qualitative data, primarily interviews with the Roma coordinators, indicated that the WIL approach, the participatory nature of the program, and the trust and support from the Roma colleagues and non-Roma facilitators were essential for the development of empowerment. Three main themes emerged that portrayed...

  6. The impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on Chines nurses' job satisfaction. (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Bin; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Qu, Hui


    Abstract Background: Research findings have shown that job satisfaction of Chinese nurses is at a low level. Limited studies have focused on the impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on job satisfaction of Chinese nurses. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organizational commitment of Chinese nurses and to explore the impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on the nurses' job satisfaction. Methods: A total of 726 nurses were recruited in a convenience sample from 10 tertiary hospitals. Data were collected using four questionnaires including Job Satisfaction Survey, Psychological Empowerment Scale, Organizational Commitment Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis. Results: Nurses' job satisfaction, psychological empowerment, and organizational commitment were identified at moderate levels. Nurses' job satisfaction and psychological empowerment were significantly different in terms of age and length of service; nurse job satisfaction varied with respect to marital status. Findings further indicated that nurse job satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological empowerment and organizational commitment. Psychological empowerment, organizational commitment, and marital status were significant predicting factors of nurse job satisfaction. Conclusions: This study provides evidence to help nursing managers and health policy-makers to develop intervention programs aimed at enhancing nurse job satisfaction and retaining nurses.

  7. Association of eHealth literacy with cancer information seeking and prior experience with cancer screening. (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Moon, Mikyung; Baeg, Jung Hoon


    Cancer is a critical disease with a high mortality rate in the US. Although useful information exists on the Internet, many people experience difficulty finding information about cancer prevention because they have limited eHealth literacy. This study aimed to identify relationships between the level of eHealth literacy and cancer information seeking experience or prior experience with cancer screening tests. A total of 108 adults participated in this study through questionnaires. Data covering demographics, eHealth literacy, cancer information seeking experience, educational needs for cancer information searching, and previous cancer screening tests were obtained. Study findings show that the level of eHealth literacy influences cancer information seeking. Individuals with low eHealth literacy are likely to be less confident about finding cancer information. In addition, people who have a low level of eHealth literacy need more education about seeking information than do those with a higher level of eHealth literacy. However, there is no significant relationship between eHealth literacy and cancer screening tests. More people today are using the Internet for access to information to maintain good health. It is therefore critical to educate those with low eHealth literacy so they can better self-manage their health.

  8. Microfinance and female empowerment : Do institutions matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, Hirut Bekele; Bock, Bettina; Folmer, Henk


    Microfinance programmes increasingly target poor women in developing countries with the expectation that, besides poverty reduction, having access to microcredit advances their empowerment. However, research provides conflicting evidence and shows that empowerment may not, or may only be partially a

  9. Microfinance and female empowerment: Do institutions matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile Hirut, Bekele; Folmer, H.; Bock, B.B.


    Microfinance programmes increasingly target poor women in developing countries with the expectation that, besides poverty reduction, having access to microcredit advances their empowerment. However, research provides conflicting evidence and shows that empowerment may not, or may only be partially a

  10. The relation between conscientiousness, empowerment and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riëtte Sutherland


    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, empowerment and job performance among information technology professionals. An Employee Empowerment Questionnaire (EEQ, a Conscientiousness Scale and a Social Desirability Scale were administered to 101 information technology customer service engineers. Managers completed a Performance Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ for each customer service engineer. The results indicated a significant relationship between conscientiousness and empowerment. A curvilinear relationship was found between empowerment and performance. The practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. The politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    of recognition and respect: Involving people with experience of poverty in decision-making that affects their lives. Majorie Mayo: Exclusion, inclusion and empowerment: Community empowerment? Reflecting on the lessons of strategies to promote empowerment. Pauline McClenaghan: Redifining citizenship: Community...

  12. Validation of Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS in the Portuguese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José de Sousa Franco


    Full Text Available Introduction: Since when midwives are prominent in different socio-cultural contexts of individuals and populations associated with the control of women during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum? In Portugal, the level of training of nurses in breastfeeding and obstetric has evolved, is considered the most advanced in the European context, and this would have posed new challenges for these professionals. Methodology: focusing on what the perception of empowerment that have specialized nurses in midwifery and maternal health in Portugal, it was decided to conduct this study, entitled "Validation of the Portuguese population scale - Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS" . We responded to the research question, what are the levels of empowerment of nurses in nursing and midwifery maternal health in Portugal? Objective: To determine the level of empowerment of nurses in nursing and midwifery maternal health in Portugal. In this study we used the quantitative method and descriptive. To accomplish this we proceeded to the implementation of a data collection instrument organized into two distinct parts. The first part allowed us to collect sociodemographic data and professional reviewers. In the second use "Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale" (Matthews, Scott, and Gallagher, 2009, measuring tool we had to validate cross-culturally. The study presented here took samples of 309 Portuguese health nurses maternal obstetrical nurse specialists. Results: 'Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS' (Matthews, Scott, and Gallagher, 2009, presents a framework pentafatorial (effective management and interdisciplinary relationships, sustained and autonomous practice, professional communication and consent, recognition health team, training and education, which together account for 72.9% of the variance of the results. On average, nurses in maternal health nursing and midwifery have a low level of empowerment, the lowest level

  13. Determinants of increased primary health care use in cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.; Schellevis, F.; Rijken, M.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.


    Purpose: The number of cancer survivors is increasing, and patients with cancer often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment. Because of the variety of health problems and high prevalence of comorbidity, primary care physicians (PCPs) seem obvious candidates to take care of

  14. The Impact of Breast Cancer Screening on Population Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien)


    textabstractBreast cancer is an important public health problem with an estimated number of 1.38 million breast cancer cases and 458,000 deaths from the disease yearly worldwide. Randomized trials have shown that mammography screening significantly reduces breast cancer mortality. Besides the benefi

  15. Health Information Seeking and Cancer Screening Adherence Rates. (United States)

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Arheart, Kristopher L; Byrne, Margaret M; Kornfeld, Julie; Schwartz, Seth J


    Effective screening tools are available for many of the top cancer killers in the USA. Searching for health information has previously been found to be associated with adhering to cancer screening guidelines, but Internet information seeking has not been examined separately. The current study examines the relationship between health and cancer Internet information seeking and adherence to cancer screening guidelines for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in a large nationally representative dataset. The current study was conducted using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey from 2003 and 2007. The study examined age-stratified models which correlated health and cancer information seeking with getting breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening on schedule, while controlling for several key variables. Internet health and cancer information seeking was positively associated with getting Pap screening on schedule, while information seeking from any sources was positively associated with getting colorectal screening on schedule. People who look for health or cancer information are more likely to get screened on schedule. Some groups of people, however, do not exhibit this relationship and, thus, may be more vulnerable to under-screening. These groups may benefit more from targeted interventions that attempt to engage people in their health care more actively.

  16. Measurement of community empowerment in three community programs in Rapla (Estonia). (United States)

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard


    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality's decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community's priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment.

  17. Learning about health: The pupils' and the school health nurses' assessment of the health dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina K.

    Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC), health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children......Public health, health promotion, empowerment, experiential learning, health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC), health survey, qualitative interviews, grounded theory, school children...

  18. Faculty empowerment of students to foster civility in nursing education: a merging of two conceptual models. (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia M; Davis Kenaley, Bonnie L


    Academic incivility negatively impacts faculty and student well-being, weakens professional relationships, and impedes effective teaching and learning. This article addresses the prevalent concern of student incivility and provides useful strategies for faculty to empower students. Two conceptual models, Fostering Civility in Nursing Education and an Empowerment Model, were merged to illustrate how the concepts of civility and empowerment can be combined to foster civility in nursing education. Empowerment domains of motivation, psychic comfort, problem-solving, and self-direction are explored as influential factors promoting constructive reciprocal engagement and civility and, ultimately, enhancing professionalism in a complex and ever-changing health system.

  19. NCCN Task Force Report: Bone Health In Cancer Care. (United States)

    Gralow, Julie R; Biermann, J Sybil; Farooki, Azeez; Fornier, Monica N; Gagel, Robert F; Kumar, Rashmi; Litsas, Georgia; McKay, Rana; Podoloff, Donald A; Srinivas, Sandy; Van Poznak, Catherine H


    Bone health and maintenance of bone integrity are important components of comprehensive cancer care. Many patients with cancer are at risk for therapy-induced bone loss, with resultant osteoporotic fractures, or skeletal metastases, which may result in pathologic fractures, hypercalcemia, bone pain, and decline in motility and performance status. Effective screening and timely interventions are essential for reducing bone-related morbidity. Management of long-term bone health requires a broad knowledge base. A multidisciplinary health care team may be needed for optimal assessment and treatment of bone-related issues in patients with cancer. Since publication of the previous NCCN Task Force Report: Bone Health in Cancer Care in 2009, new data have emerged on bone health and treatment, prompting NCCN to convene this multidisciplinary task force to discuss the progress made in optimizing bone health in patients with cancer. In December 2012, the panel members provided didactic presentations on various topics, integrating expert judgment with a review of the key literature. This report summarizes issues surrounding bone health in cancer care presented and discussed during this NCCN Bone Health in Cancer Care Task Force meeting.

  20. Estimation of health state utilities in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH


    Full Text Available Seon-Ha Kim,1 Min-Woo Jo,2 Minsu Ock,2 Hyeon-Jeong Lee,2 Jong-Won Lee3,4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Dankook University, Cheonan, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 4Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the utility of breast cancer health states using the standard gamble (SG and visual analog scale (VAS methods in the Korean general population.Materials and methods: Eight hypothetical breast cancer health states were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. Data from 509 individuals from the Korean general population were used to evaluate breast cancer health states using the VAS and the SG methods, which were obtained via computer-assisted personal interviews. Mean utility values were calculated for each human papillomavirus (HPV-related health state.Results: The rank of health states was identical between two valuation methods. SG values were higher than VAS values in all health states. The utility values derived from SG were 0.801 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy and followed by reconstruction, 0.790 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy only, 0.779 (noninvasive breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy, 0.731 (invasive breast cancer with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, 0.610 (locally advanced breast cancer with radical mastectomy with radiation therapy, 0.587 (inoperable locally advanced breast cancer, 0.496 (loco-regional recurrent breast cancer, and 0.352 (metastatic breast cancer.Conclusion: Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation of breast cancer screening and interventions in general populations. Keywords: breast neoplasm, Korea, quality-adjusted life years, quality of life

  1. Health Assets in Nursing Documentation of Cancer Care.


    Rotegård, Ann Kristin; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Ruland, Cornelia M.


    Patients’ experiences, knowledge and preferences, as well as more person-centered care need to be implemented in clinical support systems and are central values and outcomes of eHealth. Health assets represent such information. The concept of health assets was explored and described based on analysis of nursing documentation in cancer patients’ records.

  2. Psychosocial rehabilitation activities, empowerment, and quality of community-based life for people with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Chou, Kuei-Ru; Shih, Ya-Wen; Chang, Chueh; Chou, Yi-Ying; Hu, Wei-Herng; Cheng, Josephjror-Serk; Yang, Chiu-Yueh; Hsieh, Chia-Jung


    Many variables influencing quality of life (QOL) for outpatients with schizophrenia have been identified from prior studies. Symptom severity, psychosocial rehabilitation activities, and empowerment have all been clearly identified as key variables. However, which variables are the most influential and important factors remains unknown; factors influencing QOL, either directly or indirectly and to what degree, need to be examined. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that empowerment is a possible mediator of how (a) psychiatric symptoms and (b) psychosocial rehabilitation activities affect QOL for outpatients with schizophrenia in the community. We used the probability proportional to size random sampling for 190 outpatients with schizophrenia at 10 community rehabilitation centers in Taipei, such that samples consisted of adults who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. The instruments included the questionnaire to gather demographic and disease information, the Empowerment Scale, the Psychiatric Symptoms Scale, the psychosocial rehabilitation activity (PRA), and the Quality of Life Scale for Psychiatric Patients. Beyond descriptive statistics, correlation and structural equation models were computed. Findings showed that empowerment in outpatients with schizophrenia mediates QOL, whereas psychosocial rehabilitation activities seem to increase empowerment, which may in turn increase QOL. Psychotic symptoms seem to have a direct effect of decreasing QOL that could not be mediated by empowerment. Empowerment had a significant effect on QOL for outpatients with schizophrenia. The findings of this study support the importance of empowerment and rehabilitation activities for promoting QOL among community outpatients. We suggest that various rehabilitation programs and empowerment health education are needed to enhance QOL for schizophrenia outpatients in the community.

  3. "La Comunidad Habla": Using Internet Community-Based Information Interventions to Increase Empowerment and Access to Health Care of Low Income Latino/a Immigrants (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; Nelson, Sara


    The innovative educational communication interventions described in this paper include the use of bi-lingual, low literacy level websites and training created by low income Latina women to increase access to health care, health information, and the internet. We focus on one grassroots intervention, aimed at increasing access to health care for…

  4. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority. (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio


    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  5. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio


    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  6. The Relation between Awareness of Cancer Diagnosis and Spiritual Health among Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sadat Aghahosseini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Disclosure of cancer diagnosis is one the main challenges in caring of patients with cancer since it may have negative effects on the spiritual health of patients. No study has ever been performed in Iran to investigate the relationship between awareness of cancer diagnosis and spiritual health in cancer patients. Therefore, the present study aimed to review the effects of awareness of cancer on spiritual health in patients with cancer. Methods: This was a descriptive-comparative study conducted in Shahid Ghazi Tabatabaei University Hospital in 2009. The subjects included 150 patients aware of their cancer diagnosis and 150 unaware patients. The patients were selected through convenient sampling method. Using a questionnaire, the patient's spiritual health was assessed. Data analysis was conducted in SPSS17 using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Results showed the mean (SD of spiritual health among aware and unaware patients to be 75.1 (3.8 and 75.4 (3.9, respectively. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the spiritual health of the two groups (p = 0.96. Conclusion: These findings showed that awareness of cancer diagnosis had no effects on spiritual health of patients. It is not surprising considering Iranian culture. However, confirmation of this finding requires further studies.

  7. Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment. (United States)

    Zimmerman, M A; Rappaport, J


    The research integrates the citizen participation literature with research on perceived control in an effort to further our understanding of psychological empowerment. Eleven indices of empowerment representing personality, cognitive, and motivational measures were identified to represent the construct. Three studies examined the relationship between empowerment and participation. The first study examined differences among groups identified by a laboratory manipulation as willing to participate in personally relevant or community relevant situations. Study II examined differences for groups defined by actual involvement in community activities and organizations. Study III replicated Study II with a different population. In each study, individuals reporting a greater amount of participation scored higher on indices of empowerment. Psychological empowerment could be described as the connection between a sense of personal competence, a desire for, and a willingness to take action in the public domain. Discriminant function analyses resulted in one significant dimension, identified as pyschological empowerment, that was positively correlated with leadership and negatively correlated with alienation.

  8. Oral health after breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Amódio


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Oral health can affect a patient’s general health and quality of life. Given the increase in breast cancer survival rates, investigations of factors influencing the quality of life of survivors have gained importance. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize oral health in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study. Forty-eight women who survived breast cancer (age 62.1±9.1 years and 48 healthy controls (age 61.8±8.6 years were included. For each case and control, a complete oral evaluation chart was completed. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic periodontal disease was 98% in breast cancer survivors and 87% in controls. The breast cancer survivors had a median of 16 remaining teeth, whereas controls had a median of 22 remaining teeth (p = 0.03. The percentage of sites with gingival bleeding was 16.05% (0-100% in breast cancer survivors and 0% (0-72% in controls (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Chronic periodontal disease and tooth loss were highly prevalent in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. To improve survivors’ quality of life, a preventive oral health evaluation should be available prior to cancer treatment.

  9. Adolescents with Functional Somatic Symptoms: The influence of family therapy on empowerment and illness beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Rask, Charlotte; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte

    (IPA). Results: Preliminary data from a pilotstudy with 2 families, from interviews conducted prior to family therapy, indicate that illness beliefs and sense of empowerment may be diverging for children and their parents, and are influenced by many factors, such as health professionals, family history......Background: Young patients with Functional Somatic Symptoms (FSS) are common and may present in all clinical settings. Psychological treatment targeting dysfunctional illness beliefs and poor sense of empowerment has been shown effective for FSS in adults. In comparison current knowledge about...... psychological treatment and the significance of illness beliefs and empowerment in children and adolescents with severe FSS is scarce. Aims: To conduct a qualitative study which aims to examine how specific illness beliefs and a sense of empowerment evolve and change during specialized family-based treatment...

  10. Parental empowerment: Construct validity and reliability of a Dutch Empowerment questionnaire (EMPO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, H.R.; Veerman, J.W.; Vermulst, A.A.; Nieuwhoff, R.; Meyer, R.E. de; Scholte, R.H.J.


    In this study, the construct validity and reliability of the Empowerment questionnaire (EMPO) that was developed in Dutch youth care was examined. The 12-item EMPO focuses on measuring parental empowerment in raising their children. The three components of psychological empowerment (intrapersonal, i

  11. Analysing empowerment-oriented email consultation for parents : Development of the Guiding the Empowerment Process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, C.C.; Fukkink, R.G.; Hermanns, J.M.A.


    Online consultation is increasingly offered by parenting practitioners, but it is not clear if it is feasible to provide empowerment-oriented support in a single session email consultation. Based on the empowerment theory, we developed the Guiding the Empowerment Process model (GEP model) to evaluat

  12. Psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement


    Marius W. Stander; Sebastiaan Rothmann


    Orientation: The psychological empowerment of employees might affect their engagement. However, psychological empowerment and employee engagement might also be influenced by job insecurity.Research purposes: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement.Motivation for the study: Employee engagement results in positive individual and organisational outcomes and research information about the antecedents wil...

  13. What Should You Ask Your Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? (United States)

    ... Should You Ask Your Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? As you deal with thyroid cancer and the ... ask are: When you’re told you have thyroid cancer What kind of thyroid cancer do I have? ...

  14. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J


    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  15. Empowerment Strategy Through Salak Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti


    Full Text Available This articles aims to understand the practice of empowerment through assistance to salak farmers. The study includes 60 salak fruit farmers which are taken as the samples. Descriptive analysis is used to analyze the obtained data from the study. The research result shows that most respondents have the relative low level of empowerment. The empowerment level from business aspect explain that most of the respondent (73% are never and could not got the financial assistant to develop their business. Likewise, it could be happen in the technological access, most of the respondent (56,7% explain that in the production process the technology that used is base on traditional and hereditary. So, it is depend on labour relieves when the production and harvest process. Furthermore, the research shows that a low level of a capability to access the market information. It could be seen that most of the farmers (38,3% directly selling their product to the consumers and 33,3% sell their product to the broker. The empowerment from non economic aspect could be seen from the low ability of lobbying aspect, like the asking for a relieves from their colleagues at the local government officer (10%, financial institution like cooperation, bank and etc (25%, society figures (32,1%, employees (32,1%, non government institution/ academision (10% and a families (93,3%. To empower the farmers in order to make them sustainable, it is necessary to built a partnership by empowerment strategy. The empowerment strategy that involves industry as the farmers’ partner is carried out to improve the empowerment of the farmers of salak fruits.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi praktek pemberdayaan melalui pendampingan petani buah salak. Sebanyak 60 orang petani salak diambil sebagai sampel. Analisis deskriptif telah digunakan untuk menganalisis data dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar masyarakat di daerah penelitian mengaku pada

  16. mHealth Education Applications Along the Cancer Continuum. (United States)

    Davis, Sharon Watkins; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid


    The majority of adults worldwide own a mobile phone, including those in under-resourced communities. Mobile health (mhealth) education technologies present a promising mechanism for improving cancer prevention, treatment, and follow-up. The purpose of this study was to summarize the literature related to mobile phone (mhealth) applications for patient education specific to cancer and identify current recommendations from randomized studies. In particular, we were interested in identifying mobile phone applications along the cancer continuum, from cancer prevention to survivorship. The authors identified 28 articles reporting on mobile applications for patients related to cancer. Articles were identified in all categories along the cancer continuum, including health professional involvement in application development. Of these, six involved direct patient education, and eight focused on improving patient/professional communication and patient self-management. However, only six of the studies were randomized interventions. The potential for mobile applications to help overcome the "health care gap" has not yet been realized in the studies from the USA that were reviewed for this paper. However, early recommendations are emerging that support the use of mHealth communications to change behaviors for cancer prevention, early detection, and symptom management and improved patient-provider communication. Recommendations include short messages, use of multiple modalities as patient characteristics dictate comfort with mHealth communication, and the inclusion of patients and health professionals to develop and test applications. Tailoring mHealth to particular cultures, languages, and ethnic groups may also represent a unique possibility to provide accessible information and education at minimal cost for under-resourced communities and individuals.

  17. Symptom interpretation and health care seeking in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Lene; Petersen, Lone K; Blaakær, Jan


    with ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. RESULTS: A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14......BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process...... among Danish women, who have a very high mortality rate. METHODS: The health seeking and symptom interpretation process was analysed via combining study methods. The material consisted of registry data dealing with the use of public health care and hospital services of Danish women, newly diagnosed...

  18. Cancer among circumpolar populations: an emerging public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kue Young


    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups – Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods: Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the “world average” rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings: Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000–2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a “Circumpolar Inuit” group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions: Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer.

  19. Women's empowerment and child nutritional status in South Asia: a synthesis of the literature. (United States)

    Cunningham, Kenda; Ruel, Marie; Ferguson, Elaine; Uauy, Ricardo


    Women's disempowerment is hypothesised to contribute to high rates of undernutrition among South Asian children. However, evidence for this relationship has not been systematically reviewed. This review of empirical studies aims to: (1) synthesise the evidence linking women's empowerment and child nutritional status in South Asia and (2) suggest directions for future research. We systematically searched Global Health, Embase (classic and Ovid), MEDLINE, Campbell Collaboration, Popline, Eldis, Web of Science, EconLit and Scopus. We generated 1661 studies for abstract and title screening. We full-text screened 44 of these, plus 10 additional studies the authors were aware of. Only 12 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We included English materials published between 1990 and 2012 that examined the relationship(s) of at least one women's empowerment domain and nutritional status among South Asian children. Data were extracted and synthesised within three domains of empowerment: control of resources and autonomy, workload and time, and social support. The results showed women's empowerment to be generally associated with child anthropometry, but the findings are mixed. Inter-study differences in population characteristics, settings or methods/conceptualisations of women's empowerment, and the specific domains studied, likely contributed to these inconsistencies. This review also highlights that different women's empowerment domains may relate differently to child nutritional status. Future research should aim to harmonise definitions of women's empowerment, which key domains it should include, and how it is measured. Rigorous evaluation work is also needed to establish which policies and programmes facilitate women's empowerment and in turn, foster child nutritional well-being.

  20. Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad: empowerment participatory education for HIV prevention. (United States)

    McQuiston, C; Choi-Hevel, S; Clawson, M


    To be effective, HIV/AIDS interventions must be culturally and linguistically appropriate and must occur within the context of the specific community in which they are delivered. In this article, the development of a culture-specific lay health advisor (LHA) program, Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad, for recently immigrated Mexicans is described. This program is one component of a collaborative inquiry research project involving community participants and researchers working as partners in carrying out and assessing a program for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The collaborative inquiry process was applied as an empowerment philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire and an ecological framework was used for the development of Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad. The use of principles of empowerment for curriculum development, teaching methodology, and program delivery are described.

  1. Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management in a tribal area in India - a qualitative study



    Background Tribal people in India, as in other parts of the world, reside mostly in forests and/or hilly terrains. Water scarcity and health problems related to it are their prime concern. Watershed management can contribute to resolve their health related problems and can put them on a path of socio-economic development. Integrated management of land, water and biomass resources within a watershed, i.e. in an area or a region which contributes rainfall water to a river or lake, is referred t...

  2. Institutional Capacity Building for Rural Women's Empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de S.J.G.


    Basically, women¿s empowerment is the process (and its outcomes) in which women ¿ individually and collectively- become active, knowledgeable and goal-oriented actors who take and/ or support initiatives to overcoming gender inequalities. Hence, women¿s empowerment refers to a strategy to achieve ge

  3. Five Enunciations of Empowerment i Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertner, Sara Marie; Kragelund, Anne Mie; Malmborg, Lone


    Participatory design has been defined as having 'user's democratic participation and empowerment at its core' (Correia and Yusop, 2008). The PD discourse has a strong moral and rhetorical claim by its emphasis on users' empowerment. This paper is a result of a student project, guided by a curiosity...... about how empowerment is enunciated in the PD field today. In a literature-review of academic papers from the proceedings of PDC 2008 we found that empowerment is enunciated in five different ways which can be translated into 5 categories: 1) Specific user groups 2) Direct democracy 3) The users......' position 4) Researchers' practice 5) Reflexive practice. These categories exist conjointly in the literature and suggest that empowerment is not just a moral and politically correct design goal, but a challenged and complex activity....

  4. A bottom-up art event gave birth to a process of community empowerment in an Italian village. (United States)

    Sardu, Claudia; Mereu, Alessandra; Sotgiu, Alessandra; Contu, Paolo


    Although community participation is a component of community empowerment, it often remains a theoretical exhortation. Reporting experiences which enable people to take control of their lives, can be useful to suggest practical elements for promoting empowerment. This article describes the experience of a Sardinian village (Ulassai), that developed into a community empowerment. The Laverack's operational domains were used to measure the community empowerment process. The process started in 1979 'almost by chance' with an art performance that was the entry point for community participation. This experience has been the foundation for the community empowerment. Citizens acquired the 'ability of thinking and planning as a community and not mere individuals'. In the following 30 years citizens gave birth to several outcomes rooted in that event. The intermediate outcomes highlight the 'ability of action by a group to mobilize existing resources, and act collectively against opposing forces'. The long-term outcomes demonstrate the 'ability to integrate the cultural experiences that strengthened the community's identification into a sustainable community asset', and the 'ability to cope with global environmental challenges and to collaborate on an equal basis with other stakeholders. The pathways to community empowerment, showed by the community of Ulassai, overlap with the 'operational domains'. The Ulassai experience shows that the empowerment process can start from an event apparently unrelated to health promotion. This community experience illustrates the positive role arts can play in community development. Hence, the call for health promoters to look carefully into those situations that occur naturally in communities.

  5. Community empowerment needs in the struggle for environmental justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.


    The paper addresses the specific empowerment needs of communities and workers fighting for environmental justice. Thousands of people of color and poor communities throughout the United States are victimized by policies and practices of environmental racism which resulted in the disproportionate burden of exposure to environmental contamination where they live, work and play. Powerful interests who own and operate polluting industries and waste disposal facilities prey on poor, low income and non-white communities because they view them as areas of least resistance and {open_quotes}sacrifice zones.{close_quotes} Leaders and members of organizations from communities threatened or already devastated by contamination are waging determined, courageous and heroic struggles against giant corporate polluters. In many instances, the leaders and members of these grassroots environmental groups are literally sick and dying from contamination as they seek to organize for clean, safe and healthy communities. A key issue for communities and workers fighting for environmental justice is realizing true empowerment. Communities and workers must develop empowerment and capacity building skills in the areas of community and labor organizing; media relations and public education; legal advocacy; legislative and regulatory tracking; lobbying; health monitoring and health services; research; scientific technical needs (eg. air, water and soil testing); fundraising and economic sustainable development; institutional and organizational development; voter education and electoral politics; and youth and adult leadership training. When these empowerment skills are combined with a clear vision of justice for the future, communities will be able to fight cooporations armed with high-powered lawyers, lobbyists, public relations firms and bought-off politicians.

  6. Psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius W. Stander


    Full Text Available Orientation: The psychological empowerment of employees might affect their engagement. However, psychological empowerment and employee engagement might also be influenced by job insecurity.Research purposes: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement.Motivation for the study: Employee engagement results in positive individual and organisational outcomes and research information about the antecedents will provide valuable information for the purposes of diagnosis and intervention.Research design, approach and method: A correlational design was used. Survey design was conducted among 442 employees in a government and a manufacturing organisation. The measuring instruments included the Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, the Job Insecurity Inventory, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale.Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that affective job insecurity had a main effect on three dimensions of psychological empowerment (viz. competence, meaning and impact and on employee engagement. Affective job insecurity moderated the effect of psychological empowerment on employee engagement.Practical implications: The implication of the results is that interventions that focus on the psychological empowerment of employees (viz. meaningfulness, competence, self-determination and impact will contribute to the engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption of employees. If job insecurity is high, it is crucial to attend to the psychological empowerment of employees.Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge about the conditions that precede employee engagement, and shows that the dimensions of psychological empowerment (namely experienced meaningfulness, competence, impact and self-determination play an important role

  7. Patient empowerment, an additional characteristic of the European definitions of general practice/family medicine. (United States)

    Mola, Ernesto


    Growing evidence supports the inclusion of patient empowerment as a key ingredient of care for patients with chronic conditions. In recent years, several studies based on patient empowerment, have been carried out in different European countries in the context of general practice and primary care to improve management of chronic diseases. These studies have shown good results of the care model, increasing patient and health professionals' satisfaction, adherence to guidelines and to treatment, and improving clinical outcomes. In 2011, the Wonca European Council included as the twelfth characteristic of the European definitions of general practice/family medicine: 'promote patient empowerment'. The aim of this paper is to clarify the meaning of 'patient empowerment' and to explain why family medicine should be considered the most suitable setting to promote it. The inclusion of patient empowerment as one of the essential characteristics of general practice fills a conceptual gap and clearly suggests to the European health care systems a tested model to face chronic diseases: involving and empowering patients in managing their own conditions to improve health and well-being.

  8. Knowledge and attitude towards cancer: the need for health education. (United States)

    Basu, Abhijit; Datta, Swarnendu; Roy, Chhaya


    This study attempts to record the status of knowledge, ideas and opinions of a group of enlightened urban people of Kolkata about different aspects of cancer. Information gathered from 727 persons (341 males and 386 females) showed that most of the subjects consider cancer as the most alarming disease and pain as its most distressing problem. More than half of them think that cancer is curable in only 25% cases and 72% think it is 'sometimes' preventable. The commonest site of cancer, according to 38% of them, is stomach whereas that in female, according to 52% is uterus. Most of them are well aware about the risk of repeated x-ray exposures, smoke and dust but not about oral contraceptives. Majority (92%) opined in favour of a cancer specialist for consultation and more than 98% think that cancer, once diagnosed, must be treated, preferably with radiotherapy (45%), against surgery (29%) and anti-cancer chemotherapy (24%). Early detection was emphasised by 78% for increasing cure rate. Shyness was thought by the majority to be the chief cause of delay in seeking treatment in case of breast cancer cases. As health education media television and cinema slides were considered to be most effective. Most of the subjects advocated for psychological (47%) or medical (34%) support in the terminal stages of cancer.

  9. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer. (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate


    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  10. Breast cancer in Mexico: a growing challenge to health and the health system. (United States)

    Chávarri-Guerra, Yanin; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Liedke, Pedro E R; Knaul, Felicia; Mohar, Alejandro; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Goss, Paul E


    Breast cancer is a major public health issue in low-income and middle-income countries. In Mexico, incidence and mortality of breast cancer have risen in the past few decades. Changes in health-care policies in Mexico have incorporated programmes for access to early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This Review outlines the status of breast cancer in Mexico, regarding demographics, access to care, and strategies to improve clinical outcomes. We identify factors that contribute to the existing disease burden, such as low mammography coverage, poor quality control, limited access to diagnosis and treatment, and insufficient physical and human resources for clinical care.

  11. Selenium and selenocysteine: roles in cancer, health, and development. (United States)

    Hatfield, Dolph L; Tsuji, Petra A; Carlson, Bradley A; Gladyshev, Vadim N


    The many biological and biomedical effects of selenium are relatively unknown outside the selenium field. This fascinating element, initially described as a toxin, was subsequently shown to be essential for health and development. By the mid-1990s selenium emerged as one of the most promising cancer chemopreventive agents, but subsequent human clinical trials yielded contradictory results. However, basic research on selenium continued to move at a rapid pace, elucidating its many roles in health, development, and in cancer prevention and promotion. Dietary selenium acts principally through selenoproteins, most of which are oxidoreductases involved in diverse cellular functions.

  12. The effects of organizational commitment and structural empowerment on patient safety culture. (United States)

    Horwitz, Sujin K; Horwitz, Irwin B


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between patient safety culture and two attitudinal constructs: affective organizational commitment and structural empowerment. In doing so, the main and interaction effects of the two constructs on the perception of patient safety culture were assessed using a cohort of physicians. Design/methodology/approach Affective commitment was measured with the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, whereas structural empowerment was assessed with the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II. The abbreviated versions of these surveys were administered to a cohort of 71 post-doctoral medical residents. For the data analysis, hierarchical regression analyses were performed for the main and interaction effects of affective commitment and structural empowerment on the perception of patient safety culture. Findings A total of 63 surveys were analyzed. The results revealed that both affective commitment and structural empowerment were positively related to patient safety culture. A potential interaction effect of the two attitudinal constructs on patient safety culture was tested but no such effect was detected. Research limitations/implications This study suggests that there are potential benefits of promoting affective commitment and structural empowerment for patient safety culture in health care organizations. By identifying the positive associations between the two constructs and patient safety culture, this study provides additional empirical support for Kanter's theoretical tenet that structural and organizational support together helps to shape the perceptions of patient safety culture. Originality/value Despite the wide recognition of employee empowerment and commitment in organizational research, there has still been a paucity of empirical studies specifically assessing their effects on patient safety culture in health care organizations. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first

  13. [Guideline "Cancer rehabilitation"]. (United States)

    van den Berg, Jan-Paul; Velthuis, Miranda J; Gijsen, Brigitte C M; Lindeman, Eline; van der Pol, Marjolein A; Hillen, Harry F P


    Initiated by IKNL (Integraal Kankercentrum Nederland), a multidisciplinary guideline for cancer rehabilitation for adult oncology patients has been developed. The guideline describes the rehabilitation care of adult patients with cancer, during and after treatment. The guideline focuses on (a) prevalence of complaints either resulting from cancer or the treatment, (b) detection of these complaints and indicated referral, (c) the intake procedure before cancer rehabilitation, (d) intervention and evaluation within cancer rehabilitation and (e) the importance of patient empowerment. The guideline is directed at all professionals giving care to patients with cancer. It concerns those (such as medical specialists, general practitioners and nurses) who are responsible for detecting cancer-related complaints and for referral to cancer rehabilitation, as well as health care professionals involved in cancer rehabilitation care (such as consultants in rehabilitation medicine, physiotherapists and psychologists). The main goal of the guideline is that every cancer patient or ex-cancer patient with (residual) complaints resulting from cancer or its treatment receives timely and appropriate cancer rehabilitation.

  14. Psychological Empowerment of the Devotees by Use of Structural Equations Modeling Case study: All Devotees of Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seid Mehdi Veiseh


    Full Text Available Psychological empowerment refers to the process of increase of internal motivation proportional to the performance of delivered duties, including recognition aspects such as being affective, worthiness, meaningfulness and right of choice. This study is Objective to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment of the devotees and the variables work life quality, organizational justice, social support and social health. Methodology research: This is a descriptive – correlation study in which the structural equation modeling is used. The populations include all devotees of Ilam who were selected by use of Cochrane's formula. From the results, it became clear that psychological empowerment of the devotees is directly affected by the factors such as social health, social support, work life quality and organizational justice. Moreover, the variable work life quality has more influence on the psychological empowerment of the devotees.

  15. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey


    Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries.

  16. Progress towards Millennium Development Goals with women empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Chaturvedi


    Full Text Available Background: Women empowerment is a powerful determinant of their own, children’s and their families’ health. Perhaps, due to this fact, promotion of gender equality and empowering women was kept as one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs.Objective: The present analysis was undertaken to study the effect of women empowerment on health of women, family planning and various health indicators of children.Methods: Available data from National Surveys in India, various research studies and evidences from published global studies were gathered and further analyzed.Results: Census 2011 (India have shown that states having higher women literacy, like Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra (75%, have better positive indicators of health than states like Rajasthan with 53 % literacy. NFHS -3 (India showed that empowered women had better access to maternal services (76 %, more use of contraception (66.6% and resultantly, had lower neonatal mortality (36%. As against this, for less empowered women, access to maternal services (72 % is low, lesser use of contraception (44% and relatively higher neonatal mortality (43%. A systematic analysis of 175 countries (Lancet, 2010 has established that increase in women education decreases under five child mortality.Conclusions: Investments in women’s employment, health and education, are correlated with a range of positive outcomes, including greater economic growth and children’s health and survival.

  17. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... 2013 Table of Contents Tests What type of lung cancer do I have? Has the cancer spread from ...

  18. The context of empowerment and self-care within the field of diabetes. (United States)

    Scambler, Sasha; Newton, Paul; Asimakopoulou, Koula


    There is a growing emphasis within the diabetes literature on the importance of empowerment as a way of encouraging people to take control of and responsibility for the successful management of their disease. Patients are actively encouraged to become active participants in their care, and there is an expectation that health-care professionals will facilitate this process. This article uses Bourdieu's concept of field, as a bounded social space in which actors conduct their lives day-to-day, to explore the context within which issues of empowerment are addressed and negotiated. The practice of empowerment within the biologically defined and biomedically 'policed' field of diabetes is explored using empirical data from a study of diabetes health-care professionals' understanding and practices around empowerment. It is concluded that rather than promoting active self-management and empowerment, the nature of the field of diabetes, and in particular its privileging of the biomedical, can mitigate against people with diabetes negotiating the field effectively and taking control of the disease and its management.

  19. Curcumin and cancer: barriers to obtaining a health claim. (United States)

    Devassy, Jessay G; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Jones, Peter J H


    Curcumin is a highly pleiotropic molecule found in the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric). It is responsible for the yellow color of turmeric and has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to be of use in preventing or treating a number of diseases. Curcumin has been shown to modulate multiple cell-signaling pathways simultaneously, thereby mitigating or preventing many different types of cancers, including multiple myeloma and colorectal, pancreatic, breast, prostate, lung, head, and neck cancers, in both animal models and humans. Current therapeutic approaches using a single cancer drug for a single target can be expensive, have serious side effects, or both. Consequently, new approaches to the treatment and prevention of cancer, including the integration of curcumin as a viable treatment strategy where dysregulation of many pathways is involved, are warranted. A methodical review of the evidence was performed to evaluate the effects of curcumin in support of a health claim, as established through the regulatory framework of Health Canada, for a relationship between the consumption of curcumin and the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  20. Dietary Screener Questionnaire in the National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement 2010: Overview (United States)

    The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Cancer Control Supplement (CCS) is administered every five years and focuses on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in cancer-related health behaviors, screening, and risk assessment.

  1. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee


    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  2. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  3. Equality and Empowerment for Decent Work. (United States)

    Hepple, Bob


    Substantive equality encompasses equality of results, opportunity, and human dignity. To implement it requires an incremental approach ranging from voluntary participation to penalties for noncompliance, active participation of all stakeholders, and empowerment of disadvantaged groups. (SK)

  4. School nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy. (United States)

    DeSisto, Marie C; DeSisto, Thomas Patrick


    The purpose of this study was to explore Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations, using school nurses and to answer the research question of whether there is a relationship between empowerment and autonomy in school nurses. This study found a positive relationship between the nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy. The school nurses surveyed perceived themselves to have a high degree of autonomy and a moderate degree of empowerment, and they reported that their access to informal power structures was higher than their access to formal power structures in their school systems. School nurses can benefit by understanding factors that can increase their empowerment in the workplace. They need to understand the organizational structure of their workplace to increase their effectiveness and job satisfaction.

  5. Eat for health: a nutrition and cancer control supermarket intervention. (United States)

    Light, L; Tenney, J; Portnoy, B; Kessler, L; Rodgers, A B; Patterson, B; Mathews, O; Katz, E; Blair, J E; Evans, S K


    The growing evidence linking dietary patterns to the incidence and prevention of chronic disease has prompted a number of prominent health and scientific agencies to publish dietary guidelines for the public. Some dietary guidelines address specific diseases, such as cancer or heart disease; others focus on overall health promotion. This situation has created a demand for nutrition education and information programs for the public. Increasingly, supermarkets are seen as potential sites for effective consumer education. Eat for Health is a joint research study by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Giant Food Inc., a regional supermarket chain in the Washington-Baltimore area. The study's goal was to test the feasibility of supermarkets as a site for consumer nutrition education. Eat for Health's educational focus was diet and cancer control issues in the context of dietary patterns that promote health. Particular attention was paid to reduction of fat intake and increases in consumption of dietary fiber from grains, vegetables, and fruits. Analysis of program results is currently underway; data should be available in early 1990.

  6. Supporting cancer patients’ unanchored health information management with mobile technology (United States)

    Klasnja, Predrag; Hartzler, Andrea; Powell, Christopher; Pratt, Wanda


    Cancer patients often need to manage care-related information when they are away from home, when they are experiencing pain or treatment side effects, or when their abilities to deal with information effectively are otherwise impaired. In this paper, we describe the results from a four-week evaluation of HealthWeaver Mobile, a mobile phone application that we developed to support such “unanchored” patient information activities. Based on experiences from nine cancer patients, our results indicate that HealthWeaver Mobile can help patients to access care-related information from anywhere, to capture information whenever a need arises, and to share information with clinicians during clinic visits. The enhanced ability to manage information, in turn, helps patients to manage their care and to feel more confident in their ability to stay in control of their information and their health. PMID:22195130

  7. Supporting cancer patients' unanchored health information management with mobile technology. (United States)

    Klasnja, Predrag; Hartzler, Andrea; Powell, Christopher; Pratt, Wanda


    Cancer patients often need to manage care-related information when they are away from home, when they are experiencing pain or treatment side effects, or when their abilities to deal with information effectively are otherwise impaired. In this paper, we describe the results from a four-week evaluation of HealthWeaver Mobile, a mobile phone application that we developed to support such "unanchored" patient information activities. Based on experiences from nine cancer patients, our results indicate that HealthWeaver Mobile can help patients to access care-related information from anywhere, to capture information whenever a need arises, and to share information with clinicians during clinic visits. The enhanced ability to manage information, in turn, helps patients to manage their care and to feel more confident in their ability to stay in control of their information and their health.

  8. Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John

    transformative) Det første formål med paperet er at problematisere denne ”fashion” og at (re) introducere den kritiske empowermenttradition (blandt andet med rødder til Paulo Freire), hvor empowermentprocesser kan defineres som processer hvorigennem underpriviligerede individer, sociale grupper og lokalsamfund...

  9. Health Behaviors and Quality of Life of Cancer Survivors in Massachusetts, 2006: Data Use for Comprehensive Cancer Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temeika L. Fairley, PhD


    Full Text Available IntroductionNearly 12 million cancer survivors are living in the United States. Few state-based studies have examined the health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL of this growing population. The objective of this study was to use Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data to describe cancer survivors’ demographics, health behaviors, quality of life, use of preventive care services, and influenza vaccination rates.MethodsThe demographic characteristics of cancer survivors and respondents without cancer were estimated on the basis of responses to questions in the 2006 Massachusetts BRFSS. We used multivariate logistic regression to compare health behaviors, comorbidities, quality of life, and cancer screening and influenza vaccination rates for cancer survivors compared with respondents who did not have cancer.ResultsCancer survivors and respondents who did not have cancer had similar rates of health behavioral risk factors including smoking, obesity, and physical activity. Rates of chronic disease (eg, heart disease, asthma and disability were higher among cancer survivors. Cancer survivors reported higher rates of influenza vaccination and breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer screening than did respondents who did not have cancer. Survivors’ self-reported health status and HRQOL (physical and mental health improved as length of survivorship increased.ConclusionThis state-based survey allowed Massachusetts to assess health-related issues for resident cancer survivors. These findings will help state-based public health planners develop interventions to address the long-term physical and psychosocial consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  10. The effect of computer-mediated social support in online communities on patient empowerment and doctor-patient communication. (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byoungkwan


    In the context of diabetes, this study tested a mechanism through which Korean diabetes patients' exchange of computer-mediated social support (CMSS) in diabetes online communities influences their sense of empowerment and intention to actively communicate with the doctor. Analysis of data from 464 Korean diabetes patients indicates significant relationships among diabetes patients' online community activities, perceived CMSS, sense of empowerment, and their intention to actively communicate with the doctor. Diabetes patients who have engaged more in online community activities perceived greater social support from other members of the community. Perceived CMSS significantly predicted their intention to actively communicate with the doctor through sense of empowerment. Sense of empowerment was a valid underlying mechanism that explains how patients' perceived CMSS influences their intention to actively communicate with the doctor. The implications for health communication research and practice are discussed.

  11. To Investigate the Impact of Training, Employee Empowerment and Organizational Climate on Job Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleema Zia


    Full Text Available This study investigates the quantitative relationship of training, employee empowerment and organizational climate with job performance. Job performance can be measured in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of employees-how well they perform their tasks in order to achieve organizational goals. Empowerment is very important tool to enhance productivity of an organization by enhancing job performance of employees. In certain conditions it may result in reducing job performance, which depends on organizational climate and how employees and management perceive empowerment. The organizations which conduct regular training programs help to build the skills and competencies of employees. Ethical organizational climate plays a vital role in enhancing the performance by reducing employees’ stress levels and enhanced satisfaction. Based on the literature review, a research model is developed positing that training, employee empowerment and organizational climate has a direct impact on job performance of employees. This model is empirically tested using data collected from National Institute of Health (NIH, Islamabad which is a public sector organization of Pakistan. The target population consisted of 794 employees of NIH and the sample size was calculated as 200 by using as per Krejcie and Morgan (1970 formula for sample determination and for data results various analysis techniques were used like correlation analysis and regression analysis. The results showed a significant relationship of training and organizational climate with job performance. According to the findings of the study, employee empowerment negatively influences the job performance.

  12. Cost-effective nursing practice: cost-awareness and empowerment. (United States)

    Fisher, P


    Cost-effective nursing practice is essential to succeed today as resources allocated to health care are declining. Realizing that any change poses a threat to our security, it is imperative that stakeholders be permitted to participate in decision-making processes affecting their work. An honest, open exchange of ideas towards cost-effective practices should be encouraged. Cost-effective behaviours are influenced significantly by negative attitudes with regard to loss of human resources, increased workload, and potential pay cuts. This article describes innovative strategies which could promote successful cost-effective nursing practice, including working smarter, not working harder. Topics addressed are attitude, awareness and empowerment.

  13. A Literature Review of Empowerment With a Suggested Empowerment Model for the BDF (United States)


    21 A. THE CONGER AND KANUNGO MODEL ......................................... 21 B. THE THOMAS AND VELTHHOUSE MODEL...that people already have in their wealth and useful knowledge and internal motivation.” Similarly, Conger and Kanungo (1988, p...empowerment as sharing power and authority (a relational perspective), while definitions by Randolph and Conger and Kanungo view empowerment as a

  14. Student Empowerment in the English Classroom Teaching%Student Empowerment in the English Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The study explores the relationship between student empowerment and their Band 4 results. The purpose is to find whether there is a positive correlation between student empowerment approach and their command of English. In the long run, it aims at developing a supportive and positive classroom environment in helping students to learn and use English in a more active and realistic way.

  15. The Empowerment Model: A Critical Reflection of Empowerment in Chinese Culture (United States)

    Yip, Kam-shing


    The empowerment model has long dominated social work practice in Western countries. Many social workers in Hong Kong use this model regardless of the social or cultural context. In this article the author shares local social work practice experiences in Hong Kong and suggests that the empowerment model may need adaptation in Chinese communities.…

  16. Structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking: is there a link? (United States)

    Lethbridge, Kristen; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Laschinger, Heather K S; Fernando, Rajulton


    Baccalaureate nursing education prepares students to become registered nurses in evolving health care systems. During their program, students' perceptions of empowerment in the nursing profession begin to form, and they are introduced to the process of reflective thinking. The purpose of this integrative literature review is unique in that three concepts are examined and linked-structural empowerment (as conceptualized by Kanter), psychological empowerment (as described by Spreitzer), and reflective thinking (as characterized by Mezirow)-and a theoretical model for testing is proposed. In examining the conceptual links, it is apparent that all three are required for learning and nursing practice. By preparing students to be empowered, reflective professionals, it is proposed that they will be more effective in their academic and future practice work. The conceptual links and proposed model described in this article provide the foundation for building a body of evidence to support or refute this contention.

  17. Care, Empowerment and Self-Determination in the Practice of Peer Support (United States)

    Scott, Anne; Doughty, Carolyn


    The concept of "care" has been fraught with negative connotations within the disability movement; the concepts of empowerment, choice and control have been developed as alternatives. The peer-support movement in the mental health sector draws from this tradition, and is uncomfortable with the provision of care. Drawing on the feminist ethic of…

  18. Symptom interpretation and health care seeking in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaakaer Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process among Danish women, who have a very high mortality rate. Methods The health seeking and symptom interpretation process was analysed via combining study methods. The material consisted of registry data dealing with the use of public health care and hospital services of Danish women, newly diagnosed with ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. Results A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14,009 visits during 2007. The women also had 6,214 contacts with various hospitals, and obtained 562 different diagnoses. From the main theme "Women's experiences with the onset of symptoms" three sub-themes were identified: "Bodily sensations", "From bodily sensation to symptom", and "Health seeking and treatment start". In all cases the General Practitioner represented the first contact to public health care, acting as gate-keeper to specialist and hospital referral. The women were major users of public health care throughout the diagnostic process and subsequent treatment. All women held personal knowledge concerning the onset of their symptoms. The early symptoms of ovarian cancer might be uncharacteristic and non-disease-specific when interpreted as personal experiences, but they had similarities when analysed together. Conclusions Diagnostic delay in ovarian cancer seems far from being exclusively a medical problem, as the delay proved to be influenced by organisational, cultural, and social factors, too. Initiatives facilitating the diagnostic

  19. Empowerment interventions, knowledge translation and exchange: perspectives of home care professionals, clients and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voyer Louis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined empowerment interventions as they actually unfold in home care in the context of chronic health problems. This study aims to document the empowerment process as it plays out in interventions with adults receiving home care services. Methods/design The qualitative design chosen is a fourth generation evaluation combined with case studies. A home care team of a health and social services center situated in the Eastern Townships (Québec, Canada will be involved at every step in the study. A sample will be formed of 15 health care professionals and 30 of their home care clients and caregiver. Semi-structured interviews, observations of home care interventions and socio-demographic questionnaires will be used to collect the data. Nine instruments used by the team in prior studies will be adapted and reviewed. A personal log will document the observers' perspectives in order to foster objectivity and the focus on the intervention. The in-depth qualitative analysis of the data will illustrate profiles of enabling interventions and individual empowerment. Discussion The ongoing process to transform the health care and social services network creates a growing need to examine intervention practices of health care professionals working with clients receiving home care services. This study will provide the opportunity to examine how the intervention process plays out in real-life situations and how health care professionals, clients and caregivers experience it. The intervention process and individual empowerment examined in this study will enhance the growing body of knowledge about empowerment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura G. Felea


    Full Text Available Cognitive anthropology does not predict human behavior, but tries to access principles that rule behavior. Cross-cultural communication is a skill acquired through a learning process, and it can improve doctor-patient relationship and enhance the outcomes of care. The unfulfilled expectations of a patient may influence the patient self-esteem and his perceived role in the society. For some patients living with cancer, it was found as an unforeseen benefit of learning to be closer to God. Based on a narrative communication, we tried to underline cross-cultural differences in cancer patients from different countries with various backgrounds. We described the patient reactions, his way of interpreting the things that happened to him, and his actions regarding adaptive changes in behavior. The originality of the study resides in understanding cross-cultural patterns of cancer patients. The innovative element is the use of qualitative research and its application in health care.

  1. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: an underestimated major health problem. (United States)

    Khalil, Jihane; Bensaid, Badr; Elkacemi, Hanan; Afif, Mohamed; Bensaid, Younes; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine


    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health problem among patients with cancer, its incidence in this particular population is widely increasing. Although VTE is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients, its severity is still underestimated by many oncologists. Thromboprophylaxis of VTE now considered as a standard of care is still not prescribed in many institutions; the appropriate treatment of an established VTE is not yet well known by many physicians and nurses in the cancer field. Patients are also not well informed about VTE and its consequences. Many studies and meta-analyses have addressed this question so have many guidelines that dedicated a whole chapter to clarify and expose different treatment strategies adapted to this particular population. There is a general belief that the prevention and treatment of VTE cannot be optimized without a complete awareness by oncologists and patients. The aim of this article is to make VTE a more clear and understood subject.

  2. The effects of applying information technology on job empowerment dimensions. (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Arab-Chadegani, Raziyeh


    Information Technology (IT) is known as a valuable tool for information dissemination. Today, information communication technology can be used as a powerful tool to improve employees' quality and efficiency. The increasing development of technology-based tools and their adaptation speed with human requirements has led to a new form of the learning environment and creative, active and inclusive interaction. These days, information is one of the most important power resources in every organization and accordingly, acquiring information, especially central or strategic one can help organizations to build a power base and influence others. The aim of this study was to identify the most important criteria in job empowerment using IT and also the advantages of assessing empowerment. This study was a narrative review. The literature was searched on databases and journals of Springer, Proquest, PubMed, science direct and scientific information database) with keywords including IT, empowerment and employees in the searching areas of titles, keywords, abstracts and full texts. The preliminary search resulted in 85 articles, books and conference proceedings in which published between 1983 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 40 papers and books were selected based on their relevancy. According to Ardalan Model IT plays a significant role in the fast data collection, global and fast access to a broad range of health information, a quick evaluation of information, better communication among health experts and more awareness through access to various information sources. IT leads to a better performance accompanied by higher efficiency in service providing all of which will cause more satisfaction from fast and high-quality services.

  3. The effects of applying information technology on job empowerment dimensions (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Arab-Chadegani, Raziyeh


    Information Technology (IT) is known as a valuable tool for information dissemination. Today, information communication technology can be used as a powerful tool to improve employees’ quality and efficiency. The increasing development of technology-based tools and their adaptation speed with human requirements has led to a new form of the learning environment and creative, active and inclusive interaction. These days, information is one of the most important power resources in every organization and accordingly, acquiring information, especially central or strategic one can help organizations to build a power base and influence others. The aim of this study was to identify the most important criteria in job empowerment using IT and also the advantages of assessing empowerment. This study was a narrative review. The literature was searched on databases and journals of Springer, Proquest, PubMed, science direct and scientific information database) with keywords including IT, empowerment and employees in the searching areas of titles, keywords, abstracts and full texts. The preliminary search resulted in 85 articles, books and conference proceedings in which published between 1983 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 40 papers and books were selected based on their relevancy. According to Ardalan Model IT plays a significant role in the fast data collection, global and fast access to a broad range of health information, a quick evaluation of information, better communication among health experts and more awareness through access to various information sources. IT leads to a better performance accompanied by higher efficiency in service providing all of which will cause more satisfaction from fast and high-quality services. PMID:25250350

  4. Pacifist empowerment for other possible worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sandoval Forero


    Full Text Available This article of analytical content, aims to interpret some significant elements considered for the analysis of pacifist empowerment. Starting from the theoretical and practical background that on empowerment generally presented in Latin America and in Mexico from the ideas of Paulo Freire, as well as the understandings of the concept have been exposed from the philosophical, participatory, gender, social, and development approaches. According to the purpose and object of research, the article falls within the qualitative methodology of hermeneutic type that allows us to identify, describe, analyze, and reflect on the pacifist empowerment, based on textual sources and Peace research categories, considering particular bibliography on the subject. The qualitative research approach was supplemented with the technique of observation and dialogue on the subject taught by Francisco Muñoz in his last journey to Mexico. In the first part the results of the development and empowerment of the term approaches and their application is described in general terms. The conventional concept is discussed to understand the similarities and differences with the pacifist empowerment. In the second part the approach of pacifist empowerment having as theoretical support for Peace studies and particularly Muñoz and his coauthors addressed approaches is discussed. Some understandings about the issue are outlined and the article concludes that the concept of pacifist empowerment is in theoretical construction from the perspective of peace studies, and his statement is proposed as a know-how transformer of the subject and collective action to decide and to influence structural, cultural, gender or any violence condition as a strategy of nonviolent social change to build more peaceful worlds.

  5. Health assets in nursing documentation of cancer care. (United States)

    Rotegård, Ann Kristin; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Ruland, Cornelia M


    Patients' experiences, knowledge and preferences, as well as more person-centered care need to be implemented in clinical support systems and are central values and outcomes of eHealth. Health assets represent such information. The concept of health assets was explored and described based on analysis of nursing documentation in cancer patients' records. A convenience sample from 100 records, available from a larger study, resulted in 43 records that met the inclusion criteria. These were analyzed using content analysis methods. A mean of 3.2 health assets was documented in these records, and 61% of the descriptions of assets quoted patients. Assets were found most often in the admission notes (49%), but no information was found that described or indicated an intended use or follow up in the nursing documentation.

  6. Caring for a child with cancer: impact on mother's health. (United States)

    Rafii, Forugh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Shoghi, Mahnaz


    The life of a mother undergoes a dramatic change after a child is diagnosed with cancer. The present study aimed to determine effects on the everyday life process and health status of mothers with children suffering from leukemia. This qualitative study was based on a grounded theory approach with sixteen mothers. The results indicate that after onset of disease in their children, they marginalized their own health and tied their identities to taking care of the child and keeping the child healthy by ignoring themselves, becoming imprisoned in a taking-care-of-the-child position, and trying very hard for seek balance and stability Enduring physical pressures on the one hand, and constantly attempting to achieve balance and stability in family processes on the other hand, gradually cause exhaustion. It seems that health care providers and nurses should pay much more attention to the health status of this group of mothers.

  7. Ovarian Cancer Surgery: Health and Coping during Perioperative Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L.;


    -up questionnaire study in which the Short Form-36 Questionnaire was used to survey general health twice during the perioperative period and the Life Orientation Questionnaire (SOC) was used once to define the postoperative coping capacity. An evidence-based, preoperative supportive care programme was subsequently......PURPOSE: The study objective was to survey general health and coping in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, and subsequently to develop and test a supportive care intervention. METHODS/MATERIALS: Women who underwent surgery on the suspicion of ovarian cancer participated in a follow...... developed and tested. This consisted of lean methodology applied to clinical pathways, preoperative optimisation, and psychosocial care and support. RESULTS: From 294 women allocated to three study groups, a total of 546 Short Form-36 questionnaires and 253 SOC questionnaires were available for analysis...

  8. Familierådslagning i et empowerment perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Jørn Henrik; Brønholt, Lis Lynge


    Diskussion og undersøgelse af empowerment begrebet i forhold til beslutningsmodellen familierådslagning.......Diskussion og undersøgelse af empowerment begrebet i forhold til beslutningsmodellen familierådslagning....

  9. Factors of empowerment for women in recovery from substance use. (United States)

    Hunter, Bronwyn A; Jason, Leonard A; Keys, Christopher B


    Empowerment is an interdisciplinary construct heavily grounded in the theories of community psychology. Although empowerment has a strong theoretical foundation, few context-specific quantitative measures have been designed to evaluate empowerment for specific populations. The present study explored the factor structure of a modified empowerment scale with a cross-sectional sample of 296 women in recovery from substance use who lived in recovery homes located throughout the United States. Results from an exploratory factor analysis identified three factors of psychological empowerment which were closely related to previous conceptualizations of psychological empowerment: self-perception, resource knowledge and participation. Further analyses demonstrated a hierarchical relationship among the three factors, with resource knowledge predicting participation when controlling for self-perception. Finally, a correlational analysis demonstrated the initial construct validity of each factor, as each factor of empowerment was significantly and positively related to self-esteem. Implications for the application of psychological empowerment theory and research are discussed.

  10. Democracia e empoderamento no contexto da promoção da saúde: possibilidades e desafios apresentados ao Programa de Saúde da Família Democracy and empowerment in the context of promotion of health: possibilities and challenges presented to the Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cardoso Martins


    Full Text Available O Programa Saúde da Família (PSF é visto como uma das principais estratégias de reorganização do SUS, redirecionando o modelo de atenção à saúde no Brasil, atuando com um novo padrão que valoriza as ações de promoção da saúde, prevenção das doenças e atenção curativa. No contexto da democracia em saúde, destaca-se a promoção da saúde como o processo no qual os indivíduos são capacitados para ter maior controle sobre a própria saúde, reconhecendo a importância do poder e do controle sobre os determinantes da saúde, utilizando-se de estratégias que visem a empoderar os sujeitos, aumentando sua participação na modificação dos elementos relevantes à saúde. Este artigo visa a realizar uma reflexão crítica sobre a importância do PSF para a promoção e estímulo ao empoderamento/libertação da população, vislumbrando sua participação mais ativa na tomada de decisão na área da saúde.The Family Health Program (FHP is considered one of the main strategies for reorganization of the Brazilian Unified Health System, redirecting the model of attention to the health in Brazil, acting as a new standard which valorizes the actions towards the promotion of health, prevention of diseases and curative care. In the context of democracy in health, the promotion of health is highlighted as a process where the individuals are trained to have a greater control on their own health, recognizing the importance of the power and control on the health determiners; using strategies which aim to empower the individuals, increasing their participation on the modification of the relevant elements to the health. This article aims to achieve a critical reflection on the importance of the SFP for the promotion and stimulus to the empowerment/liberation of the population, glimpsing from them a more active participation in the decision-making in health.

  11. Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to Combat Obesity, Heart Disease and Cancer (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to combat obesity, heart disease, and cancer are major components of the Community Health Data Initiative. This dataset...

  12. Impact of ICT on women empowerment in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamimul Islam


    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs have been increasingly promoted as a key solution for comprehensive development, poverty eradication and the empowerment of historically disadvantaged groups, such as women and minorities in the South Asia. ICT is a significant area of concern for women empowerment and growth of a country. This paper studied the status of ICT and women empowerment in South Asian countries. Based on empirical research this paper found that ICT has a positive impact on women empowerment.

  13. Relationship Between Psychological Empowerment and Productivity of Medical Librarians


    Zare, Maliheh; Zarmehr, Fateme; Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan


    Introduction: Psychological empowerment is really important and has remarkable effect on different organizational variables such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, productivity, etc. So the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment and productivity of Librarians in Isfahan Medical University. Methods: This was correlational research. Data were collected through two questionnaires. Psychological empowerment questionnaire and the manpow...

  14. Enhancing the Empowerment of Youth in Foster Care: Supportive Services (United States)

    Kaplan, Sandra J.; Skolnik, Louise; Turnbull, Ayme


    This paper reviews the research on youth empowerment in seven child welfare programmatic areas. A lack of studies specifically focused on the empowerment of youth in foster care was found. Conceptual perspectives and existing data, however, suggest that the empowerment of youth in and transitioning out of care is essential and should be overtly…

  15. Empowerment Starts Here: Seven Principles to Empowering Urban Youth (United States)

    Dye, Angela


    "Empowerment Starts Here" covers an experimental approach to social change within urban communities by way of seven distinct principles for student empowerment. Turning classroom methods into a school model, Preparatory School for Global Leadership was the first to experience student empowerment at a school-wide level. This book provides insight…

  16. Youth Empowerment and High School Gay-Straight Alliances (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn


    In the field of positive youth development programs, "empowerment" is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led…

  17. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach (United States)

    Broussard, Lisa


    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…

  18. Empowerment and Experiential Education: A State of Knowledge Paper (United States)

    Shellman, Amy


    Experiential settings hold great potential for empowering participants. Beginning with an overview of how empowerment has been defined and conceptualized in the literature, this article examines the construct of empowerment in experiential education settings as a process and an outcome. A summary of how empowerment has been applied and measured in…

  19. Health-related quality of life and health care use in cancer survivors compared with patients with chronic diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Hopman, E.P.C.; Donker, G.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Rijken, P.M.


    BACKGROUND: The number of cancer survivors is steadily increasing and these patients often experience long-lasting health problems. To make care for cancer survivors sustainable for the future, it would be relevant to put the effects of cancer in this phase into perspective. Therefore, the authors c

  20. Relationships among structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and burnout in registered staff nurses working in outpatient dialysis centers. (United States)

    O'Brien, Janice L


    This study explored relationships among structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and burnout in registered staff nurses working in outpatient hemodialysis settings. The sample consisted of 233 registered staff nurses. The Emotional Exhaustion Subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Conditions for Work Effectiveness II Questionnaire, and Psychological Empowerment Instrument were used to measure variables. Findings indicate that in this population of nurses, there is a significant inverse relationship between structured empowerment and burnout.

  1. Rationale of the BREAst cancer e-healTH [BREATH] multicentre randomised controlled trial: An Internet-based self-management intervention to foster adjustment after curative breast cancer by decreasing distress and increasing empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, S.W. van den; Gielissen, M.F.M.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Prins, J.B.


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: After completion of curative breast cancer treatment, patients go through a transition from patient to survivor. During this re-entry phase, patients are faced with a broad range of re-entry topics, concerning physical and emotional recovery, returning to work and fear of recur

  2. Building A Health Care Data Warehouse for Cancer Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama E.Sheta


    Full Text Available This paper presents architecture for health care data warehouse specific to cancer diseases which could be used by executive managers, doctors, physicians and other health professionals to support the healthcare process. The data today existing in multi sources with different formats makes it necessary to have some techniques for data integration. Executive managers need access to Information so that decision makers can react in real time to changing needs. Information is one of the most factors to an organization success that executive managers or physicians would need to base their decisions on, during decisionmaking. A health care data warehouse is therefore necessary to integrate the different data sources into a central data repository and analysis this data.

  3. Empowerment for Continuous Agent-Environment Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Tobias; Stone, Peter


    This paper develops generalizations of empowerment to continuous states. Empowerment is a recently introduced information-theoretic quantity motivated by hypotheses about the efficiency of the sensorimotor loop in biological organisms, but also from considerations stemming from curiosity-driven learning. Empowemerment measures, for agent-environment systems with stochastic transitions, how much influence an agent has on its environment, but only that influence that can be sensed by the agent sensors. It is an information-theoretic generalization of joint controllability (influence on environment) and observability (measurement by sensors) of the environment by the agent, both controllability and observability being usually defined in control theory as the dimensionality of the control/observation spaces. Earlier work has shown that empowerment has various interesting and relevant properties, e.g., it allows us to identify salient states using only the dynamics, and it can act as intrinsic reward without requi...

  4. Empowerment som frigørelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard


    Empowerment er et at tidens modeord, og sættes i forbindelse med vidt forskellige termer eksempelvis personlighedsudvikling, borgerinddragelse og styringsideologi. Begrebet empowerment rummer efterhånden så mange betydninger, at man kan diskuterer selve essensen – i dette kapitel gøres dog et...... forsøg og forskellige dele af begrebet udfoldes. Direkte oversat betyder empowermemt at bemyndige eller sætter i stand til. Empowerment er et ofte anvendt begreb indenfor sundhedsvidenskab og i tilrettelæggelse af sundhedsfremmende initiativer. Begrebet bliver ofte defineret og benyttet forskelligt alt...... efter det bagvedliggende ideologiske perspektiv, og derfor er udgangspunktet i dette kapitel også at illustrerer forskellige ”blikke på empowerment”. Derudover inddrages to eksempler; studier af lokalsamfund og borgerinddragelse og ’den motiverende samtale’ som illustration på, hvilke udfordringer, der...

  5. Empowerment methods and techniques for sport managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We live in a globalize economic, social and technological environment where organizations can be successful only if they have required resources (material resources, facilities and equipment, and human resources. The managers and the organizations should empower and enable employees to accomplish their work in meaningful ways. Empowerment has been described as a means to enable employees to make decisions and as a personal phenomenon where individuals take responsibility for their own actions. The aim of the present study was to present effective methods and techniques of employee empowerment which constitute for the organization a source of competitive advantage. The paper will present and explain empowerment methods and techniques such as: (a organizational culture, (b vision statements, (c organizational values, (d teamwork, (e the role of manager - leadership, (f devolving responsibility accountability, (g information sharing, (h continuous training, (i appraisal rewards, (j goal setting, and (k performance appraisal process.

  6. When does spiritual intelligence particularly predict job engagement? The mediating role of psychological empowerment (United States)

    Torabi, Mohsen; Nadali, Iman Zohoorian


    Background: Regarding the importance of health care providers such as nurses who are always in stressful environments, it is imperative to better understand how they become more engaged in their work. The purpose of this paper is to focus on health care providers (nurses), and examine how the interaction between spiritual intelligence and psychological empowerment affect job engagement. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and quantitative study was conducted among nurses at the Faghihi Hospital in Shiraz, Iran in 2010. A sample of nurses (n = 179) completed standard survey questionnaire including spiritual intelligence, psychological empowerment, and job engagement which included 5 questions for each dimensions. For testing the hypotheses of the study, results were analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) using LISREL 8.8. Results: SEM revealed that psychological empowerment could fully mediate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job engagement. However, the correlation between spiritual intelligence and job engagement was significant but weak using Pearson coefficient method. This can imply that psychological empowerment plays a crucial role in the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job engagement. Conclusions: This paper indicates that spiritual intelligence might affect different organizational parameters, directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers evaluate probable relationships between spiritual intelligence and other variables.

  7. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens


    . This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality...... populations reporting their symptoms more completely, e.g., general population samples. In contrast, this mechanism has little importance when results from different sub-groups of cancer patients are compared. In this study multiple variables were assessed at multiple points in time and we did not have...... to be lower than those from the general population sample. After careful consideration we concluded that this finding was probably incorrect. The most important explanations were thought to be the wording of some HAD Scale items as well as two mechanisms that are not specific to the HAD Scale, the "selective...

  8. Measuring empowerment : development and validation of the service user psychological empowerment scale


    van Dop, Nanja; Depauw, Jan; Driessens, Kristel


    Abstract: Current registrations and measurements used in social services are criticized for not providing an accurate reflection of the social work practice. The Service User Psychological Empowerment Scale (SUPES) was developed with input from both service users and social workers in order to provide an alternative measure. The SUPES is a 28-item scale that can be used to measure the intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioral dimensions of psychological empowerment among service users. The...

  9. Health survey on cancers about the Tricastin nuclear site; Etude sanitaire sur les cancers autour du site nucleaire du Tricastin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This survey aims at describing the health status of the population around the Tricastin site, and more particularly at determining whether there is a difference between death or cancer occurrence frequencies observed around this site with respect to reference frequencies. It does not aim at assessing the health impact of the site industrial installations. Cancer mortality data, cancer diagnosis data, demographic data, child cancer data, data related to hospital stays in relationship with cancer, long duration hospital stay data, and mortality data are used. Several indicators are defined and used: standardised mortality ratio, standardised hospitalisation ratio. Data are also analysed in terms of location, and socio-demographic categories. It appears that there is no specific health situation for the considered area, except for pancreas cancer for women

  10. Reference frameworks for the health management of measles, breast cancer and diabetes (type II). (United States)

    Brand, Helmut; Schröder, Peter; Davies, John K; Escamilla, Ixhel; Hall, Caroline; Hickey, Kieran; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Mechtler, Reli; Yared, Wendy Tse; Volf, Jaroslav; Weihrauch, Birgit


    This paper presents reference frameworks which order effective and feasible policies and interventions for the health management of measles, breast cancer and diabetes (type II). These reference frameworks can be used to rapidly appraise regional health policy documents and existing health management systems. Furthermore, the reference frameworks can serve health policy makers for the planning of health management measures.

  11. Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention. (United States)

    Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B; Roberts, Everett


    The limited success of youth violence prevention interventions suggests that effective prevention needs to address causes at multiple levels of analysis and empower youth in developing and implementing prevention programs. In this article, we review published studies of youth violence prevention efforts that engage youth in developing or implementing violence prevention activities. The reviewed studies suggest the promise of youth empowerment strategies and the need for systematic outcome studies of empowerment programs. After reviewing empowerment theory applied to youth violence prevention programs, we present a case study of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) for Peaceful Communities program. YES engages middle-school youth in an after-school and summer program that includes a culturally tailored character development curriculum and empowers the youth to plan and implement community improvement projects with assistance from adult neighborhood advocates. The case study focuses on outcome evaluation results and presents evidence of the YES program effects on community-level outcomes (eg, property improvements, violent crime incidents) and on individual-level outcomes (eg, conflict avoidance, victimization). The literature review and the case study suggest the promise of engaging and empowering youth to plan and implement youth violence prevention programs.

  12. Effects of cynicism on empowerment in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yıldırım


    Full Text Available Organizations are obliged to change fast, and even to be the ones that initiate change in order to survive in this ever-evolving and improving global world. Employee empowerment is considered one of the newest and main weapons against national and international threats towards an organization’s survival, and it provides improved alternative ways to reach organizational goals, accomplishing tasks, and providing better services to customers. Organizations should place an importance on this strong competitive tool and utilize the qualities of employee empowerment. Organizational cynicism can result in a decrease in positive attitudes and behaviors such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. It can also result in an increase of negative tendencies such as intentions to quit the job, and other counterproductive behaviors. Therefore, organizational cynicism can create an obstacle for employee empowerment. This study examines the relationships between affective and behavioral sub-dimensions of organizational cynicism, and the meaning of employee empowerment and autonomy sub-dimensions in a branch of a bank. According to the results, meaningful and negative relationship was determined between affective cynicism and meaning sub-dimension, and behavioral cynicism and autonomy sub-dimension.

  13. Transformative Learning: Personal Empowerment in Learning Mathematics (United States)

    Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Laursen, Sandra L.


    This article introduces the concept of personal empowerment as a form of transformative learning. It focuses on commonly ignored but enhancing elements of mathematics learning and argues that crucial personal resources can be essentially promoted by high engagement in mathematical problem solving, inquiry, and collaboration. This personal…

  14. School Choice and the Empowerment Imperative (United States)

    Scott, Janelle


    Drawing from historical, sociological, and policy literatures, as well as legislative activity, this article traces the intellectual and political evolution of educational equity, beginning with progressive models of redistribution and remedy to more recent neoliberal forms, which privilege parental empowerment through the expansion of school…

  15. Emotional Responsibility and Teaching Ethics: Student Empowerment (United States)

    Kretz, Lisa


    "This class is so [insert expletive] depressing." I overheard a student communicating this to a friend upon exiting one of my ethics courses and I wondered how my classes could generate a sense of empowerment rather than depression, a sense of hope rather than despair. Drawing from David Hume's and Martin Hoffman's work on the…

  16. The Multidimensional Nature of Women's Empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayissa, Fitsum W.; Smits, Jeroen; Ruben, Ruerd


    Most interventions promoting women's empowerment focus on the economic dimension. Economic improvement is supposed to lead automatically to improvements in other dimensions. To test this assumption, we collected data from 508 women working in women groups in Addis Ababa. Besides the economic dimensi

  17. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan (United States)

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy


    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  18. Patient empowerment and multimodal hand hygiene promotion: a win-win strategy. (United States)

    McGuckin, Maryanne; Storr, Julie; Longtin, Yves; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Pittet, Didier


    Patient empowerment is a new concept in health care that has now been extended to the domain of patient safety. Within the framework of the development of the new World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, the authors conducted a review of the literature from 1997 to 2008 to identify the evidence supporting programs aimed at encouraging patients to take an active role in their care. Patient empowerment is an integral part of the WHO hand hygiene multimodal strategy. Hand hygiene promotion strategies that have demonstrated evidence of successfully empowering patients include one or all of the following components: educational tools, motivation and reminder tools, and role modeling. What is important is that programs and models to empower patients must be developed with an inbuilt evaluation component that includes both qualitative and quantitative measures to determine not only what works but under what conditions and within which organizational context.

  19. Low subjective health literacy is associated with adverse health behaviors and worse health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors: results from the profiles registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Mols, F.; Fransen, M.P.; Poll-Franse, L.V. van de; Ezendam, N.P.


    BACKGROUND: The objectives of the study were to examine the prevalence of health literacy (HL) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and the relation between HL and health behaviors and to explore whether or not HL and health behaviors are independently associated with health-related quality of li

  20. Stigma and On-line Health Information Seeking of U.S. South Asian Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    George, Sheba M; Kagawa Singer, Marjorie


    The internet has replaced physicians as primary health information source for cancer-survivors.It is important to uncover barriers/facilitators to cancer information seeking, particularly on-line.Asian Americans are the fastest growing U.S racial/ethnic minority, 2) cancer is the leading cause of r death and 3) cancer knowledge is low among them and little research is done on their cancer information seeking strategies. This study aims to examine qualitatively cancer information-seeking patterns of the Asian American group, South Asians, using in-depth interview methods. Family members and social networks are highly engaged in providing informational support to South Asian cancer survivors. such collaborative information seeking is limited by stigma related to cancer and must be taken into consideration when developing culturally appropriate cancer health information seeking interventions in such communities.

  1. Enhancing Employees Performance via Empowerment: A Field Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail AHK Awamleh


    Full Text Available This study aims to show the importance of empowerment in improving employee’s performance in many ways. Major objectives of the study are: (1 Give concise review on empowerment from different aspects, (2 Show practical experience with empowerment practices through a field survey of these practices in a sample of respondents working in business and government organizations in Bahrain, (3 Draw some conclusions on "empowerment" of importance for researchers and practitioners in management and organizations, (4 Provide some recommendations in the light of the conclusions of the study. Empowerment is the process of enabling employees in many forms and ways including delegating, training and development, job rotation and fair promotion opportunities. A concise review of literature on empowerment, its types and forms, obstacles and ways of improving empowerment have been given in this study. The study employs descriptive-analytic approach in achieving its goals. It utilizes ready and primary sources of information and data. The study relies on related literature review along with primary data collected by means of questionnaire especially designed for this study. Major findings of the study include wide differences among researchers and practitioners regarding the meaning, nature, tools and applications of empowerment. Findings also shows that empowerment faces serious practical obstacles such as insufficient top management support, lack of awareness, absence of clear regulations on ways and tools of empowerment and insufficient funds. The study recommended carrying out more academic and practical activities regarding empowerment, updating laws and regulations to reinforcing empowerment practices and restructuring organizational culture and structure to create empowerment friendly environment.

  2. A community empowerment approach to the HIV response among sex workers: effectiveness, challenges, and considerations for implementation and scale-up. (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Morgan-Thomas, Ruth; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Mwangi, Peninah; Win, Kay Thi; McFall, Allison; Fonner, Virginia A; Butler, Jennifer


    A community empowerment-based response to HIV is a process by which sex workers take collective ownership of programmes to achieve the most effective HIV outcomes and address social and structural barriers to their overall health and human rights. Community empowerment has increasingly gained recognition as a key approach for addressing HIV in sex workers, with its focus on addressing the broad context within which the heightened risk for infection takes places in these individuals. However, large-scale implementation of community empowerment-based approaches has been scarce. We undertook a comprehensive review of community empowerment approaches for addressing HIV in sex workers. Within this effort, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of community empowerment in sex workers in low-income and middle-income countries. We found that community empowerment-based approaches to addressing HIV among sex workers were significantly associated with reductions in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and with increases in consistent condom use with all clients. Despite the promise of a community-empowerment approach, we identified formidable structural barriers to implementation and scale-up at various levels. These barriers include regressive international discourses and funding constraints; national laws criminalising sex work; and intersecting social stigmas, discrimination, and violence. The evidence base for community empowerment in sex workers needs to be strengthened and diversified, including its role in aiding access to, and uptake of, combination interventions for HIV prevention. Furthermore, social and political change are needed regarding the recognition of sex work as work, both globally and locally, to encourage increased support for community empowerment responses to HIV.

  3. Prostate cancer support groups, health literacy and consumerism: are community-based volunteers re-defining older men's health? (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; McKenzie, Michael M; Hislop, T Gregory; Gerbrandt, Julieta S; Oglov, Valerie


    In this article we describe the connections between prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) and men's health literacy and consumer orientation to health care services. The study findings are drawn from participant observations conducted at 16 PCSGs in British Columbia, Canada and 54 individual interviews that focused on men's experiences of attending group meetings. Men's communication and interactions at PCSGs provide important insights for how men talk about and conceptualize health and illness. For example, biomedical language often predominated at group meetings, and men used numbers and measures to engage with risk discourses in linking prostate cancer markers to various treatment options and morbidity and mortality rates. Many groups afforded opportunities for men to interact with health care providers as a means to better understand the language and logic of prostate cancer management. The health literacy skills fostered at PCSGs along with specific group-informed strategies could be mobilized in the men's subsequent clinical consultations. Consumer discourses and strategies to contest power relations with health care professionals underpinned many men's search for prostate cancer information and their commitment to assisting other men. Key were patients' rights, and perhaps responsibility, to compare diverse health products and services in making decisions across the entire trajectory of their prostate cancer. Overall, the study findings reveal PCSGs as having the capacity to contest as well as align with medical expertise and services facilitating men's transition from patient to informed health care consumers. The processes through which this occurs may direct the design of older men's health promotion programs.

  4. Adherence to Guidelines for Cancer Survivors and Health-Related Quality of Life among Korean Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihan Song


    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on the association between adherence to guidelines for cancer survivors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. In a cross-sectional study of Korean breast cancer survivors, we examined whether adherence to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society (ACS and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR for cancer survivors was related to levels of HRQoL, assessed by the Korean version of Core 30 (C30 and Breast cancer module 23 (BR23 of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ. We included a total of 160 women aged 21 to 79 years who had been diagnosed with breast cancer according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC stages I to III and had breast cancer surgery at least six months before the interview. Increasing adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with higher scores of social functioning (p for trend = 0.05, whereas increasing adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with higher scores of arm symptoms (p for trend = 0.01. These associations were limited to those with stage II or III cancer. Diet may be an important factor in relation to quality of life among Korean breast cancer survivors, however our findings warrant further prospective studies to evaluate whether healthy diet improves survivors’ quality of life.

  5. Adherence to Guidelines for Cancer Survivors and Health-Related Quality of Life among Korean Breast Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Song, Sihan; Hwang, Eunkyung; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung Eun


    There is limited evidence on the association between adherence to guidelines for cancer survivors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In a cross-sectional study of Korean breast cancer survivors, we examined whether adherence to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society (ACS) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer survivors was related to levels of HRQoL, assessed by the Korean version of Core 30 (C30) and Breast cancer module 23 (BR23) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ). We included a total of 160 women aged 21 to 79 years who had been diagnosed with breast cancer according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III and had breast cancer surgery at least six months before the interview. Increasing adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with higher scores of social functioning (p for trend = 0.05), whereas increasing adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with higher scores of arm symptoms (p for trend = 0.01). These associations were limited to those with stage II or III cancer. Diet may be an important factor in relation to quality of life among Korean breast cancer survivors, however our findings warrant further prospective studies to evaluate whether healthy diet improves survivors' quality of life.

  6. 21 CFR 101.78 - Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer. (United States)


    ....78 Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer. (a) Relationship between substances in diets low... affect the risk of cancer. Risk factors include a family history of a specific type of cancer, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity, ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, exposure...

  7. Factors contributing to late breast cancer presentation for health care amongst women in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Asoogo


    Full Text Available Background: Delay in presenting breast cancer for health care is dangerous because it can increase the mortality rate amongst affected women. Delaying health care and treatment makes it difficult to manage advanced breast cancer successfully. Understanding the factors that contribute to delays in presentation for health care can save lives.Objectives: The purpose of the study was to describe the factors which contribute to the latepresentation of Ghanaian women with breast cancer for health care at a tertiary hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.Method: A descriptive qualitative research design was utilised to answer the research question: ‘What factors contribute to presenting with late breast cancer for health care amongst Ghanaian women who were treated for breast cancer at a tertiary hospital in Kumasi, Ghana?’ A sample of 30 women diagnosed with breast cancer and presented with Stage II and Stage III participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews and field notes were conducted for data collection. Content data analysis was used in line with the research question.Findings: Five themes were discovered as findings. These were: lack of knowledge about breast cancer; fear of cancer treatment and its outcomes; poverty; traditional and spiritual beliefs and treatments and caring for others.Conclusions: We recommend the development of breast cancer awareness programmes and health education at primary health care level.

  8. The Development and Evaluation of a Parent Empowerment Program for Family Peer Advocates. (United States)

    Rodriguez, James; Olin, S S; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Shen, Sa; Burton, Geraldine; Radigan, Marleen; Jensen, Peter S


    Family-to-family services are emerging as an important adjunctive service to traditional mental health care and a vehicle for improving parent engagement and service use in children's mental health services. In New York State, a growing workforce of Family Peer Advocates (FPA) is delivering family-to-family services. We describe the development and evaluation of a professional program to enhance Family Peer Advocate professional skills, called the Parent Engagement and Empowerment Program (PEP). We detail the history and content of PEP and provide data from a pre/post and 6-month follow up evaluation of 58 FPA who participated in the first Statewide regional training effort. Self-efficacy, empowerment, and skills development were assessed at 3 time points: baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. The largest changes were in self-efficacy and empowerment. Regional differences suggest differences in Family Peer Advocate workforce across areas of the state. This evaluation also provides the first systematic documentation of Family Peer Advocate activities over a six-month period. Consistent with peer specialists within the adult health care field, FPA in the children's mental health field primarily focused on providing emotional support and service access issues. Implications for expanding family-to-family services and integrating it more broadly into provider organizations are described.

  9. For which health problems do cancer survivors visit their General Practitioner? (United States)

    Heins, M J; Korevaar, J C; Rijken, P M; Schellevis, F G


    Primary health care use of cancer patients is increased, even years after active treatment. Insight into the reasons for this could help in developing and improving guidelines and planning of health care, which is important given the expected increase in cancer survivors. Using data from the Netherlands Information Network of Primary Care, we selected 1256 adult breast cancer, 503 prostate cancer and 487 colorectal cancer patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2006. We compared diseases and complaints for which they contacted their General Practitioner (GP) 2-5 years after diagnosis to age and sex matched non-cancer controls from the same practice. Cancer patients consulted their GP more often than controls for acute symptoms such as abdominal pain and fatigue (18% more in breast cancer, 26% more in prostate cancer) and infections, such as cystitis or respiratory infections (45% in breast cancer and 17% in colorectal cancer). Consultations for chronic diseases and psychosocial problems were slightly increased: breast cancer patients had more contacts related to diabetes (55%), sleep disturbance (60%) and depression (64%), prostate cancer patients had more contacts related to hypertension (53) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 34%). Adverse drug effects were almost twice as often observed in prostate and colorectal cancer patients than in controls. Fear of cancer recurrence was noted as the reason for consulting the GP in only 20 patients. Concluding, increased primary health care use in cancer survivors is mostly related to common infections and acute symptoms, which may be due to direct effects of cancer treatment or increased health concerns.

  10. Health care experiences among women diagnosed with gestational breast cancer. (United States)

    Hammarberg, K; Sullivan, E; Javid, N; Duncombe, G; Halliday, L; Boyle, F; Saunders, C; Ives, A; Dickinson, J E; Fisher, J


    Gestational breast cancer (GBC) presents many challenges for women and the clinicians who care for them. The aim of this study was to explore the health care experiences of women diagnosed with GBC to inform and improve clinical care of women in this predicament. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 women who had been diagnosed with GBC in the previous 5 years. The overarching themes for perceived quality of care were "communication" and "comprehensive care." "Communication" had two sub themes: "interdisciplinary communication" (the way health professionals from different disciplines communicated with each other about the management of the woman's care) and "patient communication" (how they communicated this to the woman). The "comprehensive care" theme incorporated three sub themes: "the spirit" (psychological care); "the mind" (information provision); and "the body" (management of treatment side effects). Women's own accounts of positive and negative experiences of GBC care provide unique and specific insights which improve understanding of their concerns and needs. The findings can inform advances in quality and efficacy of clinical care; offer guidance for obstetricians, oncologists and allied health professionals about the needs of women diagnosed with GBC and how care can be optimised; and inform the development of resources to assist women and their families.

  11. Health status and health resource use among long-term survivors of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tàrsila Ferro


    Conclusions: Survivors of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer with tumoral detection at an early stage and without recurrences or second neoplasms experienced little morbidity and enjoyed good quality of life. This study proposes exploration of a follow-up model in the Spanish health system in which primary care plays a more important role than is customary in cancer survivors in Spain.

  12. Health systems, quality of health care, and translational cancer research: the role of the Istituto Superiore Sanità - Rome. (United States)

    Ricciardi, Walter


    Faced with the challenge of ensuring high-quality and cost-effective health systems in the context of persistent financial crisis, a global strategy for cancer prevention and treatment represents a priority for public health bodies and governments. The key goals for the initiative are to define standards of cancer prevention and care while leveraging the continuous progress of biomedical research in the interest of public health. In Italy, the establishment of a network of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCC) named the Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) is an important initiative taken by the Ministry of Health to foster common strategies for enhancing the quality of oncology research and care at the national level. The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) has played an important role in supporting ACC activities through a special national program called ISS for ACC, launched by the Italian Ministry of Health in 2006. A similar role has been pursued in subsequent initiatives, including ISS support for a project aimed at providing international accreditation of the CCC of the ACC, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The results of this initiative, reported in the current issue of Tumori, are especially significant since specific indicators of quality for research and cancer care have been successfully defined for all the participating institutes. As the leading technical and scientific body of the Italian National Health Service, the ISS will continue to play a proactive role in supporting national networks and strategic national and international initiatives aimed at promoting public health.

  13. Investigating Challenges Facing Self-Management Empowerment Education in Adolescents and Youths with Major Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Thalassemia is considered an important public health problem worldwide, especially in developing and poor countries. Although several advanced techniques have been developed for prevention of thalassemia in the recent years, many adolescents and youths are still living with this disease. Independence from parents, decisions about high-risk behaviors, uncovering the identity, and adapting to mental and physical effects of the disease occur together in adolescents. Objectives This study was conducted to explore challenges of self-management empowerment in adolescents and youths with major thalassemia. Materials and Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory study. The study population consisted of adolescents and youths with major thalassemia who had medical records in the Bushehr Thalassemia Center, affiliated with Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. The study samples were purposively selected. Demographic information questionnaire and empowerment questionnaire were used to collect data from the semistructured interview. We analyzed qualitative data by content analysis method and quantitative data by descriptive (mean, standard deviation and analytical (Student's t-test, ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient statistical methods, using the statistical software SPSS 18. Results In qualitative part of the study, data from semistructured in-depth interviews with 15 participants were coded and summarized in five themes including: 1 awareness of personal changes; 2 need for adaptation; 3 maintaining independence and self-management; 4 uncovering the identity and role playing; and 5 sense of control and satisfaction. Results of the quantitative part showed that the overall score of participants on empowerment was 92.46 of 149 scores, which showed a moderate situation in the empowerment of these individuals. In addition, the empowerment score showed no statistically significant correlation with demographic characteristics

  14. The relationship between neighborhood empowerment and dental caries experience: a multilevel study in adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Marques Santiago


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of contextual social capital (neighborhood empowerment and individual social capital (social support and social network with dental caries experience in adolescents and adults. METHODS: A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 573 subjects, 15-19 and 35-44 years of age, from 30 census tracts in three cities of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. Caries experience was assessed using the DMFT index (decayed, missing and filled teeth and participants were divided into two groups according to the median of the DMFT index in low and high caries experience. Demographic, socioeconomic, behaviors, use of dental services and social capital measures were collected through interviews. Neighborhood empowerment was obtained from the mean scores of the residents in each census tract. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression was used to test the relationship between neighborhood empowerment and caries experience. RESULTS: High caries experience was inversely associated with neighborhood empowerment (OR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.33 - 0.99. Individual social capital was not associated with caries experience. Other associated factors with caries experience were age (OR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.12 - 1.18 and being a female (OR = 1.72; 95%CI 1.08 - 2.73. CONCLUSION: The association between neighborhood empowerment and caries experience suggests that the perception of features of the place of residence should be taken into account in actions of oral health promotion.

  15. Diagnosis of the problems interfering with the actions of the Family Health Program in the city of Araruama: suggesting empowerment as an organizational theory Diagnóstico dos problemas que interferem nas ações do PSF do município de Araruama: sugerindo o empowerment como teoria organizacional


    Simone Grativol Marchon; Zeilma da Cunha


    In the current Brazilian health policy, the Family Health Program (FHP) is playing an important role in the construction and consolidation of the Brazilian Health System.Within this conception it can be observed that the health policies are put in practice in the services, through the actions and daily practices of the social actors in the context of the FHP. The purpose of this study was to identify the main barriers related to infra-structure, behavior and social-demographic factor...

  16. Feed the Future: Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index


    United States Agency for International Development; International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI); Centro de Estudios de Pobalcion y Desarrollo Social(CEPAR); World Food Program (WFP); Oxford Poverty and Human Development Index


    Metadata only record This report discusses the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) which is a measurement of their empowerment, agency, and inclusion in the agricultural sector. Its purpose is to identify constraints and increase understanding between women, agriculture, empowerment, and food security. In turn, this will help understand which women are disempowered and how their autonomy and decision-making can be addressed in order to reach gender equity in production, access ...

  17. Gender Equity: Womens Political Empowerment In South Korea (United States)


    progress improves South Korea’s government and its policies. 1. Political Empowerment Fundamentally, in order to understand theories about women’s...empowerment, the first step is to define “power” and “empowerment.” According to feminist scholars, “individual and collective participation … [is] an...Associations United.”37 According to Koh, “many people, not just those who identify themselves as ‘ feminists ’ joined the movement to abolish the hoju system

  18. How I do it: managing bone health in patients with prostate cancer. (United States)

    Barkin, Jack


    Urologists have two scenarios where they have to address bone loss or increased risk of fractures in men with prostate cancer. In the first setting, a patient who has been started on androgen deprivation therapy may develop cancer-treatment-induced bone loss. In the second setting, a patient's prostate cancer may have metastasized to the bone. This article describes six steps to manage bone health in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in a community practice.

  19. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  20. [Consumerism, patient empowerment and changing clinical work--patient awareness and treatment demands on the rise]. (United States)

    Toiviainen, Hanna


    Consumerism refers to the accentuation of a patient's status and freedom of choice within the health care. Increasing patient knowledge, empowerment and demands stand out in the medical practice. Patients seek for self-diagnosis before attending the consultation. Regarding the treatment relationship, one doctor out of five experiences the situation positive and two out of five negative. The patients influence prescription decisions. Private doctors have a more positive attitude to patients' consumer role than those working within the public sector.

  1. Action research and empowerment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    Public Management 2. A marginalized urban area, where the objective was to develop a community centre which could strengthen social capital and facilitate empowerment of both residents and welfare workers 3. A local project about sustainable housing, where the objective was to design and build houses...... to strengthen these actors’ capacity to actively influence the development of society and contribute to better social and environmental conditions. The first part of the chapter introduces the core concepts of action research and empowerment with references to international contributions. The next part concerns...... which could act as prototypes and inspiration for the development of sustainable housing. The chapter illustrates and discusses how action research can, with the active participation of local citizens, public employees, private employees and environmental organizations amongst others, contribute...

  2. Women's empowerment and reproductive experiences over the lifecourse. (United States)

    Lee-Rife, Susan M


    This paper examines the complex interplay between reproductive experiences and women's empowerment using rich life history data from a survey in India. Previous research has examined the influence of a rather limited range of reproductive events, focusing on how many children or sons a woman has borne, and has only superficially incorporated the insights of lifecourse theory. Furthermore, it has often conceptualized empowerment as a static characteristic rather than a time-varying one, and has often failed to examine the influence of empowerment resources or previous empowerment levels. I focus on the cumulative influence of less-studied reproductive events-including unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, stillbirths, miscarriages, and abortions-on several dimensions of women's empowerment, including mobility, financial decision-making, experiences of violence, and threats of abandonment or homelessness using data collected from 2435 women in Madhya Pradesh, India during a 2002 household-based probability sample survey. Logistic regression revealed that, notably, few reproductive events have an impact on women's current empowerment, but rather, the extent of empowerment immediately after marriage emerges as a strong determinant of their current empowerment. However, women who have had abortions have higher odds of experiencing domestic violence, and experiencing mistimed pregnancies lowers the odds of violence. Incorporating the potential influence of prior life events and conditions, accounting for the possibility that experiences may accumulate to shape women's current empowerment portrays women's lives more completely and helps to identify key points of intervention.

  3. Modeling time-lagged reciprocal psychological empowerment-performance relationships. (United States)

    Maynard, M Travis; Luciano, Margaret M; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Mathieu, John E; Dean, Matthew D


    Employee psychological empowerment is widely accepted as a means for organizations to compete in increasingly dynamic environments. Previous empirical research and meta-analyses have demonstrated that employee psychological empowerment is positively related to several attitudinal and behavioral outcomes including job performance. While this research positions psychological empowerment as an antecedent influencing such outcomes, a close examination of the literature reveals that this relationship is primarily based on cross-sectional research. Notably, evidence supporting the presumed benefits of empowerment has failed to account for potential reciprocal relationships and endogeneity effects. Accordingly, using a multiwave, time-lagged design, we model reciprocal relationships between psychological empowerment and job performance using a sample of 441 nurses from 5 hospitals. Incorporating temporal effects in a staggered research design and using structural equation modeling techniques, our findings provide support for the conventional positive correlation between empowerment and subsequent performance. Moreover, accounting for the temporal stability of variables over time, we found support for empowerment levels as positive influences on subsequent changes in performance. Finally, we also found support for the reciprocal relationship, as performance levels were shown to relate positively to changes in empowerment over time. Theoretical and practical implications of the reciprocal psychological empowerment-performance relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Empowerment and personal assistance - resistance, consumer choice, partnership or discipline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Inge Storgaard; Askheim, Ole Petter


    The concept of empowerment has been closely linked to the development of personal assistance (PA) and the independent living ideology. However, the use of the concept of empowerment has been disputed as it has begun to be used in both the marketization of the PA scheme and as a government strategy...... to promote active partnership. In this article, we take a closer look at the concept of empowerment and how different approaches capture different relationships between the state and the users of PA. We distinguish between empowerment as a form of resistance, as a form of consumer choice, as co...

  5. Cancer control in developing countries: using health data and health services research to measure and improve access, quality and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangolle Alfred CT


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. Discussion This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly available documents. In spite of significant limitations in the available data, it is clear there are substantial barriers to access to cancer control in developing countries. This includes prevention, early detection, diagnosis/treatment and palliation. There are also substantial limitations in the quality of cancer control and a great need to improve economic efficiency. We describe how the application of health data may assist in optimizing (1 Structure: strengthening planning, collaboration, transparency, research development, education and capacity building. (2 Process: enabling follow-up, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality assurance. (3 Outcome: facilitating evaluation, monitoring and improvement of national cancer control efforts. There is currently limited data and capacity to use this data in developing countries for these purposes. Summary There is an urgent need to improve health services for cancer control in developing countries. Current resources and much-needed investments must be optimally managed. To achieve this, we would recommend investment in four key priorities: (1 Capacity building in oncology health services research, policy and planning relevant to developing countries. (2 Development of high-quality health data sources. (3 More oncology-related economic evaluations in developing countries. (4 Exploration of high-quality models of cancer control in developing countries. Meeting these needs will require national, regional and

  6. The State and Empowerment Policies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joseph Chukuma Duru


    Full Text Available Since independence in 1960, successive governments in Nigeria have come up with various poverty alleviation strategies aimed at empowering Nigerians in rural and urban areas. Several of these programmes not withstanding, poverty in Nigeria remains an issue of great concern as over 75 per cent of the citizens live below poverty line.This paper seeks to examine the constructions of empowerment in Nigeria's poverty alleviation programmes with particular focus on the Obasanjo regime's Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP. Methodologically, the paper utilizes predominantly secondary sources of data given its nature. And our findings reveal that poverty subsists in Nigeria despite all counter measures because the programmes and empowerment strategies so far adopted have remained remedial, and have fundamentally failed to address basic issues like enhancing the productive base of the society and youth empowerment. Thus, the paper concludes that poverty alleviation programmes can only make meaning when they seek a radical transformation of the society through qualitative and mass education both in rural and urban centres among other things.

  7. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu


    Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.

  8. [Projection of new cancer diseases to the year 2002--a contribution to health planning in public health by the Saarland cancer registry]. (United States)

    Brenner, H; Stegmaier, C; Ziegler, H


    This paper provides projections of incident cases of malignant neoplasms in Saarland, Germany, between 1988 and 2002. The analyses are based on population forecasts by the National Statistical Office and on age-cohort analyses of cancer incidence data from the population-based cancer registry of the Saarland. Due to dramatic demographic changes and increasing age-specific cancer incidence rates, the average yearly number of total incident cases of malignant neoplasms is projected to increase by 63.1% between 1983-1987 and 1998-2002 in men, with the strongest increase projected for colon cancer (+114.6%). In women, a modest increase (+7.1%) is projected for all malignant neoplasms, with stronger increases for colon cancer (+50.1%), lung cancer (+44%) and breast cancer (+27.4%), whereas decreasing annual numbers of cases are projected for cervical cancer (-51.6%), stomach cancer (-18.5%) and endometrial cancer (-10.2%). The results provide a quantitative basis for health care planning in the Saarland. They may also serve as a rough guide for other parts of Germany for which reliable cancer incidence data are not available.

  9. Beyond barriers: fundamental 'disconnects' underlying the treatment of breast cancer patients' sexual health. (United States)

    Halley, Meghan C; May, Suepattra G; Rendle, Katharine A S; Frosch, Dominick L; Kurian, Allison W


    Sexual health concerns represent one of the most frequently experienced and longest-lasting effects of breast cancer treatment, but research suggests that service providers rarely discuss sexual health with their patients. Existing research examining barriers to addressing patients' sexual health concerns has focused on discrete characteristics of the provider-patient interaction without considering the broader context in which these interactions occur. Drawing on the experiences of 21 breast cancer survivors, this paper explores three ways in which fundamental cultural and structural characteristics of the cancer care system in the USA may prevent breast cancer survivors from addressing their sexual health concerns, including: (1) when patients discussed sexual health with their providers, their providers approached sexuality as primarily physical, while participants experienced complex, multidimensional sexual health concerns; (2) specialisation within cancer care services made it difficult for patients to identify the appropriate provider to address their concerns; and (3) the structure of cancer care literally disconnects patients from the healthcare system at the time when sexual side effects commonly emerged. These data suggest that addressing breast cancer survivors' sexual health concerns requires a multifaceted approach to health systems change.

  10. Breast cancer in limited-resource countries: health care systems and public policy. (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin O; Yip, Cheng-Har; Ramsey, Scott D; Bengoa, Rafael; Braun, Susan; Fitch, Margaret; Groot, Martijn; Sancho-Garnier, Helene; Tsu, Vivien D


    As the largest cancer killer of women around the globe, breast cancer adversely impacts countries at all levels of economic development. Despite major advances in the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer, health care ministries face multitiered challenges to create and support health care programs that can improve breast cancer outcomes. In addition to the financial and organizational problems inherent in any health care system, breast health programs are hindered by a lack of recognition of cancer as a public health priority, trained health care personnel shortages and migration, public and health care provider educational deficits, and social barriers that impede patient entry into early detection and cancer treatment programs. No perfect health care system exists, even in the wealthiest countries. Based on inevitable economic and practical constraints, all health care systems are compelled to make trade-offs among four factors: access to care, scope of service, quality of care, and cost containment. Given these trade-offs, guidelines can define stratified approaches by which economically realistic incremental improvements can be sequentially implemented within the context of resource constraints to improve breast health care. Disease-specific "vertical" programs warrant "horizontal" integration with existing health care systems in limited-resource countries. The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) Health Care Systems and Public Policy Panel defined a stratified framework outlining recommended breast health care interventions for each of four incremental levels of resources (basic, limited, enhanced, and maximal). Reallocation of existing resources and integration of a breast health care program with existing programs and infrastructure can potentially improve outcomes in a cost-sensitive manner. This adaptable framework can be used as a tool by policymakers for program planning and research design to make best use of available resources

  11. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of prostate cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for prostate cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary prostate cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  12. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of colorectal cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for colorectal cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  13. Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik


    Cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality today. It is estimated that around 43% of cancer deaths are due to tobacco use, unhealthy diets, alcohol consumption, inactive lifestyles and infection. Low-income and disadvantaged groups are generally more exposed to avoidable...... of the global burden of cancer. Tobacco and alcohol are regarded as the major risk factors for oral cancer. The population-attributable risks of smoking and alcohol consumption have been estimated to 80% for males, 61% for females, and 74% overall. The evidence that smokeless tobacco causes oral cancer...... risk factors such as environmental carcinogens, alcohol, infectious agents, and tobacco use. These groups also have less access to the health services and health education that would empower them to make decisions to protect and improve their own health. Oro-pharyngeal cancer is significant component...

  14. Narratives of empowerment and compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann


    (patients)through specific styles of communication and interaction, referred to as ‘multi-logical nar-ratives’.Conclusion: In spite of the potential of online communities of opening up health care tothe critical voice of the public, the analysis points to a synthesis of the otherwise oppositepositions...

  15. Bone health history in breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn L Kwan

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was performed to assess bone health history among aromatase inhibitor (AI users before breast cancer (BC diagnosis, which may impact fracture risk after AI therapy and choice of initial hormonal therapy. A total of 2,157 invasive BC patients initially treated with an AI were identified from a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC. Data on demographic and lifestyle factors were obtained from in-person interviews, and bone health history and clinical data from KPNC clinical databases. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal AI users was assessed, compared with 325 postmenopausal TAM users. The associations of bone health history with demographic and lifestyle factors in AI users were also examined. Among all initial AI users, 11.2% had a prior history of osteoporosis, 16.3% had a prior history of any fracture, and 4.6% had a prior history of major fracture. Postmenopausal women who were taking TAM as their initial hormonal therapy had significantly higher prevalence of prior osteoporosis than postmenopausal AI users (21.5% vs. 11.8%, p<0.0001. Among initial AI users, the associations of history of osteoporosis and fracture in BC patients with demographic and lifestyle factors were, in general, consistent with those known in healthy older women. This study is one of the first to characterize AI users and risk factors for bone morbidity before BC diagnosis. In the future, this study will examine lifestyle, molecular, and genetic risk factors for AI-induced fractures.

  16. Cancer (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  17. Health care utilisation and characteristics of long-term breast cancer survivors: nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, V; Ekholm, O; Sjøgren, P;


    AIM: To investigate long-term female breast cancer survivors' (BCS') health care utilisation, health, and employment. METHODS: An age-stratified random sample of 2000 female breast cancer survivors (BCS) 5-15 years after primary surgery without recurrence was drawn from the Danish Breast Cancer...... Cooperative Group register. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemography, health care utilisation, employment, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Associations with breast cancer treatment were investigated. RESULTS: Response rate was 79%. Significantly more BCS than the general women...... population reported health care utilisation (61% versus. 56%; age-standardised risk ratio (SRR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.15), but significantly fewer BCS were disability pensioners (15% versus 19%; SRR: 0.77; 95% CI 0.64-0.93). 'Daily activities limited due to sequelae' were reported by 20...

  18. [Reflections on the excessive rates of cesareans in Brazil and the empowerment of women]. (United States)

    Leão, Míriam Rêgo de Castro; Riesco, Maria Luiza Gonzalez; Schneck, Camilla Alexsandra; Angelo, Margareth


    The medicalization of childbirth as an outcome of social medicalization has been described as a complex sociocultural process that transforms the experiences, suffering and pain - which were formerly managed in the family or community settings - into medical needs. The scope of this paper is to reflect upon the excessive number of cesarean sections in Brazil from a critical and objective standpoint. Data on caesarean section statistics and studies on women's preference on the manner of delivery are discussed in order to contribute to the discussion on the empowerment of the health system consumers. Medicalization is a cultural change that influences the empowerment to cope with the experience of giving birth, as it involves excessive dependency on and abuse of cesarean sections. Furthermore, social networks and movements are discussed as possible facilitators of women's empowerment, as they enable mutual support, sharing of experiences and a contribution to the construction of more balanced relations between women and health professionals. Participation of these networks fosters the collective mobilization of women to insist on their rights from society as a whole.

  19. Reconciling Paternalism and Empowerment in Clinical Practice: An Intersubjective Perspective (United States)

    Bransford, Cassandra L.


    The focus of this article is on illustrating how the differences between the paternalistic and empowerment approaches embedded within social work have unnecessarily evolved into competing approaches to practice. Tracing the historical evolution of both paternalistic and empowerment approaches, the article posits that social work is more amenable…

  20. Empowerment as Interactions that Generate Self-Confidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul


    in empowerment programmes (Dahl 1999: 51; Jacobsen/Thorsvik 2007: 188). However, such programmes are often unsuccessful (Wilson 2004; Edwards/Wajcman 2005), and the processes that lead to effective empowerment have not yet been sufficiently understood (Conger/Kanungo 1988; Eylon 1998: 17). This chapter aims...

  1. Køn, 'onde cirkler' og (dis)empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Stormhøj, Christel


    og (dis)empowerment. Således kan den undgå at bidrage til de ”onde cirkler” gennem individualiseringer og patologiseringer af de berørte, hvilket også vil sige at bidrage til disempowerment. Analysen kan så derimod bidrage til de udsatte kvinders empowerment i form af bl.a. mere inkluderende...

  2. Join the Art Club: Exploring Social Empowerment in Art Therapy (United States)

    Morris, Frances Johanna; Willis-Rauch, Mallori


    Social Empowerment Art Therapy (SEAT) aims to address the stigma of mental illness through the artistic empowerment of participants. The model was developed within an inpatient psychiatric setting from observations of a shared governance structure that empowered residents. Incorporating an open art studio approach and social action art therapy,…

  3. Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

  4. From Broken Windows to Busy Streets: A Community Empowerment Perspective (United States)

    Aiyer, Sophie M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Reischl, Thomas M.


    In the present article, we introduce a community empowerment perspective to understanding neighborhoods. A preponderance of literature exists on neighborhood risk factors for crime. Yet less is known about positive factors that make neighborhoods safe and desirable. We propose community empowerment as a conceptual foundation for understanding…

  5. Women's Empowerment and Education: Linking Knowledge to Transformative Action (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.


    Women's empowerment is a concept that has acquired substantial recognition in the past decade. However, it is better known among international development organisations, NGOs, and grassroots groups than in academic circles. This article examines the concept of women's empowerment as a foundational element in a theory of social change in which the…

  6. Empowerment of Women through Education in Twenty First Century (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran


    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…

  7. School Empowerment Surges Ahead in 2007-2008 (United States)

    Snell, Lisa


    School empowerment and weighted student formula programs continue to grow across the United States. This article explores the key components of school empowerment programs and describes several existing programs from Baltimore to San Francisco. The article examines some of the anecdotal outcomes for these types of public school choice programs.…

  8. Corruption in health-care systems and its effect on cancer care in Africa. (United States)

    Mostert, Saskia; Njuguna, Festus; Olbara, Gilbert; Sindano, Solomon; Sitaresmi, Mei Neni; Supriyadi, Eddy; Kaspers, Gertjan


    At the government, hospital, and health-care provider level, corruption plays a major role in health-care systems in Africa. The returns on health investments of international financial institutions, health organisations, and donors might be very low when mismanagement and dysfunctional structures of health-care systems are not addressed. More funding might even aggravate corruption. We discuss corruption and its effects on cancer care within the African health-care system in a sociocultural context. The contribution of high-income countries in stimulating corruption is also described. Corrupt African governments cannot be expected to take the initiative to eradicate corruption. Therefore, international financial institutions, health organisations, and financial donors should use their power to demand policy reforms of health-care systems in Africa troubled by the issue of corruption. These modifications will ameliorate the access and quality of cancer care for patients across the continent, and ultimately improve the outcome of health care to all patients.

  9. Exercise Interventions to Reduce Cancer-Related Fatigue and Improve Health-Related Quality of Life in Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Scott, Kelly; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and debilitating side effect of patients receiving treatment of cancer. It is reported that 60% to 100% of patients will develop CRF as a result of the treatment or the cancer itself. The effects last for years posttreatment and lower overall quality of life. The purpose of this integrative review was to determine whether exercise interventions could reduce CRF and improve overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among selected cancer patients. Clinical Key, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, Cochrane Library, Mosby's Nursing Consult, and MEDLINE (Ovid) were the databases searched. Key terms searched were fatigue, exercise, cancer fatigue, holistic, spiritual, quality of life, and prevention. Findings from most studies suggest that exercise can decrease the effects of CRF among cancer patients, leading to an overall improved HRQOL. No negative results on the effects of exercise on CRF were reported. Nurses can be instrumental in developing holistic multidisciplinary exercise programs to assist in the management of CRF and improve HRQOL among cancer patients during and after cancer treatment. Recommendations for future research include the need for larger study sample sizes, a universal definition of fatigue, determination of the best exercise regimens, more consistent fatigue measures to facilitate better comparison across studies, and specifically assess patient improvements in overall mental and spiritual well-being within a holistic framework.

  10. Cancer registration, public health and the reform of the European data protection framework: Abandoning or improving European public health research? (United States)

    Andersen, Mette Rye; Storm, Hans H


    The importance of cancer- and other disease registries for planning, management and evaluation of healthcare systems has been shown repeatedly during the last 50 years. Complete and unbiased population-level analyses on routinely collected, individual data concerning health and personal characteristics can address significant concerns about risk factors for cancer and provide sound evidence about public health and the effectiveness of healthcare systems. The existence of quality controlled and comprehensive data in registries, allowed to be used for quality control, research and public health purposes are taken as granted by most health professionals and researchers. However, the current revision of the European Union (EU) data protection framework suggests a harmonisation of requirements for confidentiality and individual consent to data processing, likely at the expense of proper use of registry data in the health sector. Consequences of excessive confidentiality rules that may lead to missed data linkages have been simulated. The simulations provide one possible explanation for observed heterogeneity among some cancer incidence data. Further, public health, quality control and epidemiological research on large populations can no longer provide evidence for health interventions, if requirements for consent renders research impossible or where attempts to obtain consent from each data subject generates biased results. Health professionals should engage in the on-going debate on the Commission's proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation. The nature and use of registry data in public health research must be explained and known to policy-makers and the public. Use of cancer registry data and other epidemiological activity will terminate abruptly if an unnecessarily strict EU data protection regulation is adopted. Research based interventions, as well as the international recognised standing of cancer registries and register-based research institutions in

  11. Cancer Genetics Overview (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary in which the features of hereditary cancer and the structure and content of other PDQ cancer genetics summaries are described. The summary also contains an extensive list of genetics resources available online.

  12. Communication in Cancer Care (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about communicating with the cancer patient and his or her family, including unique aspects of communication with cancer patients, factors affecting communication, and training in communication skills.

  13. Engaged, committed and helpful employees: the role of psychological empowerment. (United States)

    Macsinga, Irina; Sulea, Coralia; Sârbescu, Paul; Fischmann, Gabriel; Dumitru, Cătălina


    Although previous research has been focused on the relationship among personality, empowerment, and outcomes, little is known about the incremental effect of empowerment on positive work outcomes. This article aims at exploring the relation between personality factors (i.e., extraversion and conscientiousness) and positive work outcomes (i.e., work engagement, affective organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior), and at determining the incremental effect of psychological empowerment on these outcomes. A convenience sample from three organizations has been used for data collection (N = 258; 52% women, mean age 38.55 years, SD = 10.21). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicate that personality and psychological empowerment explain a significant amount of the variance in the positive organizational outcomes, and that psychological empowerment has a significant incremental value over demographics and personality for the studied outcomes.

  14. Impact of Stakeholder Psychological Empowerment on Project Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Pintardi Chandra


    Full Text Available The relationship between psychological empowerment of stakeholders and project success is an important thing that must be known by project manager. This research developed and tested the model to predict how well the impact of stakeholder psychological empowerment on project success. Stakeholder psychological empowerment was defined to have five indicator variables covering intrinsic motivation, opportunity to perform, ability to perform, task behaviors, and contextual behaviors. Meanwhile, project success can be measured by cost performance, time performance, quality performance, profitability, and customer satisfaction. In this study, it was hypothesized that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success. Based on the data obtained from a questionnaire survey carried out to 204 respondents, structural equation modeling (SEM was used for predicting the performance of project success. It was found that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success, especially on the ability to perform of stakeholders.

  15. Prostate Cancer Research Training in Health Disparities for Minority Undergraduates (United States)


    that may be associated with prostate cancer . The overlap between environment and diet, toxicology , exposure assessment, risk assessment/risk...of the Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center. She completed her doctoral training in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of...Microbiology and Immunology , and Associate Professor of Cancer Biology at Vanderbilt University. He earned the MBBS (MD) degree from Ahmadu Bello

  16. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.

  17. Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of kidney cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for kidney cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease.

  18. Validation of Scores on the Psychological Empowerment Scale: A Measure of Empowerment for Parents of Children with a Disability. (United States)

    Akey, Theresa M.; Marquis, Janet G.; Ross, Margaret E.


    Studied the construct validity for scores on a measure of psychological empowerment, the Psychological Empowerment Scale, for parents of children with a disability. Results of correlational analyses and group discrimination analyses of responses of 293 parents in 3 family support programs provide evidence of the convergent and discriminant…

  19. Potential health concerns of dietary phosphorus: cancer, obesity, and hypertension. (United States)

    Anderson, John J B


    Adult Americans typically consume on average 1400 mg, or more, of phosphorus (P) daily in meals, which almost doubles the recommended dietary allowance. After a meal phosphorus is rapidly absorbed at a high efficiency and hormonal mechanisms act swiftly to maintain the serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration within fairly narrow limits. Both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) reduce serum phosphate during postprandial periods through homeostatic actions on the kidney. However, it is speculated that exposure of cells to a brief high-serum Pi concentration may signal alterations in cell functions that lead to deleterious effects. Elevation of serum FGF-23 or PTH may also be harmful to specific cell types. Examples of possible adverse health effects include cancer, obesity, and hypertension. Here I review potential mechanisms through which high-P intake may contribute to cell metabolic abnormalities and the development of chronic disease; high-dietary phosphorus, especially from foods processed with phosphate salts, may be associated with these chronic diseases. Further investigation is needed to establish the significance of high-phosphate diets within a large segment of the U.S. population with normal renal function.

  20. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens


    that symptoms and problems reported by cancer patients may have causes other than cancer, and thus constitutes a good justification for the use of data from general population studies when interpreting data from cancer patients. The levels of anxiety and depression of low-risk breast cancer patients were found...... chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed...

  1. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treanor Charlene


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are

  2. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors (United States)


    Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are required in order to ensure

  3. Determinants of caregiving experiences and mental health of partners of cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, C; Triemstra, M; Sanderman, R; van den Bos, GAM


    BACKGROUND. Research regarding informal caregiving showed considerable individual variation in responses to cancer caregiving. The current longitudinal study examined determinants of caregiver outcomes in terms of caregiver experiences at 3 months and caregiver's mental health at 6 months after hosp

  4. Genomic Basis of Prostate Cancer Health Disparity Among African-American Men (United States)


    Cancer Health Disparity Among African-American Men PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harry Ostrer, M.D. RECIPIENT: Albert Einstein College of...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Albert Einstein College of Medicine Of Yeshiva University Bronx, NY 10461 9. SPONSORING

  5. The accuracy and completeness for receipt of colorectal cancer care using Veterans Health Administration administrative data


    Sherer, Eric A.; Fisher, Deborah A; Barnd, Jeffrey; Jackson, George L.; Provenzale, Dawn; Haggstrom, David A.


    Background The National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American Society of Clinical Oncology have established guidelines for the treatment and surveillance of colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. Considering these guidelines, an accurate and efficient method is needed to measure receipt of care. Methods The accuracy and completeness of Veterans Health Administration (VA) administrative data were assessed by comparing them with data manually abstracted during the Colorectal Cancer Care...

  6. Health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours in women who applied to cancer early detection center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Serpil Talas


    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting women in Turkey. The early detection methods for breast cancer have been associated with health belief variables. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine women's health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours. Methods: This study was designed as descriptive and cross-sectional survey and was performed on 344 women who applied the Nigde Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening and Education Center between May and October 2009. The data were collected using a questionnaire which consists of socio-demographic characteristics and breast cancer risk factors and Health Belief Model Scale. Data analysis was performed using frequency and Mann-Whitney U Test. All values of p0.05. According to study results, the rate of regular BSE performance rate for women was found low. Therefore, KETEM was planned to the training programs related to breast cancer screening methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 265-271

  7. Cancer survivors' rehabilitation needs in a primary health care context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Thorbjørn; Søndergaard, Jens; Sokolowski, Ineta;


    BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer survivors' rehabilitation needs have mostly addressed specific areas of needs, e.g. physical aspects and/or rehabilitation needs in relation to specific cancer types. OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer survivors' perceived need for physical and psychosocial rehabilitation......, whether these needs have been presented to and discussed with their GP. METHODS: A survey among a cohort of cancer survivors approximately 15 months after diagnosis. The questionnaire consisted of an ad hoc questionnaire on rehabilitation needs and the two validated questionnaires, the SF-12...... and the Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire, the QLQ C-30 version 3. RESULTS: Among 534 eligible patients, we received 353 (66.1%) answers. Two-thirds of the cancer survivors had discussed physical rehabilitation needs with their GPs. Many (51%) feared cancer relapse, but they rarely...

  8. Decisions and involvement of cancer patient survivors: a moral imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravettoni G


    Full Text Available Gabriella Pravettoni,1,2 Ilaria Cutica,1,2 Simona Righetti,1 Ketti Mazzocco1,2 1Department of Oncology and Hematology, University of Milan, 2Applied Research Division for Cognitive and Psychological Science, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy Purpose: The aim of this study was to review the experiences of direct involvement in patient survivorship for treatment and research. Methods: This is a narrative-focused review of the following two recent experiences of patient involvement: the Chordoma Foundation and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Foundation. Results: These two examples represent concrete experiences that patients have built to favor a real involvement in the care and treatment of tumors. These experiences are profoundly modifying how cancer research is conducted and draw attention to the psychosocial dimensions of health care. Conclusion: These examples represent the new scenario in which modern medicine faces completely new challenges, copes with new needs, and cooperates with new health care professionals. Implications: Involving patients in a new perspective raises practical and ethical challenges for organizations to work together, for health providers to be professionally skilled and for the government to promote safeguarding policies. Keywords: patient empowerment, patients’ association, empowerment, skills, codesign ­techniques, cancer

  9. Health-related quality of life in long-term breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, Vera Irina; Ekholm, Ola; Rasmussen, N.K.;


    health" (P mental health" (P ...AIM: To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCS) in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An age-stratified random sample of 2,000 female BCS > or = 5 years after primary surgery without recurrence was drawn...... from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, which is representative regarding long-term BCS in Denmark, and compared with 3,104 women of the nationally representative Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2000. The Short Form-36 questionnaire assessed HRQOL and its association with BCS...

  10. Building Recipes and Understanding Nutrition for Cancer-Survivor Health (BRUNCH) (United States)

    Urowitz, Sara; Chiu, Winnie; Cockburn, Moira; Dunlop, Barbara; Fierini, Daniela; Himel, Danielle; Jones, Erin; Pulandiran, Menaka; Smith, James; Wiljer, David


    A multidisciplinary team from the health and culinary sectors developed and evaluated nutritious recipes for cancer-survivors to inform and support healthy eating post-cancer. Participants in the study indicated that they were likely to incorporate the recipes into their diets, and that it would help them change their eating habits. (Contains 1…

  11. Partners of cancer patients have increased primary health care use for somatic and psychosocial problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Rijken, P.M.; Donker, G.A.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.


    Background: Partners of cancer patients experience psychological distress and impaired physical health. This may affect their GP use, both in number of contacts and reason for contact. Research question: Is GP use of partners of cancer patients altered in the period around the diagnosis? Methods: We

  12. Health-related quality of life after completion of successful treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, V.; Koopman, H.M.; Detmar, S.B.; Raat, H.; Wetering, M.D. van de; Brons, P.; Anninga, J.K.; Abbink, F.; Grootenhuis, M.A.


    Background: Previous studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during several treatment stages in children with cancer, but there is limited knowledge about HRQOL shortly after completing therapy. This study determined HRQOL of children with cancer shortly after the end of success

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cervical Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. Korfage (Ida); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); F. Mols (Floortje); L.V. van de Poll-Franse (Lonneke); R.F.M.P. Kruitwagen (Roy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)


    textabstractPURPOSE: In a population-based sample of cervical cancer survivors, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed 2-10 years postdiagnosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients given a diagnosis of cervical cancer in 1995-2003 in the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, and alive afte

  14. Malnutrition is associated with worse health-related quality of life in children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Sanderman, Robbert; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Sulkers, Esther; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Tissing, Wim J. E.


    Malnutrition in childhood cancer patients has been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, this association has never actually been tested. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between nutritional status and HRQOL in children with cancer. In 104 children, a

  15. Meta-synthesis exploring barriers to health seeking behaviour among Malaysian breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Yu, Foo Qing; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar; Khan, Amer Hayat; Mehmood, Tahir


    Barriers to health seeking constitute a challenging issue in the treatment of breast cancer. The current meta- synthesis aimed to explore common barriers to health seeking among Malaysian breast cancer patients. From the systematic search, nine studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria. Data extraction revealed that health behavior towards breast cancer among Malaysia women was influenced by knowledge, psychological, sociocultural and medical system factors. In terms of knowledge, most of the Malaysian patients were observed to have cursory information and the reliance on the information provided by media was limiting. Among psychological factors, stress and sense of denial were some of the common factors leading to delay in treatment seeking. Family member's advice, cultural beliefs towards traditional care were some of the common sociocultural factors hindering immediate access to advanced medical diagnosis and care. Lastly, the delay in referral was one of the most common health system-related problems highlighted in most of the studies. In conclusion, there is an immediate need to improve the knowledge and understanding of Malaysian women towards breast cancer. Mass media should liaise with the cancer specialists to disseminate accurate and up-to-date information for the readers and audience, helping in modification of cultural beliefs that hinder timing health seeking. However, such intervention will not improve or rectify the health system related barriers to treatment seeking. Therefore, there is an immediate need for resource adjustment and training programs among health professional to improve their competency and professionalism required to develop an efficient health system.

  16. Risk Profile in a Sample of Patients with Breast Cancer from the Public Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina IRIMIE


    Full Text Available Cancer represents a major public health and economical burden in developed countries and has emerged as a major public health problem in developing countries, matching its effect in industrialized nations. Although there have been recent declines in breast cancer mortality rates in some European Union countries, breast cancer remains of key importance to public health in Europe. Now days there is increasing recognition of the causative role of lifestyle factors, as smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, or lake of physical activity. The present study aimed to appreciate the presence and magnitude of modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in a sample of patients diagnosed with the disease, and to outline a risk profile liable to be changed in the intention of reducing the global risk. Risk factors have been investigated in 65 patients diagnosed with breast cancer using a questionnaire for breast cancer risk factors evaluation. The high risk profile was identified as taking shape for urban environment, modulated by the impact of overweight-obesity, smoking, reproductive factors and environmental exposure to different chemical substances. From the public health perspective, the control of overweight and obesity comes out in the foreground of preventive activities. Public health approaches emphasize on inexpensive, practical methods and in this perspective the approach of obesity should focus on the alteration of environmental context, promoting healthy eating and increased physical activity which could have a positive, independent impact on breast cancer risk

  17. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX


    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  18. Family Ties: The Role of Family Context in Family Health History Communication About Cancer. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vivian M; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N; Quillin, John M


    Family health history about cancer is an important prevention and health promotion tool. Yet few studies have identified family context factors that promote such discussions. We explored relations among family context (cohesion, flexibility, and openness), self-efficacy, and cancer communication (gathering family history, sharing cancer risk information, and frequency) in a diverse group of women enrolled in a randomized control trial. Baseline survey data for 472 women were analyzed. The women's average age was 34 years, 59% identified as Black, 31% had graduated high school, and 75% reported a family history of any cancer. Results showed that greater family cohesion and flexibility were related to higher communication frequency and sharing cancer information. Women who reported greater self-efficacy were more likely to have gathered family history, shared cancer risk information, and communicated more frequently with relatives. Openness was not associated with communication but was related to greater family cohesion and flexibility. Adjusting for demographic variables, self-efficacy, and family cohesion significantly predicted communication frequency. Women with higher self-efficacy were also more likely to have gathered family health history about cancer and shared cancer risk information. Future research may benefit from considering family organization and self-efficacy when developing psychosocial theories that in turn inform cancer prevention interventions.

  19. Health-related quality of life in women after cancer treatment. (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata


    Cancer survivorship is the term used to represent the state or process of living with cancer or living after diagnosis of cancer. Living with cancer or living after cancer--are conditions characteristic to an increasing number of long-term survivors ("society of remission"); health-related quality of life in these individuals is an important indicator of successful treatment and patient's satisfaction. Health-related quality of life in oncological patients has remained one of the main topic of research. The present paper reviews psychosocial outcomes in breast cancer (female disease) and gender-related differences in health-related quality of life in colon cancer survivors. Breast cancer diagnosis is usually associated with several expected psychosocial consequences like psychosocial distress. Specific psychological variables like body image, fear, satisfaction with treatment and cosmetic evaluation may improve general will to live. Women who perceive support from family and friends have better coping and psychological adjustment, while lack of social support is a risk factor for anxiety and depression. Colon cancer remains an important medical and social problem in Poland; polish data showed the following gender-related differences: in patients with stoma, women reported lower level of psychological well-being than men, reported increasing level of stress and loss of control over emotions and behaviours.

  20. The Interdependence of Advanced Cancer Patients’ and Their Family Caregivers’ Mental Health, Physical Health, and Self-Efficacy Over Time (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Ellis, Katrina R.; Yoon, Hyojin; Schafenacker, Ann; Katapodi, Maria; Northouse, Laurel


    Background The challenges of advanced cancer have health implications for patients and their family caregivers from diagnosis through end-of-life. The nature of the patient/caregiver experience suggests that their mental and physical health may be interdependent, but limited empirical evidence exists. Purpose This study used Social Cognitive Theory as a framework to investigate individual and interpersonal influences on patients’ and their family caregivers’ mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy as individuals to manage the challenges of advanced disease over time. Methods Patients and caregivers (484 patient-caregiver dyads) completed surveys at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Longitudinal dyadic analysis techniques were used to examine (i) the influence that patients and caregivers had on their own mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy (actor effects) and (ii) the influence that they had on each other’s health outcomes (partner effects). We also examined the influence of self-efficacy on mental and physical health over time. Results Consistent with our hypotheses, each person’s mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy had significant effects on their own outcomes over time (actor effects). Patients and caregivers influenced one another’s mental and physical health (partner effects), but not their self-efficacy. In addition, patients and caregivers with higher self-efficacy had better mental health, and their partners had better physical health. Conclusions Patient and caregiver mental and physical health were interdependent. Each person’s cancer-related self-efficacy influenced their own mental and physical health. However, a person’s self-efficacy did not influence the other person’s self-efficacy. PMID:26489843

  1. An exploration of empowerment from the perspective of Irish nurses and midwives


    Corbally, Melissa


    Empowerment is a complex and multifaceted construct. It is understood to be a perception of ability that can be influenced by numerous factors. Due to the subjective nature of human perception, there is a potential for empowerment to mean different things to different people. Empowerment theory is also equally diverse. Several research approaches have attempted to measure empowerment. Most of these have assumed its meaning which is problematic given the fact that empowerment is interpreted at...

  2. Pre-Cloak Comic Superheroes: Tools for the Empowerment of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Fradkin


    Full Text Available This note explores the notion of comic superheroes as tools for the empowerment of children. The author details interventions in Rwanda and Brazil, and their different usages of superheroes. With a focus on the superhero’s pre-cloak stage—the stage prior to their employing superpowers—the author offers glimpses of current work in progress to help therapists empower orphaned children. While this area of research is at an early stage, its potential among health professionals is growing. Thus the comic superhero may be more than celluloid, as health professionals learn to use his superpowers.

  3. Cross-sectoral cancer care: views from patients and health care professionals regarding a personal electronic health record. (United States)

    Baudendistel, I; Winkler, E C; Kamradt, M; Brophy, S; Längst, G; Eckrich, F; Heinze, O; Bergh, B; Szecsenyi, J; Ose, D


    Cross-sectoral cancer care is complex and involves collaboration from health care professionals (HCPs) across multiple sectors. However, when health information exchange (HIE) is not adequate, it results in impeded coordination and continuity of care. A web-based personal electronic health record (PEPA) under patients' control, providing access to personal health data across sectors, is being developed. Aim of this study was to explore perceived benefits and concerns. Using a qualitative approach, 10 focus groups were performed collecting views of three prospective user groups: patients with colorectal cancer (n = 12), physicians (n = 17) and other HCPs (n = 16). Representatives from different health sectors across the Rhine-Neckar region (Germany) participated. Data were audio- and videotaped, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Our study shows that patients and HCPs expected a PEPA to enhance cross-sectoral availability of information, cross-sectoral cooperation and facilitate data management. Quality of cancer care was expected to be improved. Concerns were expressed in terms of data protection and data security. Concepts like a PEPA offer the chance to support HIE and avoid gaps of information in cross-sectoral cancer care. This may lead to improvements in coordination and continuity of care. Issues concerning data security and protection have to be addressed.

  4. Covering women's greatest health fear: breast cancer information in consumer magazines. (United States)

    Walsh-Childers, Kim; Edwards, Heather; Grobmyer, Stephen


    Women identify consumer magazines as a key source of information on many health topics, including breast cancer, which continues to rank as women's greatest personal health fear. This study examined the comprehensiveness and accuracy of breast cancer information provided in 555 articles published in 17 consumer magazines from 2002 through 2007. Accuracy of information was determined for 33 key breast cancer facts identified by an expert panel as important information for women to know. The results show that only 7 of 33 key facts were mentioned in at least 5% of the articles. These facts all dealt with breast cancer risk factors, screening, and detection; none of the key facts related to treatment or outcomes appeared in at least 5% of the articles. Other topics (not key facts) mentioned centered around controllable risk factors, support for breast cancer patients, and chemotherapy treatment. The majority of mentions of key facts were coded as fully accurate, although as much as 44% of mentions of some topics (the link between hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer) were coded as inaccurate or only partially accurate. The magazines were most likely to emphasize family history of breast cancer or genetic characteristics as risk factors for breast cancers; family history was twice as likely to be discussed as increasing age, which is in fact the most important risk factor for breast cancer other than being female. Magazine coverage may contribute to women's inaccurate perceptions of their breast cancer risk.

  5. Refortalecimiento: Un Debate con el Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vázquez Rivera


    Full Text Available Mi intención, en este artículo, es problematizar lo que llamo el proceso de compra de conceptos y con él las dificultades implícitas en toda traducción. Explorar las limitaciones de la noción de empowerment en su conceptualización y práctica y finalmente proponer una estrategia alterna, que he dado en llamar refortalecimiento. Esta noción nace desde nuestro contexto cultural, histórico, psicológico, social y comunitario. Las circunstancias históricas que bordean la reflexión que propongo ante su consideración tienen como marco de referencia los debates al interior de la Psicología Social Comunitaria, la condición colonial en la que aún se encuentra nuestro país, las tensiones existentes respecto al consumo y producción del conocimiento y un contrapunteo con la noción de empowerment.

  6. 'It's whanaungatanga and all that kind of stuff': Maori cancer patients' experiences of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slater T


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are unacceptable ethnic differences in cancer survival in Aotearoa/New Zealand. For people with cancer, quality of life and survival are shaped by access to care, but research on Maori access to, and through, cancer care is limited. Internationally, research has shown that primary care plays an important role in providing patient-centred, holistic care and information throughout the cancer care journey. Additionally, Maori health providers provide practical support and facilitate access to all levels of health care. Here we describe the cancer journeys of Maori patients and whanau and identify factors that may facilitate or inhibit access to and through cancer care services. METHODS: Twelve Maori patients affected by cancer and their whanau (family in the lower North Island took part in face-to-face semi-structured interviews exploring their experiences of cancer screening, diagnosis, treatment, survival and palliative care. FINDINGS: Three key areas were identified that impacted upon the cancer care journey: the experience of support; continuity of care; and the impact of financial and geographic determinants. CONCLUSION: Primary care plays a key role in support and continuity of care across the cancer journey. Alongside interpersonal rapport, a long-term relationship with a primary health provider facilitated a more positive experience of the cancer care journey, suggesting that patients with a 'medical home' are happier with their care and report less problems with coordination between services. Positive, longstanding relationships with general practitioners and Maori health providers assisted patients and whanau with the provision and understanding of information, alongside practical support.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Health Seeking Behavior of Health Care Professionals regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer at Indian Medical College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Thaker*


    Full Text Available Research article Knowledge, Attitude and Health Seeking Behavior of Health Care Professionals regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer at Indian Medical College Rajal Thaker*,Kay Perrin**, Ellen Daley *** ,Cheryl Vamos ****,Pankaj Patel ***** * Associate Professor Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ***** Dean; Smt N H L Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad 380 006, India. ** Associate Professor, *** Associate Professor, Co-Director, Center for Transdisciplinary Research in Women’s Health (CTR-WH, **** Research Assistant Professor, Associate Director; Center for Transdisciplinary Research in Women’s Health (CTR-WH; University of South Florida College of Public Health, USA Abstract Background: Women’s preventative health is a major public health issue across the globe. From prenatal care to post-menopausal screenings, women’s preventative care covers a wide spectrum of issues and topics. There is limited data on knowledge and practices of screening methods of breast and cervical cancers among female health care professionals in India. This study examines health care professionals’ knowledge and practices regarding breast and cervical cancer screenings in India. Material and Methods After clearance from Institutional Review Board (IRB of University of South Florida (USF and permission from Smt N H L Municipal Medical College (NHLMMC, a cross- sectional interview based survey was conducted amongst female teaching faculty and female consultants of NHLMMC, two affiliated teaching hospitals (Sheth V S General Hospital and Smt S C L General Hospital, and SBB college of Physiotherapy during the year 2010-2011. Conclusion Findings highlight the critical need for education and practice with regards to women’s preventive health care. Practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE and Pap test amongst the health care professionals was quite low; however, those who were 40 year or older were more conscious about their health. Findings also highlight the need for

  8. Women's empowerment and fertility: a review of the literature. (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Gipson, Jessica D; Withers, Mellissa; Lewis, Shayna; Ciaraldi, Erica J; Fraser, Ashley; Huchko, Megan J; Prata, Ndola


    Women's empowerment has become a focal point for development efforts worldwide and there is a need for an updated, critical assessment of the existing evidence on women's empowerment and fertility. We conducted a literature review on studies examining the relationships between women's empowerment and several fertility-related topics. Among the 60 studies identified for this review, the majority were conducted in South Asia (n = 35) and used household decision-making as a measure of empowerment (n = 37). Overall, the vast majority of studies found some positive associations between women's empowerment and lower fertility, longer birth intervals, and lower rates of unintended pregnancy, but there was some variation in results. In many studies, results differed based on the measure of empowerment used, sociopolitical or gender environment, or sub-population studied. This article is one of the first evaluations of the literature assessing the relationships between women's empowerment and fertility. We identify several key issues that merit further investigation.

  9. Childhood Cancer Genomics (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genomics of childhood cancer. The summary describes the molecular subtypes for specific pediatric cancers and their associated clinical characteristics, the recurring genomic alterations that characterize each subtype at diagnosis or relapse, and the therapeutic and prognostic significance of the genomic alterations. The genomic alterations associated with brain tumors, kidney tumors, leukemias, lymphomas, sarcomas, and other cancers are discussed.

  10. Mobile health for cancer in low to middle income countries: priorities for research and development. (United States)

    Holeman, I; Evans, J; Kane, D; Grant, L; Pagliari, C; Weller, D


    Many current global health opportunities have less to do with new biomedical knowledge than with the coordination and delivery of care. While basic research remains vital, the growing cancer epidemic in countries of low and middle income warrants urgent action - focusing on both research and service delivery innovation. Mobile technology can reduce costs, improve access to health services, and strengthen health systems to meet the interrelated challenges of cancer and other noncommunicable diseases. Experience has shown that even very poor and remote communities that only have basic primary health care can benefit from mobile health (or 'mHealth') interventions. We argue that cancer researchers and practitioners have an opportunity to leverage mHealth technologies that have successfully targeted other health conditions, rather than reinventing these tools. We call for particular attention to human centred design approaches for adapting existing technologies to suit distinctive aspects of cancer care and to align delivery with local context - and we make a number of recommendations for integrating mHealth delivery research with the work of designers, engineers and implementers in large-scale delivery programmes.

  11. Diffusion of community empowerment strategies for Aedes aegypti control in Cuba: a muddling through experience. (United States)

    Pérez, Dennis; Lefèvre, Pierre; Castro, Marta; Toledo, María Eugenia; Zamora, Gilberto; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick


    Effective participatory strategies in dengue control have been developed and assessed as small-scale efforts. The challenge is to scale-up and institutionalize these strategies within dengue control programs. We describe and critically analyze the diffusion process of an effective empowerment strategy within the Cuban Aedes aegypti control program, focusing on decision-making at the national level, to identify ways forward to institutionalize such strategies in Cuba and elsewhere. From 2005 to 2009, we carried out a process-oriented case study. We used participant observation, in-depth interviews with key informants involved in the diffusion process and document analysis. In a first phase, the data analysis was inductive. In a second phase, to enhance robustness of the analysis, emerging categories were contrasted with Rogers' five-stage conceptual model of the innovation-decision process, which was eventually used as the analytical framework. The diffusion of the empowerment strategy was a continuous and dynamic process. Adoption was a result of the perceived potential match between the innovative empowerment strategy and the performance gap of the Ae. aegypti control program. During implementation, the strategy was partially modified by top level Ae. aegypti control program decision-makers to accommodate program characteristics. However, structure, practices and organizational culture of the control program did not change significantly. Thus rejection occurred. It was mainly due to insufficient dissemination of know-how and underlying principles of the strategy by innovation developers, but also to resistance to change. The innovation-diffusion process has produced mitigated results to date, and the control program is still struggling to find ways to move forward. Improving the innovation strategy by providing the necessary knowledge about the innovation and addressing control program organizational changes is crucial for successful diffusion of empowerment

  12. A Qualitative Study on Role of Self Help Group in Women Empowerment in Rural Pondicherry, India

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    Sahu Lopamudra, Singh Suresh K


    Full Text Available Bacground: Women empowerment is an essential precondition for elimination of poverty. Many International and National bodies have stressed on women empowerment giving attention to their participation in society, decision-making, education and health. In India, Micro finance and Self Help Group (SHG intervention have brought tremendous change in the life of women at the grass root level. Currently around 1640 SHGs exist in Pondicherry and are successfully managed by women. Aim: To assess the role of Self-Help Groups in empowerment of women of rural Pondicherry. Methodology: It was a community based qualitatively study. Focus Group Discussions (FGD were conducted among six SHG groups (one each selected on feasibility basis. The SHG members’ perception of improvement in different pre determined domains were assessed. Content analysis was done manually and the key findings were noted. Results: The key responses were ‘increased participation in household decision making’, ‘gaining respect in family’, ‘increased savings’, ‘meeting family expenses’, ‘improved political knowledge’, ‘independence’, ‘confidence’ etc. They said to have gained respect and trust in society and were able to plan for the future of their families. Conclusions: Self Help Groups played very important role in Women empowerment and should be promoted for economic development of the country.

  13. Understanding and optimizing bone health in breast cancer. (United States)

    Guise, Theresa A; Brufsky, Adam; Coleman, Robert E


    Bone is the preferred site of metastasis for breast cancer, and presence of skeletal lesions is associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. Skeletal-related effects such as pain, pathologic fractures, spinal compression, and hypercalcemia are frequent consequences of skeletal lesions of breast cancer that have debilitating effects on the patients' quality of life. In addition to direct cancer effects on the skeleton, therapies commonly used to treat patients with breast cancer such as chemotherapy and aromatase inhibitors (AI) result in cancer therapy-induced bone loss (CTIBL) which is associated with increased risk of skeletal complications such as fractures. Bisphosphonates are a class of antiresorptive drugs that are now firmly established as the cornerstone of the management of skeletal-related events due to breast cancer. Other novel bone-targeting agents such as the anti-receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) monoclonal antibody denosumab are also showing promising activity in the treatment of bone metastasis secondary to breast cancer. Moreover, recent provocative evidence suggests that bisphosphonates might also exhibit antitumor activity via direct and indirect mechanisms. The goal of this review is to summarize the pathophysiology of osteolytic bone lesions secondary to breast cancer, provide clinical evidence of currently available bone-targeted drugs in the treatment of bone metastasis and CTIBL, and explore the antitumor activity of current bone-targeted agents in patients with breast cancer.

  14. Hold on, for each other: supporting partners of cancer patients via eHealth and positive psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhle, Nadine


    Partners of cancer patients are an essential pillar in the cancer trajectory. The patient’s cancer can have an enormous impact on the partner’s life and (mental) health. To support them, psychological interventions are needed. However, partners of cancer patients are often extremely busy and support

  15. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania


    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  16. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy. (United States)

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K


    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy.

  17. Health care professionals' familiarity with non-pharmacological strategies for managing cancer pain. (United States)

    Zaza, C; Sellick, S M; Willan, A; Reyno, L; Browman, G P


    Many studies have confirmed unnecessary suffering among cancer patients, due to the inadequate use of analgesic medication and other effective interventions. While pharmacological treatments are appropriately the central component of cancer pain management, the under-utilization of effective nonpharmacological strategies (NPS) may contribute to the problem of pain and suffering among cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to determine health care professionals' familiarity with, and perceptions regarding, NPS for managing cancer pain, and to assess their interest in learning more about NPS as adjuncts to pharmacological analgesics. Two-hundred and fourteen health care professionals were surveyed at two cancer treatment centres in Ontario, Canada. The self-report questionnaire included questions regarding 11 psychological strategies (e.g. imagery) and eight other NPS (e.g. acupuncture). The response rate was 67% (141/214). Subjects were found to be the least familiar with autogenic training, operant conditioning, and cognitive therapy. Other than radiation and surgery, subjects most commonly reported recommending support groups (67%), imagery (54%), music or art therapy (49%) and meditation (43%) for managing cancer pain. Participants were most interested in learning more about acupuncture, massage therapy, therapeutic touch, hypnosis, and biofeedback. Participants were somewhat familiar with most of the 19 NPS presented; however, they use or recommend few NPS for managing cancer pain. Health professionals' interest in NPS has important implications for the supportive care of cancer patients.

  18. [Empowerment as a goal of social psychiatric endeavour]. (United States)

    Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Meise, Ullrich; Hinterhuber, Eva-Maria


    Empowerment is a new concept that has found its way via recognition in liberation theology and feminist movement, in to varied disciplines ranging from psychiatry and psychology through philosophy to political science. Empowerment claims to be both a multi-dimensional and multi-level concept. It can take different forms and its relevance reaches from the individual over organisations to larger systems. In psychiatry empowerment is a Successful self enabling strategy. The boundaries and limitations of its methods must, however, be respected as not every affected person is in a position at all times of using it.

  19. Mind the gap: An analysis of foregone health gains from unfunded cancer medicines in New Zealand. (United States)

    Evans, Jackie; Laking, George; Strother, Matthew; Wang, Tony; Metcalfe, Scott; Blick, Gary; Pauls, Reinhard; Crausaz, Steffan


    Publicly funded cancer medicines listed on the New Zealand Pharmaceutical Schedule were compared with those listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. To quantify the health gains offered by the cancer medicines funded in Australia but not in New Zealand, clinical trial data reporting median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were sought. The differences in the median PFS and OS for the unfunded medicines, relative to the comparator medicine funded in NZ, were then assessed against the American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Research Committee (ASCO-CRC) recommended targets for clinically meaningful health gains. Our analysis confirms that, whilst New Zealand funds fewer cancer medicines than Australia, most of the additional medicines funded in Australia do not deliver clinically meaningful health gains as defined by the ASCO-CRC guidance. This suggests that New Zealand is not missing substantive opportunities for improvements to New Zealand's cancer survival rates through additional medicines funding. A policy of funding more new cancer medicines in order to achieve numerical parity with Australia or other countries would not result in substantive health improvement and would cost significantly more, and investing the millions of dollars needed to achieve funding parity with other countries would not represent good value for money in terms of delivering the best health outcomes for all New Zealanders, rather selective funding of new medicines that demonstrate clear clinical benefit and that are cost-effective and affordable is the sensible approach.

  20. Religiousness/Spirituality, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: Cultural Integration for Health Research and Intervention (United States)

    Masters, Kevin S.; Hooker, Stephanie A.


    Objective: Recently, behavioral scientists have developed greater interest in understanding the relations between religiousness and spirituality (R/S) and health. Our objectives were to (a) provide an overview of the R/S and health literature specific to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, (b) discuss the importance of religious culture…

  1. A philosophical analysis of the concept empowerment; the fundament of an education-programme to the frail elderly. (United States)

    Hage, Anne Merete; Lorensen, Margarethe


    The word 'empowerment' has become a popular term, widely used as an important claim, also within the health services. In this paper the concept's philosophical roots are traced from Freire and his 'Pedagogy of the Oppressed' to the philosophical thoughts of Hegel, Habermas, and Sartre. An understanding of the concept, as a way to facilitate coping and well-being in patients through reflection and dialogue, emerges. Within an empowerment strategy the important claim on the nurse and the patient will be to reveal the patient's own resources and limitations in times with sickness and reduced functionality to promote the patient's choice to act and cope. From this point of view an education-programme for the frail elderly is outlined. If the nurse wants to empower the elderly patient she has to be willing to be educated through the dialogue with the patient, and to look for the patient's own meaning of being frail and elderly. The coping and self-care solutions for the patient may then even be different from the preferences of the nurse, and this does not mean that the empowerment strategy is a failure or that the patient then has to continue without the assistance from the nurse. Within an empowerment strategy, in the Freirerian sense, the important thing is that both the patient and the nurse together critically reflect on the meanings of the sickness so that the patient can be able to make his own conscious choices.

  2. Risk Factors, Preventive Practices, and Health Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors, United States, 2010

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    Sherri G. Homan, RN, FNP, PhD


    Full Text Available Introduction We compared behavioral risk factors and preventive measures among female breast cancer survivors, female survivors of other types of cancers, and women without a history of cancer. Survivorship health care indicators for the 2 groups of cancer survivors were compared. Methods Using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we calculated the proportion of women with risk factors and their engagement in preventive practices, stratified by cancer status (cancer survivors or women with no history of cancer, and compared the proportions after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results A significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors had mammography in the previous year (79.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 76.0%–83.0% than did other cancer survivors (68.1%; 95% CI, 65.6%–70.7% or women with no history of cancer (66.4%; 95% CI, 65.5%–67.3%. Breast cancer survivors were also more likely to have had a Papanicolaou (Pap test within the previous 3 years than women with no history of cancer (89.4%; 95% CI, 85.9%–93.0 vs 85.1%; 95% CI, 84.4%–85.8% and a colonoscopy within the previous 10 years (75.4%; 95% CI, 71.7%–79.0% than women with no history of cancer (60.0%; 95% CI, 59.0%–61.0%. Current smoking was significantly lower among survivors of breast cancer (10.3%; 95% CI, 7.4%–13.2% than other cancer survivors (20.8%; 95% CI, 18.4%–23.3% and women with no history of cancer (18.3%; 95% CI, 17.5%–19.1%. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, we found that breast cancer survivors were significantly more likely to have had mammography, a Pap test, and colonoscopy, and less likely to be current smokers. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors are more likely to engage in cancer screening and less likely to be current smokers than female survivors of other types of cancer or women with no history of cancer.

  3. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz


    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  4. Male Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group


    Kenney, Lisa B.; Cohen, Laurie E; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L.; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian


    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pret...

  5. Arab American immigrants in New York: health care and cancer knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. (United States)

    Shah, Susan M; Ayash, Claudia; Pharaon, Nora Alarifi; Gany, Francesca M


    Arab immigrants living in the United States total between 1.5 million and 3.5 million, and have been growing in number each decade. New York's Arab population, at 405,000, ranks third in the U.S. after California and Michigan. Despite the large numbers, little health research has focused on this population. Data about the cancer incidence, mortality, and screening practices of Arab Americans is overwhelmingly lacking. To better understand the health care and cancer knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of Arab American immigrants, five single-gender focus groups were convened with Arab men and women in New York City. Attention was given to factors that act as barriers to utilization of general health care services, and of cancer prevention, treatment, and support services. The data revealed the importance of providing culturally and linguistically appropriate health interventions in partnership with trusted community leaders, and the need for follow-up research of this understudied immigrant population.

  6. African Americans with cancer: the relationships among self-esteem, locus of control, and health perception. (United States)

    Swinney, Jean E


    The purpose of this study was to describe and examine the relationships among self-esteem, locus of control, and perceived health status in African Americans with cancer and to identify predictors of perceived health status. A convenience sample of 95 oncology outpatients at two large medical facilities completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Cantril Ladder, a measurement of perceived health. In an audiotaped interview two open-ended questions were used to clarify participants' Cantril Ladder scores. A significant positive relationship was discovered between self-esteem and powerful others health locus of control (p Self-esteem and an internal health locus of control were found to account for 23% of the perceived variance in health status. In addition, interview data indicated that participants with normal to high levels of self-esteem and an internal health locus of control perceived their state of health and well-being positively.

  7. A structured review of health utility measures and elicitation in advanced/metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Y


    Full Text Available Yanni Hao,1 Verena Wolfram,2 Jennifer Cook2 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2Adelphi Values, Bollington, UK Background: Health utilities are increasingly incorporated in health economic evaluations. Different elicitation methods, direct and indirect, have been established in the past. This study examined the evidence on health utility elicitation previously reported in advanced/metastatic breast cancer and aimed to link these results to requirements of reimbursement bodies. Methods: Searches were conducted using a detailed search strategy across several electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EconLit databases, online sources (Cost-effectiveness Analysis Registry and the Health Economics Research Center, and web sites of health technology assessment (HTA bodies. Publications were selected based on the search strategy and the overall study objectives. Results: A total of 768 publications were identified in the searches, and 26 publications, comprising 18 journal articles and eight submissions to HTA bodies, were included in the evidence review. Most journal articles derived utilities from the European Quality of Life Five-Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D. Other utility measures, such as the direct methods standard gamble (SG, time trade-off (TTO, and visual analog scale (VAS, were less frequently used. Several studies described mapping algorithms to generate utilities from disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL instruments such as European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer 23 (EORTC QLQ-BR23, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – General questionnaire (FACT-G, and Utility-Based Questionnaire-Cancer (UBQ-C; most used EQ-5D as the reference. Sociodemographic factors that affect health utilities, such as age, sex

  8. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal. (United States)

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno


    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population's health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal.

  9. Consumer-operated self centers: environment, empowerment, and satisfaction. (United States)

    Swarbrick, Margaret; Schmidt, Lisa T; Pratt, Carlos W


    Consumer-operated self-help centers were designed to provide social environments that promote participant empowerment and satisfaction. This exploratory, descriptive study examined how variance in empowerment and satisfaction scores could be explained by participants' perceptions of the social environment factors (relationship, personal growth, and systems maintenance and change) and quantity of participation. Participants (N = 144) involved in consumer-operated self-help centers completed a four-part, 161-item survey designed to capture perceptions of satisfaction, empowerment, social environment factors, quantity of center participation, and demographic data. Significant relationships were found between participant satisfaction and the three social environment factors. Findings also indicated that participant empowerment was related to quantity of self-help center involvement. From these exploratory analyses, recommendations are made on how to improve consumer-run self-help center operations.

  10. Women's Empowerment in Agricultural Index: Proof of Concept (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The index is a significant innovation in its field that measures multiple indicators of empowerment, and generates "scores" that can be compared over time. It is the...

  11. Nurses' views on empowerment: a critical social theory perspective. (United States)

    Fulton, Y


    This is the first study which describes British nurses' views on the concept of empowerment. Despite the frequent call for nurses to empower patients there was no evidence in the literature about British nurses' views. The study was carried out prior to a course exploring empowerment for practice. Focus groups were used to gather the data. Critical social theory and the work of Paulo Freire (1972) and Jurgen Habermas (1971, 1979) was used as a theoretical framework to underpin the enquiry. Taped interview transcripts were analysed thematically. Four categories emerged from the data to provide the framework for the themes: 'empowerment', 'having personal power', 'relationships within the multidisciplinary team', and 'feeling right about oneself'. It is suggested that the nurses in this study manifested signs of being oppressed and striving for liberation. The limitations of the study are identified, but the overall conclusion is that the teaching of critical social theories as an empowerment paradigm is relevant in nurse education today.

  12. Mindfulness as a Path of Women's Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper brings together social mindfulness as a path of empowerment for women within its concept of the interrelatedness of all beings in the web of life. The paradigm of social mindfulness is thus established as the foundation of feminist spirituality. The focus of this work is on the possibility of applying the ethics of mindfulness as a paradigm to interpersonal interrelatedness. The relations among humans, nature, reason and emotion in self-development are confronted with the paradigm of mindfulness. This paper carries out a theoretical analysis of the possibility of integrating the paradigm of mindfulness with the paradigm of feminist spirituality. In this view, the paradigm shift toward integrating spiritual and social justice and ecological balance is examined. It also examines possibility of transformation of negative gender stereotypes with the help of mindfulness, loving kindness, compassion and ethics. From this point of view, the application of mindfulness in education (especially childhood, primary and secondary schools is considered.

  13. Cancer Phenotype Diagnosis and Drug Efficacy within Japanese Health Care

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    Toshihide Nishimura


    Full Text Available An overview on targeted personalized medicine is given describing the developments in Japan of lung cancer patients. These new targeted therapies with novel personalized medicine drugs require new implementations, in order to follow and monitor drug efficacy and outcome. Examples from IRESSA (Gefitinib and TARCEVA (Erlotinib treatments used in medication of lung cancer patients are presented. Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality in the world. The importance of both the quantification of disease progression, where diagnostic-related biomarkers are being implemented, in addition to the actual measurement of disease-specific mechanisms relating to pathway signalling activation of disease-progressive protein targets is summarised. An outline is also presented, describing changes and adaptations in Japan, meeting the rising costs and challenges. Today, urgent implementation of programs to address these needs has led to a rebuilding of the entire approach of medical evaluation and clinical care.

  14. Most Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancers Enjoy Good Sexual Health (United States)

    ... page: Most Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancers Enjoy Good Sexual ... toxic treatments were tied to later issues, but most rated sex lives as positive To use the ...

  15. Organizational Culture Impact on Psychological Empowerment of Academic Staff


    Kseanela SOTIROFSKI


    The main aim of this study is to examine the dimensions that have impact to the psychological empowerment academic staff in Albanian universities. Despite the factors like professional growth, self-efficacy, and decision making we especially get focused on the organizational culture thinking that it can have a powerful influence on the psychological empowerment, because it describes the link between contextual factors and employees’ work behaviors. The research question of this study is: Whic...

  16. Managing empowerment and control in an intranet environment


    Duane, A.; Finnegan, Jason


    An intranet increases in sophistication and complexity as it evolves. This evolution leads to an increasing need for control over the intranet. However, this is a contentious issue, as an intranet is deemed to be an empowering technology. Consequently, intranet control systems must balance empowerment and control so as not to negate each other. This paper investigates intranet control activities and their effect on users' perceptions of empowerment throughout the evolution of an intranet in H...

  17. Empowerment Experiences of Kenyan Mothers living in Finland


    Ndungu, Lucy


    ABSTRACT Ndungu Lucy. Empowerment experiences of Kenyan mothers living in Finland. Järvenpää, Spring 2010, 41 p., 2 appendices. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Järvenpää Unit, Degree programme in Social Services. (UAS) The research was carried out in Helsinki area in Finland and it is based on Kenyan mothers' experiences. The aim of the study is to gain from opportunities Kenyan mothers attain in Finland, as empowerment tools to change Kenyans living standar...

  18. Empowerment onderzoek: een kritische vriend voor sociaal werkers

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    Tine Van Regenmortel


    Full Text Available Empowerment research: A critical friend for social work practitioners The empowerment paradigm has consequences for social work practice and policy, as well as for the way in which research is carried out. The growing prominence of empowerment research is relevant because empowerment – as a central notion in the international definition of social work – provides identity to social work research. Empowerment research also meets the increasing demand for co-creation in research. Here, different stakeholders not only contribute relevant knowledge, but also have a say in the design of the research and in the interpretation and transfer of its results. The questions that we address in this article involve the methodological consequences of empowerment research, its implementation in practice and the lessons that can be learned from this.In the first part of this article, we demonstrate the theoretical foundations of empowerment research. In addition to its philosophical underpinnings, we describe the key aspects of empowerment research focusing particularly on methodological consequences. Three inspirational resources are the empowerment theory formulated by Rappaport and Zimmerman, responsive evaluation formulated by Stake and Abma, and empowerment evaluation formulated by Fetterman and Wandersman. We describe this threefold perspective, which is so central to empowerment research, as a power-oriented, multi-stakeholder and multi-level research approach, with a focus on improvement and social justice, a quest for ownership, continuous participation and dialogue, the acknowledgement of the equal value of three forms of knowledge and capacity building, learning organizations and shared responsibility.We also reflect on the unusual role of the researcher in empowerment research. Rather than being “the” expert as an outsider, who positions himself/herself above all other stakeholders, the researcher is “just” one of the parties involved, who

  19. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review. (United States)

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal


    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  20. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data

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    Mbulaiteye Sam M


    Full Text Available Abstract The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC. Cervical cancer (CC, increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times, anal cancer (15-30 times, and lung cancer (4 times are designated as non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs. Since 1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART became widely available in the West, dramatic decreases in HIV mortality have been observed and substantial decrease in the incidence of ADCs. Coincidentally, the burden of NADCs has increased as people with HIV age with chronic HIV infection. The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. The few studies conducted indicate that risks for ADCs are also increased, but quantitatively less so than in the West. The risks for many cancers with established viral associations, including liver and nasopharynx, which are found in Africa, do not appear to be increased. These data are limited because of competing mortality, and cancer is under diagnosed, pathological confirmation is rare, and cancer registration not widely practiced. The expansion of access to life-extending cART in sub-Saharan Africa, through programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis and the US President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, is leading to dramatic lengthening of life of HIV patients, which will likely influence the spectrum and burden of cancer in patients with HIV. In this paper, we review current literature and explore

  1. Community-based participatory research: its role in future cancer research and public health practice. (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia


    The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009-2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research.

  2. Vaginal Dryness and Beyond: The Sexual Health Needs of Women Diagnosed With Metastatic Breast Cancer. (United States)

    McClelland, Sara I; Holland, Kathryn J; Griggs, Jennifer J


    While research on the sexual health of women with early stage cancer has grown extensively over the past decade, markedly less information is available to support the sexual health needs of women diagnosed with advanced breast cancer. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 32 women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer (ages 35 to 77) about questions they had concerning their sexual health and intimate relationships. All participants were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center at a large Midwestern university. Three themes were examined: the role of sexual activity and intimate touch in participants' lives, unmet information needs about sexual health, and communication with medical providers about sexual concerns. Findings indicated that sexual activities with partners were important; however, participants worried about their own physical limitations and reported frequent physical (e.g., bone pains) and vaginal pain associated with intercourse. When women raised concerns about these issues in clinical settings, medical providers often focused exclusively on vaginal lubricants, which did not address the entirety of women's problems or concerns. In addition, women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer reported needing additional resources about specialized vaginal lubricants, nonpenetrative and nongenitally focused sex, and sexual positions that did not compromise their physical health yet still provided pleasure.

  3. Realising the Value of Linked Data to Health Economic Analyses of Cancer Care: A Case Study of Cancer 2015. (United States)

    Lorgelly, Paula K; Doble, Brett; Knott, Rachel J


    There is a growing appetite for large complex databases that integrate a range of personal, socio-demographic, health, genetic and financial information on individuals. It has been argued that 'Big Data' will provide the necessary catalyst to advance both biomedical research and health economics and outcomes research. However, it is important that we do not succumb to being data rich but information poor. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of building Big Data, analysing Big Data and making appropriate inferences in order to advance cancer care, using Cancer 2015 (a prospective, longitudinal, genomic cohort study in Victoria, Australia) as a case study. Cancer 2015 has been linked to State and Commonwealth reimbursement databases that have known limitations. This partly reflects the funding arrangements in Australia, a country with both public and private provision, including public funding of private healthcare, and partly the legislative frameworks that govern data linkage. Additionally, linkage is not without time delays and, as such, achieving a contemporaneous database is challenging. Despite these limitations, there is clear value in using linked data and creating Big Data. This paper describes the linked Cancer 2015 dataset, discusses estimation issues given the nature of the data and presents panel regression results that allow us to make possible inferences regarding which patient, disease, genomic and treatment characteristics explain variation in health expenditure.

  4. Community understandings of and responses to gender equality and empowerment in Rakai, Uganda. (United States)

    Mullinax, Margo; Higgins, Jenny; Wagman, Jennifer; Nakyanjo, Neema; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald; Nalugoda, Fred


    Women's rights and gender empowerment programmes are now part of the international agenda for improving global public health, the benefits of which are well documented. However, the public health community has, yet, to address how people define and understand gender equality and how they enact the process of empowerment in their lives. This study uses safe homes and respect for everyone (SHARE), an anti-violence intervention in rural Rakai, Uganda, as a case study to investigate perceptions of gender equality. Investigators analysed 12 focus groups of adult women and men to explore how macro-level concepts of gender equality are being processed on an interpersonal level and the effects on health outcomes. Respondents generally agreed that women lack basic rights. However, they also expressed widespread disagreement about the meanings of gender equality, and reported difficulties integrating the concepts of gender equality into their interpersonal relationships. Community members reported that equality, with the resulting shift in gender norms, could expose women to adverse consequences such as violence, infidelity and abandonment with increased sexual health risks, and potential adverse effects on education. Efforts to increase women's rights must occur in conjunction with community-based work on understandings of gender equality.

  5. Empowerment of disability benefit claimants through an interactive website: design of a randomized controlled trial

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    Bruinvels David J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals claiming a disability benefit after long-term sickness absence, have to undergo medical disability assessments. These assessments, often carried out by specialized physicians, can be complicated by wrong expectations or defensive attitudes of disability benefit claimants. It is hypothesized that empowerment of these claimants will enhance the physician-patient relationship by shifting claimants from a passive role to a more active and constructive role during disability assessments. Furthermore, empowerment of claimants may lead to a more realistic expectation and acceptance of the assessment outcome among claimants and may lead to a more accurate assessment by the physician. Methods/Design In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT, 230 claimants will be randomized to either the intervention or control group. For the intervention group, an interactive website was designed using an Intervention Mapping procedure. This website was tested during a pilot study among 51 claimants. The final version of the website consists of five interactive modules, in which claimants will be prepared and empowered step-by-step, prior to their upcoming disability assessment. Other website components are a forum, a personal health record, a personal diary, and information on disability assessment procedures, return to work, and coping with disease and work disability. Subjects from the control group will be directed to a website with commonly available information only. Approximately two weeks prior to their disability assessment, disability claimants will be recruited through the Dutch Workers Insurance Authority (UWV. Outcomes will be assessed at five occasions: directly after recruitment (baseline, prior to disability assessment, directly after disability assessment as well as 6 and 16 weeks after the assessment. The study's primary outcome is empowerment, measured with the Vrijbaan questionnaire

  6. Exploring the barriers to health care and psychosocial challenges in cervical cancer management in Kenya

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    Ngutu M


    Full Text Available Mariah Ngutu, Isaac K Nyamongo Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies (IAGAS, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 years and 44 years in Kenya, resulting in an estimated 4,802 women being diagnosed with cervical cancer and 2,451 dying from the disease annually. It is often detected at its advanced invasive stages, resulting in a protracted illness upon diagnosis. This qualitative study looked at the illness trajectories of women living with cervical cancer enrolled for follow-up care at Kenyatta National Hospital cancer treatment center and the Nairobi Hospice, both in Nairobi county, Kenya. Using the qualitative phenomenological approach, data were collected through 18 in-depth interviews with women living with cervical cancer between April and July 2011. In-depth interviews with their caregivers, key informant interviews with health care workers, and participant observation field notes were used to provide additional qualitative data. These data were analyzed based on grounded theory’s inductive approach. Two key themes on which the data analysis was then anchored were identified, namely, psychosocial challenges of cervical cancer and structural barriers to quality health care. Findings indicated a prolonged illness trajectory with psychosocial challenges, fueled by structural barriers that women were faced with after a cervical cancer diagnosis. To address issues relevant to the increasing numbers of women with cervical cancer, research studies need to include larger samples of these women. Also important are studies that allow in-depth understanding of the experiences of women living with cervical cancer. Keywords: qualitative, illness trajectories, women, cervical cancer

  7. Evaluating arts-based cancer education using an internet survey among Alaska community health workers. (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Cueva, Katie; Dignan, Mark; Lanier, Anne; Kuhnley, Regina


    Cancer, considered a rare disease among Alaska Native people as recently as the 1950s, surpassed heart disease in the 1990s to become the leading cause of mortality. In response to Alaska's village-based Community Health Workers' (CHWs) desire to learn more about cancer for themselves and the people in their communities, cancer education that incorporated the expressive arts of moving, drawing, and sculpting was developed, implemented, and evaluated. Arts-based education integrates the dynamic wisdom and experiences of Alaska Native people and western medical knowledge to share cancer information in a culturally respectful way. Between May 2009 and March 2013, 12 5-day courses that included arts activities to support cancer information were provided for 118 CHWs in Anchorage, AK, USA. A post-course internet survey was conducted in April 2013, to learn how arts-based cancer education affected participants' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Surveys were completed by 54 of the 96 course participants; 22 course participants were lost to follow-up. As a result of integrating the arts with cancer education, respondents reported an increase in their cancer knowledge and comfort with talking about cancer. Additionally, 82 % (44) of respondents described feeling differently about cancer. By integrating the arts with cancer information, participants reported healthy behavior changes for themselves (76 %), with their families (70 %), and in their work (72 %). The expressive arts of moving, drawing, and sculpting provided a creative pathway for diverse adult learners in Alaska to increase their cancer knowledge, comfort with talking about cancer, and wellness behaviors.

  8. PS1-56: Beyond Barriers: Systemic Constraints Limiting Sexual Health Care for Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)

    Halley, Meghan; May, Suepattra; Rendle, Katharine; Frosch, Dominick; Kurian, Allison


    Background/Aims Sexual health problems represent one of the most frequently experienced and longest-lasting effects of breast cancer treatment, but research suggests that providers rarely discuss sexual health with their patients. Existing research examining barriers to addressing the sexual health concerns of cancer patients has focused on discrete characteristics of the provider-patient interaction without considering the broader context in which these interactions occur. Drawing on focus group discussions with breast cancer survivors, we explore how foundational cultural and structural characteristics of the healthcare system may be preventing breast cancer survivors from addressing their sexual health concerns. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with breast cancer survivors receiving support services at a breast cancer advocacy and resource organization in Northern California. Each group focused on a different aspect of treatment including: 1) diagnosis; 2) surgery and reconstruction; 3) chemotherapy; 4) radiation; and 5) survivorship. An interview guide for each topic area was used to elicit participants’ thoughts, opinions and experiences of breast cancer treatment. Analysis utilized inductive techniques incorporating elements of Grounded Theory to identify salient themes that emerged in the discussions. Results An average of eight women participated in each focus group, and women were allowed to participate in more than one group, for a total of 21 participants. Participants’ discussions illustrated three core ways in which cultural and structural characteristics of the healthcare system prevented them from addressing their sexual health concerns, including: 1) the structure of cancer care led to participants being disconnected from the healthcare system at the time when sexual side effects most commonly emerged; 2) when their sexual side effects did emerge, the highly specialized structure of the biomedical system made it difficult for patients to

  9. Perspectives on preventive health care and barriers to breast cancer screening among Iraqi women refugees. (United States)

    Saadi, Altaf; Bond, Barbara; Percac-Lima, Sanja


    Since the Iraq war began in 2003, over 4 million Iraqis have been displaced. Little is known about preventive cancer care in this population, but stark disparities have been documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the perspectives of Iraqi women refugees on preventive care and perceived barriers to breast cancer screening. Interviews were conducted in Arabic with twenty Iraqi refugee women by a bilingual (English/Arabic) medical student, transcribed, translated and coded according to established qualitative content and thematic analysis procedures. Psychosocial barriers, culturally mediated beliefs, and health consequences of war were identified as major themes, ultimately showing what factors, alone and collectively, have impeded Iraqi refugee women's ability and motivation to obtain breast cancer screening. To improve cancer prevention and decrease disparities in care in this most vulnerable population, culturally appropriate health education and outreach programs, as well as further community-level targeted studies, are needed.

  10. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs - correlation with health and cancer risk. (United States)

    Selting, K A; Sharp, C R; Ringold, R; Thamm, D H; Backus, R


    25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is important in bone health as well as many diseases including cancer. Supplementation may increase responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Serum 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and canine C-reactive protein (c-CRP) were measured in healthy dogs and dogs with haemoabdomen. Regression analysis determined optimal 25(OH)D concentrations. In healthy dogs (n = 282), mean iPTH concentrations correlated inversely (r(2) = 0.88, P 150 ng mL(-1) . Relative risk of cancer increased with decreasing 25(OH)D concentrations [RR = 3.9 for 25(OH)D below 40 ng mL(-1) (P = 0.0001)]. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations in dogs vary widely, and are influenced by dietary VitD content. Serum vitD measurement can identify dogs for which supplementation may improve health and response to cancer therapy.

  11. Lecciones globales de la reforma mexicana de salud: empoderamiento a través del uso de evidencias Global lessons of the mexican health reform: empowerment through the use of evidence

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    Julio Frenk


    Full Text Available En este artículo se ilustra, con la reciente reforma al sistema mexicano de salud, el potencial del conocimiento en el diseño e implantación de las políticas públicas. En primer lugar se discute la relación entre conocimiento y salud. En una segunda parte se describen los esfuerzos que se llevaron a cabo en México para generar evidencias que eventualmente nutrieron el diseño e implantación de las políticas locales de salud. En seguida se analizan los contenidos de la reforma del sistema mexicano de salud y su concepto rector, La democratización de la atención a la salud. El artículo concluye con una discusión de las lecciones globales de esta experiencia de reforma.This paper illustrates, using as an example the recent reform of the Mexican health system, the potential of knowledge in the design and implementation of public policies. In the first part the relationship between knowledge and health is described. In part two, the efforts in Mexico to generate evidence that would eventually nourish the design and implementation of health policies are discussed. In the following sections the content and the guiding concept of the reform, the democratization of health, are analyzed. The paper concludes with the discussion of the main global lessons of this reform experience.

  12. Health literacy and breast cancer screening among Mexican American women in South Texas. (United States)

    Pagán, José A; Brown, Cynthia J; Asch, David A; Armstrong, Katrina; Bastida, Elena; Guerra, Carmen


    Breast cancer is the main cause of cancer deaths for Hispanic women. This study analyzes the role of functional health literacy on mammography screening behavior and adherence of Hispanic women. Survey data from 722 Mexican American women age 40 and over residing in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in 2008 were used to estimate logistic regression models to assess the role of functional health literacy on mammography screening behavior and adherence. About 51% of survey respondents had a functional health literacy level deemed as inadequate or marginally functional. After adjusting for other factors, women with adequate health literacy levels were more likely to report to have ever had a mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.62-5.28), to have had a mammogram within the last 2 years (OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.14-2.53) or to have had one within the last year (OR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.54-3.43), compared to women with inadequate or marginally adequate functional health literacy levels. Inadequate/marginal functional health literacy is strongly associated with lower mammography screening. Large improvements in breast cancer control in this population may come from either basic advances in health literacy or by tailored approaches to help women with low literacy navigate local health care systems.

  13. The empowerment of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Managing life with the disease (United States)

    Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Pourhabib, Ali


    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious health problem that has significant effects on the life status of elderly persons. Use of the empowerment approach is necessary for health promotion in older people with COPD, but little attention has so far been paid to all the dimensions of empowerment in the management of COPD, which would provide useful knowledge regarding elders with COPD. This article reports on a study exploring people’s experiences of the empowerment of older people with COPD. This study adopted an exploratory qualitative design and was carried out using grounded theory methodology. Grounded theory was considered appropriate for this study because of its focus on how people respond to and act on the problems that they encounter. We collected data by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews and taking field notes. Twenty-four participants were selected through purposive sampling. The results showed that in encountering the complexity of disease and in response to difficulties induced by COPD, three strategies were applied. Elderly persons with COPD, their family caregivers, and professional team members engaged in “managing life with COPD,” “striving to keep abreast of life,” “preparing for battle with disease,” and “helping to stabilize the elder’s life.” The outcome of these strategies was “co-existence with disease.” The potential of “managing life with COPD” was influenced by the following factors: “co-existence with ageing,” “personal potential,” “a challenged health system,” and “weak social support.” “Managing life with COPD” enables the elder to feel in control and live optimally. This is a fragile balance, however, and the unpredictability of COPD can tip the elder into “self-efficacy.” Understanding the experiences of the empowerment process of older people with COPD can help health professionals provide more focused elderly care. PMID:28369069

  14. Visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening in a tertiary health care centre

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    Shaily Agarwal


    Conclusions: VIA is useful for detection of precursor lesions of cervical cancer not only in low-resource settings but also in well-equipped health centers and cancer centers. In these non low-resource settings, VIA has a positive predictive value comparable to the conventional Pap smear, but it is more likely to achieve earlier diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment than cytology based screening. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 752-756

  15. Acculturation and cancer screening among Asian Americans: role of health insurance and having a regular physician. (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Jung, Mary Y; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Juon, Hee-Soon


    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, but screening rates are significantly lower in Asians than in non-Hispanic Whites. This study examined associations between acculturation and three types of cancer screening (colorectal, cervical, and breast), focusing on the role of health insurance and having a regular physician. A cross-sectional study of 851 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans was conducted in Maryland. Acculturation was measured using an abridged version of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, acculturation clusters, language preference, length of residency in the US, and age at arrival. Age, health insurance, regular physician, gender, ethnicity, income, marital status, and health status were adjusted in the multivariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed that various measures of acculturation were positively associated with the odds of having all cancer screenings. Those lived for more than 20 years in the US were about 2-4 times [odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) colorectal: 2.41 (1.52-3.82); cervical: 1.79 (1.07-3.01); and breast: 2.11 (1.25-3.57)] more likely than those who lived for less than 10 years to have had cancer screening. When health insurance and having a regular physician were adjusted, the associations between length of residency and colorectal cancer [OR 1.72 (1.05-2.81)] was reduced and the association between length of residency and cervical and breast cancer became no longer significant. Findings from this study provide a robust and comprehensive picture of AA cancer screening behavior. They will provide helpful information on future target groups for promoting cancer screening.

  16. Elderly cancer patients' psychopathology: a systematic review: aging and mental health. (United States)

    Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Gennimata, Vassiliki; Mystakidou, Kyriaki


    This review of the literature on elderly cancer patients and their psychiatric disorders was undertaken to determine the extent of the problem. It consists of articles with elderly cancer patients. Keyword terms included "cancer", "elderly", "aging", "geriatric", "psychiatric disorders", "psychiatric symptoms", "psychological problems", "aged >60 years", "sucidal ideation, geriatric, cancer", "suicide geriatric cancer". We conducted searches on the following databases: PubMed; PsychINFO (1980-2013); finally, 102 publications were suitable for the current review. Depression in elderly cancer patients is the most common disorder in elderly cancer patients associated with disability, morbidity and mortality. Anxiety disorders may be less frequent in geriatric patients; however, it seemed to be a major problem in late life. Psychiatric disorders are common in geriatric patients with cancer especially at advanced stages of the disease. In addition, health care professionals can help provide treatment and emotional support. Future research should aim to provide data about the real prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders in elderly patients with cancer, for the improvement of patients' quality of life and their caregivers.

  17. Predicting Adverse Health Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of a Childhood Cancer

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    Chaya S. Moskowitz


    Full Text Available More than 80% of children and young adults diagnosed with invasive cancer will survive five or more years beyond their cancer diagnosis. This population has an increased risk for serious illness- and treatment-related morbidity and premature mortality. A number of these adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and some second primary neoplasms, either have modifiable risk factors or can be successfully treated if detected early. Absolute risk models that project a personalized risk of developing a health outcome can be useful in patient counseling, in designing intervention studies, in forming prevention strategies, and in deciding upon surveillance programs. Here, we review existing absolute risk prediction models that are directly applicable to survivors of a childhood cancer, discuss the concepts and interpretation of absolute risk models, and examine ways in which these models can be used applied in clinical practice and public health.

  18. Health and work in the family: Evidence from spouses' cancer diagnoses. (United States)

    Jeon, Sung-Hee; Pohl, R Vincent


    Using Canadian administrative data from multiple sources, we provide the first nationally representative estimates for the effect of spouses' cancer diagnoses on individuals' employment and earnings and on family income. Our identification strategy exploits unexpected health shocks and combines matching with individual fixed effects in a generalized difference-in-differences framework to control for observable and unobservable heterogeneity. While the effect of spousal health shocks on labor supply is theoretically ambiguous, we find strong evidence for a decline in employment and earnings of individuals whose spouses are diagnosed with cancer. We interpret this result as individuals reducing their labor supply to provide care to their sick spouses and to enjoy joint leisure. Family income substantially declines after spouses' cancer diagnoses, suggesting that the financial consequences of such health shocks are considerable.

  19. Health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia: a study protocol

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    Magaji Bello


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem in Malaysia. However, it is also one of the most treatable cancers, resulting in significant numbers of survivors. Therefore, the impact of surviving treatment for colorectal cancer on health related quality of life is important for the patients, clinicians and policy makers, and may differ in different cultures and populations. The aim of this study was to validate the Malaysian versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life instruments among colorectal cancers patients. Methods/design This is a cross sectional multi centre study. Three hospitals were included, the University of Malaya Medical Centre, the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Hospital Tuanku Jaafar Seremban. Malaysian citizens and permanent residence were studied and demographic and clinical information obtained from hospital records. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of life Core 30, colorectal cancer CR29, and the colorectal cancer liver metastasis LMC 21 were used and an observer assessment of performance obtained with the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Questionnaires were translated into three most commonly spoken languages in Malaysia (Bahasa Malaysia, Chinese and Tamil, then administered, scored and analyzed following the developers’ guidelines. Ethical approval was obtained from the participating centres. Tests of reliability and validity were performed to examine the validity of these instruments. Conclusion The result of pilot testing shows that the use of the Malaysian versions of EORTC QLQ C30, CR29 instruments is feasible in our sample of colorectal cancer patients. Instructions for completion as well as questions were well understood except the questions on the overall quality of life, overall health status and sexual activity. Thus we anticipate obtaining good psychometric properties for the instruments

  20. SEPP1 influences breast cancer risk among women with greater native american ancestry: the breast cancer health disparities study.

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    Andrew J Pellatt

    Full Text Available Selenoproteins are a class of proteins containing a selenocysteine residue, many of which have been shown to have redox functions, acting as antioxidants to decrease oxidative stress. Selenoproteins have previously been associated with risk of various cancers and redox-related diseases. In this study we evaluated possible associations between breast cancer risk and survival and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the selenoprotein genes GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, SELS, SEP15, SEPN1, SEPP1, SEPW1, TXNRD1, and TXNRD2 among Hispanic/Native American (2111 cases, 2597 controls and non-Hispanic white (NHW (1481 cases, 1586 controls women in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (ARTP analysis was used to determine both gene and pathway significance with these genes. The overall selenoprotein pathway PARTP was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk (PARTP = 0.69, and only one gene, GPX3, was of borderline significance for the overall population (PARTP =0.09 and marginally significant among women with 0-28% Native American (NA ancestry (PARTP=0.06. The SEPP1 gene was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with higher NA ancestry (PARTP=0.002 and contributed to a significant pathway among those women (PARTP=0.04. GPX1, GPX3, and SELS were associated with Estrogen Receptor-/Progesterone Receptor+ status (PARTP = 0.002, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. Four SNPs (GPX3 rs2070593, rsGPX4 rs2074451, SELS rs9874, and TXNRD1 rs17202060 significantly interacted with dietary oxidative balance score after adjustment for multiple comparisons to alter breast cancer risk. GPX4 was significantly associated with breast cancer survival among those with the highest NA ancestry (PARTP = 0.05 only. Our data suggest that SEPP1 alters breast cancer risk among women with higher levels of NA ancestry.

  1. Roundtable discussion at the UICC World Cancer Congress: looking toward the realization of universal health coverage for cancer in Asia. (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Kawahara, Norie; Nozaki, Shinjiro; Sonoda, Shigeto; Fukuda, Takashi; Cazap, Eduardo; Trimble, Edward L; Roh, Jae Kyung; Hao, Xishan


    The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-Asia Regional Office (ARO) organized a Roundtable Discussion as part of the official program of the UICC World Cancer Congress 2014 in Melbourne, Australia. The theme for the Roundtable Discussion was - Looking Toward the Realization of Universal Health Care (UHC) for Cancer in Asia - and it was held on December 5, 2014. The meeting was held based on the recognition that although each country may take a different path towards the realization of UHC, one point that is common to all is that cancer is projected to be the most difficult disease to address under the goals of UHC and that there is, therefore, an urgent and pressing need to come to a common understanding and awareness with regard to UHC concepts that are a priority component of a post-MDG development agenda. The presenters and participants addressed the issue of UHC for cancer in Asia from their various perspectives in academia and international organizations. Discussions covered the challenges to UHC in Asia, collaborative approaches by international organizations, the need for uniform and relevant data, ways to create an Asia Cancer Barometer that could be applied to all countries in Asia. The session concluded with the recognition that research on UHC in Asia should continue to be used as a tool for cancer cooperation in Asia and that the achievement of UHC would require research and input not only from the medical community, but from a broad sector of society in a multidisciplinary approach. Discussions on this issue will continue towards the Asia-Pacific Cancer Conference in Indonesia in August 2015.

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life after Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion for Bladder Cancer

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    Cheryl Shih


    Full Text Available With multiple options for urinary diversion after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer that have comparable cancer control and complication rates, health-related quality of life (HRQOL has become an important consideration. This article reviews the methods for defining HRQOL, the challenges in measuring HRQOL in bladder cancer, and the literature comparing HRQOL after various methods of urinary diversion. Recent contributions include the validation of HRQOL instruments specific to bladder cancer and the publication of several prospective studies measuring HRQOL outcomes after cystectomy and urinary diversion. There is no convincing evidence from existing literature that any particular method of urinary diversion offers superior HRQOL outcomes. Rather, there is growing evidence that good HRQOL can be achieved with patient education and consideration of each patient's clinical and psychosocial situation. Future research should utilize the validated bladder cancer specific HRQOL instruments and perhaps explore the impact of preoperative counseling on postoperative HRQOL.

  3. [Cancer incidence and mortality in some health districts in Brescia area 1993--1995]. (United States)

    Simonati, C; Limina, R M; Gelatti, U; Indelicato, A; Scarcella, C; Donato, F; Nardi, G


    Cancer Registries are an essential part of any rational programme of cancer control, for assessing the impact of cancer in the community, for health care planning and monitoring screening programmes, according to local enviromental problems. The Brescia Cancer Registry started in 1994 producing prevalence, incidence and mortality data using only manual procedures of colletting and processing data from clinical and pathological sources in Brescia in 1993--1995. Data quality indicators such as the percentages of istologically or cytologically verified cases and that of cases registered on the basis of Death Certificate Only (DCO) are similar to those from the other Northern Italian Registries. Incidence rates for all causes and for various common sites are higher in Brescia than in other areas covered by Cancer Registries in North of Italy.

  4. Health education for early detection of breast cancer in blind women

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    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França


    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the knowledge of blind women about the risk factors for breast cancer and whether they look for early detection of this cancer. Methods: a quasi-experimental study with 72 blind women distributed in focus groups. Data were collected through interviews. Results: few participants had knowledge about one or more risk factors for breast cancer, but most practiced early detection. Health education was developed using breast kits and demonstration of breast self-examination. It was obtained qualitative improvement of knowledge of the participants about breast cancer, its risk factors and early detection practices. In addition, participants demonstrated breast self-examination confidently. Conclusion: we need to develop in a harder manner educational activities to clarify about breast cancer risk factors and the importance of periodically carrying out breast self-examination, clinical examination and mammography.

  5. Collaboration, collegiality, and cooperation: consumer health library services and the American Cancer Society navigator role. (United States)

    Attwood, Carol Ann; Wellik, Kay E


    Patients and family members are overwhelmed by the diagnosis of cancer and often do not know where to look for answers, information on the treatment options, or community resources for support during the cancer journey. A unique relationship was forged with a patient and health education librarian at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona and an American Cancer Society navigator, which encouraged collaboration to better meet the informational and supportive healthcare needs of patients. This article addresses the background of the project, the steps taken to establish the relationship, space allocation, and need for confidentiality. The innovations produced by this partnership also are discussed, including development of cancer pathfinders and cancer communication blogs for patients, as well as comarketing of services.

  6. Applying the Health Belief Model in Predicting Breast Cancer Screening Behavior of Women

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    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. However, early detection of this cancer leads to a timely treatment and better prognosis, which significantly improves the survival rate in patients. Objectives The purpose of this study was to predict the breast cancer screening behavior of women who referred to health centers in Dezful, Iran, using the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 226 women who were selected with cluster sampling method from those referred to Dezful health centers. Data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire based on the constructs of the HBM. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and through methods of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and regression. Results According to the findings of the study, the knowledge and performance of women were poor, and there was a significant relationship between women’s performance and variables of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. In addition, variables of knowledge (P = 0.001, perceived sensitivity (P = 0.022, and self-efficacy (P = 0.001 were predictors of performance in women participating in this study. Conclusions Poor knowledge and performance of women indicates a crucial need for formal educational programs to sensitize women regarding the importance of breast cancer screening. These educational programs should consider factors affecting breast cancer screening behaviors.

  7. Scripted Sexual Health Informational Intervention in Improving Sexual Function in Patients With Gynecologic Cancer (United States)


    Anxiety Disorder; Cervical Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Sexual Dysfunction; Uterine Sarcoma; Vaginal Cancer; Vulvar Cancer

  8. Effectiveness of a Brief Health Education Intervention for Breast Cancer Prevention in Greece Under Economic Crisis

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    Kyriakoula Merakou


    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.

  9. [Childhood and adolescent cancer was cured--how to support health in adulthood?]. (United States)

    Taskinen, Mervi; Vettenranta, Kim; Jokinen, Eero; Lehtinen, Tuula; Arola, Mikko; Korpela, Merja; Möttönen, Merja; Pesola, Jouni; Voutilainen, Leena; Vähäkylä-Aulo, Anne; Mäkinen, Sari; Suontausta-Kyläinpää, Sirkku; Jyrkkiö, Sirkku; Lähteenmäki, Päivi


    The number of long-term survivors after cancer therapy in childhood and young adulthood is increasing. Accordingly, life-long follow-up of significant health problems related to the given cancer therapy is needed as only one third of the survivors will remain free of any physical or psychosocial late effects. At present, national activity is needed to establish a uniform follow-up clinic service to support education, diagnostics, therapy and rehabilitation of these long-term adverse effects after cancer therapy at young age.

  10. Skeletal Health Part 1: Overview Of Bone Health and Management In the Cancer Setting. (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Ali, Sacha; Drudge-Coates, Lawrence; Pati, Jhumur; Nargund, Vinod; Wells, Paula


    Cancer-induced bone disease and cancer therapy-induced bone loss are significant skeletal problems related to the treatment for urological and other cancers. Our team of specialists and nurse practitioners developed a nurse practitioner-led Bone Support Clinic for urologic cancer patients at a university hospital in London, England, United Kingdom, to address this issue. The clinic has been well-accepted, has made a positive impact on the patient journey, helps to ensure continuity of care, and highlights patients who require assessment or treatment for impending skeletal-related events in a timely fashion. This article has been divided into two parts for improved readability.

  11. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions. (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y


    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control.

  12. Health Status and Cancer Screening in Hispanic Women: A Sample from Cumberland County, North Carolina

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    Heather Griffiths


    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines self-reported breast and cervical cancer screening history among women aged 18 years and above in Cumberland County, NC. Cumberland County is a multi-ethnic, semi-urban, racially diverse community with a large Hispanic population. Cross-sectional, mixed methodology data collection took place in local Tiendas. The sample consists of women belonging to a variety of ethnic groups generally classified as “Hispanic.” The questionnaire and interview guide used in the study developed from the Center for Disease Control’s National Health Interview Survey, and measured breast examination, mammogram, Pap Smear, family cancer, and health insurance history, as well as self reported health status, socio-demographic, and cultural features of the respondents. We found that despite demographics from the 2010 Census showing a high incidence of breast and cervical cancers in the North Carolina Hispanic population, fewer Hispanic women in Cumberland County screened themselves for the presence of this cancer as compared to women at the national level. Education positively impacted both self rated health status as well as cancer screening behavior. Interview data suggested the lack of screening behavior in this population was due to a perceived lack of cultural sensitivity and a dearth of translators.

  13. Electric Blanket Use and Risk of Thyroid Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Cohort. (United States)

    Kato, Ikuko; Young, Alicia; Liu, Jingmin; Abrams, Judith; Bock, Cathryn; Simon, Michael


    Thyroid cancer disproportionally affects more women than men. The aim of this study was to assess whether exposure to extremely low frequency electric magnetic fields from electric blankets (EBs) was associated with the development of thyroid cancer. Data were analyzed from 89,527 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and who responded to questions concerning prior use of EBs. During a mean follow-up of 12.2 years, 190 incident cases of thyroid cancer were identified. We estimated the hazard ratio (HR) and 95 percent confidence interval (CI) of incident thyroid cancer associated with EB use by Cox's proportional hazard model, adjusted for selected covariates. A majority, 57 percent, of the women in the cohort reported the use of EBs while sleeping and/or for warming the bed before sleep. No association was found between use of EBs and subsequent risk of thyroid cancer (HR = 0.98, 95 percent CI 0.72-1.32). Duration of EB use measured in years, months, or hours had no effect on risk. These results did not change when the cases were limited to papillary thyroid cancer, the most frequently occurring histologic type. The results of this study do not support possible health hazards of EBs in regards to thyroid cancer risk.

  14. Childhood thyroid cancers and radioactive iodine therapy: necessity of precautious radiation health risk management. (United States)

    Kumagai, Atsushi; Reiners, Christoph; Drozd, Valentina; Yamashita, Shunichi


    One of the lessons from Chernobyl's legacy on health impact beyond 20 years is not only how to detect and treat the patients with radiation-associated thyroid cancers but how to follow up those who received radioactive iodine treatment repetitively after surgery in order to monitor any recurrence/worsening and also how to predict the risk of secondary primary cancers for their lifetime period. To evaluate the possibility of second primary tumors after radioactive iodine treatment, we reviewed the reports on risks from both external and internal radiation exposure, especially at high doses during childhood through an internet service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, PubMed by the end of June, 2007, together with our own experience of Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers. Children who were internally exposed after Chernobyl accident have a long-term risk of well differentiated thyroid cancers. Once they have disease, ironically radioactive iodine ablation is one of the useful therapies after surgical treatment. Elevated risks of solid cancers and leukemia have been found in radioiodine-treated patients, however, so far precious few reports from Chernobyl thyroid cancer patient were published. To reduce the adverse effects of radioactive iodine therapy on non-target tissues, recombinant human TSH has been applied and proved effective. Period of latency of second primary cancers may be very long. Therefore patients treated with high activities of radioactive iodine, especially children cases, should be carefully followed up during their whole lifespan.

  15. Council Clinical Perspective: Cardiovascular Health of Patients with Cancer and Cancer Survivors: A Roadmap to the Next Level (United States)

    Barac, Ana; Murtagh, Gillian; Carver, Joseph R.; Chen, Ming Hui; Freeman, Andrew M.; Herrmann, Joerg; Iliescu, Cezar; Ky, Bonnie; Mayer, Erica L.; Okwuosa, Tochi M.; Plana, Juan Carlos; Ryan, Thomas D.; Rzeszut, Anne K.; Douglas, Pamela S.


    Many existing and emerging cancer therapies have significant impact on the cardiovascular (CV) health of patients with cancer and cancer survivors. This manuscript examines current aspects of interdisciplinary cardio-oncology clinical care delivery and education in the United States and outlines how these data provide a platform for future development of the field. We present the results of the nationwide survey on cardio-oncology services, practices and opinions, conducted among Chiefs of Cardiology and Program Directors, that demonstrate ranges of clinical activities and identify significant interest for increased educational opportunities and expert training of CV physicians in this field. The survey respondents recognized clinical relevance, but emphasized lack of national guidelines, lack of funds, and limited awareness and infrastructure as the main challenges for development and growth of cardio-oncology. We discuss potential solutions to unmet needs through interdisciplinary collaboration and the active roles of professional societies and other stakeholders. PMID:26112199

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life after surgery for primary advanced rectal cancer and recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Henriette Vind; Jess, Per; Laurberg, Søren


    Aim: A review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after surgery for primary advanced or recurrent rectal cancer and to outline proposals for future HRQoL studies in this area. Method: A systematic literature search was undertaken. Only...... studies concerning surgery for primary advanced or recurrent rectal cancer and describing methods used for measuring HRQoL were considered. Results Seven studies were identified including two prospective longitudinal, three cross-sectional and two based on qualitative data. Global quality of life...... cancer. Larger prospective longitudinal studies are needed to improve information on the effects of this extensive surgery on quality of life....

  17. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in health and disease: Part 1--cardiovascular disease and cancer. (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Miraliakbari, Homan


    The omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have a wide range of beneficial effects in several human health conditions. Animal and in vitro studies have indicated that omega-3 fatty acids affect blood lipid profiles, cardiovascular health, membrane lipid composition, eicosanoid biosynthesis, cell signaling cascades, and gene expression. Findings from epidemiological studies suggest that intake of omega-3 fatty acids from natural sources or supplements may influence the onset and progression of several disease states, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. This review highlights some recent research findings that help advance our understanding of how omega-3 fatty acids influence cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  18. Evolution of the health economics of cervical cancer vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferko, Nicole; Postma, Maarten; Gallivan, Steve; Kruzikas, Denise; Drummond, Michael


    This paper reviews the history of modelling for cervical cancer vaccination. We provide an interpretation and summary of conclusions pertaining to the usefulness of different models, the predicted epidemiological impact of vaccination and the cost-effectiveness of adolescent, catch-up and sex-specif

  19. A multidimensional cancer rehabilitation program for cancer survivors - Effectiveness on health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, E; Hoekstra-Weebers, J; Grol, B; Otter, R; Arendzen, HJ; Postema, K; Sanderman, R; van der Schans, C


    Objective: A multidimensional rehabilitation program for cancer survivors was developed to overcome cancer-related problems and to improve quality of life. The two purposes of the study were to describe the effectiveness of the program and to obtain information about patient preferences for multi or

  20. Psychosocial factors and mental health in cancer patients: Opportunities for health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.; Elving, W.J.L.; Seydel, E.R.


    A first step in planning health promotion with respect to mental health is analysing the factors that influence mental health. Diagnosis of the relevant variables may contribute to the design of effective health promotion programmes. In this paper the relationship between psychosocial factors and me

  1. Predicting Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Smokers, Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey (United States)

    Lee, Suekyung


    Cancer can be one of the most serious diseases that can result in a costly reduction in the quality of life. Among a number of cancer risk factors, tobacco use has been identified as the leading preventable cause of deaths. Prior research has suggested that cancer information seeking may be a pre-step to adopt health protective behaviors that can…

  2. One Health and cancer: A comparative study of human and canine cancers in Nairobi

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    Nyariaro Kelvin Momanyi


    Full Text Available Aim: Recent trends in comparative animal and human research inform us that collaborative research plays a key role in deciphering and solving cancer challenges. Globally, cancer is a devastating diagnosis with an increasing burden in both humans and dogs and ranks as the number three killer among humans in Kenya. This study aimed to provide comparative information on cancers affecting humans and dogs in Nairobi, Kenya. Materials and Methods: Dog data collection was by cancer case finding from five veterinary clinics and two diagnostic laboratories, whereas the human dataset was from the Nairobi Cancer Registry covering the period 2002-2012. The analysis was achieved using IBM SPSS Statistics® v.20 (Dog data and CanReg5 (human data. The human population was estimated from the Kenya National Census, whereas the dog population was estimated from the human using a human:dog ratio of 4.1:1. Results: A total of 15,558 human and 367 dog cancer cases were identified. In humans, females had higher cancer cases 8993 (an age-standardized rate of 179.3 per 100,000 compared to 6565 in males (122.1 per 100,000. This order was reversed in dogs where males had higher cases 198 (14.9 per 100,000 compared to 169 (17.5 per 100,000 in females. The incident cancer cases increased over the 11-year study period in both species. Common cancers affecting both humans and dogs were: Prostate (30.4, 0.8, the respiratory tract (8.3, 1.3, lymphoma (5.6, 1.4, and liver and biliary tract (6.3, 0.5, whereas, in females, they were: Breast (44.5, 3.6, lip, oral cavity, and pharynx (8.8, 0.6, liver and biliary tract (6.5, 1.2, and lymphoma (6.0, 0.6, respectively, per 100,000. Conclusion: The commonality of some of the cancers in both humans and dogs fortifies that it may be possible to use dogs as models and sentinels in studying human cancers in Kenya and Africa. We further infer that developing joint animalhuman cancer registries and integrated cancer surveillance systems may

  3. Puppets on a string: women's wage work and empowerment among female tea plantation workers of Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Samarasinghe, V


    Access to resources and control of ones' income are key features of women's empowerment. The current development strategy is to create opportunities for poor women in developing countries. Because access to income alone does not ensure empowerment, this study examines sociopolitical factors among the Indian Tamil female tea plantation workers in Sri Lanka that impact women's ability to control their own income. 95% of the female Indian Tamil Plantation work force is devoted to the tea industry. Female labor force participation among the Indian Tamil was 54.3% in 1981 compared to total female labor force participation of 26%. The survey encompassed a sample of 420 female and 40 male unskilled workers of 22 large plantations in Nuwara Eliya district, which were managed by government corporations. Variables pertained to income levels, control of income within households, work schedules, household demographics, food habits and within household food allocation patterns, health status and health delivery system, and management structures. Results focused on control incomes, maternity benefits, the double burden for women, women's health and nutrition, female education, and trade unions and male dominance. Although women have increased their wage rate and work hours, there has not been a corresponding increase in women's ability to control their incomes. there remains a male dominated social and political system, which continues to entrap women as a productive resource. One way in which women's empowerment has been stalled has been through the control of women's income and labor, and male dominance both at work and home. Successful schemes for women's empowerment are demonstrated in the Self Employed Women's Association, Working Women's Forum of India, and the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh.

  4. Age-related use and perceptions of eHealth in men with prostate cancer: a web-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rising, C.J.; Bol, N.; Kreps, G.L.


    Background: Men with prostate cancer require ample information and support along the continuum of care, and eHealth is one way to meet such critical information and support needs. Currently, evidence about how age influences use and perceptions about prostate cancer eHealth information and support i

  5. Health-related quality of life in long-term esophageal cancer survivors after potentially curative treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courrech Staal, E.F.W.; van Sandick, J.W.; van Tinteren, H.; Cats, A.; Aaronson, N.K.


    Objective Clinical outcomes have been investigated extensively in studies of esophageal cancer treatment. Less is known about long-term health-related quality of life outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess a range of health-related quality of life outcomes in patients with esophageal cancer t

  6. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study


    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.


    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in...

  7. Perspectives of the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum: Diagnosis through 30 Months Post-Treatment

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    Jennifer M. Hulett


    Full Text Available This study explored breast cancer survivors’ perspectives regarding their experiences of the survivorship continuum from diagnosis through 30 months post-treatment. The sample included women (N = 379 with newly-diagnosed breast cancer undergoing treatment at a Midwestern university-affiliated cancer center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire at time of diagnosis, post-operatively, quarterly during the first year, and then semi-annually thereafter through 30 months post-treatment. A mixed-methodology was used to analyze participants’ comments. Themes central to long-term survivorship experiences included social support, positive worldviews, breast cancer and lymphedema health literacy, religious/spiritual beliefs, self-empowerment, and recovery expectations. These themes were consistent with a psychoneuroimmunological model of health in which psychosocial variables mediate stress and influence health outcomes. Qualitative data showed that social support and positive worldviews were the two themes with the most significant impact on long-term breast cancer survivorship experiences. Survivors expressed a need to advance their health care literacy in order to share ownership of breast cancer and lymphedema treatment decisions. Since breast cancer is an immune-mediated disease, long-term survivorship planning should address psychosocial factors that influence the long-term psychological distress associated with immune dysfunction.

  8. Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Schuler, S R


    A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men.

  9. 76 FR 44933 - Determination on Adding Cancer, or a Certain Type of Cancer, to the List of WTC-Related Health... (United States)


    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the availability of the ``First Periodic Review of... first periodic Review of Cancer for the WTC Health Program, insufficient evidence exists at this time to...-Related Health Conditions AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of...

  10. The power behind empowerment for staff nurses: using Foucault's concepts. (United States)

    Udod, Sonia A


    The concept of staff nurse empowerment is often evoked in dialogue concerning the nature of nurses' practice in improving their work environments. Nurse empowerment has been the subject of vigorous discussion in healthcare settings, and has been researched largely through an organizational perspective. In this paper, nurse empowerment is analyzed by drawing upon a critical science approach as an alternative theoretical lens. Power is integral to empowerment, and occurs in the context of relations of power. The author uses the ideas of Michel Foucault to address the different ways in which power relations shape nurses' experiences in the workplace. Foucault conceptualizes power as a form of power that envelops staff nurses and nurse managers and, more specifically, as a set of disciplinary techniques. Rather than discussing power solely as a repressive force, Foucault identifies the productive aspects of power. His analysis of where power resides suggests a thought-provoking approach to staff nurse empowerment that has the potential to change nurses' practice through points of resistance, and thus has implications for improving the quality of nurses' work life.

  11. Perceptions of Tourist Guides on Employee Empowerment: Behavioral Approach

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    Nuray Tetik


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of tourist guides on employee empowerment in the context of behavioral approach. Employee empowerment practises of travelagency operation department managers were tried to determine in the view of tourist guides. In this frame, a questionnaire was developed and applied totourist guides who worked as a guide actively in the English language. Data, obtained between 2014 and 2015, was analyzed by using the SPSS statistical program. In this frame reliability analysis and factor analysis were used. Also independent samples t test and ANOVA test were used in order to determine whether there was a siginificant differences between independent variables and scale items. According to the results tourist guides had positive perceptions about employee empowerment practices. Operation managers were mostly applied employee empowerment about communication, giving responsibility and applying personal capabilities to work. Congratulating successes, giving knowledge and education and encouraging had the lowest mean scores according to tourist guides. In addition, it was determined in the study that there was a significant difference between ge nders, ages and working years in terms of employee empowerment. Considering this result male guides felt more empowered than female guides. Also, it was determined that the more years they work the more they feel empowered

  12. Structural empowerment and work–family fit in nurses

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    Agnieszka Orłowska


    Full Text Available Background: The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between structural empowerment and work–family fit in Polish nurses. Structural empowerment is a strategy for managing by providing the employees with opportunities, information, support and resources essential for the effective performance of work duties. Work–family fit takes 2 forms of relationships between these 2 spheres: conflict (functioning in one role is more difficult because of participation in the other role and facilitation (fulfilling the duties associated with one role enriches filling up the other role. Material and Methods: A total of 159 nurses employed in hospitals took part in the study. The Polish versions of the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire and the Work–Family Fit Questionnaire were used. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: The results show statistically signifficant relationships between structural empowerment and work–family fit in nurses. In the hospital environment, characterized by a high degree of empowerment, nurses experience a lower level of work–family conflict and a higher level of facilitation in both directions. Conclusions: Hospital management strategy based on structural empowerment of nurses favors reconciliation of professional and family roles. Therefore, it is important for hospitals to create appropriate working conditions that allow nurses to effectively deal with demands arising from work and family spheres. Med Pr 2016;67(6:787–800

  13. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya


    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  14. Single Session Email Consultation for Parents: An Evaluation of Its Effect on Empowerment (United States)

    Nieuwboer, Christa C.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.


    This study evaluated the effect of single session email consultation (SSEC) on empowerment of parents. Practitioners in a control group (n = 19) received no training and practitioners in an experimental group (n = 21) were trained to use empowerment-oriented techniques in online consultation. Parental empowerment was measured (n = 96) through a…

  15. From Learning to Empowerment: A Study of Smallholder Farmers in South West Uganda (United States)

    Carr, Alexis M.; Tenywa, Moses; Balasubramanian, K.


    The relationship between education and empowerment has been widely debated in development literature. In recent times, social capital and community-centric learning have been increasingly recognized as important variables in the empowerment process. This paper outlines the development of a "Three-dimensional Empowerment Framework", and…

  16. Engaging Young Adolescents in Social Action through Photovoice: The Youth Empowerment Strategies (YES!) Project (United States)

    Wilson, Nance; Dasho, Stefan; Martin, Anna C.; Wallerstein, Nina; Wang, Caroline C.; Minkler, Meredith


    The Youth Empowerment Strategies (YES!) project is an afterschool empowerment program and research project for underserved early adolescents. Central to YES! is an empowerment intervention that provides early adolescents with opportunities for civic engagement with other youth around issues of shared concern in their schools and neighborhoods.…

  17. ZAPP! in Education: How Empowerment Can Improve the Quality of Instruction, and Student and Teacher Satisfaction. (United States)

    Byham, William C.; And Others

    In a previous book entitled "Zapp! The Lightening of Empowerment", a new system for motivating employees and improving productivity in a corporate setting was presented. This book adapts that empowerment guide to the classroom with workable, hands-on suggestions to help educators motivate their students and themselves. Empowerment in…

  18. Community mobilisation and empowerment interventions as part of HIV prevention for female sex workers in Southern India: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vassall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most HIV prevention for female sex workers (FSWs focuses on individual behaviour change involving peer educators, condom promotion and the provision of sexual health services. However, there is a growing recognition of the need to address broader societal, contextual and structural factors contributing to FSW risk behaviour. We assess the cost-effectiveness of adding community mobilisation (CM and empowerment interventions (eg. community mobilisation, community involvement in programme management and services, violence reduction, and addressing legal policies and police practices, to core HIV prevention services delivered as part of Avahan in two districts (Bellary and Belgaum of Karnataka state, Southern India. METHODS: An ingredients approach was used to estimate economic costs in US$ 2011 from an HIV programme perspective of CM and empowerment interventions over a seven year period (2004-2011. Incremental impact, in terms of HIV infections averted, was estimated using a two-stage process. An 'exposure analysis' explored whether exposure to CM was associated with FSW's empowerment, risk behaviours and HIV/STI prevalence. Pathway analyses were then used to estimate the extent to which behaviour change may be attributable to CM and to inform a dynamic HIV transmission model. FINDINGS: The incremental costs of CM and empowerment were US$ 307,711 in Belgaum and US$ 592,903 in Bellary over seven years (2004-2011. Over a 7-year period (2004-2011 the mean (standard deviation, sd. number of HIV infections averted through CM and empowerment is estimated to be 1257 (308 in Belgaum and 2775 (1260 in Bellary. This translates in a mean (sd. incremental cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY averted of US$ 14.12 (3.68 in Belgaum and US$ 13.48 (6.80 for Bellary--well below the World Health Organisation recommended willingness to pay threshold for India. When savings from ART are taken into account, investments in CM and empowerment are cost

  19. Educational inequalities in cancer survival: A role for comorbidities and health behaviours?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Aarts (Mieke); C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)


    textabstractAim: To describe educational inequalities in cancer survival and to what extent these can be explained by comorbidity and health behaviours (smoking, physical activity and alcohol consumption). Methods: The GLOBE study sent postal questionnaires to individuals in The Netherlands in 1991

  20. Dynamics in cancer caregiver's health over time : Gender-specific patterns and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, C; Triemstra, M; Sanderman, R; van den Bos, GAM


    This study examined patterns and determinants of three dimensions of caregiver's health of newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients, i.e. physical, mental and social functioning (N = 148). Physical functioning declined within a 6-month period in female caregivers, while no change was observed in m

  1. Reimbursement of targeted cancer therapies within three different European health care systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, Jovan; Dolk, C.; Postma, Maarten


    Objectives: To identify differences in the recommendations for targeted cancer therapies (TCT) in three distinctive European health care systems: Serbian, Scottish and Dutch, and to examine the role of cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) in such recommendations. Methods: A list of currently approved T

  2. After Some Breast Cancer Treatments, Risk for Other Health Conditions May Rise (United States)

    ... MBC Radiation Therapy for MBC Surgery for MBC Yoga and MBC Side Effects Bone Health and MBC Bone Pain and MBC ... Yoga Poses Special Situations Yoga and Lymphedema Risk Yoga and Metastatic Breast Cancer Side Effects Anemia Bone Loss Bone Pain Chemobrain Depression and ...

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life in Dutch Men with Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.; Voerman, B.; Fischer, M.; Visser, Adriaan; Garssen, B.; Andel, G. van


    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent solid malignancy in men in the Netherlands. With regard to treatment, the focus of attention has shifted in the last decade from pure survival rates to health-related quality of life. HRQOL is affected differently by different treatments. The objective of this s

  4. The Role of Health Education on Breast Cancer Awareness among University of Calabar Female Undergraduates (United States)

    Asuquo, I. M.; Olajide, T. E.


    The study sought to determine the role of health education on breast cancer awareness among University of Calabar female undergraduates. To achieve the purpose of the study, three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Related literature was reviewed, while a survey research design was adopted for the study. Appropriately develop and…

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study ... Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood ...

  6. An overview of cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America: the case for investment in cancer health services. (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Swaminathan, R; Jayant, K; Brenner, H


    Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are reported from 27 population-based cancer registries in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. In China, Singapore, the Republic of Korea, and Turkey, the 5-year age-standardized relative survival ranged from 76-82% for breast, 63-79% for cervical, 71-78% for bladder, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancer. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia, or 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%) in Uganda. For localized cancers of the breast, large bowel, larynx, ovary, urinary bladder and for regional diseases at all sites, higher survival rates were observed in countries with more rather than less developed health services. Inter- and intra-country variations in survival imply that the levels of development of health services and their efficiency to provide early diagnosis, treatment and clinical follow-up care have a profound impact on survival from cancer. These are reliable baseline summary estimates to evaluate improvements in cancer control and emphasise the need for urgent investment to improve awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources in these countries in the future.

  7. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India (United States)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  8. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  9. Prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and prostate cancer: the California Men's Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iona Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostatitis and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have been positively associated with prostate cancer in previous case-control studies. However, results from recent prospective studies have been inconclusive. METHODOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between prostatitis, STDs, and prostate cancer among African American, Asian American, Latino, and White participants of the California Men's Health Study. Our analysis included 68,675 men, who completed a detailed baseline questionnaire in 2002-2003. We identified 1,658 incident prostate cancer cases during the follow-up period to June 30, 2006. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, men having a history of prostatitis had an increased risk of prostate cancer than men with no history (RR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.10-1.54. Longer duration of prostatitis symptoms was also associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (P trend = 0.003. In addition, among men screened for prostate cancer (1 or 2 PSA tests, a non-significant positive association was observed between prostatitis and prostate cancer (RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.75-1.63. STDs were not associated with overall prostate cancer risk. In racial/ethnic stratified analysis, Latinos reporting any STDs had an increased risk of disease than those with no STDs (RR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07-1.91. Interestingly, foreign-born Latinos displayed a larger risk associated with STDs (RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.16-3.02 than U.S. born Latinos (RR = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.76-3.02. CONCLUSION: In summary, results from this prospective study suggest that prostatitis and STDs may be involved in prostate cancer susceptibility. While we cannot rule out the possible influence of incidental detection, future studies are warranted to further investigate the role of infectious agents related to prostatitis and STDs in prostate cancer development.

  10. Center for Research on Minority Health -- Prostate Cancer and Health Disparities Research (United States)


    Satcher is Director of the Center of Excellence on Health Disparities at the Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) in Atlanta, Georgia . He occupies the...can, and the rest of the time, try to keep the fish in her aquarium alive and swimming! Center for Research on Minority Health Department of Health

  11. Uses of cancer registries for public health and clinical research in Europe: Results of the European Network of Cancer Registries survey among 161 population-based cancer registries during 2010–2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, S.; Louwman, W.J.; Kwast, A.; Hurk, van den C.J.G.; O'Callaghan, M.; Rosso, S.; Zanetti, R.; Storm, H.; Comber, H.; Steliarova-Foucher, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.


    Aim To provide insight into cancer registration coverage, data access and use in Europe. This contributes to data and infrastructure harmonisation and will foster a more prominent role of cancer registries (CRs) within public health, clinical policy and cancer research, whether within or outside the

  12. Reproductive factors, hormone use and gastric cancer risk: The Singapore Chinese Health Study. (United States)

    Wang, Zhensheng; Butler, Lesley M; Wu, Anna H; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Aizhen; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min


    Gastric cancer incidence varies greatly worldwide, but is consistently twice as high in men than in women. The hormone-related factors hypothesized to be associated with lower risk of gastric cancer in women have not been fully explored in populations with a high background risk of gastric cancer. The Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS) is a prospective cohort study in which 34,022 of the participants enrolled between 1993 and 1998 were women between 45 and 74 years of age. Information on reproductive histories, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral contraceptive (OC) use was collected through in-person interviews at baseline. As of December 31, 2013, 269 incident gastric cancer cases were identified. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate gastric cancer risk associations. Older age at natural menopause (≥55 versus 3 years and 0.67 (0.47-0.94) for ever use of OCs, compared with never use. Reproductive factors associated with a longer window of fertility and the use of exogenous hormones were shown to reduce gastric cancer development in a cohort of Chinese women with a high background risk of gastric cancer.

  13. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin. (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B


    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior.

  14. Global cancer prevention: an important pathway to global health and development. (United States)

    Beaglehole, R; Bonita, R; Magnusson, R


    Cancer is a leading global cause of death and disability, responsible for approximately 7.6 million deaths each year. Around one-third of cancers are attributable to a small number of preventable risk factors - including smoking and the harmful consumption of alcohol - for which effective interventions exist at the population level. Despite this, progress in global cancer control has been slow and patchy, largely due to the weak and fragmented nature of both the global and national responses. This has been exacerbated by the economic crisis and the tendency for other challenges involving food, energy security and climate change to overshadow cancer on the global policy agenda. This paper reviews the global burden of cancer, and summarizes knowledge about effective interventions. Responding to the global challenge of cancer requires a comprehensive and integrated approach that includes legislation and regulation. A re-invigorated approach to global cancer prevention, within the broader context of non-communicable disease prevention, is an important pathway to global health and development.

  15. Coffee intake and breast cancer risk in the NIH-AARP diet and health study cohort. (United States)

    Gierach, Gretchen L; Freedman, Neal D; Andaya, Abegail; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Park, Yikyung; Schatzkin, Arthur; Brinton, Louise A


    There are several biologic mechanisms whereby coffee might reduce breast cancer risk. Caffeine and caffeic acid, major coffee constituents, have been shown to suppress mammary tumor formation in animal models and to inhibit DNA methylation in human breast cancer cells, respectively. Coffee may also reduce risk through decreasing inflammation and influencing estrogen metabolism. However, epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent and few studies have examined the association by estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. We evaluated coffee intake for its effect on incident breast cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort, which included 198,404 women aged 50-71 with no history of cancer, who in 1995-1996 completed a questionnaire capturing usual coffee intake over the past year. State cancer registry and mortality index linkage identified 9,915 primary incident breast carcinomas through December 2006; available information on hormone receptor (HR) status identified 2,051 ER+/PR+ and 453 ER-/PR- cancers. In multivariable proportional hazards models, coffee intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (p-value for trend = 0.38; relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.91-1.07, for four or more cups per day as compared to women who never drank coffee), and results did not vary by body mass index or history of benign breast biopsy (p-value for interaction > 0.10). We found no evidence of a relationship with either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Null findings persisted for risk of both HR-positive and -negative breast cancers. These findings from a large prospective cohort do not support a role of coffee intake in breast carcinogenesis.

  16. Red wine consumption and risk of prostate cancer: the California men's health study. (United States)

    Chao, Chun; Haque, Reina; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Caan, Bette J; Poon, Kwun-Yee T; Quinn, Virginia P


    Red wine contains polyphenol antioxidants that inhibit prostate cancer development in animal studies. We investigated the effect of red wine intake on the risk of prostate cancer using data prospectively collected in the California Men's Health Study (CMHS). CMHS is a multiethnic cohort of 84,170 men aged 45-69 years who were members of the Kaiser Permanente Southern and Northern California Health Plans. Information on demographic and lifestyle factors was collected using mailed questionnaires between 2002 and 2003. We used Cox models to estimate the effect of red wine on prostate cancer risk, adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 1,340 incident prostate cancer cases identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result-affiliated cancer registries were included in the analyses. We did not find a clear association between red wine intake and risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratio (HR) estimates for consuming or =1 drink/week but or =1 drink/day were 0.89, 95% confidence interval (0.74-1.07), 0.99 (0.83-1.17) and 0.88 (0.70-1.12), respectively. Further, we observed no linear dose response. The lack of association for red wine intake was consistently observed when we restricted the analyses to those with and without a history of PSA screening. In addition, we also did not observe any association with prostate cancer for beer, white wine, liquor or combined alcoholic beverage intake (HR for combined alcoholic beverage intake of > or =5 drinks/day = 1.16 (0.83-1.63). Neither red wine nor total alcohol consumption were associated with prostate cancer risk in this population of moderate drinkers.

  17. Credit programs, women's empowerment, and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Schuler, S R; Hashemi, S M


    This article presents findings of research addressing the question of how women's status affects fertility. The effects on contraceptive use of women's participation in rural credit programs and on their status or level of empowerment were examined. A woman's level of empowerment is defined here as a function of her relative physical mobility, economic security, ability to make various purchases on her own, freedom from domination and violence within her family, political and legal awareness, and participation in public protests and political campaigning. The main finding is that participation in both of the credit programs studied, those of Grameen Bank and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), is positively associated with women's level of empowerment. A positive effect on contraceptive use is discernible among both participants and nonparticipants in Grameen Bank villages. Participation in BRAC does not appear to affect contraceptive use.

  18. The two faces of transformational leadership: empowerment and dependency. (United States)

    Kark, Ronit; Shamir, Boas; Chen, Gilad


    Followers' identification with the leader and the organizational unit, dependence on the leader, and empowerment by the leader are often attributed to transformational leadership in organizations. However, these hypothesized outcomes have received very little attention in empirical studies. Using a sample of 888 bank employees working under 76 branch manages, the authors tested the relationships between transformational leadership and these outcomes. They found that transformational leadership was positively related to both followers' dependence and their empowerment and that personal identification mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' dependence on the leader, whereas social identification mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' empowerment. The authors discuss the implications of these findings to both theory and practice.

  19. Women, Poverty, and Trauma: An Empowerment Practice Approach. (United States)

    East, Jean Francis; Roll, Susan J


    This article describes an empowerment approach for working with diverse women who experience poverty, trauma, and multiple structural oppressions. The approach is the result of 20 years of experience developing, implementing, and evaluating this practice in a metropolitan community, and is grounded in women's empowerment theory and relational-cultural theory. The interventions combine social work's clinical interventions with community organizing strategies to promote personal and collective empowerment, supporting the "personal is political" tenet of feminist practice. The interventions, including nonclinical interviews, story circles, and leadership and advocacy education and training, can guide practitioners in providing services and programs that create a space for women to make changes in their personal lives and in their community. Program outcomes report successful changes for women in improving symptoms, increasing self-efficacy, and engaging in community advocacy. Women who participated also reported an increased sense of power, balancing commonality and difference among women, and a sense of hope for their future.

  20. Exploring empowerment in settings: mapping distributions of network power. (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling


    This paper brings together two trends in the empowerment literature-understanding empowerment in settings and understanding empowerment as relational-by examining what makes settings empowering from a social network perspective. Specifically, extending Neal and Neal's (Am J Community Psychol 48(3/4):157-167, 2011) conception of network power, an empowering setting is defined as one in which (1) actors have existing relationships that allow for the exchange of resources and (2) the distribution of network power among actors in the setting is roughly equal. The paper includes a description of how researchers can examine distributions of network power in settings. Next, this process is illustrated in both an abstract example and using empirical data on early adolescents' peer relationships in urban classrooms. Finally, implications for theory, methods, and intervention related to understanding empowering settings are explored.