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Sample records for cancer epithelial cells

  1. EDAC: Epithelial defence against cancer-cell competition between normal and transformed epithelial cells in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Mihoko; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    During embryonic development or under certain pathological conditions, viable but suboptimal cells are often eliminated from the cellular society through a process termed cell competition. Cell competition was originally identified in Drosophila where cells with different properties compete for survival; 'loser' cells are eliminated from tissues and consequently 'winner' cells become dominant. Recent studies have shown that cell competition also occurs in mammals. While apoptotic cell death is the major fate for losers in Drosophila, outcompeted cells show more variable phenotypes in mammals, such as cell death-independent apical extrusion and cellular senescence. Molecular mechanisms underlying these processes have been recently revealed. Especially, in epithelial tissues, normal cells sense and actively eliminate the neighbouring transformed cells via cytoskeletal proteins by the process named epithelial defence against cancer (EDAC). Here, we introduce this newly emerging research field: cell competition in mammals. PMID:25991731

  2. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  3. Cell volume regulation in epithelial physiology and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    regulation both rely on the spatially and temporally coordinated function of ion channels and transporters. In healthy epithelia, specific ion channels/transporters localize to the luminal and basolateral membranes, contributing to functional epithelial polarity. In pathophysiological processes...... such as cancer, transepithelial and cell volume regulatory ion transport are dys-regulated. Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. Since altered......The physiological function of epithelia is transport of ions, nutrients, and fluid either in secretory or absorptive direction. All of these processes are closely related to cell volume changes, which are thus an integrated part of epithelial function. Transepithelial transport and cell volume...

  4. Generation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells through Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Pierre Morel; Marjory Lièvre; Clémence Thomas; George Hinkal; Stéphane Ansieau; Alain Puisieux

    2008-01-01

    Recently, two novel concepts have emerged in cancer biology: the role of so-called "cancer stem cells" in tumor initiation, and the involvement of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the metastatic dissemination of epithelial cancer cells. Using a mammary tumor progression model, we show that cells possessing both stem and tumorigenic characteristics of "cancer stem cells" can be derived from human mammary epithelial cells following the activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway. The acquis...

  5. Host epithelial geometry regulates breast cancer cell invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghaert, Eline; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Lee, KangAe; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast tumor development is regulated in part by cues from the local microenvironment, including interactions with neighboring nontumor cells as well as the ECM. Studies using homogeneous populations of breast cancer cell lines cultured in 3D ECM have shown that increased ECM stiffness stimulates tumor cell invasion. However, at early stages of breast cancer development, malignant cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells, which have been shown to exert a tumor-suppressive effect on cocultured cancer cells. Here we explored how the biophysical characteristics of the host microenvironment affect the proliferative and invasive tumor phenotype of the earliest stages of tumor development, by using a 3D microfabrication-based approach to engineer ducts composed of normal mammary epithelial cells that contained a single tumor cell. We found that the phenotype of the tumor cell was dictated by its position in the duct: proliferation and invasion were enhanced at the ends and blocked when the tumor cell was located elsewhere within the tissue. Regions of invasion correlated with high endogenous mechanical stress, as shown by finite element modeling and bead displacement experiments, and modulating the contractility of the host epithelium controlled the subsequent invasion of tumor cells. Combining microcomputed tomographic analysis with finite element modeling suggested that predicted regions of high mechanical stress correspond to regions of tumor formation in vivo. This work suggests that the mechanical tone of nontumorigenic host epithelium directs the phenotype of tumor cells and provides additional insight into the instructive role of the mechanical tumor microenvironment. PMID:23150585

  6. Sef Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Gong, Yan; Gower, Lindsey; Yang, Xuehui; Friesel, Robert E

    2016-10-01

    Sef (similar expression to fgf), also know as IL17RD, is a transmembrane protein shown to inhibit fibroblast growth factor signaling in developmental and cancer contexts; however, its role as a tumor suppressor remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we show that Sef regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cell lines. Sef expression was highest in the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A, intermediate expression in MCF-7 cells and lowest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Knockdown of Sef increased the expression of genes associated with EMT, and promoted cell migration, invasion, and a fibroblastic morphology of MCF-7 cells. Overexpression of Sef inhibited the expression of EMT marker genes and inhibited cell migration and invasion in MCF-7 cells. Induction of EMT in MCF10A cells by TGF-β and TNF-α resulted in downregulation of Sef expression concomitant with upregulation of EMT gene expression and loss of epithelial morphology. Overexpression of Sef in MCF10A cells partially blocked cytokine-induced EMT. Sef was shown to block β-catenin mediated luciferase reporter activity and to cause a decrease in the nuclear localization of active β-catenin. Furthermore, Sef was shown to co-immunoprecipitate with β-catenin. In a mouse orthotopic xenograft model, Sef overexpression in MDA-MB-231 cells slowed tumor growth and reduced expression of EMT marker genes. Together, these data indicate that Sef plays a role in the negative regulation of EMT in a β-catenin dependent manner and that reduced expression of Sef in breast tumor cells may be permissive for EMT and the acquisition of a more metastatic phenotype. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2346-2356, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26950413

  7. Prevalence of epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells correlates with recurrence in early-stage ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Alvero, Ayesha B; Yang, Yingkui;

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells (EOC stem cells) have been associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. CD44 and CK18 are highly expressed in cancer stem cells and function as tools for their identification and characterization. We investigated the association between the number of CD44+ ...

  8. Changes of TIZ expression in epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Yu Zheng; Hong-Yu Zheng; Yun-Tao Zhou; En-Ling Liu; Jie Li; Yan-Mei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the change ofTIZ expression in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.Methods:HO8910 cells were transinfected with siRNA to inhibit the expression ofTIZ. pcDNA3.1-TIZ vectors were combined to increase theTIZ expression level.The cell viability, colony forming efficiency and cycle distribution ofHO8910,HO8910/NC,HO8910/pcDNA3.1-NC,HO8910/TIZ-573 andHO8910/pcDNA3.1-TIZ were compared, and the invasion rate, migration rate and adhesion rate between5 groups of cells were compared.Results:Compared with those ofHO8910,HO8910/NC andHO8910/pcDNA3.1-NC, the cell viability, colony forming efficiency and cell cycle distribution ofHO8910/TIZ-573 were increased, while the indexes ofHO8910/pcDNA3.1-NC were decreased with statistical significant difference(P0.05). Conclusions:The expression ofTIZ can inhibit the proliferation of epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

  9. Epithelial cell identity in hyperplastic precursors of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danila Coradini; Patrizia Boracchi; Saro Oriana; Elia Biganzoli; Federico Ambrogi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:In the adult human breast, hyperplastic enlarged lobular unit (HELU) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) are two common abnormalities that frequently coexist with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). For this reason, they have been proposed as the early steps in a biological continuum toward breast cancer. Methods:We investigated in silico the expression of 369 genes experimentally recognized as involved in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell identity and mammary gland remodeling, in HELUs or ADHs with respect to the corresponding patient-matched normal tissue. Results:Despite the common luminal origin, HELUs and ADHs proved to be characterized by distinct gene profiles that overlap for 5 genes only. While HELUs were associated with the overexpression of progesterone receptor (PGR), ADHs were characterized by the overexpression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) coupled with the overexpression of some proliferation-associated genes. Conclusions:This unexpected finding contradicts the notion that in differentiated luminal cells the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) is dissociated from cell proliferation and suggests that the establishing of an ER-dependent signaling is able to sustain cell proliferation in an autocrine manner as an early event in tumor initiation. Although clinical evidence indicates that only a fraction of HELUs and ADHs evolve to invasive cancer, present findings warn that exposure to synthetic progestins, frequently administered as hormone-replacement therapy, and estrogens, when abnormally produced by adipose cells and persistently present in the stroma surrounding the mammary gland, may cause these hyperplastic lesions.

  10. Tissue-based Identification of Stem Cells and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Talha; Kleer, Celina G.

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists have recognized breast cancer heterogeneity for decades, but its causes were unknown. In recent years, basic science and translational studies have demonstrated that cancer stem cells contribute to the heterogeneous histological and functional characteristics of breast cancer. Even more recently, the ability of breast epithelial cells to undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) transition has been linked to the acquisition of stem cells properties, and enhanced tumor invasion, ...

  11. Pancreatic stellate cells promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Recent studies have shown that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. → Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. → PSCs decreased the expression of epithelial markers but increased that of mesenchymal markers, along with increased migration. → This study suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that PSCs promote EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. Panc-1 and SUIT-2 pancreatic cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with human PSCs isolated from patients undergoing operation for pancreatic cancer. The expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was examined by scratch and two-chamber assays. Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and a scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. The expression of E-cadherin, cytokeratin 19, and membrane-associated β-catenin was decreased, whereas vimentin and Snail (Snai-1) expression was increased more in cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs than in mono-cultured cells. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was increased by co-culture with PSCs. The PSC-induced decrease of E-cadherin expression was not altered by treatment with anti

  12. Radiosensitizing effect of epothilone B on human epithelial cancer cells

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    Baumgart, T.; Kriesen, S.; Hildebrandt, G.; Manda, K. [Univ. of Rostock (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Klautke, G.; Fietkau, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kuznetsov, S.A.; Weiss, D.G. [Univ. of Rostock (Germany). Inst. of Biological Sciences, Cell Biology, and Biosystems Technology

    2012-02-15

    A combined modality treatment employing radiation and chemotherapy plays a central role in the management of solid tumors. In our study, we examined the cytotoxic and radiosensitive effect of the microtubule stabilizer epothilone B on two human epithelial tumor cell lines in vitro and its influence on the microtubule assembly. Cancer cells were treated with epothilone B in proliferation assays and in combination with radiation in colony-forming assays. For the analysis of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and the influence of the drug on its repair a {gamma}H2AX foci assay was used. To determine the effect of epothilone B on the microtubule assembly in cells and on purified tubulin, immunofluorescence staining and tubulin polymerization assay, respectively, were conducted. Epothilone B induced a concentration- and application-dependent antiproliferative effect on the cells, with IC{sub 50} values in the low nanomolar range. Colony forming assays showed a synergistic radiosensitive effect on both cell lines which was dependent on incubation time and applied concentration of epothilone B. The {gamma}H2AX assays demonstrated that ionizing radiation combined with the drug resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in the number of double-strand breaks and suggested a reduction in DNA repair capacity. Epothilone B produced enhanced microtubule bundling and abnormal spindle formation as revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy and caused microtubule formation from purified tubulin. The results of this study showed that epothilone B displays cytotoxic antitumor activity at low nanomolar concentrations and also enhances the radiation response in the tumor cells tested; this may be induced by a reduced DNA repair capacity triggered by epothilone B. It was also demonstrated that epothilone B in fact targets microtubules in a more effective manner than paclitaxel. (orig.)

  13. Epithelial cell cultures from normal and cancerous human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, R B; Smith, H S; Nelson-Rees, W A; Springer, E L

    1976-04-01

    Thirty epithelial cell strains were isolated from human carcinomas and normal epithelial tissues by collagenase digestion and selective removal of fibroblasts with trypsin-Versene. Most strains were obtained from metastatic carcinomas or epithelia of the urinary and intestinal tracts. The success rate for growth of both neoplastic and normal tissues (excluding skin) was 38%. Six of these strains showed gross morphologic and chromosome changes typical of malignant cells. Nine resembled normal epithelium. The other 15 exhibited some degree of morphologic change from normal. PMID:176412

  14. Endothelial cells stimulate growth of normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells in 3D culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Magnus K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial-stromal interaction provides regulatory signals that maintain correct histoarchitecture and homeostasis in the normal breast and facilitates tumor progression in breast cancer. However, research on the regulatory role of the endothelial component in the normal and malignant breast gland has largely been neglected. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endothelial cells on growth and differentiation of human breast epithelial cells in a three-dimensional (3D co-culture assay. Methods Breast luminal and myoepithelial cells and endothelial cells were isolated from reduction mammoplasties. Primary cells and established normal and malignant breast cell lines were embedded in reconstituted basement membrane in direct co-culture with endothelial cells and by separation of Transwell filters. Morphogenic and phenotypic profiles of co-cultures was evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, immunostaining and confocal microscopy. Results In co-culture, endothelial cells stimulate proliferation of both luminal- and myoepithelial cells. Furthermore, endothelial cells induce a subpopulation of luminal epithelial cells to form large acini/ducts with a large and clear lumen. Endothelial cells also stimulate growth and cloning efficiency of normal and malignant breast epithelial cell lines. Transwell and gradient co-culture studies show that endothelial derived effects are mediated - at least partially - by soluble factors. Conclusion Breast endothelial cells - beside their role in transporting nutrients and oxygen to tissues - are vital component of the epithelial microenvironment in the breast and provide proliferative signals to the normal and malignant breast epithelium. These growth promoting effects of endothelial cells should be taken into consideration in breast cancer biology.

  15. Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Markers, and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind; Meijer, Coby; de Bock, Geertruida H; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Terstappen, Leon W M M; Groen, Harry J M; Timens, Wim; Kruyt, Frank A E; Hiltermann, T Jeroen N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a poor prognosis, and even with localized (limited) disease, the 5-year survival has only been around 20%. Elevated levels of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been associated with a worse prognosis, and markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epitheli

  16. A computational approach to resolve cell level contributions to early glandular epithelial cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Park Sunwoo; Mostov Keith; Debnath Jayanta; Kim Sean HJ; Hunt C Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3D) embedded cell cultures provide an appropriate physiological environment to reconstruct features of early glandular epithelial cancer. Although these are orders of magnitude simpler than tissues, they too are complex systems that have proven challenging to understand. We used agent-based, discrete event simulation modeling methods to build working hypotheses of mechanisms of epithelial 3D culture phenotype and early cancer progression. Starting with a...

  17. Exo70 Isoform Switching upon Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Mediates Cancer Cell Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hezhe; Liu, Jianglan; Liu, Shujing; Zeng, Jingwen; Ding, Deqiang; Carstens, Russ P.; Cong, Yusheng; Xu, Xiaowei; Guo, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important developmental process hijacked by cancer cells for their dissemination. Here we show that Exo70, a component of the exocyst complex, undergoes isoform switching mediated by ESRP1, a pre-mRNA splicing factor that regulates EMT. Expression of the epithelial isoform of Exo70 affects the levels of key EMT transcriptional regulators such as Snail and ZEB2, and is sufficient to drive the transition to epithelial phenotypes. Differential Exo70 isoforms expression in human tumors correlates with cancer progression, and increased expression of the epithelial isoform of Exo70 inhibits tumor metastasis in mice. At the molecular level, the mesenchymal but not the epithelial isoform of Exo70 interacts with the Arp2/3 complex and stimulates actin polymerization for tumor invasion. Our findings provide a mechanism by which the exocyst function and actin dynamics are modulated for EMT and tumor invasion. PMID:24331928

  18. Gene expression correlations in human cancer cell lines define molecular interaction networks for epithelial phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt W Kohn

    Full Text Available Using gene expression data to enhance our knowledge of control networks relevant to cancer biology and therapy is a challenging but urgent task. Based on the premise that genes that are expressed together in a variety of cell types are likely to functions together, we derived mutually correlated genes that function together in various processes in epithelial-like tumor cells. Expression-correlated genes were derived from data for the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines, as well as data from the Broad Institute's CCLE cell lines. NCI-60 cell lines that selectively expressed a mutually correlated subset of tight junction genes served as a signature for epithelial-like cancer cells. Those signature cell lines served as a seed to derive other correlated genes, many of which had various other epithelial-related functions. Literature survey yielded molecular interaction and function information about those genes, from which molecular interaction maps were assembled. Many of the genes had epithelial functions unrelated to tight junctions, demonstrating that new function categories were elicited. The most highly correlated genes were implicated in the following epithelial functions: interactions at tight junctions (CLDN7, CLDN4, CLDN3, MARVELD3, MARVELD2, TJP3, CGN, CRB3, LLGL2, EPCAM, LNX1; interactions at adherens junctions (CDH1, ADAP1, CAMSAP3; interactions at desmosomes (PPL, PKP3, JUP; transcription regulation of cell-cell junction complexes (GRHL1 and 2; epithelial RNA splicing regulators (ESRP1 and 2; epithelial vesicle traffic (RAB25, EPN3, GRHL2, EHF, ADAP1, MYO5B; epithelial Ca(+2 signaling (ATP2C2, S100A14, BSPRY; terminal differentiation of epithelial cells (OVOL1 and 2, ST14, PRSS8, SPINT1 and 2; maintenance of apico-basal polarity (RAB25, LLGL2, EPN3. The findings provide a foundation for future studies to elucidate the functions of regulatory networks specific to epithelial-like cancer cells and to probe for anti-cancer drug targets.

  19. Cancer stem cells from epithelial ovarian cancer patients privilege oxidative phosphorylation, and resist glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastò, Anna; Bellio, Chiara; Pilotto, Giorgia; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Silic-Benussi, Micol; Guzzo, Giulia; Rasola, Andrea; Frasson, Chiara; Nardo, Giorgia; Zulato, Elisabetta; Nicoletto, Maria Ornella; Manicone, Mariangela; Indraccolo, Stefano; Amadori, Alberto

    2014-06-30

    We investigated the metabolic profile of cancer stem cells (CSC) isolated from patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. CSC overexpressed genes associated with glucose uptake, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and fatty acid β-oxidation, indicating higher ability to direct pyruvate towards the Krebs cycle. Consistent with a metabolic profile dominated by OXPHOS, the CSC showed higher mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and elevated membrane potential, and underwent apoptosis upon inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The CSC also had a high rate of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity, which is not typical of cells privileging OXPHOS over glycolysis, and may rather reflect the PPP role in recharging scavenging enzymes. Furthermore, CSC resisted in vitro and in vivo glucose deprivation, while maintaining their CSC phenotype and OXPHOS profile. These observations may explain the CSC resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies, and indicate this peculiar metabolic profile as a possible target of novel treatment strategies. PMID:24946808

  20. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs

  1. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing, E-mail: caijingmmm@hotmail.com; Wang, Zehua, E-mail: zehuawang@163.net

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  2. Hypoxic conditions induce a cancer-like phenotype in human breast epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaapil, Marica; Helczynska, Karolina; Villadsen, René;

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors are less oxygenated than their tissue of origin. Low intra-tumor oxygen levels are associated with worse outcome, increased metastatic potential and immature phenotype in breast cancer. We have reported that tumor hypoxia correlates to low differentiation status in breast cancer. Les...... is known about effects of hypoxia on non-malignant cells. Here we address whether hypoxia influences the differentiation stage of non-malignant breast epithelial cells and potentially have bearing on early stages of tumorigenesis....

  3. The comparison of glycosphingolipids isolated from an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line using MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanayake, Krishani K; Taylor, William R; Isailovic, Dragan

    2016-08-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are important biomolecules, which are linked to many diseases such as GSL storage disorders and cancer. Consequently, the expression of GSLs may be altered in ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison to apparently healthy cell lines. Here, differential expressions of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line T29 were studied using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and MALDI-MS/MS. The isolation of GSLs from SKOV3 and T29 cell lines was carried out using Folch partition. GSLs were successfully detected by MALDI-MS, and structurally assigned by a comparison of their MALDI-MS/MS fragmentation patterns with MS/MS data found in SimLipid database. Additionally, LIPID MAPS was used to assign GSL ion masses in MALDI-MS spectra. Seventeen neutral GSLs were identified in Folch partition lower (chloroform/methanol) phases originating from both cell lines, while five globo series neutral GSLs were identified only in the Folch partition lower phase of SKOV3 cell line. Several different sialylated GSLs were detected in Folch partition upper (water/methanol) phases of SKOV3 and T29 cell lines. Overall, this study demonstrates the alteration and increased glycosylation of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line in comparison to a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line. PMID:27267063

  4. Sheep, wolf, or werewolf: cancer stem cells and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey T; Mani, Sendurai A

    2013-11-28

    Multiple cancers contain subpopulations that exhibit characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs), the ability to self-renew and seed heterogeneous tumors. Recent evidence suggests two potentially overlapping models for these phenotypes: one where stem cells arise from multipotent progenitor cells, and another where they are created via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Unraveling this issue is critical, as it underlies phenomena such as metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Therefore, there is intense interest in understanding these two types of CSSs, how they differ from differentiated cancer cells, the mechanisms that drive their phenotypes, and how that knowledge can be incorporated into therapeutics.

  5. Epithelial cell polarity and tumorigenesis: new perspectives for cancer detection and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danila CORADINI; Claudia CASARSA; Saro ORIANA

    2011-01-01

    Loss of cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity is commonly observed in tumors of epithelial origin and correlates with their invasion into adjacent tissues and formation of metastases. Growing evidence indicates that loss of cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion may also be important in early stage of cancer. In first part of this review, we delineate the current understanding of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues and discuss the involvement of cell polarity and apical junctional complex components in tumor pathogenesis. In the second part we address the clinical significance of cell polarity and junctional complex components in can- cer diagnosis and prognosis. Finally, we explore their potential use as therapeutic targets in the treatment of cancer.

  6. A computational approach to resolve cell level contributions to early glandular epithelial cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sunwoo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3D embedded cell cultures provide an appropriate physiological environment to reconstruct features of early glandular epithelial cancer. Although these are orders of magnitude simpler than tissues, they too are complex systems that have proven challenging to understand. We used agent-based, discrete event simulation modeling methods to build working hypotheses of mechanisms of epithelial 3D culture phenotype and early cancer progression. Starting with an earlier software analogue, we validated an improved in silico epithelial analogue (ISEA for cardinal features of a normally developed MDCK cyst. A set of axiomatic operating principles defined simulated cell actions. We explored selective disruption of individual simulated cell actions. New framework features enabled recording detailed measures of ISEA cell activities and morphology. Results Enabled by a small set of cell operating principles, ISEA cells multiplied and self-organized into cyst-like structures that mimicked those of MDCK cells in a 3D embedded cell culture. Selective disruption of "anoikis" or directional cell division caused the ISEA to develop phenotypic features resembling those of in vitro tumor reconstruction models and cancerous tissues in vivo. Disrupting either process, or both, altered cell activity patterns that resulted in morphologically similar outcomes. Increased disruption led to a prolonged presence of intraluminal cells. Conclusions ISEA mechanisms, behaviors, and morphological properties may have biological counterparts. To the extent that in silico-to-in vitro mappings are valid, the results suggest plausible, additional mechanisms of in vitro cancer reconstruction or reversion, and raise potentially significant implications for early cancer diagnosis based on histology. Further ISEA development and use are expected to provide a viable platform to complement in vitro methods for unraveling the mechanistic basis of

  7. Notch signaling: targeting cancer stem cells and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza I

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ingrid Espinoza,1,2 Radhika Pochampally,1,2 Fei Xing,1 Kounosuke Watabe,1,3 Lucio Miele1,4 1Cancer Institute, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Microbiology, 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in cell fate control during development, stem cell self-renewal, and postnatal tissue differentiation. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, the biology of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT have been reported. This review describes the role of Notch in the “stemness” program in cancer cells and in metastases, together with a brief update on the Notch inhibitors currently under investigation in oncology. These agents may be useful in targeting cancer stem cells and to reverse the EMT process. Keywords: Notch signaling, EMT, cancer stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, metastases, Notch inhibitors

  8. Expression of Stem Cell and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Markers in Circulating Tumor Cells of Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Krawczyk; Franziska Meier-Stiegen; Malgorzata Banys; Hans Neubauer; Eugen Ruckhaeberle; Tanja Fehm

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have become a major focus of translational cancer research. Presence of CTCs predicts worse clinical outcome in early and metastatic breast cancer. Whether all cells from the primary tumor have potential to disseminate and form subsequent metastasis remains unclear. As part of the metastatic cascade, tumor cells lose their cell-to-cell adhesion and undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in order to enter blood circulat...

  9. Pulmonary epithelial cancer cells and their exosomes metabolize myeloid cell-derived leukotriene C4 to leukotriene D4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, Ana; Ji, Jie; Idborg, Helena; Samuelsson, Bengt; Palmberg, Lena; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Rådmark, Olof

    2016-09-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) play major roles in lung immune responses, and LTD4 is the most potent agonist for cysteinyl LT1, leading to bronchoconstriction and tissue remodeling. Here, we studied LT crosstalk between myeloid cells and pulmonary epithelial cells. Monocytic cells (Mono Mac 6 cell line, primary dendritic cells) and eosinophils produced primarily LTC4 In coincubations of these myeloid cells and epithelial cells, LTD4 became a prominent product. LTC4 released from the myeloid cells was further transformed by the epithelial cells in a transcellular manner. Formation of LTD4 was rapid when catalyzed by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)1 in the A549 epithelial lung cancer cell line, but considerably slower when catalyzed by GGT5 in primary bronchial epithelial cells. When A549 cells were cultured in the presence of IL-1β, GGT1 expression increased about 2-fold. Also exosomes from A549 cells contained GGT1 and augmented LTD4 formation. Serine-borate complex (SBC), an inhibitor of GGT, inhibited conversion of LTC4 to LTD4 Unexpectedly, SBC also upregulated translocation of 5-lipoxygenase (LO) to the nucleus in Mono Mac 6 cells, and 5-LO activity. Our results demonstrate an active role for epithelial cells in biosynthesis of LTD4, which may be of particular relevance in the lung. PMID:27436590

  10. Metabolic Reprogramming and Dependencies Associated with Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells Independent of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Esther; Marin de Mas, Igor; Zodda, Erika; Marin, Silvia; Morrish, Fionnuala; Selivanov, Vitaly; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Delowar, Hossain; Pons, Mònica; Izquierdo, Inés; Celià-Terrassa, Toni; de Atauri, Pedro; Centelles, Josep J; Hockenbery, David; Thomson, Timothy M; Cascante, Marta

    2016-05-01

    In solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSCs) can arise independently of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In spite of recent efforts, the metabolic reprogramming associated with CSC phenotypes uncoupled from EMT is poorly understood. Here, by using metabolomic and fluxomic approaches, we identify major metabolic profiles that differentiate metastatic prostate epithelial CSCs (e-CSCs) from non-CSCs expressing a stable EMT. We have found that the e-CSC program in our cellular model is characterized by a high plasticity in energy substrate metabolism, including an enhanced Warburg effect, a greater carbon and energy source flexibility driven by fatty acids and amino acid metabolism and an essential reliance on the proton buffering capacity conferred by glutamine metabolism. An analysis of transcriptomic data yielded a metabolic gene signature for our e-CSCs consistent with the metabolomics and fluxomics analyses that correlated with tumor progression and metastasis in prostate cancer and in 11 additional cancer types. Interestingly, an integrated metabolomics, fluxomics, and transcriptomics analysis allowed us to identify key metabolic players regulated at the post-transcriptional level, suggesting potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets to effectively forestall metastasis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1163-1176. PMID:27146024

  11. Distinct expression levels and patterns of stem cell marker, aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1 (ALDH1, in human epithelial cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Deng

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1 (ALDH1 has been proved useful for the identification of cancer stem cells. However, our knowledge of the expression and activity of ALDH1 in common epithelial cancers and their corresponding normal tissues is still largely absent. Therefore, we characterized ALDH1 expression in 24 types of normal tissues and a large collection of epithelial tumor specimens (six cancer types, n = 792 by immunohistochemical staining. Using the ALDEFUOR assay, ALDH1 activity was also examined in 16 primary tumor specimens and 43 established epithelial cancer cell lines. In addition, an ovarian cancer transgenic mouse model and 7 murine ovarian cancer cell lines were analyzed. We found that the expression levels and patterns of ALDH1 in epithelial cancers are remarkably distinct, and they correlate with their corresponding normal tissues. ALDH1 protein expression levels are positively correlated with ALDH1 enzymatic activity measured by ALDEFLUOR assay. Long-term in vitro culture doesn't significantly affect ALDH1 activity in epithelial tumor cells. Consistent with research on other cancers, we found that high ALDH1 expression is significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes in serous ovarian cancer patients (n = 439, p = 0.0036. Finally, ALDH(br tumor cells exhibit cancer stem cell properties and are resistant to chemotherapy. As a novel cancer stem cell marker, ALDH1 can be used for tumors whose corresponding normal tissues express ALDH1 in relatively restricted or limited levels such as breast, lung, ovarian or colon cancer.

  12. Gigantol Inhibits Epithelial to Mesenchymal Process in Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unahabhokha, Thitita; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Kitsongsermthon, Jutarat

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a leading public health problem as evidenced by its increasing death rate. The main cause of death in lung cancer patients is cancer metastasis. The metastatic behavior of lung cancer cells becomes enhanced when cancer cells undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Gigantol, a bibenzyl compound extracted from the Thai orchid, Dendrobium draconis, has been shown to have promising therapeutic potential against cancer cells, which leads to the hypothesis that gigantol may be able to inhibit the fundamental EMT process in cancer cells. This study has demonstrated for the first time that gigantol possesses the ability to suppress EMT in non-small cell lung cancer H460 cells. Western blot analysis has revealed that gigantol attenuates the activity of ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase (AKT), thereby inhibiting the expression of the major EMT transcription factor, Slug, by both decreasing its transcription and increasing its degradation. The inhibitory effects of gigantol on EMT result in a decrease in the level of migration in H460 lung cancer cells. The results of this study emphasize the potential of gigantol for further development against lung cancer metastasis. PMID:27651818

  13. Response to microtubule-interacting agents in primary epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer constitutes nearly 4% of all cancers among women and is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in the Western world. Standard first line adjuvant chemotherapy treatments include Paclitaxel (Taxol) and platinum-based agents. Taxol, epothilone B (EpoB) and discodermolide belong to a family of anti-neoplastic agents that specifically interferes with microtubules and arrests cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Despite initial success with chemotherapy treatment, many patients relapse due to chemotherapy resistance. In vitro establishment of primary ovarian cancer cells provides a powerful tool for better understanding the mechanisms of ovarian cancer resistance. We describe the generation and characterization of primary ovarian cancer cells derived from ascites fluids of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Chemosensitivity of these cell lines to Taxol, EpoB and discodermolide was tested, and cell cycle analysis was compared to that of immortalized ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and Hey. The relationship between drug resistance and αβ-tubulin and p53 status was also investigated. Results All newly generated primary cancer cells were highly sensitive to the drugs. αβ-tubulin mutation was not found in any primary cell lines tested. However, one cell line that harbors p53 mutation at residue 72 (Arg to Pro) exhibits altered cell cycle profile in response to all drug treatments. Immortalized ovarian cancer cells respond differently to EpoB treatment when compared to primary ovarian cancer cells, and p53 polymorphism suggests clinical significance in the anti-tumor response in patients. Conclusions The isolation and characterization of primary ovarian cancer cells from ovarian cancer patients’ specimens contribute to further understanding the nature of drug resistance to microtubule interacting agents (MIAs) currently used in clinical settings. PMID:23574945

  14. Lentiviral Vector Mediated Claudin1 Silencing Inhibits Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqi Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has a high incidence and mortality rate worldwide. Several viral vectors including lentiviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated viral vectors have been used in gene therapy for various forms of human cancer, and have shown promising effects in controlling tumor development. Claudin1 (CLDN1 is a member of the tetraspan transmembrane protein family that plays a major role in tight junctions and is associated with tumor metastasis. However, the role of CLDN1 in breast cancer is largely unexplored. In this study, we tested the therapeutic potential of silencing CLDN1 expression in two breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cell lines using lentiviral vector mediated RNA interference. We found that a CLDN1 short hairpin (shRNA construct efficiently silenced CLDN1 expression in both breast cancer cell lines, and CLDN1 knockdown resulted in reduced cell proliferation, survival, migration and invasion. Furthermore, silencing CLDN1 inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT by upregulating the epithelial cell marker, E-cadherin, and downregulating mesenchymal markers, smooth muscle cell alpha-actin (SMA and Snai2. Our data demonstrated that lentiviral vector mediated CLDN1 RNA interference has great potential in breast cancer gene therapy by inhibiting EMT and controlling tumor cell growth.

  15. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.; Bell, Matthew W.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tokar, Erik J., E-mail: tokare@niehs.nih.gov

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  16. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  17. Myoferlin depletion in breast cancer cells promotes mesenchymal to epithelial shape change and stalls invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Li

    Full Text Available Myoferlin (MYOF is a mammalian ferlin protein with homology to ancestral Fer-1, a nematode protein that regulates spermatic membrane fusion, which underlies the amoeboid-like movements of its sperm. Studies in muscle and endothelial cells have reported on the role of myoferlin in membrane repair, endocytosis, myoblast fusion, and the proper expression of various plasma membrane receptors. In this study, using an in vitro human breast cancer cell model, we demonstrate that myoferlin is abundantly expressed in invasive breast tumor cells. Depletion of MYOF using lentiviral-driven shRNA expression revealed that MDA-MB-231 cells reverted to an epithelial morphology, suggesting at least some features of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET. These observations were confirmed by the down-regulation of some mesenchymal cell markers (e.g., fibronectin and vimentin and coordinate up-regulation of the E-cadherin epithelial marker. Cell invasion assays using Boyden chambers showed that loss of MYOF led to a significant diminution in invasion through Matrigel or type I collagen, while cell migration was unaffected. PCR array and screening of serum-free culture supernatants from shRNA(MYOF transduced MDA-MB-231 cells indicated a significant reduction in the steady-state levels of several matrix metalloproteinases. These data when considered in toto suggest a novel role of MYOF in breast tumor cell invasion and a potential reversion to an epithelial phenotype upon loss of MYOF.

  18. Different Effects of BORIS/CTCFL on Stemness Gene Expression, Sphere Formation and Cell Survival in Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Alberti

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells are cancer cells characterized by stem cell properties and represent a small population of tumor cells that drives tumor development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance. To date, the molecular mechanisms that generate and regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. BORIS (Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites or CTCFL (CTCF-like is a DNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal tissues only in germ cells and is re-activated in tumors. Recent evidences have highlighted the correlation of BORIS/CTCFL expression with poor overall survival of different cancer patients. We have previously shown an association of BORIS-expressing cells with stemness gene expression in embryonic cancer cells. Here, we studied the role of BORIS in epithelial tumor cells. Using BORIS-molecular beacon that was already validated, we were able to show the presence of BORIS mRNA in cancer stem cell-enriched populations (side population and spheres of cervical, colon and breast tumor cells. BORIS silencing studies showed a decrease of sphere formation capacity in breast and colon tumor cells. Importantly, BORIS-silencing led to down-regulation of hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1 and cancer stem cell markers (ABCG2, CD44 and ALDH1 genes. Conversely, BORIS-induction led to up-regulation of the same genes. These phenotypes were observed in cervical, colon and invasive breast tumor cells. However, a completely different behavior was observed in the non-invasive breast tumor cells (MCF7. Indeed, these cells acquired an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype after BORIS silencing. Our results demonstrate that BORIS is associated with cancer stem cell-enriched populations of several epithelial tumor cells and the different phenotypes depend on the origin of tumor cells.

  19. ARP2, a novel pro-apoptotic protein expressed in epithelial prostate cancer LNCaP cells and epithelial ovary CHO transformed cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Mas-Oliva

    Full Text Available Neoplastic epithelial cells generate the most aggressive types of cancers such as those located in the lung, breast, colon, prostate and ovary. During advanced stages of prostate cancer, epithelial cells are associated to the appearance of androgen-independent tumors, an apoptotic-resistant phenotype that ultimately overgrows and promotes metastatic events. We have previously identified and electrophysiologically characterized a novel Ca(2+-permeable channel activated during apoptosis in the androgen-independent prostate epithelial cancer cell line, LNCaP. In addition, we reported for the first time the cloning and characterization of this channel-like molecule named apoptosis regulated protein 2 (ARP2 associated to a lethal influx of Ca(2+ in Xenopus oocytes. In the present study, LNCaP cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cell line transfected with arp2-cDNA are induced to undergo apoptosis showing an important impact on cell viability and activation of caspases 3 and 7 when compared to serum deprived grown cells and ionomycin treated cells. The subcellular localization of ARP2 in CHO cells undergoing apoptosis was studied using confocal microscopy. While apoptosis progresses, ARP2 initially localized in the peri-nuclear region of cells migrates with time towards the plasma membrane region. Based on the present results and those of our previous studies, the fact that ARP2 constitutes a novel cation channel is supported. Therefore, ARP2 becomes a valuable target to modulate the influx and concentration of calcium in the cytoplasm of epithelial cancer cells showing an apoptotic-resistant phenotype during the onset of an apoptotic event.

  20. Time-lapse Imaging of Primary Preneoplastic Mammary Epithelial Cells Derived from Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nakles, Rebecca E.; Millman, Sarah L.; Cabrera, M. Carla; Johnson, Peter; Mueller, Susette; Hoppe, Philipp S.; Schroeder, Timm; Furth, Priscilla A.

    2013-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging can be used to compare behavior of cultured primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from different genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer. For example, time between cell divisions (cell lifetimes), apoptotic cell numbers, evolution of morphological changes, and mechanism of colony formation can be quantified and compared in cells carrying specific genetic lesions. Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without...

  1. Fatty Acid Synthase Mediates the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junqin; Dong, Lihua; Wei, Dapeng; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells and MCF-7 cells overexpressing mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MCF-7-MEK5) were used in this study. MCF-7-MEK5 cells showed stable EMT characterized by increased vimentin and decreased E-cadherin expression. An In vivo animal model was established using the orthotopic injection of MCF-7 or MCF-7-MEK5 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR and...

  2. RNF8 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Jingyu; LI Li; Guo, Limei; Su, Yanrong; Wang, Yuxuan; Xu, Yongjie; Wang, Xiaozhen; Meng, Shucong; Lei, Liandi; Xu, Luzheng; Shao, Genze

    2016-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step for solid tumor progression and plays an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. RNF8 is an ubiquitin E3 ligase with RING domain, and plays essential roles in DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation. However the role of RNF8 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is still unclear. Methods The expression of RNF8 was examined in different types of breast cell lines by Western Blotting. EMT associated markers were...

  3. Suofu Qin’s work on studies of cell survival signaling in cancer and epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) encompass a variety of diverse chemical species including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, which are mainly produced via mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, enzymatic reactions, and light-initiated lipid peroxidation. Over-production of ROS and/or decrease in the antioxidant capacity cause cells to undergo oxi- dative stress that damages cellular macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and DNA. Oxidative stress is associated with ageing and the development of agerelated diseases such as cancer and age-related macular degeneration. ROS activate signaling pathways that promote cell survival or lead to cell death, depending on the source and site of ROS production, the specific ROS generated, the concentration and kinetics of ROS generation, and the cell types being challenged. However, how the nature and compartmentalization of ROS contribute to the pathogenesis of individual diseases is poorly understood. Consequently, it is crucial to gain a comprehensive understanding of the molecular bases of cell oxidative stress signaling, which will then provide novel therapeutic opportunities to interfere with disease progression via targeting specific signaling pathways.Currently, Dr. Qin’s work is focused on inflammatory and oxidative stress responses using the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as a model. The study of RPE cell inflammatory and oxidative stress responses has successfully led to a better understanding of RPE cell biology and identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  4. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and the Generation of Stem-like Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to be an important process in the acquisition of capabilities required for metastasis. Until recently, studies of EMT involved mostly in vitro assays and transplantation experiments of cancer cells that overexpressed known EMT drivers. While valuable, these studies do not allow us to conclude if an EMT sustained under “physiologic conditions” within the tumor microenvironment leads to the myriad changes in phenotype observed in vitro. H...

  5. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, JK; Phillips, JW; Smith, BA; Park, JW; Stoyanova, T; McCaffrey, EF; Baertsch, R.; Sokolov, A.; Meyerowitz, JG; Mathis, C.; Cheng, D; Stuart, JM; Shokat, KM; Gustafson, WC; Huang, J.

    2016-01-01

    MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarci...

  6. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)-Phenotypic Cells: Are They Cousins or Twins?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cells within a tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and maintain tumor-initiating capacity through differentiation into the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the whole tumor. These tumor-initiating cells could provide a resource for cells that cause tumor recurrence after therapy. Although the cell origin of CSCs remains to be fully elucidated, mounting evidence has demonstrated that Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), induced by different factors, is associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis and these cells share molecular characteristics with CSCs, and thus are often called cancer stem-like cells or tumor-initiating cells. The acquisition of an EMT phenotype is a critical process for switching early stage carcinomas into invasive malignancies, which is often associated with the loss of epithelial differentiation and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated that EMT plays a critical role not only in tumor metastasis but also in tumor recurrence and that it is tightly linked with the biology of cancer stem-like cells or cancer-initiating cells. Here we will succinctly summarize the state-of-our-knowledge regarding the molecular similarities between cancer stem-like cells or CSCs and EMT-phenotypic cells that are associated with tumor aggressiveness focusing on solid tumors

  7. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)-Phenotypic Cells: Are They Cousins or Twins?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Dejuan; Li, Yiwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Sarkar, Fazlul H., E-mail: fsarkar@med.wayne.edu [Department of Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4100 John R, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2011-02-21

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cells within a tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and maintain tumor-initiating capacity through differentiation into the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the whole tumor. These tumor-initiating cells could provide a resource for cells that cause tumor recurrence after therapy. Although the cell origin of CSCs remains to be fully elucidated, mounting evidence has demonstrated that Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), induced by different factors, is associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis and these cells share molecular characteristics with CSCs, and thus are often called cancer stem-like cells or tumor-initiating cells. The acquisition of an EMT phenotype is a critical process for switching early stage carcinomas into invasive malignancies, which is often associated with the loss of epithelial differentiation and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated that EMT plays a critical role not only in tumor metastasis but also in tumor recurrence and that it is tightly linked with the biology of cancer stem-like cells or cancer-initiating cells. Here we will succinctly summarize the state-of-our-knowledge regarding the molecular similarities between cancer stem-like cells or CSCs and EMT-phenotypic cells that are associated with tumor aggressiveness focusing on solid tumors.

  8. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT-Phenotypic Cells: Are They Cousins or Twins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlul H. Sarkar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are cells within a tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and maintain tumor-initiating capacity through differentiation into the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the whole tumor. These tumor-initiating cells could provide a resource for cells that cause tumor recurrence after therapy. Although the cell origin of CSCs remains to be fully elucidated, mounting evidence has demonstrated that Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT, induced by different factors, is associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis and these cells share molecular characteristics with CSCs, and thus are often called cancer stem-like cells or tumor-initiating cells. The acquisition of an EMT phenotype is a critical process for switching early stage carcinomas into invasive malignancies, which is often associated with the loss of epithelial differentiation and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated that EMT plays a critical role not only in tumor metastasis but also in tumor recurrence and that it is tightly linked with the biology of cancer stem-like cells or cancer-initiating cells. Here we will succinctly summarize the state-of-our-knowledge regarding the molecular similarities between cancer stem-like cells or CSCs and EMT-phenotypic cells that are associated with tumor aggressiveness focusing on solid tumors.

  9. Stem cells and cancer: Evidence for bone marrow stem cells in epithelial cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Chen Li; Calin Stoicov; Arlin B Rogers; JeanMarie Houghton

    2006-01-01

    Cancer commonly arises at the sites of chronic inflammation and infection. Although this association has long been recognized, the reason has remained unclear. Within the gastrointestinal tract, there are many examples of inflammatory conditions associated with cancer, and these include reflux disease and Barrett's adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, Helicobacter infection and gastric cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer and viral hepatitis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma.There are several mechanisms by which chronic inflammation has been postulated to lead to cancer which includes enhanced proliferation in an endless attempt to heal damage, the presence of a persistent inflammatory environment creating a pro-carcinogenic environment and more recently a role for engraftment of circulating marrow-derived stem cells which may contribute to the stromal components of the tumor as well as the tumor mass itself. Here we review the recent advances in our understanding of the contributions of circulating bone marrow-derived stem cells to the formation of tumors in animal models as well as in human beings.

  10. Plasticity of intestinal epithelial cells in regeneration and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular plasticity refers to the ability of a cell to change its fate or identity in response to external or intrinsic factors. Regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury is driven mainly by plasticity of crypt stem cells that can rapidly divide to replace all the lost cells. Stem cell

  11. Concise Review: Stem Cells and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer: Biological Implications and Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryo; Semba, Takashi; Saya, Hideyuki; Arima, Yoshimi

    2016-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small subpopulation of cancer cells with stem-like properties that are able to self-renew, generate differentiated daughter cells, and give rise to heterogeneous tumor tissue. Tumor heterogeneity is a hallmark of cancer and underlies resistance to anticancer therapies and disease progression. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible phenomenon that is mediated by EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs) and plays an important role in normal organ development, wound healing, and the invasiveness of cancer cells. Recent evidence showing that overexpression of several EMT-TFs is associated with stemness in cancer cells has suggested the existence of a link between EMT and CSCs. In this review, we focus on the roles of CSCs and EMT signaling in driving tumor heterogeneity. A better understanding of the dynamics of both CSCs and EMT-TFs in the generation of tumor heterogeneity may provide a basis for the development of new treatment options for cancer patients. Stem Cells 2016;34:1997-2007. PMID:27251010

  12. Chidamide alleviates TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Hao; Wang, Bing-Yen; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Chien, Peng-Ju; Wu, Yueh-Feng; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2016-07-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a critical process in the initiation of metastasis of various types of cancer. Chidamide is a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. This study investigated the effects of chidamide on TGF-β-mediated suppression of E-cadherin expression in adenocarcinomic lung epithelial cells and the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects. Western blot analysis, confocal microscopy, Quantitative methyl-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different treatments on chidamide ameliorating TGF-β induced-E-cadherin loss. H3 acetylation binding to the promoter of E-cadherin was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitations (CHIP). We found that chidamide reduced the level of lung cancer cell migration observed using a Boyden chamber assay (as an indicator of metastatic potential). Chidamide inhibited TGF-β-induced SMAD2 phosphorylation and attenuated TGF-β-induced loss of E-cadherin expression in lung cancer cells by Western blotting and confocal microscopy, respectively. Quantitative methyl-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing revealed that TGF-β-enhanced E-cadherin promoter methylation was ameliorated in cells treated with chidamide. We demonstrated that histone H3 deacetylation within the E-cadherin promoter was required for TGF-β-induced E-cadherin loss; cell treatment with chidamide increased the H3 acetylation detected by CHIP. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TGF-β suppressed E-cadherin expression by regulating promoter methylation and histone H3 acetylation. Chidamide significantly enhanced E-cadherin expression in TGF-β-treated cells and inhibited lung cancer cell migration. These findings indicate that chidamide has a potential therapeutic use due to its capacity to prevent cancer cell metastasis.

  13. Triclosan potentiates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in anoikis-resistant human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winitthana, Thidarat; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of cancer cell toward mesenchymal phenotype has been shown to potentiate tumor aggressiveness by increasing cancer cell metastasis. Herein, we report the effect of triclosan, a widely used antibacterial agent found in many daily products, in enhancing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in aggressive anoikis resistant human H460 lung cancer cells. EMT has been long known to increase abilities of the cells to increase migration, invasion, and survival in circulating system. The present study reveals that treatment of the cancer cells with triclosan at the physiologically related concentrations significantly increased the colony number of the cancer cells assessed by tumor formation assay. Also, the mesenchymal-like morphology and decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion were observed in triclosan-treated cells. Importantly, western blot analysis revealed that triclosan-treated cells exhibited decreased E-cadherin, while the levels of EMT markers, namely N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and slug were found to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, EMT induced by triclosan treatment was accompanied by the activation of focal adhesion kinase/ATP dependent tyrosine kinase (FAK/Akt) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which enhanced the ability of the cells to migrate and invade. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that triclosan may potentiate cancer cells survival in detached condition and motility via the process of EMT. As mentioned capabilities are required for success in metastasis, the present study provides the novel toxicological information and encourages the awareness of triclosan use in cancer patients. PMID:25329306

  14. Triclosan potentiates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in anoikis-resistant human lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thidarat Winitthana

    Full Text Available Alteration of cancer cell toward mesenchymal phenotype has been shown to potentiate tumor aggressiveness by increasing cancer cell metastasis. Herein, we report the effect of triclosan, a widely used antibacterial agent found in many daily products, in enhancing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in aggressive anoikis resistant human H460 lung cancer cells. EMT has been long known to increase abilities of the cells to increase migration, invasion, and survival in circulating system. The present study reveals that treatment of the cancer cells with triclosan at the physiologically related concentrations significantly increased the colony number of the cancer cells assessed by tumor formation assay. Also, the mesenchymal-like morphology and decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion were observed in triclosan-treated cells. Importantly, western blot analysis revealed that triclosan-treated cells exhibited decreased E-cadherin, while the levels of EMT markers, namely N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and slug were found to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, EMT induced by triclosan treatment was accompanied by the activation of focal adhesion kinase/ATP dependent tyrosine kinase (FAK/Akt and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1, which enhanced the ability of the cells to migrate and invade. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that triclosan may potentiate cancer cells survival in detached condition and motility via the process of EMT. As mentioned capabilities are required for success in metastasis, the present study provides the novel toxicological information and encourages the awareness of triclosan use in cancer patients.

  15. Ultrashort cationic lipopeptides and lipopeptoids: Evaluation and mechanistic insights against epithelial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domalaon, Ronald; Findlay, Brandon; Ogunsina, Makanjuola; Arthur, Gilbert; Schweizer, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Peptides present an attractive scaffold for the development of new anticancer lead agents due to their accessibility and ease of modification. Synthetic ultrashort cationic lipopeptides, with four amino acids or less conjugated to a fatty acid, were developed to retain the biological activity of longer peptides in a smaller molecular size. Herein, we report the activity of amphiphilic lipotripeptides, lipotripeptoids and lipotetrapeptides against breast (MDA-MB-231, JIMT-1), prostate (DU145) and pancreas (MiaPaCa2) epithelial cancer cell lines. The lipotripeptide C16-KKK-NH2 and lipotetrapeptide C16-PCatPHexPHexPCat-NH2 were identified to possess anticancer activity. The latter lipotetrapeptide possess a short polyproline scaffold consisting of only two L-4R-aminoproline (PCat) and two L-4R-hexyloxyproline (PHex). However, all the prepared lipotripeptoids lack anticancer activity. The amphiphilic C16-PCatPHexPHexPCat-NH2 exhibited similar anticancer potency to the surfactant benzethonium chloride while superior activity was observed in comparison to myristylamine. Mechanistic studies revealed that the peptides do not lyse ovine erythrocytes nor epithelial cancer cells, thus ruling out necrosis as the mechanism of cell death. Surprisingly, the two lipopeptides exhibit different mechanisms of action that result in cancer cell death. The lipotripeptide C16-KKK-NH2 was found to induce caspase-mediated apoptosis while C16-PCatPHexPHexPCat-NH2 kills tumor cells independent of caspases. PMID:27486068

  16. IKK inhibitor suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and induces cell death in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Hao; Yang, Feiya; Wang, Mingshuai; Niu, Yinong; Xing, Nianzeng

    2016-09-01

    IκB kinase (IKK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway activation is a key event in the acquisition of invasive and metastatic capacities in prostate cancer. A potent small-molecule compound, BMS-345541, was identified as a highly selective IKKα and IKKβ inhibitor to inhibit kinase activity. This study explored the effect of IKK inhibitor on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), apoptosis and metastasis in prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate the role of IKK inhibitor reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Furthermore, BMS345541 inhibited IκBα phosphorylation and nuclear level of NF-κB/p65 in PC-3 cells. We also observed downregulation of the N-cadherin, Snail, Slug and Twist protein in a dose-dependent manner. BMS‑345541 induced upregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and phosphorylated NDRG1 at protein level. Moreover, BMS‑345541 reduced invasion and metastasis of PC-3 cells in vitro. In conclusion, IKK has a key role in both EMT and apoptosis of prostate cancer. IKK inhibitor can reverse EMT and induce cell death in PCa cells. IKK was identified as a potential target structure for future therapeutic intervention in PCa. PMID:27432067

  17. Mammary epithelial cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kass, Laura; Erler, Janine Terra; Dembo, Micah;

    2007-01-01

    a repertoire of transmembrane receptors, of which integrins are the best characterized. Integrins modulate cell fate by reciprocally transducing biochemical and biophysical cues between the cell and the extracellular matrix, facilitating processes such as embryonic branching morphogenesis and lactation...... in the mammary gland. During breast development and cancer progression, the extracellular matrix is dynamically altered such that its composition, turnover, processing and orientation change dramatically. These modifications influence mammary epithelial cell shape, and modulate growth factor and hormonal...... responses to regulate processes including branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation. Malignant transformation of the breast is also associated with significant matrix remodeling and a progressive stiffening of the stroma that can enhance mammary epithelial cell growth, perturb breast tissue...

  18. Tracking and Functional Characterization of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Mesenchymal Tumor Cells during Prostate Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscetti, Marcus; Quach, Bill; Dadashian, Eman L; Mulholland, David J; Wu, Hong

    2015-07-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been postulated as a mechanism by which cancer cells acquire the invasive and stem-like traits necessary for distant metastasis. However, direct in vivo evidence for the role of EMT in the formation of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) and the metastatic cascade remains lacking. Here we report the first isolation and characterization of mesenchymal-like and EMT tumor cells, which harbor both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, in an autochthonous murine model of prostate cancer. By crossing the established Pb-Cre(+/-);Pten(L/L);Kras(G12D) (/+) prostate cancer model with a vimentin-GFP reporter strain, generating CPKV mice, we were able to isolate epithelial, EMT, and mesenchymal-like cancer cells based on expression of vimentin and EpCAM. CPKV mice (but not mice with Pten deletion alone) exhibited expansion of cells with EMT (EpCAM(+)/Vim-GFP(+)) and mesenchymal-like (EpCAM(-)/Vim-GFP(+)) characteristics at the primary tumor site and in circulation. These EMT and mesenchymal-like tumor cells displayed enhanced stemness and invasive character compared with epithelial tumor cells. Moreover, they displayed an enriched tumor-initiating capacity and could regenerate epithelial glandular structures in vivo, indicative of epithelia-mesenchyme plasticity. Interestingly, while mesenchymal-like tumor cells could persist in circulation and survive in the lung following intravenous injection, only epithelial and EMT tumor cells could form macrometastases. Our work extends the evidence that mesenchymal and epithelial states in cancer cells contribute differentially to their capacities for tumor initiation and metastatic seeding, respectively, and that EMT tumor cells exist with plasticity that can contribute to multiple stages of the metastatic cascade. PMID:25948589

  19. Hedgehog pathway is involved in nitidine chloride induced inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells-like properties in breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mingjuan; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Yaming; Qi, Wenwen; Zhang, Hanwen; Li, Zengjun; Yang, Qifeng

    2016-01-01

    Background The complications of clinical metastatic disease are responsible for the majority of breast cancer related deaths, and fewer therapies substantially prolong survival. Nitidine chloride (NC), a natural polyphenolic compound, has been shown to exhibit potent anticancer effects in many cancer types, including breast cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the acquisition of cancer stem cells (CSCs)-like properties emerge as critical steps in the metastasis of human can...

  20. Cancer Risk-Assessment of Radiation Damage in Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Breast Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Lisa C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the markers of cellular changes that are found during the onset of carcinogenesis. Several of the biological factors are markers of stress response, oncoprotein expression, and differentiation factors. Oxidative stress response agents such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from oxidative stresses such as ionizing radiation. The onocoprotein HER-2/neu, a specific breast cancer marker, indicates early onset of cancer. Additional structural and morphogenetic markers of differentiation were considered in order to determine initial cellular changes at the initial onset of cancer. As an additional consideration, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), a differentiation agent, was considered because of its known role in regulating normal differentiation and inhibiting tumor proliferation via specific nuclear receptors. This paper discusses study and results of the preliminary analyses of gamma irradiation of AT heterozygous human breast epithelial cells (WH). Comparisons are also made of the effects various RA concentrations post-irradiation.

  1. Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Co-Express Neuronal, Epithelial, and Melanocytic Differentiation Markers In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Qingbei Zhang; Hanli Fan; Jikun Shen; Hoffman, Robert M.; H Rosie Xing

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation programs are aberrant in cancer cells allowing them to express differentiation markers in addition to their tissue of origin. In the present study, we demonstrate the multi-lineage differentiation potential of breast cancer cell lines to express multiple neuronal/glial lineage-specific markers as well as mammary epithelial and melanocytic-specific markers. Multilineage expression was detected in luminal (MCF-7 and SKBR3) and basal (MDA-MB-231) types of human breast cancer cell...

  2. Association between cancer stem cell-like properties and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in primary and secondary cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wonbong; Kim, Hye-Eun; Kim, Young; Na, Risu; Li, Xiaojie; Jeon, Sangmi; Choi, Hongran; Kim, Okjoon

    2016-09-01

    One of the theories on cancer stem cells (CSCs) states that these cells initiate most tumors and give rise to more-or-less differentiated tumor cells. Genetic signatures of CSCs are thought to predict tumor recurrence and metastases, thus, supporting the notion that CSCs may be metastatic precursors and induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we tried to examine the association between CSCs and EMT (using specific markers) in the mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line YD15 and its derivative cell line YD15M (lymph node metastasis). Relative protein expression levels were analyzed by western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, cell cycle assay and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity assay were carried out. Under growth conditions, YD15M cells formed irregular spherical colonies consistent with a stem cell phenotype. YD15M cells demonstrated the low expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin but high expression of vimentin than that in YD15 cells. In the metastatic cells (YD15M), the coexpression of vimentin and CD133 was detected. Weak proliferation based on cell cycle analysis and decreased PCNA expression was also observed. In addition, expression levels of ALDHA1, OCT4, and NANOG (CSC-like properties) were significantly increased in YD15M cells. Taken together, these findings should help to elucidate the interplay between EMT and CSC-like properties during metastasis and may provide useful information for the development of a novel classification system and therapeutic strategies against head and neck cancer. PMID:27315437

  3. Actin cytoskeleton regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition in metastatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Shankar

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is associated with loss of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin and disruption of cell-cell junctions as well as with acquisition of migratory properties including reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and activation of the RhoA GTPase. Here we show that depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton of various metastatic cancer cell lines with Cytochalasin D (Cyt D reduces cell size and F-actin levels and induces E-cadherin expression at both the protein and mRNA level. Induction of E-cadherin was dose dependent and paralleled loss of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. E-cadherin levels increased 2 hours after addition of Cyt D in cells showing an E-cadherin mRNA response but only after 10-12 hours in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma and MDA-MB-231 cells in which E-cadherin mRNA level were only minimally affected by Cyt D. Cyt D treatment induced the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of EMT-associated SNAI 1 and SMAD1/2/3 transcription factors. In non-metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells, that express E-cadherin and represent a cancer cell model for EMT, actin depolymerization with Cyt D induced elevated E-cadherin while actin stabilization with Jasplakinolide reduced E-cadherin levels. Elevated E-cadherin levels due to Cyt D were associated with reduced activation of Rho A. Expression of dominant-negative Rho A mutant increased and dominant-active Rho A mutant decreased E-cadherin levels and also prevented Cyt D induction of E-cadherin. Reduced Rho A activation downstream of actin remodelling therefore induces E-cadherin and reverses EMT in cancer cells. Cyt D treatment inhibited migration and, at higher concentrations, induced cytotoxicity of both HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells and normal Hs27 fibroblasts, but only induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HT-1080 cancer cells. Our studies suggest that actin remodelling is an upstream regulator of EMT in metastatic cancer cells.

  4. Genotypes of cancer stem cells characterized by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and proliferation related functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chueh-Lin; Chung, Feng-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Tzu-Ting; Liu, Szu-Mam; Chung, Dao-Sheng; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Chen, Chien-Lung; Ma, Nianhan; Lee, Hoong-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), or cancer cells with stem cell-like properties, generally exhibit drug resistance and have highly potent cancer inducing capabilities. Genome-wide expression data collected at public repositories over the last few years provide excellent material for studies that can lead to insights concerning the molecular and functional characteristics of CSCs. Here, we conducted functional genomic studies of CSC based on fourteen PCA-screened high quality public CSC whole genome gene expression datasets and, as control, four high quality non-stem-like cancer cell and non-cancerous stem cell datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 6,002 molecular signatures were taken from the Molecular Signatures Database and used to characterize the datasets, which, under two-way hierarchical clustering, formed three genotypes. Type 1, consisting of mainly glia CSCs, had significantly enhanced proliferation, and significantly suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), related functions. Type 2, mainly breast CSCs, had significantly enhanced EMT, but not proliferation, related functions. Type 3, composed of ovarian, prostate, and colon CSCs, had significantly suppressed proliferation related functions and mixed expressions on EMT related functions. PMID:27597445

  5. Analysis of gene expression in prostate cancer epithelial and interstitial stromal cells using laser capture microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mintz Eric M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate gland represents a multifaceted system in which prostate epithelia and stroma have distinct physiological roles. To understand the interaction between stroma and glandular epithelia, it is essential to delineate the gene expression profiles of these two tissue types in prostate cancer. Most studies have compared tumor and normal samples by performing global expression analysis using a mixture of cell populations. This report presents the first study of prostate tumor tissue that examines patterns of differential expression between specific cell types using laser capture microdissection (LCM. Methods LCM was used to isolate distinct cell-type populations and identify their gene expression differences using oligonucleotide microarrays. Ten differentially expressed genes were then analyzed in paired tumor and non-neoplastic prostate tissues by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression patterns of the transcription factors, WT1 and EGR1, were further compared in established prostate cell lines. WT1 protein expression was also examined in prostate tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry. Results The two-step method of laser capture and microarray analysis identified nearly 500 genes whose expression levels were significantly different in prostate epithelial versus stromal tissues. Several genes expressed in epithelial cells (WT1, GATA2, and FGFR-3 were more highly expressed in neoplastic than in non-neoplastic tissues; conversely several genes expressed in stromal cells (CCL5, CXCL13, IGF-1, FGF-2, and IGFBP3 were more highly expressed in non-neoplastic than in neoplastic tissues. Notably, EGR1 was also differentially expressed between epithelial and stromal tissues. Expression of WT1 and EGR1 in cell lines was consistent with these patterns of differential expression. Importantly, WT1 protein expression was demonstrated in tumor tissues and was absent in normal and benign tissues. Conclusions The prostate

  6. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John K; Phillips, John W; Smith, Bryan A; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M; Shokat, Kevan M; Gustafson, W Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-04-11

    MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance, and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27050099

  7. Zinc induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer H460 cells via superoxide anion-dependent mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ninsontia, Chuanpit; Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2016-01-01

    Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to be a crucial enhancing mechanism in the process of cancer metastasis, as it increases cancer cell capabilities to migrate, invade and survive in circulating systems. This study aimed to investigate the effect of essential element zinc on EMT characteristics in lung cancer cells. Methods The effect of zinc on EMT was evaluated by determining the EMT behaviors using migration, invasion and colony formation assay. EMT marker...

  8. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  9. Sweet and Sour: The Impact of Differential Glycosylation in Cancer Cells Undergoing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo eFreire-de-Lima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation changes are a feature of disease states. One clear example is cancer cells, which commonly express glycans at atypical levels or with different structural attributes than those found in normal cells. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT was initially recognized as an important step for morphogenesis during embryonic development, and is now shown to be one of the key steps promoting tumor metastasis. Cancer cells undergoing EMT are characterized by significant changes in glycosylation of the extracellular matrix (ECM components and cell surface glycoconjugates. Current scientific methodology enables all hallmarks of EMT to be monitored in vitro and this experimental model has been extensively used in oncology research during the last ten years. Several studies have shown that cell-surface carbohydrates attached to proteins through the amino acids, serine, or threonine (O-glycans, are involved in tumor progression and metastasis, however, the impact of O-glycans on EMT is poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, a known EMT inducer, has the ability to promote the up-regulation of a site-specific O-glycosylation in the IIICS domain of human oncofetal fibronectin (onfFN, a major ECM component expressed by cancer cells and embryonic tissues. Armed with the knowledge that cell surface glycoconjugates play a major role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis and that EMT is closely associated with glycosylation changes, we may benefit from understanding how unusual glycans can govern the molecular pathways associated with cancer progression. This review initially focuses on some well-known changes found in O-glycans expressed by cancer cells, and then discusses how these alterations may modulate the EMT process.

  10. Notch and TGFβ form a positive regulatory loop and regulate EMT in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiesi; Jain, Saket; Azad, Abul K; Xu, Xia; Yu, Hai Chuan; Xu, Zhihua; Godbout, Roseline; Fu, YangXin

    2016-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the mechanisms that regulate EMT in EOC are not fully understood. Here, we report that activation of Notch1 induces EMT in EOC cells as evidenced by downregulation of E-cadherin and cytokeratins, upregulation of Slug and Snail, as well as morphological changes. Interestingly, activation of Notch1 increases TGFβ/Smad signaling by upregulating the expression of TGFβ and TGFβ type 1 receptor. Time course experiments demonstrate that inhibition of Notch by DAPT (a γ-secretase inhibitor) decreases TGFβ-induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads at late, but not at early, timepoints. These results suggest that Notch activation plays a role in sustaining TGFβ/Smad signaling in EOC cells. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch by DAPT decreases TGFβ induction of Slug and repression of E-cadherin and knockdown of Notch1 decreases TGFβ-induced repression of E-cadherin, indicating that Notch is required, at least in part, for TGFβ-induced EMT in EOC cells. On the other hand, TGFβ treatment increases the expression of Notch ligand Jagged1 and Notch target gene HES1 in EOC cells. Functionally, the combination of Notch1 activation and TGFβ treatment is more potent in promoting motility and migration of EOC cells than either stimulation alone. Taken together, our results indicate that Notch and TGFβ form a reciprocal positive regulatory loop and cooperatively regulate EMT and promote EOC cell motility and migration. PMID:27075926

  11. Hybrid cells derived from breast epithelial cell/breast cancer cell fusion events show a differential RAF-AKT crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özel Cem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to several characteristics of tumour progression, including an enhanced metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance of hybrid cells. We demonstrated recently that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics spontaneously fused with MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, thereby giving rise to stable M13MDA435 hybrid cells, which are characterised by a unique gene expression profile and migratory behaviour. Here we investigated the involvement of the PLC-β/γ1, PI3K/AKT and RAS-RAF-ERK signal transduction cascades in the EGF and SDF-1α induced migration of two M13MDA435 hybrid cell clones in comparison to their parental cells. Results Analysis of the migratory behaviour by using the three-dimensional collagen matrix migration assay showed that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells as well as M13MDA435 hybrid cells, but not the breast cancer cell line, responded to EGF stimulation with an increased locomotory activity. By contrast, SDF-1α solely stimulated the migration of M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells, whereas the migratory activity of the other cell lines was blocked. Analysis of signal transduction cascades revealed a putative differential RAF-AKT crosstalk in M13MDA435-1 and -3 hybrid cell clones. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 effectively blocked the EGF induced migration of M13MDA435-3 hybrid cells, whereas the EGF induced locomotion of M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells was markedly increased. Analysis of RAF-1 S259 phosphorylation, being a major mediator of the negative regulation of RAF-1 by AKT, showed decreased pRAF-1 S259 levels in LY294002 treated M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells. By contrast, pRAF-1 S259 levels remained unaltered in the other cell lines. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT signalling by Ly294002 relieves the AKT mediated phosphorylation of RAF-1, thereby restoring MAPK signalling. Conclusions Here we show that hybrid cells could evolve exhibiting a

  12. Inflammation Mediated Metastasis: Immune Induced Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan N Cohen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is the most insidious form of locally advanced breast cancer; about a third of patients have distant metastasis at initial staging. Emerging evidence suggests that host factors in the tumor microenvironment may interact with underlying IBC cells to make them aggressive. It is unknown whether immune cells associated to the IBC microenvironment play a role in this scenario to transiently promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in these cells. We hypothesized that soluble factors secreted by activated immune cells can induce an EMT in IBC and thus promote metastasis. In a pilot study of 16 breast cancer patients, TNF-α production by peripheral blood T cells was correlated with the detection of circulating tumor cells expressing EMT markers. In a variety of IBC model cell lines, soluble factors from activated T cells induced expression of EMT-related genes, including FN1, VIM, TGM2, ZEB1. Interestingly, although IBC cells exhibited increased invasion and migration following exposure to immune factors, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH1, a cell adhesion molecule, increased uniquely in IBC cell lines but not in non-IBC cell lines. A combination of TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β was able to recapitulate EMT induction in IBC, and conditioned media preloaded with neutralizing antibodies against these factors exhibited decreased EMT. These data suggest that release of cytokines by activated immune cells may contribute to the aggressiveness of IBC and highlight these factors as potential target mediators of immune-IBC interaction.

  13. Activation of apoptosis in NAF-1-deficient human epithelial breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Sarah H.; Darash-Yahana, Merav; Sohn, Yang Sung; Song, Luhua; Karmi, Ola; Tamir, Sagi; Michaeli, Dorit; Luo, Yuting; Paddock, Mark L.; Jennings, Patricia A.; Onuchic, José N.; Azad, Rajeev K.; Pikarsky, Eli; Cabantchik, Ioav Z.; Nechushtai, Rachel; Mittler, Ron

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maintaining iron (Fe) ion and reactive oxygen species homeostasis is essential for cellular function, mitochondrial integrity and the regulation of cell death pathways, and is recognized as a key process underlying the molecular basis of aging and various diseases, such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor 1 (NAF-1; also known as CISD2) belongs to a newly discovered class of Fe-sulfur proteins that are localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. It has been implicated in regulating homeostasis of Fe ions, as well as the activation of autophagy through interaction with BCL-2. Here we show that small hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated suppression of NAF-1 results in the activation of apoptosis in epithelial breast cancer cells and xenograft tumors. Suppression of NAF-1 resulted in increased uptake of Fe ions into cells, a metabolic shift that rendered cells more susceptible to a glycolysis inhibitor, and the activation of cellular stress pathways that are associated with HIF1α. Our studies suggest that NAF-1 is a major player in the metabolic regulation of breast cancer cells through its effects on cellular Fe ion distribution, mitochondrial metabolism and the induction of apoptosis. PMID:26621032

  14. A Human Espophageal Epithelial Cell Model for Study of Radiation Induced Cancer and DNA Damage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    For cancer risk assessment in astronauts and for countermeasure development, it is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis and how these mechanisms are influenced by exposure to the types of radiation found in space. We are developing an in vitro model system for the study of radiation-induced initiation and progression of esophageal carcinoma, a type of cancer found to have a significant enhancement in incidence in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. Here we present the results of our preliminary characterization of both normal and hTERT immortalized esophageal epithelial cells grown in 2-dimensional culture. We analyzed DNA repair capacity by measuring the kinetics of formation and loss of - H2AX foci following radiation exposure. Additionally, we analyzed induction of chromosomal aberrations using 3-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Data were generated using both low LET (gamma rays) and high LET ions (1000 MeV/nucleon iron).

  15. Epithelial mesenchymal transition of non-small-cell lung cancer cells A549 induced by SPHK1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ni; Xiao-Lei Shi; Zhi-Gang Qu; Hong Jiang; Zi-Qian Chen; Jun Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect and molecular mechanism ofSPHK1 in the invasion and metastasis process of non-small-cell lung cancer cells(A549).Methods:Recombinant retrovirus was used to mediate the production ofA549/vector,A549/SPHK1,A549/scramble, andA549/SPHK1/RNAi that stably expressed or silencedSPHK1.The invasion and migration capacities of A549 cells overexpressing or silencingSPHK1 were determined usingTranswell invasion assay and scratch wound repair experiment.The protein and mRNA expression levels ofE-cadherin, fibronectin, vimentin inA549/vector,A549/SPHK1,A549/scramble,A549/SPHK1/RNAi were detected withWestern blot(WB) and quantitativePCR(QPCR) methods, respectively.Results:Transwell invasion assay and scratch wound repair experiments showed that over-expression of SPHK1 obviously enhanced the invasion and migration capacities ofA549 cells.WB andQPCR detection results showed that, the expression ofE-cadherin(a molecular marker of epithelial cells) and fibronectin, vimentin(molecular markers of mesenchymal cells) inA549 cells was upregulated after overexpression ofSPHK1; whileSPHK1 silencing significantly reduced the invasion and metastasis capacities ofA549cells, upregulated the expression of molecular marker of epithelial cells, and downregulated the expression of molecular marker of mesenchymal cells. Conclusions:SPHK1 promotes epithelial mesenchymal transition of non-small-cell lung cancer cells and affects the invasion and metastasis capacities of these cells.

  16. Targeting the ROR1 and ROR2 receptors in epithelial ovarian cancer inhibits cell migration and invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Claire; Llamosas, Estelle; Knipprath-Mészáros, Alexandra; Schoetzau, Andreas; Obermann, Ellen; Fuenfschilling, Maya; Caduff, Rosemarie; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville; Ward, Robyn; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola; Ford, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    AIM In recent years, the Wnt signalling pathway has been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer and its members have potential as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets. Here we investigated the role of two Wnt receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), ROR1 and ROR2, and their putative ligand, Wnt5a, in ovarian cancer. METHODS Immunohistochemistry for ROR2 was performed in a large patient cohort, including benign controls, borderline tumours and epithelial ovarian cancer. In addition, siRNA was used to silence ROR1, ROR2 and Wnt5a individually, and together, in two ovarian cancer cell lines, and the effects on cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion were measured. RESULTS ROR2 expression is significantly increased in ovarian cancer patients compared to patients with benign disease. In vitro assays showed that silencing either receptor inhibits ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion, and concurrently silencing both receptors has an even stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration and invasion. CONCLUSIONS ROR2 expression is increased in epithelial ovarian cancer, and silencing ROR2 and its sister receptor ROR1 has a strong inhibitory effect on the ability of ovarian cancer cells to proliferate, migrate and invade through an extracellular matrix. PMID:26515598

  17. Substrate stiffness modulates lung cancer cell migration but not epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, V C; Higuita-Castro, N; Nana-Sinkam, P; Ghadiali, S N

    2016-05-01

    Biomechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment, including matrix/substrate stiffness, play a significant role in tumor evolution and metastasis. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a fundamental biological process that is associated with increased cancer cell migration and invasion. The goal of this study was to investigate (1) how substrate stiffness modulates the migration behaviors of lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) and (2) if stiffness-induced changes in cell migration correlate with biochemical markers of EMT. Collagen-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates and an Ibidi migration assay were used to investigate how substrate stiffness alters the migration patterns of A549 cells. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to investigate how substrate stiffness alters biochemical markers of EMT, that is, E-cadherin and N-cadherin, and the phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins. Increases in substrate stiffness led to slower, more directional migration but did not alter the biochemical markers of EMT. Interestingly, growth factor (i.e., Transforming Growth Factor-β) stimulation resulted in similar levels of EMT regardless of substrate stiffness. We also observed decreased levels of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin on stiffer substrates which correlated with slower cell migration. These results indicate that substrate stiffness modulates lung cancer cell migration via focal adhesion signaling as opposed to EMT signaling. PMID:26779779

  18. Curcumin inhibits invasive capabilities through epithelial mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Marcela; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is an antioxidant that exerts antiproliferative and apoptotic effects and has anti-invasive and anti-metastatic properties. Evidence strongly implicates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in malignant progression affecting genes such as Slug, AXL and Twist1. These genes are abnormally expressed in many tumors and favor metastasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential effect of curcumin on EMT, migration and invasion. Triple-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER/neu were used: i) MCF-10F, a normal immortalized breast epithelial cell line (negative), ii) Tumor2, a malignant and tumorigenic cell line (positive) derived from Alpha5 cell line injected into the immunologically depressed mice and transformed by 60/60 cGy doses of high LET (linear energy transfer) α particles (150 keV/µm) of radiation and estrogen, and iii) a commercially available MDA-MB‑231 (negative). The effect of curcumin (30 µM for 48 h) was evaluated on expression of EMT-related genes by RT-qPCR. Results showed that curcumin decreased E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Slug, AXL, Twist1, Vimentin and Fibronectin protein expression, independently of the positivity of the markers in the cell lines. Curcumin also decreased migration and invasive capabilities in comparison to their own controls. It can be concluded that curcumin influenced biochemical changes associated with EMT-related genes that seems to promote such transition and are at the core of several signaling pathways that mediate the transition. Thus, it can be suggested that curcumin is able to prevent or delay cancer progression through the interruption of this process.

  19. Melatonin modulation of crosstalk among malignant epithelial, endothelial and adipose cells in breast cancer (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cos, Samuel; Alvarez-García, Virginia; González, Alicia; Alonso-González, Carolina; Martínez-Campa, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Melatonin, the main secretory product of the pineal gland, is an oncostatic agent that reduces the growth and development of various types of tumors, particularly mammary tumors whose growth is dependent on estrogens. Previous in vivo and in vitro studies point to the hypothesis that melatonin interplays with estrogen signaling pathways at three different levels: i) an indirect mechanism, by interfering with the hypothalamic-pituitary-reproductive axis in such way that the level of plasma estrogens synthesized by the gonadal glands are downregulated; ii) a direct mechanism of the pineal gland at the cell cancer level, disrupting the activation of estradiol receptors, therefore behaving as a selective estrogen receptor modulator; and iii) by regulating the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of estrogens in other tissues, thus behaving as a selective estrogen enzyme modulator. The intratumoral metabolism and synthesis of estrogens, as a result of the interactions of various enzymes, is more important than blood uptake to maintain mammary gland estrogen levels in menopausal females. Additionally, estrogens are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of hormone-dependent breast carcinoma. Paracrine interactions among malignant epithelial cells and proximal adipose and endothelial cells, through cytokines and growth factors produced by breast tumor cells, modulate estrogen production at the mammary tumor level and, as a consequence, the genesis and development of mammary tumors. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent findings describing the mechanisms by which melatonin is able to modulate the crosstalk among malignant epithelial, endothelial and adipose cells in breast cancer. PMID:25009641

  20. Curcumin inhibits invasive capabilities through epithelial mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Marcela; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is an antioxidant that exerts antiproliferative and apoptotic effects and has anti-invasive and anti-metastatic properties. Evidence strongly implicates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in malignant progression affecting genes such as Slug, AXL and Twist1. These genes are abnormally expressed in many tumors and favor metastasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential effect of curcumin on EMT, migration and invasion. Triple-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER/neu were used: i) MCF-10F, a normal immortalized breast epithelial cell line (negative), ii) Tumor2, a malignant and tumorigenic cell line (positive) derived from Alpha5 cell line injected into the immunologically depressed mice and transformed by 60/60 cGy doses of high LET (linear energy transfer) α particles (150 keV/µm) of radiation and estrogen, and iii) a commercially available MDA-MB‑231 (negative). The effect of curcumin (30 µM for 48 h) was evaluated on expression of EMT-related genes by RT-qPCR. Results showed that curcumin decreased E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Slug, AXL, Twist1, Vimentin and Fibronectin protein expression, independently of the positivity of the markers in the cell lines. Curcumin also decreased migration and invasive capabilities in comparison to their own controls. It can be concluded that curcumin influenced biochemical changes associated with EMT-related genes that seems to promote such transition and are at the core of several signaling pathways that mediate the transition. Thus, it can be suggested that curcumin is able to prevent or delay cancer progression through the interruption of this process. PMID:27573203

  1. Sclerotium rolfsii Lectin Induces Stronger Inhibition of Proliferation in Human Breast Cancer Cells than Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells by Induction of Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanur, Mohammed Azharuddin; Eligar, Sachin M.; Pujari, Radha; Chen, Chen; Mahajan, Pravin; Borges, Anita; Shastry, Padma; Ingle, Arvind.; Kalraiya, Rajiv D.; Swamy, Bale M.; Rhodes, Jonathan M.; Yu, Lu-Gang; Inamdar, Shashikala R.

    2014-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii has exquisite binding specificity towards O-linked, Thomsen-Freidenreich (Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr, TF) associated glycans. This study investigated the influence of SRL on proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and ZR-75), non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and normal mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). SRL caused marked, dose-dependent, inhibition of proliferation of MCF-7 and ZR-75 cells but only weak inhibition of proliferation of non-tumorigenic MCF-10A and HMEC cells. The inhibitory effect of SRL on cancer cell proliferation was shown to be a consequence of SRL cell surface binding and subsequent induction of cellular apoptosis, an effect that was largely prevented by the presence of inhibitors against caspases -3, -8, or -9. Lectin histochemistry using biotin-labelled SRL showed little binding of SRL to normal human breast tissue but intense binding to cancerous tissues. In conclusion, SRL inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells via induction of cell apoptosis but has substantially less effect on normal epithelial cells. As a lectin that binds specifically to a cancer-associated glycan, has potential to be developed as an anti-cancer agent. PMID:25364905

  2. USP22 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the FAK pathway in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhen; Wang, Aman; Liang, Jinxiao; Xie, Yunpeng; Liu, Jiwei; Yan, Qiu; Wang, Zhongyu

    2014-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the occurrence and development of tumors, particularly to the promotion of tumor invasion and metastasis. As a newly discovered ubiquitin hydrolase family member, USP22 plays a key role in the malignant transformation of tumors and the regulation of the cell cycle. However, recent studies on USP22 have primarily focused on its role in cell cycle regulation, and the potential mechanism underlying the promotion of tumor invasion and metastasis by abnormal USP22 expression has not been reported. Our studies revealed that the overexpression of USP22 in PANC-1 cells promoted Ezrin redistribution and phosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling, upregulated expression of the transcription factors Snail and ZEB1 to promote EMT, and increased cellular invasion and migration. In contrast, blockade of USP22 expression resulted in the opposite effects. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway was shown to play a key role in the process of EMT induction in PANC-1 cells by USP22. Thus, the present study suggests that USP22 acts as a regulatory protein for EMT in pancreatic cancer, which may provide a new approach for the targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25070659

  3. Clinical implications of circulating tumor cells of breast cancer patients: role of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Maria McInnes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in circulating tumor cells (CTCs due to their purported role in breast cancer metastasis, and their potential as a ‘liquid biopsy’ tool in breast cancer diagnosis and management. There are, however, questions with regards to the reliability and consistency of CTC detection and to the relationship between CTCs and prognosis, which is limiting their clinical utility. There is increasing acceptance that the ability of CTCs to alter from an epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype plays an important role in determining the metastatic potential of these cells. This review examines the phenotypic and genetic variation, which has been reported within CTC populations. Importantly, we discuss how the detection and characterization of CTCs provides additional and often differing information from that obtained from the primary tumor, and how this may be utilized in determining prognosis and treatment options. It has been shown for example that hormone receptor status often differs between the primary tumor and CTCs, which may help to explain failure of endocrine treatment. We examine how CTC status may introduce alternative treatment options and also how they may be used to monitor treatment. Finally, we discuss the most interesting current clinical trials involving CTC analysis and note further research that is required before the breast cancer liquid biopsy can be realised.

  4. Spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cells exhibit a distinct gene expression pattern from the breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qianqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous immortalisation of cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs is an extremely rare event, and the molecular mechanism behind spontaneous immortalisation of MECs is unclear. Here, we report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME65Cs and the changes in gene expression associated with BME65Cs cells. Results BME65Cs cells maintain the general characteristics of normal mammary epithelial cells in morphology, karyotype and immunohistochemistry, and are accompanied by the activation of endogenous bTERT (bovine Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase and stabilisation of the telomere. Currently, BME65Cs cells have been passed for more than 220 generations, and these cells exhibit non-malignant transformation. The expression of multiple genes was investigated in BME65Cs cells, senescent BMECs (bovine MECs cells, early passage BMECs cells and MCF-7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line. In comparison with early passage BMECs cells, the expression of senescence-relevant apoptosis-related gene were significantly changed in BME65Cs cells. P16INK4a was downregulated, p53 was low expressed and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was reversed. Moreover, a slight upregulation of the oncogene c-Myc, along with an undetectable level of breast tumor-related gene Bag-1 and TRPS-1, was observed in BME65Cs cells while these genes are all highly expressed in MCF-7. In addition, DNMT1 is upregulated in BME65Cs. These results suggest that the inhibition of both senescence and mitochondrial apoptosis signalling pathways contribute to the immortality of BME65Cs cells. The expression of p53 and p16INK4a in BME65Cs was altered in the pattern of down-regulation but not "loss", suggesting that this spontaneous immortalization is possibly initiated by other mechanism rather than gene mutation of p53 or p16INK4a. Conclusions Spontaneously immortalised BME65Cs cells maintain many characteristics of normal BMEC cells and

  5. Characteristic gene expression profiles in the progression from normal gastric epithelial cells to moderate gastric epithelial dysplasia and to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mao-lan; DING Qi-chen; WU Xiang-song; MU Jia-sheng; YANG Jia-hua; ZHANG Wen-jie; CHEN Lei; LIU Ying-bin; ZHANG Jing-cheng; LI Song-gang; WU Wen-guang; RAO Long-hua; DONG Ping; GU Jun; LU Jian-hua; ZHANG Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer ranks high among the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide.This study was designed to explore key genes involved in the progression of normal gastric epithelial cells to moderate gastric epithelial dysplasia (mGED) and to gastric cancer.Methods Twelve pairs of mGED tissues,gastric cancer tissues,and normal gastric tissues were collected by gastroscopy.Total RNA was then extracted and purified.After the addition of fluorescent tags,hybridization was carried out on a Gene chip microarray slide.Significance analysis of microarrays was performed to determine significant differences in gene expression between the different tissue types.Results Microarray data analysis revealed totally 34 genes that were expressed differently:18 highly expressed (fold change>2; P<0.01) and 16 down-regulated (fold change >2; P <0.01).Of the 34 genes,24 belonged to several different functional categories such as structural molecule activity,extracellular regions,structural formation,cell death,biological adhesion,developmental processes,locomotion,and biological regulation that were associated with cancer.The remaining 10 genes were not involved in cancer research.Of these genes,the expression levels of Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP12),Caspase-associated recruitment domain 14 (CARD14),and Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1)were confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.A two-way clustering algorithm divided the 36 samples into three categories and the overall correct classification efficiency was 80.6% (29/36).Almost all of these genes (31/34) showed constant changes in the process of normal gastric epithelial cells to mGED to gastric cancer.Conclusions The results of this study provided global gene expression profiles during the development and progression from normal gastric epithelial cells to mGED to gastric cancer.These data may provide new insights into the molecular pathology of gastric cancer which may be useful for the detection

  6. Three-dimensional culture sensitizes epithelial ovarian cancer cells to EZH2 methyltransferase inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatangelo, Michael D.; Garipov, Azat; Li, Hua; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.; Speicher, David W.; Zhang, Rugang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of EZH2 methyltransferase activity have been demonstrated to selectively suppress the growth of diffused large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells with gain-of-function mutations in EZH2, while exhibiting very limited effects on the growth of DLBCL cells with wild-type EZH2. Given that EZH2 is often overexpressed but not mutated in solid tumors, it is important to investigate the determinants of sensitivity of solid tumor cells to EZH2 inhibitors. In the current study, we show that three-dimensional (3D) culture of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells that overexpress EZH2 sensitizes these cells to EZH2 methyltransferase inhibition. Treatment of EOC cells with GSK343, a specific inhibitor of EZH2 methyltransferase, decreases the level of H3K27Me3, the product of EZH2’s enzymatic activity. However, GSK343 exhibited limited effects on the growth of EOC cells in conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture. In contrast, GSK343 significantly suppressed the growth of EOC cells cultured in 3D matrigel extracellular matrix (ECM), which more closely mimics the tumor microenvironment in vivo. Notably, GSK343 induces apoptosis of EOC cells in 3D but not 2D culture. In addition, GSK343 significantly inhibited the invasion of EOC cells. In summary, we show that the 3D ECM sensitizes EOC cells to EZH2 methyltransferase inhibition, which suppresses cell growth, induces apoptosis and inhibits invasion. Our findings imply that in EZH2 wild-type solid tumors, the ECM tumor microenvironment plays an important role in determining sensitivity to EZH2 inhibition and suggest that targeting the ECM represents a novel strategy for enhancing EZH2 inhibitor efficacy. PMID:23759589

  7. Human cancer cells express Slug-based epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene expression signature obtained in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassiou Dimitris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological mechanisms underlying cancer cell motility and invasiveness remain unclear, although it has been hypothesized that they involve some type of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Methods We used xenograft models of human cancer cells in immunocompromised mice, profiling the harvested tumors separately with species-specific probes and computationally analyzing the results. Results Here we show that human cancer cells express in vivo a precise multi-cancer invasion-associated gene expression signature that prominently includes many EMT markers, among them the transcription factor Slug, fibronectin, and α-SMA. We found that human, but not mouse, cells express the signature and Slug is the only upregulated EMT-inducing transcription factor. The signature is also present in samples from many publicly available cancer gene expression datasets, suggesting that it is produced by the cancer cells themselves in multiple cancer types, including nonepithelial cancers such as neuroblastoma. Furthermore, we found that the presence of the signature in human xenografted cells was associated with a downregulation of adipocyte markers in the mouse tissue adjacent to the invasive tumor, suggesting that the signature is triggered by contextual microenvironmental interactions when the cancer cells encounter adipocytes, as previously reported. Conclusions The known, precise and consistent gene composition of this cancer mesenchymal transition signature, particularly when combined with simultaneous analysis of the adjacent microenvironment, provides unique opportunities for shedding light on the underlying mechanisms of cancer invasiveness as well as identifying potential diagnostic markers and targets for metastasis-inhibiting therapeutics.

  8. Ursolic acid inhibits the proliferation of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Wenjing; Qian, Lin; Zhang, Qiuwan; Lai, Dongmei; Qi, Cong

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death among all gynecological cancers. Increasing evidence suggests that human ovarian cancer stem-like cells could be enriched under serum-free culture conditions. In the present study, SKOV3 ovarian epithelial cancer cells were cultured for sphere cells. Ursolic acid (UA) with triterpenoid compounds exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. Evidence shows that UA has anticancer activities in human ovarian cancer cells, but he role of UA in ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of UA in combination with cisplatin in ovarian CSCs (in vitro and in vivo), along with the molecular mechanism of action. Treatment with UA at various concentrations was examined in combination with cisplatin in human ovarian CSCs. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used for cell viability and apoptosis analysis, and qRT-PCR for stem cell markers and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers for mRNA expression. Transwell assay was employed to observe the migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells and SKOV3 sphere cells after treatment. Moreover, athymic BALB/c-nu nude mice were injected with SKOV3 sphere cells to obtain a xenograft model for in vivo studies. The results showed that CSCs possessed mesenchymal characteristics and EMT ability, and the growth of SKOV3 and sphere cells was significantly inhibited by UA. Transplanted tumors were significantly reduced after injection of UA and UA plus cisplatin. Furthermore, we found that UA could play a role in enhancing the sensitivity of CSCs to cisplatin resistance. Our findings suggested that UA is involved in EMT mechanism to affect the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells and it is a potent anti-ovarian cancer agent.

  9. A human esophageal epithelial cell model for study of radiation induced cancer and DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice; Patel, Zarana; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    For cancer risk assessment in astronauts and for countermeasure development, it is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis and how these mechanisms are influenced by exposure to the types of radiation found in space. We are developing an in vitro model system for the study of radiation-induced initiation and progression of esophageal carcinoma. Development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is associated with radiation exposure, as revealed by the significant enhanced in incidence rates for this type of cancer in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. It is also associated with poor nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies, which are also important issues for long duration spaceflight. The possible synergies between nutritional issues and radiation exposure are unknown. Here we present the results of preliminary characterization of both normal and hTERT-immortalized esophageal epithelial cells grown in 2-dimensional culture. We analyzed DNA repair capacity by measuring the kinetics of formation and loss of gamma-H2AX foci following radiation exposure. Additionally, we analyzed induction of chromosomal aberrations using 3-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Data were generated using both low LET (gamma rays) and high LET ions (1000 MeV/nucleon iron.

  10. Time-lapse imaging of primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakles, Rebecca E; Millman, Sarah L; Cabrera, M Carla; Johnson, Peter; Mueller, Susette; Hoppe, Philipp S; Schroeder, Timm; Furth, Priscilla A

    2013-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging can be used to compare behavior of cultured primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from different genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer. For example, time between cell divisions (cell lifetimes), apoptotic cell numbers, evolution of morphological changes, and mechanism of colony formation can be quantified and compared in cells carrying specific genetic lesions. Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without palpable tumor. Glands are carefully resected with clear separation from adjacent muscle, lymph nodes are removed, and single-cell suspensions of enriched mammary epithelial cells are generated by mincing mammary tissue followed by enzymatic dissociation and filtration. Single-cell suspensions are plated and placed directly under a microscope within an incubator chamber for live-cell imaging. Sixteen 650 μm x 700 μm fields in a 4x4 configuration from each well of a 6-well plate are imaged every 15 min for 5 days. Time-lapse images are examined directly to measure cellular behaviors that can include mechanism and frequency of cell colony formation within the first 24 hr of plating the cells (aggregation versus cell proliferation), incidence of apoptosis, and phasing of morphological changes. Single-cell tracking is used to generate cell fate maps for measurement of individual cell lifetimes and investigation of cell division patterns. Quantitative data are statistically analyzed to assess for significant differences in behavior correlated with specific genetic lesions. PMID:23425702

  11. Sam68 is Overexpressed in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Promotes Tumor Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijuan; Che, Hailuo; Li, Mingmei; Li, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest gynecological malignancy, and evidence is accumulating on how molecular markers may be associated with the origin and process of EOC. Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis, of 68 kD), is a K homology domain RNA-binding protein that has been investigated as a risk factor in multiple types of tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the Sam68 gene in the pathogenesis of EOC. MATERIAL AND METHODS Western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR methods were performed to examine Sam68 expression in EOC tissue specimens. The association of Sam68 expression with clinic-pathologic variables of EOC was evaluated. Then gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies were adopted to examine the regulation of Sam68 on the proliferation of EOC OVCAR-3 cells using CCK-8 and colony forming assays. RESULTS Sam68 was overexpressed in both mRNA and protein levels in EOC tumor tissue (n=152) in an association with malignant factors of EOC such as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, residual tumor size (cm), histological grade, and lymph node metastasis. In vitro results demonstrated that Sam68 overexpression was upregulated while Sam68 knockdown downregulated the proliferation of EOC OVCAR-3 cells via regulation of cell growth and colony formation. CONCLUSIONS Sam68 was overexpressed in EOC tissue in association with such cancer malignant factors of FIGO stage, histological grade, and lymph node metastasis, and also positively regulated the proliferation of EOC cells. Our research suggests that Sam68 might accelerate cell cycle progression, and present as a prognostic marker for EOC. PMID:27623016

  12. The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO disrupts mammary epithelial morphogenesis and promotes breast cancer cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Wu

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play important roles in cancer progression and have emerged as viable targets for cancer therapy. Increasing levels of the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO, are associated with advancing breast cancer stage. In particular, higher TSPO levels are found in estrogen receptor (ER-negative breast tumors, compared with ER-positive tumors. In this study, we sought to define the roles of TSPO in the acquisition of breast cancer malignancy. Using a three-dimensional Matrigel culture system, we determined the impact of elevated TSPO levels on mammary epithelial morphogenesis. Our studies demonstrate that stable overexpression of TSPO in mammary epithelial MCF10A acini drives proliferation and provides partial resistance to luminal apoptosis, resulting in enlarged acinar structures with partially filled lumen that resemble early stage breast lesions leading to breast cancer. In breast cancer cell lines, TSPO silencing or TSPO overexpression significantly altered the migratory activity. In addition, we found that combination treatment with the TSPO ligands (PK 11195 or Ro5-4864 and lonidamine, a clinical phase II drug targeting mitochondria, decreased viability of ER-negative breast cancer cell lines. Taken together, these data demonstrate that increases in TSPO levels at different stages of breast cancer progression results in the acquisition of distinct properties associated with malignancy. Furthermore, targeting TSPO, particularly in combination with other mitochondria-targeting agents, may prove useful for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.

  13. Protein Profiling of Isolated Leukocytes, Myofibroblasts, Epithelial, Basal, and Endothelial Cells from Normal, Hyperplastic, Cancerous, and Inflammatory Human Prostate Tissues

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    Zahraa I. Khamis, Kenneth A. Iczkowski, Ziad J. Sahab, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ neoplastic prostate cells are not lethal unless they become invasive and metastatic. For cells to become invasive, the prostate gland must undergo degradation of the basement membrane and disruption of the basal cell layer underneath the luminal epithelia. Although the roles of proteinases in breaking down the basement membrane have been well-studied, little is known about the factors that induce basal cell layer disruption, degeneration, and its eventual disappearance in invasive cancer. It is hypothesized that microenvironmental factors may affect the degradation of the basal cell layer, which if protected may prevent tumor progression and invasion. In this study, we have revealed differential protein expression patterns between epithelial and stromal cells isolated from different prostate pathologies and identified several important epithelial and stromal proteins that may contribute to inflammation and malignant transformation of human benign prostate tissues to cancerous tissues using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and proteomics methods. Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 was downregulated in basal cells of benign prsotate. Caspase-1 and interleukin-18 receptor 1 were highly expressed in leukocytes of prostate cancer. Proto-oncogene Wnt-3 was downregulated in endothelial cells of prostatitis tissue and tyrosine phosphatase non receptor type 1 was only found in normal and benign endothelial cells. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase 14 was downregulated in myofibroblasts of prostatitis tissue. Interestingly, integrin alpha-6 was upregulated in epithelial cells but not detected in myofibroblasts of prostate cancer. Further validation of these proteins may generate new strategies for the prevention of basal cell layer disruption and subsequent cancer invasion.

  14. Interactions between exosomes from breast cancer cells and primary mammary epithelial cells leads to generation of reactive oxygen species which induce DNA damage response, stabilization of p53 and autophagy in epithelial cells.

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    Sujoy Dutta

    Full Text Available Exosomes are nanovesicles originating from multivesicular bodies and are released by all cell types. They contain proteins, lipids, microRNAs, mRNAs and DNA fragments, which act as mediators of intercellular communications by inducing phenotypic changes in recipient cells. Tumor-derived exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in different stages of tumor development and metastasis of almost all types of cancer. One of the ways by which exosomes affect tumorigenesis is to manipulate the tumor microenvironments to create tumor permissive "niches". Whether breast cancer cell secreted exosomes manipulate epithelial cells of the mammary duct to facilitate tumor development is not known. To address whether and how breast cancer cell secreted exosomes manipulate ductal epithelial cells we studied the interactions between exosomes isolated from conditioned media of 3 different breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, T47DA18 and MCF7, representing three different types of breast carcinomas, and normal human primary mammary epithelial cells (HMECs. Our studies show that exosomes released by breast cancer cell lines are taken up by HMECs, resulting in the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS and autophagy. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC led to abrogation of autophagy. HMEC-exosome interactions also induced the phosphorylation of ATM, H2AX and Chk1 indicating the induction of DNA damage repair (DDR responses. Under these conditions, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 was also observed. Both DDR responses and phosphorylation of p53 induced by HMEC-exosome interactions were also inhibited by NAC. Furthermore, exosome induced autophagic HMECs were found to release breast cancer cell growth promoting factors. Taken together, our results suggest novel mechanisms by which breast cancer cell secreted exosomes manipulate HMECs to create a tumor permissive microenvironment.

  15. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo-Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology

  16. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yongchun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Xu Yuqiao [Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Su Xiaoming [Department of Radiation Oncology, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Mei Shi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Guo Guozhen, E-mail: guozhenguo@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta})-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-{beta} in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-{beta} were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-{beta} signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  17. Twisted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition promotes progression of surviving bladder cancer T24 cells with hTERT-dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cancer cells maintain telomeres to protect cells from senescence through telomerase activity (TA or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT in different cell types. Moreover, cellular senescence can be bypassed by Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT during cancer progression in diverse solid tumors. However, it has not been elucidated the characteristics of telomere maintenance and progression ability after long-term culture in bladder cancer T24 cells with hTERT dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, by using a dominant negative mutant human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT vector to inhibit TA in bladder cancer T24 cells, we observed the appearance of long phenotype of telomere length and the ALT-associated PML body (APB complex after the 27(th passage, indicating the occurrence of ALT-like pathway in surviving T24/DN868A cells with telomerase inhibition. Meanwhile, telomerase inhibition resulted in significant EMT as shown by change in cellular morphology concomitant with variation of EMT markers. Consistently, the surviving T24/DN868A cells showed increased progression ability in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found Twist was activated to mediate EMT in surviving T24/DN868A samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings indicate that bladder cancer T24 cells may undergo the telomerase-to-ALT-like conversion and promote cancer progression at advanced stages through promoting EMT, thus providing novel possible insight into the mechanism of resistance to telomerase inhibitors in cancer treatment.

  18. Nicotine Induced Lung Cancer Cells Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition 
and Promote Its Vitro Invasion Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxu HOU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Our previous study found that nicotine could induce lung cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between nicotine-induced EMT and lung cancer invasion and metastasis. Methods Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression changes of EMT-related markers, E-cadherin and Vimentin, in A549 lung cancer cells treated with nicotine; The transposition of β-catenin protein expression was determined by immunofluorescence; Scratch test and Transwell invasion assay were used to detect the effects of nicotine on lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Results Nicotine can significantly down-regulate the expressional level of E-cadherin mRNA and protein of A549 cells in a manner of dose and time-dependent (P<0.01, P<0.01; Nicotine can significantly up-regulate the expressional level of Vimentin mRNA and protein of A549 cells in a manner of dose and time-dependent (P<0.01, P<0.01; Immunofluorescence results showed that β-catenin protein was significantly transfered to nucleus; Scratch test and Transwell assay showed that Nicotine could remarkably increase the migration and invasion potential of lung cancer cells (P<0.01, P<0.01. Conclusion Nicotine can induce cancer cells EMT, and promote the invasion and metastasis ability of lung cancer cells.

  19. Doxycycline reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Yuan; Zhang, Qiang; Lee, Shan; Zhong, Wei-long; Liu, Yan-rong; Liu, Hui-Juan; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Shuang; Xiao, Ting; Meng, Jing; Jing, Xue-shuang; Jing WANG; Sun, Bo; Dai, Ting-ting; Yang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The gelatinase inhibitor doxycycline is the prototypical antitumor antibiotic. We investigated the effects of doxycycline on the migration, invasion, and metastasis of human lung cancer cell lines and in a mouse model. We also measured the effect of doxycycline on the transcription of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and used immunohistochemistry to determine whether EMT reversal was associated with doxycycline inhibition. Doxycycline dose-dependently inhibited proliferation, ...

  20. Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest by protecting RB-E2F-1 complex in epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Robert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate phytochemical present predominantly in cruciferous vegetables such as brussels sprout and broccoli, is considered a promising chemo-preventive agent against cancer. In-vitro exposure to SFN appears to result in the induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in a variety of tumor types. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the inhibition of cell cycle progression by SFN are poorly understood in epithelial ovarian cancer cells (EOC. The aim of this study is to understand the signaling mechanisms through which SFN influences the cell growth and proliferation in EOC. Results SFN at concentrations of 5 - 20 μM induced a dose-dependent suppression of growth in cell lines MDAH 2774 and SkOV-3 with an IC50 of ~8 μM after a 3 day exposure. Combination treatment with chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel, resulted in additive growth suppression. SFN at ~8 μM decreased growth by 40% and 20% on day 1 in MDAH 2774 and SkOV-3, respectively. Cells treated with cytotoxic concentrations of SFN have reduced cell migration and increased apoptotic cell death via an increase in Bak/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of procaspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP. Gene expression profile analysis of cell cycle regulated proteins demonstrated increased levels of tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (RB and decreased levels of E2F-1 transcription factor. SFN treatment resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest through down modulation of RB phosphorylation and by protecting the RB-E2F-1 complex. Conclusions SFN induces growth arrest and apoptosis in EOC cells. Inhibition of retinoblastoma (RB phosphorylation and reduction in levels of free E2F-1 appear to play an important role in EOC growth arrest.

  1. Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and its Roles on Chemoresistance in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yunqing; WANG Jin; XIANG Fenggang; LI Min; LI Hong; WU Qi; SUN Fengchun

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Previous reported have demonstrated that an intricate link between epithelial-mesenchymal tran-sition (EMT) and anticancer drug resistance in cell culture and animal model. The aim of this study is to further inves-tigate the relationship between chemoresistance and EMT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through observing the expression status of EMT markers and resistance protein in histological level. Methods:The resistance protein, exci-sion repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCCl) and EMT markers, including E-cadherin and vimentin, were detected by im-munohistochemistry in 100 cases of NSCLC, half of that were treated with pre-operative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (neo-adjuvant chemotherapy group), and the other underwent surgery alone (simple surgery group). Results:There were sig-nificant positive correlations between the expression of ERCCl and vimentin in neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (r =0.471,P=0.01) and simple surgery group ( r=0.380,P=0.01), and significant negative correlations between the ERCCl and E-cadherin in neoadjuvant chemotherapy group(r=-0.401,P=0.01) and simple surgery group (r=-0.295,P=0.03. In neoadjuvant chemotherapy group, EMT status (p=0.04) and drug resistance (p=0.03) were more apparent than simple surgery group. The expression levels of ERCCl, vimentin and E-cadherin were all related to differentiated degree and ly-mph node metastasis in both groups(P<0.05). Conclusion:This study indicated that chemoresistance is correlated with the occurrence of EMT in NSCLC at tissue level, suggesting that selective targeting of EMT-phenotypic cells for declining chemoresistance may be a plausible therapeutic strategy.

  2. Phase I/II Study of IMMU-132 in Patients With Epithelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Colorectal Cancer; Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Esophageal Cancer; Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Small Cell Lung Cancer; Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Carcinoma Breast Stage IV; Hormone-refractory Prostate Cancer; Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; Head and Neck Cancers- Squamous Cell; Renal Cell Cancer; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms; Cervical Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme

  3. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs negatively regulate triple-negative breast cancer growth and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narayanan

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75-95% of estrogen receptor (ER-positive and 40-70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer.Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action.Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures.1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer.

  4. Transcriptional silencing of ETS-1 abrogates epithelial-mesenchymal transition resulting in reduced motility of pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Zhonghan; Chen, Yan; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Rong; Shi, Fangfang; Wang, Cailian; Rui, Zongdao

    2015-02-01

    v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS-1) plays crucial roles in a spectrum of malignancies. ETS-1 has gained attention in cancer research for its importance in cell migration, invasion and proliferation. In the present study, we focused on the effect of ETS-1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is characterized by reduced E-cadherin expression and increased N-cadherin expression. We found that ETS-1 mRNA expression was positively correlated with N-cadherin and negatively correlated with E-cadherin mRNA expression in five pancreatic cancer cell lines. To elucidate the functionality of ETS-1 on EMT in pancreatic cancer cells, we constructed a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing plasmid carrying ETS-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and transfected Panc-1 cells with the plasmid. We detected reduced N-cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor yet higher E-cadherin expression in the ETS-1-silenced cells compared with the control group. In addition, we observed reduced cell migration and increased adhesion in these cells. Our data showed that ETS-1 actively functioned as a regulator of EMT in Panc-1 cells, and provide additional evidence supporting a fundamental role for ETS-1 in metastatic pancreatic cancer cells. These results suggest that analysis of ETS-1 expression levels may provide an avenue for evaluating prognosis in pancreatic cancer.

  5. Berberine reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibits metastasis and tumor-induced angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Su, Mei-Yu; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2014-12-01

    Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related death in patients, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for cancer metastasis, which is a multistep complicated process that includes local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. When cancer cells metastasize, angiogenesis is also required for metastatic dissemination, given that an increase in vascular density will allow easier access of tumor cells to circulation, and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. Berberine has several anti-inflammation and anticancer biologic effects. In this study, we provided molecular evidence that is associated with the antimetastatic effect of berberine by showing a nearly complete inhibition on invasion (P metalloproteinase-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Berberine reversed transforming growth factor-β1-induced EMT and caused upregulation of epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and inhibited mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and snail-1. Selective snail-1 inhibition by snail-1-specific small interfering RNA also showed increased E-cadherin expression in SiHa cells. Berberine also reduced tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, an in vivo BALB/c nude mice xenograft model and tail vein injection model showed that berberine treatment reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis by oral gavage, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggested that berberine could reduce metastasis and angiogenesis of cervical cancer cells, thereby constituting an adjuvant treatment of metastasis control.

  6. Specific glycosylation of membrane proteins in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines: glycan structures reflect gene expression and DNA methylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugraham, Merrina; Jacob, Francis; Nixdorf, Sheri; Everest-Dass, Arun Vijay; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola; Packer, Nicolle H

    2014-09-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer in women worldwide bearing the highest mortality rate among all gynecological cancers. Cell membrane glycans mediate various cellular processes such as cell signaling and become altered during carcinogenesis. The extent to which glycosylation changes are influenced by aberrant regulation of gene expression is nearly unknown for ovarian cancer and remains crucial in understanding the development and progression of this disease. To address this effect, we analyzed the membrane glycosylation of non-cancerous ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE 6.3 and HOSE 17.1) and serous ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV 3, IGROV1, A2780, and OVCAR 3), the most common histotype among epithelial ovarian cancers. N-glycans were released from membrane glycoproteins by PNGase F and analyzed using nano-liquid chromatography on porous graphitized carbon and negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Glycan structures were characterized based on their molecular masses and tandem MS fragmentation patterns. We identified characteristic glycan features that were unique to the ovarian cancer membrane proteins, namely the "bisecting N-acetyl-glucosamine" type N-glycans, increased levels of α 2-6 sialylated N-glycans and "N,N'-diacetyl-lactosamine" type N-glycans. These N-glycan changes were verified by examining gene transcript levels of the enzymes specific for their synthesis (MGAT3, ST6GAL1, and B4GALNT3) using qRT-PCR. We further evaluated the potential epigenetic influence on MGAT3 expression by treating the cell lines with 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor. For the first time, we provide evidence that MGAT3 expression may be epigenetically regulated by DNA hypomethylation, leading to the synthesis of the unique "bisecting GlcNAc" type N-glycans on the membrane proteins of ovarian cancer cells. Linking the observation of specific N-glycan substructures and their complex association with epigenetic

  7. Cancerous epithelial cell lines shed extracellular vesicles with a bimodal size distribution that is sensitive to glutamine inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Steven Michael; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles (ESVs) facilitate a unique mode of cell-cell communication wherein vesicle uptake can induce a change in the recipient cell's state. Despite the intensity of ESV research, currently reported data represent the bulk characterization of concentrated vesicle samples with little attention paid to heterogeneity. ESV populations likely represent diversity in mechanisms of formation, cargo and size. To better understand ESV subpopulations and the signaling cascades implicated in their formation, we characterize ESV size distributions to identify subpopulations in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. We have discovered that cancer cells exhibit bimodal ESV distributions, one small-diameter and another large-diameter population, suggesting that two mechanisms may govern ESV formation, an exosome population and a cancer-specific microvesicle population. Altered glutamine metabolism in cancer is thought to fuel cancer growth but may also support metastatic niche formation through microvesicle production. We describe the role of a glutaminase inhibitor, compound 968, in ESV production. We have discovered that inhibiting glutamine metabolism significantly impairs large-diameter microvesicle production in cancer cells.

  8. Efficacy and Feasibility of the Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) Immunomagnetic Cell Sorter for Studies of DNA Methylation in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Failli; Annalisa Legitimo; Francesca Migheli; Fabio Coppedè; Mathers, John C.; Roberto Spisni; Paolo Miccoli; Lucia Migliore; Rita Consolini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the impact on measurements of methylation of a panel of four cancer gene promoters of purifying tumor cells from colorectal tissue samples using the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-immunomagnetic cell enrichment approach. We observed that, on average, methylation levels were higher in enriched cell fractions than in the whole tissue, but the difference was significant only for one out of four studied genes. In addition, there were strong correlatio...

  9. Anti-Cancer Activity of Solanum nigrum (AESN through Suppression of Mitochondrial Function and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Jang Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is the main approach for treating advanced and recurrent carcinoma, but the clinical performance of chemotherapy is limited by relatively low response rates, drug resistance, and adverse effects that severely affect the quality of life of patients. An association between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and chemotherapy resistance has been investigated in recent studies. Our recent studies have found that the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum (AESN is a crucial ingredient in some traditional Chinese medicine formulas for treating various types of cancer patients and exhibits antitumor effects. We evaluated the suppression of EMT in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with AESN. The mitochondrial morphology was investigated using Mitotracker Deep-Red FM stain. Our results indicated that AESN markedly inhibited cell viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest mediated by activation of caspase-3 and production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, mitochondrial fission was observed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with AESN. In addition to elevation of E-cadherin, downregulations of ZEB1, N-cadherin, and vimentin were found in AESN-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results suggested that AESN could inhibit EMT of MCF-7 breast cancer cells mediated by attenuation of mitochondrial function. AESN could be potentially beneficial in treating breast cancer cells, and may be of interest for future studies in developing integrative cancer therapy against proliferation, metastasis, and migration of breast cancer cells.

  10. Retraction: "Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells" by Bao et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on April 18, 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the second author that found Figures 1C and 4C to be inappropriately re-used and re-labeled. REFERENCE Bao B, Wang Z, Ali S, Kong D, Banerjee S, Ahmad A, Li Y, Azmi AS, Miele L, Sarkar FH. 2011. Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells. J Cell Biochem 112:2296-2306; doi: 10.1002/jcb.23150.

  11. Retraction: "Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells" by Bao et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on April 18, 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the second author that found Figures 1C and 4C to be inappropriately re-used and re-labeled. REFERENCE Bao B, Wang Z, Ali S, Kong D, Banerjee S, Ahmad A, Li Y, Azmi AS, Miele L, Sarkar FH. 2011. Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells. J Cell Biochem 112:2296-2306; doi: 10.1002/jcb.23150. PMID:27301890

  12. Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial-mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Hu, Yangyang; Guo, Changcheng; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation. PMID:25722217

  13. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia;

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major...... [myosin-light chain-2 (MLC2) phosphorylation], loss of cell polarity, loss of cell-cell junctions, luminal infiltration and basal invasion induced by AGE-modified basal lamina matrix in PEC acini. Our in vitro results were concordant with luminal occlusion of acini in the prostate glands of adult Endo180...

  14. Unbiased Selection of Peptide-Peptoid Hybrids Specific for Lung Cancer Compared to Normal Lung Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharage, Jaya M; Minna, John D; Brekken, Rolf A; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika

    2015-12-18

    To develop widely applicable diagnostic and potentially therapeutic approaches overcoming protein heterogeneity in human cancer, we have developed a technology to unbiasedly select high specificity compound(s) that bind any biomolecule (e.g., proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) presented on the cancer cell surface but not on normal cells. We utilized a peptidomimetic based on-bead two-color (OBTC) combinatorial cell screen that can detect differences between two cell surfaces at high accuracy by looking for beads (where each bead in the library had one peptide-peptoid hybrid on the surface) that only bound cancer but not normal cells. We screened a library of 393 216 compounds targeting HCC4017 lung adenocarcinoma cells (labeled in red) in the presence of HBEC30KT normal bronchial epithelial cells (labeled in green) derived from the same tissue of the same patient. This screen identified a peptide-peptoid hybrid called PPS1 which displayed high specific binding for HCC4017 cancer cells over HBEC30KT cells. Specificity was validated through on-bead, ELISA-like and magnetic bead pulldown studies, while a scrambled version of PPS1 did not show any binding. Of interest, the simple dimeric version (PPS1D1) displayed cytotoxic activity on HCC4017 cells, but not on normal HBEC30KT cells. PPS1D1 also strongly accumulated in HCC4017 lung cancer xenografts in mice over control constructs. We conclude that such combinatorial screens using tumor and normal cells from the same patient have significant potential to develop new reagents for cancer biology, diagnosis, and potentially therapy.

  15. Transketolase Serves a Poor Prognosticator in Esophageal Cancer by Promoting Cell Invasion via Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yin-Kai; Peng, Ta-Lun; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Li, Yan-Liang; Lu, Ya-Ching; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2016-01-01

    Background: To characterize the potential function and clinical significance of Transketolase (TKT) in esophageal cancer. Methods: High invasive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line CE48T/VGH was used. Cellular functions in response to TKT modulation were examined, including cell growth, migration and invasion. The underlying molecules involved in the TKT regulatory mechanism were determined by western blot and confocal microscopic analysis. Clinically, TKT expressions in 76 ESCC patients were assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) method, and the association with treatment outcome was determined. Results: TKT silencing inhibited cell migration and invasion but had a minimal effect on cell growth. This TKT silencing also induced the reversion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as evidenced by the spindle to cuboidal morphological change, increased the expression of epithelial markers (γ-catenin), and decreased the levels of mesenchymal markers (fibronectin and N-cadherin). Mechanically, TKT was shown to modulate the EMT through the pERK-Slug/Snail-associated signaling pathway. Clinically, a high level of TKT in the cancer tissues of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was associated with poor survival (P = 0.042). In the multivariate analysis, a high TKT level was also shown to be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (Odds ratio: 1.827, 95% confidence interval: 1.045-3.196, P = 0.035). Conclusions: TKT contributes to esophageal cancer by promoting cell invasion via meditating EMT process. Clinically, the over-expression of TKT in ESCC patients predicts poorer survival. TKT inhibition may be a useful strategy to intervene in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, which may lead to better prognosis for ESCC patients. PMID:27698919

  16. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy. PMID:27575372

  17. The Proliferative Activity of Mammary Epithelial Cells in Normal Tissue Predicts Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Jin; Oh, Hannah; Peterson, Michael A; Almendro, Vanessa; Hu, Rong; Bowden, Michaela; Lis, Rosina L; Cotter, Maura B; Loda, Massimo; Barry, William T; Polyak, Kornelia; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-04-01

    The frequency and proliferative activity of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells are suggested to correlate with cancer risk. In this study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and the frequency of mammary epithelial cells expressing p27, estrogen receptor (ER), and Ki67 in normal breast tissue. We performed a nested case-control study of 302 women (69 breast cancer cases, 233 controls) who had been initially diagnosed with benign breast disease according to the Nurses' Health Studies. Immunofluorescence for p27, ER, and Ki67 was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from benign biopsies containing normal mammary epithelium and scored by computational image analysis. We found that the frequency of Ki67(+) cells was positively associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women [OR = 10.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-48.0]. Conversely, the frequency of ER(+) or p27(+) cells was inversely, but not significantly, associated with subsequent breast cancer risk (ER(+): OR = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.33-1.50; p27(+): OR = 0.89, 95% CI, 0.45-1.75). Notably, high Ki67(+)/low p27(+) and high Ki67(+)/low ER(+) cell frequencies were significantly associated with a 5-fold higher risk of breast cancer compared with low Ki67(+)/low p27(+) and low Ki67(+)/low ER(+) cell frequencies, respectively, among premenopausal women (Ki67(hi)/p27(lo): OR = 5.08, 95% CI, 1.43-18.1; Ki67(hi)/ER(lo): OR = 4.68, 95% CI, 1.63-13.5). Taken together, our data suggest that the fraction of actively cycling cells in normal breast tissue may represent a marker for breast cancer risk assessment, which may therefore impact the frequency of screening procedures in at-risk women. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1926-34. ©2016 AACR.

  18. An Automated System for the Detection of Stratified Squamous Epithelial Cancer Cell Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Krishna Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer disease is a difficult problem and if it is not detected in starting phase the cancer can be fatal. Current medical procedures which are used to diagnose the cancer in body partsare time taking and more laboratory work is required for them. This work is an endeavor to possible recognition of cancer cells in the body part. The process consists of image taken of the affected area and digital image processing of the images to get a morphological pattern which differentiate normal cell to cancer cell. The technique is different than visual inspection and biopsy process. Image processing enables the visualization of cellular structure with substantial resolution. The aim of the work is to exploit differences in cellular organization between cancerous and normal tissue using image processing technique, thus allowing for automated, fast and accurate diagnosis.

  19. Human breast cancer cell lines co-express neuronal, epithelial, and melanocytic differentiation markers in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbei Zhang

    Full Text Available Differentiation programs are aberrant in cancer cells allowing them to express differentiation markers in addition to their tissue of origin. In the present study, we demonstrate the multi-lineage differentiation potential of breast cancer cell lines to express multiple neuronal/glial lineage-specific markers as well as mammary epithelial and melanocytic-specific markers. Multilineage expression was detected in luminal (MCF-7 and SKBR3 and basal (MDA-MB-231 types of human breast cancer cell lines. We also observed comparable co-expression of these three cell lineage markers in MDA-MB-435 cells in vitro, in MDA-MB-435 primary tumors derived from parental and single cell clones and in lung metastases in vivo. Furthermore, ectoderm multi-lineage transdifferentiation was also found in human melanoma (Ul-MeL and glioblastoma cell lines (U87 and D54. These observations indicate that aberrant multi-lineage transdifferentiation or lineage infidelity may be a wide spread phenomenon in cancer.

  20. Coronaviruses in polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Bekker, C P; Voorhout, W F; Horzinek, M C; Van der Ende, A; Strous, G J; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Coronaviruses have a marked tropism for epithelial cells. In this paper the interactions of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59) with epithelial cells are compared. Porcine (LLC-PK1) and murine (mTAL) epithelial cells were grown on permeable supp

  1. Differential Roles for DUSP Family Members in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cell Regulation in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulding, Tara; Wu, Fan; McCuaig, Robert; Dunn, Jennifer; Sutton, Christopher R; Hardy, Kristine; Tu, Wenjuan; Bullman, Amanda; Yip, Desmond; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Rao, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) dephosphorylate threonine/serine and tyrosine residues on their substrates. Here we show that DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 are involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and breast cancer stem cell (CSC) regulation. DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 are induced during EMT in a PKC pathway signal-mediated EMT model. We show for the first time that the key chromatin-associated kinase PKC-θ directly regulates a subset of DUSP family members. DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 globally but differentially co-exist with enhancer and permissive active histone post-translational modifications, suggesting that they play distinct roles in gene regulation in EMT/CSCs. We show that nuclear DUSP4 associates with the key acetyltransferase p300 in the context of the chromatin template and dynamically regulates the interplay between two key phosphorylation marks: the 1834 (active) and 89 (inhibitory) residues central to p300's acetyltransferase activity. Furthermore, knockdown with small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) shows that DUSP4 is required for maintaining H3K27ac, a mark mediated by p300. DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 knockdown with siRNAs shows that they participate in the formation of CD44hi/CD24lo/EpCAM+ breast CSCs: DUSP1 knockdown reduces CSC formation, while DUSP4 and DUSP6 knockdown enhance CSC formation. Moreover, DUSP6 is overexpressed in patient-derived HER2+ breast carcinomas compared to benign mammary tissue. Taken together, these findings illustrate novel pleiotropic roles for DUSP family members in EMT and CSC regulation in breast cancer. PMID:26859151

  2. Differential Roles for DUSP Family Members in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cell Regulation in Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Boulding

    Full Text Available Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs dephosphorylate threonine/serine and tyrosine residues on their substrates. Here we show that DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 are involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and breast cancer stem cell (CSC regulation. DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 are induced during EMT in a PKC pathway signal-mediated EMT model. We show for the first time that the key chromatin-associated kinase PKC-θ directly regulates a subset of DUSP family members. DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 globally but differentially co-exist with enhancer and permissive active histone post-translational modifications, suggesting that they play distinct roles in gene regulation in EMT/CSCs. We show that nuclear DUSP4 associates with the key acetyltransferase p300 in the context of the chromatin template and dynamically regulates the interplay between two key phosphorylation marks: the 1834 (active and 89 (inhibitory residues central to p300's acetyltransferase activity. Furthermore, knockdown with small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs shows that DUSP4 is required for maintaining H3K27ac, a mark mediated by p300. DUSP1, DUSP4, and DUSP6 knockdown with siRNAs shows that they participate in the formation of CD44hi/CD24lo/EpCAM+ breast CSCs: DUSP1 knockdown reduces CSC formation, while DUSP4 and DUSP6 knockdown enhance CSC formation. Moreover, DUSP6 is overexpressed in patient-derived HER2+ breast carcinomas compared to benign mammary tissue. Taken together, these findings illustrate novel pleiotropic roles for DUSP family members in EMT and CSC regulation in breast cancer.

  3. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1: potential stratification factor and therapeutic target for epithelial ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qianying; Gui, Ting; Qian, Qiuhong; Li, Lei; Shen, Keng

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer, a vexing challenge for clinical management, still lacks biomarkers for early diagnosis, precise stratification, and prognostic evaluation of patients. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1), a member of the polycomb group of proteins, engages in diverse cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and stem cell renewal. In addition, BMI1, as a cancer stem-cell marker, participates in tumorigenesis through various pathways. Rewardingly, recent studies have also revealed a relationship between BMI1 expression and the clinical grade/stage, therapy response, and survival outcome in a majority of human malignancies, including epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, BMI1 might serve as a potential stratification factor and treatment target for epithelial ovarian cancer, pending evidence from further investigations.

  4. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1: potential stratification factor and therapeutic target for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qianying; Gui, Ting; Qian, Qiuhong; Li, Lei; Shen, Keng

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer, a vexing challenge for clinical management, still lacks biomarkers for early diagnosis, precise stratification, and prognostic evaluation of patients. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1), a member of the polycomb group of proteins, engages in diverse cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and stem cell renewal. In addition, BMI1, as a cancer stem-cell marker, participates in tumorigenesis through various pathways. Rewardingly, recent studies have also revealed a relationship between BMI1 expression and the clinical grade/stage, therapy response, and survival outcome in a majority of human malignancies, including epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, BMI1 might serve as a potential stratification factor and treatment target for epithelial ovarian cancer, pending evidence from further investigations. PMID:27578986

  5. The Balance of Cell Surface and Soluble Type III TGF-β Receptor Regulates BMP Signaling in Normal and Cancerous Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gatza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are members of the TGF-β superfamily that are over-expressed in breast cancer, with context dependent effects on breast cancer pathogenesis. The type III TGF-β receptor (TβRIII mediates BMP signaling. While TβRIII expression is lost during breast cancer progression, the role of TβRIII in regulating BMP signaling in normal mammary epithelium and breast cancer cells has not been examined. Restoring TβRIII expression in a 4T1 murine syngeneic model of breast cancer suppressed Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and inhibited the expression of the BMP transcriptional targets, Id1 and Smad6, in vivo. Similarly, restoring TβRIII expression in human breast cancer cell lines or treatment with sTβRIII inhibited BMP-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and BMP-stimulated migration and invasion. In normal mammary epithelial cells, shRNA-mediated silencing of TβRIII, TβRIII over-expression, or treatment with sTβRIII inhibited BMP-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and BMP induced migration. Inhibition of TβRIII shedding through treatment with TAPI-2 or expression of a non-shedding TβRIII mutant rescued TβRIII mediated inhibition of BMP induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and BMP induced migration and/or invasion in both in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. Conversely, expression of a TβRIII mutant, which exhibited increased shedding, significantly reduced BMP-mediated Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, migration, and invasion. These data demonstrate that TβRIII regulates BMP-mediated signaling and biological effects, primarily through the ligand sequestration effects of sTβRIII in normal and cancerous mammary epithelial cells and suggest that the ratio of membrane bound versus sTβRIII plays an important role in mediating these effects.

  6. Identification of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper as a key regulator of tumor cell proliferation in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Hervé

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the molecules that contribute to tumor progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, currently a leading cause of mortality from gynecological malignancies. Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper (GILZ, an intracellular protein widely expressed in immune tissues, has been reported in epithelial tissues and controls some of key signaling pathways involved in tumorigenesis. However, there has been no report on GILZ in EOC up to now. The objectives of the current study were to examine the expression of GILZ in EOC and its effect on tumor cell proliferation. Results GILZ expression was measured by immunohistochemical staining in tissue sections from 3 normal ovaries, 7 benign EOC and 50 invasive EOC. GILZ was not detected on the surface epithelium of normal ovaries and benign tumors. In contrast, it was expressed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in 80% EOC specimens. GILZ immunostaining scores correlated positively to the proliferation marker Ki-67 (Spearman test in univariate analysis, P P Conclusion The present study is the first to identify GILZ as a molecule produced by ovarian cancer cells that promotes cell cycle progression and proliferation. Our findings clearly indicate that GILZ activates AKT, a crucial signaling molecule in tumorigenesis. GILZ thus appears as a potential key molecule in EOC.

  7. Fractionated Ionizing Radiation Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Esophageal Cancer Cells through PTEN Deficiency-Mediated Akt Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enhui He

    Full Text Available In some esophageal cancer patients, radiotherapy may not prevent distant metastasis thus resulting in poor survival. The underlying mechanism of metastasis in these patients is not well established. In this study, we have demonstrated that ionizing radiation may induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT accompanied with increased cell migration and invasion, through downregulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN, and activation of Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. We developed a radioresistant (RR esophageal squamous cancer cell line, KYSE-150/RR, by fractionated ionizing radiation (IR treatment, and confirmed its radioresistance using a clonogenic survival assay. We found that the KYSE-150/RR cell line displayed typical morphological and molecular characteristics of EMT. In comparison to the parental cells, KYSE-150/RR cells showed an increase in post-IR colony survival, migration, and invasiveness. Furthermore, a decrease in PTEN in KYSE-150/RR cells was observed. We postulated that over-expression of PTEN may induce mesenchymal-epithelial transition in KYSE-150/RR cells and restore IR-induced increase of cell migration. Mechanistically, fractionated IR inhibits expression of PTEN, which leads to activation of Akt/GSK-3β signaling and is associated with the elevated levels of Snail protein, a transcription factor involved in EMT. Correspondingly, treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor, mimicked PTEN overexpression effect in KYSE-150/RR cells, further suggesting a role for the Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling in effects mediated through PTEN. Together, these results strongly suggest that fractionated IR-mediated EMT in KYSE-150/RR cells is through PTEN-dependent pathways, highlighting a direct proinvasive effect of radiation treatment on tumor cells.

  8. α-Solanine inhibits invasion of human prostate cancer cell by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and MMPs expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Liao, Alex Chien-Hwa; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Hu, Kai-Chieh; Lin, Pin-Tsen; Liao, Ruei-Fang; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2014-08-11

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN), but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21) and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  9. α-Solanine Inhibits Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer Cell by Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and MMPs Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Hung Shen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn., was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN, but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K, Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21 and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  10. The Study on Anti-cancer Effects of Distilling Fresh-ginseng Herbal acupuncture against implanted Sarcoma-180 in vivo and A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hae-Young Jang; Ki-Rok Kwon; Hee-Soo Park

    2004-01-01

    Objectives : This study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with distilled fresh ginseng. The herbal acupuncture was injected to Chung-wan(C.V12) and Wisu(BL21) of mice that were subjected to Sarcoma-180 abdominal cancer cell and A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods : Anti-cancer effects of distilled fresh ginseng herbal acupuncture were tested by measruing Cox, Bcl-2, and Bax by using RT-PCR in A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells in v...

  11. Analysis of the gene expression profile in response to human epididymis protein 4 in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liancheng; Guo, Qian; Jin, Shan; Feng, Huilin; Zhuang, Huiyu; Liu, Cong; Tan, Mingzi; Liu, Juanjuan; Li, Xiao; Lin, Bei

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there are emerging multiple studies on human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in ovarian cancer. HE4 possesses higher sensitivity and specificity than CA125 in the confirmative early diagnosis for ovarian cancer. Although much attention has been given to explore its clinical application, research of the basic mechanisms of HE4 in ovarian cancer are still unclear. In the present study, we provide fundamental data to identify full-scale differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to HE4 by use of human whole-genome microarrays in human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line ES-2 following overexpression and silencing of HE4. We found that a total of 717 genes were upregulated and 898 genes were downregulated in the HE4-overexpressing cells vs. the HE4-Mock cells, and 166 genes were upregulated and 285 were downregulated in the HE4-silenced cells vs. the HE4-Mock cells. An overlap of 16 genes consistently upregulated and 8 genes downregulated in response to HE4 were noted. These DEGs were involved in MAPK, steroid biosynthesis, cell cycle, the p53 hypoxia pathway, and focal adhesion pathways. Interaction network analysis predicted that the genes participated in the regulatory connection. Highly differential expression of the FOXA2, SERPIND1, BDKRD1 and IL1A genes was verified by quantitative real-time PCR in 4 cell line samples. Finally, SERPIND1 (HCII) was validated at the protein level by immunohistochemistry in 107 paraffin-embedded ovarian tissues. We found that SERPIND1 may act as a potential oncogene in the development of ovarian cancer. The present study displayed the most fundamental and full-scale data to show DEGs in response to HE4. These identified genes may provide a theoretical basis for investigations of the underlying molecular mechanism of HE4 in ovarian cancer. PMID:27430660

  12. Impact by pancreatic stellate cells on epithelial-mesenchymal transition and pancreatic cancer cell invasion: Adding a third dimension in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnevi, Emelie; Rosendahl, Ann H; Hilmersson, Katarzyna Said; Saleem, Moin A; Andersson, Roland

    2016-08-15

    Pancreatic cancer is associated with a highly abundant stroma and low-grade inflammation. In the local tumour microenvironment, elevated glucose levels, the presence of tumour-associated stellate cells and macrophages are hypothesised to promote the tumour progression and invasion. The present study investigated the influence by the microenvironment on pancreatic cancer cell invasion in vitro. After co-culture with tumour-associated pancreatic stellate cells (TPSCs), pancreatic cancer cells displayed up to 8-fold reduction in levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers E-cadherin and ZO-1, while β-catenin and vimentin levels were increased. A 3D organotypic model showed that TPSCs stimulated pancreatic cancer cell invasion, both as single cell (PANC-1) and cohort (MIAPaCa-2) invasion. The combined presence of TPSCs and M2-like macrophages induced invasion of the non-invasive BxPC-3 cells. High glucose conditions further enhanced changes in EMT markers as well as the cancer cell invasion. In summary, co-culture with TPSCs induced molecular changes associated with EMT in pancreatic cancer cells, regardless of differentiation status, and the organotypic model demonstrated the influence of microenvironmental factors, such as glucose, stellate cells and macrophages, on pancreatic cancer cell invasion. PMID:27443257

  13. Snail-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of MCF-7 breast cancer cells: systems analysis of molecular changes and their effect on radiation and drug sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mezencev, Roman; Matyunina, Lilya V.; Jabbari, Neda; John F. McDonald

    2016-01-01

    Background Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with the acquisition of metastatic potential and the resistance of cancer cells to therapeutic treatments. MCF-7 breast cancer cells engineered to constitutively express the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor gene Snail (MCF-7-Snail cells) have been previously shown to display morphological and molecular changes characteristic of EMT. We report here the results of a comprehensive systems level molecular analysis of c...

  14. HNF1α inhibition triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human liver cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignjevic Danijela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1α (HNF1α is an atypical homeodomain-containing transcription factor that transactivates liver-specific genes including albumin, α-1-antitrypsin and α- and β-fibrinogen. Biallelic inactivating mutations of HNF1A have been frequently identified in hepatocellular adenomas (HCA, rare benign liver tumors usually developed in women under oral contraceptives, and in rare cases of hepatocellular carcinomas developed in non-cirrhotic liver. HNF1α-mutated HCA (H-HCA are characterized by a marked steatosis and show activation of glycolysis, lipogenesis, translational machinery and mTOR pathway. We studied the consequences of HNF1α silencing in hepatic cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B and we reproduced most of the deregulations identified in H-HCA. Methods We transfected hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B with siRNA targeting HNF1α and obtained a strong inhibition of HNF1α expression. We then looked at the phenotypic changes by microscopy and studied changes in gene expression using qRT-PCR and Western Blot. Results Hepatocytes transfected with HNF1α siRNA underwent severe phenotypic changes with loss of cell-cell contacts and development of migration structures. In HNF1α-inhibited cells, hepatocyte and epithelial markers were diminished and mesenchymal markers were over-expressed. This epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT was related to the up regulation of several EMT transcription factors, in particular SNAIL and SLUG. We also found an overexpression of TGFβ1, an EMT initiator, in both cells transfected with HNF1α siRNA and H-HCA. Moreover, TGFβ1 expression is strongly correlated to HNF1α expression in cell models, suggesting regulation of TGFβ1 expression by HNF1α. Conclusion Our results suggest that HNF1α is not only important for hepatocyte differentiation, but has also a role in the maintenance of epithelial phenotype in hepatocytes.

  15. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.

    1990-09-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  16. Epstein–Barr virus latent antigens EBNA3C and EBNA1 modulate epithelial to mesenchymal transition of cancer cells associated with tumor metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaur, Nivedita; Gandhi, Jaya; Erle S Robertson; Verma, Subhash C.; Kaul, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism in cancer invasiveness and metastasis. We had previously reported that cancer cells expressing Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) latent viral antigens EBV nuclear antigen EBNA3C and/ or EBNA1 showed higher motility and migration potential and had a propensity for increased metastases when tested in nude mice model. We now show that both EBNA3C and EBNA1 can modulate cellular pathways critical for epithelial to mesenchymal transition of cancer...

  17. Regulatory Effect of E2, IL-6 and IL-8 on the Growth of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Wang; Jie Yang; Yan Gao; Yongrui Du; Leyuan Bao; Wenyan Niu; Zhi Yao

    2005-01-01

    To determine the regulatory effects of estrogen and cytokine IL-6 and IL-8 on the growth of epithelial ovarian cancer (OVCA), we first examined the status of estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), IL-6 receptor (IL-6Rα and gp130), and IL-8 receptor (IL-8RA and IL-8RB) on five epithelial OVCA cell lines by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results showed that the expressions of these receptors were variable on the five cells.Those OVCA cells expressing the receptors were selected to study related molecular mechanism. MTT assay was performed to observe the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2), IL-6 and IL-8 on cell proliferation. We discovered that E2 markedly promoted the proliferation of CAOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cell in a time- and dose-dependent manner.Tamoxifen (Txf), an ER inhibitor, completely blocked the proliferation of the E2-induced cells, and IL-6- or/and IL-8-neutralizing antibody only showed partially blocking activity. IL-6 and IL-8 were able to significantly stimulate CAOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which had a potential synergistic effect on CAOV-3 cells but not on OVCAR-3 cells. The cell proliferation induced by these two cytokines was abolished completely by their specific neutralizing antibodies, partially by Txf, but not by unrelated goat IgG.Taken together, our results suggested that estrogen, IL-6 and IL-8 could modulate OVCA growth by forming a reciprocal cascade with amplifying effect. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  18. Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and involved in cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qizhi [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China); Fu, Aili [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China); The People' s Liberation Army 107 Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Bin Zhou Medical University, Yantai (China); Yang, Shude [Institute of Fungi Science and Technology, Ludong University, Yantai (China); He, Xiaoli; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhou, Jiadi; Luan, Xiying [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China); Yu, Wenzheng, E-mail: bzywz2009@163.com [Department of Hemotology, The Hospital Affiliated Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou (China); Xue, Jiangnan, E-mail: xuejinagnan@263.net [Department of Immunology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China)

    2015-03-06

    Previous studies have shown that leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is expressed on most types of hamatopoietic cells and negatively regulate immune response, but the roles of LAIR-1 in tumor of the non-hematopoietic lineage have not been determined. Despite advances in therapy of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), many questions relating to EOC pathogenesis remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of LAIR-1 expression in EOC and explore the possible association between LAIR-1 and cancer. In this study, a tissue microarray containing 78 ovarian cancer cases was stained following a standard immunohistochemical protocol for LAIR-1 and the correlation of LAIR-1 expression with clinicopathologic features was assessed. LAIR-1 was detected to express in tumor cells of ovarian cancer tissues (73.1%) and EOC cell lines COC1 and HO8910, not in normal ovarian tissues. In addition, LAIR-1 expression correlates significantly with tumor grade (p = 0.004). Furthermore, down-regulation of LAIR-1 in HO8910 cells increased cell proliferation, colony formation and cell invasion. These data suggest that LAIR-1 has a relevant impact on EOC progression and may be helpful for a better understanding of molecular pathogenesis of cancer. - Highlights: • LAIR-1 is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. • LAIR-1 expression correlates significantly with tumor grade. • Down-regulation of LAIR-1 expression increased cell proliferation and invasion. • LAIR-1 may be a novel candidate for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Gene Variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amankwah, Ernest K.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.;

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants co...

  20. Role of Wnt Inhibitory Factor-1 in Inhibition of Bisdemethoxycurcumin Mediated Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Highly Metastatic Lung Cancer 95D Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Hong Xu; He-Ping Yang; Xiang-Dong Zhou; Hai-Jing Wang; Liang Gong; Chun-Lan Tang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is an active component of curcumin and a chemotherapeutic agent, which has been suggested to inhibit tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in multiple cancers. But its contribution and mechanism of action in invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are not very clear. Therefore, we tried to study the effects of BDMC on regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is closely linked to tumor cell invasion and metast...

  1. Conversion to stem-cell state in response to microenvironmental cues is regulated by balance between epithelial and mesenchymal features in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Francesca; Bertolini, Giulia; Facchinetti, Federica; Baldoli, Erika; Moro, Massimo; Casalini, Patrizia; Caserini, Roberto; Milione, Massimo; Leone, Giorgia; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Pastorino, Ugo; Sozzi, Gabriella; Roz, Luca

    2016-02-01

    Cancer cells within a tumor are functionally heterogeneous and specific subpopulations, defined as cancer initiating cells (CICs), are endowed with higher tumor forming potential. The CIC state, however, is not hierarchically stable and conversion of non-CICs to CICs under microenvironment signals might represent a determinant of tumor aggressiveness. How plasticity is regulated at the cellular level is however poorly understood. To identify determinants of plasticity in lung cancer we exposed eight different cell lines to TGFβ1 to induce EMT and stimulate modulation of CD133(+) CICs. We show that response to TGFβ1 treatment is heterogeneous with some cells readily switching to stem cell state (1.5-2 fold CICs increase) and others being unresponsive to stimulation. This response is unrelated to original CICs content or extent of EMT engagement but is tightly dependent on balance between epithelial and mesenchymal features as measured by the ratio of expression of CDH1 (E-cadherin) to SNAI2. Epigenetic modulation of this balance can restore sensitivity of unresponsive models to microenvironmental stimuli, including those elicited by cancer-associated fibroblasts both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, tumors with increased prevalence of cells with features of partial EMT (hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype) are endowed with the highest plasticity and specific patterns of expression of SNAI2 and CDH1 markers identify a subset of tumors with worse prognosis. In conclusion, here we describe a connection between a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype and conversion to stem-cell state in response to external stimuli. These findings have implications for current endeavors to identify tumors with increased plasticity.

  2. Hybrid Cells Derived from Human Breast Cancer Cells and Human Breast Epithelial Cells Exhibit Differential TLR4 and TLR9 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songül Tosun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available TLRs are important receptors of cells of the innate immune system since they recognize various structurally conserved molecular patterns of different pathogens as well as endogenous ligands. In cancer, the role of TLRs is still controversial due to findings that both regression and progression of tumors could depend on TLR signaling. In the present study, M13SV1-EGFP-Neo human breast epithelial cells, MDA-MB-435-Hyg human breast cancer cells and two hybrids M13MDA435-1 and -3 were investigated for TLR4 and TLR9 expression and signaling. RT-PCR data revealed that LPS and CpG-ODN induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in hybrid cells, but not parental cells. Interestingly, validation of RT-PCR data by Western blot showed detectable protein levels solely after LPS stimulation, suggesting that regulatory mechanisms are also controlled by TLR signaling. Analysis of pAKT and pERK1/2 levels upon LPS and CpG-ODN stimulation revealed a differential phosphorylation pattern in all cells. Finally, the migratory behavior of the cells was investigated showing that both LPS and CpG-ODN potently blocked the locomotory activity of the hybrid cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, hybrid cells exhibit differential TLR4 and TLR9 signaling.

  3. A simple multicolor flow cytometry protocol for detection and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in epithelial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristozova, Tsvetana; Konschak, Robert; Budach, Volker; Tinhofer, Ingeborg

    2012-06-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) might not only serve as prognostic marker but could also be useful for monitoring treatment efficacy. A multicolor flow cytometry protocol for their detection and molecular characterization in peripheral blood was developed which consisted of erythrocyte lysis followed by staining of cells with fluorochrome-labeled antibodies against CD45 and the epithelial markers EpCam and cytokeratin 7/8. For reducing the number of events acquired by flow cytometry, an electronic threshold for the fluorescent signals from the epithelial markers was applied. After establishment of the protocol by using spiking experiments, its suitability to determine the absolute number of CTCs as well as their expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its phosphorylated form (phospho-EGFR) in blood samples from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) was validated. Spiking experiments demonstrated an excellent recovery (mean 85%) and a linear performance (R(2) = 0.98) of the protocol. Sensitivity and specificity were comparable to our former protocol using immunomagnetic CTC pre-enrichment. The analysis of 33 SCCHN patient samples revealed the presence of CTCs in 33.3% of cases with a mean ± SD of 1.5 ± 0.5 CTCs per 3.75 ml blood. EGFR was expressed in 100% and phospho-EGFR in 36.4% of the CTC+ cases. We have established a simple and sensitive multicolor flow cytometry protocol for detection of CTCs in patients with epithelial cancers including SCCHN which will allow their detailed molecular characterization.

  4. Evaluations of thyme extract effects in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cell lines and in human lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Marinelli; Romilde, Iannarelli; Beatrice, Morelli Maria; Matteo, Valisi; Giovanna, Nicotra; Consuelo, Amantini; Claudio, Cardinali; Giorgio, Santoni; Filippo, Maggi; Massimo, Nabissi

    2016-08-25

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is used traditionally to prepare herbal remedies possessing expectorant, mucolytic, antitussive and antispasmodic properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a standardized hydroalcoholic extract of thyme on primary human airway (bronchial/tracheal) epithelial cell lines in a model of lung inflammation induced by LPS. In addition, the effects of thyme extract on human lung cancer cell line (H460) were analysed. Thyme extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties by reducing the NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 transcription factors protein levels followed by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta and IL-8), and Muc5ac secretion in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cells. Moreover, the extract showed cytotoxic effects on H460 cancer cells, modulated the release of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and down-regulated NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 proteins. Taken together, these results substantiated the traditional uses of thyme in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thyme extract might be an effective treatment of chronic diseases based on inflammatory processes when hypersecretion of mucus overwhelms the ciliary clearance and obstructs airways, causing morbidity and mortality. Moreover thyme extract, evaluated in H460 lung cancer cell line, demonstrated to induce cell cytotoxicity in addition to reduce inflammatory cell signals. PMID:27369807

  5. Epicatechin-3-gallate reverses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibits cell invasion and protease activities in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Fang; Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Chu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2016-08-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion potential have been considered as essential factors in cancer metastasis, which is the major cause of cancer death. EMT is a multi-step process that involves gain invasion, cytoskeleton change, cell adhesion, and proteolytic extracellular matrix degradation. Epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), which is a natural polyphenolic component of green tea, elicits several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of ECG on cancer invasion and EMT of human lung carcinoma remain unknown. We provided molecular evidence supporting the anti-metastatic effect of ECG. This compound suppressed the invasion (P EMT and upregulated epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin. Conversely, ECG inhibited mesenchymal markers, such as fibronectin and p-FAK. The subcutaneous inoculation of this compound also inhibited the tumor growth of the A549 cells in vivo. Therefore, ECG may be used as an anti-cancer and anti-invasion agent for the adjuvant treatment and metastasis control of human lung cancer cells. ECG may also be administered as an effective chemopreventive agent against TGF-β1-induced EMT. PMID:27224248

  6. Regulatory T cells, inherited variation, and clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Keith L; Maurer, Matthew J; Preston, Claudia C; Moysich, Kirsten B; Goergen, Krista; Hawthorne, Kieran M; Cunningham, Julie M; Odunsi, Kunle; Hartmann, Lynn C; Kalli, Kimberly R; Oberg, Ann L; Goode, Ellen L

    2015-12-01

    The immune system constitutes one of the host factors modifying outcomes in ovarian cancer. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are believed to be a major factor in preventing the immune response from destroying ovarian cancers. Understanding mechanisms that regulate Tregs in the tumor microenvironment could lead to the identification of novel targets aimed at reducing their influence. In this study, we used immunofluorescence-based microscopy to enumerate Tregs, total CD4 T cells, and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells in fresh frozen tumors from over 400 patients with ovarian cancer (>80 % high-grade serous). We sought to determine whether Tregs were associated with survival and genetic variation in 79 genes known to influence Treg induction, trafficking, or function. We used Cox regression, accounting for known prognostic factors, to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) associated with T cell counts and ratios. We found that the ratios of CD8 T cells and total CD4 T cells to Tregs were associated with improved overall survival (CD8/Treg HR 0.84, p = 0.0089; CD4/Treg HR 0.88, p = 0.046) and with genetic variation in IL-10 (p = 0.0073 and 0.01, respectively). In multivariate analyses, the associations between the ratios and overall survival remained similar (IL-10 and clinical covariate-adjusted CD8/Treg HR 0.85, p = 0.031; CD4/Treg HR 0.87, p = 0.093), suggesting that this association was not driven by variation in IL-10. Thus, integration of novel tumor phenotyping measures with extensive clinical and genetic information suggests that the ratio of T cells to Tregs may be prognostic of outcome in ovarian cancer, regardless of inherited genotype in genes related to Tregs. PMID:26298430

  7. Human breast cancer cells are redirected to mammary epithelial cells upon interaction with the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment in-vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Bussard

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. At present, the etiology of breast cancer is unknown; however the possibility of a distinct cell of origin, i.e. a cancer stem cell, is a heavily investigated area of research. Influencing signals from the tissue niche are known to affect stem cells. Literature has shown that cancer cells lose their tumorigenic potential and display 'normal' behavior when placed into 'normal' ontogenic environments. Therefore, it may be the case that the tissue microenvironment is able to generate signals to redirect cancer cell fate. Previously, we showed that pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells could be redirected by the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment to contribute epithelial progeny for 'normal' gland development in-vivo. Here, we show that that human metastatic, non-metastatic, and metastasis-suppressed breast cancer cells proliferate and contribute to normal mammary gland development in-vivo without tumor formation. Immunochemistry for human-specific mitochondria, keratin 8 and 14, as well as human-specific milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, impregnated transplant hosts confirmed the presence of human cell progeny. Features consistent with normal mammary gland development as seen in intact hosts (duct, lumen formation, development of secretory acini were recapitulated in both primary and secondary outgrowths from chimeric implants. These results suggest the dominance of the tissue microenvironment over cancer cell fate. This work demonstrates that cultured human breast cancer cells (metastatic and non-metastatic respond developmentally to signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in-vivo.

  8. A transcriptional repressive role for epithelial-specific ETS factor ELF3 on oestrogen receptor alpha in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajulapalli, Vijaya Narasihma Reddy; Samanthapudi, Venkata Subramanyam Kumar; Pulaganti, Madhusudana; Khumukcham, Saratchandra Singh; Malisetty, Vijaya Lakhsmi; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Chitta, Suresh Kumar; Manavathi, Bramanandam

    2016-04-15

    Oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that primarily mediates oestrogen (E2)-dependent gene transcription required for mammary gland development. Coregulators critically regulate ERα transcription functions by directly interacting with it. In the present study, we report that ELF3, an epithelial-specific ETS transcription factor, acts as a transcriptional repressor of ERα. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) analysis demonstrated that ELF3 strongly binds to ERα in the absence of E2, but ELF3 dissociation occurs upon E2 treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner suggesting that E2 negatively influences such interaction. Domain mapping studies further revealed that the ETS (E-twenty six) domain of ELF3 interacts with the DNA binding domain of ERα. Accordingly, ELF3 inhibited ERα's DNA binding activity by preventing receptor dimerization, partly explaining the mechanism by which ELF3 represses ERα transcriptional activity. Ectopic expression of ELF3 decreases ERα transcriptional activity as demonstrated by oestrogen response elements (ERE)-luciferase reporter assay or by endogenous ERα target genes. Conversely ELF3 knockdown increases ERα transcriptional activity. Consistent with these results, ELF3 ectopic expression decreases E2-dependent MCF7 cell proliferation whereas ELF3 knockdown increases it. We also found that E2 induces ELF3 expression in MCF7 cells suggesting a negative feedback regulation of ERα signalling in breast cancer cells. A small peptide sequence of ELF3 derived through functional interaction between ERα and ELF3 could inhibit DNA binding activity of ERα and breast cancer cell growth. These findings demonstrate that ELF3 is a novel transcriptional repressor of ERα in breast cancer cells. Peptide interaction studies further represent a novel therapeutic option in breast cancer therapy.

  9. Phorbol ester stimulates ethanolamine release from the metastatic basal prostate cancer cell line PC3 but not from prostate epithelial cell lines LNCaP and P4E6

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, J; Noble, A.; Otsuka, M; Berry, P.; Maitland, N J; Rumsby, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malignancy alters cellular complex lipid metabolism and membrane lipid composition and turnover. Here, we investigated whether tumorigenesis in cancer-derived prostate epithelial cell lines influences protein kinase C-linked turnover of ethanolamine phosphoglycerides (EtnPGs) and alters the pattern of ethanolamine (Etn) metabolites released to the medium. Methods: Prostate epithelial cell lines P4E6, LNCaP and PC3 were models of prostate cancer (PCa). PNT2C2 and PNT1A were models ...

  10. B-Raf inhibitors induce epithelial differentiation in BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Ricarda; Köhler, Martin; Andrlová, Hana; Weinberg, Florian; Möller, Yvonne; Halbach, Sebastian; Lutz, Lisa; Mastroianni, Justin; Klose, Martin; Bittermann, Nicola; Kowar, Silke; Zeiser, Robert; Olayioye, Monilola A; Lassmann, Silke; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Brummer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    BRAF mutations are associated with aggressive, less-differentiated and therapy-resistant colorectal carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms for these correlations remain unknown. To understand how oncogenic B-Raf contributes to carcinogenesis, in particular to aspects other than cellular proliferation and survival, we generated three isogenic human colorectal carcinoma cell line models in which we can dynamically modulate the expression of the B-Raf(V600E) oncoprotein. Doxycyclin-inducible knockdown of endogenous B-Raf(V600E) decreases cellular motility and invasion in conventional and three-dimensional (3D) culture, whereas it promotes cell-cell contacts and induces various hallmarks of differentiated epithelia. Importantly, all these effects are recapitulated by B-Raf (PLX4720, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib) or MEK inhibitors (trametinib). Surprisingly, loss of B-Raf(V600E) in HT29 xenografts does not only stall tumor growth, but also induces glandular structures with marked expression of CDX2, a tumor-suppressor and master transcription factor of intestinal differentiation. By performing the first transcriptome profiles of PLX4720-treated 3D cultures of HT29 and Colo-205 cells, we identify several upregulated genes linked to epithelial differentiation and effector functions, such as claudin-1, a Cdx-2 target gene encoding a critical tight junction component. Thereby, we provide a mechanism for the clinically observed correlation between mutant BRAF and the loss of Cdx-2 and claudin-1. PLX4720 also suppressed several metastasis-associated transcripts that have not been implicated as targets, effectors or potential biomarkers of oncogenic B-Raf signaling so far. Together, we identify a novel facet of clinically applied B-Raf or MEK inhibitors by showing that they promote cellular adhesion and differentiation of colorectal carcinoma cells. PMID:25381152

  11. Induction of reactive oxygen species generation inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promotes growth arrest in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Trinath P; Suman, Suman; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress is one causative factor of the pathogenesis and aggressiveness of most of the cancer types, including prostate cancer (CaP). A moderate increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces cell proliferation whereas excessive amounts of ROS promote apoptosis. In this study, we explored the pro-oxidant property of 3,9-dihydroxy-2-prenylcoumestan (psoralidin [pso]), a dietary agent, on CaP (PC-3 and C4-2B) cells. Pso greatly induced ROS generation (more than 20-fold) that resulted in the growth inhibition of CaP cells. Overexpression of anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2, and catalase, or pretreatment with the pharmacological inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated both pso-mediated ROS generation and pso-mediated growth inhibition in CaP cells. Furthermore, pso administration significantly inhibited the migratory and invasive property of CaP cells by decreasing the transcription of β-catenin, and slug, which promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and by concurrently inducing E-cadherin expression in CaP cells. Pso-induced ROS generation in CaP cells resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-c release, and activation of caspase-3 and -9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which led to apoptosis. On the other hand, overexpression of anti-oxidants rescued pso-mediated effects on CaP cells. These findings suggest that increasing the threshold of intracellular ROS could prevent or treat CaP growth and metastasis. PMID:23475579

  12. SHOX2 Is a Direct miR-375 Target and a Novel Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Inducer in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungguan Hong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have added a new dimension to our understanding of tumorigenesis and associated processes like epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Here, we show that miR-375 is elevated in epithelial-like breast cancer cells, and ectopic miR-375 expression suppresses EMT in mesenchymal-like breast cancer cells. We identified short stature homeobox 2 (SHOX2 as a miR-375 target, and miR-375–mediated suppression in EMT was reversed by forced SHOX2 expression. Ectopic SHOX2 expression can induce EMT in epithelial-like breast cancer cells, whereas SHOX2 knockdown diminishes EMT traits in mesenchymal-like breast cancer cells, demonstrating SHOX2 as an EMT inducer. We show that SHOX2 acts as a transcription factor to upregulate transforming growth factor β receptor I (TβR-I expression, and TβR-I inhibitor LY364947 abolishes EMT elicited by ectopic SHOX2 expression, suggesting that transforming growth factor β signaling is essential for SHOX2-induced EMT. Manipulating SHOX2 abundance in breast cancer cells impact in vitro invasion and in vivo dissemination. Analysis of breast tumor microarray database revealed that high SHOX2 expression significantly correlates with poor patient survival. Our study supports a critical role of SHOX2 in breast tumorigenicity.

  13. Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Grown from Explants

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghi, Asma; Zaman, Aisha; Dolovich, Myrna

    2010-01-01

    Human bronchial epithelial cells are needed for cell models of disease and to investigate the effect of excipients and pharmacologic agents on the function and structure of human epithelial cells. Here we describe in detail the method of growing bronchial epithelial cells from bronchial airway tissue that is harvested by the surgeon at the times of lung surgery (e.g. lung cancer or lung volume reduction surgery). With ethics approval and informed consent, the surgeon takes what is needed for ...

  14. Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like properties in SCC9 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue invasion and metastasis are acquired abilities of cancer and related to the death in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Emerging observations indicate that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with tumor progression and the generation of cells with cancer stem cells (CSCs) properties. Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a cell surface proteinase, which is involved in degrading extracellular matrix components that can promote tumor invasion and cell migration. In the current study, we utilized SCC9 cells stably transfected with an empty vector (SCC9-N) or a vector encoding human MT1-MMP (SCC9-M) to study the role of MT1-MMP in EMT development. Upon up-regulation of MT1-MMP, SCC9-M cells underwent EMT, in which they presented a fibroblast-like phenotype and had a decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, cytokeratin18 and β-catenin) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin). We further demonstrated that MT1-MMP-induced morphologic changes increased the level of Twist and ZEB, and were dependent on repressing the transcription of E-cadherin. These activities resulted in low adhesive, high invasive abilities of the SCC9-M cells. Furthermore, MT1-MMP-induced transformed cells exhibited cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics, such as low proliferation, self-renewal ability, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and apoptosis, and expression of CSCs surface markers. In conclusion, our study indicates that overexpression of MT1-MMP induces EMT and results in the acquisition of CSC-like properties in SCC9 cells. Our growing understanding of the mechanism regulating EMT may provide new targets against invasion and metastasis in OSCC

  15. Nobiletin inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by antagonizing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Chunli; Liu, Yuting; Zhan, Yiyi; Liu, Kai; Wang, Ruozheng

    2016-05-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical cellular process in cancer metastasis, during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal cells. Since transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a potent inducer of EMT, blocking of TGF-β/Smad signaling has become a promising cancer therapy. Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid from Citrus depressa, has been shown to be valuable for cancer treatment, yet the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and H1299 cells were used to evaluate the effect of nobiletin on EMT induced by TGF-β1. Nobiletin successfully inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, migration, invasion and adhesion in vitro, accompanied by attenuation of MMP-2, MMP-9, p-Src, p-FAK, p-paxillin, Snail, Slug, Twist and ZEB1 expression. Nobiletin inhibited the transcriptional activity of Smads without changing the phosphorylation status or translocation of Smads induced by TGF-β1. Moreover, Smad3 is requisite in TGF-β1-stimulated EMT. Smad3 overexpression meaningfully impaired the ability of nobiletin to reverse TGF-β1-induced EMT. In vivo, nobiletin prohibited the growth of metastatic nodules in the lungs of nude mice. Moreover, nobiletin inhibited tumor growth and reversed EMT in mice bearing A549-Luc xenografts, as revealed by IVIS imaging and immunohistochemical analysis. Collectively, the data suggest that nobiletin prevents EMT by inactivating TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. PMID:26986176

  16. Effect of Melatonin in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Markers and Invasive Properties of Breast Cancer Stem Cells of Canine and Human Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Naiane do Nascimento; Colombo, Jucimara; Lopes, Juliana Ramos; Gelaleti, Gabriela Bottaro; Moschetta, Marina Gobbe; Sonehara, Nathália Martins; Hellmén, Eva; Zanon, Caroline de Freitas; Oliani, Sônia Maria; Zuccari, Debora Aparecida Pires de Campos

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been associated with metastasis and therapeutic resistance and can be generated via epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Some studies suggest that the hormone melatonin acts in CSCs and may participate in the inhibition of the EMT. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the formation of mammospheres from the canine and human breast cancer cell lines, CMT-U229 and MCF-7, and the effects of melatonin treatment on the modulation of stem cell and EMT molecular markers: OCT4, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin, as well as on cell viability and invasiveness of the cells from mammospheres. The CMT-U229 and MCF-7 cell lines were subjected to three-dimensional culture in special medium for stem cells. The phenotype of mammospheres was first evaluated by flow cytometry (CD44(+)/CD24(low/-) marking). Cell viability was measured by MTT colorimetric assay and the expression of the proteins OCT4, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin was evaluated by immunofluorescence and quantified by optical densitometry. The analysis of cell migration and invasion was performed in Boyden Chamber. Flow cytometry proved the stem cell phenotype with CD44(+)/CD24(low/-) positive marking for both cell lines. Cell viability of CMT-U229 and MCF-7 cells was reduced after treatment with 1mM melatonin for 24 h (Pmelatonin for 24 hours. Moreover, treatment with melatonin was able to reduce cell migration and invasion in both cell lines when compared to control group (Pmelatonin shows an inhibitory role in the viability and invasiveness of breast cancer mammospheres as well as in modulating the expression of proteins related to EMT in breast CSCs, suggesting its potential anti-metastatic role in canine and human breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26934679

  17. Interleukin-32α inactivates JAK2/STAT3 signaling and reverses interleukin-6-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfeng; Wang, Silu; Su, Jiadong; Chu, Guanyu; You, Heyi; Chen, Zongjing; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Bicheng; Zhou, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 is a newly discovered cytokine that has multifaceted roles in inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and autoimmune diseases and participates in cell apoptosis, cancer cell growth inhibition, accentuation of inflammation, and angiogenesis. Here, we investigated the potential effects of IL-32α on epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metastasis, and invasion, and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer cells. The human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and SW1990 were used. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related markers, including E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, and Zeb1, as well as extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9, were detected by immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling proteins was detected by Western blotting. Wound healing assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting were performed to assess cell migration and invasion. The effects of IL-32α on the IL-6-induced activation of JAK2/STAT3 were also evaluated. In vitro, we found that IL-32α inhibits the expressions of the related markers N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, and Zeb1, as well as JAK2/STAT3 proteins, in a dose-dependent manner in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression was increased significantly after IL-32α treatment. IL-32α downregulated the expression of MMPs, including MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9, and decreased wound healing in pancreatic cancer cells. These consistent changes were also found in IL-6-induced pancreatic cancer cells following IL-32α treatment. This study showed that reversion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, inhibition of invasiveness and metastasis, and activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway could be achieved through the application of exogenous IL-32α. PMID:27471397

  18. Effects of HLEC on the secreted proteins of epithelial ovarian cancer cells prone to metastasize to lymph nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Ying Zhang; Fu-Qiang Yin; Li Liu; Ting Gao; He-Yun Ruan; Xiao Guan; Ying-Xin Lu; Dan-Rong Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study explores the effect of HLEC on the secreted proteins of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells (SKOV3-PM4) with directional highly lymphatic metastasis. Methods:Supernatants of four groups of cultured cells, namely, SKOV3 (A), SKOV3+HLEC (B), SKOV3-PM4 (C), SKOV3-PM4+HLEC (D), were collected, and their proteins were detected by antibody arrays and iTARQ-2D-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS. Signiifcantly differential proteins were further analyzed via bioinformatics and validated in human serums and cell media via ELISA. Results:Results of antibody arrays and mass spectrometry demonstrated that GRN and VEGFA were upregulated in group C (compared with group A), whereas IGFBP7 and SPARC were downregulated in group D (compared with group C). Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis results showed that IGFBP7 and VEGFA were closely linked to each other. Further validation with serums showed statistical signiifcance in VEGFA and IGFBP7 levels among groups of patients with ovarian cancers, benign tumors, and control groups. Two proteins were upegulated in the ifrst group. VEGFA in the control group was downregulated. For IGFBP, upregulation in the control group and down-regulation in the ifrst group were also observed. Conclusion:The HLEC microenvironment is closely associated with directional metastasis to lymph nodes and with differential proteins including cell stromal proteins and adhesion factors. hTe upregulation of VEGFA and GRN and the downregulation of SPARC and IGFBP7 are closely associated with directional metastasis to lymph nodes in EOC cells.

  19. Detection of circulating tumour cells with a hybrid (epithelial/mesenchymal) phenotype in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecharpentier, A; Vielh, P; Perez-Moreno, P; Planchard, D; Soria, J C; Farace, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Circulating tumour cells (CTC) have a crucial role in metastasis formation and can consistently provide information on patient prognosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered as an essential process in the metastatic cascade, but there is currently very few data demonstrating directly the existence of the EMT process in CTCs. Methods: CTCs were enriched by blood filtration using ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumour cells), triply labelled with fluorescent anti-vimentin, anti-pan-keratin antibodies and SYTOX orange nuclear dye, and examined by confocal microscopy in six patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In parallel, CTCs were morphocytologically identified by an experienced cytopathologist. Results: Isolated or clusters of dual CTCs strongly co-expressing vimentin and keratin were evidenced in all patients (range 5–88/5 ml). CTCs expressing only vimentin were detected in three patients, but were less frequent (range 3–15/5 ml). No CTC expressing only keratin was detected. Conclusion: We showed for the first time the existence of hybrid CTCs with an epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype in patients with NSCLC. Their characterisation should provide further insight on the significance of EMT in CTCs and on the mechanism of metastasis in patients with NSCLC. PMID:21970878

  20. Variation in cell signaling protein expression may introduce sampling bias in primary epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermeyer, Gabriele; Malinowsky, Katharina; Beese, Christian; Höfler, Heinz; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Avril, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Although the expression of cell signaling proteins is used as prognostic and predictive biomarker, variability of protein levels within tumors is not well studied. We assessed intratumoral heterogeneity of protein expression within primary ovarian cancer. Full-length proteins were extracted from 88 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 13 primary high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas with 5-9 samples each. In addition, 14 samples of normal fallopian tube epithelium served as reference. Quantitative reverse phase protein arrays were used to analyze the expression of 36 cell signaling proteins including HER2, EGFR, PI3K/Akt, and angiogenic pathways as well as 15 activated (phosphorylated) proteins. We found considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in the expression of proteins with a mean coefficient of variation of 25% (range 17-53%). The extent of intratumoral heterogeneity differed between proteins (p<0.005). Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the extent of heterogeneity between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated proteins. In comparison, we assessed the variation of protein levels amongst tumors from different patients, which revealed a similar mean coefficient of variation of 21% (range 12-48%). Based on hierarchical clustering, samples from the same patient clustered more closely together compared to samples from different patients. However, a clear separation of tumor versus normal tissue by clustering was only achieved when mean expression values of all individual samples per tumor were analyzed. While differential expression of some proteins was detected independently of the sampling method used, the majority of proteins only demonstrated differential expression when mean expression values of multiple samples per tumor were analyzed. Our data indicate that assessment of established and novel cell signaling proteins as diagnostic or prognostic markers may require sampling of serous ovarian cancers at several distinct

  1. Variation in cell signaling protein expression may introduce sampling bias in primary epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mittermeyer

    Full Text Available Although the expression of cell signaling proteins is used as prognostic and predictive biomarker, variability of protein levels within tumors is not well studied. We assessed intratumoral heterogeneity of protein expression within primary ovarian cancer. Full-length proteins were extracted from 88 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 13 primary high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas with 5-9 samples each. In addition, 14 samples of normal fallopian tube epithelium served as reference. Quantitative reverse phase protein arrays were used to analyze the expression of 36 cell signaling proteins including HER2, EGFR, PI3K/Akt, and angiogenic pathways as well as 15 activated (phosphorylated proteins. We found considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in the expression of proteins with a mean coefficient of variation of 25% (range 17-53%. The extent of intratumoral heterogeneity differed between proteins (p<0.005. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the extent of heterogeneity between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated proteins. In comparison, we assessed the variation of protein levels amongst tumors from different patients, which revealed a similar mean coefficient of variation of 21% (range 12-48%. Based on hierarchical clustering, samples from the same patient clustered more closely together compared to samples from different patients. However, a clear separation of tumor versus normal tissue by clustering was only achieved when mean expression values of all individual samples per tumor were analyzed. While differential expression of some proteins was detected independently of the sampling method used, the majority of proteins only demonstrated differential expression when mean expression values of multiple samples per tumor were analyzed. Our data indicate that assessment of established and novel cell signaling proteins as diagnostic or prognostic markers may require sampling of serous ovarian cancers at

  2. Impact of p120-catenin Isoforms 1A and 3A on Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition of Lung Cancer Cells Expressing E-cadherin in Different Subcellular Locations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yijun; ZHAO, YUE; Jiang, Guiyang; Zhang, Xiupeng; Zhao, Huanyu; Wu, Junhua; Xu, Ke; WANG, ENHUA

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process in tumor development. Despite previous investigations, it remains unclear how p120-catenin (p120ctn) isoforms 1A and 3A affect the EMT of tumor cells. Here we investigated expression of p120ctn, E-cadherin and vimentin in 78 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples by immunohistochemistry and found that p120ctn membrane expression positively correlated with E-cadherin expression (P

  3. Treatment Strategy for Recurrent and Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Efficacy of High-Dose Chemotherapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Muramatsu, Toshinari; Shinozuka, Takao; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Tsukada, Hitomi; Maeda, Hironobu; Miyamoto, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Masaru; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Masanori; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Mikami, Mikio

    2006-01-01

    According to population statistics in Japan, approximately 3,800 women die of ovarian ­cancer annually, and approximately 6,000 are affected by this disease. Ovarian cancer is ­referred to as a “silent tumor”, since patients have few subjective symptoms and by the time symptoms are observed, the cancer has progressed to Stage III or IV in about half of the patients. The basic treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is to remove as much of the tumor as possible, and subsequently to pe...

  4. Zeranol Down-Regulates p53 Expression in Primary Cultured Human Breast Cancer Epithelial Cells through Epigenetic Modification

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    Young C. Lin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that there are many risk factors associated with breast cancer. Silencing tumor suppressor genes through epigenetic alterations play critical roles in breast cancer initiation, promotion and progression. As a growth promoter, Zeranol (Z has been approved by the FDA and is widely used to enhance the growth of beef cattle in the United States. However, the safety of Z use as a growth promoter is still under debate. In order to provide more evidence to clarify this critical health issue, the current study investigated the effect of Z on the proliferation of primary cultured human normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells (PCHNBECs and PCHBCECs, respectively isolated from the same patient using MTS assay, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We also conducted an investigation regarding the mechanisms that might be involved. Our results show that Z is more potent to stimulate PCHBCEC growth than PCHNBEC growth. The stimulatory effects of Z on PCHBCECs and PCHBCECs may be mediated by its down-regulating expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53 at the mRNA and protein levels. Further investigation showed that the expression of DNA methylatransferase 1 mRNA and protein levels is up-regulated by treatment with Z in PCHBCECs as compared to PCHNBECs, which suggests a role of Z in epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of p53 gene expression in PCHBCECs. Our experimental results imply the potentially adverse health effect of Z in breast cancer development. Further study is continuing in our laboratory.

  5. STK31 is a cell-cycle regulated protein that contributes to the tumorigenicity of epithelial cancer cells.

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    Pao-Lin Kuo

    Full Text Available Serine/threonine kinase 31 (STK31 is one of the novel cancer/testis antigens for which its biological functions remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that STK31 is overexpressed in many human colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues. STK31 co-localizes with pericentrin in the centrosomal region throughout all phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, when cells undergo mitosis, STK31 also localizes to the centromeres, central spindle, and midbody. This localization behavior is similar to that of chromosomal passenger proteins, which are known to be the important players of the spindle assembly checkpoint. The expression of STK31 is cell cycle-dependent through the regulation of a putative D-box near its C-terminal region. Ectopically-expressed STK31-GFP increases cell migration and invasive ability without altering the proliferation rate of cancer cells, whereas the knockdown expression of endogenous STK31 by lentivirus-derived shRNA results in microtubule assembly defects that prolong the duration of mitosis and lead to apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that the aberrant expression of STK31 contributes to tumorigenicity in somatic cancer cells. STK31 might therefore act as a potential therapeutic target in human somatic cancers.

  6. The impact of metformin and salinomycin on transforming growth factor β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOECK, STEFAN; AMANN, ARNO; HUBER, JULIA M.; GAMERITH, GABRIELE; HILBE, WOLFGANG; ZWIERZINA, HEINZ

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is highly involved in the development of metastases. EMT transforms epithelial carcinoma cells into mesenchymal-like cells, characterized by increased cell migration and invasiveness. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) appears to be crucial in this process. Metformin and salinomycin have demonstrated an EMT inhibitory effect. The current experiments indicate that these substances specifically inhibit TGFβ-induced EMT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The NSCLC cell lines A549 and HCC4006 were stimulated with TGFβ for 48 h to induce EMT. Metformin or salinomycin was added simultaneously with TGFβ to inhibit TGFβ-induced EMT. Western blot analyses of E-cadherin and vimentin were performed to detect changes in EMT marker expression, and a wound healing assay was conducted to determine the potential effects on cell migration. The effects of the two drugs on cell viability were also investigated using MTS tetrazolium dye assays. The results revealed that cells undergoing EMT by application of TGFβ exhibited a downregulation of E-cadherin and an upregulation of vimentin protein expression on western blot analyses, and an increased capacity for cell migration. Simultaneous application of TGFβ and metformin specifically inhibited EMT and increased E-cadherin expression. At the higher dose tested, salinomycin also inhibited EMT, despite an increase in vimentin expression in the two cell lines. Furthermore, metformin and salinomycin, at the two concentrations tested, inhibited cell migration. These findings demonstrate that metformin and salinomycin are able to block EMT and inhibit EMT-induced cell migration. Thus, these two substances are novel EMT inhibiting drugs that have the potential to specifically control EMT and metastatic spread in NSCLC. PMID:27073581

  7. β-III tubulin modulates the behavior of Snail overexpressed during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobierajska, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Ciszewski, Wojciech M; Sacewicz-Hofman, Izabela; Wawro, Marta E; Wiktorska, Magdalena; Boncela, Joanna; Papiewska-Pajak, Izabela; Kwasniak, Pawel; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S; Niewiarowska, Jolanta

    2016-09-01

    Class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) is a marker of drug resistance expressed in a variety of solid tumors. Originally, it was described as an important element of chemoresistance to taxanes. Recent studies have revealed that TUBB3 is also involved in an adaptive response to a microenvironmental stressor, e.g. low oxygen levels and poor nutrient supply in some solid tumors, independently of the microtubule targeting agent. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that TUBB3 is a marker of biological aggressiveness associated with modulation of metastatic abilities in colon cancer. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a basic cellular process by which epithelial cells lose their epithelial behavior and become invasive cells involved in cancer metastasis. Snail is a zinc-finger transcription factor which is able to induce EMT through the repression of E-cadherin expression. In the presented studies we focused on the analysis of the TUBB3 role in EMT-induced colon adenocarcinoma cell lines HT-29 and LS180. We observed a positive correlation between Snail presence and TUBB3 upregulation in tested adenocarcinoma cell lines. The cellular and behavioral analysis revealed for the first time that elevated TUBB3 level is functionally linked to increased cell migration and invasive capability of EMT induced cells. Additionally, the post-transcriptional modifications (phosphorylation, glycosylation) appear to regulate the cellular localization of TUBB3 and its phosphorylation, observed in cytoskeleton, is probably involved in cell motility modulation.

  8. Elucidation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related pathways in a triple-negative breast cancer cell line model by multi-omics interactome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauling, Josch K; Christensen, Anne G; Batra, Richa;

    2014-01-01

    gene expression, protein expression or post-translational modifications. To overcome single omics analysis, we developed a set of computational methods that allow a combined analysis of data collections from multiple omics fields utilizing hybrid interactome networks. We apply these methods to data...... obtained from a triple-negative breast cancer cell line model, combining data sets of gene and protein expression as well as protein phosphorylation. We focus on alterations associated with the phenotypical differences arising from epithelial-mesenchymal transition in two breast cancer cell lines...

  9. Genomic analysis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Farley; Laurent L Ozbun; Michael J Birrer

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a major health problem for women in the United States.Despite evidence of considerable heterogeneity,most cases of ovarian cancer are treated in a similar fashion.The molecular basis for the clinicopathologic characteristics of these tumors remains poorly defined.Whole genome expression profiling is a genomic tool,which can identify dysregulated genes and uncover unique sub-classes of tumors.The application of this technology to ovarian cancer has provided a solid molecular basis for differences in histology and grade of ovarian tumors.Differentially expressed genes identified pathways implicated in cell proliferation,invasion,motility,chromosomal instability,and gene silencing and provided new insights into the origin and potential treatment of these cancers.The added knowledge provided by global gene expression profiling should allow for a more rational treatment of ovarian cancers.These techniques are leading to a paradigm shift from empirical treatment to an individually tailored approach.This review summarizes the new genomic data on epithelial ovarian cancers of different histology and grade and the impact it will have on our understanding and treatment of this disease.

  10. Comparative proteome analysis of human epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagné Jean-Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is a devastating disease associated with low survival prognosis mainly because of the lack of early detection markers and the asymptomatic nature of the cancer until late stage. Using two complementary proteomics approaches, a differential protein expression profile was carried out between low and highly transformed epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines which realistically mimic the phenotypic changes observed during evolution of a tumour metastasis. This investigation was aimed at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation, proliferation and neoplastic progression of ovarian cancer. Results The quantitative profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer model cell lines TOV-81D and TOV-112D generated using iTRAQ analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed some proteins with altered expression levels. Several of these proteins have been the object of interest in cancer research but others were unrecognized as differentially expressed in a context of ovarian cancer. Among these, series of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, cellular metabolism, cell adhesion or motility and cytoskeleton organization were identified, suggesting their possible role in the emergence of oncogenic pathways leading to aggressive cellular behavior. Conclusion The differential protein expression profile generated by the two proteomics approaches combined to complementary characterizations studies will open the way to more exhaustive and systematic representation of the disease and will provide valuable information that may be helpful to uncover the molecular mechanisms related to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition stimulates human cancer cells to extend microtubule-based invasive protrusions and suppresses cell growth in collagen gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Oyanagi

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a crucial event in tumor invasion and metastasis. However, most of past EMT studies have been conducted in the conventional two-dimensional (2D monolayer culture. Therefore, it remains unclear what invasive phenotypes are acquired by EMT-induced cancer cells. To address this point, we attempted to characterize EMT cells in more physiological, three-dimensional (3D collagen gel culture. EMT was induced by treating three human carcinoma cell lines (A549, Panc-1 and MKN-1 with TGF-ß. The TGF-ß treatment stimulated these cells to overexpress the invasion markers laminin γ2 and MT1-MMP in 2D culture, in addition to the induction of well-known morphological change and EMT marker expression. EMT induction enhanced cell motility and adhesiveness to fibronectin and collagen in 2D culture. Although EMT cells showed comparable cell growth to control cells in 2D culture, their growth rates were extremely suppressed in soft agar and collagen gel cultures. Most characteristically, EMT-induced cancer cells commonly and markedly extended invasive protrusions in collagen gel. These protrusions were mainly supported by microtubules rather than actin cytoskeleton. Snail-introduced, stable EMT cells showed similar protrusions in 3D conditions without TGF-ß. Moreover, these protrusions were suppressed by colchicine or inhibitors of heat shock protein 90 (HSP-90 and protein phosphatase 2A. However, MMP inhibitors did not suppress the protrusion formation. These data suggest that EMT enhances tumor cell infiltration into interstitial stroma by extending microtubule-based protrusions and suppressing cell growth. The elevated cell adhesion to fibronectin and collagen and high cell motility also seem important for the tumor invasion.

  12. α-Mangostin Suppresses the Viability and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Downregulating the PI3K/Akt Pathway

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    Qinhong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Mangostin, a natural product isolated from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit, has been shown to inhibit the growth of tumor cells in various types of cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unclear. Here, we report that α-mangostin suppressed the viability and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Treatment of pancreatic cancer BxPc-3 and Panc-1 cells with α-mangostin resulted in loss of cell viability, accompanied by enhanced cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and decrease of cyclin-D1. Moreover, Transwell and Matrigel invasion assays showed that α-mangostin significantly reduced the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Consistent with these results, α-mangostin decreased the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, N-cadherin, and vimentin and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, we found that α-mangostin suppressed the activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway in pancreatic cancer cells as demonstrated by the reduction of the Akt phosphorylation by α-mangostin. Finally, α-mangostin significantly inhibited the growth of BxPc-3 tumor mouse xenografts. Our results suggest that α-mangostin may be potentially used as a novel adjuvant therapy or complementary alternative medicine for the management of pancreatic cancers.

  13. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells, mediated by a long non-coding RNA, HOTAIR, are involved in cell malignant transformation induced by cigarette smoke extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of lung diseases, including cancer, caused by cigarette smoke is increasing, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. This report describes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and experiments utilizing lncRNAs to integrate inflammation with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The present study shows that, induced by CSE, IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3, a transcription activator. A ChIP assay determined that the interaction of STAT3 with the promoter regions of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) increased levels of HOTAIR. Blocking of IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody, decreasing STAT3, and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced HOTAIR expression. Moreover, for HBE cells cultured in the presence of HOTAIR siRNA for 24 h, the CSE-induced EMT, formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates HOTAIR in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT and to CSCs induced by CSE. These data define a link between inflammation and EMT, processes involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE. This link, mediated through lncRNAs, establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • STAT3 directly regulates the levels of LncRNA HOTAIR. • LncRNA HOTAIR mediates the link between inflammation and EMT. • LncRNA HOTAIR is involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE

  14. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells, mediated by a long non-coding RNA, HOTAIR, are involved in cell malignant transformation induced by cigarette smoke extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Bairu; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of lung diseases, including cancer, caused by cigarette smoke is increasing, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. This report describes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and experiments utilizing lncRNAs to integrate inflammation with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The present study shows that, induced by CSE, IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3, a transcription activator. A ChIP assay determined that the interaction of STAT3 with the promoter regions of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) increased levels of HOTAIR. Blocking of IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody, decreasing STAT3, and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced HOTAIR expression. Moreover, for HBE cells cultured in the presence of HOTAIR siRNA for 24 h, the CSE-induced EMT, formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates HOTAIR in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT and to CSCs induced by CSE. These data define a link between inflammation and EMT, processes involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE. This link, mediated through lncRNAs, establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • STAT3 directly regulates the levels of LncRNA HOTAIR. • LncRNA HOTAIR mediates the link between inflammation and EMT. • LncRNA HOTAIR is involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE.

  15. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  16. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minli Wang

    Full Text Available Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1 kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  17. Effect of Melatonin in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Markers and Invasive Properties of Breast Cancer Stem Cells of Canine and Human Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiane do Nascimento Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs have been associated with metastasis and therapeutic resistance and can be generated via epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT. Some studies suggest that the hormone melatonin acts in CSCs and may participate in the inhibition of the EMT. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the formation of mammospheres from the canine and human breast cancer cell lines, CMT-U229 and MCF-7, and the effects of melatonin treatment on the modulation of stem cell and EMT molecular markers: OCT4, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin, as well as on cell viability and invasiveness of the cells from mammospheres. The CMT-U229 and MCF-7 cell lines were subjected to three-dimensional culture in special medium for stem cells. The phenotype of mammospheres was first evaluated by flow cytometry (CD44(+/CD24(low/- marking. Cell viability was measured by MTT colorimetric assay and the expression of the proteins OCT4, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin was evaluated by immunofluorescence and quantified by optical densitometry. The analysis of cell migration and invasion was performed in Boyden Chamber. Flow cytometry proved the stem cell phenotype with CD44(+/CD24(low/- positive marking for both cell lines. Cell viability of CMT-U229 and MCF-7 cells was reduced after treatment with 1mM melatonin for 24 h (P<0.05. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased E-cadherin expression (P<0.05 and decreased expression of OCT4, N-cadherin and vimentin (P<0.05 in both cell lines after treatment with 1 mM melatonin for 24 hours. Moreover, treatment with melatonin was able to reduce cell migration and invasion in both cell lines when compared to control group (P<0.05. Our results demonstrate that melatonin shows an inhibitory role in the viability and invasiveness of breast cancer mammospheres as well as in modulating the expression of proteins related to EMT in breast CSCs, suggesting its potential anti-metastatic role in canine and human breast cancer

  18. Epidermal growth factor-like domain-containing protein 7 (EGFL7 enhances EGF receptor-AKT signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells.

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    Bai-Hua Luo

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor-like domain-containing protein 7 (EGFL7 is upregulated in human epithelial tumors and so is a potential biomarker for malignancy. Indeed, previous studies have shown that high EGFL7 expression promotes infiltration and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT initiates the metastatic cascade and endows cancer cells with invasive and migratory capacity; however, it is not known if EGFL7 promotes metastasis by triggering EMT. We found that EGFL7 was overexpressed in multiple human gastric cancer (GC cell lines and that overexpression promoted cell invasion and migration as revealed by scratch wound and transwell migration assays. Conversely, shRNA-mediated EGFL7 knockdown reduced invasion and migration. Furthermore, EGFL7-overexpressing cells grew into larger tumors and were more likely to metastasize to the liver compared to underexpressing CG cells following subcutaneous injection in mice. EGFL7 overexpression protected GC cell lines against anoikis, providing a plausible mechanism for this enhanced metastatic capacity. In excised human gastric tumors, expression of EGFL7 was positively correlated with expression levels of the mesenchymal marker vimentin and the EMT-associated transcription repressor Snail, and negatively correlated with expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. In GC cell lines, EGFL7 knockdown reversed morphological signs of EMT and decreased both vimentin and Snail expression. In addition, EGFL7 overexpression promoted EGF receptor (EGFR and protein kinase B (AKT phospho-activation, effects markedly suppressed by the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478. Moreover, AG1478 also reduced the elevated invasive and migratory capacity of GC cell lines overexpressing EGFL7. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that EGFL7 promotes metastasis by activating EMT through an EGFR-AKT-Snail signaling pathway. Disruption of EGFL7-EGFR-AKT-Snail signaling may a

  19. The Protrusive Phase and Full Development of Integrin-Dependent Adhesions in Colon Epithelial Cells Require FAK- and ERKMediated Actin Spike Formation: Deregulation in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie G. Brunton

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrins play an important role in tumour progression by influencing cellular responses and matrix-dependent adhesion. However, the regulation of matrix-dependent adhesion assembly in epithelial cells is poorly understood. We have investigated the integrin and signalling requirements of cell-matrix adhesion assembly in colon carcinoma cells after plating on fibronectin. Adhesion assembly in these, and in the adenoma cells from which they were derived, was largely dependent on αvβ6 integrin and required phosphorylation of FAK on tyrosine-397. The rate of fibronectin-induced adhesion assembly and the expression of both αvβ6 integrin and FAK were increased during the adenoma-to-carcinoma transition. The matrix-dependent adhesion assembly process, particularly the final stages of complex protrusion that is required for optimal cell spreading, required the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK. Furthermore, phosphorylated ERK was targeted to newly forming cell-matrix adhesions in the carcinoma cells but not the adenoma cells, and inhibition of FAK-tyrosine-397 phosphorylation or MEK suppressed the appearance of phosphorylated ERK at peripheral sites. In addition, inhibition of MEK-ERK activation blocked the formation of peripheral actin microspikes that were necessary for the protrusive phase of cell-matrix adhesion assembly. Thus, MEK-ERK-dependent peripheral actin re-organization is required for the full development of integrin-induced adhesions and this pathway is stimulated in an in vitro model of colon cancer progression.

  20. Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Dharam P.; Dombkowski, Alan A.; Stemmer, Paul M.; Parker, Graham C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the biology of stem cells has resulted in significant interest in the development of normal epithelial cell lines from the intestinal mucosa, both to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells in tissue regeneration and to develop treatment models of degenerative disorders of the digestive tract. However, the difficulty of propagating cell lines of normal intestinal epithelium has impeded research into the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation of stem/progeni...

  1. FYN promotes breast cancer progression through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ye-Gong; Yu, Yue; Hou, Li-Kun; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Bin; Cao, Xu-Chen

    2016-08-01

    FYN, one of the members of the Src family of kinases (SFKs), has been reported to be overexpressed in various types of cancers and correlated with cell motility and proliferation. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we found that FYN was overexpressed in breast cancer and overexpression of FYN promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in the MCF10A cells, whereas depletion of FYN suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, FYN upregulated the expression of mesenchymal markers and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcription factors, and downregulated the expression of epithelial markers, suggesting that FYN induces EMT in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, FYN was transcriptionally regulated by FOXO1 and mediated FGF2-induced EMT through both the PI3K/AKT and ERK/MAPK pathways. PMID:27349276

  2. Gene expression relationship between prostate cancer cells of Gleason 3, 4 and normal epithelial cells as revealed by cell type-specific transcriptomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer cells in primary tumors have been typed CD10-/CD13-/CD24hi/CD26+/CD38lo/CD44-/CD104-. This CD phenotype suggests a lineage relationship between cancer cells and luminal cells. The Gleason grade of tumors is a descriptive of tumor glandular differentiation. Higher Gleason scores are associated with treatment failure. CD26+ cancer cells were isolated from Gleason 3+3 (G3) and Gleason 4+4 (G4) tumors by cell sorting, and their gene expression or transcriptome was determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis. Dataset analysis was used to determine gene expression similarities and differences between G3 and G4 as well as to prostate cancer cell lines and histologically normal prostate luminal cells. The G3 and G4 transcriptomes were compared to those of prostatic cell types of non-cancer, which included luminal, basal, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial. A principal components analysis of the various transcriptome datasets indicated a closer relationship between luminal and G3 than luminal and G4. Dataset comparison also showed that the cancer transcriptomes differed substantially from those of prostate cancer cell lines. Genes differentially expressed in cancer are potential biomarkers for cancer detection, and those differentially expressed between G3 and G4 are potential biomarkers for disease stratification given that G4 cancer is associated with poor outcomes. Differentially expressed genes likely contribute to the prostate cancer phenotype and constitute the signatures of these particular cancer cell types

  3. Reactive oxygen species contribute to arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation in human bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingzhi; Qiu, Ping; Chen, Bailing; Lu, Yongju; Wu, Kai; Thakur, Chitra; Chang, Qingshan; Sun, Jiaying; Chen, Fei, E-mail: fchen@wayne.edu

    2014-05-01

    Our previous studies suggested that arsenic is able to induce serine 21 phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein through activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt signaling pathways in the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. In the present report, we further demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the arsenic-induced protein kinase activation that leads to EZH2 phosphorylation. Several lines of evidence supported this notion. First, the pretreatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, abolishes arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation along with the inhibition of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. Second, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the most important form of ROS in the cells in response to extracellular stress signals, can induce phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein and the activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. By ectopic expression of the myc-tagged EZH2, we additionally identified direct interaction and phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein by Akt in response to arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, both arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were able to induce the translocation of ectopically expressed or endogenous EZH2 from nucleus to cytoplasm. In summary, the data presented in this report indicate that oxidative stress due to ROS generation plays an important role in the arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. - Highlights:: • Arsenic (As{sup 3+}) induces EZH phosphorylation. • JNK, STAT3, and Akt contribute to EZH2 phosphorylation. • Oxidative stress is involved in As{sup 3+}-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. • As{sup 3+} induces direct interaction of Akt and EZH2. • Phosphorylated EZH2 localized in cytoplasm.

  4. The role of maintenance proteins in the preservation of epithelial cell identity during mammary gland remodeling and breast cancer initiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danila Coradini; Saro Oriana

    2014-01-01

    During normal postnatal mammary gland development and adult remodeling related to the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and lactation, ovarian hormones and peptide growth factors contribute to the delineation of a definite epithelial cellidentity. This identity is maintained during cellreplication in a heritable but DNA-independent manner. The preservation of cellidentity is fundamental, especialy when cels must undergo changes in response to intrinsic and extrinsic signals. The maintenance proteins, which are required for cellidentity preservation, act epigenetically by regulating gene expression through DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. Among the maintenance proteins, the Trithorax (TrxG) and Polycomb (PcG) group proteins are the best characterized. In this review, we summarize the structures and activities of the TrxG and PcG complexes and describe their pivotal roles in nuclear estrogen receptor activity. In addition, we provide evidence that perturbations in these epigenetic regulators are involved in disrupting epithelial cellidentity, mammary gland remodeling, and breast cancer initiation.

  5. Copper modulates zinc metalloproteinase-dependent ectodomain shedding of key signaling and adhesion proteins and promotes the invasion of prostate cancer epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr-Sturgess, Catherine A; Tinker, Claire L; Hart, Claire A; Brown, Michael D; Clarke, Noel W; Parkin, Edward T

    2012-10-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc metalloproteinases (ZMPs) that catalyze the "ectodomain shedding" of a range of cell surface proteins including signaling and adhesion molecules. These "sheddases" are associated with the invasion and metastasis of a range of cancers. Increased serum and tumor tissue levels of copper are also observed in several cancers, although little is known about how the metal might promote disease progression at the molecular level. In the current study, we investigated whether copper might regulate the ectodomain shedding of two key cell surface proteins implicated in the invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer, the Notch ligand Jagged1 and the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, and whether the metal was able to influence the invasion of the prostate cancer epithelial cell line PC3. Physiological copper concentrations stimulated the ZMP-mediated proteolysis of Jagged1 and E-cadherin in cell culture models, whereas other divalent metals had no effect. Copper-mediated Jagged1 proteolysis was also observed following the pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide and in a cell-free membrane system, indicating a posttranslational mechanism of sheddase activation. Finally, the concentrations of copper that stimulated ZMP-mediated protein shedding also enhanced PC3 invasion; an effect that could be negated using a sheddase inhibitor or copper chelators. Collectively, these data implicate copper as an important factor in promoting prostate cancer cell invasion and indicate that the selective posttranslational activation of ZMP-mediated protein shedding might play a role in this process.

  6. Chrysin enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in human lung epithelial cancer cell lines: The role of glutathione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechbuhl, Heather M. [Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado (United States); Kachadourian, Remy; Min, Elysia [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado (United States); Chan, Daniel [Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Day, Brian J., E-mail: dayb@njhealth.org [Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Immunology, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center (United States); Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that flavonoid-induced glutathione (GSH) efflux through multi-drug resistance proteins (MRPs) and subsequent intracellular GSH depletion is a viable mechanism to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapies. This concept was demonstrated using chrysin (5–25 μM) induced GSH efflux in human non-small cell lung cancer lines exposed to the chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX). Treatment with chrysin resulted in significant and sustained intracellular GSH depletion and the GSH enzyme network in the four cancer cell types was predictive of the severity of chrysin induced intracellular GSH depletion. Gene expression data indicated a positive correlation between basal MRP1, MRP3 and MRP5 expression and total GSH efflux before and after chrysin exposure. Co-treating the cells for 72 h with chrysin (5–30 μM) and DOX (0.025–3.0 μM) significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to DOX as compared to 72-hour DOX alone treatment in all four cell lines. The maximum decrease in the IC{sub 50} values of cells treated with DOX alone compared to co-treatment with chrysin and DOX was 43% in A549 cells, 47% in H157 and H1975 cells and 78% in H460 cells. Chrysin worked synergistically with DOX to induce cancer cell death. This approach could allow for use of lower concentrations and/or sensitize cancer cells to drugs that are typically resistant to therapy. -- Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms by which chrysin enhances doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cancer cells. Highlights: ► Chyrsin sustains a significant depletion of GSH levels in lung cancer cells. ► Chyrsin synergistically potentiates doxorubicin-induced cancer cell cytotoxicity. ► Cancer cell sensitivity correlated with GSH and MRP gene network expression. ► This approach could allow for lower side effects and targeting resistant tumors.

  7. Bioinformatic Studies to Predict MicroRNAs with the Potential of Uncoupling RECK Expression from Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Murakami, Ryusuke; Yuki, Kanako; Yoshida, Yoko; Noda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    RECK is downregulated in many tumors, and forced RECK expression in tumor cells often results in suppression of malignant phenotypes. Recent findings suggest that RECK is upregulated after epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in normal epithelium-derived cells but not in cancer cells. Since several microRNAs (miRs) are known to target RECK mRNA, we hypothesized that certain miR(s) may be involved in this suppression of RECK upregulation after EMT in cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, we used three approaches: (1) text mining to find miRs relevant to EMT in cancer cells, (2) predicting miR targets using four algorithms, and (3) comparing miR-seq data and RECK mRNA data using a novel non-parametric method. These approaches identified the miR-183-96-182 cluster as a strong candidate. We also looked for transcription factors and signaling molecules that may promote cancer EMT, miR-183-96-182 upregulation, and RECK downregulation. Here we describe our methods, findings, and a testable hypothesis on how RECK expression could be regulated in cancer cells after EMT. PMID:27226706

  8. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Chao, E-mail: cyc@csmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ► Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ► Si

  9. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ► Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ► Si

  10. Glutamine fuels a vicious cycle of autophagy in the tumor stroma and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in epithelial cancer cells: implications for preventing chemotherapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ying-Hui; Lin, Zhao; Flomenberg, Neal; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E

    2011-12-15

    Glutamine metabolism is crucial for cancer cell growth via the generation of intermediate molecules in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, antioxidants and ammonia. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of glutamine on metabolism in the breast cancer tumor microenvironment, with a focus on autophagy and cell death in both epithelial and stromal compartments. For this purpose, MCF7 breast cancer cells were cultured alone or co-cultured with non-transformed fibroblasts in media containing high glutamine and low glucose (glutamine +) or under control conditions, with no glutamine and high glucose (glutamine -). Here, we show that MCF7 cells maintained in co-culture with glutamine display increased mitochondrial mass, as compared with control conditions. Importantly, treatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine abolishes the glutamine-induced augmentation of mitochondrial mass. It is known that loss of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression in fibroblasts is associated with increased autophagy and an aggressive tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that Cav-1 downregulation which occurs in fibroblasts maintained in co-culture specifically requires glutamine. Interestingly, glutamine increases the expression of autophagy markers in fibroblasts, but decreases expression of autophagy markers in MCF7 cells, indicating that glutamine regulates the autophagy program in a compartment-specific manner. Functionally, glutamine protects MCF7 cells against apoptosis, via the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic protein TIGAR. Also, we show that glutamine cooperates with stromal fibroblasts to confer tamoxifen-resistance in MCF7 cancer cells. Finally, we provide evidence that co-culture with fibroblasts (1) promotes glutamine catabolism, and (2) decreases glutamine synthesis in MCF7 cancer cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that autophagic fibroblasts may serve as a key source of energy-rich glutamine to fuel cancer cell mitochondrial

  11. Inhibition of SK4 Potassium Channels Suppresses Cell Proliferation, Migration and the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panshi Zhang

    Full Text Available Treatments for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC are limited; intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK4 channels are closely involved in tumor progression, but little is known about these channels in TNBC. We aimed to investigate whether SK4 channels affect TNBC. First, by immunohistochemistry (IHC and western blotting (WB, increased SK4 protein expression in breast tumor tissues was detected relative to that in non-tumor breast tissues, but there was no apparent expression difference between various subtypes of breast cancer (p>0.05. Next, functional SK4 channels were detected in the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 using WB, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and patch-clamp recording. By employing SK4 specific siRNAs and blockers, including TRAM-34 and clotrimazole, in combination with an MTT assay, a colony-formation assay, flow cytometry and a cell motility assay, we found that the suppression of SK4 channels significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and promoted apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells (p<0.05. Further investigation revealed that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF/basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF caused MDA-MB-231 cells to undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and to show increased SK4 mRNA expression. In addition, the down-regulation of SK4 expression inhibited the EMT markers Vimentin and Snail1. Collectively, our findings suggest that SK4 channels are expressed in TNBC and are involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and EMT processes of TNBC cells.

  12. Detection of circulating tumour cells with a hybrid (epithelial/mesenchymal) phenotype in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lecharpentier, A; Vielh, P; Perez-Moreno, P; Planchard, D.; Soria, J. C.; Farace, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Circulating tumour cells (CTC) have a crucial role in metastasis formation and can consistently provide information on patient prognosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered as an essential process in the metastatic cascade, but there is currently very few data demonstrating directly the existence of the EMT process in CTCs. Methods: CTCs were enriched by blood filtration using ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumour cells), triply labelled with fluorescent ...

  13. Receptor activator of NF-kB Ligand (RANKL) expression is associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human prostate cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer describes the phenotypic and behavioral changes of cancer cells from indolent to virulent forms with increased migratory, invasive and metastatic potential. EMT can be induced by soluble proteins like transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and transcription factors including Snail and Slug. We utilized the ARCaPE/ARCaPM prostate cancer progression model and LNCaP clones stably overexpressing Snail to identify novel markers associated with EMT. Compared to ARCaPE cells, the highly tumorigenic mesenchymai ARCaPM and ARCaPM1 variant cells displayed a higher incidence of bone metastasis after intracardiac administration in SCID mice. ARCaPM and ARCaPM1 expressed mesenchymal stromal markers of vimentin and N-cadherin in addition to elevated levels of Receptor Activator of NF-kB Ligand (RANKL). We observed that both epidermal growth factor (EGF) plus TGFβ1 treatment and Snail overexpression induced EMT in ARCaPE and LNCaP cells, and EMT was associated with increased expression of RANKL protein. Finally, we determined that the RANKL protein was functionally active, promoting osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Our results indicate that RANKL is a novel marker for EMT during prostate cancer progression. RANKL may function as a link between EMT, bone turnover, and prostate cancer skeletal metastasis.

  14. RESPONSE OF MONONUCLEAR CELLS TO CANCER-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMORAL FACTORS OF IMMUNITY, AND PATHOHISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH GENITAL MALIGNANCIES CERVICAL EPITHELIAL DYSPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Autenshlus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In vitro response of blood mononuclear cells to cancer-associated antigens was studied in women with genital pathology, and these results were compared with serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors of immunity, like as with histological features of genital cancer and cervical epithelial dysplasia. In vitro cellular response was regarded as positive, if relative amounts of CD8-positive lymphocytes increased by > 15% following incubation of blood mononuclears with cancer-associated antigens. Positive reaction and elevated serum levels of anti-TNFα and anti-IFNγ antibodies were associated with lesser malignancy of tumor, as proven by histological findings in the women with genital cancer. A positive cellular reaction was associated with increased serum levels of IFNγ and anti-TNFα in women with grade II–III cervical epithelial dysplasia. It is concluded about potential applicability of testing mononuclears with fetal proteins, to determine a grade of malignancy for the female genital tumors, as well as a degree of regenerative disturbances of cervical epithelium.

  15. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hye Jin [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Hyung [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm [Department of Herbal Crop Research, NIHHS, RDA, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Yuseok, E-mail: moon@pnu.edu [Laboratory of Systems Mucosal Biomodulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  16. N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane sensitizes bladder cancer cells to doxorubicin by preventing epithelial-mesenchymal transition through inhibition of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinsong; Yu, Haogang; Shen, Mo; Wei, Wei; Xia, Lihong; Zhao, Peng

    2014-02-01

    Drug resistance greatly reduces the efficacy of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in bladder cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7), which inhibits eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) activation, exerts synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin in bladder cancer, and whether eIF5A2 is involved in chemoresistance to doxorubicin-based bladder cancer treatment. BIU-87, J82, and UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells were transfected with eIF5A2 siRNA or negative control siRNA before incubation with doxorubicin alone or doxorubicin plus GC7 for 48 h. Doxorubicin cytotoxicity was enhanced by GC7 in BIU-87, J82, and UM-UC-3 cells. It significantly inhibited activity of eIF5A2, suppressed doxorubicin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in BIU-87 cells, and promoted mesenchymal-epithelial transition in J82 and UM-UC-3 cells. Knockdown of eIF5A2 sensitized bladder cancer cells to doxorubicin, prevented doxorubicin-induced EMT in BIU-87 cells, and encouraged mesenchymal-epithelial transition in J82 and UM-UC-3 cells. Combination therapy with GC7 may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in bladder cancer by inhibiting eIF5A2 activation and preventing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  17. Strain-dependent susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary cancer is a result of differences in epithelial cell sensitivity to transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, R L; Bowles, N D; Satterfield, L C; Davis, C M

    1996-09-01

    Variations in sensitivity to radiation-induced mammary cancer among different strains of mice are well known. However, the reasons for these variations have not been determined. In the present study, the cell dissociation assay was used to determine the radiation-induced transformation frequencies in sensitive BALB/c mice and resistant C57BL mice as well as the resistant hybrid B6CF1 independent of host environment. The influence of host environment on the progression of transformed cells to the neoplastic phenotype was also examined. Results demonstrated that the variations in sensitivity among these sensitive and resistant mice are a result of inherent differences in the sensitivity of the mammary epithelial cells to radiation-induced transformation. Under the conditions used, host environment played no role in the initiation of transformed cells by radiation or in the progression of these cells to the neoplastic phenotype.

  18. Strain-dependent susceptibiltiy to radiation-induced mammary cancer is a result of differences in epithelial cell sensitivity to transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R.L.; Davis, C.M. [Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Bowles, N.D.; Satterfield, L.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Variations in sensitivity to radiation-induced mammary cancer among different strains of mice are well known. However, the reasons for these variations have not been determined. In the present study, the cell dissociation assay was used to determine the radiation-induced transformation frequencies in sensitive BALB/c mice and resistant C57BL mice as well as the resistant hybrid B6Cf{sub 1} independent of host environment. The influence of host environment on the progression of transformed cells to the neoplastic phenotype was also examined. Results demonstrated that the variations in sensitivity among these sensitive and resistant mice are a result of inherent differences in the sensitivity of the mammary epithelial cells to radiation-induced transformation. Under the conditions used, host environment played no role in the initiation of transformed cells by radiation or in the progression of these cells to the neoplastic phenotype. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Phenformin Induces Cell Cycle Change, Apoptosis, and Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition and Regulates the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Ren, Lidong; Liu, Chenghao; Xia, Tiansong; Zha, Xiaoming; Wang, Shui

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a world-wide challenge, and additional anti-cancer therapies are still urgently needed. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the potent anti-tumor effect of biguanides, among which phenformin was reported to potentially be a more active anti-cancer agent than metformin. However, little attention has been given to the role of phenformin in breast cancer. In this study, we reveal the role of phenformin in cell death of the MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 breast cancer cell lines. The respective IC50 values of phenformin in MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 cells were 1.184±0.045 mM, 0.665±0.007 mM, 2.347±0.010 mM and 1.885±0.015 mM (mean± standard error). Phenformin induced cell cycle change and apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK pathways. Interestingly, phenformin induced MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition) and decreased the migration rate in breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, our results suggest that phenformin inhibits breast cancer cell metastasis after intracardiac injection into nude mice. Taken together, our study further confirms the potential benefit of phenformin in breast cancer treatment and provides novel mechanistic insight into its anti-cancer activity in breast cancer. PMID:26114294

  20. Phenformin Induces Cell Cycle Change, Apoptosis, and Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition and Regulates the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liu

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a world-wide challenge, and additional anti-cancer therapies are still urgently needed. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the potent anti-tumor effect of biguanides, among which phenformin was reported to potentially be a more active anti-cancer agent than metformin. However, little attention has been given to the role of phenformin in breast cancer. In this study, we reveal the role of phenformin in cell death of the MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 breast cancer cell lines. The respective IC50 values of phenformin in MCF7, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 cells were 1.184±0.045 mM, 0.665±0.007 mM, 2.347±0.010 mM and 1.885±0.015 mM (mean± standard error. Phenformin induced cell cycle change and apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the AMPK/mTOR/p70s6k and MAPK/ERK pathways. Interestingly, phenformin induced MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition and decreased the migration rate in breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, our results suggest that phenformin inhibits breast cancer cell metastasis after intracardiac injection into nude mice. Taken together, our study further confirms the potential benefit of phenformin in breast cancer treatment and provides novel mechanistic insight into its anti-cancer activity in breast cancer.

  1. Increase in number of circulating disseminated epithelial cells after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer monitored by MAINTRAC® is a predictor for relapse: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höffken Klaus

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer still remains one of the most commonly occurring solid tumors and even in stage Ia, surgery fails in 30% of patients who develop distant metastases. It is hypothesized that these must have developed from occult circulating tumor cells present at the time of surgery, or before. The aim of the present study was to detect such cells in the peripheral blood and to monitor these cells following surgery. Methods 30 patients treated for lung cancer with surgery were monitored for circulating epithelial cells (CEC by taking peripheral blood samples before, 2 weeks and 5 months after surgery and/or radiotherapy (RT chemotherapy (CT or combined RT/CT using magnetic bead enrichment and laser scanning cytometry (MAINTRAC® for quantification of these cells. Results In 86% of the patients CEC were detected before surgery and in 100% at 2 weeks and 5 months after surgery. In the control group, which consisted of 100 normal donors without cancer, 97 % were negative for CEC. A significantly higher number of CEC was found preoperatively in patients with squamous cell carcinoma than in those with adenocarcinoma. In correlation to the extent of parenchymal manipulation 2 weeks after surgery, an increase in numbers of CEC was observed with limited resections (18/21 whereas pneumonectomy led to a decrease (5/8 of CEC, 2 weeks after surgery. The third analysis done 5 months after surgery identified 3 groups of patients. In the group of 5 patients who received neo- or adjuvant chemo/radiotherapy there was evidence that monitoring of CEC can evaluate the effects of therapy. Another group of 7 patients who underwent surgery only showed a decrease of CEC and no signs of relapse. A third group of 11 patients who had surgery only, showed an increase of CEC (4 with an initial decrease after surgery and 7 with continuous increase. In the group with a continuous increase during the following 24 months, 2 early relapses in patients with stage Ia

  2. Osthole suppresses hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition via repression of the c-Met/Akt/mTOR pathway in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ming; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Chou, Chun-Hung; Su, Yen-Chao; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2011-09-14

    Substantial activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway is involved in the progression of several types of cancers and associated with increased tumor invasion and metastatic potential. Underlying HGF-induced tumorigenesis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) shows a positive correlation with progression in patients. We previously determined that osthole is a potent fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitor. FASN is implicated in cancer progression and may regulate lipid raft function. We therefore examined whether osthole could block HGF-induced tumorigenesis by disrupting lipid rafts. Here, we found that osthole could abrogate HGF-induced cell scattering, migration, and invasion in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Osthole also effectively inhibited the HGF-induced decrease of E-cadherin and increase of vimentin via down-regulation of phosphorylated Akt and mTOR. Interestingly, osthole blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and repressed the expression of total c-Met protein in MCF-7 cells. In addition, C75, a pharmacological inhibitor of FASN, repressed the expression of total c-Met protein in MCF-7 cells. Consistent with a role for FASN, loss of c-Met in cells treated with osthole was prevented by the exogenous addition of palmitate. Briefly, our result suggests a connection between FASN activity and c-Met protein expression and that osthole is a potential compound for breast cancer therapy by targeting the major pathway of HGF/c-Met-induced EMT. PMID:21806057

  3. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis.

  4. Mechanism of c-Met and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance through epithelial mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ichwaku; Rajanna, Supriya; Webb, Andrew; Chhabra, Gagan; Foster, Brad; Webb, Brian; Puri, Neelu

    2016-09-01

    According to currently available estimates from Cancer Research UK, 14.1 million new lung cancer cases were diagnosed and a staggering 8.2 million people worldwide died from lung cancer in 2012. EGFR and c-Met are two tyrosine kinase receptors most commonly overexpressed or mutated in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) resulting in increased proliferation and survival of lung cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib, approved by the FDA as first/second line therapy for NSCLC patients have limited clinical efficacy due to acquired resistance. In this manuscript, we investigate and discuss the role of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the development of resistance against EGFR and c-Met TKIs in NSCLC. Our findings show that Zeb-1, a transcriptional repressor of E-Cadherin, is upregulated in TKI-resistant cells causing EMT. We observed that TKI-resistant cells have increased gene and protein expression of EMT related proteins such as Vimentin, N-Cadherin, β-Catenin and Zeb-1, while expression of E-Cadherin, an important cell adhesion molecule, was suppressed. We also confirmed that TKI-resistant cells display mesenchymal cell type morphology, and have upregulation of β-Catenin which may regulate expression of Zeb-1, a transcriptional repressor of E-Cadherin in TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. Finally, we show that down-regulating Zeb-1 by inducing miR-200a or β-Catenin siRNA can increase drug sensitivity of TKI-resistant cells. PMID:27396618

  5. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Yasukawa

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  6. Cytokines and Growth Factors Stimulate Hyaluronan Production: Role of Hyaluronan in Epithelial to Mesenchymal-Like Transition in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Chow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the role of hyaluronan (HA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC since close association between HA level and malignancy has been reported. HA is an abundant extracellular matrix component and its synthesis is regulated by growth factors and cytokines that include epidermal growth factor (EGF and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. We showed that treatment with recombinant EGF and IL-1β, alone or in combination with TGF-β, was able to stimulate HA production in lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. TGF-β/IL-1β treatment induced epithelial to mesenchymal-like phenotype transition (EMT, changing cell morphology and expression of vimentin and E-cadherin. We also overexpressed hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3 in epithelial lung adenocarcinoma cell line H358, resulting in induced HA expression, EMT phenotype, enhanced MMP9 and MMP2 activities and increased invasion. Furthermore, adding exogenous HA to A549 cells and inducing HA H358 cells resulted in increased resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor, Iressa. Together, these results suggest that elevated HA production is able to induce EMT and increase resistance to Iressa in NSCLC. Therefore, regulation of HA level in NSCLC may be a new target for therapeutic intervention.

  7. Plumbagin elicits differential proteomic responses mainly involving cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition pathways in human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qui JX

    2015-01-01

    critical role in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, and reactive oxygen species generation. The proteomic study showed substantial differences in response to PLB treatment between PC-3 and DU145 cells. PLB treatment significantly modulated the expression of critical proteins that regulate cell cycle, apoptosis, and EMT signaling pathways in PC-3 cells but not in DU145 cells. Consistently, our Western blotting analysis validated the bioinformatic and proteomic data and confirmed the modulating effects of PLB on important proteins that regulated cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, and EMT in PC-3 and DU145 cells. The data from the Western blot assay could not display significant differences between PC-3 and DU145 cells. These findings indicate that PLB elicits different proteomic responses in PC-3 and DU145 cells involving proteins and pathways that regulate cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, reactive oxygen species production, and antioxidation/oxidation homeostasis. This is the first systematic study with integrated computational, proteomic, and functional analyses revealing the networks of signaling pathways and differential proteomic responses to PLB treatment in prostate cancer cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis using SILAC represents an efficient and highly sensitive approach to identify the target networks of anticancer drugs like PLB, and the data may be used to discriminate the molecular and clinical subtypes, and to identify new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, for prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential of quantitative proteomic analysis in the identification of new targets and biomarkers for prostate cancer.Keywords: EMT, proteomics, SILAC

  8. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions and the Expression of Twist in MCF-7/ADR,Human Multidrug-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Zhang; Yurong Shi; Lin Zhang; Bin Zhang; Xiyin Wei; Yi Yang; RUi Wang; Ruifang Niu

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the expression levels of Twist and epithelialmesenchymal transitions in multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells,and to study the relationship between multidrug resistance (MDR) and metastatic potential of the cells.METHODS RT-PCR,immunohislochemical and Western blotting methods were used to examine the changes of expression levels of the transcription factor Twist.E-cadherin and N-cadherin in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and its multidrug-resistant variant.MCF-7/ADR.RESULTS In MCF-7 cells,the expression of E-cadherin can be detected,but there is no expression of Twisl or N-cadherin.In MCF-7/ADR cells,E-cadherin expression is lost.bul the expression of two other genes was significantly positive.CONCLUSION Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions induced by Twist,may have a relationship with enhanced invasion and metastatic potential during the development of multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells.

  9. Metformin inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells: involvement of the tumor suppressor miR30a and its target gene SOX4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Shen, Chengwu; Wang, Lin; Ma, Quanping; Xia, Pingtian; Qi, Mei; Yang, Muyi; Han, Bo

    2014-09-26

    Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in cancer progression and metastasis. Recent evidence suggested that diabetic patients treated with metformin have lower PCa risk and better prognosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of metformin on EMT in PCa cells and the possible microRNA (miRNA)-based mechanisms. MiRNAs have been shown to regulate various processes of cancer metastasis. We herein showed that metformin significantly inhibits proliferation of Vcap and PC-3 cells, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits invasiveness and motility capacity of Vcap cells. Metformin could inhibit TGF-β-induced EMT in Vcap cells, as manifested by inhibition of the increase of N-cadherin (p=0.013), Vimentin (p=0.002) and the decrease of E-cadherin (p=0.0023) and β-catenin (p=0.034) at mRNA and protein levels. Notably, we demonstrated significant upregulation of miR30a levels by metformin (Pmetformin in PCa cells may involve upregulation of miR30a and downregulation of SOX4. PMID:25201727

  10. Oncogenic potential of histone-variant H2A.Z.1 and its regulatory role in cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Jung Woo; Shen, Qingyu; Kim, Hyung Seok; Shin, Woo Chan; Ahn, Young Min; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Nam, Suk Woo

    2016-01-01

    H2A.Z is a highly conserved H2A variant, and two distinct H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, have been identified as products of two non-allelic genes, H2AFZ and H2AFV. H2A.Z has been reported to be overexpressed in breast, prostate and bladder cancers, but most studies did not clearly distinguish between isoforms. One recent study reported a unique role for the H2A.Z isoform H2A.Z.2 as a driver of malignant melanoma. Here we first report that H2A.Z.1 plays a pivotal role in the liver tumorigenesis by selectively regulating key molecules in cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). H2AFZ expression was significantly overexpressed in a large cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and high expression of H2AFZ was significantly associated with their poor prognosis. H2A.Z.1 overexpression was demonstrated in a subset of human HCC and cell lines. H2A.Z.1 knockdown suppressed HCC cell growth by transcriptional deregulation of cell cycle proteins and caused apoptotic cell death of HCC cells. We also observed that H2A.Z.1 knockdown reduced the metastatic potential of HCC cells by selectively modulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulatory proteins such as E-cadherin and fibronectin. In addition, H2A.Z.1 knockdown reduced the in vivo tumor growth rate in a mouse xenograft model. In conclusion, our findings suggest the oncogenic potential of H2A.Z.1 in liver tumorigenesis and that it plays established role in accelerating cell cycle transition and EMT during hepatocarcinogenesis. This makes H2A.Z.1 a promising target in liver cancer therapy. PMID:26863632

  11. Elimination of epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like breast cancer stem cells to inhibit metastasis following nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paholak, Hayley J; Stevers, Nicholas O; Chen, Hongwei; Burnett, Joseph P; He, Miao; Korkaya, Hasan; McDermott, Sean P; Deol, Yadwinder; Clouthier, Shawn G; Luther, Tahra; Li, Qiao; Wicha, Max S; Sun, Duxin

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggesting breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) drive metastasis and evade traditional therapies underscores a critical need to exploit the untapped potential of nanotechnology to develop innovative therapies that will significantly improve patient survival. Photothermal therapy (PTT) to induce localized hyperthermia is one of few nanoparticle-based treatments to enter clinical trials in human cancer patients, and has recently gained attention for its ability to induce a systemic immune response targeting distal cancer cells in mouse models. Here, we first conduct classic cancer stem cell (CSC) assays, both in vitro and in immune-compromised mice, to demonstrate that PTT mediated by highly crystallized iron oxide nanoparticles effectively eliminates BCSCs in translational models of triple negative breast cancer. PTT in vitro preferentially targets epithelial-like ALDH + BCSCs, followed by mesenchymal-like CD44+/CD24- BCSCs, compared to bulk cancer cells. PTT inhibits BCSC self-renewal through reduction of mammosphere formation in primary and secondary generations. Secondary implantation in NOD/SCID mice reveals the ability of PTT to impede BCSC-driven tumor formation. Next, we explore the translational potential of PTT using metastatic and immune-competent mouse models. PTT to inhibit BCSCs significantly reduces metastasis to the lung and lymph nodes. In immune-competent BALB/c mice, PTT effectively eliminates ALDH + BCSCs. These results suggest the feasibility of incorporating PTT into standard clinical treatments such as surgery to enhance BCSC destruction and inhibit metastasis, and the potential of such combination therapy to improve long-term survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer. PMID:27450902

  12. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla;

    2011-01-01

    endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression...... to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal......Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether...

  13. Plumbagin induces cell cycle arrest and autophagy and suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated pathway in human pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang F

    2015-01-01

    PLB and investigate the underlying mechanism in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. The results showed that PLB exhibited potent inducing effects on cell cycle arrest in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells via the modulation of cell cycle regulators including CDK1/CDC2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. PLB treatment concentration- and time-dependently increased the percentage of autophagic cells and significantly increased the expression level of phosphatase and tensin homolog, beclin 1, and the ratio of LC3-II over LC3-I in both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. PLB induced inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK pathways and activation of 5'-AMP-dependent kinase as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the proautophagic activities of PLB in both cell lines. Furthermore, SB202190, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, and wortmannin, a potent, irreversible, and selective PI3K inhibitor, remarkably enhanced PLB-induced autophagy in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, indicating the roles of PI3K and p38 MAPK mediated signaling pathways in PLB-induced autophagic cell death in both cell lines. In addition, PLB significantly inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition phenotype in both cell lines with an increase in the expression level of E-cadherin and a decrease in N-cadherin. Moreover, PLB treatment significantly suppressed the expression of Sirt1 in both cell lines. These findings show that PLB promotes cell cycle arrest and autophagy but inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells with the involvement of PI3K/protein kinase B/ mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 MAPK mediated pathways. Keywords: Plumbagin, pancreatic cancer, cell cycle, autophagy, EMT, Sirt1

  14. Upregulation of PTEN suppresses invasion in Tca8113 tongue cancer cells through repression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Siming; Lu, Zhiyuan; Lin, Yanzhu; Shen, Lijia; Yin, Cao

    2016-05-01

    We previously discovered that the expression of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was downregulated in the majority patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PTEN overexpression in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the tongue squamous carcinoma cell line Tca8113 as well as explore the underlying mechanism. GV230 (containing the PTEN gene) and empty vectors were transfected into Tca8113 cells. After stable transfection, the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of PTEN were validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot analysis. The growth and cell cycle were analyzed using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry, respectively. The invasion ability was measured with a transwell assay. The effects of PTEN overexpression on EMT and Hedgehog signaling were assessed by comparing Tca8113-PTEN cells with control and negative control cell groups. We found that PTEN expression was significantly upregulated after transfection. Meanwhile, upregulated PTEN inhibited the proliferation and invasion of Tca8113 cells. In addition, we observed changes in the EMT- and Hedgehog-associated proteins. These data demonstrated that PTEN upregulation could reduce invasion by inhibiting the process of EMT in Tca8113 cells, which might be related to the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:26649861

  15. Twist induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell motility in breast cancer via ITGB1-FAK/ILK signaling axis and its associated downstream network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajia; Hou, Yixuan; Zhou, Mingli; Wen, Siyang; Zhou, Jian; Xu, Liyun; Tang, Xi; Du, Yan-e; Hu, Ping; Liu, Manran

    2016-02-01

    Twist, a highly conserved basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factor, functions as a major regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. In different cell models, signaling pathways such as TGF-β, MAPK/ERK, WNT, AKT, JAK/STAT, Notch, and P53 have also been shown to play key roles in the EMT process, yet little is known about the signaling pathways regulated by Twist in tumor cells. Using iTRAQ-labeling combined with 2D LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified 194 proteins with significant changes of expression in MCF10A-Twist cells. These proteins reportedly play roles in EMT, cell junction organization, cell adhesion, and cell migration and invasion. ECM-receptor interaction, MAPK, PI3K/AKT, P53 and WNT signaling were found to be aberrantly activated in MCF10A-Twist cells. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis showed that integrin β1 (ITGB1) acts as a core regulator in linking integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Focal-adhesion kinase (FAK), MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and WNT signaling. Increased Twist and ITGB1 are associated with breast tumor progression. Twist transcriptionally regulates ITGB1 expression. Over-expression of ITGB1 or Twist in MCF10A led to EMT, activation of FAK/ILK, MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and WNT signaling. Knockdown of Twist or ITGB1 in BT549 and Hs578T cells decreased activity of FAK, ILK, and their downstream signaling, thus specifically impeding EMT and cell invasion. Knocking down ILK or inhibiting FAK, MAPK/ERK, or PI3K/AKT signaling also suppressed Twist-driven EMT and cell invasion. Thus, the Twist-ITGB1-FAK/ILK pathway and their downstream signaling network dictate the Twist-induced EMT process in human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. PMID:26693891

  16. Regulators of epithelial mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin eHamada

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer related death due to its invasive nature. Despite the improvement of diagnostic strategy, early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is still challenging. Surgical resection is the only curative therapy, while vast majority of patients are not eligible for this therapeutic option. Complex biological processes are involved in the establishment of invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT has been reported to play crucial role. EMT is part of the normal developmental processes which mobilizes epithelial cells and yields mesenchymal phenotype. Deregulation of EMT inducing molecules in pancreatic cancer is reported, such as multiple cytokines, growth factors and downstream transcriptional factors. In addition to these molecules, non-coding RNA including miRNA also contributes to EMT. EMT of cancer cell also correlates with cancer stem cell properties such as chemoresistance or tumorigenicity, therefore these upstream regulators of EMT could be attractive therapeutic targets and several candidates are examined for clinical application. This review summarizes recent advances in this field, focusing the regulatory molecules of EMT and their downstream targets. Further understanding and research advances will clarify the cryptic mechanism of cancer metastasis and delineate novel therapeutic targets.

  17. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer progression and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan Wang; Binhua P. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women,and approximately 90% of breast cancer deaths are caused by local invasion and distant metastasis of tumor cells.Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a vital process for large-scale cell movement during morphogenesis at the time of embryonic development.Tumor cells usurp this developmental program to execute the multi-step process of tumorigenesis and metastasis.Several transcription factors and signals are involved in these events.In this review,we summarize recent advances in breast cancer researches that have provided new insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying EMT regulation during breast cancer progression and metastasis.We especially focus on the molecular pathways that control EMT.

  18. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-28

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine.

  19. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared to Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Carcinoma (Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  20. Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  1. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells%上皮细胞间质转化与肿瘤干细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强素凤; 黄勇

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) not only can endow cells migration and invasion characteristics,but also can make tumor cells obtain self-renewal ability and have the characteristics of stem cells,which might result in cancer stem cell (CSCs).There are the same molecular mechanism and microenvironment between EMT and CSCs,which have great clinic significances for the diagnosis and treatment of the aggressive cancers.Moreover,many studies show that miR-200 could regulate EMT and CSC,participate in the tumor invasion and metastasi,and promote the research of targeted cancer therapy.%上皮间质转化(EMT)不仅赋予细胞迁移和侵袭特征,还可使肿瘤细胞获得自我更新能力而具有干细胞的特性,从而促进肿瘤干细胞(CSC)的产生.EMT与CSC有相通的分子机制及微环境,这对侵袭性肿瘤的诊治具有重大临床意义.另外,微小RNA (miR)-200可调控EMT及CSC,参与肿瘤的侵袭和转移,促进肿瘤靶向治疗的研究.

  2. Downregulation of β-catenin decreases the tumorigenicity, but promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Cai; Longwei Jiang; Jing Wang; Hongyi Zhang; Xiaoying Wang; Dengyu Cheng; Jun Dou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a key role in human breast cancer progression. In this study, we down regulated β-catenin expression in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and investigated the effect of β-catenin knockdown on the cell biological characteristics. Materials and Methods: The recombinant plasmids of pSUPER-enhancement green fluorescent protein 1 (EGFP1)-scrabble-β-catenin-short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) and pSUPER-EGFP1-β-catenin-shRNA-1 were transfe...

  3. The Study on Anti-cancer Effects of Distilling Fresh-ginseng Herbal acupuncture against implanted Sarcoma-180 in vivo and A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Young Jang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with distilled fresh ginseng. The herbal acupuncture was injected to Chung-wan(C.V12 and Wisu(BL21 of mice that were subjected to Sarcoma-180 abdominal cancer cell and A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods : Anti-cancer effects of distilled fresh ginseng herbal acupuncture were tested by measruing Cox, Bcl-2, and Bax by using RT-PCR in A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells in vitro. And four weeks old Balb/c line male mice weighing around 20±3g were used to measure survival rate and anti-cancer effect to outputs of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 using flow cytometry, possibility of mRNA menifestation using RT-PCR, and Cox mRNA. The results are as follows. Results : 1. In measuring mRNA menifestation in Cox, Bcl-2, and Bax by using RT-PCR in A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells in vitro, the result showed that fresh ginseng decreased Cox-2 which is directly involved in inflammation process. 2. Survival rate was measured in an anti-cancer effect experiment against Sarcoma-180 abdorminal cancer. Median survival time of controlled group was 27 days, of experiment group I was 21 days, and of experiment group II was 27 days. Therefore, experiment group I showed -22.2% increase in survival rate and experiment group II showed no difference compare to controlled group. 3. There was no difference between condition group and controlled and experiment group in measuring outputs of interleukin-2 and interleukin 4 by using flow cytometry 4. In measuring outputs of interleukin-2 by using ELISA, there was no significant difference between condition group and controlled group and there was decrease in experiment group II compared to conditioned and controlled group. 5. In measuring cytokine mRNA menifestation by using RT-PCR, experiment group I showed increase of mRNA menifestation in interleukin-2,4 and interferon-γ and experiment group II showed

  4. Activation of LINE-1 Retrotransposon Increases the Risk of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastasis in Epithelial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, D; Lenka, N; Ohms, S; Dahlstrom, J E; Blackburn, A C; Board, P G

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cancers comprise 80-90% of human cancers. During the process of cancer progression, cells lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire stem-like mesenchymal features that are resistant to chemotherapy. This process, termed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays a critical role in the development of metastases. Because of the unique migratory and invasive properties of cells undergoing the EMT, therapeutic control of the EMT offers great hope and new opportunities for treating cancer. In recent years, a plethora of genes and noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, have been linked to the EMT and the acquisition of stem cell-like properties. Despite these advances, questions remain unanswered about the molecular processes underlying such a cellular transition. In this article, we discuss how expression of the normally repressed LINE-1 (or L1) retrotransposons activates the process of EMT and the development of metastases. L1 is rarely expressed in differentiated stem cells or adult somatic tissues. However, its expression is widespread in almost all epithelial cancers and in stem cells in their undifferentiated state, suggesting a link between L1 activity and the proliferative and metastatic behaviour of cancer cells. We present an overview of L1 activity in cancer cells including how genes involved in proliferation, invasive and metastasis are modulated by L1 expression. The role of L1 in the differential expression of the let-7 family of miRNAs (that regulate genes involved in the EMT and metastasis) is also discussed. We also summarize recent novel insights into the role of the L1-encoded reverse transcriptase enzyme in epithelial cell plasticity that suggest it might be a potential therapeutic target that could reverse the EMT and the metastasis-associated stem cell-like properties of cancer cells. PMID:26321759

  5. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Aoshiba K; Nagai A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inapprop...

  6. Knockdown of STAT3 by iRNA Inhibiting Migration and Invasion of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qin-hua; ZHU Ji-hong; LIU Lei; YUE Ying

    2012-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(STAT3) is a dual functional transcription factor with the functions of signal transduction and transcription regulation.It is reported that the expression of STAT3 in ovarian cancer is significantly higher and STAT3 can facilitate ovarian cancer growth and metastasis.To clarify the definite effect and molecular mechanism of STAT3 involved in ovarian cancer growth and metastasis,STAT3 expression was significantly downregulated by transfeeting ovarian cancer model SK-OV-3 cells with the plasmid vector which express specific RNAi that targets human STAT3.The downregulated STAT3 not only decreased the invasion and migration but also inhibited the proliferation of SK-OV-3 cells.Western blot assay shows that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and that of Survivin were reduced in the cells with the plasma vector expressing specific RNAi that targets human STATY These results demonstrate that STAT3 involved in the invasion and migration of SK-OV-3 regulates the expression of VEGF and Survivin.In addition,VEGF and Survivin could play an important role in ovarian cancer growth and metastasis.

  7. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eRojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes.Over a thirty year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been litlle employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  8. Impact of p120-catenin isoforms 1A and 3A on epithelial mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells expressing E-cadherin in different subcellular locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun; Zhao, Yue; Jiang, Guiyang; Zhang, Xiupeng; Zhao, Huanyu; Wu, Junhua; Xu, Ke; Wang, Enhua

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process in tumor development. Despite previous investigations, it remains unclear how p120-catenin (p120ctn) isoforms 1A and 3A affect the EMT of tumor cells. Here we investigated expression of p120ctn, E-cadherin and vimentin in 78 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples by immunohistochemistry and found that p120ctn membrane expression positively correlated with E-cadherin expression (PH1299 and LK2) levels of p120ctn were screen to investigate its impact on EMT. E-cadherin was restricted to the cell membrane in H460 and H1299 cells, whereas it was expressed in the cytoplasm of SPC and LK2 cells. Ablation of endogenous p120ctn isoform 1A in cells expressing high levels of the protein resulted in decreased E-cadherin expression, increased N-cadherin, vimentin and snail expression and enhanced invasiveness in H460 cells. Meanwhile, completely opposite results were observed in SPC cells. Furthermore, transfection of in H1299 cells expressing low p120ctn levels with the p120ctn isoform 1A plasmid resulted in increased E-cadherin expression, decreased N-cadherin, vimentin and snail expression and weakened invasiveness, while LK2 cells showed completely opposite results. Both cell lines expressing low p120ctn levels and transfected with the p120ctn isoform 3A plasmid appeared to have increased E-cadherin expression, decreased N-cadherin, vimentin and snail expression and weakened invasiveness. In conclusion, in cells with membrane E-cadherin, both p120ctn isoforms 1A and 3A inhibited EMT and decreased cell invasiveness. In cells with cytoplasmic E-cadherin, p120ctn isoform 1A promoted EMT and increased cell invasiveness, while p120ctn isoform 3A inhibited the EMT and decreased cell invasiveness. PMID:24505377

  9. Effect of proton and gamma irradiation on human lung carcinoma cells: Gene expression, cell cycle, cell death, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer-stem cell trait as biological end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Himanshi; Kumar, Amit; Bhat, Nagesh; Pandey, Badri N; Ghosh, Anu

    2015-10-01

    Proton beam therapy is a cutting edge modality over conventional gamma radiotherapy because of its physical dose deposition advantage. However, not much is known about its biological effects vis-a-vis gamma irradiation. Here we investigated the effect of proton- and gamma- irradiation on cell cycle, death, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and "stemness" in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (A549). Proton beam (3MeV) was two times more cytotoxic than gamma radiation and induced higher and longer cell cycle arrest. At equivalent doses, numbers of genes responsive to proton irradiation were ten times higher than those responsive to gamma irradiation. At equitoxic doses, the proton-irradiated cells had reduced cell adhesion and migration ability as compared to the gamma-irradiated cells. It was also more effective in reducing population of Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) like cells as revealed by aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and surface phenotyping by CD44(+), a CSC marker. These results can have significant implications for proton therapy in the context of suppression of molecular and cellular processes that are fundamental to tumor expansion. PMID:26278043

  10. Diversity of epithelial stem cell types in adult lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; He, Jinxi; Wei, Jun; Cho, William C; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25810726

  11. Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer.

  12. Teriflunomide (Leflunomide Promotes Cytostatic, Antioxidant, and Apoptotic Effects in Transformed Prostate Epithelial Cells: Evidence Supporting a Role for Teriflunomide in Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numsen Hail, Jr

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Teriflunomide (TFN is an inhibitor of de novo pyrimidine synthesis and the active metabolite of leflunomide. Leflunomide is prescribed to patients worldwide as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory disease-modifying prodrug. Leflunomide inhibited the growth of human prostate cancer xenographs in mice, and leflunomide or TFN promoted cytostasis and/or apoptosis in cultured cells. These findings suggest that TFN could be useful in prostate cancer chemoprevention. We investigated the possible mechanistic aspects of this tenet by characterizing the effects of TFN using premalignant PWR-1E and malignant DU-145 human prostate epithelial cells. TFN promoted a dose- and time-dependent cytostasis or apoptosis induction in these cells. The cytostatic effects of TFN, which were reversible but not by the presence of excess uridine in the culture medium, included diminished cellular uridine levels, an inhibition in oxygen consumption, a suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and a conspicuous reduction in the size and number of the nucleoli in the nuclei of these cells. Conversely, TFN's apoptogenic effects were characteristic of catastrophic mitochondrial disruption (i.e., a dissipation of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, enhanced ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and cytoplasmic vacuolization and followed by DNA fragmentation. The respiration-deficient derivatives of the DU-145 cells, which are also uridine auxotrophs, were markedly resistant to the cytostatic and apoptotic effects of TFN, implicating de novo pyrimidine synthesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics as the primary targets for TFN in the respiration competent cells. These mechanistic findings advocate a role for TFN and mitochondrial bioenergetics in prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  13. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, and an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the most deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial cells is cell death, i.e., either apoptosis or necrosis depending on the magnitude of cigarette smoke exposure. Cell death induced by cigarette smoke exposure can largely be accounted for by an enhancement in oxidative stress. In fact, cigarette smoke contains and generates many reactive oxygen species that damage alveolar epithelial cells. Whether apoptosis and/or necrosis in alveolar epithelial cells is enhanced in healthy cigarette smokers is presently unclear. However, recent evidence indicates that the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, an important cigarette smoke-induced lung disease characterized by the loss of alveolar structures. This review will discuss oxidative stress, cell death, and other damage to alveolar epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke.

  14. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Inscribes a Gene Expression Profile for Angiogenic Factors and Cancer Progression in Breast Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Oh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-11R by IGF-1 is associated with the risk and progression of many types of cancer, although despite this it remains unclear how activated IGF-1 R contributes to cancer progression. In this study, gene expression changes elicited by IGF-1 were profiled in breast epithelial cells. We noted that many genes are functionally linked to cancer progression and angiogenesis. To validate some of the changes observed, the RNA and/or protein was confirmed for c-fos, cytochrome P4501Al, cytochrome P450 1131, interleukin-1 beta, fas ligand, vascular endothelial growth factor, and urokinase plasminogen activator. Nuclear proteins were also temporally monitored to address how gene expression changes were regulated. We found that IGF-1 stimulated the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated AKT, hypoxic-inducible factor-1 alpha, and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, which correlated with temporal changes in gene expression. Next, the promoter regions of IGF-1-regulated genes were searched in silico. The promoters of genes that clustered together had similar regulatory regions. In summary, IGF-1 inscribes a gene expression profile relevant to cancer progression, and this study provides insight into the mechanism(s whereby some of these changes occur.

  15. Salivary α-amylase exhibits antiproliferative effects in primary cell cultures of rat mammary epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram Catharina; Hass Ralf; Fedrowitz Maren; Löscher Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most diagnosed cancers in females, frequently with fatal outcome, so that new strategies for modulating cell proliferation in the mammary tissue are urgently needed. There is some, as yet inconclusive evidence that α-amylase may constitute a novel candidate for affecting cellular growth. Methods The present investigation aimed to examine if salivary α-amylase, an enzyme well known for the metabolism of starch and recently introduced as a stress ...

  16. Role of autophagy in the regulation of epithelial cell junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nighot, Prashant; Ma, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism by which bulk cytoplasmic material, including soluble macromolecules and organelles, is targeted for lysosomal degradation. The role of autophagy in diverse cellular processes such as metabolic stress, neurodegeneration, cancer, aging, immunity, and inflammatory diseases is being increasingly recognized. Epithelial cell junctions play an integral role in the cell homeostasis via physical binding, regulating paracellular pathways, integrating extracellular cues into intracellular signaling, and cell-cell communication. Recent data indicates that cell junction composition is very dynamic. The junctional protein complexes are actively regulated in response to various intra- and extra-cellular clues by intracellular trafficking and degradation pathways. This review discusses the recent and emerging information on how autophagy regulates various epithelial cell junctions. The knowledge of autophagy regulation of epithelial junctions will provide further rationale for targeting autophagy in a wide variety of human disease conditions. PMID:27583189

  17. Adeno-associated virus type 2 infection activates caspase dependent and independent apoptosis in multiple breast cancer lines but not in normal mammary epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandon Apurva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In normal cells proliferation and apoptosis are tightly regulated, whereas in tumor cells the balance is shifted in favor of increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Anticancer agents mediate tumor cell death via targeting multiple pathways of programmed cell death. We have reported that the non-pathogenic, tumor suppressive Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2 induces apoptosis in Human Papillomavirus (HPV positive cervical cancer cells, but not in normal keratinocytes. In the current study, we examined the potential of AAV2 to inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 (both weakly invasive, as well as MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive human breast cancer derived cell lines. As controls, we used normal human mammary epithelial cells (nHMECs isolated from tissue biopsies of patients undergoing breast reduction surgery. Results AAV2 infected MCF-7 line underwent caspase-independent, and MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines underwent caspase-dependent apoptosis. Death of MDA-MB-468 cells was marked by caspase-9 activation, whereas death of MDA-MB-231 cells was marked by activation of both caspase-8 and caspase-9, and resembled a mixture of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Cellular demise was correlated with the ability of AAV2 to productively infect and differentially express AAV2 non-structural proteins: Rep78, Rep68 and Rep40, dependent on the cell line. Cell death in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 lines coincided with increased S phase entry, whereas the MDA-MB-468 cells increasingly entered into G2. AAV2 infection led to decreased cell viability which correlated with increased expression of proliferation markers c-Myc and Ki-67. In contrast, nHMECs that were infected with AAV2 failed to establish productive infection or undergo apoptosis. Conclusion AAV2 regulated enrichment of cell cycle check-point functions in G1/S, S and G2 phases could create a favorable environment for Rep protein expression. Inherent Rep associated

  18. A CD44high/EGFRlow subpopulation within head and neck cancer cell lines shows an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and resistance to treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea La Fleur

    Full Text Available Mortality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is high due to emergence of therapy resistance which results in local and regional recurrences that may have their origin in resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs or cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT phenotype. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of using the cell surface expression of CD44 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, both of which have been used as stem cell markers, to identify subpopulations within HNSCC cell lines that differ with respect to phenotype and treatment sensitivity. Three subpopulations, consisting of CD44(high/EGFR(low, CD44(high/EGFR(high and CD44(low cells, respectively, were collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The CD44(high/EGFR(low population showed a spindle-shaped EMT-like morphology, while the CD44(low population was dominated by cobblestone-shaped cells. The CD44(high/EGFR(low population was enriched with cells in G0/G1 and showed a relatively low proliferation rate and a high plating efficiency. Using a real time PCR array, 27 genes, of which 14 were related to an EMT phenotype and two with stemness, were found to be differentially expressed in CD44(high/EGFR(low cells in comparison to CD44(low cells. Moreover, CD44(high/EGFR(low cells showed a low sensitivity to radiation, cisplatin, cetuximab and gefitinib, and a high sensitivity to dasatinib relative to its CD44(high/EGFR(high and CD44(low counterparts. In conclusion, our results show that the combination of CD44 (high and EGFR (low cell surface expression can be used to identify a treatment resistant subpopulation with an EMT phenotype in HNSCC cell lines.

  19. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by inhibition of MAPK signalling pathway in lens epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Forum Kayastha; Kaid Johar; Devarshi Gajjar; Anshul Arora; Hardik Madhu; Darshini Ganatra; Abhay Vasavada

    2015-06-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) may contribute to the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which leads to visual impairment. Andrographolide has been shown to have therapeutic potential against various cancers. However, its effect on human LECs is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on EMT induced by growth factors in the fetal human lens epithelial cell line (FHL 124). Initially the LECs were treated with growth factors (TGF-2 and bFGF) to induce EMT. Subsequently these EMT-induced cells were treated with andrographolide at 100 and 500 nM concentrations for 24 h. Our results showed that FHL 124 cells treated with growth factors had a significant decrease in protein and m-RNA levels of epithelial markers pax6 and E-Cadherin. After administering andrographolide, these levels significantly increased. It was noticed that EMT markers -SMA, fibronectin and collagen IV significantly decreased after treatment with andrographolide when compared to the other group. Treatment with andrographolide significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Cell cycle analysis showed that andrographolide did not arrest cells at G0/G1 or G2/M at tested concentrations. Our findings suggest that andrographolide helps sustain epithelial characteristics by modulating EMT markers and inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in LECs. Hence it can prove to be useful in curbing EMT-mediated PCO.

  20. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by inhibition of MAPK signalling pathway in lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Forum; Johar, Kaid; Gajjar, Devarshi; Arora, Anshul; Madhu, Hardik; Ganatra, Darshini; Vasavada, Abhay

    2015-06-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) may contribute to the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which leads to visual impairment. Andrographolide has been shown to have therapeutic potential against various cancers. However, its effect on human LECs is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on EMT induced by growth factors in the fetal human lens epithelial cell line (FHL 124). Initially the LECs were treated with growth factors (TGF-beta 2 and bFGF) to induce EMT. Subsequently these EMT-induced cells were treated with andrographolide at 100 and 500 nM concentrations for 24 h. Our results showed that FHL 124 cells treated with growth factors had a significant decrease in protein and m-RNA levels of epithelial markers pax6 and E-Cadherin. After administering andrographolide, these levels significantly increased. It was noticed that EMT markers alpha-SMA, fibronectin and collagen IV significantly decreased after treatment with andrographolide when compared to the other group. Treatment with andrographolide significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Cell cycle analysis showed that andrographolide did not arrest cells at G0/G1 or G2/M at tested concentrations. Our findings suggest that andrographolide helps sustain epithelial characteristics by modulating EMT markers and inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in LECs. Hence it can prove to be useful in curbing EMT-mediated PCO. PMID:25963259

  1. Role of Wnt Inhibitory Factor-1 in Inhibition of Bisdemethoxycurcumin Mediated Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Highly Metastatic Lung Cancer 95D Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC is an active component of curcumin and a chemotherapeutic agent, which has been suggested to inhibit tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in multiple cancers. But its contribution and mechanism of action in invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are not very clear. Therefore, we tried to study the effects of BDMC on regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, which is closely linked to tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Methods: In this study, we first induced transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 mediated EMT in highly metastatic lung cancer 95D cells. Thereafter, we studied the effects of BDMC on invasion and migration of 95D cells. In addition, EMT markers expressions were also analyzed by western blot and immunofluorescence assays. The contribution of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1 in regulating BDMC effects on TGF-β1 induced EMT were further analyzed by its overexpression and small interfering RNA knockdown studies. Results: It was observed that BDMC inhibited the TGF-β1 induced EMT in 95D cells. Furthermore, it also inhibited the Wnt signaling pathway by upregulating WIF-1 protein expression. In addition, WIF-1 manipulation studies further revealed that WIF-1 is a central molecule mediating BDMC response towards TGF-β1 induced EMT by regulating cell invasion and migration. Conclusions: Our study concluded that BDMC effects on TGF-β1 induced EMT in NSCLC are mediated through WIF-1 and elucidated a novel mechanism of EMT regulation by BDMC.

  2. Tetraploid cells from cytokinesis failure induce aneuploidy and spontaneous transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Lei; Zhang, Tianwei; Yi, Qiyi; Huang, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Heli; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Wei; Hao, Qiaomei; Guo, Zongyou; Howard J Cooke; Shi, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Most ovarian cancers originate from the ovarian surface epithelium and are characterized by aneuploid karyotypes. Aneuploidy, a consequence of chromosome instability, is an early event during the development of ovarian cancers. However, how aneuploid cells are evolved from normal diploid cells in ovarian cancers remains unknown. In the present study, cytogenetic analyses of a mouse syngeneic ovarian cancer model revealed that diploid mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells (MOSECs) experienced...

  3. Downregulation of transcription factor Oct4 induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via enhancement of Ca{sup 2+} influx in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jiajia; Qin, Kunhua; Zhang, Yan [Medical School of Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China); Gong, Junbo [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Modern Drug Delivery and High Efficiency in Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Na; Lv, Dan; Xiang, Rong [Medical School of Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tan, Xiaoyue, E-mail: xiaoyuetan@nankai.edu.cn [Medical School of Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the role of Oct4 in metastasis in cultured MCF-7 cells. {yields} The down regulation of Oct4 induces EMT and increases the capability of migration and invasion in MCF-7 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1 inhibits Oct4 expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners. {yields} The EMT induced by TGF-{beta}1 or down regulation of Oct4 could be abrogated by inhibitor of SOCE. {yields} The down regulation of STIM1 (one of the major components of the CRAC channel) alleviates the EMT induce by Oct4 silencing down. -- Abstract: The stem cell-related transcription factor Oct4 regulates tumor proliferation and apoptosis, but its role in tumor migration and invasion is still undefined. Here, we compared Oct4 expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, two breast cancer cell lines with similar epithelial origins, but distinct invasive and metastatic characteristics. We found MCF-7 cells to express very high levels of Oct4, while no obvious expression was detected in MDA-MB-231 cells. We then downregulated Oct4 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to explore its effects on migration and invasion. Transwell assays showed that silencing Oct4 in MCF-7 cells improved their migration and invasion capabilities. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and western blots showed that E-cadherin expression decreased, and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin expression increased with Oct4 downregulation, which suggests that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred. A potent EMT stimulus, TGF-{beta}1, significantly inhibited Oct4 expression in both dose- and time course-dependent manners. Silencing Oct4 also upregulated expression of two major components of store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry channels (SOCs), STIM1 and Orai1, and enhanced SOC-directed Ca{sup 2+} influx. Silencing STIM1 blocked the Ca{sup 2+} influx and rescued the EMT initiated by Oct4 downregulation. In conclusion, silencing Oct4 promotes invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells by inducing EMT

  4. Fruits and vegetables and the risk of epithelial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, prospective studies on fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to epithelial cancer risk were described. The main research question was whether higher intakes were related to lower risks of epithelial cancers, mainly of lung cancer.In the Seven Countries Study, at the population

  5. ABCA Transporter Gene Expression and Poor Outcome in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedditch, Ellen L; Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play various roles in cancer biology and drug resistance, but their association with outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown. METHODS: The relationship between clinical outcomes and ABC transporter gene expression in two...... cancer cell growth and migration in vitro, and statin treatment reduced ovarian cancer cell migration. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of ABCA transporters was associated with poor outcome in serous ovarian cancer, implicating lipid trafficking as a potentially important process in EOC....

  6. Strategy against micrometastasis of epithelial cancer: Detection and elimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is generally agreed to be the major cause of cancer death. Over the last few years, studies of new diagnosis techniques and tumor immunotherapy have made great progress. Recent clinical studies on the occult metastases of breast, lung and colorectal cancer all suggested that the detection of micrometastases in bone marrow is prognostically important and provides substantial evidence of tumor dissemination. On the other hand, two kinds of the mAb-based immunotherapy have been approved for the treatment against epithelial cancer. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 17-1A for colorectal carcinomas and mAb herceptin for breast cancer both have produced good curative effects. Potential therapeutics based on some antibodies with prominent antitumor activity also has shown obvious clinical effect. These studies indicate that detection of micrometastasis in circulatory system and immunotherapy by eliminating metastatic malignant cells suggested a new strategy against the metastatic cancer.

  7. Two-dimensional electrophoretic comparison of metastatic and non-metastatic human breast tumors using in vitro cultured epithelial cells derived from the cancer tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors diverse in behavior, outcome, and response to therapy. Identification of proteins resembling the tumor biology can improve the diagnosis, prediction, treatment selection, and targeting of therapy. Since the beginning of the post-genomic era, the focus of molecular biology gradually moved from genomes to proteins and proteomes and to their functionality. Proteomics can potentially capture dynamic changes in protein expression integrating both genetic and epigenetic influences. We prepared primary cultures of epithelial cells from 23 breast cancer tissue samples and performed comparative proteomic analysis. Seven patients developed distant metastases within three-year follow-up. These samples were included into a metastase-positive group, the others formed a metastase-negative group. Two-dimensional electrophoretical (2-DE) gels in pH range 4–7 were prepared. Spot densities in 2-DE protein maps were subjected to statistical analyses (R/maanova package) and data-mining analysis (GUHA). For identification of proteins in selected spots, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed. Three protein spots were significantly altered between the metastatic and non-metastatic groups. The correlations were proven at the 0.05 significance level. Nucleophosmin was increased in the group with metastases. The levels of 2,3-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase and glutathione peroxidase 1 were decreased. We have performed an extensive proteomic study of mammary epithelial cells from breast cancer patients. We have found differentially expressed proteins between the samples from metastase-positive and metastase-negative patient groups

  8. Two-dimensional electrophoretic comparison of metastatic and non-metastatic human breast tumors using in vitro cultured epithelial cells derived from the cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buršíková Eva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors diverse in behavior, outcome, and response to therapy. Identification of proteins resembling the tumor biology can improve the diagnosis, prediction, treatment selection, and targeting of therapy. Since the beginning of the post-genomic era, the focus of molecular biology gradually moved from genomes to proteins and proteomes and to their functionality. Proteomics can potentially capture dynamic changes in protein expression integrating both genetic and epigenetic influences. Methods We prepared primary cultures of epithelial cells from 23 breast cancer tissue samples and performed comparative proteomic analysis. Seven patients developed distant metastases within three-year follow-up. These samples were included into a metastase-positive group, the others formed a metastase-negative group. Two-dimensional electrophoretical (2-DE gels in pH range 4–7 were prepared. Spot densities in 2-DE protein maps were subjected to statistical analyses (R/maanova package and data-mining analysis (GUHA. For identification of proteins in selected spots, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was employed. Results Three protein spots were significantly altered between the metastatic and non-metastatic groups. The correlations were proven at the 0.05 significance level. Nucleophosmin was increased in the group with metastases. The levels of 2,3-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase and glutathione peroxidase 1 were decreased. Conclusion We have performed an extensive proteomic study of mammary epithelial cells from breast cancer patients. We have found differentially expressed proteins between the samples from metastase-positive and metastase-negative patient groups.

  9. HOXA9 is Underexpressed in Cervical Cancer Cells and its Restoration Decreases Proliferation, Migration and Expression of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Ruiz, Liliana; Martinez-Silva, Maria Guadalupe; Torres-Reyes, Luis Alberto; Pina-Sanchez, Patricia; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Jave-Suarez, Luis Felipe

    2016-01-01

    HOX transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved in many different species and are involved in important cellular processes such as morphogenesis, differentiation, and proliferation. They have also recently been implicated in carcinogenesis, but their precise role in cancer, especially in cervical cancer (CC), remains unclear. In this work, using microarray assays followed by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we found that the expression of 25 HOX genes was downregulated in CC derived cell lines compared with nontumorigenic keratinocytes. In particular, the expression of HOXA9 was observed as down-modulated in CCderived cell lines. The expression of HOXA9 has not been previously reported in CC, or in normal keratinocytes of the cervix. We found that normal CC from women without cervical lesions express HOXA9; in contrast, CC cell lines and samples of biopsies from women with CC showed significantly diminished HOXA9 expression. Furthermore, we found that methylation at the first exon of HOXA9 could play an important role in modulating the expression of this gene. Exogenous restoration of HOXA9 expression in CC cell lines decreased cell proliferation and migration, and induced an epithelial-like phenotype. Interestingly, the silencing of human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes induced expression of HOXA9. In conclusion, controlling HOXA9 expression appears to be a necessary step during CC development. Further studies are needed to delineate the role of HOXA9 during malignant progression and to afford more insights into the relationship between downmodulation of HOXA9 and viral HPV oncoprotein expression during cercical cancer development. PMID:27039722

  10. Bardoxolone methyl induces apoptosis and autophagy and inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stemness in esophageal squamous cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Yang Wang,1,2 Yin-Xue Yang,3 Ren Zhao,1 Shu-Ting Pan,2,4 Hong Zhe,1 Zhi-Xu He,5 Wei Duan,6 Xueji Zhang,7 Tianxin Yang,8 Jia-Xuan Qiu,4 Shu-Feng Zhou2,51Department of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Department of Colorectal Surgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 5Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Medicine, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC, Australia; 7Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah and Salt Lake Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Natural and synthetic triterpenoids have been shown to kill cancer cells via multiple mechanisms. The therapeutic effect and underlying mechanism of the synthetic triterpenoid bardoxolone methyl (C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid; CDDO-Me on esophageal cancer are unclear. Herein, we aimed to investigate the anticancer effects and underlying mechanisms of CDDO-Me in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC cells. Our study showed that CDDO-Me suppressed the proliferation and arrested cells in G2/M phase, and induced apoptosis in human ESCC Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. The G2/M arrest was accompanied with upregulated p21Waf1/Cip1 and p53 expression. CDDO-Me significantly decreased B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2

  11. Patterning bacterial communities on epithelial cells.

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    Mohammed Dwidar

    Full Text Available Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions.

  12. Beta-elemene blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through Smad3-mediated down-regulation of nuclear transcription factors.

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    Xian Zhang

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is the first step required for breast cancer to initiate metastasis. However, the potential of drugs to block and reverse the EMT process are not well explored. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of beta-elemene (ELE, an active component of a natural plant-derived anti-neoplastic agent in an established EMT model mediated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1. We found that ELE (40 µg/ml blocked the TGF-β1-induced phenotypic transition in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. ELE was able to inhibit TGF-β1-mediated upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of nuclear transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST and SIP1, potentially through decreasing the expression and phosphorylation of Smad3, a central protein mediating the TGF-β1 signalling pathway. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of ELE in treating basal-like breast cancer.

  13. Basal and copper-induced expression of metallothionein isoform 1,2 and 3 genes in epithelial cancer cells: The role of tumor suppressor p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrakhovitch, E A; Song, Y P; Cherian, M G

    2016-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a ubiquitous low-molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins with a high affinity for metal ions. The expression and induction of MTs have been associated with protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Our past research had shown that p53 is an important factor in metal regulation of MTs. The present study was undertaken to explore further the interrelationship between p53 and MTs. We investigated whether silencing of p53 could affect expression pattern of basal and copper induced metallothioneins. The silencing of wild-type p53 (wt-p53) in epithelial breast cancer MCF7 cells affected the basal level of MT-2A RNA, whereas the levels of MT-1A and MT-1X RNA remained largely unchanged. The expression of MT-3 was undetectable in MCF7 with either functional or silenced p53. MCF7 cells with silenced wt-p53 failed to upregulate MT-2A in response to copper and showed a reduced sensitivity toward copper induced cell apoptotic death. Similarly in MCF7-E6 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the presence of inactive/mutated p53 halted MT-1A and MT-2A gene expression in response to copper. Constitutive expression of MT-3 RNA was detectable in the presence of mutated p53 (mtp53). Transient transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with wt-p53 enabled copper induced upregulation of both MT-1A and MT-2A but not basal level of MT-2A, MT-1E, MT-1X and MT-3. Inactivation of p53 in HepG2 cells amplified the basal expression of studied MT isoforms, including MT-3, as well as copper-induced mRNA expression of MTs except MT-1H and MT-3. Presented data demonstrate a direct relation between p53 and MT-1A and MT-2A and they also indicate that wt-p53 might be a negative regulator of MT-3 in epithelial cancer cells.

  14. Clinical Use of Cancer Biomarkers in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söletormos, Georg; Duffy, Michael J; Othman Abu Hassan, Suher;

    2016-01-01

    for secondary cytoreductive surgery. CONCLUSIONS: At present, CA125 remains the most important biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer, excluding tumors of mucinous origin.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4...

  15. Radiogenomic Analysis Demonstrates Associations between (18)F-Fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose PET, Prognosis, and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shota; Huang, Danshan; Du, Liutao; Korn, Ronald L; Jamshidi, Neema; Burnette, Barry L; Kuo, Michael D

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To investigate whether non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors that express high normalized maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) are associated with a more epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved study, a public NSCLC data set that contained fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and messenger RNA expression profile data (n = 26) was obtained, and patients were categorized on the basis of measured normalized SUVmax values. Significance analysis of microarrays was then used to create a radiogenomic signature. The prognostic ability of this signature was assessed in a second independent data set that consisted of clinical and messenger RNA expression data (n = 166). Signature concordance with EMT was evaluated by means of validation in a publicly available cell line data set. Finally, by establishing an in vitro EMT lung cancer cell line model, an attempt was made to substantiate the radiogenomic signature with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and functional assays were performed, including Western blot, cell migration, glucose transporter, and hexokinase assays (paired t test), as well as pharmacologic assays against chemotherapeutic agents (half-maximal effective concentration). Results Differential expression analysis yielded a 14-gene radiogenomic signature (P rate [FDR] glucose uptake, and hexokinase activity (paired t test, P < .05). Cells that had undergone EMT also had enhanced chemotherapeutic resistance, with a higher half-maximal effective concentration than that of cells that had not undergone EMT (P < .05). Conclusion Integrative radiogenomic analysis demonstrates an association between increased normalized (18)F fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET SUVmax, outcome, and EMT in NSCLC. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27082783

  16. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers and HER3 expression are predictors of elisidepsin treatment response in breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teixidó

    Full Text Available Elisidepsin (elisidepsin trifluoroacetate, Irvalec®, PM02734 is a new synthetic depsipeptide, a result of the PharmaMar Development Program that seeks synthetic products of marine origin-derived compounds. Elisidepsin is a drug with antiproliferative activity in a wide range of tumors. In the present work we studied and characterized the mechanisms associated with sensitivity and resistance to elisidepsin treatment in a broad panel of tumor cell lines from breast and pancreas carcinomas, focusing on different factors involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and the use of HER family receptors in predicting the in vitro drug response. Interestingly, we observed that the basal protein expression levels of EMT markers show a significant correlation with cell viability in response to elisidepsin treatment in a panel of 12 different breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines. In addition, we generated three elisidepsin treatment-resistant cell lines (MCF-7, HPAC and AsPC-1 and analyzed the pattern of expression of different EMT markers in these cells, confirming that acquired resistance to elisidepsin is associated with a switch to the EMT state. Furthermore, a direct correlation between basal HER3 expression and sensitivity to elisidepsin was observed; moreover, modulation of HER3 expression levels in different cancer cell lines alter their sensitivities to the drug, making them more resistant when HER3 expression is downregulated by a HER3-specific short hairpin RNA and more sensitive when the receptor is overexpressed. These results show that HER3 expression is an important marker of sensitivity to elisidepsin treatment.

  17. DNA repair in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the response of human cell types (bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts) to various DNA damaging agents. Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) induced by 5 krads of X-ray was similar for all cell types; approximately 90% of the DNA SSB were rejoined within one hour. During excision repair of DNA damage from u.v.-radiation, the frequencies of DNA SSB as estimated by the alkaline elution technique, were similar in all cell types. Repair replication as measured by BND cellulose chromatography was also similar in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after u.v.-irradiation. Similar levels of SSB were also observed in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after exposure to chemical carcinogens: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE); or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Significant repair replication of BPDE-induced DNA damage was detected in both bronchial epithelial and fibroblastic cells, although the level in fibroblasts was approximately 40% of that in epithelial cells. The pulmonary carcinogen asbestos did not damage DNA. DNA-protein crosslinks induced by formaldehyde were rapidly removed in bronchial cells. Further, epithelial and fibroblastic cells, which were incubated with formaldehyde and the polymerase inhibitor combination of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, accumulated DNA SSB at approximately equal frequencies. These results should provide a useful background for further investigations of the response of human bronchial cells to various DNA damaging agents

  18. miR156a Mimic Represses the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Nasopharyngeal Cancer Cells by Targeting Junctional Adhesion Molecule A.

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    Yunhong Tian

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been documented as having an important role in the development of cancer. Broccoli is very popular in large groups of the population and has anticancer properties. Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAMA is preferentially concentrated at tight junctions and influences cell morphology and migration. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a developmental program associated with cancer progression and metastasis. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miRNAs from broccoli in human nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC. We demonstrated that a total of 84 conserved miRNAs and 184 putative novel miRNAs were found in broccoli by sequencing technology. Among these, miR156a was expressed the most. In addition, synthetic miR156a mimic inhibited the EMT of NPC cells in vitro. Furthermore, it was confirmed that JAMA was the target of miR156a mimic as validated by 3' UTR luciferase reporter assays and western blotting. Knockdown of JAMA was consistent with the effects of miR156a mimic on the EMT of NPC, and the up-regulation of JAMA could partially restore EMT repressed by miR156a mimic. In conclusion, these results indicate that the miR156a mimic inhibits the EMT of NPC cells by targeting the 3' UTR of JAMA. These miRNA profiles of broccoli provide a fundamental basis for further research. Moreover, the discovery of miR156a may have clinical implications for the treatment of patients with NPC.

  19. Effects of Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia extracts on the side population phenotype of human epithelial cancer cells: toward targeting multidrug resistance in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliyakkal, Naseer; Appadath Beeran, Asmy; Balaji, Sai A; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Ranganath Pai, Sreedhara; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports suggest the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like cancer cells, termed as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which bear functional and phenotypic resemblance with the adult, tissue-resident stem cells. Side population (SP) assay based on differential efflux of Hoechst 33342 has been effectively used for the isolation of CSCs. The drug resistance properties of SP cells are typically due to the increased expression of ABC transporters leading to drug efflux. Conventionally used chemotherapeutic drugs may often leads to an enrichment of SP, revealing their inability to target the drug-resistant SP and CSCs. Thus, identification of agents that can reduce the SP phenotype is currently in vogue in cancer therapeutics. Withania somnifera (WS) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including cancer. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of ethanolic (ET) extracts of WS and TC on the cancer SP phenotype. Interestingly, we found significant decrease in SP on treatment with TC-ET, but not with WS-ET. The SP-inhibitory TC-ET was further fractionated into petroleum ether (TC-PET), dichloromethane (TC-DCM), and n-butyl alcohol (TC-nBT) fractions using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Our data revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM, but not TC-nBT, significantly inhibited SP in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, flow cytometry-based functional assays revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM significantly inhibited ABC-B1 and ABC-G2 transporters and sensitized cancer cells toward chemotherapeutic drug-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, the TC-PET and TC-DCM may harbor phytochemicals with the potential to reverse the drug-resistant phenotype, thus improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25549922

  20. Effects of Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia extracts on the side population phenotype of human epithelial cancer cells: toward targeting multidrug resistance in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliyakkal, Naseer; Appadath Beeran, Asmy; Balaji, Sai A; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Ranganath Pai, Sreedhara; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports suggest the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like cancer cells, termed as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which bear functional and phenotypic resemblance with the adult, tissue-resident stem cells. Side population (SP) assay based on differential efflux of Hoechst 33342 has been effectively used for the isolation of CSCs. The drug resistance properties of SP cells are typically due to the increased expression of ABC transporters leading to drug efflux. Conventionally used chemotherapeutic drugs may often leads to an enrichment of SP, revealing their inability to target the drug-resistant SP and CSCs. Thus, identification of agents that can reduce the SP phenotype is currently in vogue in cancer therapeutics. Withania somnifera (WS) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including cancer. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of ethanolic (ET) extracts of WS and TC on the cancer SP phenotype. Interestingly, we found significant decrease in SP on treatment with TC-ET, but not with WS-ET. The SP-inhibitory TC-ET was further fractionated into petroleum ether (TC-PET), dichloromethane (TC-DCM), and n-butyl alcohol (TC-nBT) fractions using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Our data revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM, but not TC-nBT, significantly inhibited SP in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, flow cytometry-based functional assays revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM significantly inhibited ABC-B1 and ABC-G2 transporters and sensitized cancer cells toward chemotherapeutic drug-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, the TC-PET and TC-DCM may harbor phytochemicals with the potential to reverse the drug-resistant phenotype, thus improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Differential gene expression pattern in human mammary epithelial cells induced by realistic organochlorine mixtures described in healthy women and in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Javier; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D; Valerón, Pilar F

    2016-03-30

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been associated with breast cancer development and progression, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well known. In this work, we evaluated the effects exerted on normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by the OC mixtures most frequently detected in healthy women (H-mixture) and in women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC-mixture), as identified in a previous case-control study developed in Spain. Cytotoxicity and gene expression profile of human kinases (n=68) and non-kinases (n=26) were tested at concentrations similar to those described in the serum of those cases and controls. Although both mixtures caused a down-regulation of genes involved in the ATP binding process, our results clearly indicate that both mixtures may exert a very different effect on the gene expression profile of HMEC. Thus, while BC-mixture up-regulated the expression of oncogenes associated to breast cancer (GFRA1 and BHLHB8), the H-mixture down-regulated the expression of tumor suppressor genes (EPHA4 and EPHB2). Our results indicate that the composition of the OC mixture could play a role in the initiation processes of breast cancer. In addition, the present results suggest that subtle changes in the composition and levels of pollutants involved in environmentally relevant mixtures might induce very different biological effects, which explain, at least partially, why some mixtures seem to be more carcinogenic than others. Nonetheless, our findings confirm that environmentally relevant pollutants may modulate the expression of genes closely related to carcinogenic processes in the breast, reinforcing the role exerted by environment in the regulation of genes involved in breast carcinogenesis.

  2. Impact of p120-catenin isoforms 1A and 3A on epithelial mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells expressing E-cadherin in different subcellular locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Zhang

    Full Text Available The epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is an important process in tumor development. Despite previous investigations, it remains unclear how p120-catenin (p120ctn isoforms 1A and 3A affect the EMT of tumor cells. Here we investigated expression of p120ctn, E-cadherin and vimentin in 78 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC samples by immunohistochemistry and found that p120ctn membrane expression positively correlated with E-cadherin expression (P<0.001 and negatively correlated with vimentin expression and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05. Meanwhile, p120ctn cytoplasmic expression negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression (P<0.001 and positively correlated with vimentin expression and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05. Cells expressing high (H460 and SPC and low (H1299 and LK2 levels of p120ctn were screen to investigate its impact on EMT. E-cadherin was restricted to the cell membrane in H460 and H1299 cells, whereas it was expressed in the cytoplasm of SPC and LK2 cells. Ablation of endogenous p120ctn isoform 1A in cells expressing high levels of the protein resulted in decreased E-cadherin expression, increased N-cadherin, vimentin and snail expression and enhanced invasiveness in H460 cells. Meanwhile, completely opposite results were observed in SPC cells. Furthermore, transfection of in H1299 cells expressing low p120ctn levels with the p120ctn isoform 1A plasmid resulted in increased E-cadherin expression, decreased N-cadherin, vimentin and snail expression and weakened invasiveness, while LK2 cells showed completely opposite results. Both cell lines expressing low p120ctn levels and transfected with the p120ctn isoform 3A plasmid appeared to have increased E-cadherin expression, decreased N-cadherin, vimentin and snail expression and weakened invasiveness. In conclusion, in cells with membrane E-cadherin, both p120ctn isoforms 1A and 3A inhibited EMT and decreased cell invasiveness. In cells with cytoplasmic E-cadherin, p120ctn

  3. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction-mediated downregulation of CD133 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness and migratory ability of liver cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Min; Li, Xuan-Fei; Liu, Hao; Wu, Xiao-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive disease with a poor outcome due to the high incidence of metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified to be responsible for tumor progression and may be generated by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics. CD133 is a specific surface marker for liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs), which is also considered as an important functional factor for tumorigenesis and overall survival in HCC. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has recently been used as a novel, safe and effective gene transfection technology. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of CD133 and EMT in LCSCs and whether the UTMD-based shRNA delivery system facilitated gene delivery in LCSCs. In the present study, CD133+ cells were isolated from the SMMC-7721 HCC cell line and then transfected with shCD133 mediated by UTMD and liposomes, respectively. Compared to the liposomes group, the UTMD group resulted in significantly improved transfection efficiency. The downregulation of CD133 reversed the EMT program, attenuated self-renewal, proliferation and migration of CD133+ LCSCs and suppressed the growth of CSC tumor xenografts. Additionally, the downregulation of CD133 led to downregulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. The present study demonstrated that CD133 plays a critical role in the regulation of the EMT process, tumor-initiating properties and migratory ability of LCSCs. The UTMD technique targeted for CD133 downregulation may be examined as a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC.

  4. Polarized sorting and trafficking in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwang Cao; Michal A Surma; Kai Simons

    2012-01-01

    The polarized distribution of proteins and lipids at the surface membrane of epithelial cells results in the formation of an apical and a basolateral domain,which are separated by tight junctions.The generation and maintenance of epithelial polarity require elaborate mechanisms that guarantee correct sorting and vectorial delivery of cargo molecules.This dynamic process involves the interaction of sorting signals with sorting machineries and the formation of transport carriers.Here we review the recent advances in the field of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.We especially highlight the role of lipid rafts in apical sorting.

  5. Sequential Salinomycin Treatment Results in Resistance Formation through Clonal Selection of Epithelial-Like Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kopp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring therapy resistance is one of the major obstacles in the treatment of patients with cancer. The discovery of the cancer stem cell (CSC–specific drug salinomycin raised hope for improved treatment options by targeting therapy-refractory CSCs and mesenchymal cancer cells. However, the occurrence of an acquired salinomycin resistance in tumor cells remains elusive. To study the formation of salinomycin resistance, mesenchymal breast cancer cells were sequentially treated with salinomycin in an in vitro cell culture assay, and the resulting differences in gene expression and salinomycin susceptibility were analyzed. We demonstrated that long-term salinomycin treatment of mesenchymal cancer cells resulted in salinomycin-resistant cells with elevated levels of epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and miR-200c, a decreased migratory capability, and a higher susceptibility to the classic chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The formation of salinomycin resistance through the acquisition of epithelial traits was further validated by inducing mesenchymal-epithelial transition through an overexpression of miR-200c. The transition from a mesenchymal to a more epithelial-like phenotype of salinomycin-treated tumor cells was moreover confirmed in vivo, using syngeneic and, for the first time, transgenic mouse tumor models. These results suggest that the acquisition of salinomycin resistance through the clonal selection of epithelial-like cancer cells could become exploited for improved cancer therapies by antagonizing the tumor-progressive effects of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  6. Sequential Salinomycin Treatment Results in Resistance Formation through Clonal Selection of Epithelial-Like Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Florian; Hermawan, Adam; Oak, Prajakta Shirish; Ulaganathan, Vijay Kumar; Herrmann, Annika; Elnikhely, Nefertiti; Thakur, Chitra; Xiao, Zhiguang; Knyazev, Pjotr; Ataseven, Beyhan; Savai, Rajkumar; Wagner, Ernst; Roidl, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Acquiring therapy resistance is one of the major obstacles in the treatment of patients with cancer. The discovery of the cancer stem cell (CSC)-specific drug salinomycin raised hope for improved treatment options by targeting therapy-refractory CSCs and mesenchymal cancer cells. However, the occurrence of an acquired salinomycin resistance in tumor cells remains elusive. To study the formation of salinomycin resistance, mesenchymal breast cancer cells were sequentially treated with salinomycin in an in vitro cell culture assay, and the resulting differences in gene expression and salinomycin susceptibility were analyzed. We demonstrated that long-term salinomycin treatment of mesenchymal cancer cells resulted in salinomycin-resistant cells with elevated levels of epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and miR-200c, a decreased migratory capability, and a higher susceptibility to the classic chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The formation of salinomycin resistance through the acquisition of epithelial traits was further validated by inducing mesenchymal-epithelial transition through an overexpression of miR-200c. The transition from a mesenchymal to a more epithelial-like phenotype of salinomycin-treated tumor cells was moreover confirmed in vivo, using syngeneic and, for the first time, transgenic mouse tumor models. These results suggest that the acquisition of salinomycin resistance through the clonal selection of epithelial-like cancer cells could become exploited for improved cancer therapies by antagonizing the tumor-progressive effects of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:25500079

  7. The 18-kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) Disrupts Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis and Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoting Wu; Gallo, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria play important roles in cancer progression and have emerged as viable targets for cancer therapy. Increasing levels of the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), are associated with advancing breast cancer stage. In particular, higher TSPO levels are found in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors, compared with ER-positive tumors. In this study, we sought to define the roles of TSPO in the acquisition of breast cancer malignancy. Using a...

  8. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells grown from explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Asma; Zaman, Aisha; Dolovich, Myrna

    2010-01-01

    Human bronchial epithelial cells are needed for cell models of disease and to investigate the effect of excipients and pharmacologic agents on the function and structure of human epithelial cells. Here we describe in detail the method of growing bronchial epithelial cells from bronchial airway tissue that is harvested by the surgeon at the times of lung surgery (e.g. lung cancer or lung volume reduction surgery). With ethics approval and informed consent, the surgeon takes what is needed for pathology and provides us with a bronchial portion that is remote from the diseased areas. The tissue is then used as a source of explants that can be used for growing primary bronchial epithelial cells in culture. Bronchial segments about 0.5-1cm long and open and minced into 2-3mm(3) pieces of tissue. The pieces are used as a source of primary cells. After coating 100mm culture plates for 1-2 hr with a combination of collagen (30 microg/ml), fibronectin (10 microg/ml), and BSA (10 microg/ml), the plates are scratched in 4-5 areas and tissue pieces are placed in the scratched areas, then culture medium (DMEM/Ham F-12 with additives) suitable for epithelial cell growth is added and plates are placed in an incubator at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) humidified air. The culture medium is changed every 3-4 days. The epithelial cells grow from the pieces forming about 1.5 cm diameter rings in 3-4 weeks. Explants can be re-used up to 6 times by moving them into new pre-coated plates. Cells are lifted using trypsin/EDTA, pooled, counted, and re-plated in T75 Cell Bind flasks to increase their numbers. T75 flasks seeded with 2-3 million cells grow to 80% confluence in 4 weeks. Expanded primary human epithelial cells can be cultured and allowed to differentiate on air-liquid interface. Methods described here provide an abundant source of human bronchial epithelial cells from freshly isolated tissues and allow for studying these cells as models of disease and for pharmacology and toxicology

  9. Coronavirus infection of polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Horzinek, M C; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cells are the first host cells to be infected by incoming c oronaviruses. Recent observations in vitro show that coronaviruses are released from a specific side of these polarized cells, and this polarized release might be important for the spread of the infection in vivo. Mechanisms for

  10. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level. It is conclu....... It is concluded that the epithelial stromal cells of the thymus, by acting as veto cells, may be responsible for the negative intrathymic selection of self-reactive thymocytes leading to elimination of the vast majority of immature thymic lymphocytes....

  11. Tetrandrine reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bladder cancer by downregulating Gli-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjian; Liu, Wei; He, Wenbo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Xiuling; Ma, Yanmin; Zeng, Jin; Kou, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is considered to play a crucial role in vertebrate development and carcinogenesis. Additionally, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process during which epithelial cells become mesenchymal-appearing cells, facilitating cancer metastasis and invasion. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the Hh signaling pathway could potentiate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we demonstrated that tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Stephaniae, exerts its anti-metastatic ability in bladder cancer cells by regulating GLI family zinc finger 1 (Gli-1), a key factor of Hedgehog signaling pathway. In our study, we confirmed that tetrandrine could impede migration and invasion in bladder cancer 5637 and T24 cells. Additionally, tetrandrine reverses EMT by increasing the expression of E-cadherin and reducing the N-cadherin, vimentin and Slug expression in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, tetrandrine also decreases mobility and reduces the expression of Gli-1 in bladder cancer cells. Moreover, we verified that tetrandrine inhibits metastasis and induces mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) of bladder cancer through downregulation of Gli-1, which could be partially reversed by Gli-1 overexpression. In conclusion, our findings show that tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion, and reverses EMT of bladder cancer cells through negatively regulating Gli-1. It indicates that Gli-1 may be a potential therapeutic target of tetrandrine against bladder cancer. PMID:26983576

  12. Peritoneal inflammation – A microenvironment for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinsong

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is a significant cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality in women. Preferential involvement of peritoneal structures contributes to the overall poor outcome in EOC patients. Advances in biotechnology, such as cDNA microarray, are a product of the Human Genome Project and are beginning to provide fresh opportunities to understand the biology of EOC. In particular, it is now possible to examine in depth, at the molecular level, the complex relationship between the tumor itself and its surrounding microenvironment. This review focuses on the anatomy, physiology, and current immunobiologic research of peritoneal structures, and addresses certain potentially useful animal models. Changes in both the inflammatory and non-inflammatory cell compartments, as well as alterations to the extracellular matrix, appear to be signal events that contribute to the remodeling effects of the peritoneal stroma and surface epithelial cells on tumor growth and spread. These alterations may involve a number of proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, either membrane or non-membrane bound, and integrins. Interactions between these molecules and molecular structures within the extracellular matrix, such as collagens and the proteoglycans, may contribute to a peritoneal mesothelial surface and stromal environment that is conducive to tumor cell proliferation and invasion. These alterations need to be examined and defined as possible prosnosticators and as therapeutic or diagnostic targets.

  13. Inhibition of Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cell Migration by Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1-small Hairpin RNA Through Inhibiting Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition, Extracellular Matrix Degradation, and Src Phosphorylation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein arginine methyltransferases 1 (PRMT1 is over-expressed in a variety of cancers, including lung cancer, and is correlated with a poor prognosis of tumor development. This study aimed to investigate the role of PRMT1 in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC migration in vitro. Methods: In this study, PRMT1 expression in the NSCLC cell line A549 was silenced using lentiviral vector-mediated short hairpin RNAs. Cell migration was measured using both scratch wound healing and transwell cell migration assays. The mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, 2 (TIMP1, 2 were measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of protein markers for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK, Src, AKT, and their corresponding phosphorylated states were detected by Western blot. Results: Cell migration was significantly inhibited in the PRMT1 silenced group compared to the control group. The mRNA expression of MMP-2 decreased while TIMP1 and TIMP2 increased significantly. E-cadherin mRNA expression also increased while N-cadherin decreased. Only phosphorylated Src levels decreased in the silenced group while FAK or AKT remained unchanged. Conclusions: PRMT1-small hairpin RNA inhibits the migration abilities of NSCLC A549 cells by inhibiting EMT, extracellular matrix degradation, and Src phosphorylation in vitro.

  14. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1: potential stratification factor and therapeutic target for epithelial ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qianying; Gui, Ting; Qian, Qiuhong; Li, Lei; Shen, Keng

    2016-01-01

    Qianying Zhao,1,* Ting Gui,1,* Qiuhong Qian,1,2 Lei Li,1 Keng Shen1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer, a vexing challenge for clinical management, stil...

  15. Human odontogenic epithelial cells derived from epithelial rests of Malassez possess stem cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Yoshida, Maki; Takayama, Yukihiro; Kujiraoka, Satoko; Qi, Guangying; Kitagawa, Masae; Kondo, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Akiko; Arakaki, Rieko; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Ogawa, Ikuko; Abiko, Yoshihiro; Nikawa, Hiroki; Murakami, Shinya; Takata, Takashi; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Kudo, Yasusei

    2016-10-01

    Epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) are quiescent epithelial remnants of the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) that are involved in the formation of tooth roots. ERM cells are unique epithelial cells that remain in periodontal tissues throughout adult life. They have a functional role in the repair/regeneration of cement or enamel. Here, we isolated odontogenic epithelial cells from ERM in the periodontal ligament, and the cells were spontaneously immortalized. Immortalized odontogenic epithelial (iOdE) cells had the ability to form spheroids and expressed stem cell-related genes. Interestingly, iOdE cells underwent osteogenic differentiation, as demonstrated by the mineralization activity in vitro in mineralization-inducing media and formation of calcification foci in iOdE cells transplanted into immunocompromised mice. These findings suggest that a cell population with features similar to stem cells exists in ERM and that this cell population has a differentiation capacity for producing calcifications in a particular microenvironment. In summary, iOdE cells will provide a convenient cell source for tissue engineering and experimental models to investigate tooth growth, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. PMID:27479086

  16. Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Iizuka; Shiho Konno

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a selective permeability barrier separating luminal content from underlying tissues. Upon injury, the intestinal epithelium undergoes a wound healing process. Intestinal wound healing is dependent on the balance of three cellular events;restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells adjacent to the wounded area. Previous studies have shown that various regulatory peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, modulate intestinal epithelial wound healing. Recent studies have revealed that novel factors, which include toll-like receptors (TLRs), regulatory peptides, particular dietary factors, and some gastroprotective agents, also modulate intestinal epithelial wound repair. Among these factors, the activation of TLRs by commensal bacteria is suggested to play an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that mutations and dysregulation of TLRs could be major contributing factors in the predisposition and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, studies have shown that specific signaling pathways are involved in IEC wound repair. In this review, we summarize the function of IECs, the process of intestinal epithelial wound healing, and the functions and mechanisms of the various factors that contribute to gut homeostasis and intestinal epithelial wound healing.

  17. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Gene Variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vierkant, Robert A; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Ramus, Susan J; Goode, Ellen L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Narod, Steven A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. We screened 15,816 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A P-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 were considered statistically significant. In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07-1.25, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.19), whereas F8 rs7053448 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90, P = 0.0005, FDR = 0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC. PMID:26399219

  18. PROGNOSIS OF EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CANCER RELATED TO ITS ASCITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋水勤; 张国楠; 吴艳丽; 周红; 赵素兰; 谢方; 陈毅男

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the prognosis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) and its ascites. Methods: Retrospectively analysis is performed for the clinical, pathological and followed up data of 101 in-patients suffering from epithelial ovarian cancer and operated with tumor debulking surgery in our hospital from January 1986 to December 1993. The patients was divided into two groups based upon the first laparotomy finding with ascites(62) or without(39). Age average, cell type, advanced proportion and survival rate of the patients are evaluated by a c2 test. Results: For age average and cell type, no statistical difference was noted. However, there were more advanced cases in ascites group than in the other (P<0.01). The 3-, 4- and 5-year survival in the no-ascites group were 87.02%, 73.42%, 57.10% respectively compared with 65.02%, 38.66%, 28.12% in the ascites group. The 5-year survival rate of stage I, II,III, IV patients in no-ascites group are 77%, 70%, 41.1%, 0 respectively, compared with that of 60%, 56.8%, 15.46%, 0 respectively in the ascites group. The results shows that 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival in no-ascites group were significantly higher than those in ascites group(P<0.01). Conclusion: Presence of ascites is a factor of poor prognosis for EOC.

  19. Operator dependent choice of prostate cancer biopsy has limited impact on a gene signature analysis for the highly expressed genes IGFBP3 and F3 in prostate cancer epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuochun Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predicting the prognosis of prostate cancer disease through gene expression analysis is receiving increasing interest. In many cases, such analyses are based on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE core needle biopsy material on which Gleason grading for diagnosis has been conducted. Since each patient typically has multiple biopsy samples, and since Gleason grading is an operator dependent procedure known to be difficult, the impact of the operator's choice of biopsy was evaluated. METHODS: Multiple biopsy samples from 43 patients were evaluated using a previously reported gene signature of IGFBP3, F3 and VGLL3 with potential prognostic value in estimating overall survival at diagnosis of prostate cancer. A four multiplex one-step qRT-PCR test kit, designed and optimized for measuring the signature in FFPE core needle biopsy samples was used. Concordance of gene expression levels between primary and secondary Gleason tumor patterns, as well as benign tissue specimens, was analyzed. RESULTS: The gene expression levels of IGFBP3 and F3 in prostate cancer epithelial cell-containing tissue representing the primary and secondary Gleason patterns were high and consistent, while the low expressed VGLL3 showed more variation in its expression levels. CONCLUSION: The assessment of IGFBP3 and F3 gene expression levels in prostate cancer tissue is independent of Gleason patterns, meaning that the impact of operator's choice of biopsy is low.

  20. Expression of ICAM-1 in colon epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vainer, Ben; Sørensen, Susanne; Seidelin, Jakob;

    2003-01-01

    Studies have suggested that in ulcerative colitis (UC), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is involved in migration of leukocytes toward the colonic epithelium. A suitable in vitro model of chronic colonic inflammation does not exist, and the role of the epithelium is based on monolayers...... of cancer cells. Conflicting results exist on epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and the aim of this study was to compare the expression in various models of colonic epithelium....

  1. Continuous cytokine exposure of colonic epithelial cells induces DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2005-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestinal tract are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. As an example ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including nitrogen monoxide (NO), which is produced in high amounts by inducibl...... nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS). NO as well as other ROS are potential DNA damaging agents. The aim was to determine the effect of long-term cytokine exposure on NO formation and DNA damage in epithelial cells....

  2. Overexpression of c-myc induces epithelial mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Bin; Cho, Min Kyong; Lee, Won Young; Kang, Keon Wook

    2010-07-28

    The c-myc gene is frequently overexpressed in human breast cancer and its target genes are involved in tumorigenesis. Epithelial mesenchymal transitions (EMT), where cells undergo a developmental switch from a polarized epithelial phenotype to a highly motile mesenchymal phenotype, are associated with invasion and motility of cancer cells. Basal E-cadherin expression was down-regulated in c-myc overexpressing MCF10A (c-myc-MCF10A) cells compared to GFP-overexpressing MCF10A (GFP-MCF10A) cells, while N-cadherin was distinctly increased in c-myc-MCF10A cells. Given that glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) and the snail axis have key roles in E-cadherin deregulation during EMT, we investigated the role of GSK-3beta/snail signaling pathways in the induction of EMT by c-myc overexpression. In contrast to GFP-MCF10A cells, both the transcriptional activity and the ubiquitination-dependent protein stability of snail were enhanced in c-myc-MCF10A cells, and this was reversed by GSK-3beta overexpression. We also found that c-myc overexpression inhibits GSK-3beta activity through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of ERK by dominant negative mutant transfection or chemical inhibitor significantly suppressed snail gene transcription. These results suggest that c-myc overexpression during transformation of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) is involved in EMTs via ERK-dependent GSK-3beta inactivation and subsequent snail activation.

  3. YY1 modulates taxane response in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Noriomi; Huang, Zhiqing; Baba, Tsukasa; Lee, Paula S.; Barnett, Jason C.; Mori, Seiichi; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gusberg, Alison H.; Whitaker, Regina S.; Gray, JoeW.; Fujii, Shingo; Berchuck, Andrew; Murphy, Susan K.

    2008-10-10

    The results of this study show that a high YY1 gene signature (characterized by coordinate elevated expression of transcription factor YY1 and putative YY1 target genes) within serous epithelial ovarian cancers is associated with enhanced response to taxane-based chemotherapy and improved survival. If confirmed in a prospective study, these results have important implications for the potential future use of individualized therapy in treating patients with ovarian cancer. Identification of the YY1 gene signature profile within a tumor prior to initiation of chemotherapy may provide valuable information about the anticipated response of these tumors to taxane-based drugs, leading to better informed decisions regarding chemotherapeutic choice. Survival of ovarian cancer patients is largely dictated by their response to chemotherapy, which depends on underlying molecular features of the malignancy. We previously identified YIN YANG 1 (YY1) as a gene whose expression is positively correlated with ovarian cancer survival. Herein we investigated the mechanistic basis of this association. Epigenetic and genetic characteristics of YY1 in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) were analyzed along with YY1 mRNA and protein. Patterns of gene expression in primary SEOC and in the NCI60 database were investigated using computational methods. YY1 function and modulation of chemotherapeutic response in vitro was studied using siRNA knockdown. Microarray analysis showed strong positive correlation between expression of YY1 and genes with YY1 and transcription factor E2F binding motifs in SEOC and in the NCI60 cancer cell lines. Clustering of microarray data for these genes revealed that high YY1/E2F3 activity positively correlates with survival of patients treated with the microtubule stabilizing drug paclitaxel. Increased sensitivity to taxanes, but not to DNA crosslinking platinum agents, was also characteristic of NCI60 cancer cell lines with a high YY1/E2F signature. YY1

  4. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  5. Epithelial Cell Apoptosis and Lung Remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuyoshi Kuwano

    2007-01-01

    Lung epithelium is the primary site of lung damage in various lung diseases. Epithelial cell apoptosis has been considered to be initial event in various lung diseases. Apoptosis signaling is classically composed of two principle pathways. One is a direct pathway from death receptor ligation to caspase cascade activation and cell death. The other pathway triggered by stresses such as drugs, radiation, infectious agents and reactive oxygen species is mediated by mitochondria. Endoplasmic reticulum has also been shown to be the organelle to mediate apoptosis.Epithelial cell death is followed by remodeling processes, which consist of epithelial and fibroblast activation,cytokine production, activation of coagulation pathway, neoangiogenesis, re-epithelialization and fibrosis.Epithelial and mesenchymal interaction plays important roles in these processes. Further understanding of apoptosis signaling and its regulation by novel strategies may lead to effective treatments against various lung diseases. We review the recent advances in the understanding of apoptosis signaling and discuss the involvement of apoptosis in lung remodeling.

  6. Radiogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Tavakoli, A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer induction by space radiations is a major concern for manned space exploration. Accurate assessment of radiation risk at low doses requires basic understanding of mechanism(s) of radiation carcinogenesis. For determining the oncogenic effects of ionizing radiation in human epithelial cells, we transformed a mammary epithelial cell line (185B5), which was immortalized by benzo(a)pyrene, with energetic heavy ions and obtained several transformed clones. These transformed cells showed growth properties on Matrigel similar to human mammary tumor cells. To better understand the mechanisms of radiogenic transformation of human cells, we systematically examined the alterations in chromosomes and cancer genes. Among 16 autosomes examined for translocations, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, chromosomes 3, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 18 appeared to be normal in transformed cells. Chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, and 17 in transformed cells, however, showed patterns different from those in nontransformed cells. Southern blot analyses indicated no detectable alterations in myc, ras, Rb, or p53 genes. Further studies of chromosome 17 by using in situ hybridization with unique sequence p53 gene probe and a centromere probe showed no loss of p53 gene in transformed cells. Experimental results from cell fusion studies indicated that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. The role of genomic instability and tumor suppressor gene(s) in radiogenic transformation of human breast cells remains to be identified.

  7. MiR-145 regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells by targeting Oct4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Hu

    Full Text Available MiR-145 could regulate tumor growth, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. In our present study, we investigated its role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Expression of miR-145 was decreased in breast tumor tissues at T3&4 stages in comparison with those at T1&2. Over-expression of miR-145 mimics enhanced protein levels of E-cadherin and dampened those of α-SMA and Fibronectin, indicative of its inhibitory role in EMT occurrence. Mechanistic studies showed that miR-145 mimics inhibited Oct4 expression and miR-145 inhibitor enhanced it. Over-expression of Oct4 reversed miR-145-regulated expression of EMT markers, suggesting that Oct4 mediated the inhibitory effects of miR-145. MiR-145 could inhibite the expression of Snail, ZEB1, and ZEB2, while over-expression of Oct4 rescued the effects. Furthermore, Oct-4 induced over-expression of transcription factor Snail, ZEB1 and ZEB2 was mediated by β-catenin. Expression of Slug and Twist were not altered by miR-145/Oct4. Taken together, our results have revealed a novel role of miR-145 on EMT. It inhibits EMT by blocking the expression of Oct4, and downstream transcriptional factors, Snail, ZEB1 and ZEB2.

  8. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    2016-02-01

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material contain the differentiated luminal and basal cell types, whereas organoids derived from prostate cancer tissue mimic the histology of the tumor. We explain how to establish these cultures in the fully defined serum-free conditioned medium that is required to sustain organoid growth. Starting with the plating of digested tissue material, full-grown organoids can usually be obtained in ∼2 weeks. The culture protocol we describe here is currently the only one that allows the growth of both the luminal and basal prostatic epithelial lineages, as well as the growth of advanced prostate cancers. Organoids established using this protocol can be used to study many different aspects of prostate biology, including homeostasis, tumorigenesis and drug discovery.

  9. TFIIB-Related Factor 2 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis of Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients through Promoting Tumor Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Tian; Ming Lu; Weiming Yue; Lin Li; Shuhai Li; Cun Gao; Libo Si; Lei Qi; Wensi Hu; Hui Tian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we found that increased BRF2 protein expression was prevalent in NSCLC. Overexpression of BRF2 correlated with abnormal expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and snail. Additionally, expression of BRF2 was found to be an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC patients. Furthermore, we showed that targeted knockdown of BRF2 expression could inhibit the migratory and invasive abilities of NSCLC cells and induced loss of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of NSCLC cells. These ...

  10. MICAL2 is a novel human cancer gene controlling mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in cancer growth and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Sara; Barravecchia, Ivana; Vindigni, Carla; Pucci, Angela; Balsamo, Michele; Libro, Rosaliana; Senchenko, Vera; Dmitriev, Alexey; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Cecchini, Marco; Roviello, Franco; Lai, Michele; Broccoli, Vania; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Mazzanti, Chiara M; Angeloni, Debora

    2016-01-12

    The MICAL (Molecules Interacting with CasL) proteins catalyze actin oxidation-reduction reactions destabilizing F-actin in cytoskeletal dynamics. Here we show for the first time that MICAL2 mRNA is significantly over-expressed in aggressive, poorly differentiated/undifferentiated, primary human epithelial cancers (gastric and renal). Immunohistochemistry showed MICAL2-positive cells on the cancer invasive front and in metastasizing cancer cells inside emboli, but not at sites of metastasis, suggesting MICAL2 expression was 'on' in a subpopulation of primary cancer cells seemingly detaching from the tissue of origin, enter emboli and travel to distant sites, and was turned 'off' upon homing at metastatic sites. In vitro, MICAL2 knock-down resulted in mesenchymal to epithelial transition, reduction of viability, and loss of motility and invasion properties of human cancer cells. Moreover, expression of MICAL2 cDNA in MICAL2-depleted cells induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Altogether our data indicate that MICAL2 over-expression is associated with cancer progression and metastatic disease. MICAL2 might be an important regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and therefore a promising target for anti-metastatic therapy.

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis perturbs the junctional complex in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a protist parasite of the urogenital tract in humans, is the causative agent of trichomonosis,which in recent years have been associated with the cervical cancer development. In the present study we analyzed the modifications at the junctional complex level of Caco-2 cells after interaction with two isolates of T. vaginalis and the influence of the iron concentration present in the parasite's culture medium on the interaction effects. Our results show that T. vaginalis adheres to the epithelial cell causing alterations in the junctional complex, such as: (a) a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance; (b) alteration in the pattern of junctional complex proteins distribution as obseryed for E-cadherin, occludin and ZO-1; and (c) enlargement of the spaces between epithelial cells. These effects were dependent on (a) the degree of the parasite virulence isolate, (b) the iron concentration in the culture medium, and (c) the expression of adhesin proteins on the parasite surface.

  12. miR-32 inhibits proliferation, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and metastasis by targeting TWIST1 in non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Lei Li,1,* Dapeng Wu2,* 1Department of Pneumology, 2Department of Radiotherapy, Huaihe Hospital of Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: By analyzing published microRNA microarray studies, miR-32 was found to be markedly reduced in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues compared with that in nontumor tissues. However, little is known about its role and molecular mechanism involved in N...

  13. New insights of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yadi Wu; Binhua P.Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step during embryonic morphogenesis,heart development,chronic degenerative fibrosis,and cancer metastasis.Several distinct traits have been conveyed by EMT,including cell motility,invasiveness,resistance to apoptosis,and some properties of stem cells.Many signal pathways have contributed to the induction of EMT,such as transforming growth factor-β,Wnt,Hedgehog,Notch,and nuclear factor-κB.Over the last few years,increasing evidence has shown that EMT plays an essential role in tumor progression and metastasis.Understanding the molecular mechanism of EMT has a great effect in unraveling the metastatic cascade and may lead to novel interventions for metastatic disease.

  14. Computational investigation of epithelial cell dynamic phenotype in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath Jayanta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When grown in three-dimensional (3D cultures, epithelial cells typically form cystic organoids that recapitulate cardinal features of in vivo epithelial structures. Characterizing essential cell actions and their roles, which constitute the system's dynamic phenotype, is critical to gaining deeper insight into the cystogenesis phenomena. Methods Starting with an earlier in silico epithelial analogue (ISEA1 that validated for several Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial cell culture attributes, we built a revised analogue (ISEA2 to increase overlap between analogue and cell culture traits. Both analogues used agent-based, discrete event methods. A set of axioms determined ISEA behaviors; together, they specified the analogue's operating principles. A new experimentation framework enabled tracking relative axiom use and roles during simulated cystogenesis along with establishment of the consequences of their disruption. Results ISEA2 consistently produced convex cystic structures in a simulated embedded culture. Axiom use measures provided detailed descriptions of the analogue's dynamic phenotype. Dysregulating key cell death and division axioms led to disorganized structures. Adhering to either axiom less than 80% of the time caused ISEA1 to form easily identified morphological changes. ISEA2 was more robust to identical dysregulation. Both dysregulated analogues exhibited characteristics that resembled those associated with an in vitro model of early glandular epithelial cancer. Conclusion We documented the causal chains of events, and their relative roles, responsible for simulated cystogenesis. The results stand as an early hypothesis–a theory–of how individual MDCK cell actions give rise to consistently roundish, cystic organoids.

  15. Kruppel-like factor 4 regulates intestinal epithelial cell morphology and polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxin Yu

    Full Text Available Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4 is a zinc finger transcription factor that plays a vital role in regulating cell lineage differentiation during development and maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the intestine. In normal intestine, KLF4 is predominantly expressed in the differentiated epithelial cells. It has been identified as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. KLF4 knockout mice demonstrated a decrease in number of goblet cells in the colon, and conditional ablation of KLF4 from the intestinal epithelium led to altered epithelial homeostasis. However, the role of KLF4 in differentiated intestinal cells and colon cancer cells, as well as the mechanism by which it regulates homeostasis and represses tumorigenesis in the intestine is not well understood. In our study, KLF4 was partially depleted in the differentiated intestinal epithelial cells by a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase. We found a significant increase in the number of goblet cells in the KLF4-deleted small intestine, suggesting that KLF4 is not only required for goblet cell differentiation, but also required for maintaining goblet cell numbers through its function in inhibiting cell proliferation. The number and position of Paneth cells also changed. This is consistent with the KLF4 knockout study using villin-Cre [1]. Through immunohistochemistry (IHC staining and statistical analysis, we found that a stem cell and/or tuft cell marker, DCAMKL1, and a proliferation marker, Ki67, are affected by KLF4 depletion, while an enteroendocrine cell marker, neurotensin (NT, was not affected. In addition, we found KLF4 depletion altered the morphology and polarity of the intestinal epithelial cells. Using a three-dimensional (3D intestinal epithelial cyst formation assay, we found that KLF4 is essential for cell polarity and crypt-cyst formation in human colon cancer cells. These findings suggest that, as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, KLF4 affects intestinal epithelial cell

  16. Lipid polarity and sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.; Simons, K.

    1988-01-01

    Apical and basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cell plasma membranes possess unique lipid compositions. The tight junction, the structure separating the two domains, forms a diffusion barrier for membrane components and thereby prevents intermixing of the two sets of lipids. The barrier appar

  17. Pathobiology of glomerular visceral epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coers, Wilko

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the interactions of humoral and cellular factors with glomerular epithelial cells in culture to gain insight in the pathogenesis of GVEC dedifferentiation and detachment in vivo. Our study is composed of three parts. ... Zie: Summary and discussion

  18. Airway epithelial cell tolerance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verghese Margrith W

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The respiratory tract epithelium is a critical environmental interface that regulates inflammation. In chronic infectious airway diseases, pathogens may permanently colonize normally sterile luminal environments. Host-pathogen interactions determine the intensity of inflammation and thus, rates of tissue injury. Although many cells become refractory to stimulation by pathogen products, it is unknown whether the airway epithelium becomes either tolerant or hypersensitive in the setting of chronic infection. Our goals were to characterize the response of well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to understand whether repeated exposure induced tolerance and, if so, to explore the mechanism(s. Methods The apical surface of well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures was repetitively challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture filtrates or the bacterial media control. Toxicity, cytokine production, signal transduction events and specific effects of dominant negative forms of signaling molecules were examined. Additional experiments included using IL-1β and TNFα as challenge agents, and performing comparative studies with a novel airway epithelial cell line. Results An initial challenge of the apical surface of polarized human airway epithelial cells with Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture filtrates induced phosphorylation of IRAK1, JNK, p38, and ERK, caused degradation of IκBα, generation of NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factor activity, and resulted in IL-8 secretion, consistent with activation of the Toll-like receptor signal transduction pathway. These responses were strongly attenuated following a second Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or IL-1β, but not TNFα, challenge. Tolerance was associated with decreased IRAK1 protein content and kinase activity and dominant negative IRAK1 inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa -stimulated NF-κB transcriptional

  19. Uranium induces oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, antitank weapons, tank armor, and also as a pigment to color ceramics and glass. Effective management of waste uranium compounds is necessary to prevent exposure to avoid adverse health effects on the population. Health risks associated with uranium exposure includes kidney disease and respiratory disorders. In addition, several published results have shown uranium or depleted uranium causes DNA damage, mutagenicity, cancer and neurological defects. In the current study, uranium toxicity was evaluated in rat lung epithelial cells. The study shows uranium induces significant oxidative stress in rat lung epithelial cells followed by concomitant decrease in the antioxidant potential of the cells. Treatment with uranium to rat lung epithelial cells also decreased cell proliferation after 72 h in culture. The decrease in cell proliferation was attributed to loss of total glutathione and superoxide dismutase in the presence of uranium. Thus the results indicate the ineffectiveness of antioxidant system's response to the oxidative stress induced by uranium in the cells. (orig.)

  20. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li JP

    2015-02-01

    , but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA, and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2 and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Erk1/2 also remarkably increased the level of LC3-II in MCF7 cells. Moreover, Danu inhibited EMT in both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with upregulated E

  1. Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and 'instruct' the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

  2. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  3. Progesterone inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H van der Horst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Every year approximately 74,000 women die of endometrial cancer, mainly due to recurrent or metastatic disease. The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs as well as progesterone receptor (PR positivity has been correlated with improved prognosis. This study describes two mechanisms by which progesterone inhibits metastatic spread of endometrial cancer: by stimulating T-cell infiltration and by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paraffin sections from patients with (n = 9 or without (n = 9 progressive endometrial cancer (recurrent or metastatic disease were assessed for the presence of CD4+ (helper, CD8+ (cytotoxic and Foxp3+ (regulatory T-lymphocytes and PR expression. Progressive disease was observed to be associated with significant loss of TILs and loss of PR expression. Frozen tumor samples, used for genome-wide expression analysis, showed significant regulation of pathways involved in immunesurveillance, EMT and metastasis. For a number of genes, such as CXCL14, DKK1, DKK4, PEG10 and WIF1, quantitive RT-PCR was performed to verify up- or downregulation in progressive disease. To corroborate the role of progesterone in regulating invasion, Ishikawa (IK endometrial cancer cell lines stably transfected with PRA (IKPRA, PRB (IKPRB and PRA+PRB (IKPRAB were cultured in presence/absence of progesterone (MPA and used for genome-wide expression analysis, Boyden- and wound healing migration assays, and IHC for known EMT markers. IKPRB and IKPRAB cell lines showed MPA induced inhibition of migration and loss of the mesenchymal marker vimentin at the invasive front of the wound healing assay. Furthermore, pathway analysis of significantly MPA regulated genes showed significant down regulation of important pathways involved in EMT, immunesuppression and metastasis: such as IL6-, TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. CONCLUSION: Intact progesterone signaling in non

  4. Lack of relationship between TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity, treatment efficacy and prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Christensen, Rikke Kølby;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may...

  5. Expression of MTA2 Gene in Ovarian Epithelial Cancer and Its Clinical Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yuxin; ZHANG Ping; LU Yunping; MA Ding

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the roles of MTA2 in the pathogenesis of ovarian epithelial cancer, the expression of MTA2 in 4 ovarian cell lines were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western-blot assays. MTA2 expression in normal, borderline, benign and malignant epithelial o varian tissues was immunohistochemically examined. The expression of MTA2 mRNA and protein was detected in all of 4 cell lines of ovarian epithelial cancer. The expression of MTA2 mRNA and protein was higher in strong migration cell lines than in weak migration ones. In borderline and malignant ovarian tissues tested, MTA2 staining was dramatically stronger than in normal and benign tissues (P<0.01). The expression levels in malignant ovarian tissues were significantly higher than that in borderline epithelial ovarian tissues (P<0.01). The expression of MTA2 was correlated with clinical stage, histopathological grade and lymph node metastasis. It was concluded that the high expression of MTA2 was associated with more aggressive behaviors of epithelial ovarian cancer. MTA2 provides a novel indicator of ovarian cancer.

  6. Linneg Sca-1high CD49fhigh prostate cancer cells derived from the Hi-Myc mouse model are tumor-initiating cells with basal-epithelial characteristics and differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Achinto; Blando, Jorge; Fernandez, Irina; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John

    2016-05-01

    A cell line was established from ventral prostate (VP) tumors of one-year-old Hi-Myc mice. These cells, called HMVP2 cells, are LinnegSca-1highCD49fhigh with high CD44 and CD29 expression and express CK14, Sca-1 and CD49f (but not CK8), suggesting basal-epithelial characteristics. Furthermore, HMVP2 cells form spheroids and both the cells and spheroids produce tumors in syngeneic mice. After four days of culture, HMVP2 spheroids underwent a gradual transition from LinnegSca-1highCD49fhigh expression to LinnegSca-1lowCD49flow while a subpopulation of the cells retained the original LinnegSca-1highCD49fhigh expression pattern. Additional cell subpopulations expressing Lin positive markers were also present suggesting further differentiation of HMVP2 spheroids. Two additional highly tumorigenic cell lines (HMVP2A1 and HMVP2A2) were isolated from HMVP2 cells after subsequent tumor formation in FVB/N mice. Concurrently, we also established cell lines from the VP of 6 months old Hi-Myc mice (named as HMVP1) and FVB/N mice (called NMVP) having less aggressive growth properties compared to the other three cell lines. AR expression was reduced in HMVP2 cells compared to NMVP and HMVP1 cells and almost absent in HMVP2A1 and HMVP2A2 cells. These cell lines will provide valuable tools for further mechanistic studies as well as preclinical studies to evaluate preventive and/or therapeutic agents for prostate cancer.

  7. An in vitro model that recapitulates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in human breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Katz

    Full Text Available The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a developmental program in which epithelial cells down-regulate their cell-cell junctions, acquire spindle cell morphology and exhibit cellular motility. In human breast cancer, invasion into surrounding tissue is the first step in metastatic progression. Here, we devised an in vitro model using selected cell lines, which recapitulates many features of EMT as observed in human breast cancer. By comparing the gene expression profiles of claudin-low breast cancers with the experimental model, we identified a 9-gene signature characteristic of EMT. This signature was found to distinguish a series of breast cancer cell lines that have demonstrable, classical EMT hallmarks, including loss of E-cadherin protein and acquisition of N-cadherin and vimentin expression. We subsequently developed a three-dimensional model to recapitulate the process of EMT with these cell lines. The cells maintain epithelial morphology when encapsulated in a reconstituted basement membrane, but undergo spontaneous EMT and invade into surrounding collagen in the absence of exogenous cues. Collectively, this model of EMT in vitro reveals the behaviour of breast cancer cells beyond the basement membrane breach and recapitulates the in vivo context for further investigation into EMT and drugs that may interfere with it.

  8. Paclitaxel resistance in untransformed human mammary epithelial cells is associated with an aneuploidy-prone phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchet, B P; Bertholon, J; Falette, N; Audoynaud, C; Lamblot, C; Puisieux, A; Galmarini, C M

    2007-01-01

    Despite its increasing clinical use, almost no data are currently available about paclitaxel effects on non-cancerous mammary epithelial cells. We have previously established paclitaxel-resistant sub-cell lines (paclitaxel-surviving populations, PSPs; n=20), and sensitive controls (control clones, CCs; n=10), from the untransformed human mammary epithelial cell line HME1. In this study, we aimed to establish whether paclitaxel resistance was associated with a modified sensitivity to paclitaxe...

  9. Inhibition of Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cell Migration by Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1-small Hairpin RNA Through Inhibiting Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition,Extracellular Matrix Degradation, and Src Phosphorylation In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Zhang; Ge Cui; Yun-Liang Yao; Yue Guo; Qi-Chun Wang; Xi-Ning Li; Wen-Ming Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background:Protein arginine methyltransferases 1 (PRMT1) is over-expressed in a variety of cancers,including lung cancer,and is correlated with a poor prognosis of tumor development.This study aimed to investigate the role of PRMT1 in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) migration in vitro.Methods:In this study,PRMT1 expression in the NSCLC cell line A549 was silenced using lentiviral vector-mediated short hairpin RNAs.Cell migration was measured using both scratch wound healing and transwell cell migration assays.The mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor ofmetalloproteinase 1,2 (TIMP l,2) were measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.The expression levels of protein markers for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) (E-cadherin,N-cadherin),focal adhesion kinase (FAK),Src,AKT,and their corresponding phosphorylated states were detected by Western blot.Results:Cell migration was significantly inhibited in the PRMT1 silenced group compared to the control group.The mRNA expression of MMP-2 decreased while TIMP 1 and TIMP2 increased significantly.E-cadherin mRNA expression also increased while N-cadherin decreased.Only phosphorylated Src levels decreased in the silenced group while FAK or AKT remained unchanged.Conclusions:PRMT1-small hairpin RNA inhibits the migration abilities of NSCLC A549 cells by inhibiting EMT,extracellular matrix degradation,and Src phosphorylation in vitro.

  10. Human bladder cancer stem cells exist in epithelial membrane antigen-subset%人膀胱癌干细胞存在于EMA-细胞亚群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇明; 畅继武

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that tumorous clones are maintained by a rare fraction of cells with stem cell proprieties. Several kinds of CSCs of solid tumor have been isolated in recent years. However, there have been fewer studies on the objective existence of bladder cancer stem cells (BCSCs) and on the methods to effectively isolate and identify BCSCs. OBJECTIVE:To investigate possibilities of BCSC existence and of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) used as a surface marker of BCSC. DESIGN:A control observation experiment. SETTING:Tianjin Institute of Urinary Surgery & Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University. MATERIALS:This study was performed at the Room for Tumor Immunity of Tianjin Institute of Urinary Surgery (key laboratory for State "211 Project") from March 2006 to July 2007. Nine specimens of human bladder were obtained from patients who received treatment in the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University. These specimens corresponded to the diagnostic criteria of low malignant potential papillary urothelial neoplasm and low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. Additionally, 40 samples of human low malignant bladder transitional cell carcinomas (BTCC) and 10 samples of normal urothelium that were used for immunohistochemistry were obtained from the patients who received treatment in the Department of Urinary Surgery, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University. Written informed consent for the specimen providing was obtained from the patients, and the protocol was approved by the hospital’s Ethics Committee. METHODS:The genes that were differentially expressed between normal urothelium and BTCC were identified through a DNA array assay to preliminarily determine the existence of BTCC. Overpressed stem cell related genes, Bmi-1 and EZH2, were verified by immunohistochemistry. A total of 27 potential surface markers of BCSCs were assayed to determine the location of positive cells. EMA- subsets were obtained through

  11. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) gene variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwah, Ernest K.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y. Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E.; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to EOC risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. Methods We screened 1254 SNPs in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (p<0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A p-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 was considered statistically significant. Results In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (OR=1.16, 95%CI=1.07–1.25, p=0.0003, FDR=0.19), while F8 rs7053448 (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.27–2.24, p=0.0003, FDR=0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.27–2.24, p=0.0003, FDR=0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR=0.79, 95%CI=0.69–0.90, p=0.0005, FDR=0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. Conclusion These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC. PMID:26399219

  12. Uterine epithelial cell proliferation and endometrial hyperplasia: evidence from a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Li, Shu; Li, Qinglei

    2014-08-01

    In the uterus, epithelial cell proliferation changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation results in implantation failure and/or cancer development. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is a fundamental regulator of diverse biological processes and is indispensable for multiple reproductive functions. However, the in vivo role of TGF-β signaling in uterine epithelial cells remains poorly defined. We have shown that in the uterus, conditional deletion of the Type 1 receptor for TGF-β (Tgfbr1) using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 (Amhr2) Cre leads to myometrial defects. Here, we describe enhanced epithelial cell proliferation by immunostaining of Ki67 in the uteri of these mice. The aberration culminated in endometrial hyperplasia in aged females. To exclude the potential influence of ovarian steroid hormones, the proliferative status of uterine epithelial cells was assessed following ovariectomy. Increased uterine epithelial cell proliferation was also revealed in ovariectomized Tgfbr1 Amhr2-Cre conditional knockout mice. We further demonstrated that transcript levels for fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) were markedly up-regulated in Tgfbr1 Amhr2-Cre conditional knockout uteri. Consistently, treatment of primary uterine stromal cells with TGF-β1 significantly reduced Fgf10 mRNA expression. Thus, our findings suggest a potential involvement of TGFBR1-mediated signaling in the regulation of uterine epithelial cell proliferation, and provide genetic evidence supporting the role of uterine epithelial cell proliferation in the pathogenesis of endometrial hyperplasia. PMID:24770950

  13. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  14. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR and sirtuin 1-mediated signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang F

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feng Wang,1,2 Hai Li,3 Xiao-Gang Yan,4 Zhi-Wei Zhou,2 Zhi-Gang Yi,5 Zhi-Xu He,6 Shu-Ting Pan,7 Yin-Xue Yang,3 Zuo-Zheng Wang,1 Xueji Zhang,8 Tianxing Yang,9 Jia-Xuan Qiu,7 Shu-Feng Zhou21Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, General Hospital, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Department of Colorectal Surgery, General Hospital, Ningxia Medical University, 4Department of Oncological Surgery, The First People’s Hospital of Yinchuan, 5Department of General Surgery, Changqing Yangehu Hospital, Yinchuan, 6Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, 7Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 8Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 9Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah and Salt Lake Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Pancreatic cancer is the most aggressive cancer worldwide with poor response to current therapeutics. Alisertib (ALS, a potent and selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor, exhibits potent anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical studies; however, the effect and underlying mechanism of ALS in the pancreatic cancer treatment remain elusive. This study aimed to examine the effects of ALS on cell growth, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and to delineate the possible molecular mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. The results showed that ALS exerted potent cell growth inhibitory, pro-autophagic, and EMT-suppressing effects in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. ALS remarkably arrested PANC-1 and Bx

  15. A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases

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    De Moor Bart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has allowed to molecularly characterize many different cancer sites. This technology has the potential to individualize therapy and to discover new drug targets. However, due to technological differences and issues in standardized sample collection no study has evaluated the molecular profile of epithelial human cancer in a large number of samples and tissues. Additionally, it has not yet been extensively investigated whether metastases resemble their tissue of origin or tissue of destination. Methods We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The clustering profile was subsequently investigated and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Statistical enrichment of clinico-pathological annotations of groups of samples was investigated using Fisher exact test. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and DAVID functional enrichment analysis were used to investigate the molecular pathways. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were used to investigate prognostic significance of gene signatures. Results Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma clustered together with follicular differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which supports recent morphological descriptions of thyroid follicular carcinoma-like tumors in the kidney and suggests that they represent a subtype of chromophobe carcinoma. We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues. Next, a subset of ovarian tumors enriched with endometrioid histology clustered together with endometrium tumors, confirming that they share their etiopathogenesis, which strongly differs from serous ovarian tumors. In addition, the clustering of colon and breast tumors correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics

  16. Recurrent Fusion Genes in Gastric Cancer: CLDN18-ARHGAP26 Induces Loss of Epithelial Integrity

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    Fei Yao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome rearrangements, a hallmark of cancer, can result in gene fusions with oncogenic properties. Using DNA paired-end-tag (DNA-PET whole-genome sequencing, we analyzed 15 gastric cancers (GCs from Southeast Asians. Rearrangements were enriched in open chromatin and shaped by chromatin structure. We identified seven rearrangement hot spots and 136 gene fusions. In three out of 100 GC cases, we found recurrent fusions between CLDN18, a tight junction gene, and ARHGAP26, a gene encoding a RHOA inhibitor. Epithelial cell lines expressing CLDN18-ARHGAP26 displayed a dramatic loss of epithelial phenotype and long protrusions indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Fusion-positive cell lines showed impaired barrier properties, reduced cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, retarded wound healing, and inhibition of RHOA. Gain of invasion was seen in cancer cell lines expressing the fusion. Thus, CLDN18-ARHGAP26 mediates epithelial disintegration, possibly leading to stomach H+ leakage, and the fusion might contribute to invasiveness once a cell is transformed.

  17. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Bulten, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the epit

  18. Annexin A9 (ANXA9) biomarker and therapeutic target in epithelial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Neve, Richard M.; Gray, Joe W.

    2012-06-12

    Amplification of the ANXA9 gene in human chromosomal region 1q21 in epithelial cancers indicates a likelihood of both in vivo drug resistance and metastasis, and serves as a biomarker indicating these aspects of the disease. ANXA9 can also serve as a therapeutic target. Interfering RNAs (iRNAs) (such as siRNA and miRNA) and shRNA adapted to inhibit ANXA9 expression, when formulated in a therapeutic composition, and delivered to cells of the tumor, function to treat the epithelial cancer.

  19. Isolating Epithelial and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Populations from Primary Tumors by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Nicole M; Rhim, Andrew D; Stanger, Ben Z

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice that express conditional reporters allow for the isolation of specific cell lineages. These cells can be further stratified by gene expression and collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for further analysis. Using Cre-recombinase (Cre) technology we have generated a transgenic mouse line termed PKCY in which all pancreatic epithelial cells and therefore all pancreatic cancer cells are constitutively labeled with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). We have used immunofluorescent staining for E-cadherin to divide the YFP(+) tumor population into epithelial cells (E-cadherin positive) and cells that have undergone an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT; E-cadherin negative). This protocol describes how to prepare a tumor sample for FACS, with an emphasis on separating epithelial and EMT populations. These cells can then be used for a number of applications including, but not limited to, the generation of cell lines, gene-expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or RNA sequencing, DNA sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and western blots. PMID:26729901

  20. DNA typing of epithelial cells after strangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, P; Kleiber, M

    1997-01-01

    DNA typing was carried out on epithelial cells which were transferred from the hands of the suspect onto the neck of the victim. In an experimental study 16 suspect-victim combinations were investigated for estimating the typing success. Alternatively to an attack against the neck, the upper arm was used for "strangulation". PCR typing was carried out using the short tandem repeat systems (STRs) HumCD4, HumVWF31A (VWA) and Hum-FIBRA (FGA) and the success rate was > 70% for all 3 systems. In most of the cases mixed patterns containing the phenotype of the suspect and the victim were obtained. In a case where strangulation was the cause of death, epithelial cells could be removed from the neck of the victim. The DNA pattern of the suspect could be successfully amplified using four STRs, demonstrating the applicability of this approach for practical casework. PMID:9274940

  1. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Feng

    Full Text Available Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI and B(aP compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery.

  2. Intestinal epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulia; Roda; Alessandro; Sartini; Elisabetta; Zambon; Andrea; Calafiore; Margherita; Marocchi; Alessandra; Caponi; Andrea; Belluzzi; Enrico; Roda

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) seems to involve a primary defect in one or more of the elements responsible for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and oral tolerance. The most important element is represented by the intestinal barrier, a complex system formed mostly by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). IECs have an active role in producing mucus and regulating its composition; they provide a physical barrier capable of controlling antigen traff ic through the intestinal muco...

  3. Transcriptional Landscape of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gharib, Sina A; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Takamoto Ohse; Pickering, Scott G.; Krofft, Ronald D.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs ...

  4. Enhanced proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of nicotine-promoted gastric cancer by periostin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Liu; Bao-An Liu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the contribution of periostin in nicotine-promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation, survival, invasion, drug resistance, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). METHODS: Gastric cancer cells were treated with nicotine and periostin protein expression was determined by immunoblotting. Periostin mRNA in gastric cancer cells was silenced using small interfering RNA (siRNA) techniques and periostin gene expression was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Gastric cancer cells transfected with control or periostin siRNA plasmid were compared in terms of cell proliferation using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis was compared using annexin V-fluoresceine isothiocyanate and propidium iodine double staining. Tumor invasion was determined using the Boyden chamber invasion assay, and the EMT marker Snail expression was evaluated by immunoblotting. RESULTS: Nicotine upregulated periostin in gastric cancer cells through a COX-2 dependent pathway, which was blocked by the COX-2-specific inhibitor NS398. Periostin mRNA expression was decreased by ~87.2% by siRNA in gastric cancer cells, and stable periostinsilenced cells were obtained by G418 screening. Periostin- silenced gastric cancer cells exhibited reduced cell proliferation, elevated sensitivity to chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, and decreased cell invasion and Snail expression (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Periostin is a nicotine target gene in gastric cancer and plays a role in gastric cancer cell growth, invasion, drug resistance, and EMT facilitated by nicotine.

  5. Multipotent capacity of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Oliver Delgado

    Full Text Available While the adult murine lung utilizes multiple compartmentally restricted progenitor cells during homeostasis and repair, much less is known about the progenitor cells from the human lung. Translating the murine stem cell model to humans is hindered by anatomical differences between species. Here we show that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs display characteristics of multipotent stem cells of the lung. These HBECs express markers indicative of several epithelial types of the adult lung when experimentally tested in cell culture. When cultured in three different three-dimensional (3D systems, subtle changes in the microenvironment result in unique responses including the ability of HBECs to differentiate into multiple central and peripheral lung cell types. These new findings indicate that the adult human lung contains a multipotent progenitor cell whose differentiation potential is primarily dictated by the microenvironment. The HBEC system is not only important in understanding mechanisms for specific cell lineage differentiation, but also for examining changes that correlate with human lung diseases including lung cancer.

  6. Cyclophosphamide or Denileukin Diftitox Followed By Expanding a Patient's Own T Cells in the Laboratory in Treating Patients With HER-2/Neu Overexpressing Metastatic Breast Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated With HER-2/Neu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-07

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  7. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP2A induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and increases the number of side population stem-like cancer cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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    Qing-Li Kong

    Full Text Available It has been recently reported that a side population of cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC displayed characteristics of stem-like cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of such stem-like cell populations in NPC remain unclear. Epstein-Barr virus was the first identified human tumor virus to be associated with various malignancies, most notably NPC. LMP2A, the Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent protein, has been reported to play roles in oncogenic processes. We report by immunostaining in our current study that LMP2A is overexpressed in 57.6% of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumors sampled and is mainly localized at the tumor invasive front. We found also in NPC cells that the exogenous expression of LMP2A greatly increases their invasive/migratory ability, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-like cellular marker alterations, and stimulates stem cell side populations and the expression of stem cell markers. In addition, LMP2A enhances the transforming ability of cancer cells in both colony formation and soft agar assays, as well as the self-renewal ability of stem-like cancer cells in a spherical culture assay. Additionally, LMP2A increases the number of cancer initiating cells in a xenograft tumor formation assay. More importantly, the endogenous expression of LMP2A positively correlates with the expression of ABCG2 in NPC samples. Finally, we demonstrate that Akt inhibitor (V greatly decreases the size of the stem cell side populations in LMP2A-expressing cells. Taken together, our data indicate that LMP2A induces EMT and stem-like cell self-renewal in NPC, suggesting a novel mechanism by which Epstein-Barr virus induces the initiation, metastasis and recurrence of NPC.

  8. Epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer, a single institution-based study in India

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    Surendra Kumar Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality among all cancers of female genital tract in countries where effective cervical cancer screening program exists. As the world's population ages, remarkable increase in the total number of ovarian cancer cases are expected. This is preliminary epidemiological study to decide priorities in ovarian cancer research. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with primary epithelial ovarian cancer cases registered in J. K. Cancer Institute, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh, from 2007 to 2009. Patients' age at diagnosis, clinical feature, parity of patients, tumor histological type, Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, chemotherapy regimens, and overall survival data were collected and analyzed. Results: One hundred and sixty-three cases of primary ovarian epithelial cancer were analyzed. Patients' mean age at diagnosis was 55.98 ± 9.24 (median = 55. Serous adenocarcinoma (49.69% was the most prevalent type of histopathology followed by endometroid (19.1%, mucinous (10.42% and clear cell (4.29%. Combination of taxane and platin was most commonly used first line regimen in newly diagnosed as well as in relapsed patients post 1 year. Survival was not significantly different in various histopathology (log-rank P = 0.7406, but advancing stage demonstrated gradually poor survival (log-rank P < 0.05 when compared with early stage disease. Conclusion: Research efforts should be in the direction to find early diagnostic and effective screening tools as well as better therapeutic approaches for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  9. Isolation and Identification of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells from HumanEpithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Line 3AO%人卵巢肿瘤细胞系3AO中肿瘤干细胞的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 唐良萏; 汪艳; 张曦; 朱慧芬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify cancer stem cells-like cells(CSC-LCs)from the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell line 3AO and define their biological characteristics through accessing the activity of the anti-apoptosis and drug resistance. Methods CD133 cells were isolated from 3AO by immunomagnetic beads(miniMACS). Cell counting was taken to reflect the proliferation ability. The self-renew capacity of CD133+ cells was detected by using flow cytometry(FCM). No more than 10' CD133+ cells were inoculated subcutaneously. Formation of xenografts in nude mice was taken to demonstrate the tu-morigenesis of these cells. MTT assay was also taken to characterize the sensitivity of CD133 cells against chemotherapeutic drug. Results CD133+ cancer stem cells were obtained from the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell line 3AO, which could self-renew, proliferate and differentiate to a number of CD133 cells. Tumors transplanted into nude mice showed that the tumor formation rate of CD133+ cells was 10/10 and the average tumor formation time was (58 + 6) days, and in CD133- group, tumor formation rate was 4/10 and the average tumor formation time was (145i8) days,suggesting the tumor formation ability of CD133+ cells was significantly stronger than CD133‐ cells. MTT results revealed that IC5q value of CD133+ was 2. 5 times higher than CD133‐ suggesting that CD133+ cells were not sensitive to cisplatin. Staining of cisplatin-treated cells with acridine orange displayed that a large number of CD133 cells showed apoptotic state, while most of the CD133 represented normal form. Further Annexin V-FITC and PI double staining results showed that CD133+ cells had stronger anti-apoptotic ability than CD133‐ cells after treatment with cisplatin. Conclusion CD133 could be further studied as a molecular marker for identification of ovary cancer stem cells, which also provides the basis for the isolation,culture and identification of cancer stem cells in epithelial ovarian

  10. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition induces endoplasmic-reticulum-stress response in human colorectal tumor cells.

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    Evelyn Zeindl-Eberhart

    Full Text Available Tumor cells are stressed by unfavorable environmental conditions like hypoxia or starvation. Driven by the resulting cellular stress tumor cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Additionally, cellular stress is accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum-stress which induces an unfolded protein response. It is unknown if epithelial-mesenchymal transition and endoplasmic reticulum-stress are occurring as independent parallel events or if an interrelationship exists between both of them. Here, we show that in colorectal cancer cells endoplasmic reticulum-stress depends on the induction of ZEB-1, which is a main factor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In the absence of ZEB-1 colorectal cancer cells cannot mount endoplasmic reticulum-stress as a reaction on cellular stress situations like hypoxia or starvation. Thus, our data suggest that there is a hierarchy in the development of cellular stress which starts with the presence of environmental stress that induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition which allows finally endoplasmic reticulum-stress. This finding highlights the central role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition during the process of tumorigenesis as epithelial-mesenchymal transition is also associated with chemoresistance and cancer stemness. Consequently, endoplasmic reticulum-stress might be a well suited target for chemotherapy of colorectal cancers.

  11. Mangiferin exerts antitumor activity in breast cancer cells by regulating matrix metalloproteinases, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and β-catenin signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongzhong; Huang, Jing; Yang, Bing; Xiang, Tingxiu; Yin, Xuedong; Peng, Weiyan; Cheng, Wei [Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wan, Jingyuan; Luo, Fuling [Department of Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Li, Hongyuan [Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Ren, Guosheng, E-mail: rgs726@163.com [Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2013-10-01

    Although mangiferin which is a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone has exhibited promising anticancer activities, the detailed molecular mechanism of mangiferin on cancers still remains enigmatic. In this study, the anticancer activity of mangiferin was evaluated in breast cancer cell line-based in vitro and in vivo models. We showed that mangiferin treatment resulted in decreased cell viability and suppression of metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that mangiferin induced decreased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and -9, and reversal of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, it was demonstrated that mangiferin significantly inhibited the activation of β-catenin pathway. Subsequent experiments showed that inhibiting β-catenin pathway might play a central role in mangiferin-induced anticancer activity through modulation of MMP-7 and -9, and EMT. Consistent with these findings in vitro, the antitumor potential was also verified in mangiferin-treated MDA-MB-231 xenograft mice where significantly decreased tumor volume, weight and proliferation, and increased apoptosis were obtained, with lower expression of MMP-7 and -9, vimentin and active β-catenin, and higher expression of E-cadherin. Taken together, our study suggests that mangiferin might be used as an effective chemopreventive agent against breast cancer. - Highlights: • Mangiferin inhibits growth and metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. • Mangiferin down-regulates MMP-7 and -9 in breast cancer cells. • Mangiferin induces the reversal of EMT in metastatic breast cancer cells. • Mangiferin inhibits the activation of β-catenin pathway in breast cancer cells. • Inhibiting β-catenin is responsible for the antitumor activity of mangiferin.

  12. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    OpenAIRE

    André L. M. Verbeek; Johan Bulten; van Niekerk, Catharina. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods. A cross-sectional study within a large population-based dataset. Results. Skin cancer was found in 2.7% (95% CI: 2.3–3.1) of the 5366 individuals forming our dataset...

  13. Sequential Salinomycin Treatment Results in Resistance Formation through Clonal Selection of Epithelial-Like Tumor Cells12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Florian; Hermawan, Adam; Oak, Prajakta Shirish; Ulaganathan, Vijay Kumar; Herrmann, Annika; Elnikhely, Nefertiti; Thakur, Chitra; Xiao, Zhiguang; Knyazev, Pjotr; Ataseven, Beyhan; Savai, Rajkumar; Wagner, Ernst; Roidl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Acquiring therapy resistance is one of the major obstacles in the treatment of patients with cancer. The discovery of the cancer stem cell (CSC)–specific drug salinomycin raised hope for improved treatment options by targeting therapy-refractory CSCs and mesenchymal cancer cells. However, the occurrence of an acquired salinomycin resistance in tumor cells remains elusive. To study the formation of salinomycin resistance, mesenchymal breast cancer cells were sequentially treated with salinomycin in an in vitro cell culture assay, and the resulting differences in gene expression and salinomycin susceptibility were analyzed. We demonstrated that long-term salinomycin treatment of mesenchymal cancer cells resulted in salinomycin-resistant cells with elevated levels of epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and miR-200c, a decreased migratory capability, and a higher susceptibility to the classic chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The formation of salinomycin resistance through the acquisition of epithelial traits was further validated by inducing mesenchymal-epithelial transition through an overexpression of miR-200c. The transition from a mesenchymal to a more epithelial-like phenotype of salinomycin-treated tumor cells was moreover confirmed in vivo, using syngeneic and, for the first time, transgenic mouse tumor models. These results suggest that the acquisition of salinomycin resistance through the clonal selection of epithelial-like cancer cells could become exploited for improved cancer therapies by antagonizing the tumor-progressive effects of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:25500079

  14. Fischer 344 Rat: A Preclinical Model for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Folate-Targeted Therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    AZAIS, Henri; QUENIAT, Gurvan; Bonner, Caroline; Kerdraon, Olivier; Tardivel, Meryem; Leroux, Bertrand; Frochot, Céline; Betrouni, Nacim; Collinet, Pierre; Mordon, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ovarian cancer prognosis remains dire after primary therapy. Recurrence rates are disappointingly high as 60% of women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer considered in remission will develop recurrent disease within 5 years. Special attention to undetected peritoneal metastasis and residual tumorous cells during surgery is necessary as they are the main predictive factors of recurrences. Folate receptor [alpha] (FR[alpha]) shows promising prospects in targeting ovarian cancero...

  15. EF5 and Motexafin Lutetium in Detecting Tumor Cells in Patients With Abdominal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage 0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Gastric Cancer; Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Colon Cancer; Stage II Gastric Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Rectal Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Gastric Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage

  16. 1,25(OH)2D3 attenuates TGF-β1/β2-induced increased migration and invasion via inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanwen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Ma, Ju; Zhang, Junling; Chen, Guowei; Wang, Xin; Pan, Yisheng; Liu, Yucun; Wang, Pengyuan

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has been reported to inhibit proliferation and migration of multiple types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-metastasis effect is not fully illustrated. In this study, the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on TGF-β1/β2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is tested in colon cancer cells. The results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased invasion and migration of in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the cadherin switch in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. TGF-β1/β2-induced increased expression of EMT-related transcription factors was also inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increased expression of F-actin induced by TGF-β1/β2 in SW-480 cells. Taken together, this study suggests that the suppression of EMT might be one of the mechanisms underlying the anti-metastasis effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 in colon cancer cells.

  17. The clinical implications of new insights into the origins of epithelial ovarian cancer with emphasis on the British Columbia Ovarian Cancer Prevention Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years our understanding of the origin of epithelial ovarian cancer has changed. This includes the realization that the majority of High Grade serous cancers originate in fallopian tube epithelium and the majority of endometroid and clear cell cancer arise in foci of endometriosis. These new insights have profound implications of both prevention and treatment.

  18. Breast fibroblasts modulate epithelial cell proliferation in three-dimensional in vitro co-culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromal fibroblasts associated with in situ and invasive breast carcinoma differ phenotypically from fibroblasts associated with normal breast epithelium, and these alterations in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) may promote breast carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the changes that occur in fibroblasts during carcinogenesis and their influence on epithelial cell growth and behavior could lead to novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. To this end, the effect of CAF and normal breast-associated fibroblasts (NAF) on the growth of epithelial cells representative of pre-neoplastic breast disease was assessed. NAF and CAF were grown with the nontumorigenic MCF10A epithelial cells and their more transformed, tumorigenic derivative, MCF10AT cells, in direct three-dimensional co-cultures on basement membrane material. The proliferation and apoptosis of MCF10A cells and MCF10AT cells were assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling and TUNEL assay, respectively. Additionally, NAF and CAF were compared for expression of insulin-like growth factor II as a potential mediator of their effects on epithelial cell growth, by ELISA and by quantitative, real-time PCR. In relatively low numbers, both NAF and CAF suppressed proliferation of MCF10A cells. However, only NAF and not CAF significantly inhibited proliferation of the more transformed MCF10AT cells. The degree of growth inhibition varied among NAF or CAF from different individuals. In greater numbers, NAF and CAF have less inhibitory effect on epithelial cell growth. The rate of epithelial cell apoptosis was not affected by NAF or CAF. Mean insulin-like growth factor II levels were not significantly different in NAF versus CAF and did not correlate with the fibroblast effect on epithelial cell proliferation. Both NAF and CAF have the ability to inhibit the growth of pre-cancerous breast epithelial cells. NAF have greater inhibitory capacity than CAF

  19. Transcriptional Landscape of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sina A.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Ohse, Takamoto; Pickering, Scott G.; Krofft, Ronald D.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire. PMID:25127402

  20. Transcriptional landscape of glomerular parietal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina A Gharib

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs. In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire.

  1. The EDA-containing cellular fibronectin induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells through integrin α9β1-mediated activation of PI3-K/AKT and Erk1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Fa, Pingping; Cui, Zhiwen; Xia, Ye; Sun, Liang; Li, Zesong; Tang, Aifa; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    Cellular fibronectin (cFN) is one of the main components of tissue extracellular matrices and is involved in multiple physiologic and pathologic processes such as embryogenesis, wound healing, inflammation and tumor progression. The function of fibronectin in regulating normal cell adhesion and migration is well documented, but its function in cancer progression is only partially unraveled. We have reported previously that fibronectin stimulates the proliferation and survival of non-small lung carcinoma cells through upregulation of pro-oncogenic signals related to cyclooxygenase-2/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (COX-2/PI3-K/AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin triggered by activation of the integrin α5β1. Here, we extend these studies by showing that fibronectin promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells. We found that cFN, but not plasma fibronectin or type 1 collagen, induces lung carcinoma cell scattering in vitro, promotes cell migration and invasion of Matrigel and stimulates the expression of the mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin while decreasing the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin through PI3-K and Erk pathways. Interestingly, the extra domain A (EDA) within cFN was found to be crucial for this process, as confirmed by testing cells overexpressing EDA or cells exposed to EDA-containing matrices. We found that the integrin α9, but not α5, mediated cFN-induced EMT as silencing integrin α9 neutralized cFN-induced EMT. Overall, our findings show that the EDA domain within cFN induces EMT in lung carcinoma cells through integrin α9-mediated activation of PI3-K and Erk. PMID:23929437

  2. Smad2/3-Regulated Expression of DLX2 Is Associated with Radiation-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Radioresistance of A549 and MDA-MB-231 Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo-Jin Choi

    Full Text Available The control of radioresistance and metastatic potential of surviving cancer cells is important for improving cancer eradication by radiotheraphy. The distal-less homeobox2 (DLX2 gene encodes for a homeobox transcription factor involved in morphogenesis and its deregulation was found in human solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Here we investigated the role of DLX2 in association with radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT and stem cell-like properties and its regulation by Smad2/3 signaling in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. In irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, EMT was induced as demonstrated by EMT marker expression, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and migratory and invasive ability. Also, irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased cancer stem cells (CSCs marker. Interestingly, DLX2 was overexpressed upon irradiation. Therefore, we examined the role of DLX2 in radiation-induced EMT and radioresistance. The overexpression of DLX2 alone induced EMT, migration and invasion, and CSC marker expression. The reduced colony-forming ability in irradiated cells was partially restored by DLX2 overexpression. On the other hand, the depletion of DLX2 using si-RNA abolished radiation-induced EMT, CSC marker expression, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, depletion of DLX2 increased the radiation sensitivity in both cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of Smad2/3, a key activator of TGF-β1 pathway, abrogated the radiation-induced DLX2 expression, indicating that radiation-induced DLX2 expression is dependent on Smad2/3 signaling. These results demonstrated that DLX2 plays a crucial role in radioresistance, radiation-induced EMT and CSC marker expression, and the expression of DLX2 is regulated by Smad2/3 signaling in A549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines.

  3. Smad2/3-Regulated Expression of DLX2 Is Associated with Radiation-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Radioresistance of A549 and MDA-MB-231 Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeo-Jin; Baek, Ga-Young; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee

    2016-01-01

    The control of radioresistance and metastatic potential of surviving cancer cells is important for improving cancer eradication by radiotheraphy. The distal-less homeobox2 (DLX2) gene encodes for a homeobox transcription factor involved in morphogenesis and its deregulation was found in human solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Here we investigated the role of DLX2 in association with radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell-like properties and its regulation by Smad2/3 signaling in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. In irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, EMT was induced as demonstrated by EMT marker expression, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and migratory and invasive ability. Also, irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker. Interestingly, DLX2 was overexpressed upon irradiation. Therefore, we examined the role of DLX2 in radiation-induced EMT and radioresistance. The overexpression of DLX2 alone induced EMT, migration and invasion, and CSC marker expression. The reduced colony-forming ability in irradiated cells was partially restored by DLX2 overexpression. On the other hand, the depletion of DLX2 using si-RNA abolished radiation-induced EMT, CSC marker expression, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, depletion of DLX2 increased the radiation sensitivity in both cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of Smad2/3, a key activator of TGF-β1 pathway, abrogated the radiation-induced DLX2 expression, indicating that radiation-induced DLX2 expression is dependent on Smad2/3 signaling. These results demonstrated that DLX2 plays a crucial role in radioresistance, radiation-induced EMT and CSC marker expression, and the expression of DLX2 is regulated by Smad2/3 signaling in A549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. PMID:26799321

  4. Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Josalyn L Cho; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of c...

  5. Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Josalyn L Cho; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of c...

  6. Attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii to human buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J M; MILLER, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    A standardized assay was used to measure the attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 to washed human buccal epithelial cells. Treatment of the A. naeslundii cells with hyaluronidases, wheat germ lipase, protease, trypsin, heat, or sonic oscillation significantly reduced their ability to attach to epithelial cells. Treatment of the epithelial cells with the above enzymes did not influence the attachment of A. naeslundii. Extraction of A. naeslundii with NaOH also significantly reduced ...

  7. Lactobacillus decelerates cervical epithelial cell cycle progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Vielfort

    Full Text Available We investigated cell cycle progression in epithelial cervical ME-180 cells during colonization of three different Lactobacillus species utilizing live cell microscopy, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays, and flow cytometry. The colonization of these ME-180 cells by L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri, originating from human gastric epithelia and saliva, respectively, was shown to reduce cell cycle progression and to cause host cells to accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The G1 phase accumulation in L. rhamnosus-colonized cells was accompanied by the up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of p21. By contrast, the vaginal isolate L. crispatus did not affect cell cycle progression. Furthermore, both the supernatants from the lactic acid-producing L. rhamnosus colonies and lactic acid added to cell culture media were able to reduce the proliferation of ME-180 cells. In this study, we reveal the diversity of the Lactobacillus species to affect host cell cycle progression and demonstrate that L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri exert anti-proliferative effects on human cervical carcinoma cells.

  8. Mitoxantrone-loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug carriers for cancer therapy: Uptake and toxicity in primary human tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicha, Iwona; Scheffler, Laura; Ebenau, Astrid; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2016-06-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are in use for many clinical diagnostic and experimental therapeutic applications, for example, for targeted drug delivery. To analyze the cellular responses to mitoxantrone-carrying SPIONs (SPION-MTO), and to the drug released from SPIONs, we used an in vitro system that allows comparison of primary human cells with different endocytotic capacities, namely, epithelial cells from proximal and distal parts of the nephron. SPIONs were selectively and rapidly internalized by proximal tubular cells with high endocytotic potential, but not by distal tubular cells. Uptake did not affect cell viability or morphology. In both cell types, free MTO (10-100 nM) induced double-strand DNA breaks and senescence, cell hypertrophy and reduced cell proliferation. However, cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, cytoskeletal structures or polarity of the cells were not affected. Interestingly, a comparable response was also observed upon treatment with SPION-MTO and was independent of uptake of the particles. The effect of SPION-MTO on cells which did not internalize particles was primarily related to the release of MTO from drug-coated particles upon incubation in serum-containing cell growth medium. In conclusion, we show that whereas the uptake of SPIONs does not affect cellular functions or viability, the toxicity of drug-loaded SPIONs depends essentially on the type of drug bound to nanoparticles. Due to the relatively low systemic toxicity of MTO, the effects of MTO-SPIONs on human tubular cells were moderate, but they may become clinically relevant when more nephrotoxic drugs are bound to SPIONs. PMID:26468004

  9. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair;

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  10. Emerging role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator - an epithelial chloride channel in gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuning; Guan, Xiaoqing; Yang, Zhe; Li, Chunying

    2016-03-15

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a glycoprotein with 1480 amino acids, has been well established as a chloride channel mainly expressed in the epithelial cells of various tissues and organs such as lungs, sweat glands, gastrointestinal system, and reproductive organs. Although defective CFTR leads to cystic fibrosis, a common genetic disorder in the Caucasian population, there is accumulating evidence that suggests a novel role of CFTR in various cancers, especially in gastroenterological cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging findings that link CFTR with various cancers, with focus on the association between CFTR defects and gastrointestinal cancers as well as the underlying mechanisms. Further study of CFTR in cancer biology may help pave a new way for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:26989463

  11. Emerging role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Go J

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the phenomenon of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role in the tumor development. Several research articles have been published from Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research (JECCR) which have investigated into the molecular machineries underlying the importance of EMT for hepatic cancer. Given those recent publications by JECCR, this commentary focuses on the pathological significance of EMT for liver tumor. PMID:27619936

  12. Assessing the genetic architecture of epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi; Dixon, Suzanne C; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Burghaus, Stefanie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Antonenkova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Edwards, Robert P; Kelley, Joseph L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Cannioto, Rikki; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H; Wu, Xifeng; Bisogna, Maria; Dao, Fanny; Levine, Douglas A; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Stampfer, Meir; Missmer, Stacey; Bjorge, Line; Salvesen, Helga B; Kopperud, Reidun K; Bischof, Katharina; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Olson, Sara H; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H; Sieh, Weiva; Whittemore, Alice S; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Blake Gilks, C; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Kluz, Tomasz; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise; Trabert, Britton; Lissowska, Jolanta; McLaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian; Gayther, Simon A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J; Wu, Anna H; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Timorek, Agnieszka; Szafron, Lukasz; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Winham, Stacey J; Bandera, Elisa V; Poole, Elizabeth M; Morgan, Terry K; Goode, Ellen L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D P; Webb, Penelope M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Risch, Harvey A; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadliest common cancers. The five most common types of disease are high-grade and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. Each of these subtypes present distinct molecular pathogeneses and sensitivities to treatments. Recent studies show that certain genetic variants confer susceptibility to all subtypes while other variants are subtype-specific. Here, we perform an extensive analysis of the genetic architecture of EOC subtypes. To this end, we used data of 10,014 invasive EOC patients and 21,233 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium genotyped in the iCOGS array (211,155 SNPs). We estimate the array heritability (attributable to variants tagged on arrays) of each subtype and their genetic correlations. We also look for genetic overlaps with factors such as obesity, smoking behaviors, diabetes, age at menarche and height. We estimated the array heritabilities of high-grade serous disease ([Formula: see text] = 8.8 ± 1.1 %), endometrioid ([Formula: see text] = 3.2 ± 1.6 %), clear cell ([Formula: see text] = 6.7 ± 3.3 %) and all EOC ([Formula: see text] = 5.6 ± 0.6 %). Known associated loci contributed approximately 40 % of the total array heritability for each subtype. The contribution of each chromosome to the total heritability was not proportional to chromosome size. Through bivariate and cross-trait LD score regression, we found evidence of shared genetic backgrounds between the three high-grade subtypes: serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated. Finally, we found significant genetic correlations of all EOC with diabetes and obesity using a polygenic prediction approach. PMID:27075448

  13. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...... that have become nervefree. Furthermore we show that epithelial cells are unable to exchange low-molecular weight fluorescent dyes....

  14. Cell mechanics of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and macrophages (AMs).

    OpenAIRE

    Féréol, Sophie; Fodil, Redouane; Pelle, Gabriel; Louis, Bruno; Isabey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Cell mechanics provides an integrated view of many biological phenomena which are intimately related to cell structure and function. Because breathing constitutes a sustained motion synonymous with life, pulmonary cells are normally designed to support permanent cyclic stretch without breaking, while receiving mechanical cues from their environment. The authors study the mechanical responses of alveolar cells, namely epithelial cells and macrophages, exposed to well-controlled mechanical stre...

  15. Evidence of a Genomic Biomarker in Normal Human Epithelial Mammary Cell Line, MCF-10A, That Is Absent in the Human Breast Cancer Cell Line, MCF-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Crawford

    2006-01-01

    MCF-7 cells, it was transfected into MCF-7 cells. There were observable changes in the morphology of the transfected cells. These changes included an increase in cell elongation and a decrease in cell aggregation.

  16. The emerging role of exosomes in Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition in cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jayne Vella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis in cancer consists of multiple steps, including Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT, which is characterized by the loss of Epithelial-like characteristics and the gain of Mesenchymal-like attributes including cell migration and invasion. It is clear that the tumour microenvironment can promote the metastatic cascade and that intercellular communication is necessary for this to occur. Exosomes are small membranous vesicles secreted by most cell types into the extracellular environment and they are important communicators in the tumour microenvironment. They promote angiogenesis, invasion and proliferation in recipient cells to support tumour growth and a prometastatic phenotype. Although it is clear that exosomes contribute to cancer cell plasticity, experimental evidence to define exosome induced plasticity as EMT is only just coming to light. This review will discuss recent research on exosomal regulation of the EMT process in the tumour microenvironment.

  17. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjees Hasan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  18. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Emma; El-Helw, Loaie; Hasan, Jurjees, E-mail: jurjees.hasan@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust / Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-23

    Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  19. Eosinophils Promote Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yasukawa, Atsushi; Hosoki, Koa; Toda, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Boveda-Ruiz, Daniel; Gil-Bernabe, Paloma; Nagao, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hiraguchi, Yukiko; Tokuda, Reiko; Naito, Masahiro; Takagi, Takehiro; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was a...

  20. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jurjees Hasan; Loaie El-Helw; Emma Dean

    2010-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the a...

  1. Paclitaxel, Polyglutamate Paclitaxel, or Observation in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. Regulation of antiapoptotic and cytoprotective pathways in colonic epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease involving the colon resulting in bloody diarrhea and increased risk of colorectal cancer in certain patient subgroups. Increased apoptosis in the epithelial cell layer causes increased permeability, especially during flares; this leads...... inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) and cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein. cIAP2 is upregulated in regenerative epithelial cells both in ulcerative colitis and in experimental intestinal wounds. Inhibition of cIAP2 decreases wound healing in vitro possibly through inhibition of migration....... Altogether, it is shown that epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis responds to the hostile microenvironment by activation of cytoprotective pathways that tend to counteract the cytotoxic effects of inflammation. However, the present studies also show that epithelial cells produce increased amounts...

  3. DNA methylation profiles of ovarian epithelial carcinoma tumors and cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Houshdaran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide and in the United States. Epithelial ovarian cancer comprises several histological subtypes, each with distinct clinical and molecular characteristics. The natural history of this heterogeneous disease, including the cell types of origin, is poorly understood. This study applied recently developed methods for high-throughput DNA methylation profiling to characterize ovarian cancer cell lines and tumors, including representatives of three major histologies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained DNA methylation profiles of 1,505 CpG sites (808 genes in 27 primary epithelial ovarian tumors and 15 ovarian cancer cell lines. We found that the DNA methylation profiles of ovarian cancer cell lines were markedly different from those of primary ovarian tumors. Aggregate DNA methylation levels of the assayed CpG sites tended to be higher in ovarian cancer cell lines relative to ovarian tumors. Within the primary tumors, those of the same histological type were more alike in their methylation profiles than those of different subtypes. Supervised analyses identified 90 CpG sites (68 genes that exhibited 'subtype-specific' DNA methylation patterns (FDR<1% among the tumors. In ovarian cancer cell lines, we estimated that for at least 27% of analyzed autosomal CpG sites, increases in methylation were accompanied by decreases in transcription of the associated gene. SIGNIFICANCE: The significant difference in DNA methylation profiles between ovarian cancer cell lines and tumors underscores the need to be cautious in using cell lines as tumor models for molecular studies of ovarian cancer and other cancers. Similarly, the distinct methylation profiles of the different histological types of ovarian tumors reinforces the need to treat the different histologies of ovarian cancer as different diseases, both clinically and in biomarker studies. These data

  4. CLCA2 Interactor EVA1 Is Required for Mammary Epithelial Cell Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ramena

    Full Text Available CLCA2 is a p53-, p63-inducible transmembrane protein that is frequently downregulated in breast cancer. It is induced during differentiation of human mammary epithelial cells, and its knockdown causes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. To determine how CLCA2 promotes epithelial differentiation, we searched for interactors using membrane dihybrid screening. We discovered a strong interaction with the cell junctional protein EVA1 (Epithelial V-like Antigen 1 and confirmed it by co-immunoprecipitation. Like CLCA2, EVA1 is a type I transmembrane protein that is regulated by p53 and p63. It is thought to mediate homophilic cell-cell adhesion in diverse epithelial tissues. We found that EVA1 is frequently downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines, especially those of mesenchymal phenotype. Moreover, knockdown of EVA1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC caused EMT, implying that EVA1 is essential for epithelial differentiation. Both EVA1 and CLCA2 co-localized with E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions. The interacting domains were delimited by deletion analysis, revealing the site of interaction to be the transmembrane segment (TMS. The primary sequence of the CLCA2 TMS was found to be conserved in CLCA2 orthologs throughout mammals, suggesting that its interaction with EVA1 co-evolved with the mammary gland. A screen for other junctional interactors revealed that CLCA2 was involved in two different complexes, one with EVA1 and ZO-1, the other with beta catenin. Overexpression of CLCA2 caused downregulation of beta catenin and beta catenin-activated genes. Thus, CLCA2 links a junctional adhesion molecule to cytosolic signaling proteins that modulate proliferation and differentiation. These results may explain how attenuation of CLCA2 causes EMT and why CLCA2 and EVA1 are frequently downregulated in metastatic breast cancer cell lines.

  5. Sirtuins and Cancer: Role in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Cives, Mauro; Della-Morte, David; Capuani, Barbara; Lauro, Davide; Guadagni, Fiorella; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The human sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) enzymes are a highly conserved family of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases, which play a critical role in the regulation of a large number of metabolic pathways involved in stress response and aging. Cancer is an age-associated disease, and sirtuins may have a considerable impact on a plethora of processes that regulate tumorigenesis. In particular, growing evidence suggests that sirtuins may modulate epithelial plasticity by inducing transcriptional reprogramming leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, and metastases. Though commonly regarded as EMT inducers, sirtuins may also suppress this process, and their functional properties seem to largely depend on the cellular context, stage of cancer development, tissue of origin, and microenvironment architecture. Here, we review the role of sirtuins in cancer biology with particular emphasis on their role in EMT. PMID:27379175

  6. Comparison of methods for the isolation of human breast epithelial and myoepithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu eZubeldia-Plazaola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two lineages, epithelial and myoepithelial cells, are the main cell populations in the normal mammary gland and in breast cancer. Traditionally, cancer research has been performed using commercial cell lines, but primary cell cultures obtained from fresh breast tissue are a powerful tool to study more reliably new aspects of mammary gland biology, including normal and pathological conditions. Nevertheless, the methods described to date have some technical problems in terms of cell viability and yield, which hamper work with primary mammary cells. Therefore, there is a need to optimize technology for the proper isolation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. For this reason, we compared four methods in an effort to improve the isolation and primary cell culture of different cell populations of human mammary epithelium. The samples were obtained from healthy tissue of patients who had undergone mammoplasty or mastectomy surgery. We based our approaches on previously described methods, and incorporated additional steps to ameliorate technical efficiency and increase cell survival. We determined cell growth and viability by phase-contrast images, growth curve analysis and cell yield, and identified cell-lineage specific markers by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence in 3D cell cultures. These techniques allowed us to better evaluate the functional capabilities of these two main mammary lineages, using CD227/K19 (epithelial cells and CD10/K14 (myoepithelial cells antigens. Our results show that slow digestion at low enzymatic concentration combined with the differential centrifugation technique is the method that best fits the main goal of the present study: protocol efficiency and cell survival yield. In summary, we propose some guidelines to establish primary mammary epithelial cell lines more efficiently and to provide us with a strong research instrument to better understand the role of different epithelial cell types in the origin of breast

  7. Assessing epithelial cell nuclear morphology by using azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung-Chieh; Lau, Condon; Tunnell, James W; Hunter, Martin; Kalashnikov, Maxim; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Fulghum, Stephen F; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2006-11-01

    We describe azimuthal light scattering spectroscopy (phi/LSS), a novel technique for assessing epithelial-cell nuclear morphology. The difference between the spectra measured at azimuthal angles phi = 0 degrees and phi = 90 degrees preferentially isolates the single backscattering contribution due to large (approximately 10 microm) structures such as epithelial cell nuclei by discriminating against scattering from smaller organelles and diffusive background. We demonstrate the feasibility of using phi/LSS for cancer detection by showing that spectra from cancerous colon tissue exhibit significantly greater azimuthal asymmetry than spectra from normal colonic tissues. PMID:17041654

  8. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  9. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  10. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  11. Computational investigation of epithelial cell dynamic phenotype in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath Jayanta; Mostov Keith; Park Sunwoo; Kim Sean HJ; Hunt C Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background When grown in three-dimensional (3D) cultures, epithelial cells typically form cystic organoids that recapitulate cardinal features of in vivo epithelial structures. Characterizing essential cell actions and their roles, which constitute the system's dynamic phenotype, is critical to gaining deeper insight into the cystogenesis phenomena. Methods Starting with an earlier in silico epithelial analogue (ISEA1) that validated for several Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epith...

  12. SchA-p85-FAK complex dictates isoform-specific activation of Akt2 and subsequent PCBP1-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of TGFβ-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cell line A549.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xinying; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yuxia; Teng, Guigen; Wang, Yong; Zang, Xuefeng; Wang, Kaifei; Zhang, Jinghui; Xu, Yali; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Lei

    2014-08-01

    A post-transcriptional pathway by which TGF-β modulates expression of specific proteins, Disabled-2 (Dab2) and Interleukin-like EMT Inducer (ILEI), inherent to epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in murine epithelial cells through Akt2-mediated phosphorylation of poly r(C) binding protein (PCBP1), has been previously elucidated. The aims of the current study were to determine if the same mechanism is operative in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, and to delineate the underlying mechanism. Steady-state transcript and protein expression levels of Dab2 and ILEI were examined in A549 cells treated with TGF-β for up to 48 h. Induction of translational de-repression in this model was quantified by polysomal fractionation followed by qRT-PCR. The underlying mechanism of isoform-specific activation of Akt2 was elucidated through a combination of co-immunoprecipitation studies. TGF-β induced EMT in A549 cells concomitant with translational upregulation of Dab2 and ILEI proteins through isoform-specific activation of Akt2 followed by phosphorylation of PCBP1 at serine-43. Our experiments further elucidated that the adaptor protein SchA is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues following TGF-β treatment, which initiated a signaling cascade resulting in the sequential recruitment of p85 subunit of PI3K and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The SchA-FAK-p85 complex subsequently selectively recruited and activated Akt2, not Akt1. Inhibition of the p85 subunit through phosphorylated 1257 peptide completely attenuated EMT in these cells. We have defined the underlying mechanism responsible for isoform-specific recruitment and activation of Akt2, not Akt1, during TGF-β-mediated EMT in A549 cells. Inhibition of the formation of this complex thus represents an important and novel therapeutic target in metastatic lung carcinoma. PMID:24819169

  13. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial

  14. Epithelial progenitor cell lines as models of normal breast morphogenesis and neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René;

    2003-01-01

    The majority of human breast carcinomas exhibit luminal characteristics and as such, are most probably derived from progenitor cells within the luminal epithelial compartment. This has been subdivided recently into at least three luminal subtypes based on gene expression patterns. The value of kn......% of breast cancers arise in TDLUs and more than 90% are also cytokeratin 19-positive, we suggest that this cell population contains a breast-cancer progenitor....

  15. Phthalates stimulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition through an HDAC6-dependent mechanism in human breast epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Hua; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Yi; Kuo, Po-Lin; Lee, Jau-Nan; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Long, Cheng-Yu; Ko, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Phthalates are environmental hormone-like molecules that are associated with breast cancer risk and are involved in metastasis, a process that requires the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, few studies have addressed the potential effects of phthalates on stem cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that phthalates such as butyl benzyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate induce EMT in R2d cells, a stem cell-derived human breast epithelial cell line that is responsive to estradiol for tumor development. We observed that phthalates induced EMT as evidenced by morphological changes concomitant with increased expression of mesenchymal markers and decreased expression of epithelial markers. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is required for phthalate-induced cell migration and invasion during EMT in vitro and metastasis into the lungs of nude mice. We also constructed a series of mutant HDAC6 promoter fragments and found that the transcription factor AP-2a plays a novel role in regulating the HDAC6 promoter. Furthermore, phthalates stimulated estrogen receptors and triggered the downstream EGFR-PKA signaling cascade, leading to increased expression of AP-2a in the nucleus. We also observed that phthalates increased expression of the PP1/HDAC6 complex and caused Akt activation and GSK3β inactivation, leading to transcriptional activation of vimentin through the β-catenin-TCF-4/LEF1 pathway. Understanding the signaling cascades of phthalates that activate EMT through HDAC6 in breast epithelial stem cells provides the identification of novel therapeutic target for human breast cancer.

  16. The Polycomb group protein RING1B is overexpressed in ductal breast carcinoma and is required to sustain FAK steady state levels in breast cancer epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Almudena; Panoutsopoulou, Konstantina; Corominas, Josep Maria; Gimeno, Ramón; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Morales, Saleta; Lobato, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Carles; Farias, Eduardo F.; Mayol, Xavier; Cano, Amparo; Hernández-Muáoz, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    In early stages of metastasis malignant cells must acquire phenotypic changes to enhance their migratory behavior and their ability to breach the matrix surrounding tumors and blood vessel walls. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression allows the acquisition of these features that, once tumoral cells have escape from the primary tumor, can be reverted. Here we report that the expression of the Polycomb epigenetic repressor Ring1B is enhanced in tumoral cells that invade the stroma in human ductal breast carcinoma and its expression is coincident with that of Fak in these tumors. Ring1B knockdown in breast cancer cell lines revealed that Ring1B is required to sustain Fak expression in basal conditions as well as in Tgfβ-treated cells. Functionally, endogenous Ring1B is required for cell migration and invasion in vitro and for in vivo invasion of the mammary fat pad by tumoral cells. Finally we identify p63 as a target of Ring1B to regulate Fak expression: Ring1B depletion results in enhanced p63 expression, which in turns represses Fak expression. Importantly, Fak downregulation upon Ring1B depletion is dependent on p63 expression. Our findings provide new insights in the biology of the breast carcinoma and open new avenues for breast cancer prognosis and therapy. PMID:24742605

  17. Roles of Dietary Phytoestrogens on the Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Diverse Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geum-A. Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a key role in tumor progression. The cells undergoing EMT upregulate the expression of cell motility-related proteins and show enhanced migration and invasion. The hallmarks of EMT in cancer cells include changed cell morphology and increased metastatic capabilities in cell migration and invasion. Therefore, prevention of EMT is an important tool for the inhibition of tumor metastasis. A novel preventive therapy is needed, such as treatment of natural dietary substances that are nontoxic to normal human cells, but effective in inhibiting cancer cells. Phytoestrogens, such as genistein, resveratrol, kaempferol and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM, can be raised as possible candidates. They are plant-derived dietary estrogens, which are found in tea, vegetables and fruits, and are known to have various biological efficacies, including chemopreventive activity against cancers. Specifically, these phytoestrogens may induce not only anti-proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, but also anti-metastasis by inhibiting the EMT process in various cancer cells. There have been several signaling pathways found to be associated with the induction of the EMT process in cancer cells. Phytoestrogens were demonstrated to have chemopreventive effects on cancer metastasis by inhibiting EMT-associated pathways, such as Notch-1 and TGF-beta signaling. As a result, phytoestrogens can inhibit or reverse the EMT process by upregulating the expression of epithelial phenotypes, including E-cadherin, and downregulating the expression of mesenchymal phenotypes, including N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, and vimentin. In this review, we focused on the important roles of phytoestrogens in inhibiting EMT in many types of cancer and suggested phytoestrogens as prominent alternative compounds to chemotherapy.

  18. Roles of Dietary Phytoestrogens on the Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Diverse Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geum-A; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in tumor progression. The cells undergoing EMT upregulate the expression of cell motility-related proteins and show enhanced migration and invasion. The hallmarks of EMT in cancer cells include changed cell morphology and increased metastatic capabilities in cell migration and invasion. Therefore, prevention of EMT is an important tool for the inhibition of tumor metastasis. A novel preventive therapy is needed, such as treatment of natural dietary substances that are nontoxic to normal human cells, but effective in inhibiting cancer cells. Phytoestrogens, such as genistein, resveratrol, kaempferol and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), can be raised as possible candidates. They are plant-derived dietary estrogens, which are found in tea, vegetables and fruits, and are known to have various biological efficacies, including chemopreventive activity against cancers. Specifically, these phytoestrogens may induce not only anti-proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, but also anti-metastasis by inhibiting the EMT process in various cancer cells. There have been several signaling pathways found to be associated with the induction of the EMT process in cancer cells. Phytoestrogens were demonstrated to have chemopreventive effects on cancer metastasis by inhibiting EMT-associated pathways, such as Notch-1 and TGF-beta signaling. As a result, phytoestrogens can inhibit or reverse the EMT process by upregulating the expression of epithelial phenotypes, including E-cadherin, and downregulating the expression of mesenchymal phenotypes, including N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, and vimentin. In this review, we focused on the important roles of phytoestrogens in inhibiting EMT in many types of cancer and suggested phytoestrogens as prominent alternative compounds to chemotherapy. PMID:27231938

  19. miR-204 Shifts the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Concert with the Transcription Factors RUNX2, ETS1, and cMYB in Prostate Cancer Cell Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krassimira Todorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is an essential step in advanced cancer development. Many master transcription factors shift their expression to drive this process, while noncoding RNAs families like miR-200 are found to restrict it. In this study we investigated how the tumor suppressor miR-204 and several transcription factors modulate main markers of mesenchymal transformation like E- and N-cadherin, SLUG, VEGF, and SOX-9 in prostate cancer cell line model (LNCaP, PC3, VCaP, and NCI-H660. We found that SLUG, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin are differentially modulated by miR-204, using miR-204 specific mimics and inhibitors and siRNA gene silencing (RUNX2, ETS-1, and cMYB. The genome perturbation associated TMPRSS2-ERG fusion coincided with shift from tumor-suppressor to tumor-promoting activity of this miRNA. The ability of miR-204 to suppress cancer cell viability and migration was lost in the fusion harboring cell lines. We found differential E-cadherin splicing corroborating to miR-204 modulatory effects. RUNX2, ETS1, and cMYB are involved in the regulation of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and VEGFA expression. RUNX2 knockdown results in SOX9 downregulation, while ETS1 and cMYB silencing result in SOX9 upregulation in VCaP cells. Their expression was found to be also methylation dependent. Our study provides means for understanding cancer heterogeneity in regard to adapted therapeutic approaches development.

  20. The Roles of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT and Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis: Potential Targets for Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binnaz Demirkan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed molecular connections between breast and bone. Genes, important in the control of bone remodeling, such as receptor activator of nuclear kappa (RANK, receptor activator of nuclear kappa ligand (RANKL, vitamin D, bone sialoprotein (BSP, osteopontin (OPN, and calcitonin, are expressed in breast cancer and lactating breast. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET effectors play critical roles during embryonic development, postnatal growth, and epithelial homeostasis, but also are involved in a number of pathological conditions, including wound repair, fibrosis, inflammation, as well as cancer progression and bone metastasis. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ, insulin-like growth factor I & II (IGF I & II, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH(rP, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, epithelial growth factors II/I (ErbB/EGF, interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-8, IL-11, IL-1, integrin αvβ3, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, catepsin K, hypoxia, notch, Wnt, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP, and hedgehog signaling pathways are important EMT and MET effectors identified in the bone microenviroment facilitating bone metastasis formation. Recently, Runx2, an essential transcription factor in the regulation of mesenchymal cell differentiation into the osteoblast lineage and proper bone development, is also well-recognized for its expression in breast cancer cells promoting osteolytic bone metastasis. Understanding the precise mechanisms of EMT and MET in the pathogenesis of breast cancer bone metastasis can inform the direction of therapeutic intervention and possibly prevention.

  1. Multipotent Capacity of Immortalized Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Oliver; Kaisani, Aadil A.; Spinola, Monica; Xie, Xian-Jin; Batten, Kimberly G.; Minna, John D.; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W.

    2011-01-01

    While the adult murine lung utilizes multiple compartmentally restricted progenitor cells during homeostasis and repair, much less is known about the progenitor cells from the human lung. Translating the murine stem cell model to humans is hindered by anatomical differences between species. Here we show that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) display characteristics of multipotent stem cells of the lung. These HBECs express markers indicative of several epithelial types of the adult lun...

  2. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  3. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  4. Effect of progesterone combined with chemotherapy on epithelial ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓军; 丰有吉

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify an effective auxiliary therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Progesterone acetate given at 250 mg intramuscularly twice a week for 1 month followed by increased administration to 500 mg intramuscularly every two weeks for 3 years was used in combination with platinum based chemotherapy to treat patients with epithelial ovarian cancer as a first-line therapy. Prognoses of the patients receiving progesterone combined with chemotherapy (progesterone group) and those receiving chemotherapy only (control group) were compared. Results Three-year recurrence and survival conditions of the progesterone and control groups were as follows. Stage Ⅰa: no patient relapsed or died in either group. Stage Ⅰb-Ⅰc: three-year recurrence rates were 14.2% and 37.5%, respectively (P=0.2845); three-year survival rates were 92.3% and 87.5% (P=0.7221). Stage Ⅱ: 1 patient relapsed and died among the 3 patients in the progesterone group; among the 4 patients in the control group, 1 patient relapsed, none died. Stage Ⅲ: three-year recurrence rates were 30.8% and 64.3%, respectively (P=0.1170); three-year survival rates were 85.7% and 42.9%, respectively (P=0.005). Stage Ⅳ: 4 patients relapsed and 1 patient died among the 7 patients in the progesterone group; both the patients in the control group relapsed and died. Conclusions The results indicated that progesterone combined with platinum based chemotherapy as a first-line therapy may improve the prognosis of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, but would not change the prognosis of early stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

  5. MicroRNAs:regulators of cancer metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Ming Ding

    2014-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with solid tumors. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, in which epithelial cells are converted into mesenchymal cells, is frequently activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are smal , non-coding RNAs that provide widespread expressional control by repressing mRNA translation and inducing mRNA degradation. The fundamental roles of miRNAs in tumor growth and metastasis have been increasingly wel recognized. A growing number of miRNAs are reported to regulate tumor invasion/metastasis through EMT-related and/or non-EMT-related mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the functional role and molecular mechanism of miRNAs in regulating cancer metastasis and EMT.

  6. Desmosome dynamics in migrating epithelial cells requires the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brett J.; Pashaj, Anjeza; Johnson, Keith R.; Wahl, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Re-modeling of epithelial tissues requires that the cells in the tissue rearrange their adhesive contacts in order to allow cells to migrate relative to neighboring cells. Desmosomes are prominent adhesive structures found in a variety of epithelial tissues that are believed to inhibit cell migration and invasion. Mechanisms regulating desmosome assembly and stability in migrating cells are largely unknown. In this study we established a cell culture model to examine the fate of desmosomal components during scratch wound migration. Desmosomes are rapidly assembled between epithelial cells at the lateral edges of migrating cells and structures are transported in a retrograde fashion while the structures become larger and mature. Desmosome assembly and dynamics in this system are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton prior to being associated with the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton. These studies extend our understanding of desmosome assembly and provide a system to examine desmosome assembly and dynamics during epithelial cell migration. PMID:21945137

  7. Differential expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule in salivary gland neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattarataratip, Ekarat; Masorn, Marisa; Jarupoonphol, Werapong; Supatthanayut, Sirinpaporn; Saeoweiang, Pichanee

    2016-10-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is the epithelial-specific molecule expressed on various epithelial cell types. The function of EpCAM involves cellular adhesion, proliferation, and signaling in both normal tissues and cancers. The purposes of this study were to investigate the EpCAM expression in salivary gland neoplasms and examine its relationship with pathologic characteristics. Forty-two cases of salivary gland neoplasms, including 20 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs), 11 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs), 9 pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), and 2 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGAs) were enrolled. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule expression was analyzed immunohistochemically using MOC-31 and BerEP4 antibodies. Results showed that the majority of MECs and all PLGAs showed EpCAM expression in more than 50% of neoplastic cells, whereas most PAs and ACCs did not express this protein. In MECs, most EpCAM-positive neoplastic cells were clear cells, glandular epithelial cells, and intermediate cells, whereas squamous cells and mucous cells were largely negative. The expression was limited to ductal epithelium in EpCAM-positive PAs and ACCs. The decreased EpCAM expression in MECs was significantly associated with microscopically diminished cystic components, the presence of small nest invasion at invasive front, cellular anaplasia, vascular invasion, and high pathologic grade. These data suggested that EpCAM showed different expression pattern among salivary gland neoplasms and in different grades of MECs. PMID:27649957

  8. Hydrogen sulfide lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya C Wu

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H(2S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116 were exposed to H(2S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H(2S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H(2S was accompanied by G(1-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip. Moreover, exposure to H(2S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B(+ autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H(2S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H(2S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H(2S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H(2S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway.

  9. The Preliminary Experimental Study of Induced Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yu; Jian Ge; Zhichong Wang; Bing Huang; Keming Yu; Chongde Long; Xigu Chen

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:To study preliminarily induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells intocorneal epithelial cells in vitro.Methods: Murine embryonic stem cells were co-cultured with Rabbit limbal cornealepithelial cells in Transwell system to induce differentiation. Mophological andimmunohistochemical examination were implemented.Results: The induced cells from embryonic stem cells have an epithelial appearance.The cells formed a network and were confluent into film gradually after beingco-cultured with rabbit limbal corneal epithelial cells for 24 ~ 96 hours. The cells rangedmosaic structure and localized together with clear rim. Most of the cells showedpolygonal appearance. Transmission electron microscope showed lots of microvilli on thesurface of induced cells and tight junctions between them. These epithelial-like cellsexpressed the corneal epithelial cell specific marker cytokeratin3/cytokeratinl2.Conclusion: The potential mechanism of the differentiation of murine embryonic stemcells into corneal epithelial cells induced by limbal corneal epithelial cell-derivedinducing activity is to be further verified.

  10. Validation of epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer and ovarian borderline tumor data in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Christensen, Ib J;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the data on epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumors registered in the nationwide Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) in 2005 and 2006. The DGCD is a multidisciplinary database that contains data for research and quality...... improvement. DESIGN: Comparative registry-based study supplemented with data from medical records. SETTING: Six hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Women registered with epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Data completeness and strength of...... validity of ovarian cancer data in the DGCD is sufficient for quality monitoring in gynecological oncology....

  11. Validation of epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer and ovarian borderline tumor data in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, A.L.; Kjaer, S.K.; Christensen, I.J.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the data on epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumors registered in the nationwide Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) in 2005 and 2006. The DGCD is a multidisciplinary database that contains data for research and quality...... improvement. DESIGN: Comparative registry-based study supplemented with data from medical records. SETTING: Six hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Women registered with epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Data completeness and strength of...... validity of ovarian cancer data in the DGCD is sufficient for quality monitoring in gynecological oncology Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  12. Molecular Pathogenesis and Extraovarian Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Shifting the Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kurman, Robert J; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Recent morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic studies have led to the development of a new paradigm for the pathogenesis and origin of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) based on a dualistic model of carcinogenesis that divides EOC into two broad categories designated type I and type II. Type I tumors are comprised of low-grade serous, low-grade endometrioid, clear cell and mucinous carcinomas and Brenner tumors. They are generally indolent, present in stage I (tumor confined to ...

  13. Emerging role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator - an epithelial chloride channel in gastrointestinal cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yuning; Guan, Xiaoqing; Yang, Zhe; Li, Chunying

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a glycoprotein with 1480 amino acids, has been well established as a chloride channel mainly expressed in the epithelial cells of various tissues and organs such as lungs, sweat glands, gastrointestinal system, and reproductive organs. Although defective CFTR leads to cystic fibrosis, a common genetic disorder in the Caucasian population, there is accumulating evidence that suggests a novel role of CFTR in various cancers, especially...

  14. Axes of differentiation in breast cancer: untangling stemness, lineage identity, and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granit, Roy Z; Slyper, Michal; Ben-Porath, Ittai

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation-associated regulatory programs are central in determining tumor phenotype, and contribute to heterogeneity between tumors and between individual cells within them. The transcriptional programs that control luminal and basal lineage identity in the normal mammary epithelium, as well as progenitor and stem cell function, are active in breast cancers, and show distinct associations with different disease subtypes. Also active in some tumors is the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program, which endows carcinoma cells with mesenchymal as well as stem cell traits. The differentiation state of breast cancer cells is thus dictated by the complex combination of regulatory programs, and these can dramatically affect tumor growth and metastatic capacity. Breast cancer differentiation is often viewed along an axis between a basal–mesenchymal–stem cell state and a luminal–epithelial–differentiated state. Here we consider the links, as well as the distinctions, between the three components of this axis: basal versus luminal, mesenchymal versus epithelial, and stem cell versus differentiated identity. Analysis on a multidimensional scale, in which each of these axes is assessed separately, may offer increased resolution of tumor differentiation state. Cancer cells possessing a high degree of stemness would display increased capacity to shift between positions on such a multidimensional scale, and to acquire intermediate phenotypes on its different axes. Further molecular analysis of breast cancer cells with a focus on single-cell profiling, and the development of improved tools for dissection of the circuits controlling gene activity, are essential for the elucidation of the programs dictating breast cancer differentiation state.

  15. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: A survival study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Patients with advanced ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis in spite of the best possible care. Primary debulking surgery has been the standard of care in advanced ovarian cancer; however, it is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates as shown in various studies. Several studies have discussed the benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the survival statistics of the patients who have been managed with interval debulking surgery (IDS from January 2007 to December 2009. Materials and Methods: During the period from January 2007 to December 2009, a retrospective analysis of 104 patients who underwent IDS for stage IIIC or IV advanced epithelial ovarian cancer at our institute were selected for the study. IDS was attempted after three to five courses of chemotherapy with paclitaxal (175 mg/m 2 and carboplatin (5-6 of area under curve. Overall survival (OS and progression free survival (PFS were compared with results of primary debulking study from existing literature. OS and PFS rates were estimated by means of the Kaplan-Meier method. Results were statistically analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: The median OS was 26 months and the median PFS was 18 months. In multivariate analysis it was found that both OS and PFS was affected by the stage, and extent of debulking. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by surgical cytoreduction is a promising treatment strategy for the management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancers.

  16. Tacrolimus Modulates TGF-β Signaling to Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bennett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process which describes the trans-differentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, is pivotal in stem cell behavior, development and wound healing, as well as contributing to disease processes including fibrosis and cancer progression. Maintenance immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs has become routine management for renal transplant patient, but unfortunately the nephrotoxicity of these drugs has been well documented. HK-2 cells were exposed to Tacrolimus (FK506 and EMT markers were assessed by RT PCR and western blot. FK506 effects on TGF-β mRNA were assessed by RT PCR and TGF-β secretion was measured by ELISA. The impact of increased TGF-β secretion on Smad signaling pathways was investigated. The impact of inhibition of TGF-β signaling on EMT processes was assessed by scratch-wound assay. The results presented in this study suggest that FK506 initiates EMT processes in the HK-2 cell line, with altered expression of epithelial and myofibroblast markers evident. Additionally, the study demonstrates that FK506 activation of the TGF-β/ SMAD pathways is an essential step in the EMT process. Overall the results demonstrate that EMT is heavily involved in renal fibrosis associated with CNI nephrotoxicity.

  17. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  18. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  19. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer identifies EPB41L3 as a functional suppressor of epithelial ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafou, Dimitra; Grun, Barbara; Sinclair, John;

    2010-01-01

    lines. Using immunohistochemistry, 66% of 794 invasive ovarian tumors showed no EPB41L3 expression compared with only 24% of benign ovarian tumors and 0% of normal ovarian epithelial tissues. EPB41L3 was extensively methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors compared with normal...... (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3, alternative names DAL-1 and 4.1B) was a candidate ovarian cancer-suppressor gene. Immunoblot analysis showed that EPB41L3 was activated in TOV21G(+18) hybrids, expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cell lines, but was absent in 15 (78%) of 19 ovarian cancer cell...... tissues (P = .00004), suggesting this may be the mechanism of gene inactivation in ovarian cancers. Constitutive reexpression of EPB41L3 in a three-dimensional multicellular spheroid model of ovarian cancer caused significant growth suppression and induced apoptosis. Transmission and scanning electron...

  20. Resveratrol Impedes the Stemness, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and Metabolic Reprogramming of Cancer Stem Cells in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma through p53 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-An Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are able to self-renew and are refractory to cancer treatment. To investigate the effects of resveratrol on CSCs of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, we employed a behavior selection strategy to isolate CSCs based on radioresistance, chemoresistance, and tumor sphere formation ability. These NPC CSCs displayed stem cell properties and underwent metabolic shift to predominately rely on glycolysis for energy supply. Intriguingly, we found that resveratrol turned off the metabolic switch, increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS level, and depolarized mitochondrial membranes. These alterations in metabolism occurred concomitantly with the suppression of CSC properties including resistance to therapy, self-renewal capacity, tumor initiation capacity, and metastatic potential in NPC CSCs. We found that resveratrol impeded CSC properties through the activation of p53 and this effect could be reversed by knockdown of p53. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed the stemness and EMT through reactivating p53 and inducing miR-145 and miR-200c, which were downregulated in NPC CSCs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that resveratrol employed the p53 pathway in regulating stemness, EMT, and metabolic reprogramming. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism of p53 activation by resveratrol may provide useful information for the development of novel therapies for cancer treatment through targeting to CSCs.

  1. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  2. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many org...

  3. Ciliated epithelial cell lifespan in the mouse trachea and lung

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, Emma L.; Brigid L M Hogan

    2008-01-01

    The steady-state turnover of epithelial cells in the lung and trachea is highly relevant to investigators who are studying endogenous stem cells, manipulating gene expression in vivo, or using viral vectors for gene therapy. However, the average lifetime of different airway epithelial cell types has not previously been assessed using currently available genetic techniques. Here, we use Cre/loxP genetic technology to indelibly label a random fraction of ciliated cells throughout the airways of...

  4. Adrenomedullin Expression by Gastric Epithelial Cells in Response to Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Allaker; Kapas, Supriya

    2003-01-01

    Many surface epithelial cells express adrenomedullin, a multifunctional peptide found in a wide number of body and cell systems. Recently, we and others have proposed that adrenomedullin has an important novel role in host defense. This peptide has many properties in common with other cationic antimicrobial peptides, including the human β-defensins. Upon exposure of human gastric epithelial cells to viable cells of invasive or noninvasive strains of Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Salm...

  5. Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Hiromasa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4 that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells. Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 μM for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased α-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β. Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial

  6. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Liu; Yueling Zhang; Zhaohui Gu; Lina Hao; Juan Du; Qian Yang; Suping Li; Liying Wang; Shilei Gong

    2014-01-01

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuropro-tective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epi-thelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite.

  7. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, Ren& #233; ; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-05-12

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may indeed have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression.

  8. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression

  9. Transmembrane-Bound IL-15-Promoted Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Renal Cancer Cells Requires the Src-Dependent Akt/GSK-3β/β-Catenin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaqin; Meng, Xiaoxin; Guo, Wenjie; Cai, Peifen; Li, Wanshuai; Li, Qian; Wang, Weicheng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang; Gu, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    Intrarenal interleukin-15 (IL-15) plays a major role controlling epithelial survival and polarization both in physiological and pathologic conditions. Herein, we confirmed that human renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) express a membrane-bound IL-15 isoform displaying an unusual molecular weight of 27 kDa. Its stimulation with soluble IL-15 receptor α chain (s-IL-15Rα) triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process as shown by the down-regulation of E-cadherin and zona occludens 1 and the up-regulation of vimentin and N-cadherin and promotes the migratory and invasive properties of RCC. S-IL-15Rα treatment triggered the Src/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and promoted β-catenin nuclei translocation. Deactivation of this pathway by using Src-specific inhibitor PP2, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and AKT inhibitor MK2206 hampered β-catenin nuclei translocation and suppressed EMT, migration, and invasion of RCC. S-IL-15Rα treatment also enhanced Src-dependent phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2). FAK knockdown significantly decreased the migration and invasion of RCC, which suggest that Src-FAK signaling was involved in s-IL-15Rα-favored migration and invasion of RCC. At the same time, inhibitors of Erk1/2 also significantly decreased the migration and invasion of RCC but could not reverse s-IL-15Rα-induced EMT. Taken together, our results reveal that Src-dependent PI3K/Akt/GSK3b/β-catenin pathway is required for s-IL-15Ra-dependent induction of EMT in RCC, while Src-FAK and Src-Erk1/2 signaling were involved in s-IL-15Rα-promoted migration and invasion properties of RCC. Our study provides a better understanding of IL-15 signaling in RCC tumor progression, which may lead to novel targeted therapies and provide some suggestions when using IL-15 in clinic. PMID:26025664

  10. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Aparicio-Domingo (Patricia); M. Romera-Hernandez (Monica); J.J. Karrich (Julien J.); F.H.J. Cornelissen (Ferry); N. Papazian (Natalie); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); J.A. Butler (James A.); L. Boon (Louis); M. Coles (Mark); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); T. Cupedo (Tom)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence

  11. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3 Signaling Capacity and the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC: Implications for Use of 1,25(OH2D3 in NSCLC Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Hershberger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D3 exerts anti-proliferative activity by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR and regulating gene expression. We previously reported that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells which harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations display elevated VDR expression (VDRhigh and are vitamin D-sensitive. Conversely, those with K-ras mutations are VDRlow and vitamin D-refractory. Because EGFR mutations are found predominately in NSCLC cells with an epithelial phenotype and K-ras mutations are more common in cells with a mesenchymal phenotype, we investigated the relationship between vitamin D signaling capacity and the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT. Using NSCLC cell lines and publically available lung cancer cell line microarray data, we identified a relationship between VDR expression, 1,25(OH2D3 sensitivity, and EMT phenotype. Further, we discovered that 1,25(OH2D3 induces E-cadherin and decreases EMT-related molecules SNAIL, ZEB1, and vimentin in NSCLC cells. 1,25(OH2D3-mediated changes in gene expression are associated with a significant decrease in cell migration and maintenance of epithelial morphology. These data indicate that 1,25(OH2D3 opposes EMT in NSCLC cells. Because EMT is associated with increased migration, invasion, and chemoresistance, our data imply that 1,25(OH2D3 may prevent lung cancer progression in a molecularly defined subset of NSCLC patients.

  12. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type ... cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Images Bowen's disease on the hand Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma Skin cancer, squamous ...

  13. Targeting cancer-related inflammation: Chinese herbal medicine inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an almost universally fatal disease resulting from early invasion of adjacent structures and metastasis and the lack of an effective treatment modality. Our previous studies have shown that Qingyihuaji Formula (QYHJ, a seven-herb Chinese medicine formula, had significant anti-cancer effects in pancreatic cancer. Here, we examined the effects of QYHJ on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis and the potential associated mechanism(s. We found that QYHJ inhibited both tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice with human pancreatic cancer cell xenografts. Further study indicated that QYHJ inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, which is characterized by increased E-cadherin expression and decreased vimentin, N-cadherin and Slug expression. Interleukin 6 (IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by macrophages, could promote cancer cell EMT and invasion. In contrast, treatment with QYHJ inhibited cancer-related inflammation in tumors by decreasing infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and IL-6 production, thus preventing cell invasion and metastasis. These results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine QYHJ could inhibit pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis in part by reversing tumor-supporting inflammation.

  14. Expression of ICAM-1 in colon epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vainer, Ben; Sørensen, Susanne; Seidelin, Jakob;

    2003-01-01

    Studies have suggested that in ulcerative colitis (UC), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is involved in migration of leukocytes toward the colonic epithelium. A suitable in vitro model of chronic colonic inflammation does not exist, and the role of the epithelium is based on monolayers ...... of cancer cells. Conflicting results exist on epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and the aim of this study was to compare the expression in various models of colonic epithelium.......Studies have suggested that in ulcerative colitis (UC), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is involved in migration of leukocytes toward the colonic epithelium. A suitable in vitro model of chronic colonic inflammation does not exist, and the role of the epithelium is based on monolayers...

  15. Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyunghee X

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, which is composed of the three subunits α-,β- and γ-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3. By contrast, α-,β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with αβγ-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala

  16. Ion transport in epithelial spheroids derived from human airway cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P S; Frederiksen, O; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, we describe a novel three-dimensional airway epithelial explant preparation and demonstrate its use for ion transport studies by electrophysiological technique. Suspension cultures of sheets of epithelial cells released by protease treatment from cystic fibrosis (CF) and non...

  17. Liver epithelial cells inhibit proliferation and invasiveness of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Kuo-Shyang; Jeng, Chi-Juei; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Sheen, I-Shyan; Li, Shih-Yun; Hung, Zih-Hang; Hsiau, Hsin-I; Yu, Ming-Che; Chang, Chiung-Fang

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a worldwide malignancy with poor prognosis. Liver progenitors or stem cells could be a potential therapy for HCC treatment since they migrate toward tumors. Rat liver epithelial (RLE) cells have both progenitor and stem cell-like properties. Therefore, our study elucidated the therapeutic effect of RLE cells in rat hepatoma cells. RLE cells were isolated from 10-day old rats and characterized for stem cell marker expression. RLE cells and rat hepatoma cells (H4-IIE-C3 cells) were co-cultured and divided into four groups with different ratios of RLE and hepatoma cells. Group A had only rat hepatoma cells as a control group. The ratios of rat hepatoma and RLE cells in group B, C and D were 5:1, 1:1 and 1:5, respectively. Effective inhibition of cell proliferation and migration was found in group D when compared to group A. There was a significant decrease in Bcl2 expression and increase in late apoptosis of rat hepatoma cells when adding more RLE cells. RLE cells reduced cell proliferation and migration of rat hepatoma cells. These results suggested that RLE cells could be used as a potential cell therapy. PMID:26647726

  18. Sepsis-associated AKI: epithelial cell dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, David R; Shaw, Andrew D; Kellum, John A

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently in critically ill patients with sepsis, in whom it doubles the mortality rate and half of the survivors suffer permanent kidney damage or chronic kidney disease. Failure in the development of viable therapies has prompted studies to better elucidate the cellular and molecular etiologies of AKI, which have generated novel theories and paradigms for the mechanisms of this disease. These studies have shown multifaceted origins and elements of AKI that, in addition to/in lieu of ischemia, include the generation of damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the inflammatory response, humoral and cellular immune activation, perturbation of microvascular flow and oxidative stress, bioenergetic alterations, cell-cycle alterations, and cellular de-differentiation/re-differentiation. It is becoming clear that a major etiologic effector of all these inputs is the renal tubule epithelial cell (RTEC). This review discusses these elements and their effects on RTECs, and reviews the current hypotheses of how these effects may determine the fate of RTECs during sepsis-induced AKI. PMID:25795502

  19. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  20. Avian prostatic acid phosphatase: estrogen regulation in the oviduct and epithelial cell-derived ovarian carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyocheol; Lim, Whasun; Bae, Seung-Min; Bazer, Fuller W; Choi, Youngsok; Song, Gwonhwa

    2014-07-01

    Prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) is a glycoprotein that is mainly synthesized and secreted by glandular epithelial cells (GE) of the prostate, and it is well known as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Although ACPP was used as prognostic/diagnostic indicator and studied to elucidate regulatory mechanism(s) during several decades in humans, its role is not clearly understood. Gene profiling data using a chicken DNA microarray revealed that ACPP increased significantly during remodeling and recrudescence of the oviduct in response to estrogen. Thus, in this study, we investigated the expression and hormonal regulation of ACPP gene in the reproductive tracts of chickens. ACPP was specifically detected in the luminal cells (LE) and GE of chicken oviduct, and diethylstilbestrol (a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen) stimulated its expression during development of the oviduct. In addition, ACPP mRNA and protein were localized to LE and GE during the regeneration phase of the oviduct of laying hens during induced molting. Furthermore, ACPP mRNA and protein were abundant in GE of ovarian carcinoma, but not in normal ovaries. Moreover, strong expression of ACPP protein was detected in epithelial cells of cancerous ovaries from women. Collectively, results of the present study are the first to show that ACPP is a novel estrogen-stimulated gene in the oviductal epithelial cells of the chicken and that its expression increases significantly in epithelial cells of ovarian carcinoma, which indicates that it may be a candidate biomarker for diagnosis of epithelia-derived ovarian cancer in women. PMID:24829029

  1. Synergistic effects of CD44 and TGF-β1 through AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling during epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Na Ri; Cha, Jung Hoon; Jang, Jeong Won; Bae, Si Hyun; Jang, Bohyun; Kim, Jung-Hee; Hur, Wonhee; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-09-01

    Cancer metastasis is strongly correlated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a central role. CD44 has emerged as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker that strongly induces EMT together with TGF-β1. This study aimed to investigate the link between high CD44 and TGF-β1 levels during EMT in HCC cell lines. FACS analysis showed high expression of CD44 in TGF-β1-positive SNU-368 cells and TGF-β1-negative SNU-354 cells. SNU-368 CD44(+) cells showed EMT through up-regulation of the AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. By comparison, SNU-354 CD44(+) cells showed only increased N-cadherin expression, which was not accompanied by a decrease in E-cadherin expression, and also down-regulated the AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. However, TGF-β1-stimulated SNU-354 cells (CD44/TGF-β1(+)) exhibited lower E-cadherin and higher N-cadherin expression with increased AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway activity. CD44/TGF-β1(+) SNU-354 cells also showed enhanced migration and formed larger spheres, while the TGF-β1-induced stem cell properties returned to their original state with the TGF-β1 inhibitor SB431542. SB431542-treated SNU-368 (CD44/TGF-β1(-)) cells also showed diminished N-cadherin and AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway activity and further decreased cell motility in a wound healing assay. However, CD44 knockdown in SNU-354 cells did not induce EMT even after treatment with TGF-β1. Finally, double inhibition of both CD44 and TGF-β1 further decreased migration and sphere formation more strongly than a single inhibition in SNU-368 cells. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated the synergistic interactions between CD44 and TGF-β1 in EMT induction and CSC properties through the AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway in HCC cells.

  2. Prolactin receptor-mediated internalization of imaging agents detects epithelial ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Karthik M.

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic malignant tumors. Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) presents two main challenges. The first challenge is detecting low volume (prolactin receptor (PRLR) - a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor that is over-expressed in moderate to high levels on > 98% of epithelial ovarian cancers. Upon binding of native ligands to PRLR, the ligand:PRLR complex is internalized by cells. By conjugating gadolinium-chelates, molecules normally used as contrast agents diagnostically, to human placental lactogen (hPL), a native ligand of PRLR, we show that MRI becomes highly sensitive and specific for detecting PRLR (+) tumors in a nude mouse model of EOC. We further establish the adaptability of this approach for fluorescence-based imaging techniques using an hPL conjugated Cy5.5 dye. We conclude that molecular imaging of PRLR with hPL-conjugated imaging agents can address the current challenges that limit EOC diagnosis.

  3. The role of the epithelial cell in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Mota-Pinto, Anabela; Todo-Bom, Ana

    2009-01-01

    It is done a review of the intervention of the epithelial bronchial cell in the pathophysiology of asthma. The respiratory epithelium acts as a physical barrier that separates the external environment from the pulmonary internal environment. It controls the intercellular and trans -cellular permeability and this way the accessibility of the inhaled pathogens to the antigen presenting cells involved in the immuno -inflammatory response. Epithelial cells connected by tight junctions contribute ...

  4. Glycosylation in Cancer: Interplay between Multidrug Resistance and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Leonardo Marques; da Silva, Vanessa Amil; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Previato, José Osvaldo; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Capella, Márcia Alves Marques

    2016-01-01

    The expression of unusual glycan structures is a hallmark of cancer progression, and their functional roles in cancer biology have been extensively investigated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) models. EMT is a physiological process involved in embryonic development and wound healing. It is characterized by loss of epithelial cell polarity and cell adhesion, permitting cell migration, and thus formation of new epithelia. However, this process is unwanted when occurring outside their physiological limit, resulting in fibrosis of organs and progression of cancer and metastasis. Several studies observed that EMT is related to the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, a condition in which cancer cells acquire resistance to multiple different drugs, which has virtually nothing in common. However, although some studies suggested interplay between these two apparently distinct phenomena, almost nothing is known about this possible relationship. A common pathway to them is the need for glycosylation, a post-translational modification that can alter biological function. Thus, this review intends to compile the main facts obtained until now in these two areas, as an effort to unravel the relationship between EMT and MDR. PMID:27446804

  5. Binding of αvβ1 and αvβ6 integrins to tenascin-C induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like change of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, D; Nagaharu, K; Shimojo, N; Hanamura, N; Yamashita, M; Kozuka, Y; Imanaka-Yoshida, K; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01

    Tenascin-C (TNC), a large hexameric extracellular glycoprotein, is a pleiotropic molecule with multiple domains binding to a variety of receptors mediating a wide range of cellular functions. We earlier reported that TNC induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like change in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we clarified TNC receptor involvement in this process. Among integrins previously reported as TNC receptors, substantial expression of αv, α2, β1 and β6 subunits was detected by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting in MCF-7 cells. Integrin β6 mRNA was remarkably upregulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 treatment, and protein expression was prominently increased by additional exposure to TNC. Immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated integrin αvβ6 accumulation in focal adhesions after TNC treatment, especially in combination with TGF-β1. The α2 and β1 subunits were mainly localized at cell-cell contacts, αv being found near cell cluster surfaces. Immunoprecipitation showed increase in αvβ1 heterodimers, but not α2β1, after TNC treatment. Activated β1 subunits detected by an antibody against the Ca(2+)-dependent epitope colocalized with αv in focal adhesion complexes, associated with FAK phosphorylation at tyrosine 925. Neutralizing antibodies against αv and β1 blocked EMT-like change caused by TNC alone. In addition, anti-αv and combined treatment with anti-β1 and anti-αvβ6 inhibited TGF-β1/TNC-induced EMT, whereas either of these alone did not. Integrin subunits αv, β1 and β6, but not α2, bound to TNC immobilized on agarose beads in a divalent cation-dependent manner. Treatments with neutralizing antibodies against β1 and αvβ6 reduced αv subunit bound to the beads. Immunohistochemistry of these receptors in human breast cancer tissues demonstrated frequent expression of β6 subunits in cancer cells forming scattered nests localized in TNC-rich stroma. These findings provide direct evidence that binding of

  6. Surgical treatment pattern and outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer patients from a cancer institute in Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeena, P; Rajanbabu, Anupama; Vijaykumar, DK; Pavithran, K.; Sundaram, KR; Deepak, KS; Sanal, MR

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment and survival pattern of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods and results Retrospective study of all advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated in the department of gynaecologic oncology from an academic centre, in a four year period from 1 January 2008–31 December 2011. Selection criteria All patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (stage III and IV) who underwent surgery from 2008–2011and had a follow-up of at least t...

  7. Estrogen, Progesterone and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Shuk-Mei

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian carcinoma (OCa continues to be the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancies and the vast majority of OCa is derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE and its cystic derivatives. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones, primarily estrogens and progesterone, are implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, it has proved difficult to fully understand their mechanisms of action on the tumorigenic process. New convincing data have indicated that estrogens favor neoplastic transformation of the OSE while progesterone offers protection against OCa development. Specifically, estrogens, particularly those present in ovulatory follicles, are both genotoxic and mitogenic to OSE cells. In contrast, pregnancy-equivalent levels progesterone are highly effective as apoptosis inducers for OSE and OCa cells. In this regard, high-dose progestin may exert an exfoliation effect and rid an aged OSE of pre-malignant cells. A limited number of clinical studies has demonstrated efficacies of antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors, and progestins alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of OCa. As a result of increased life expectancy in most countries, the number of women taking hormone replacement therapies (HRT continues to grow. Thus, knowledge of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones on the OSE and OCa is of paramount significance to HRT risk assessment and to the development of novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of OCa.

  8. Dynamic transcription factor networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siletz, Anaar; Schnabel, Michael; Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Schumacher, Andrew J; Shin, Seungjin; Jeruss, Jacqueline S; Shea, Lonnie D

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex change in cell differentiation that allows breast carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. EMT involves a cascade of regulatory changes that destabilize the epithelial phenotype and allow mesenchymal features to manifest. As transcription factors (TFs) are upstream effectors of the genome-wide expression changes that result in phenotypic change, understanding the sequential changes in TF activity during EMT provides rich information on the mechanism of this process. Because molecular interactions will vary as cells progress from an epithelial to a mesenchymal differentiation program, dynamic networks are needed to capture the changing context of molecular processes. In this study we applied an emerging high-throughput, dynamic TF activity array to define TF activity network changes in three cell-based models of EMT in breast cancer based on HMLE Twist ER and MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells. The TF array distinguished conserved from model-specific TF activity changes in the three models. Time-dependent data was used to identify pairs of TF activities with significant positive or negative correlation, indicative of interdependent TF activity throughout the six-day study period. Dynamic TF activity patterns were clustered into groups of TFs that change along a time course of gene expression changes and acquisition of invasive capacity. Time-dependent TF activity data was combined with prior knowledge of TF interactions to construct dynamic models of TF activity networks as epithelial cells acquire invasive characteristics. These analyses show EMT from a unique and targetable vantage and may ultimately contribute to diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Dynamic transcription factor networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaar Siletz

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a complex change in cell differentiation that allows breast carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. EMT involves a cascade of regulatory changes that destabilize the epithelial phenotype and allow mesenchymal features to manifest. As transcription factors (TFs are upstream effectors of the genome-wide expression changes that result in phenotypic change, understanding the sequential changes in TF activity during EMT provides rich information on the mechanism of this process. Because molecular interactions will vary as cells progress from an epithelial to a mesenchymal differentiation program, dynamic networks are needed to capture the changing context of molecular processes. In this study we applied an emerging high-throughput, dynamic TF activity array to define TF activity network changes in three cell-based models of EMT in breast cancer based on HMLE Twist ER and MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells. The TF array distinguished conserved from model-specific TF activity changes in the three models. Time-dependent data was used to identify pairs of TF activities with significant positive or negative correlation, indicative of interdependent TF activity throughout the six-day study period. Dynamic TF activity patterns were clustered into groups of TFs that change along a time course of gene expression changes and acquisition of invasive capacity. Time-dependent TF activity data was combined with prior knowledge of TF interactions to construct dynamic models of TF activity networks as epithelial cells acquire invasive characteristics. These analyses show EMT from a unique and targetable vantage and may ultimately contribute to diagnosis and therapy.

  10. The Cain and Abl of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and transforming growth factor-β in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Tressa M; Schiemann, William P

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) normally inhibits breast cancer development by preventing mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation, by inducing MEC apoptosis, and by creating cell microenvironments that maintain MEC homeostasis and prevent their uncontrolled growth and motility. Mammary tumorigenesis elicits dramatic alterations in MEC architecture and microenvironment integrity, which collectively counteract the tumor-suppressing activities of TGF-β and enable its stimulation of breast cancer invasion and metastasis. How malignant MECs overcome the cytostatic actions imposed by normal microenvironments and TGF-β, and how abnormal microenvironments conspire with TGF-β to stimulate the development and progression of mammary tumors remains largely undefined. These knowledge gaps have prevented science and medicine from implementing treatments effective in simultaneously targeting abnormal cellular microenvironments, and in antagonizing the oncogenic activities of TGF-β in developing and progressing breast cancers. c-Abl is a ubiquitously expressed nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that essentially oversees all aspects of cell physiology, including the regulation of cell proliferation, migration and adhesion, as well as that of cell survival. Thus, the biological functions of c-Abl are highly reminiscent of those attributed to TGF-β, including the ability to function as either a suppressor or promoter of tumorigenesis. Interestingly, while dysregulated Abl activity clearly promotes tumorigenesis in hematopoietic cells, an analogous role for c-Abl in regulating solid tumor development, including those of the breast, remains controversial. Here, we review the functions of c-Abl in regulating breast cancer development and progression, and in alleviating the oncogenic activities of TGF-β and its stimulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition during mammary tumorigenesis.

  11. Mitosis orientation in prostate epithelial cells changed by endocrine effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yun LIU; Dong-mei Li; Xiao-fang ZHANG; Jian-hui WU; Zu-yue SUN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of androgen and estrogen on mitosis orientation in the prostate epithelial cells of male rats. Methods: Castrated rats were treated with a single injection of testosterone propionate (TP) or benzogynestry (E2). There were 8 rats in the control group and TP-treated or E2-treated group. Prostate, liver, a specimen of skin, and a segment of the jejunum and colon were removed after the corresponding treatment. The results were observed through immunohistochemistry and iron hematoxylin-eosin staining.Results: All mitoses found in the prostate epithelial cells of castrated rats with TP were oriented parallel to the basement membrane; however, mitoses found in the prostate epithelial cells of castrated rats in E2 and the control group were oriented perpendicular to the basement membrane. TP treatment resulted in marked changes in mitosis orientation in the prostate epithelial cells. Bromodeoxyuridine-labeled positive cells could be seen throughout the stroma and prostate epithelial cells with an injection of TP; however, the positive cells could only be seen in the stroma of prostate with an injection of E2, and the positive cells could hardly be seen in the control group. Conclusion: We found a novel effect of TP in the prostate as a marked change of mitosis orientation in prostate epithelial cells.

  12. Cytotoxic effects of curcumin in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrit Hollborn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin from turmeric is an ingredient in curry powders. Due to its antiinflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects, curcumin is a promising drug for the treatment of cancer and retinal diseases. We investigated whether curcumin alters the viability and physiological properties of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cellular proliferation was investigated with a bromodeoxy-uridine immunoassay, and chemotaxis was investigated with a Boyden chamber assay. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Apoptosis and necrosis rates were determined with a DNA fragmentation ELISA. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR, and secretion of VEGF and bFGF was examined with ELISA. The phosphorylation level of proteins was revealed by Western blotting. The proliferation of RPE cells was slightly increased by curcumin at 10 µM and strongly reduced by curcumin above 50 µM. Curcumin at 50 µM increased slightly the chemotaxis of the cells. Curcumin reduced the expression and secretion of VEGF under control conditions and abolished the VEGF secretion induced by PDGF and chemical hypoxia. Whereas low concentrations of curcumin stimulated the expression of bFGF and HGF, high concentrations caused downregulation of both factors. Curcumin decreased dose-dependently the viability of RPE cells via induction of early necrosis (above 10 µM and delayed apoptosis (above 1 µM. The cytotoxic effect of curcumin involved activation of caspase-3 and calpain, intracellular calcium signaling, mitochondrial permeability, oxidative stress, increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and decreased phosphorylation of Akt protein. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that curcumin at concentrations described to be effective in the treatment of tumor cells and in inhibiting death of retinal neurons (∼10 µM has adverse effects on RPE cells. It is suggested that, during the intake of curcumin as

  13. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGFβ1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGFβ1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM181552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  14. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Walls, Dermot [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University. Dublin, 9. Ireland (Ireland); Egan, Jim J. [Advanced Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Program, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital. 44, Eccles Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Doran, Peter P., E-mail: peter.doran@ucd.ie [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  15. Parabronchial smooth muscle constitutes an airway epithelial stem cell niche in the mouse lung after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert, Thomas; Dill, Erik; Campbell, Alice; Tiozzo, Caterina; Majka, Susan; Bellusci, Saverio; De Langhe, Stijn P

    2011-11-01

    During lung development, parabronchial SMC (PSMC) progenitors in the distal mesenchyme secrete fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10), which acts on distal epithelial progenitors to promote their proliferation. β-catenin signaling within PSMC progenitors is essential for their maintenance, proliferation, and expression of Fgf10. Here, we report that this Wnt/Fgf10 embryonic signaling cascade is reactivated in mature PSMCs after naphthalene-induced injury to airway epithelium. Furthermore, we found that this paracrine Fgf10 action was essential for activating surviving variant Clara cells (the cells in the airway epithelium from which replacement epithelial cells originate) located at the bronchoalveolar duct junctions and adjacent to neuroendocrine bodies. After naphthalene injury, PSMCs secreted Fgf10 to activate Notch signaling and induce Snai1 expression in surviving variant Clara cells, which subsequently underwent a transient epithelial to mesenchymal transition to initiate the repair process. Epithelial Snai1 expression was important for regeneration after injury. We have therefore identified PSMCs as a stem cell niche for the variant Clara cells in the lung and established that paracrine Fgf10 signaling from the niche is critical for epithelial repair after naphthalene injury. These findings also have implications for understanding the misregulation of lung repair in asthma and cancer. PMID:21985786