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Sample records for cancer differ dramatically

  1. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small region of about 70 kb on human chromosome 19q13.3 encompasses 4 genes of which 3, ERCC1, ERCC2, and PPP1R13L (aka RAI are related to DNA repair and cell survival, and one, CD3EAP, aka ASE1, may be related to cell proliferation. The whole region seems related to the cellular response to external damaging agents and markers in it are associated with risk of several cancers. Methods We downloaded the genotypes of all markers typed in the 19q13.3 region in the HapMap populations of European, Asian and African descent and inferred haplotypes. We combined the European HapMap individuals with a Danish breast cancer case-control data set and inferred the association between HapMap haplotypes and disease risk. Results We found that the susceptibility haplotype in our European sample had increased from 2 to 50 percent very recently in the European population, and to almost the same extent in the Asian population. The cause of this increase is unknown. The maximal proportion of overall genetic variation due to differences between groups for Europeans versus Africans and Europeans versus Asians (the Fst value closely matched the putative location of the susceptibility variant as judged from haplotype-based association mapping. Conclusion The combined observation that a common haplotype causing an increased risk of cancer in Europeans and a high differentiation between human populations is highly unusual and suggests a causal relationship with a recent increase in Europeans caused either by genetic drift overruling selection against the susceptibility variant or a positive selection for the same haplotype. The data does not allow us to distinguish between these two scenarios. The analysis suggests that the region is not involved in cancer risk in Africans and that the susceptibility variants may be more finely mapped in Asian populations.

  2. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M.H.; Mailund, T.; Li, H.;

    2009-01-01

    Map individuals with a Danish breast cancer case-control data set and inferred the association between HapMap haplotypes and disease risk. Results: We found that the susceptibility haplotype in our European sample had increased from 2 to 50 percent very recently in the European population, and to almost the same...... extent in the Asian population. The cause of this increase is unknown. The maximal proportion of overall genetic variation due to differences between groups for Europeans versus Africans and Europeans versus Asians (the F-st value) closely matched the putative location of the susceptibility variant...

  3. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M.H.; Mailund, T.; Li, H.;

    2009-01-01

    Map individuals with a Danish breast cancer case-control data set and inferred the association between HapMap haplotypes and disease risk. Results: We found that the susceptibility haplotype in our European sample had increased from 2 to 50 percent very recently in the European population, and to almost the same...... response to external damaging agents and markers in it are associated with risk of several cancers. Methods: We downloaded the genotypes of all markers typed in the 19q13.3 region in the HapMap populations of European, Asian and African descent and inferred haplotypes. We combined the European Hap...... judged from haplotype-based association mapping. Conclusion: The combined observation that a common haplotype causing an increased risk of cancer in Europeans and a high differentiation between human populations is highly unusual and suggests a causal relationship with a recent increase in Europeans...

  4. Dramatic effect on Selenium concentration in blood serum due to the difference between the Hungarian and Indian dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The importance of Selenium as trace element in animals, as well as in humans is well known. The deficiency of Selenium was observed in case of several heavy or fatal clinical events such as high infant mortality, premature, malformations and even prostate cancer. Hungary is in the top of their worldwide statistic with parallel of the low concentration of Selenium in soil as well as in food. The direct correlation can explain in Venezuela, where the prostate cancer is 'unknown disease'. The concentration of Selenium in India is higher than the worldwide level. Under the scientific bilateral cooperation 'Speciation dependent studies on physicochemical behavior of some elements in trace scale in natural and synthetic system' the Selenium was determined in human blood serum from the group of Hungarian and group of Indian patients. The samples were given in same time from each group. The main goal of the study was explain the effect of the traditional dietary habit for the level of Selenium. Therefore the samples were taken from the visiting scientist just arrived to the host institute as well as from the host scientists too. After 2 weeks stay the sampling was repeated, when the guest scientists eat the same food as the host scientists. The measurements were done in Thermo-2 ICP-MS from blood-serum separated by centrifuge. The results are summarized in Table 1. Dramatic effect was found for the level of Selenium in blood serum. As it was expected the Hungarian samples showed low concentration of Selenium in starting of the visit, as well as the high concentration was found in Indian sample, comparing to the Hungarian sample. After two weeks the Hungarian sample showed much higher concentration, however it was still less, than in Indian sample. Similar effect was found during the visit the Indian scientists in Hungary, however their Selenium concentration decreased not so spectacular due to the Selenium 'store' in body. The general

  5. beta 1 integrin inhibition dramatically enhances radiotherapy efficacy in human breast cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Catherine C.; Park, Catherine C.; Zhang, Hui J.; Yao, Evelyn S.; Park, Chong J.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-06-02

    {beta}1 integrin signaling has been shown to mediate cellular resistance to apoptosis after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). Other signaling molecules that increase resistance include Akt, which promotes cell survival downstream of {beta}1 integrin signaling. We showed previously that {beta}1 integrin inhibitory antibodies, AIIB2, enhance apoptosis and decrease growth in human breast cancer cells in 3 dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (3D lrECM) cultures and in vivo. Here we asked whether AIIB2 could synergize with IR to modify Akt-mediated IR resistance. We used 3D lrECM cultures to test the optimal combination of AIIB2 with IR treatment of two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HMT3522-T4-2, as well as T4-2 myr-Akt breast cancer colonies or HMT3522-S-1, which form normal organotypic structures in 3D lrECM. Colonies were assayed for apoptosis and {beta}1 integrin/Akt signaling pathways were evaluated using western blot. In addition, mice bearing MCF-7 xenografts were used to validate the findings in 3D lrECM. We report that AIIB2 increased apoptosis optimally post-IR by down regulating Akt in breast cancer colonies in 3D lrECM. In vivo, addition of AIIB2 after IR significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis compared to either treatment alone. Remarkably, the degree of tumor growth inhibition using AIIB2 plus 2 Gy radiation was similar to that of 8 Gy alone. We showed previously that AIIB2 had no discernible toxicity in mice; here, its addition allowed for a significant reduction in the IR dose that was necessary to achieve comparable growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer xenografts in vivo.

  6. Dramatic Teaching for Dramatic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Ressler's "Dramatic Changes" is a powerful guide for anyone brave enough to create a space for young people to discuss sexual orientation and gender identity. Her accessible style and tangible suggestions describe a creative and educationally sound approach to supporting youth in thoughtfully wrestling with one of the most controversial social…

  7. Metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a dramatic response to a systemic chemotherapy (temozolomide and capecitabine regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacin S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sahin Lacin, Ece Esin, Yusuf Karakas, Suayib Yalcin Department of Medical Oncology, Institute of Cancer, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Abstract: A 40-year-old male patient presented with increasing serum levels of calcitonin and CEA. He underwent potential curative surgery for medullary thyroid carcinoma, 3 years ago and then 7 months later he had metastasectomy and cervical lymph node dissection for recurrent disease. On admission he had multiple metastatic skin nodules on the chest wall and positron emission tomography–computed tomography revealed multiple visceral metastases as well. The patient had not received any systemic treatment up to that time; therefore, we considered systemic treatment with the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (vandetanib, cabozantinib, etc. However, since these drugs are only available after cytotoxic chemotherapy, we started temozolomide and capecitabine chemotherapy. After two courses of the treatment all skin nodules disappeared and CEA and calcitonin levels normalized, radiological imaging showed a good partial response. Keywords: medullary thyroid cancer, capecitabine, temozolomide, chemotherapy

  8. How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000845.htm How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers To use ... children with cancer can be cured. Types of Childhood Cancers Cancer in children is rare, but some ...

  9. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript ...

  10. Dramatic reduction of sequence artefacts from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed cancer biopsies by treatment with uracil- DNA glycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hongdo; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    Non-reproducible sequence artefacts are frequently detected in DNA from formalinfixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. However, no rational strategy has been developed for reduction of sequence artefacts from FFPE DNA as the underlying causes of the artefacts are poorly understood. As cytosine deamination to uracil is a common form of DNA damage in ancient DNA, we set out to examine whether treatment of FFPE DNA with uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) would lead to the reduction of C>T (and G>A) sequence artefacts. Heteroduplex formation in high resolution melting (HRM)-based assays was used for the detection of sequence variants in FFPE DNA samples. A set of samples that gave false positive HRM results for screening for the E17K mutation in exon 4 of the AKT1 gene were chosen for analysis. Sequencing of these samples showed multiple non-reproducible C:G>T:A artefacts. Treatment of the FFPE DNA with UDG prior to PCR amplification led to a very marked reduction of the sequence artefacts as indicated by both HRM and sequencing analysis, indicating that uracil lesions are the major cause of sequence artefacts. Similar results were shown for the BRAF V600 region in the same sample set and EGFR exon 19 in another sample set. UDG treatment specifically suppressed the formation of artefacts in FFPE DNA as it did not affect the detection of true KRAS codon 12 and true EGFR exon 19 and 20 mutations. We conclude that uracil in FFPE DNA leads to a significant proportion of sequence artefacts. These can be minimised by a simple UDG pretreatment which can be readily carried out, in the same tube, as the PCR immediately prior to commencing thermal cycling. HRM is a convenient way of monitoring both the degree of damage and the effectiveness of the UDG treatment. These findings have immediate and important implications for cancer diagnostics where FFPE DNA is used as the primary genetic material for mutational studies guiding personalised medicine strategies and where simple

  11. Environmental variability drives rapid and dramatic changes in nutrient limitation of tropical macroalgae with different ecological strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausing, Rachel J.; Fong, Peggy

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) limits primary productivity in nearly every ecosystem worldwide, yet how limitation changes over time, particularly in connection to variation in environmental drivers, remains understudied. We evaluated temporal and species-specific variability in the relative importance of N and P limitation among tropical macroalgae in two-factor experiments conducted twice after rains and twice after dry conditions to explore potential linkages to environmental drivers. We studied three common macroalgal species with varying ecological strategies: a fast-growing opportunist, Dictyota bartayresiana; and two calcifying species likely to be slower growing, Galaxaura fasciculata and Padina boryana. On the scale of days to weeks, nutrient responses ranged among and within species from no limitation to increases in growth by 20 and 40 % over controls in 3 d with N and P addition, respectively. After light rain or dry conditions, Dictyota grew rapidly (up to ~60 % in 3 d) with little indication of nutrient limitation, while Padina and Galaxaura shifted between N, P, or no limitation. All species grew slowly or lost mass after a large storm, presumably due to unfavorable conditions on the reef prior to the experiment that limited nutrient uptake. Padina and Galaxaura both became nutrient limited 3 d post-storm, while Dictyota did not. These results suggest that differing capabilities for nutrient uptake and storage dictate the influence of nutrient history and thus drive nutrient responses and, in doing so, may allow species with differing ecological strategies to coexist in a fluctuating environment. Moreover, the great variability in species' responses indicates that patterns of nutrient limitation are more complex than previously recognized, and generalizations about N versus P limitation of a given system may not convey the inherent complexity in governing conditions and processes.

  12. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-07-26

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

  13. Combining BRAF inhibitor and anti PD-L1 antibody dramatically improves tumor regression and anti tumor immunity in an immunocompetent murine model of anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Eran; Gunda, Viswanath; Vanden Borre, Pierre; Zurakowski, David; Kim, Yon Seon; Dennett, Kate Virginia; Amin, Salma; Freeman, Gordon James; Parangi, Sareh

    2016-03-29

    The interaction of programmed cell death-1 and its ligand is widely studied in cancer. Monoclonal antibodies blocking these molecules have had great success but little is known about them in thyroid cancer. We investigated the role of PD-L1 in thyroid cancer with respect to BRAF mutation and MAP kinase pathway activity and the effect of anti PD-L1 antibody therapy on tumor regression and intra-tumoral immune response alone or in combination with BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi). BRAFV600E cells showed significantly higher baseline expression of PD-L1 at mRNA and protein levels compared to BRAFWT cells. MEK inhibitor treatment resulted in a decrease of PD-L1 expression across all cell lines. BRAFi treatment decreased PD-L1 expression in BRAFV600E cells, but paradoxically increased its expression in BRAFWT cells. BRAFV600E mutated patients samples had a higher level of PD-L1 mRNA compared to BRAFWT (p=0.015). Immunocompetent mice (B6129SF1/J) implanted with syngeneic 3747 BRAFV600E/WT P53-/- murine tumor cells were randomized to control, PLX4720, anti PD-L1 antibody and their combination. In this model of aggressive thyroid cancer, control tumor volume reached 782.3±174.6mm3 at two weeks. The combination dramatically reduced tumor volume to 147.3±60.8, compared to PLX4720 (439.3±188.4 mm3, P=0.023) or PD-L1 antibody (716.7±62.1, Panti PD-L1 treatment potentiates the effect of BRAFi on tumor regression and intensifies anti tumor immune response in an immunocompetent model of ATC. Clinical trials of this therapeutic combination may be of benefit in patients with ATC.

  14. Combining BRAF inhibitor and anti PD-L1 antibody dramatically improves tumor regression and anti tumor immunity in an immunocompetent murine model of anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borre, Pierre Vanden; Zurakowski, David; Kim, Yon Seon; Dennett, Kate Virginia; Amin, Salma; Freeman, Gordon James; Parangi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of programmed cell death-1 and its ligand is widely studied in cancer. Monoclonal antibodies blocking these molecules have had great success but little is known about them in thyroid cancer. We investigated the role of PD-L1 in thyroid cancer with respect to BRAF mutation and MAP kinase pathway activity and the effect of anti PD-L1 antibody therapy on tumor regression and intra-tumoral immune response alone or in combination with BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi). BRAFV600E cells showed significantly higher baseline expression of PD-L1 at mRNA and protein levels compared to BRAFWT cells. MEK inhibitor treatment resulted in a decrease of PD-L1 expression across all cell lines. BRAFi treatment decreased PD-L1 expression in BRAFV600E cells, but paradoxically increased its expression in BRAFWT cells. BRAFV600E mutated patients samples had a higher level of PD-L1 mRNA compared to BRAFWT (p=0.015). Immunocompetent mice (B6129SF1/J) implanted with syngeneic 3747 BRAFV600E/WT P53−/− murine tumor cells were randomized to control, PLX4720, anti PD-L1 antibody and their combination. In this model of aggressive thyroid cancer, control tumor volume reached 782.3±174.6mm3 at two weeks. The combination dramatically reduced tumor volume to 147.3±60.8, compared to PLX4720 (439.3±188.4 mm3, P=0.023) or PD-L1 antibody (716.7±62.1, P<0.001) alone. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed intense CD8+ CTL infiltration and cytotoxicity and favorable CD8+:Treg ratio compared to each individual treatment. Our results show anti PD-L1 treatment potentiates the effect of BRAFi on tumor regression and intensifies anti tumor immune response in an immunocompetent model of ATC. Clinical trials of this therapeutic combination may be of benefit in patients with ATC. PMID:26943572

  15. Rapid and dramatic response to alectinib in an anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer patient who is critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tatsuya; Hida, Toyoaki; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown promising clinical activity in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbors ALK rearrangement. The next-generation ALK-TKI, alectinib, has been reported to have potent efficacy in ALK-positive NSCLC patients including on mutations that confer resistance to crizotinib, which was the first ALK-TKI approved for ALK-positive NSCLC. The efficacy and safety of ALK-TKIs, including crizotinib and alectinib, as the first-line treatment in critically ill patients is unclear. We report one ALK-positive NSCLC patient with poor performance status (PS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation because of respiratory failure and multiple metastases, and experienced the rapid and dramatic response to alectinib without adverse events that can lead to discontinuation and dose reduction of the drug. After a couple of months of treatment with alectinib, radiological review indicated a complete response. The present case is the first reported case of rapid and marked response to alectinib in ALK-positive NSCLC patients who had poor PS and severe organ dysfunction, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation. Further investigation of the safety and efficacy of ALK-TKI for ALK-positive NSCLC patients who are critically ill is warranted. PMID:26938871

  16. Prostate Cancer Treatments: Different Choices for Different Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160953.html Prostate Cancer Treatments: Different Choices for Different Men Survival rates are ... in fact, found that survival from localized prostate cancer was approximately 99 percent, irrespective of the treatment assigned. However, the cancer spread in 33 of ...

  17. What makes cancer stem cell markers different?

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Since the cancer stem cell concept has been widely accepted, several strategies have been proposed to attack cancer stem cells (CSC). Accordingly, stem cell markers are now preferred therapeutic targets. However, the problem of tumor specificity has not disappeared but shifted to another question: how can cancer stem cells be distinguished from normal stem cells, or more specifically, how do CSC markers differ from normal stem cell markers? A hypothesis is proposed which might help to solve t...

  18. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed fr...

  19. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  20. Solubilization of Poorly Soluble PDT Agent, Meso-tetraphenylporphin, in Plain or Immunotargeted PEG-PE Micelles Results in Dramatically Improved Cancer Cell Killing in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Roby, Aruna; Erdogan, Suna; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2005-01-01

    Poorly soluble photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent, meso-tetratphenylporphine (TPP), was effectively solubilized using non-targeted and tumor-targeted polymeric micelles prepared of polyethylene glycol/phosphatidyl ethanolamine conjugate (PEG-PE). Encapsulation of TPP into PEG-PE-based micelles and immunomicelles (bearing an anti-cancer monoclonal 2C5 antibody) resulted in significantly improved anticancer effects of the drug at PDT conditions against murine (LLC, B16) and human (MCF-7, BT20) ca...

  1. Rectal and colon cancer : Not just a different anatomic site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamas, K.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.; de Vries, E. G. E.; van Vugt, M. A. T. M.; Beets-Tan, R. G.; van Etten, B.; de Groot, D. J. A.; Hospers, G. A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total

  2. Dramatically different kinetics and mechanism at solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces for catalytic isopropanol oxidation over size-controlled platinum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Sapi, Andras; Thompson, Christopher M; Liu, Fudong; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Krier, James M; Carl, Lindsay M; Cai, Xiaojun; Wang, Lin-Wang; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-07-23

    We synthesize platinum nanoparticles with controlled average sizes of 2, 4, 6, and 8 nm and use them as model catalysts to study isopropanol oxidation to acetone in both the liquid and gas phases at 60 °C. The reaction at the solid/liquid interface is 2 orders of magnitude slower than that at the solid/gas interface, while catalytic activity increases with the size of platinum nanoparticles for both the liquid-phase and gas-phase reactions. The activation energy of the gas-phase reaction decreases with the platinum nanoparticle size and is in general much higher than that of the liquid-phase reaction which is largely insensitive to the size of catalyst nanoparticles. Water substantially promotes isopropanol oxidation in the liquid phase. However, it inhibits the reaction in the gas phase. The kinetic results suggest different mechanisms between the liquid-phase and gas-phase reactions, correlating well with different orientations of IPA species at the solid/liquid interface vs the solid/gas interface as probed by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy under reaction conditions and simulated by computational calculations.

  3. Pt-Zn Clusters on Stoichiometric MgO(100) and TiO2(110): Dramatically Different Sintering Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadras, Mostafa J.; Shen, Lu; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.

    2015-03-02

    Zn was suggested to be a promising additive to Pt in the catalysis of dehydrogenation reactions. In this work, mixed Pt-Zn clusters deposited on two simple oxides, MgO(100) and TiO2(110), were investigated. The stability of these systems against cluster sintering, one of the major mechanisms of catalyst deactivation, is simulated using a Metropolis Monte Carlo scheme under the assumption of the Ostwald ripening mechanism. Particle migration, association to and dissociation from clusters, and evaporation and redeposition of monomers were all included in the simulations. Simulations are done at several high temperatures relevant to reactions of catalytic dehydrogenation. The effect of temperature is included via both the Metropolis algorithm and the Boltzmann-weighted populations of the global and thermally accessible local minima on the density functional theory potential energy surfaces of clusters of all sizes and compositions up to tetramers. On both surfaces, clusters are shown to sinter quite rapidly. However, the resultant compositions of the clusters most resistant to sintering are quite different on the two supports. On TiO2(110), Pt and Zn appear to phase separate, preferentially forming clusters rich in just one or the other metal. On MgO(100), Pt and Zn remain well-mixed and form a range of bimetallic clusters of various compositions that appear relatively stable. However, Zn is more easily lost from MgO through evaporation. These phenomena were rationalized by several means of chemical bonding analysis.

  4. La dramatúrgia docent

    OpenAIRE

    Comelles, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    La vida és un teatre. Una dita que lluny de semblar despectiva, resumeix la realitat humana diària. Perquè la vida és dramatúrgia. Un concepte menys agressiu que evoca les diferents situacions comunicatives que les persones enfronten al llarg de la seva vida per tal de complir els seus objectius. I ho fan assumint rols i actituds que una situació concreta requereix, com ara, la vida del docent i l’àmbit professional i social on es desenvolupa. Identificar l’ombra dramatúrgica que és desprèn d...

  5. Little Eyolf and dramatic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lysell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.

  6. Afatinib-Associated Cutaneous Toxicity: A Correlation of Severe Skin Reaction with Dramatic Tumor Response in a Woman with Exon 19 Deletion Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are biological factors used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that are positive for EGFR mutations. Afatinib is one such drug that has been approved for use in this capacity. Cutaneous toxicity is the second most commonly reported adverse event with the use of afatinib. A 39-year-old woman with inoperative right lung adenocarcinoma was initially treated with afatinib. She not only developed a severe papulopustular eruption but also had a dramatic reduction of her tumor. Her cutaneous symptoms and lesions were effectively treated with oral and topical corticosteroids, oral antibiotics, and oral antihistamines. After one month of afatinib treatment, her tumor was resected, and there was no evidence of metastases. Afatinib-induced cutaneous toxicity has a positive correlation with tumor response to anti-neoplastic therapy. Supplemental systemic and topical treatments can be initiated to palliate adverse skin events in order to enable adequate duration of treatment with afatinib.

  7. Therapy for bone metastasis from different cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhang; Peng Tan; Baoguo Mi; Chao Song; Yi Deng; Hanfeng Guan

    2016-01-01

    The bone is the most common target organ of cancer metastasis. Bone metastasis leads to considerable morbidity due to skeletal-related events (SREs). These include bone pain, hypercalcemia, pathologic frac-tures, and compression of the spinal cord. Cancers such as those of the lung, breast, prostate, and kidney are more likely to cause SREs than other cancer types. Additionaly, some blood cancers, including multiple myeloma and lymphoma, frequently cause SREs. In this article, we review the conventional therapies for metastatic bone disease, including drug therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Among osteoclast-targeting agents, bisphosphonates and nuclear factor kappa-B ligand inhibitors are the most widely used agents to prevent cancer-related bone loss. Unsealed radioisotopes are also considered promising in cancer therapy. Currently, iodine-131, strontium-89, and radium-223 are available for the treatment of bone metastasis. However, the treatments for blood cancers with SREs are diferent from those of other cancers. In those cases, new classes of agents including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, monoclonal anti-bodies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown remarkable eficacy. We also discuss the potential development of new therapies for these diseases.

  8. Epidemiologic differences in esophageal cancer between Asian and Western populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Ze Zhang; Guang-Fu Jin; Hong-Bing Shen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common cancer worldwide and has a poor prognosis.The incidence of esophageal squamous cell cancer has been decreasing,whereas the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing rapidly,particularly in Western men.Squamous cell cancer continues to be the major type of esophageal cancer in Asia,and the main risk factors include tobacco smoking,alcohol consumption,hot beverage drinking,and poor nutrition.In contrast,esophageal adenocarcinoma predominately affects the whites,and the risk factors include smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.In addition,Asians and Caucasians may have different susceptibilities to esophageal cancer due to different heritage backgrounds.However,comparison studies between these two populations are limited and need to be addressed in the near future.Ethnic differences should he taken into account in preventive and clinical practices.

  9. Aging and Cancer Mortality: Dynamics of Change and Sex Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ting; Nielsen, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in cancer mortality risk are important for understanding the processes of disease and aging interaction. The extent to which these age changes differ by sex further contributes to this understanding but has not been well studied to date. We conducted a systematic examination of dynamics and heterogeneity of age changes in cancer mortality rates for the top 14 cancer sites using vital statistics from the NCHS and SEER between 1969 and 2007. We assessed patterns of age chang...

  10. Genes overexpressed in different human solid cancers exhibit different tissue-specific expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Bock Axelsen, Jacob; Lotem, Joseph; Sachs, Leo; Domany, Eytan

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed gene expression in different normal human tissues and different types of solid cancers derived from these tissues. The cancers analyzed include brain (astrocytoma and glioblastoma), breast, colon, endometrium, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, prostate, skin, and thyroid cancers. Comparing gene expression in each normal tissue to 12 other normal tissues, we identified 4,917 tissue-selective genes that were selectively expressed in different normal tissues. We also identified 2,929 ...

  11. Music and dramatic education in nursery school

    OpenAIRE

    Vacková, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic and music education. The main aim of the bachelor thesis is to show possibilities how to connect the music education with the dramatic education and to verify their application in the practise and motivated functions of dramatic part to music activities. In the theoretical part there is a characterization of the dramatic and music education, the present conception in the pre-school education, their mutual connection and the contribution for the development of children. The content of...

  12. Dramatic Education, An Interdisciplinary Approach to Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Robert Jay

    This thesis argues that dramatic education is a subject matter whose content is four interrelated disciplines: theater, language arts, humanistic education, and social-psychology. It is also a process of learning crucial artistic, linguistic, humanistic, and scientific issues through the basic dramatic method of dramatization. The history of…

  13. The identification of specific methylation patterns across different cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunlong; Zhao, Hongyan; Li, Jie; Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Fang; Wei, Yanjun; Su, Jianzhong; Zhang, Dongwei; Liu, Tiefu; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal DNA methylation is known as playing an important role in the tumorgenesis. It is helpful for distinguishing the specificity of diagnosis and therapeutic targets for cancers based on characteristics of DNA methylation patterns across cancers. High throughput DNA methylation analysis provides the possibility to comprehensively filter the epigenetics diversity across various cancers. We integrated whole-genome methylation data detected in 798 samples from seven cancers. The hierarchical clustering revealed the existence of cancer-specific methylation pattern. Then we identified 331 differentially methylated genes across these cancers, most of which (266) were specifically differential methylation in unique cancer. A DNA methylation correlation network (DMCN) was built based on the methylation correlation between these genes. It was shown the hubs in the DMCN were inclined to cancer-specific genes in seven cancers. Further survival analysis using the part of genes in the DMCN revealed high-risk group and low-risk group were distinguished by seven biomarkers (PCDHB15, WBSCR17, IGF1, GYPC, CYGB, ACTG2, and PRRT1) in breast cancer and eight biomarkers (ZBTB32, OR51B4, CCL8, TMEFF2, SALL3, GPSM1, MAGEA8, and SALL1) in colon cancer, respectively. At last, a protein-protein interaction network was introduced to verify the biological function of differentially methylated genes. It was shown that MAP3K14, PTN, ACVR1 and HCK sharing different DNA methylation and gene expression across cancers were relatively high degree distribution in PPI network. The study suggested that not only the identified cancer-specific genes provided reference for individual treatment but also the relationship across cancers could be explained by differential DNA methylation. PMID:25774687

  14. The identification of specific methylation patterns across different cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlong Zhang

    Full Text Available Abnormal DNA methylation is known as playing an important role in the tumorgenesis. It is helpful for distinguishing the specificity of diagnosis and therapeutic targets for cancers based on characteristics of DNA methylation patterns across cancers. High throughput DNA methylation analysis provides the possibility to comprehensively filter the epigenetics diversity across various cancers. We integrated whole-genome methylation data detected in 798 samples from seven cancers. The hierarchical clustering revealed the existence of cancer-specific methylation pattern. Then we identified 331 differentially methylated genes across these cancers, most of which (266 were specifically differential methylation in unique cancer. A DNA methylation correlation network (DMCN was built based on the methylation correlation between these genes. It was shown the hubs in the DMCN were inclined to cancer-specific genes in seven cancers. Further survival analysis using the part of genes in the DMCN revealed high-risk group and low-risk group were distinguished by seven biomarkers (PCDHB15, WBSCR17, IGF1, GYPC, CYGB, ACTG2, and PRRT1 in breast cancer and eight biomarkers (ZBTB32, OR51B4, CCL8, TMEFF2, SALL3, GPSM1, MAGEA8, and SALL1 in colon cancer, respectively. At last, a protein-protein interaction network was introduced to verify the biological function of differentially methylated genes. It was shown that MAP3K14, PTN, ACVR1 and HCK sharing different DNA methylation and gene expression across cancers were relatively high degree distribution in PPI network. The study suggested that not only the identified cancer-specific genes provided reference for individual treatment but also the relationship across cancers could be explained by differential DNA methylation.

  15. THE DRAMATIC STORY OF DRAMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Modern Chinese theater is an evolving animal that has worn many different coats over the years. At one time it was a tool for promoting revolutionary change, at another a popular art form. On its centennial birthday modern Chinese drama now faces a threat from the very thing that once spawned it-modernization. Television, the Internet and other forms of easily accessible entertainment have taken its place and led to falling audience figures. But modern theater is fighting back and according to some observers it will rise again as China’s growing middle class rediscovers the power of a good play.

  16. Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtinaitis Juozas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania. Methods Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations. Results For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000 and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p Conclusion This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations.

  17. The classical dramatic text and its value in contemporary theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Žavbi Milojević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the classical dramatic text and its staging in contemporary theatre. Specifically, it aims to show that classical texts can address topical issues. This is illustrated by the example of several stagings of Ivan Cankar’s Hlapci, one of the most influential dramatic texts in Slovene literature. The history of this dramatic text is presented from its first publication and reception to the different stagings in various Slovene professional theatres. The focus is on how the situation in Slovene society is reflected in each examined staging. The drama Hlapci was first staged almost one hundred years ago, when the staging followed closely the dramatic text. However, after 1980 stagings became more independent from the text and more artistic freedom was allowed. The paper will prove that classical dramatic texts are very appropriate for staging in contemporary theatre, especially with an innovative director’s approach.

  18. Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailyte, Giedre; Kurtinaitis, Juozas

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania. Methods Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard) were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC) was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations. Results For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000) and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p < 0.05). During the study period the age-standardized mortality rates decreased in both sexes in urban residents. The decreasing mortality trend in urban population was contributed by decline of the rates of lung and stomach cancer in male and breast, stomach and colorectal cancer in female. Mortality rates in both urban and rural population were increasing for prostate and cervical cancers. Conclusion This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations. PMID:18267035

  19. Hospitality Ethical Growth via Dramatic English

    OpenAIRE

    Cherif Haberih

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to find scalable data and statistics for realistic rendering of Ethical and Dramatic English gradual growth based on Thai students within the Hospitality and Tourism Industry. We also intend to prove that Dramatic English serves English improvements for Thai students. Furthermore we intend to better understand students' behaviors and ethical growth processes based on cultural, social, personal and psychological background through Dramatic Engli...

  20. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Beliefs About Lung Cancer Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Lin, Jenny J.; Nelson, Judith E.; Powell, Charles A.; Salazar-Schicchi, John; Berman, Andrew R.; Keller, Steven M.; Smith, Cardinale B.; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Halm, Ethan A.; Leventhal, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Disparities in lung cancer treatment and palliative care are well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying these disparities are not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated racial and ethnic differences in beliefs and attitudes about lung cancer treatment and palliative care among patients receiving a new diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Patients were recruited from four medical centers in New York City and surveyed about their beliefs regarding lung cancer care, including disease-directed treatments, palliative and end-of-life care, and fatalistic and spiritual beliefs. We used univariate and multiple regression analyses to compare the distribution of beliefs among minority (black and Hispanic) and nonminority patients. Results: Of the 335 patients, 21% were black, 20% were Hispanic, and 59% were nonminority. Beliefs about chemotherapy and radiotherapy were similar across the three groups (P > .05), whereas black patients were more likely to believe that surgery might cause lung cancer to spread (P = .008). Fatalistic beliefs potentially affecting cancer treatment were more common among both minority groups (P ≤ .02). No significant differences were found in attitudes toward clinician communication about cancer prognosis (P > .05). However, both blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have misconceptions about advance directives and hospice care (P ≤ .02). Conclusions: Similarities and differences in beliefs about disease-directed treatment were observed between minority and nonminority patients with lung cancer. Minority patients hold more fatalistic views about the disease and misperceptions about advance care planning and hospice care. Further research is needed to assess the impact of these beliefs on decisions about lung cancer care and patient outcomes. PMID:22700777

  1. Dramatic Play in Childhood: Rehearsal for Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koste, Virginia Glasgow

    The purpose of this book is to help parents and teachers recognize and understand dramatic play in childhood as a process whereby the child acts out human experience in an attempt to order, clarify, and understand it. Written by a person experienced in theatre and drama, the book considers the following aspects of dramatic play: the importance of…

  2. Does urothelial cancer of bladder behave differently in young patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hua; LI You-yuan; HU Zhi-quan; ZHU Hui; ZHUANG Qian-yuan; QI Yong; YE Zhang-qun

    2012-01-01

    Background Bladder urothelial cancer has been diagnosed at an increasing rate among young adults in China while the clinical outcomes remain highly controversial.To optimize the management of young patients with bladder cancer,we examined whether bladder urothelial cancer in young patients behaved differently from that in the elder patients.Methods From 1994 to 2008,a database of bladder urothelial cancer patients at a major tertiary medical center was retrospectively reviewed.The clinical and pathological parameters of patients who were less than 40 years of age and a series of patients older than 40 years of age as the control group during the same period were compared.A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test,and Cox regression was performed to identify clinical parameters that affected the clinic outcomes.Results Young bladder cancer patients had a lower male-to-female ratio and were less likely to have advanced stages and high-grade cancers at the initial diagnosis.Tumors in young bladder cancer patients tended to be less multifocal at diagnosis.In addition,young patients had a lower recurrence rate and longer recurrence interval than older patients.The Kaplan-Meier curve and Log-rank test showed that young patients had significantly better cancer specific survival than old patients.The univariats and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that tumor grade is the sole predictor for tumor recurrence in young patients.Conclusions Young patients with bladder cancer have favorable pathological features and clinical outcomes than older patients.These findings argue for more conservative management approaches for young patients with bladder cancer.

  3. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.

  4. A dramatic effect of oxygen on protection of human cells against γ-radiation by lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Fritz; Edge, Ruth; Truscott, Terence George; Witt, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Reducing radiation damage is important and dietary antioxidants that can protect cells from such damage are of value. Dietary lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes, protects human lymphoid cell membranes from damage by γ-radiation. We report that such protective effects are remarkably reduced as the oxygen concentration increases - near zero at 100% oxygen from fivefold protection at 20% oxygen and, dramatically, from 50-fold protection at 0% oxygen. Such huge differences imply that under higher oxygen concentrations lycopene could lead to improved cancer therapy using γ-radiation. The cells are not efficiently protected from the superoxide radical by lycopene. Noncellular studies suggest molecular mechanisms for the oxygen effect. PMID:26991327

  5. Brain metastases free survival differs between breast cancer subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, A; Bago-Horvath, Z; De Vries, C; Dubsky, P; Pluschnig, U; Rudas, M; Rottenfusser, A; Knauer, M; Eiter, H; Fitzal, F; Dieckmann, K; Mader, R M; Gnant, M; Zielinski, C C; Steger, G G; Preusser, M; Bartsch, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases (BM) are frequently diagnosed in patients with HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer; in addition, an increasing incidence was reported for triple-negative tumours. We aimed to compare brain metastases free survival (BMFS) of breast cancer subtypes in patients treated between 1996 until 2010. Methods: Brain metastases free survival was measured as the interval from diagnosis of extracranial breast cancer metastases until diagnosis of BM. HER-2 status was analysed by immunohistochemistry and reanalysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation if a score of 2+ was gained. Oestrogen-receptor (ER) and progesterone-receptor (PgR) status was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Brain metastases free survival curves were estimated with the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Results: Data of 213 patients (46 luminal/124 HER-2/43 triple-negative subtype) with BM from breast cancer were available for the analysis. Brain metastases free survival differed significantly between breast cancer subtypes. Median BMFS in triple-negative tumours was 14 months (95% CI: 11.34–16.66) compared with 18 months (95% CI: 14.46–21.54) in HER-2-positive tumours (P=0.001) and 34 months (95% CI: 23.71–44.29) in luminal tumours (P=0.001), respectively. In HER-2-positive patients, co-positivity for ER and HER-2 prolonged BMFS (26 vs 15 m; P=0.033); in luminal tumours, co-expression of ER and PgR was not significantly associated with BMFS. Brain metastases free survival in patients with lung metastases was significantly shorter (17 vs 21 months; P=0.014). Conclusion: Brain metastases free survival in triple-negative breast cancer, as well as in HER-2-positive/ER-negative, is significantly shorter compared with HER-2/ER co-positive or luminal tumours, mirroring the aggressiveness of these breast cancer subtypes. PMID:22233926

  6. Hospitality Ethical Growth via Dramatic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherif Haberih

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to find scalable data and statistics for realistic rendering of Ethical and Dramatic English gradual growth based on Thai students within the Hospitality and Tourism Industry. We also intend to prove that Dramatic English serves English improvements for Thai students. Furthermore we intend to better understand students' behaviors and ethical growth processes based on cultural, social, personal and psychological background through Dramatic English for Hospitality Industry. Universities and Educational Organizations today are involved in complex tasks. With the burst of communication through Medias and an ever increasing student’s demand for higher quality education and services, having a competitive advantage is seen as a necessary tool. Education has evolved and its business approach requires a modern and inadequate solution. As of today, Thailand is in need of a new generation of tools applied to modernize the current educational system, and emphasize on new methods.

  7. Dramatizing Poetry in the Second Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elting, Stephen; Firkins, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Poetry performance is an approach to learning where students can use theatrical techniques to develop a response to the poem. This paper argues that ELL students can explore the aesthetic function of language and, more widely, develop confidence in using English as a communicative tool through the dramatization of poetry. We describe the process…

  8. The Psychodrama-Social Dramatics Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Richard L.

    Social dramatics is a therapeutic and educational program that can act as a mirror to reflect images of the self in action with others. It is the modality for experiential learning to correct social dysfunction by providing models for imitation, opportunities to practice and develop individual forms from that model, and risk free environments for…

  9. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    .1 arcseconds. At the time of the observations, SW-3 was 258 million kilometres from the Earth; this angle corresponds to a projected distance of 5,100 kilometres. Moreover, on the TIMMI exposures which were performed at the far-infrared wavelength of 10 microns, yet another condensation was visible. These condensations are small clouds of gas and dust which emanate from the separate pieces of the nucleus. A careful comparison of the relative positions, as observed on different nights, clearly shows that they are slowly drifting apart. Fortunately, it turned out that another image of SW-3 had been obtained in early December by ESO astronomer Jesper Storm at the Danish 1.5-metre telescope. Due to unfavourable atmospheric conditions, the image sharpness is less good, but the central condensation is very elongated. The extension is about half of the distance between the outermost condensations as measured ten days later. This indicates that the splitting may have taken place by mid-November, or at least that the outward motion cannot have started much earlier. This also explains why this effect was not seen before. It therefore appears that the actual separation began about one month after the moment of maximum brightness and nearly two months after the perihelion passage. Still, there is little doubt that it is closely related to the processes which led to the dramatic outburst. Further observations will help to refine the description of the break-up process, but a simple explanation is that major cracks and rifts opened in the irregularly shaped icy nucleus already before perihelion as the surface temperature began to increase. Completely ``fresh'' cometary material was thereby exposed to the solar light and the evaporation rate increased quickly, releasing more gas and dust into space. In the course of this process, the rifts gradually widened until the definitive breakage occurred somewhat later. Split Comets About 30 comets have been observed to split in historical times and

  10. How to use the fairy-tale One rainy day for a dance dramatization

    OpenAIRE

    Tomazin, Klara

    2015-01-01

    In the bachelor's thesis entitled 'How to Use the fairy-tale One rainy day for a dance dramatization' I described the course of action for a kindergarten level (a session with children) and presented dance, dance dramatization, music, theatre and fairy-tale. In the theoretical part of the thesis I described styles of dance and dance education. Concerning dance dramatization I wrote about what respective authors say about it, how important the influence of dance dramatization on different a...

  11. Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: A gender pattern that differs across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Menvielle (Gwenn); A.E. Kunst (Anton); I. Stirbu (Irina); B.H. Strand; C. Borrell (Carme); E. Regidor (Enrique); A. Leclerc; S. Esnaola; M. Bopp (Matthias); O. Lundberg; B. Artnik (Barbara); G. Costa (Giuseppe); P. Deboosere (Patrick); P. Martikainen (Pekka); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30-74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway,

  12. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested. PMID:19275059

  13. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  14. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Scientists have discovered the closest black hole yet, a mere 1,600 light years from Earth. Its discovery was heralded by four of the most dramatic rapid X-ray intensity changes ever seen from one star. Astronomers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta. The black hole in the constellation Sagittarius, along with a normal star dubbed V4641 Sgr, form a violent system that briefly flooded part of our Milky Way Galaxy with X-rays and ejected subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light one day last September. At the peak of its X-ray output, V4641 Sgr was the brightest X-ray emitter in the sky. Astronomers call this type of system an X-ray nova because it suddenly becomes a bright source of X-rays, but this object shows characteristics never seen in an X-ray nova. "V4641 Sgr turns on and off so fast that it seems to represent a new subclass of X-ray novae," said Donald A. Smith, postdoctoral associate in MIT's Center for Space Research. Smith worked on data from this object with MIT principal research scientist Ronald Remillard and NRAO astronomer Robert Hjellming. "In X-rays, the intensity rose by a factor of more than 1,000 in seven hours, then dropped by a factor of 100 in two hours," Remillard said. The radio emission was seen as an image of an expanding "jet" of particles shooting out from the binary system. After reaching a maximum, the radio intensity dropped by a factor of nearly 40 within two days. "Radio telescopes give us a quick glimpse of something moving at a fantastically high velocity," Hjellming said. Black holes harbor enormous gravitational force that can literally rip the gas away from a nearby star. This transfer of gas is visible in many forms of radiation. Both orbiting X-ray telescopes and ground-based radio and optical telescopes saw the outburst of V4641

  15. Dramatically different dizygotic twins: will we include them in Research? Twin research reviews: congenital anomalies, mirror-image effects in conjoined twins, older mothers of twins; Twin statistics: 'Massachusetts, land of twins'; Tribute: Dr Victor A. McKusick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2008-10-01

    The increased frequency of interracial marriage is a likely source of unusual-looking dizygotic (DZ) twins. Some members of DZ twin pairs born to mixed-race couples inherit very different physical features from their parents. This raises several questions, such as: Will researchers wish to include such twins in their ongoing studies? Next, new twin research concerned with congenital anomalies, mirror-image effects in conjoined twins and older mothers of twins will be reviewed. New statistics on twinning rates in Massachusetts will also be summarized, followed by a tribute to the late medical geneticist Dr. Victor A. McKusick.

  16. On the Dramatic Features in Robert Browning’s Poems of Dramatic Monologue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玉文

    2014-01-01

    This paper explored the three dramatic features intrinsic in Robert Browning’s poems of dramatic monologue, name-ly, the employment of first-person point of view, the use of irony, and the intricate psychological exploration and vivid character-ization. Such features are crucial in the successful presentation of various human nature and experience with profundity, making his poems an enduring classic in the English literature.

  17. Differences between men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone S Noell

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing in the United States of America (USA has led to a dramatic increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in the United States as well as the number of men undergoing aggressive treatment with radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. We compared patient characteristics and treatment selection between American men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers. Methods We evaluated 3,173 men with prostate cancer in the USA. Surveys and medical records provided information on demographics, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, symptoms, tumor characteristics, and treatment. We classified men presenting with symptoms of advanced cancer – bone pain, weight loss, or hematuria – as "clinically diagnosed"; asymptomatic men and those with only lower urinary tract symptoms were considered "screening-detected." We used multivariate analyses to determine whether screening predicted receiving aggressive treatment for a clinically localized cancer. Results We classified 11% of cancers as being clinically diagnosed. Men with screening-detected cancers were more often non-Hispanic white (77% vs. 65%, P Conclusion Most cancers were detected by screening in this American cohort. Appropriately, younger, healthier men were more likely to be diagnosed by screening. Minority status and lower socio-economic status appeared to be screening barriers. Screening detected earlier-stage cancers and was associated with receiving aggressive treatment.

  18. Cotranscriptional splicing efficiency differs dramatically between Drosophila and mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Khodor, Yevgenia L.; Menet, Jerome S; Tolan, Michael; Rosbash, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Spliceosome assembly and/or splicing of a nascent transcript may be crucial for proper isoform expression and gene regulation in higher eukaryotes. It has been shown that cotranscriptional splicing occurs efficiently in Drosophila, but there are not comparable genome-wide nascent splicing data from mammals. To provide this comparison, the authors analyzed a recently generated, high-throughput sequencing data set of mouse liver nascent RNA. Cotranscriptional splicing is approximately twofold l...

  19. Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in England

    OpenAIRE

    Niksic, Maja; Rachet, Bernard; Warburton, Fiona G; Forbes, Lindsay J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in the English population are not fully understood. We aimed to quantify these differences, to help develop more effective health campaigns, tailored to the needs of different ethnic groups. Methods: Using a large national data set (n=38 492) of cross-sectional surveys that used the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Measure, we examined how cancer symptom awareness and barriers varied by ethnicit...

  20. Dramatic response to infliximab in refractory neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamaneni Sreekanth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. Neurologic manifestations involving the central and/or peripheral nervous system occur in about 5% of patients. Neurosarcoidosis is often refractory to conventional treatment and therefore more effective treatment options are needed. While the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there is now a better understanding of its pathogenesis on a molecular level. It is clear that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα plays a pivotal role in the development of the granulomas and it is believed to be a key cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Taking advantage of this better understanding of disease pathogenesis, anti-TNFα agents are being increasingly used to treat refractory sarcoidosis. We report a patient with refractory neurosarcoidosis who showed dramatic improvement in the clinical and radiological manifestations following treatment with infliximab; he suffered a relapse upon discontinuation of the medication.

  1. A dramatic, objective antiandrogen withdrawal response: case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Litwin Alan; Chadha Manpreet K; Lau Yiu-Keung; Trump Donald L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Antiandrogen withdrawal response is an increasingly recognized entity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing a durable radiologic improvement along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with discontinuation of the antiandrogen agent bicalutamide. We report a case in which a dramatic decline of serum PSA levels associated with a dramatic improvement in radiologic disease was achieved with bicalutamide discontinuation.

  2. A dramatic, objective antiandrogen withdrawal response: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litwin Alan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antiandrogen withdrawal response is an increasingly recognized entity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing a durable radiologic improvement along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA with discontinuation of the antiandrogen agent bicalutamide. We report a case in which a dramatic decline of serum PSA levels associated with a dramatic improvement in radiologic disease was achieved with bicalutamide discontinuation.

  3. Screening of Differently Expressed Genes in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines with Different Metastasis Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Anping; LIAO Guoning; WU Mingfu; LU Yunping; MA Ding

    2007-01-01

    In order to screen the genes differentially expressed in two human prostate cancer cells with different metastasis potentials, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was done twice on human prostate cancer cell line with high potential of metastasis PC3M-1E8 and its synogenetic cell line PC3M-2B4 with low metastasis potential. In the first subtraction PC3M-2B4 was used as tester and PC3M-1E8 as driver and the forward subtractive library was constructed. In the second one the tester and driver were interchanged and the reverse subtractive library was constructed. The screened clones of both libraries were sequenced and Gene Bank homology search was performed. Some clones were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that two subtrac-tive libraries containing 238 positive clones were constructed. Analysis of 16 sequenced clones ran-domly picked from two libraries showed that 4 differentially expressed gene fragments were identi-fied as new EST with unknown functions. It was concluded that two subtractive libraries of human prostate cancer cell lines with different metastasis potentials were constructed successfully.

  4. Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299) and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13). Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP) vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase) inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to measure cancer cell

  5. Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshal, Karni S.; Ferri-Lagneau, Karine F.; Haider, Jamil; Pardhanani, Pooja; Leung, TinChung, E-mail: tleung@nccu.edu [Biomedical/Biotechnology Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, North Carolina Research Campus, Nutrition Research Center, 500 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081 (United States)

    2011-10-31

    Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299) and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13). Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP) vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase) inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to measure cancer cell

  6. Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Pardhanani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299 and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13. Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to

  7. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan;

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian canc...

  8. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Thai Do; Möhner Sabine; Heinemann Lothar AJ; Dinger Juergen C; Assmann Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis...

  9. Nutritional status of cancer patients given different treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, K; Roy, R K; Vijayalakshmi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2004-08-01

    The nutritional status of 91 cancer patients was assessed at the time of diagnosis and follow-up assessments were carried out at the third and sixth week after initiating different treatment modalities to study the effect of type and duration of treatment on nutritional status. Parameters assessed were anthropometry, biochemical status and clinical signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiencies. Treatment modalities studied were radiotherapy, chemotherapy, chemotherapy+radiotherapy, and combined treatment modality (surgery+radiotherapy+chemotherapy). The nutritional status of male patients was affected most by chemotherapy+radiotherapy while females were affected most with radiotherapy. Biochemical parameters showed a marginal decline in total serum protein and serum albumin concentrations. Haemoglobin concentrations declined substantially with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The lymphocyte count decreased substantially irrespective of the treatment modality. Clinical examination revealed increased incidences of deficiency signs and symptoms in all patients during follow-up irrespective of treatment modality.

  10. Drosophila Cancer Models Identify Functional Differences between Ret Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Sarah; Cagan, Ross L

    2016-09-13

    We generated and compared Drosophila models of RET fusions CCDC6-RET and NCOA4-RET. Both RET fusions directed cells to migrate, delaminate, and undergo EMT, and both resulted in lethality when broadly expressed. In all phenotypes examined, NCOA4-RET was more severe than CCDC6-RET, mirroring their effects on patients. A functional screen against the Drosophila kinome and a library of cancer drugs found that CCDC6-RET and NCOA4-RET acted through different signaling networks and displayed distinct drug sensitivities. Combining data from the kinome and drug screens identified the WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 plus the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib as a synergistic drug combination that is specific for NCOA4-RET. Our work emphasizes the importance of identifying and tailoring a patient's treatment to their specific RET fusion isoform and identifies a multi-targeted therapy that may prove effective against tumors containing the NCOA4-RET fusion. PMID:27626672

  11. A study of structural differences between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Daping; Xu, Fangcheng; Yu, Qiang; Fang, Tingting; Xia, Junjun; Li, Seruo; Wang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Since liver cancer seriously threatens human health, it is very urgent to explore an effective method for diagnosing liver cancer early. In this study, we investigated the structure differences of IR spectra between neoplastic liver cells and normal liver cells. The major differences of absorption bands were observed between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, the values of A2955/A2921, A1744/A1082, A1640/A1535, H1121/H1020 might be potentially useful factors for distinguishing liver cancer cells from normal liver cells. Curve fitting also provided some important information on structural differences between malignant and normal liver cancer cells. Furthermore, IR spectra combined with hierarchical cluster analysis could make a distinction between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells. The present results provided enough cell basis for diagnosis of liver cancer by FTIR spectroscopy, suggesting FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for liver cancer diagnosis.

  12. Educational differences in likelihood of attributing breast symptoms to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcu, Afrodita; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Black, Georgia;

    2016-01-01

    asked to indicate their level of agreement with a cancer avoidance statement ('I would not want to know if I have breast cancer'). RESULTS: Women were more likely to mention cancer as a possible cause of an axillary lump (64%) compared with nipple rash (30%). In multivariable analysis, low and mid......BACKGROUND: Stage at diagnosis of breast cancer varies by socio-economic status (SES), with lower SES associated with poorer survival. We investigated associations between SES (indexed by education), and the likelihood of attributing breast symptoms to breast cancer. METHOD: We conducted an online...... survey with 961 women (47-92 years) with variable educational levels. Two vignettes depicted familiar and unfamiliar breast changes (axillary lump and nipple rash). Without making breast cancer explicit, women were asked 'What do you think this […..] could be?' After the attribution question, women were...

  13. Regional differences in recommended cancer treatment for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Vivian; Ku-Goto, Meei-Hsiang; Hui ZHAO; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Giordano, Sharon H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about regional variation in cancer treatment and its determinants. We compare rates of adherence to treatment guidelines for elderly patients across Texas and whether local specialist supply is an important determinant of treatment variation. Methods Previous literature reviewed indicated 7 recommended courses of treatment for colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. We analyzed Texas Cancer Registry data linked with Medicare claims for the years 2004 to 2007 to...

  14. DNA methylation profiling in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study defines cancer subclasses differing in clinicopathologic characteristics and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Kathleen; Edmiston, Sharon N; May, Ryan; Kuan, Pei Fen; Chu, Haitao; Bryant, Christopher; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Geradts, Joseph; Troester, Melissa A.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with several intrinsic subtypes differing by hormone receptor (HR) status, molecular profiles, and prognosis. However, the role of DNA methylation in breast cancer development and progression and its relationship with the intrinsic tumor subtypes are not fully understood. Methods A microarray targeting promoters of cancer-related genes was used to evaluate DNA methylation at 935 CpG sites in 517 breast tumors from the Carolina Breast Canc...

  15. Heterogeneity of the Mac-1 expression on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with different types of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Szyłło, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Andrzej; Sułowska, Zofia; Nowak, Marek

    2016-02-01

    The expression level of Mac-1 on the surface of neutrophils is an important indicator of neutrophil activation. Under pathological conditions, Mac-1 is believed a key adhesion molecule that facilitates cancer progression and mediates the adhesion of tumour cells to the endothelium of blood vessels. Our previous findings indicated that circulating peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) expressed enhanced levels of Mac-1, which was functionally associated with an increased adhesive function of neutrophils. The objective of the current study was to analyse whether the value of individual components of the differential white cell count, including the neutrophil and lymphocyte ratios, which are markers of blood neutrophil activation, might be associated with certain types of ovarian cancer. We showed the increase in Mac-1 expression along with a parallel decrease of L-selectin and PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils of patients with EOC of early and advanced FIGO stages, which indicates an activated state of neutrophils in comparison to neutrophils of individuals without cancer. Despite a significant difference between Mac-1 expression in patients with and without cancer, a dramatic increase in Mac-1 expression was observed in the blood of patients with undifferentiated carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC. Moreover, the expression level of Mac-1 correlated with the number of neutrophils in patients with serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated EOC. The results of an ROC analysis demonstrated that the patients with the undifferentiated type of EOC form a distinct group with regard to Mac-1 expression on blood neutrophils. The results suggested a diverse biological cadre of immune cells in patients with undifferentiated ovarian carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC.

  16. Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chien Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,130 patients with a median follow-up of 32 months were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean survival of patients with the same stage of colon and rectal cancer was evaluated. RESULTS: Around 35% of patients had stage information. Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. In stage IIIC and stage IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer patients, by about 3 months. Stage IIB colorectal cancer patients had a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA and IIIB colorectal cancer. After adjustment of age, sex and race, colon cancer patients had better survival than rectal cancer of stage IIB, but in stage IIIC and IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer. LIMITATIONS: The study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSION: This was a population-based study. The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis. Stage IIB might require more aggressive chemotherapy, and no less than that for stage III.

  17. Bilateral breast cancer, synchronous and metachronous; differences and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobsen, J.J.; Palen, van der J.; Ong, F.; Riemersma, S.; Struikmans, H.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: to analyze the incidence of patients having synchronous or metachronous bilateral invasive breast cancer (SBBC and MBBC) and to assess the characteristics and outcome compared to those having unilateral breast cancer (UBC). The used data were obtained from our pr

  18. Dramaturgie et interculturel (Dramatics and the Intercultural).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhendler, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The use of techniques from drama and psychodrama to explore intercultural differences and relations is described. The process used incorporates eight stages of discovery of perceptions, stereotypes, cultural identity, communication taboos, and bringing together individuals from different cultures. (MSE)

  19. Age Differences in Dual Information-Processing Modes: Implications for Cancer Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Ellen; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Hess, Thomas M.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for cancer decision making as cancer is often a disease of older adulthood. We examine evidence for adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes, review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and introduce how dual process theories and their findings might be applied to cancer decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of ...

  20. KRAS Gene Mutations and Gender Differences in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy I. Vodolazhskiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and spectrum of KRAS mutations in men and women with colorectal cancer (CRC, and an impact of KRAS-mutation status on the clinical and morphological features of CRC. The study included 303 patients (168/55.4% women and 135/44.6% men with CRC T2-4N0-2M0-1. We defined 7 KRAS SNP-mutations (G12D, G12A, G12R, G12C, G12S, G12V and G13D located within codons 12 and 13 using Bio-Rad real-time thermal cyclers CFX96 and Real-Time-PCR- KRAS-7M Kit. The frequency of KRAS mutations was 35.6% in the CRC patients with a predominant presence of G>A transitions. The KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations are predictive of poor prognosis The KRAS-mutated CRC has clinical features in view of the gender differences. KRAS-mutation status is a promising predictive biomarker of personalized treatment.

  1. Impact of risk factors on different interval cancer subtypes in a population-based breast cancer screening programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Blanch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000-2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%, 235 false-negatives (23.2%, 172 minimal-signs (17.2% and 114 occult tumors (11.3%. Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. RESULTS: A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR = 2.71, 95%CI: 2.28-3.23; this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR = 8.79, 95%CI: 6.24-12.40 than for true interval cancer (HR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.59-3.21. A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.60-2.78, previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.23-2.71. High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR = 4.92, 95%CI: 2.58-9.38, followed by true intervals (RRR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.18-2.36 and false-negatives (RRR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.00-2.49. CONCLUSION: The role of women's characteristics differs among

  2. Early-onset gastric cancers have a different molecular expression profile than conventional gastric cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N.A. Milne; R. Carvalho; F.M. Morsink; A.R. Musler; W.W.J. de Leng; A. Ristimaki; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2006-01-01

    Many studies examine the molecular genetics of gastric cancer, but few look at young patients in particular and there is no comparison of molecular expression between early-onset gastric cancer (<= 45 years old) and conventional gastric cancers. Expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is elevated in g

  3. Dance dramatization of a fairy tale Peter and the wolf

    OpenAIRE

    Bukovec, Klavdija

    2014-01-01

    The diploma entitled Dance dramatization of a fairy tale Peter and the Wolf describes the process of dance dramatization with preschool children. The theoretical part contains various definitions and elements of dance dramatization and the role of children and adults in it. Elements of dance dramatization are key factors as they present stages through which children encounter in the creation of the show. The chapter of musical fairy tale describes the musical fairy tale in detail, presen...

  4. Meta-analysis of cancer transcriptomes: A new approach to uncover molecular pathological events in different cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To explore secrets of metastatic cancers, individual expression of true sets of respective genes must spread across the tissue. In this study, meta-analysis for transcriptional profiles of oncogenes was carried out to hunt critical genes or networks helping in metastasizing cancers. For this, transcriptomic analysis of different cancerous tissues causing leukemia, lung, liver, spleen, colorectal, colon, breast, bladder, and kidney cancers was performed by extracting microarray expression data from online resource; Gene Expression Omnibus. A newly developed bioinformatics technique; Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA was applied for enrichment analysis of transcriptional profiles using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID. Furthermore, oPOSSUM (v. 2.0 and Cytoscape (v. 2.8.2 were used for in-depth analysis of transcription factors and regulatory gene networks respectively. DAVID analysis uncovered the most significantly enriched pathways in molecular functions that were 'Ubiquitin thiolesterase activity' up regulated in blood, breast, bladder, colorectal, lung, spleen, prostrate cancer. 'Transforming growth factor beta receptor activity' was inhibited in all cancers except leukemia, colon and liver cancer. oPOSSUM further revealed highly over-represented Transcription Factors (TFs; Broad-complex_3, Broad-complex_4, and Foxd3 except for leukemia and bladder cancer. From these findings, it is possible to target genes and networks, play a crucial role in the development of cancer. In the future, these transcription factors can serve as potential candidates for the therapeutic drug targets which can impede the deadly spread.

  5. HOTAIR:an oncogenic long non-coding RNA in different cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammadreza Hajjari; Abbas Salavaty

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) refer to a group of RNAs that are usually more than 200 nucleotides and are not involved in protein generation. Instead, lncRNAs are involved in different regulatory processes, such as regulation of gene expression. Different lncRNAs exist throughout the genome. LncRNAs are also known for their roles in different human diseases such as cancer. HOTAIR is an lncRNA that plays a role as an oncogenic molecule in different cancer cells, such as breast, gastric, colorectal, and cervical cancer cells. Therefore, HOTAIR expression level is a potential biomarker for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in several cancers. hTis RNA takes part in epigenetic regulation of genes and plays an important role in different cellular pathways by interacting with Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). In this review, we describe the molecular function and regulation of HOTAIR and its role in different types of cancers.

  6. Exploring Different Strategies for Efficient Delivery of Colorectal Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world. Currently available chemotherapy of CRC usually delivers the drug to both normal as well as cancerous tissues, thus leading to numerous undesirable effects. Much emphasis is being laid on the development of effective drug delivery systems for achieving selective delivery of the active moiety at the anticipated site of action with minimized unwanted side effects. Researchers have employed various techniques (dependent on pH, time, pressure and/or bacteria for targeting drugs directly to the colonic region. On the other hand, systemic drug delivery strategies to specific molecular targets (such as FGFR, EGFR, CD44, EpCAM, CA IX, PPARγ and COX-2 overexpressed by cancerous cells have also been shown to be effective. This review aims to put forth an overview of drug delivery technologies that have been, and may be developed, for the treatment of CRC.

  7. [Cancer treatment in Skane and in Sjaelland. Do differences concerning examination and treatment explain reduced survival among Danish cancer patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Landberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    of counts of trained personnel and equipment in cancer diagnostics and treatment in the two countries. RESULTS: With regard to lung and breast cancer, the data seem to indicate that Danish patients are diagnosed later, and that Denmark lags behind in treatment capacity. With regard to rectal cancer......, the data seem to indicate that concentrating operations in fewer hospitals, and improvements in operation technique have been introduced earlier in Sweden than in Denmark. With regard to prostate cancer, however, the data seem to indicate that many more indolent cases that do not need treatment...... to indicate that problems in the areas of sufficient capacity for diagnostic workup and treatment may explain some of the difference in survival between Danish and Swedish cancer patients Udgivelsesdato: 2001/1/22...

  8. Using Dramatic Monologue for Teaching Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, F.; Ho, SY

    2011-01-01

    During the welcoming session at the start of every academic year, teachers in Vanier College’s Psychology Department put on a skit to introduce incoming “psychology major” students, in a concise and entertaining manner, to the three different theoretical approaches currently prevailing in the discipline. In the skit, a teacher plays the role of a client who consults a psychotherapist (played by another teacher) for help with a marital problem. Seeking a solution to his problem, th...

  9. Disparities in survival of stomach cancer among different socioeconomic groups in North-East Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, Ester J.M.; Hospers, Geke A.; Mulder, Nanno J.; Siesling, Sabine; Aa, van der Maaike A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Survival differences in stomach cancer are depended on patient, tumour and treatment factors. Some populations are more prone to develop stomach cancer, such as people with low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this population based study was to assess whether differences in socioec

  10. Increased risk of breast cancer following different regimens of hormone replacement therapy frequently used in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer following hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether different treatment regimens or the androgenecity of progestins influence the risk of breast cancer differently. The Danish Nurse Cohort...

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells cause different responses in expressions of cancer-promoting genes in different cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zu-Yau; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2013-06-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) is one of the most crucial components of the tumor microenvironment to promote the invasiveness of cancer cells. The interactions between cancer cells and CAFs are bidirectional. Our recent study showed that up-regulations of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (CCL26), interleukin 6 (IL6), and lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) genes in cancer cells were parts of the common effects of CAFs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells to promote proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells. However, the subject of how HCC cells to influence the gene expressions of CAFs still needs to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue. Two human HCC (HCC24/KMUH, HCC38/KMUH) and two human CAF cell lines (F26/KMUH, F28/KMUH) were studied. Influence of HCC38/KMUH cancer cells on differential expressions of genes in F28/KMUH CAFs was detected by microarray to select target genes for further analysis. Both HCC cell lines increased proliferation (all p stratagem for the treatment of HCC. PMID:23684136

  12. Cancer stage, comorbidity, and socioeconomic differences in the effect of cancer on labour market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielen, Karsten; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Andersen, Ingelise;

    2015-01-01

    Registry to follow 7372 women aged 30-60, who were in the labour force when diagnosed with breast cancer in 2000-06 and survived at least three years. Controls were 213,276 women without breast cancer. Inequalities in employment outlook were estimated as interaction effects in linear regression between...... educational attainment and disease on employment. RESULTS: There is significant interaction between education and breast cancer, but it is only marginally affected by including stage and comorbidity in the regression models. Education, breast cancer stage, and comorbidity all have strong effects on later...... employment, and a considerable amount of the educational effect is mediated by comorbidity and pre-cancer labour market participation and income. CONCLUSION: The result of the study is negative in the sense that the stronger effect of breast cancer on employment among low-educated compared to highly educated...

  13. Simultaneous Imaging of Two Different Cancer Biomarkers Using Aptamer-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghwan Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying gene expression profile in a single cancer cell is important because multiple genes are associated with cancer development. Quantum dots (QDs have been utilized as biological probes for imaging and detection. QDs display specific optical and electrical properties that depend on their size that can be applied for imaging and sensing applications. In this study, simultaneous imaging of the cancer biomarkers, tenascin-C and nucleolin, was performed using two types of aptamer-conjugated QDs. The simultaneous imaging of these two different cancer markers in three cancer cell lines was reliable and cell line-specific. Current requirements for cancer imaging technologies include the need for simple preparation methods and the ability to detect multiple cancer biomarkers and evaluate their intracellular localizations. The method employed in this study is a feasible solution to these requirements.

  14. Cancer stage, comorbidity, and socioeconomic differences in the effect of cancer on labour market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielen, Karsten; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Andersen, Ingelise;

    2015-01-01

    Registry to follow 7372 women aged 30-60, who were in the labour force when diagnosed with breast cancer in 2000-06 and survived at least three years. Controls were 213,276 women without breast cancer. Inequalities in employment outlook were estimated as interaction effects in linear regression between...... employment, and a considerable amount of the educational effect is mediated by comorbidity and pre-cancer labour market participation and income. CONCLUSION: The result of the study is negative in the sense that the stronger effect of breast cancer on employment among low-educated compared to highly educated...

  15. Quadruple Cancers of Non-producing Multiple Myeloma, Cholangiocellular Carcinoma, and Two Different Thyroid Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Kuroda, Junya; Sasaki, Nana; Kiyota, Miki; Tatekawa, Shotaro; Tsukamoto, Taku; Maegawa, Saori; Chinen, Yoshiaki; Shimura, Yuji; Nagoshi, Hisao; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Horiike, Shigeo; Tando, So; Fushiki, Shinji; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with non-producing multiple myeloma (MM) with three additional concomitant solid tumors that were identified by postmortem autopsy. The disease was refractory to anti-MM therapy including bortezomib and lenalidomide, and he finally died of bacterial pneumonia with diffuse alveolar damage 8 months after the diagnosis. An autopsy revealed that he was also affected by three other solid cancers, cholangiocellular carcinoma, medullary thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid cancer that were clinically asymptomatic and remained undiagnosed before death. A review of the literature suggests that primary quadruple cancers including MM are extremely rare. PMID:27150876

  16. Differences in Colorectal Cancer Outcomes by Race and Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawk, Rima; Abner, Adrian; Ashford, Alicestine; Brown, Clyde Perry

    2015-12-22

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer among African American women and the third most common cancer for African American men. The mortality rate from CRC is highest among African Americans compared to any other racial or ethnic group. Much of the disparity in mortality is likely due to diagnosis at later stages of the disease, which could result from unequal access to screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of race and insurance status on CRC outcomes among CRC patients. Data were drawn from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of receiving treatment after adjusting for insurance, race, and other variables. Cox proportional hazard models were used to measure the risk of CRC death after adjusting for sociodemographic and tumor characteristics when associating race and insurance with CRC-related death. Blacks were diagnosed at more advanced stages of disease than whites and had an increased risk of death from both colon and rectal cancers. Lacking insurance was associated with an increase in CRC related-deaths. Findings from this study could help profile and target patients with the greatest disparities in CRC health outcomes.

  17. BRCA1- and BRCA2-Associated Ovarian Cancer: different diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.L.H. Vencken (Peggy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Ovarian cancer will develop in approximately 1.4% of the Dutch women accounting for approximately 1250 new patients yearly in the Netherlands, which is comparable with the incidence in other Western world countries. The disease mainly develops in women of 40 years of ag

  18. Comparison of Different Promoter Methylation Assays in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karijn P. M. Suijkerbuijk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Promoter hypermethylation has emerged as a promising cancer biomarker. Currently, a large variety of quantitative and non-quantitative techniques is used to measure methylation in clinical specimens. Here we directly compared three commonly used methylation assays and assessed the influence of tissue fixation, target sequence location and the amount of DNA on their performance.

  19. Assessment of quality of life for the patients with cervical cancer at different clinical stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xie; Fang-Hui Zhao; Si-Han Lu; He Huang; Xiong-Fei Pan; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao

    2013-01-01

    With improved overall survival of cervical cancer patients,the importance of the quality of life (QOL)is increasingly recognized.This study was conducted to compare the QOL of women with different stage cervical cancer before and after treatment to facilitate improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment.We used the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) to collect QOL information.Based on SF-36,we interviewed cervical cancer patients at West China Second Affiliated Hospital and Sichuan Cancer Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011.A total of 92 patients with precancerous lesions,93 with early cancer,and 35 with advanced cancer responded to our survey.Average physical component summary (PCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups at every time point (P < 0.05).Average mental component summary (MCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups after treatment (P < 0.05).Average PCS and MCS scores increased gradually from the pretreatment to posttreatment period for patients with precancerous lesions.However,they reached the lowest at 1 month after treatment for patients with early and advanced cancers and rebounded between 1and 6 months after treatment.Our results indicate that patients with precancerous lesions and early cervical cancer show better overall QOL than do those with advanced cervical cancer.Additionally,patients with early cancer recover more quickly than do those with advanced cancer in terms of both physical and mental functions.Thus,early detection and treatment initiatives may improve the QOL for patients with precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

  20. Review on adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer - why do treatment guidelines differ so much?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Laurids Ø; Qvortrup, Camilla; Pfeiffer, Per;

    2015-01-01

    /oxaliplatin. METHODS: A review of the literature was made identifying 24 randomized controlled trials on adjuvant treatment of rectal cancer based on about 10 000 patients. The trials were subdivided into a number of clinically relevant subgroups. RESULTS: As regards patients treated with preoperative (chemo...... of adjuvant chemotherapy and if adjuvant colon cancer studies are considered transferrable to rectal cancer patients regardless of the molecular differences....

  1. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY OF MADHUCA INDICA AGAINST DIFFERENT HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

    OpenAIRE

    Satish K. Verma et al.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a public health problem all over the world. Large number of plants and their isolated constituents has been shown to potential anticancer activity. Ethanolic whole plant extract of Madhuca indica showed in vitro cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines such as lung, neuroblastima, and colon. There was no growth of inhibition recorded against liver cancer cell line. Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB) assay was done for in vitro cytotoxicity test assay. The in vitro cytotoxicity...

  2. Morphological differences between circulating tumor cells from prostate cancer patients and cultured prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Park

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cell (CTC enumeration promises to be an important predictor of clinical outcome for a range of cancers. Established CTC enumeration methods primarily rely on affinity capture of cell surface antigens, and have been criticized for underestimation of CTC numbers due to antigenic bias. Emerging CTC capture strategies typically distinguish these cells based on their assumed biomechanical characteristics, which are often validated using cultured cancer cells. In this study, we developed a software tool to investigate the morphological properties of CTCs from patients with castrate resistant prostate cancer and cultured prostate cancer cells in order to establish whether the latter is an appropriate model for the former. We isolated both CTCs and cultured cancer cells from whole blood using the CellSearch® system and examined various cytomorphological characteristics. In contrast with cultured cancer cells, CTCs enriched by CellSearch® system were found to have significantly smaller size, larger nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, and more elongated shape. These CTCs were also found to exhibit significantly more variability than cultured cancer cells in nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and shape profile.

  3. Oral and pharyngeal cancer : Analysis of patient delay at different tumor stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouha, XDR; Tromp, DM; Hordijk, GJ; Winnubst, JAM; de Leeuw, JRJ

    2005-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to examine which factors are related to patient delay in a cohort of consecutive patients with pharyngeal cancer and oral cancer and to determine whether the different stages of patient delay (ie, appraisal, illness, behavioral, and scheduling) were related to d

  4. Comparison of Protein Expression Profiles of Different Stages of Lymph Nodes Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Lee, Chu-Ai Lim, Yew-Teik Cheong, Manjit Singh, Lay-Harn Gam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Breast cancer metastasis primarily happens through lymphatic system, where the extent of lymph node metastasis is the major factor influencing staging, prognosis and therapeutic decision of the disease. We aimed to study the protein expression changes in different N (regional lymph nodes stages of breast cancer. Protein expression profiles of breast cancerous and adjacent normal tissues were mapped by proteomics approach that comprises of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. Calreticulin and tropomyosin alpha 3 chains were the common up-regulated proteins in N0, N1 and N2 stages of breast cancer. Potential biomarker for each N stage was HSP 70 for N0, 80 k protein H precursor and PDI for N1 stage while 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein was found useful for N2 stage. In addition, significant up-regulation of PDI A3 was detected only in the metastasized breast cancer. The up-regulation expression of these proteins in cancerous tissues can potentially use as indicators for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of different N stages of breast cancer.

  5. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder Chris JJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK and South Africa (SA, in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy.

  6. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  7. Proximal gastric cancer: lymph node metastatic patterns according to different T stages dictate surgical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Wu; Liu Yuyi; Ye Jinning; Peng Jianjun; He Weiling; Chen Jianhui; Chen Chuangqi

    2014-01-01

    Background As a common form of gastric cancer migration,lymph node metastasis largely affects the surgical treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer.Surgery is the fundamental curative option for gastric cancer that varies depending on different stages.The study aimed to compare the clinicopathological characteristics and lymph node metastatic patterns in patients of proximal gastric cancer with different T stages and investigate a reasonable radical gastrectomy approach in terms of the range of lymphadenectomy for proximal gastric cancer.Methods In our retrospective study,the data of 328 patients of proximal gastric cancer with different T stages were analyzed.By comparing the differences of lymph node metastatic rate and ratio,we investigated the clinicopathological characteristics and metastatic patterns of lymph nodes.Also,we were especially interested in the differences in survival rates between patients with and without No.5 and 6 group metastasis with the same TNM stage.Results The overall lymph node metastatic rate and ratio of advanced proximal gastric cancer were 73.4% and 23.3%,respectively.The tumors of different T stages were statistically significant in size and differentiation degree (P <0.05),multivariate analysis showed that the depth of tumor invasion was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis in proximal gastric cancer (RR,12.025; 95% CI,2.326 to 62.157; P=0.003).The overall survival rate of patients with No.5,6 group lymph node metastasis and those without was significantly different,but the differences in survival rates between patients with and without No.5 and 6 group metastasis with the same TNM stage were not statistically significant.Conclusions Different T stages in proximal gastric cancer showed different patterns and characteristics of lymph node metastasis.D2 lymphadenectomy in patients with early gastric cancer had little survival benefit because metastasis to level 2 nodes was rare.Therefore the range of the

  8. Assessment of breast cancer tumour size using six different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Uder, Michael; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Adamietz, Boris [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Haeberle, Lothar; Fasching, Peter A.; Bani, Mayada R.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W. [Erlangen University Hospital, University Breast Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen (Germany); Wachter, David [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Tumour size estimates using mammography (MG), conventional ultrasound (US), compound imaging (CI) and real-time elastography (RTE) were compared with histopathological specimen sizes. The largest diameters of 97 malignant breast lesions were measured. Two US and CI measurements were made: US1/CI1 (hypoechoic nucleus only) and US2/CI2 (hypoechoic nucleus plus hyperechoic halo). Measurements were compared with histopathological tumour sizes using linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. Size prediction was best with ultrasound (US/CI/RTE: R{sup 2} 0.31-0.36); mammography was poorer (R{sup 2} = 0.19). The most accurate method was US2, while US1 and CI1 were poorest. Bland-Altman plots showed better size estimation with US2, CI2 and RTE, with low variation, while mammography showed greatest variability. Smaller tumours were better assessed than larger ones. CI2 and US2 performed best for ductal tumours and RTE for lobular cancers. Tumour size prediction accuracy did not correlate significantly with breast density, but on MG tumours were more difficult to detect in high-density tissue. The size of ductal tumours is best predicted with US2 and CI2, while for lobular cancers RTE is best. Hyperechoic tumour surroundings should be included in US and CI measurements and RTE used as an additional technique in the clinical staging process. (orig.)

  9. Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Haisan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS, tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P<0.002. Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments’ variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy.

  10. Breast cancer with different prognostic characteristics developing in Danish women using hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, A T; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the risk of developing prognostic different types of breast cancer in women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A total of 10 874 postmenopausal Danish Nurses were followed since 1993. Incident breast cancer cases and histopathological information were...... retrieved through the National Danish registries. The follow-up ended on 31 December 1999. Breast cancer developed in 244 women, of whom 172 were invasive ductal carcinomas. Compared to never users, current users of HRT had an increased risk of a hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, but a neutral risk...... of receptor-negative breast cancer, relative risk (RR) 3.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.27-4.77) and RR 0.99 (95% CI: 0.42-2.36), respectively (P for difference=0.013). The risk of being diagnosed with low histological malignancy grade was higher than high malignancy grade with RR 4.13 (95% CI...

  11. Different BAG-1 isoforms have distinct functions in modulating chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu LIU; Zhuomin WANG; Yun BAI; Min WANG; Ying LI; Sen WEI; Qinghua ZHOU; Jun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:BAG-1 is a multifunctional anti-apoptotic gene with four isoforms,and different BAG-1 isoforms have different anti-apoptotic functions.In this study,we transfected BAG-1 isoforms into the human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER nega-tive) and MCF-7 (ER positive) to study their effect on apoptosis with or without estrogens.Methods: The constructed recombinant expression vectors carrying individual BAG-1 isoforms was used to transfect human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER negative) and MCF-7 (ER positive).After stable cell lines were made,a variety of apoptosis-inducing agents,including doxorubicin,docetaxel,and 5-FU,was used to treat these cell lines with or without estrogen to test the role of BAG-1.The mechanism by which BAG-1 affected the function of Bcl-2 was exploredby using the cycloheximide chase assay.Results: The BAG-1 p50 and p46 isoforms significantly enhanced the resistance to apoptosis in both cell lines according to flow cytometry analysis.BAG-1 p33 and p29 failed to protect the transfected cells from apoptosis.The cell viability assay showed that only BAG-1 p50,but not p46,p33,or p29,increased estrogen-dependent function in ER-positive cell line MCF-7.Only BAG-1 p50 dramatically increased its anti-apoptotic ability in the presence of estrogen,while estrogen has very little effect on the anti-apoptotic ability of other BAG-1 isoforms.In the detection of the expression of K-ras,Hsp70,cytochrome c,Raf-1,ER-α,and Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells by Western blot,only Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased in MCF-7 cells transfected with BAG-1 p50 and p46,respectively.Furthermore,the cycloheximide chase assay indicated that the degradation of Bcl-2 protein was extended in the BAG-1 p50 and p46 transfected MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: Distinct isoforrns of BAG-1 have different anti-apoptotic functions in breast cancer cells,and that the BAG-1 p50 isoform can potentiate the role of estrogen in ER-positive breast cancer.

  12. From Biology to Targeted Cancer Treatment and Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li MAO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cancer is a complex disease involving accumulation of multiple molecular abnormalities during a long period of time. Because the differences in tim-ing and types of abnormalities, together with differences in inherited genetic background of individuals, patients with even same type cancer may experi- ence dramatically different clinical presentations and outcomes.

  13. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  14. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries.The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians.Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference,this alone cannot fully explain the-lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries,nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States.Soy food consumption,more popular in Asian populations,is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer.Prostatespecific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status.Other biomarkers,such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA,may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone.Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West,and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genomewide association studies.Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity.Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions,respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione Stransferase Pi (GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis,aggressiveness,and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown.Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned.In this review,the differences in PSA screening practice,reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer,and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are discussed.

  15. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1; as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and

  16. KRAS Gene Mutations and Gender Differences in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy I. Vodolazhskiy; Yuriy A. Gevorkyan; Natalia V. Soldatkina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and spectrum of KRAS mutations in men and women with colorectal cancer (CRC), and an impact of KRAS-mutation status on the clinical and morphological features of CRC. The study included 303 patients (168/55.4% women and 135/44.6% men) with CRC T2-4N0-2M0-1. We defined 7 KRAS SNP-mutations (G12D, G12A, G12R, G12C, G12S, G12V and G13D) located within codons 12 and 13 using Bio-Rad real-time thermal cyclers CFX96 and Real-Time-PCR- KRAS-7M K...

  17. Right-side and left-side colon cancer follow different pathways to relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Kerry M.; Hummon, Amanda B.; Buechler, Steven

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cancer of the ascending (right-side) colon is different from cancer of the descending (left-side) colon at the molecular level. Using microarray data from 102 right-side colon carcinomas and 95 left-side colon carcinomas we show that different pathways dominate progression to relapse in right-side and left-side colon cancer. Right-side tumors at a high risk for relapse exhibit elevated expression of cell cycle control genes and elevated Wnt signaling. On the oth...

  18. A p53 genetic polymorphism of gastric cancer: Difference between early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Young Yi; Woon Jung Lee

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of the polymorphism of p53 codon 72 in early gastric cancer (EGC) and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) in Korean patients.METHODS:DNA was extracted from blood samples of gastric cancer patients (n = 291) and controls (n=216).tn the p53 codon 72 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP.RESULTS: Patients with gastric cancer had a significantly higher frequency of the homozygous proline (Pro) allele than the control (P=0.032). Patients with AGC had a significantly higher frequency of the Arg/Arg (arginine)allele (P=0.038) than EGC and a similar Pro/Pro allele.The signet ring cell type had a higher frequency of the Pro/Pro allele than other types (P=0.031). The Pro/Pro genotype carries a 3.9-fold increased risk of developing gastric cancer (95% CI,1.3-15.4,P=0.039)when compared to Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro genotypes and to develop EGC is a 5.25 fold increased risk (95% CI,1.8-19.6,P=0.021).CONCLUSION: The Pro/Pro genotype of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism carries a higher risk for gastric cancer in general and is also associated with a much higher risk for EGC than AGC.

  19. Urban-rural differences in male cancer incidence and mortality in the Umbria region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Stracci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to verify the existence of different rates of cancer incidence and mortality in males in the urban and rural populations of Umbria and to formulate hypotheses as to why this occurs. Methods: Directly age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR and age-adjusted death rates (AADR were calculated for 1998-2002 and the expected number of rural cases (standardized incidence ratios-SIRs and standardized mortality ratios-SMRs was determined by indirect standardization using urban incidence and mortality. Results: Urban zones have higher AAIR’s for the most common cancer sites. Significantly lower SIRs, in rural areas, were shown for skin melanoma, prostate and bladder cancers and a significantly lower SIR was also determined for the combination of all cancer sites. Lower AADRs in rural areas were demonstrated for the most common cancer sites and significant low SMRs were shown for lung cancer and skin melanoma. Prostate cancer incidence is significantly higher in urban areas whereas the mortality rate is slightly higher in rural municipalities probably due to the effects of the opportunistic screening widely available in Umbria, particularly in zones near diagnostic services. A very similar pattern was found for urinary bladder cancer; this could be related to the association between prostate and bladder cancer sites. Both incidence and mortality from melanoma are significantly lower in rural areas, this may be due to the difficulty in accessing diagnostic services or/and to different occupational exposure patterns. Conclusion: It would appear in Umbria that differences in health services utilization continue to exist. In particular, our results are compatible with a lower diffusion of preventive activities for prostate cancer and skin melanoma in rural areas.

  20. Effects of different phases of an invitational screening program on breast cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Johanna; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Anttila, Ahti; Sarkeala, Tytti; Virkkunen, Hanna; Hakulinen, Timo

    2006-08-15

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of separate phases of an invitational screening program on breast cancer incidence at different ages. Our database included detailed municipality-specific information about invitations for mass-screening for breast cancer in 267 Finnish municipalities from time period 1987-2001. The age range was 50-74. For this study, the program was divided into 7 separate phases, and those that had not been invited served as a baseline. The incidence rate was modeled using Poisson regression. To study the differences between age groups within each program phase, an interaction term between age group and phase of screening was included in the model. The modeling was done separately for localized breast cancers, nonlocalized breast cancers and all stages combined. For localized cancers, the risk compared to the noninvited increased during the first years of the 2-year screening rounds in all age groups, and declined below the baseline during the second years. This effect was larger during the first round compared to the subsequent ones. In nonlocalized cancers, a clear incidence peak was detected only during the first year of the first round. A decreasing post screening effect was detected in nonlocalized cancers in women aged 60-69, but not in localized cancers. Cumulating over ages 50-74, extra incidence caused by regular screening in localized cancers was 5.2% if the program was continued up to age 59, and 28.0% if it continued up to age 69. Corresponding figures for nonlocalized cancers were decreases of 19.8% and 20.9%, respectively. PMID:16550598

  1. Gene expression profile differences in gastric cancer, pericancerous epithelium and normal gastric mucosa by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Ding Yu; Shen-Hua Xu; Hang-Zhou Mou; Zhi-Ming Jiang; Chi-Hong Zhu; Xiang-Lin Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the difference of gene expression in gastric cancer (T), pericancerous epithelium (P) and normal tissue of gastric mucosa (C), and to screen an associated novel gene in early gastric carcinogenesis by oligonudeotide microarray.METHODS: U133A (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) gene chip was used to detect the gene expression profile difference in T, P and C, respectively. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the detected results.RESULTS: When gastric cancer was compared with normal gastric mucosa, 766 genes were found, with a difference of more than four times in expression levels. Of the 766 genes,530 were up-regulated (Signal Log Ratio [SLR]>2), and 236 were down-regulated (SLR<-2). When pericancerous epithelium was compared with normal gastric mucosa, 64genes were found, with a difference of more than four times in expression levels. Of the 64 genes, 50 were up-regulated (SLR>2), and 14 were down-regulated (SLR<-2). Compared with normal gastric mucosa, a total of 143 genes with a difference in expression levels (more than four times, either in cancer or in pericancerous epithelium) were found in gastric cancer (T) and pericancerous epithelium (P). Of the 143 genes, 108 were up-regulated (SLR>2), and 35were down-regulated (SLR<-2).CONCLUSION: To apply a gene chip could find 143 genes associated with the genes of gastric cancer in pericancerous epithelium, although there were no pathological changes in the tissue slices. More interesting, six genes of pericancerous epithelium were up-regulated in comparison with genes of gastric cancer and three genes were down-regulated in comparison with genes of gastric cancer. It is suggested that these genes may be related to the carcinogenesis and development of early gastric cancer.

  2. Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. / Alan Blyth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blyth, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. Barbara Bonney, Randi Stene, Hakan Hagegard, Ruth Tellefsen, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi." CD 437 519 - 2GH

  3. The Effects of Dramatization on English Literature Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周思菡; 周思蕊

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the role that the dramatization of English literature plays in addressing two major difficulties in English literary work comprehension for intermediate English learners in China, namely the linguistic difficulty and the cultural misunderstanding. By taking the dramatization of British writer Jane Austin’s masterpiece Pride and Prejudice as a case study, the first part of the essay examines the role of dramatization in tackling linguistic difficulties based on the interactive reading model de-veloped by David E. Rumelhart(1977) while the second part analyzes how an integral framework for understanding target culture is constructed through the process of dramatization with a reference to Galloway’s(1992) four-stage approach to a cultural read-ing of authentic materials.

  4. Theodramatic Rehearsal: Fighting Self-Deception through the Dramatic Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Vaden

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to appropriate the insights of dramatic theology for Christian psychology and soul care. According to Kevin Vanhoozer, Scripture is the ‘script’ for human beings’ fitting participation in the acts and deeds of God in the world (i.e., ‘theodrama’. Keeping with this dramatic paradigm, the author will explore what ‘rehearsal’ might entail by drawing from a branch of psychotherapy called ‘psychodrama.’ The main question to be addressed in this appropriation of dramatic theology is, “How might dramatic rehearsal combat self-deception?” The author will only begin to answer this question, but in the attempt it is hoped that further reflection and clarity will be induced.

  5. Repeated occurrence of second primary lung cancer at different sites in trachea: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Park, Yun Ji; Gang, Su Jin; Chung, Myung Ja; Kim, So Ri

    2015-05-01

    Multiple or second primary lung cancers can develop at any sites in the lung with same or different histologic types, synchronously and/or metachronously. In case of metachronous occurrence of the second primary lung cancer, it is easy to confuse with the primary lung cancer as a recurrence of precedent lung malignancy treated successfully or metastasis. Previous reports have demonstrated that majority of the second primary lung malignancies have same histologic types regardless of their developing time and location. However, the repeated occurrence of the second primary lung malignancy, in particular with the different histologic features, is a very rare condition.A 62-year-old male who had past history of squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and the recurrence of lung malignancy on the trachea, which was also resected successfully visited our hospital due to blood tinged sputum. Evaluation using bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography revealed the tracheal mass looked similar grossly to the previous recurred tracheal mass that was resected surgically. Unexpectedly, the newly developed tracheal mass was confirmed as small cell lung cancer, the different histologic type from previous ones.In this report, we describe an interesting case of subsequent occurrence of second primary lung cancers showing histologic shifting at different sites in trachea, suggesting that it is important for physician to make an effort to identify the histologic characteristics of second primary lung cancers for the correct and adequate treatment no matter what they exhibit similar gross morphology.

  6. Decreased glucose uptake by hyperglycemia is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chae Kyun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Yong Jin; Hong, Mee Kyoung; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    To clarify the difference in glucose uptake between human cancer cells and monocytes, we studied ({sup 18}F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in three human colon cancer cell lines (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5), one human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H522), and human peripheral blood monocytes. The FDG uptake of both cancer cells and monocytes was increased in glucose-free medium, but decreased in the medium containing 16.7 mM glucose (hyperglycemic). The level of Glut1 mRNA decreased in human colon cancer cells and NCI-H522 under hyperglycemic condition. Glut1 protein expression was also decreased in the four human cancer cell lines under hyperglycemic condition, whereas it was consistently undetectable in monocytes. SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and NCI-H522 showed a similar level of hexokinase activity (7.5-10.8 mU/mg), while SNU-C5 and moncytes showed lower range of hexokinase activity (4.3-6.5 mU/mg). These data suggest that glucose uptake is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes.

  7. Concentration of Cd, Pb, Hg, and Se in Different Parts of Human Breast Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality between women in the world. Metals involved in environmental toxicology are closely related to tumor growth and cancer. On the other hand, some metals such as selenium have anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study is to determine the concentration of cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in separated parts of tegmen, tumor, tumor adiposity, and tegmen adiposity of 14 breast cancer tissues which have been analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption (AA-670 and ICP-OES (ULTIMA 2CE. Our results show that Se and Hg have maximum and minimum concentration, respectively. Statistical analysis reveals no significant differences between metal accumulations in different parts of cancer tissues (P>0.05 and this observation might be due to the close relation of separated parts of fatty breast organ. Thus, we could conclude that a high level of these heavy metals is accumulated in Iranian cancerous breasts and their presence can be one of the reasons of cancer appearance.

  8. Haralick texture analysis of prostate MRI: utility for differentiating non-cancerous prostate from prostate cancer and differentiating prostate cancers with different Gleason scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibmer, Andreas; Hricak, Hedvig; Sala, Evis; Vargas, Hebert Alberto [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York City, NY (United States); Gondo, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Eastham, James [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Urology, New York City, NY (United States); Veeraraghavan, Harini; Fehr, Duc [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York City, NY (United States); Zheng, Junting; Goldman, Debra; Moskowitz, Chaya [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York City, NY (United States); Fine, Samson W.; Reuter, Victor E. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York City, NY (United States)

    2015-10-15

    To investigate Haralick texture analysis of prostate MRI for cancer detection and differentiating Gleason scores (GS). One hundred and forty-seven patients underwent T2- weighted (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI. Cancers ≥0.5 ml and non-cancerous peripheral (PZ) and transition (TZ) zone tissue were identified on T2WI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, using whole-mount pathology as reference. Texture features (Energy, Entropy, Correlation, Homogeneity, Inertia) were extracted and analysed using generalized estimating equations. PZ cancers (n = 143) showed higher Entropy and Inertia and lower Energy, Correlation and Homogeneity compared to non-cancerous tissue on T2WI and ADC maps (p-values: <.0001-0.008). In TZ cancers (n = 43) we observed significant differences for all five texture features on the ADC map (all p-values: <.0001) and for Correlation (p = 0.041) and Inertia (p = 0.001) on T2WI. On ADC maps, GS was associated with higher Entropy (GS 6 vs. 7: p = 0.0225; 6 vs. >7: p = 0.0069) and lower Energy (GS 6 vs. 7: p = 0.0116, 6 vs. >7: p = 0.0039). ADC map Energy (p = 0.0102) and Entropy (p = 0.0019) were significantly different in GS ≤3 + 4 versus ≥4 + 3 cancers; ADC map Entropy remained significant after controlling for the median ADC (p = 0.0291). Several Haralick-based texture features appear useful for prostate cancer detection and GS assessment. (orig.)

  9. Quality of GP-care as perceived by cancer patients in different phases of the illness.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopman, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health care for cancer patients, particularly follow-up and aftercare, is more and more considered a task of general practitioners (GPs). It is therefore important to know how cancer patients in general, and in different phases of the illness, experience the quality of GP-care. Methods: We asked (by means of a survey) a heterogeneous group of 353 cancer patients of the Dutch ‘Panel Living with Cancer’ (post diagnosis time-span: 1-15 years) how they had experienced specific aspects...

  10. Gender differences among young adult cancer patients: a study of blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Gillham, David

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has increasing relevance and practical use as a tool to support cancer care. For example, health support Web sites are now widely used to connect specific groups of patients who may otherwise have remained isolated, and understanding their health-related online behaviors will help in the development of more effective health support Web sites. This article examined blogs written by young adults affected by cancer and in particular examined the gender differences in these blog entries through content analysis. The results showed there is little difference in blog content between genders. This suggests that the blog environment could lessen the gender-typical behaviors often expected by society and may provide an outlet for young adult cancer patients to more freely share their cancer-related experiences, at the same time providing an opportunity for social connection. This is particularly significant for male patients who are known to inhibit their emotions as well as the expression of their health concerns.

  11. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Pan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

  12. Taming Self-Organization Dynamics to Dramatically Control Porous Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ronan; Sader, John E; Boland, John J

    2016-03-22

    We demonstrate templating of functional materials with unexpected and intricate micro- and nanostructures by controlling the condensation, packing, and evaporation of water droplets on a polymer solution. Spontaneous evaporation of a polymer solution induces cooling of the liquid surface and water microdroplet condensation from the ambient vapor. These droplets pack together and act as a template to imprint an entangled polymer film. This breath figure (BF) phenomenon is an example of self-organization that involves the long-range ordering of droplets. Equilibrium-based analysis provides many insights into contact angles and drop stability of individual drops, but the BF phenomenon remains poorly understood thus far, preventing translation to real applications. Here we investigate the dynamics of this phenomenon to separate out the competing influences and then introduce a modulation scheme to ultimately manipulate the water vapor-liquid equilibrium independently from the solvent evaporation. This approach to BF control provides insights into the mechanism, a rationale for microstructure design, and evidence for the benefits of dynamical control of self-organization systems. We finally present dramatically different porous architectures from this approach reminiscent of microscale Petri dishes, conical flasks, and test tubes. PMID:26828573

  13. Persistent demographic differences in colorectal cancer screening utilization despite Medicare reimbursement

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuter William; Ko Cynthia W; Baldwin Laura-Mae

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal cancer screening is widely recommended, but often under-utilized. In addition, significant demographic differences in screening utilization exist. Insurance coverage may be one factor influencing utilization of colorectal cancer screening tests. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of claims for outpatient services for Washington state Medicare beneficiaries in calendar year 2000. We determined the proportion of beneficiaries utilizing screening fecal o...

  14. Genes dysregulated to different extent or oppositely in estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianxiao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Directly comparing gene expression profiles of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor-negative (ER- breast cancers cannot determine whether differentially expressed genes between these two subtypes result from dysregulated expression in ER+ cancer or ER- cancer versus normal controls, and thus would miss critical information for elucidating the transcriptomic difference between the two subtypes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarray datasets from TCGA, we classified the genes dysregulated in both ER+ and ER- cancers versus normal controls into two classes: (i genes dysregulated in the same direction but to a different extent, and (ii genes dysregulated to opposite directions, and then validated the two classes in RNA-sequencing datasets of independent cohorts. We showed that the genes dysregulated to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers enriched in glycerophospholipid and polysaccharide metabolic processes, while the genes dysregulated to a larger extent in ER- cancers than in ER+ cancers enriched in cell proliferation. Phosphorylase kinase and enzymes of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor biosynthesis were upregulated to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers, whereas glycogen synthase and phospholipase A2 were downregulated to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers. We also found that the genes oppositely dysregulated in the two subtypes significantly enriched with known cancer genes and tended to closely collaborate with the cancer genes. Furthermore, we showed the possibility that these oppositely dysregulated genes could contribute to carcinogenesis of ER+ and ER- cancers through rewiring different subpathways. CONCLUSIONS: GPI-anchor biosynthesis and glycogenolysis were elevated and hydrolysis of phospholipids was depleted to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers. Our findings indicate that the genes oppositely dysregulated in the two subtypes are potential

  15. Do stage of disease, comorbidity or access to treatment explain socioeconomic differences in survival after ovarian cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else Helene; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Høgdall, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic disparities in survival after ovarian cancer can be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, treatment or lifestyle factors. METHODS: In the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database we identified 2873 cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2010. From this data...... models. RESULTS: Educational level was weakly associated with cancer stage. Short education, lower income and living without a partner were related to poorer survival after ovarian cancer. Among women with early cancer stage, HR (95% CI) for death was 1.75 (1.20-2.54) in shorter compared to longer...... educated women. After adjustment for comorbid conditions, cancer stage, tumour histology, operation status and lifestyle factors, socioeconomic differences in survival persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic disparities in survival after ovarian cancer were to some extent, but not fully explained by...

  16. Racial Differences in Diffusion of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobran, Ewan K; Chen, Ronald C; Overman, Robert; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; O'Brien, Jonathon; Sturmer, Til; Sheets, Nathan C; Goldin, Gregg H; Penn, Dolly C; Godley, Paul A; Carpenter, William R

    2016-09-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), an innovative treatment option for prostate cancer, has rapidly diffused over the past decade. To inform our understanding of racial disparities in prostate cancer treatment and outcomes, this study compared diffusion of IMRT in African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) prostate cancer patients during the early years of IMRT diffusion using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. A retrospective cohort of 947 AA and 10,028 CA patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer from 2002 through 2006, who were treated with either IMRT or non-IMRT as primary treatment within 1 year of diagnoses was constructed. Logistic regression was used to examine potential differences in diffusion of IMRT in AA and CA patients, while adjusting for socioeconomic and clinical covariates. A significantly smaller proportion of AA compared with CA patients received IMRT for localized prostate cancer (45% vs. 53%, p significance, as time and factors associated with race (socioeconomic, geographic, and tumor related factors) explained the preponderance of variance in use of IMRT. Further research examining improved access to innovative cancer treatment and technologies is essential to reducing racial disparities in cancer care. PMID:25657192

  17. Evaluation of the impact on different types of human cancer cell of lichen secondary compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Özenoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, cancer is appearing as a major unsolved health problem. Basicly, surgery, chemotherapy and hormone therapy models are used in the treatment of cancer. Basic procedures and drugs used in the treatment of cancer are thought to be insufficient. These treatments have some side effects and they take a long time. Due to the problems encountered in the treatment of cancer in the recent years, alternative methods of treatment are being researched. For this purpose the effect of herbal, synthetic and fungus organisms against various types of cancer is being investigated. As a result of these investigations, lichens and their secondary metabolites are also proposed to be used as an alternative method in cancer treatment. Lichens are a symbiotic association of a fungus and a photosynthetic partner. These metabolites were identified as fatty acids, lactons, zeorin, pulvic acid, petroleum, depsids, depsidons and antrokinon derivatives. Impact of lichen secondary compound studies on different human cancer types, aims to find a promising drug Candidate molecule.

  18. Couples dealing with cancer : Role and gender differences regarding psychological distress and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, M; Buunk, BP; Kuijer, RG; Wobbes, T; Sanderman, R

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to further knowledge on gender and role (i.e. patient versus partner) differences in psychological distress and quality of life as a consequence of dealing with cancer. There is some evidence that being the patient or the caregiver makes more difference for men than

  19. Couples dealing with cancer; role and gender differences regarding psychological distress and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, M.; Buunk, B.P.; Kuijer, R.G.; Wobbes, T.; Sanderman, R.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to further knowledge on gender and role (i.e. patient versus partner) differences in psychological distress and quality of life as a consequence of dealing with cancer. There is some evidence that being the patient or the caregiver makes more difference for men than

  20. Referrals of cancer versus non-cancer patients to palliative care consult team : do they differ ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cantin B.

    2010-01-01

    Depuis la fin du XXème siècle, les soins palliatifs se sont développés essentiellement autour de patients souffrant de cancer en phase terminale. Or depuis une dizaine d'années, un nombre croissant d'études rapporte que les patients souffrant de maladies non cancéreuses avancées expérimentent également une variété de problèmes, de dimension physique, psychosociale ou spirituelle. Ces problèmes peuvent avoir un fort impact sur leur qualité de vie. Malheureusement, seule une minorité de patient...

  1. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Zhifen; Kang, Deyong; li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections.

  2. High frequency and allele-specific differences of BRCA1 founder mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer patients from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, N V; Antonenkova, N N; Rogov, Y I; Karstens, J H; Hillemanns, P; Dörk, T

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer and ovarian cancer are common malignancies in Belarus accounting for about 3500 and 800 new cases per year, respectively. For breast cancer, the rates and age of onset appear to vary significantly in regions differentially affected by the Chernobyl accident. We assessed the frequency and distribution of three BRCA1 founder mutations 5382insC, 4153delA and Cys61Gly in two hospital-based series of 1945 unselected breast cancer patients and of 201 unselected ovarian cancer patients from Belarus as well as in 1019 healthy control females from the same population. Any of these mutations were identified in 4.4% of the breast cancer patients, 26.4% of the ovarian cancer patients and 0.5% of the controls. In the breast cancer patients, BRCA1 mutations were strongly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, with oestrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours and with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, although only 35% of the identified BRCA1 mutation carriers had such a family history. There were no marked differences in the regional distribution of BRCA1 mutations, so that the significant differences in age at diagnosis and family history of breast cancer patients from areas afflicted by the Chernobyl accident could not be explained by BRCA1. We next observed a higher impact and a shifted mutational spectrum of BRCA1 in the series of Byelorussian ovarian cancer patients where the three founder mutations accounted for 26.4% (53/201). While the Cys61Gly mutation appeared underrepresented in ovarian cancer as compared with breast cancer cases from the same population (p = 0.01), the 4153delA mutation made a higher contribution to ovarian cancer than to breast cancer (p Belarus and might have implications for cancer prevention, treatment and genetic counselling in this population.

  3. Stress-Induced Stroke and Stomach Cancer: Sex Differences in Oxygen Saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanova, Maria; Gekalyuk, Artem; Agranovich, Ilana; Khorovodov, Alexander; Rezunbaeva, Victoria; Borisova, Ekaterina; Sharif, Aly Esmat; Navolokin, Nikita; Shuvalova, Ekaterina; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress-related diseases such as stroke and stomach cancer are well established, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. Despite the fact that sexual hormones play an important role in the high resistance of females to harmful effects of stress compared with males, the regulation of oxygenation status can be a potential factor, which might explain sex differences in stress-induced cerebrovascular catastrophes in newborn rats and in mutagens activation in adult rats with stomach cancer. PMID:27526135

  4. Use of fluorescent proteins and color-coded imaging to visualize cancer cells with different genetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins are very bright and available in spectrally-distinct colors, enable the imaging of color-coded cancer cells growing in vivo and therefore the distinction of cancer cells with different genetic properties. Non-invasive and intravital imaging of cancer cells with fluorescent proteins allows the visualization of distinct genetic variants of cancer cells down to the cellular level in vivo. Cancer cells with increased or decreased ability to metastasize can be distinguished in vivo. Gene exchange in vivo which enables low metastatic cancer cells to convert to high metastatic can be color-coded imaged in vivo. Cancer stem-like and non-stem cells can be distinguished in vivo by color-coded imaging. These properties also demonstrate the vast superiority of imaging cancer cells in vivo with fluorescent proteins over photon counting of luciferase-labeled cancer cells.

  5. Racial differences in the anatomical distribution of colorectal cancer:a study of differences between American and Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-Hua Qing; Kai-Yun Rao; Hui-Yong Jiang; Steven D.Wexner

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To compare the racial differences of anatomical distribution of colorectal cancer (CRC) and determine the association of age, gender and time with anatomical distribution between patients from America (white) and China (oriental).METHODS: Data was collected from 690 consecutive patients in Cleveland Clinic Florida, U.S.A. and 870consecutive patients in Nan Fang Hospital affiliated to the First Military Medical University, China over the past 11years from 1990 to 2000. All patients had colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed by histology and underwent surgery.RESULTS: The anatomical subsite distribution of tumor,age and gender were significantly different between white and oriental patients. Lesions in the proximal colon (P<0.001) were found in 36.3 % of white vs 26.0 % of oriental patients and cancers located in the distal colon and rectum in 63.7 % of white and 74 % of oriental patients (P<0.001). There was a trend towards the redistribution from distal colon and rectum to proximal colon in white males over time, especially in older patients (>80 years).No significant change of anatomical distribution occurred in white women and Oriental patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 69.0 years in white patients and 48.3 years in Oriental patients (P<0.001).CONCLUSION: This is the first study comparing the anatomical distribution of colorectal cancers in whites and Chinese patients. White Americans have a higher risk of proximal CRC and this risk increased with time. The proportion of white males with CRC also increased with time.Chinese patients were more likely to have distal CRC and developed the disease at a significantly earlier age than white patients. These findings have enhanced our understanding of the disease process of colorectal cancer in these two races.

  6. Genetic and Prognostic Differences of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer between Elderly Patients and Younger Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Suda, Kenichi; Tomizawa, Kenji; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Simon; Kitahara, Hirokazu; Shimamatsu, Shinichiro; Kohno, Mikihiro; Yoshida, Tsukihisa; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Yatabe, Yasushi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Many elderly patients suffer from lung cancers, but it is not clear if their lung cancers differ from those of younger patients. In this study, we compared genetic and prognostic characteristics of lung cancers of patients aged ≥75 years with those of patients aged ≤ 64 years. In the genetic analysis, we explored 292 surgically treated non-squamous cell lung cancers with known mutational status of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). In the prognostic analysis,...

  7. Ethnic differences in the time trend of female breast cancer incidence: Singapore, 1968 – 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chuen-Seng

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From 1968 to 2002, Singapore experienced an almost three-fold increase in breast cancer incidence. This increase appeared to be different across the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This paper used age-period-cohort (APC modelling, to determine the effects of age at diagnosis, calendar period, and birth cohort on breast cancer incidence for each ethnic group. Methods This study included all breast cancer cases (n = 15,269 in the three ethnic groups, reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968 to 2002 between the ages 25 to 79. Age-specific fertility rates from the Department of Statistics were used to explore the role of fertility. Results In the 1970s, Indian women had the highest age-standardized breast cancer but by the mid-1980s the highest rates were seen among the Chinese. Remarkable differences were seen in the age-specific incidence rates by ethnic groups. After age 49, the incidence rates for the Chinese and Malays leveled off whereas it continued to rise in the Indians. While our analyses provided some evidence that an age-drift model described the trend seen in the Indians, age-period-cohort model and age-cohort model had the best fit for the Chinese and Malays aged 25 to 79 respectively. Overall, Chinese and Malay women born in later cohorts were at increased risk of developing breast cancer relative to their counterparts in the earlier cohorts. The three ethnic groups experienced similar changes in their fertility in the 1970s, which likely explained much of the increase in their breast cancer incidence but not the ethnic differences. There was a stronger inverse association between total fertility rate and pre-menopausal breast cancer incidence in the Chinese and Malays than the Indians. Conclusion The observed dissimilarity among ethnic groups suggests ethnic differences in exposure or response to certain risk factors. It is likely that longer and subtler differences in

  8. Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksic, Maja; Rachet, Bernard; Warburton, Fiona G; Forbes, Lindsay J L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in the English population are not fully understood. We aimed to quantify these differences, to help develop more effective health campaigns, tailored to the needs of different ethnic groups. Methods: Using a large national data set (n=38 492) of cross-sectional surveys that used the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Measure, we examined how cancer symptom awareness and barriers varied by ethnicity, controlling for socio-economic position, age and gender. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Awareness of cancer symptoms was lower in minority ethnic groups than White participants, with the lowest awareness observed among Bangladeshis and Black Africans. Ethnic minorities were more likely than White British to report barriers to help-seeking. South Asians reported the highest emotional barriers, such as lack of confidence to talk to the doctor, and practical barriers, such as worry about many other things. The Irish were more likely than the White British to report practical barriers, such as being too busy to visit a doctor. White British participants were more likely than any other ethnic group to report that they would feel worried about wasting the doctor's time. Overall, Black Africans had the lowest barriers. All differences were statistically significant (P<0.01 level), after controlling for confounders. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for culturally sensitive and targeted health campaigns, focused on improving recognition of cancer symptoms among ethnic minorities. Campaigns should tackle the specific barriers prevalent in each ethnic group. PMID:27280638

  9. Colon cancer risk and different HRT formulations: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies have found no increased risk of colon cancer associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT, or even a decreased risk. But information about the effects of different HRT preparations is lacking. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched to each case of colon cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to get an impression of the risk associated with different estrogens and progestins. Results A total of 354 cases of colon cancer were compared with 1422 matched controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for colon cancer (ColC associated with ever-use of HRT was 0.97 (0.71 – 1.32. No clinically relevant trends for ColC risk were observed with increasing duration of HRT use, or increasing time since first or last HRT use in aggregate. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT preparation groups (estrogens and progestins were too small for conclusions. Nevertheless, if the ColC risk estimates are taken at face value, most seemed to be reduced compared with never-use of HRT, but did not vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in ColC risk was observed between HRT-containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion Ever-use of HRT was not associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In contrary, most risk estimates pointed non-significantly toward a lower ColC risk in HRT ever user. They did not vary markedly among different HRT formulations (estrogens, progestins. However, the small numbers and the overlapping nature of the subgroups suggest cautious interpretation.

  10. Retrospective study of cancer types in different ethnic groups and genders at Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study of Cancer types in different ethnic groups & genders determines the pattern of cancers in different ethnic groups & genders during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Every single one male & female case with histologically and cytologically established cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient's file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 5134 patients (Male = 2432 / Female = 2702) investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. Classification of malignancy was done according to the International Classification of Disease coding system by W.H.O (ICD-10). The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions for ethnic groups & genders. Proportionately 47.37% males and among which major ethnic groups 17% Sindhi, 17% Immigrant, 4% Baloch, 3% Pukhtoon, ≈ 4% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 2% Minorities and 52.62% females, in which 16% Sindhi, 21% Immigrant, 4% Baloch 3% Pukhtoon, 5% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 3% Minorities. Mean age of males = 45.75 years, SE ± 0.227 and for females = 44.07, SE ± 0.183. The three most occurring tumors in all cancers of male were found Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT, and females Breast, Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT. The analysis of data indicates Head & Neck is most common cancer among male, in the similar way Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among female.

  11. Dramatic Play: Root Meaning of Drama/Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koste, Virginia Glasgow

    The processes involved in drama and the dramatic play of children are essentially the same in that they rely on an imitation of nature, involve a transformation of reality through imagination, connect seemingly irrelevant elements creatively, and bring a temporary, limited order to an emotional experience. When child's play is used as a basis for…

  12. Cancer mortality does not differ between migrants and Danish-born patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Larsen, Maja Olsbjerg; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;

    2014-01-01

    -specific hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality were estimated by ethnicity; adjusting for age, income, co-morbidity and disease stage. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in mortality for gynaecological cancers between migrant women (HR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.80) and Danish......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare cancer mortality among migrant patients with cancer mortality in Danish-born patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a historical prospective cohort study. All non-Western migrants (n = 56,273) who were granted a right to residency in Denmark......-born women. Correspondingly, migrant women (HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.49-1.17) showed no significant differences in breast cancer mortality compared with Danish-born women. Regarding lung cancer, neither migrant women (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.45-1.40) nor men (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.53-1.14) presented statistical...

  13. Gene Expression Profile Differences in Gastric Cancer and Normal Gastric Mucosa by Oligonucleotide Microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanding Yu; Shenhua Xu; HangZhou Mou; Zhiming Jiang; Chihong Zhu; Xianglin Liu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the difference of gene expression in gastric cancer (T) and normal tissue of gastric mucosa (C), and to screen for associated novel genes in gastric cancers by oligonucleotide microarrays.METHODS U133A (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) gene chip was used to detect the gene expression profile difference in T and C. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the detected results.RESULTS When gastric cancers were compared with normal gastric mucosa, a total of 270 genes were found with a difference of more than 9times in expression levels. Of the 270 genes, 157 were up-regulated (Signal Log Ratio [SLR] ≥3), and 113 were down-regulated (SLR ≤-3).Using a classification of function, the highest number of gene expression differences related to enzymes and their regulatory genes (67, 24.8%),followed by signal-transduction genes (43,15.9%). The third were nucleic acid binding genes (17, 6.3%), fourth were transporter genes (15, 5.5%)and fifth were protein binding genes (12, 4.4%). In addition there were 50genes of unknown function, accounting for 18.5%. The five above mentioned groups made up 56.9% of the total gene number.CONCLUSION The 5 gene groups (enzymes and their regulatory proteins, signal transduction proteins, nucleic acid binding proteins, transporter and protein binding) were abnormally expressed and are important genes for further study in gastric cancers.

  14. Differences and similarities in breast cancer risk assessment models in clinical practice : which model to choose?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, Catharina E.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Siegerink, Bob; van Asperen, Christi J.

    2009-01-01

    To show differences and similarities between risk estimation models for breast cancer in healthy women from BRCA1/2-negative or untested families. After a systematic literature search seven models were selected: Gail-2, Claus Model, Claus Tables, BOADICEA, Jonker Model, Claus-Extended Formula, and T

  15. The Effect of Dramatized Instruction on Speaking Ability of Imam Ali University EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Khosronejad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching language as a second or foreign language, undoubtedly, is so demanding and seeking to find methods for facilitating this prominent practice whets the appetite of any practitioner who works in this field. Research shows that using drama in the classroom as a means of teaching helps students learn socially, academically, and developmentally. This study was an attempt to determine the effect of dramatized instruction on the speaking ability of EFL learners of Imam Ali University. Sixty EFL male students at the intermediate level participated in the study. Their age range was 19-22. Two instruments were utilized in this study; pretest, and posttest.  The data were analyzed through t-test. The data analysis indicated that the mean scores of the experimental group students (M = 72.80 were significantly different (3.29>2; df = 58 from the control group students (M = 65.39. In other words, the experimental group outperformed the control group in the posttest significantly. Moreover, the findings indicated that dramatized instruction does have a great effect on the speaking skills. This study supported the idea of effectiveness of dramatized instruction on developing speaking skill and the teachers can help the learners at lower levels promote their speaking skill through dramatized instruction in EFL classes.Key words: Drama, Dramatized Instruction, Conventional Methods

  16. Dramatic Response of a Case ofRecurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma toSystemic Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cancer among humans, and the standard treatment is surgery. Other modalities are reserved as a second line of treatment. Topical chemotherapy may be used in primary BCC. Systemic chemotherapy has no role in the primary treatment of BCC, although it may be efficacious in metastatic cases. We report the case of a patient with persistent recurrent BCC following multiple surgeries and radiotherapy, who achieved a dramatic response with a cisplatinand 5-flourouracil chemotherapy regimen.

  17. Influence of sex differences on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Uldall, Maria; Appel, Camilla;

    2013-01-01

    on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain. Materials and Methods: 4T1-luc2 mammary cancer cells were introduced into the femoral cavity of female and male BALB/cJ mice. Bioluminescence tumor signal, pain-related behavior and bone degradation were monitored for 14 days. Results: Female mice demonstrated...... a significantly greater bioluminescence signal on day 2 compared to male mice and, in addition, a significant earlier onset of pain-related behavior was observed in the females. No sex difference was observed for bone degradation. Finally, a strong correlation between pain-related behavior and bone degradation...

  18. Cancer stage, comorbidity, and socioeconomic differences in the effect of cancer on labour market participation: a danish register-based follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Thielen

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequality in return to work after cancer treatment and rehabilitation have been documented, but less is known about its causes. This paper investigates the role played by breast cancer stage at diagnosis and comorbidity.We used the comprehensive Danish Cancer Registry to follow 7372 women aged 30-60, who were in the labour force when diagnosed with breast cancer in 2000-06 and survived at least three years. Controls were 213,276 women without breast cancer. Inequalities in employment outlook were estimated as interaction effects in linear regression between educational attainment and disease on employment.There is significant interaction between education and breast cancer, but it is only marginally affected by including stage and comorbidity in the regression models. Education, breast cancer stage, and comorbidity all have strong effects on later employment, and a considerable amount of the educational effect is mediated by comorbidity and pre-cancer labour market participation and income.The result of the study is negative in the sense that the stronger effect of breast cancer on employment among low-educated compared to highly educated individuals is not explained by cancer stage or comorbidity. The fact that comorbidity has little impact on inequality may be due to a different social patterning of most comorbidity compared to breast cancer.

  19. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Vorozhtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  20. The association between different night shiftwork factors and breast cancer: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, L; Erren, T C; Glass, D C; Girschik, J; Thomson, A K; Saunders, C; Boyle, T; El-Zaemey, S; Rogers, P; Peters, S; Slevin, T; D'Orsogna, A; de Vocht, F; Vermeulen, R; Heyworth, J S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research on the possible association between shiftwork and breast cancer is complicated because there are many different shiftwork factors, which might be involved including: light at night, phase shift, sleep disruption and changes in lifestyle factors while on shiftwork (diet, physical activity, alcohol intake and low sun exposure). Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study in Western Australia from 2009 to 2011 with 1205 incident breast cancer cases and 1789 frequency age-matched controls. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle factors and lifetime occupational history and a telephone interview was used to obtain further details about the shiftwork factors listed above. Results: A small increase in risk was suggested for those ever doing the graveyard shift (work between midnight and 0500 hours) and breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.97–1.39). For phase shift, we found a 22% increase in breast cancer risk (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.01–1.47) with a statistically significant dose–response relationship (P=0.04). For the other shiftwork factors, risks were marginally elevated and not statistically significant. Conclusion: We found some evidence that some of the factors involved in shiftwork may be associated with breast cancer but the ORs were low and there were inconsistencies in duration and dose–response relationships. PMID:24022188

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in cervical cancer: different roles in tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauvala, M; Aglund, K; Puistola, U; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, T; Horvath, G; Willén, R; Stendahl, U

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of uterine cervical cancer has increased slightly in Western countries, with an increase in relatively young women. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 has turned out as a prognostic factor in many cancers. We compared the expression of the proteins MMP-2 and MMP-9 in cervical primary tumors with clinical outcome and risk factors of cervical cancer. One hundred sixty-one patients with cervical cancer treated in Umeå University Hospital or Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden, between 1991 and 1995 were included in the study. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained prior to treatment were examined immunohistochemically by specific antibodies for MMP-2 and MMP-9. Forty-two percent of the tumors were intensively positive for MMP-2 and 31% for MMP-9. Nineteen percent of the samples were intensively positive for both proteinases and 47% negative or weak for both. Overexpression of MMP-2 seemed to predict unfavorable survival under Kaplan-Meier analysis and in the multivariate analysis. Early sexual activity and low parity seemed to correlate to overexpression of MMP-2. MMP-9 was not associated with survival or sexual behavior. Intensive MMP-9 was noted in grade 1 tumors. We conclude that MMP-2 and MMP-9 have different roles in uterine cervical cancer. MMP-2 could be associated with aggressive behavior, but MMP-9 expression diminishes in high-grade tumors.

  2. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY OF MADHUCA INDICA AGAINST DIFFERENT HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish K. Verma et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a public health problem all over the world. Large number of plants and their isolated constituents has been shown to potential anticancer activity. Ethanolic whole plant extract of Madhuca indica showed in vitro cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines such as lung, neuroblastima, and colon. There was no growth of inhibition recorded against liver cancer cell line. Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB assay was done for in vitro cytotoxicity test assay. The in vitro cytotoxicity was performed against five human cancer cell lines namely of lung (A-549, liver (Hep-2 colon (502713 HT-29 and neuroblastima (IMR-32. The activity was done using 100µg/ml of the extract. Against lung (A-549 cell line plant extract showed 83% growth of inhibition. In case of liver (Hep-2 showed no activity reported, where as in case of colon 502713 cell line plant extract showed maximum activity. In case of HT-29 liver human cancer line and IMR-32 neuroblastima cell line plant extract showed 99% and 98% activity respectively.

  3. A research about breast cancer detection using different neural networks and K-MICA algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalteh, A A; Zarbakhsh, Payam; Jirabadi, Meysam; Addeh, Jalil

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. The correct diagnosis of breast cancer is one of the major problems in the medical field. From the literature it has been found that different pattern recognition techniques can help them to improve in this domain. This paper presents a novel hybrid intelligent method for detection of breast cancer. The proposed method includes two main modules: Clustering module and the classifier module. In the clustering module, first the input data will be clustered by a new technique. This technique is a suitable combination of the modified imperialist competitive algorithm (MICA) and K-means algorithm. Then the Euclidean distance of each pattern is computed from the determined clusters. The classifier module determines the membership of the patterns using the computed distance. In this module, several neural networks, such as the multilayer perceptron, probabilistic neural networks and the radial basis function neural networks are investigated. Using the experimental study, we choose the best classifier in order to recognize the breast cancer. The proposed system is tested on Wisconsin Breast Cancer (WBC) database and the simulation results show that the recommended system has high accuracy.

  4. A research about breast cancer detection using different neural networks and K-MICA algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Kalteh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. The correct diagnosis of breast cancer is one of the major problems in the medical field. From the literature it has been found that different pattern recognition techniques can help them to improve in this domain. This paper presents a novel hybrid intelligent method for detection of breast cancer. The proposed method includes two main modules: Clustering module and the classifier module. In the clustering module, first the input data will be clustered by a new technique. This technique is a suitable combination of the modified imperialist competitive algorithm (MICA and K-means algorithm. Then the Euclidean distance of each pattern is computed from the determined clusters. The classifier module determines the membership of the patterns using the computed distance. In this module, several neural networks, such as the multilayer perceptron, probabilistic neural networks and the radial basis function neural networks are investigated. Using the experimental study, we choose the best classifier in order to recognize the breast cancer. The proposed system is tested on Wisconsin Breast Cancer (WBC database and the simulation results show that the recommended system has high accuracy.

  5. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Navarro Pablo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Methods Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively. Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Results Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Conclusion Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying

  6. Detection methods predict differences in biology and survival in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to measure the biological characteristics involved in tumorigenesis and the progression of breast cancer in symptomatic and screen-detected carcinomas to identify possible differences. For this purpose, we evaluated clinical-pathological parameters and proliferative and apoptotic activities in a series of 130 symptomatic and 161 screen-detected tumors. After adjustment for the smaller size of the screen-detected carcinomas compared with symptomatic cancers, those detected in the screening program presented longer disease-free survival (RR = 0.43, CI = 0.19-0.96) and had high estrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations more often than did symptomatic cancers (OR = 3.38, CI = 1.72-6.63 and OR = 3.44, CI = 1.94-6.10, respectively). Furthermore, the expression of bcl-2, a marker of good prognosis in breast cancer, was higher and HER2/neu expression was lower in screen-detected cancers than in symptomatic cancers (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.01-3.23 and OR = 0.64, CI = 0.40-0.98, respectively). However, when comparing prevalent vs incident screen-detected carcinomas, prevalent tumors were larger (OR = 2.84, CI = 1.05-7.69), were less likely to be HER2/neu positive (OR = 0.22, CI = 0.08-0.61) and presented lower Ki67 expression (OR = 0.36, CI = 0.17-0.77). In addition, incident tumors presented a shorter survival time than did prevalent ones (RR = 4.88, CI = 1.12-21.19). Incident carcinomas include a variety of screen-detected carcinomas that exhibit differences in biology and prognosis relative to prevalent carcinomas. The detection method is important and should be taken into account when making therapy decisions

  7. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of this tumor

  8. Differences in integrin expression and signaling within human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongqing

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrins are used as prognostic indicators in breast cancer. Following engagement with extracellular matrix proteins, their signaling influences numerous cellular processes including migration, proliferation, and death. Integrin signaling varies between cell types through differential expression of integrin subunits, and changes within a given cell upon exposure to a cell agonist or through changes in its surroundings. These variations in signaling can profoundly affect the phenotypic, tumorogenecity and metastatic properties of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated if there were differences in the expression of integrins, integrin structures, and integrin co-receptors within three breast cancer cells and if these differences effected integrin signaling. Methods Expression of integrins, urokinase receptor and vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor (VEGFR in metastatic MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231, non-metastatic MCF7 and non-breast cancer Hek-293 cells was measured by flow cytometry. Cell adhesion was assessed using collagen, fibrinogen, fibronectin and vitronectin coated plates. Changes in kinase levels following PMA stimulation, and cell adhesion-induced activation of kinases were determined by western blot analysis. Distribution of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Results All cells expressed αv integrins, while high β5 and αvβ5 expression was restricted to the cancer cells and high β3 and αvβ3 expression was restricted to MDA-MB-435 cells. The two metastatic cells were the least adhesive, but all cells adhered well to most proteins in the absence of PMA. All proliferating cells expressed activated pSrc, but only proliferating metastatic cells expressed high pMEK levels. PMA treatment resulted in time-dependent changes in activated kinase levels, and only MDA-MB-231 cells constitutively expressed high levels of activated pMEK. MDA-MB-435 cells formed

  9. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aron J. [Department of Chemistry, Lensfield Rd., University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Mori-Sánchez, Paula, E-mail: paula.mori@uam.es [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-28

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  10. Dramatic reduction of culture time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodbane, Ramzi; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, a critical technique for routine diagnosis of tuberculosis, takes more than two weeks. Here, step-by-step improvements in the protocol including a new medium, microaerophlic atmosphere or ascorbic-acid supplement and autofluorescence detection dramatically shortened this delay. In the best case, primary culture and rifampicin susceptibility testing were achieved in 72 hours when specimens were inoculated directly on the medium supplemented by antibiotic at the beginning of the culture.

  11. 'A warre ... commodious': Dramatizing Islamic Schism in and after Tamburlaine

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to show how the Tamburlaine plays, by dramatizing intra-Islamic conflict between an insistently Persian Tamburlaine and his Turkish enemies, and Tamburlaine’s extraordinary military successes and imperial gains, engage intensely and provocatively with religious schism and imperial sovereignty, two abiding and interlocked political concerns of late-Elizabethan London. And they do so in full consciousness of their domestic relevance and interest, I argue. Marlowe’s ...

  12. Authoring for Engagement in Interactive Dramatic Experiences for Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad;

    2013-01-01

    ’s control over communicating a theme. To address this problem, this paper contributes a method for organizing narrative events in a free-roaming virtual environment. The Interactive Dramatic Experience Model (IDEM) retains the freedom of navigation while maintaining the possibility to construct various...... and evaluated the “First Person Victim” application. This interactive experiential storytelling scenario is intended as a tool for teaching about the negative consequences of war....

  13. Do Couple-Based Interventions Make a Difference for Couples Affected by Cancer?: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan Tim W

    2012-07-01

    clinical psychologists. Although most were delivered in person, few were telephone-based. No difference in efficacy was noted based on mode of delivery. Factors associated with uptake and completion included symptom severity, available time and willingness to travel. Conclusion Given effect sizes of couple-based interventions are similar to those reported in recent meta-analyses of patient-only and caregiver-only interventions (~d=.35-.45, it appears couple-based interventions for patients with cancer and their partners may be at least as efficacious as patient-only and caregiver-only interventions. Despite evidence that couple-based interventions enhance psycho-social adjustment for both patients and partners, these interventions have not yet been widely adopted. Although more work is needed to facilitate translation to routine practice, evidence reviewed is promising in reducing distress and improving coping and adjustment to a cancer diagnosis or to cancer symptoms.

  14. Difference in Membrane Repair Capacity Between Cancer Cell Lines and a Normal Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K; Novak, Ivana; McNeil, Paul L; Gehl, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Electroporation-based treatments and other therapies that permeabilize the plasma membrane have been shown to be more devastating to malignant cells than to normal cells. In this study, we asked if a difference in repair capacity could explain this observed difference in sensitivity. Membrane repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique, providing a sensitive index of repair capacity. The normal primary cell line of all tested cell lines exhibited the slowest rate of dye entry after laser disruption and lowest level of dye uptake. Significantly, more rapid dye uptake and a higher total level of dye uptake occurred in six of the seven tested cancer cell lines (p electroporation. Viability in the primary normal cell line (98 % viable cells) was higher than in the three tested cancer cell lines (81-88 % viable cells). These data suggest more effective membrane repair in normal, primary cells and supplement previous explanations why electroporation-based therapies and other therapies permeabilizing the plasma membrane are more effective on malignant cells compared to normal cells in cancer treatment. PMID:27312328

  15. Androgen receptors and serum testosterone levels identify different subsets of postmenopausal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secreto Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen receptors (AR are frequently expressed in breast cancers, but their implication in cancer growth is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the role of the androgen/AR pathway in breast cancer development. Methods AR expression was evaluated by immunochemistry in a cohort of 528 postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously examined for the association of serum testosterone levels with patient and tumor characteristics. AR expression was classified according to the percentage of stained cells: AR-absent (0% and AR-poorly (1%-30%, AR-moderately (>30%-60%, and AR-highly (>60% positive. Results Statistical analysis was performed in 451 patients who experienced natural menopause. AR-high expression was significantly related with low histologic grade and estrogen receptor (ER- and progesterone receptor (PR-positive status (P trendP=0.022, although a trend across the AR expression categories was not present. When women defined by ER status were analyzed separately, regression analysis in the ER-positive group showed a significant association of high testosterone levels with AR-highly-positive expression (OR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.10-3.16, but the association was essentially due to patients greater than or equal to 65 years (OR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82. In ER-positive group, elevated testosterone levels appeared also associated with AR-absent expression, although the small number of patients in this category limited the appearance of significant effects (OR 1.92; 95% CI, 0.73–5.02: the association was present in both age groups ( Conclusions The findings in the present study confirm that testosterone levels are a marker of hormone-dependent breast cancer and suggest that the contemporary evaluation of ER status, AR expression, and circulating testosterone levels may identify different subsets of cancers whose growth may be influenced by androgens.

  16. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  17. Identification of Personalized Chemoresistance Genes in Subtypes of Basal-Like Breast Cancer Based on Functional Differences Using Pathway Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease that is clinically classified into several subtypes. Among these subtypes, basal-like breast cancer largely overlaps with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, and these two groups are generally studied together as a single entity. Differences in the molecular makeup of breast cancers can result in different treatment strategies and prognoses for patients with different breast cancer subtypes. Compared with other subtypes, basal-like and other ER+ breast cancer subtypes exhibit marked differences in etiologic factors, clinical characteristics and therapeutic potential. Anthracycline drugs are typically used as the first-line clinical treatment for basal-like breast cancer subtypes. However, certain patients develop drug resistance following chemotherapy, which can lead to disease relapse and death. Even among patients with basal-like breast cancer, there can be significant molecular differences, and it is difficult to identify specific drug resistance proteins in any given patient using conventional variance testing methods. Therefore, we designed a new method for identifying drug resistance genes. Subgroups, personalized biomarkers, and therapy targets were identified using cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes. We found that basal-like breast cancer could be further divided into at least four distinct subgroups, including two groups at risk for drug resistance and two groups characterized by sensitivity to pharmacotherapy. Based on functional differences among these subgroups, we identified nine biomarkers related to drug resistance: SYK, LCK, GAB2, PAWR, PPARG, MDFI, ZAP70, CIITA and ACTA1. Finally, based on the deviation scores of the examined pathways, 16 pathways were shown to exhibit varying degrees of abnormality in the various subgroups, indicating that patients with different subtypes of basal-like breast cancer can be characterized by differences in the functional status of

  18. Differences in IGF-axis protein expression and survival among multiethnic breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is limited knowledge about the biological basis of racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer outcomes. Aberrations in IGF signaling induced by obesity and other factors may contribute to these disparities. This study examines the expression profiles of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis proteins and the association with breast cancer survival across a multiethnic population. We examined the expression profiles of the IGF1, IGF1R, IGFBP2 (IGF-binding proteins), and IGFBP3 proteins in breast tumor tissue and their relationships with all-cause and breast cancer-specific survival up to 17 years postdiagnosis in a multiethnic series of 358 patients in Hawaii, USA. Native Hawaiians, Caucasians, and Japanese were compared. Covariates included demographic and clinical factors and ER/PR/HER2 (estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) status. In Native Hawaiian patients, IGFBP2 and IGFBP3 expression were each independently associated with overall and breast cancer mortality (IGFB2: HRmort = 10.96, 95% CI: 2.18–55.19 and HRmort = 35.75, 95% CI: 3.64–350.95, respectively; IGFBP3: HRmort = 5.16, 95% CI: 1.27–20.94 and HRmort = 8.60, 95% CI: 1.84–40.15, respectively). IGF1R expression was also positively associated with all-cause mortality in Native Hawaiians. No association of IGF-axis protein expression and survival was observed in Japanese or Caucasian patients. The interaction of race/ethnicity and IGFBP3 expression on mortality risk was significant. IGF-axis proteins may have variable influence on breast cancer progression across different racial/ethnic groups. Expression of binding proteins and receptors in breast tumors may influence survival in breast cancer patients by inducing aberrations in IGF signaling and/or through IGF-independent mechanisms. Additional studies to evaluate the role of the IGF-axis in breast cancer are critical to improve targeted breast cancer treatment strategies

  19. Histopathologic differences account for racial disparity in uterine cancer survival☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotkin, David; Nevadunsky, Nicole S.; Harris, Kimala; Einstein, Mark H.; Yu, Yiting; Goldberg, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The incidence for uterine cancers has been reported to be higher among white women, whereas mortality is higher among black women. Reasons for the higher mortality among black women are not completely understood. The aim of our study is to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity, histopathologic subtype, and survival in uterine cancer. Methods We abstracted socio-demographic, treatment, and survival data for all women who were diagnosed with uterine cancer at Montefiore Medical Center from January 1999 through December 2009. Pathology records were reviewed. Results 984 patients were identified. Racial/ethnic distribution was 382 (39%) white, 308 (31%) black, 232 (24%) Hispanic, and 62 (6.3%) other races, mixed, or unknown. 592 (60%) patients had endometrioid histology. Blacks were much more likely than whites to have non-endometrioid histologies (p<0.001), including papillary serous, carcinosarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma. Blacks and Hispanics were at least as likely as whites to receive either chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The hazard ratio for death for black versus white patients was 1.94 (p<0.001) when all histological subtypes were included. The hazard ratio for Hispanics for death was 1.2 (p=0.32) compared to whites. However, when patients were divided into endometrioid and non-endometrioid histological subtypes, there was no significant difference in survival by race/ethnicity. Conclusion Black patients with uterine cancer are much more likely to die and are much more likely to have non-endometrioid histologies than white patients. There are no differences in survival among white, black, or Hispanic women with uterine cancer, after control for histological subtype. PMID:22940487

  20. Implications for cancer epidemiology of differences in dietary intake associated with alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, J R; Kabat, G C

    1991-01-01

    Several dietary factors are thought to modify risk for cancers that are known to be associated with alcohol intake. In this study, we sought to identify and describe alcohol-related differences in dietary and nutritional factors that are potential independent predictors of cancer risk or effect modifiers or confounders of alcohol-cancer relationships. Data were obtained from a large hospital-based case-control study that was designed to estimate the cancer risk from various tobacco products. Study subjects consisted of 465 male and 300 female incident lung cancer cases and 870 male and 556 female hospitalized patient controls matched on age (+/- 5 yrs). Nutritional data were analyzed as log-transformed frequencies of 30 food items, 9 factor scores generated to describe overall patterns of dietary intake, and nutrient scores estimating daily intake of fat, vitamin A, fiber, and cholesterol. We observed many more significant differences in nutritional exposures by alcoholic beverage intake than would be expected merely by chance. For males, the most striking relationships included increased meat and egg consumption with increasing alcohol consumption and higher intake of cantaloupe and cold cereal among lighter drinkers. For females, we observed strong inverse relationships between alcohol consumption and reported intake of fruit, cold cereal, and ice cream. We also observed a direct association between alcohol and meat consumption, though it was weaker than that found among men. Findings based on factors and nutrients followed the pattern observed for the individual food items, with highest fat scores and lowest fruit scores among the heaviest drinkers. Implications for nutrient-alcohol interactions and statistical considerations are discussed. PMID:2038565

  1. Tobacco-related cancer mortality: projections for different geographical regions in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgens, Verena; Ess, Silvia; Phuleria, Harish C.; Früh, Martin; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Frick, Harald; Cerny, Thomas; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    PRINCIPLES: Switzerland is divided into 26 cantons of variable population size and cultural characteristics. Although a federal law to protect against passive smoking and a national tobacco control programme exist, details of tobacco-related policies are canton-specific. This study aimed to project gender-specific tobacco-related cancer mortality in Switzerland at different geographical levels for the periods 2009-2013 and 2014-2018. METHODS: In this analysis, data on Swiss tobacco-related ca...

  2. Dynamic volume perfusion CT in patients with lung cancer: Baseline perfusion characteristics of different histological subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jingyun, E-mail: shijingyun89179@126.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine (China); Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schmid-Bindert, Gerald, E-mail: gerald.schmid-bindert@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Division of Surgical Oncology and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Fink@akh-celle.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Sudarski, Sonja, E-mail: sonja_sudarski@gmx.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Apfaltrer@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Pilz, Lothar R., E-mail: Lothar.Pilz@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Liu, Bo, E-mail: bo.liu@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, No. 278, Zhouzhu Road, Shanghai, 201318 (China); Haberland, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.haberland@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare Sector, H IM CR R and D PA SC, Siemensstraße 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Klotz, Ernst, E-mail: ernst.klotz@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare Sector, H IM CR R and D PA SC, Siemensstraße 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); and others

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) tumor baseline characteristics of three different subtypes of lung cancer in untreated patients. Materials and methods: 173 consecutive patients (131 men, 42 women; mean age 61 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed lung cancer underwent dVPCT prior to biopsy. Tumor permeability, blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantitatively assessed as well as tumor diameter and volume. Tumor subtypes were histologically determined and compared concerning their dVPCT results. dVPCT results were correlated to tumor diameter and volume. Results: Histology revealed adenocarcinoma in 88, squamous cell carcinoma in 54 and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in 31 patients. Tumor permeability was significantly differing between adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC (all p < 0.05). Tumor BF and BV were higher in adenocarcinomathan in SCLC (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0002 respectively). BV was also higher in squamous cell carcinoma compared to SCLC (p = 0.01). MTT was not differing between tumor subtypes. Regarding all tumors, tumor diameter did not correlate with any of the dVPCT parameters, whereas tumor volume was negatively associated with permeability, BF and BV (r = −0.22, −0.24, −0.24, all p < 0.05). In squamous cell carcinoma, tumor diameter und volume correlated with BV (r = 0.53 and r = −0.40, all p < 0.05). In SCLC, tumor diameter und volume correlated with MTT (r = 0.46 and r = 0.39, all p < 0.05). In adenocarcinoma, no association between morphological and functional tumor characteristics was observed. Conclusions: dVPCT parameters are only partially related to tumor diameter and volume and are significantly differing between lung cancer subtypes.

  3. Various Acylglycerols from Common Oils Exert Different Antitumor Activities on Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca P; González-Fernández, María J; Guil-Guerrero, José L

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Western countries; therefore, the implementation of healthy dietary habits in order to prevent its occurrence is a desirable action. We show here that both free fatty acids (FFAs) and some acylglycerols induce antitumoral actions in the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29. We tested several C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched oils (e.g., sunflower and Echium) as well as other oils, such as arachidonic acid-enriched (Arasco®) and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched (Marinol® and cod liver oil), in addition to coconut and olive oils. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test indicated inhibitory effects on HT-29 cells viability for FFAs, and monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol (DAG) species, while the lactate dehydrogenase test proved that FFAs were the more effective species to induce membrane injury. Conversely, all species did not exhibit actions on CCD-18 normal human colon cells viability. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of necrosis and apoptosis, while the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition test demonstrated high activity for 2-monoacylglycerols derived from Arasco and sunflower oils. However, different monoacylglycerols and DAGs have also the potential for MAGL inhibition. Therefore, checking for activity on colon cancer cells of specifically designed acylglycerol-derivative species would be a suitable way to design functional foods destined to avoid colorectal cancer initiation. PMID:27007804

  4. Hospital-acquired infections at an oncological intensive care cancer unit: differences between solid and hematological cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia; Vilar-Compte, Diana; García-Horton, Alejandro; López-Velázquez, Marco; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio; Volkow-Fernández, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer patients have a higher risk of severe sepsis in comparison with non-cancer patients, with an increased risk for hospital-acquired infections (HAI), particularly with multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB). The aim of the study is to describe the frequency and characteristics of HAI and MDRB in critically ill cancer patients. Methods We conducted an 18-month prospective study in patients admitted ≥48 h to an ICU at a cancer referral center in Mexico. Patients with hematological ...

  5. Dramatic regression of presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma with photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuray Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used for treatment of various intraocular tumors including choroidal hemangioma, vasoproliferative tumor, amelanotic choroidal melanoma and choroidal neovascular membrane due to choroidal osteoma. This case report documents the effect of PDT for a presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma. A 42-year-old female with a juxtapapillary acquired astrocytoma was treated with a single session of PDT using standard parameters. The tumor showed dramatic regression over 6 months into a fibrotic scar. It remained regressed and stable with 20/20 vision after 51 months of follow-up. We believe that PDT can be used as a primary treatment for acquired retinal astrocytoma.

  6. Multiple breast cancer cell-lines derived from a single tumor differ in their molecular characteristics and tumorigenic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goar Mosoyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer cell lines are widely used tools to investigate breast cancer biology and to develop new therapies. Breast cancer tissue contains molecularly heterogeneous cell populations. Thus, it is important to understand which cell lines best represent the primary tumor and have similarly diverse phenotype. Here, we describe the development of five breast cancer cell lines from a single patient's breast cancer tissue. We characterize the molecular profiles, tumorigenicity and metastatic ability in vivo of all five cell lines and compare their responsiveness to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT treatment. METHODS: Five breast cancer cell lines were derived from a single patient's primary breast cancer tissue. Expression of different antigens including HER2, estrogen receptor (ER, CK8/18, CD44 and CD24 was determined by flow cytometry, western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC. In addition, a Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH assay for HER2 gene amplification and p53 genotyping was performed on all cell lines. A xenograft model in nude mice was utilized to assess the tumorigenic and metastatic abilities of the breast cancer cells. RESULTS: We have isolated, cloned and established five new breast cancer cell lines with different tumorigenicity and metastatic abilities from a single primary breast cancer. Although all the cell lines expressed low levels of ER, their growth was estrogen-independent and all had high-levels of expression of mutated non-functional p53. The HER2 gene was rearranged in all cell lines. Low doses of 4-OHT induced proliferation of these breast cancer cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: All five breast cancer cell lines have different antigenic expression profiles, tumorigenicity and organ specific metastatic abilities although they derive from a single tumor. None of the studied markers correlated with tumorigenic potential. These new cell lines could serve as a model for detailed genomic and proteomic analyses to

  7. Risk of prostate cancer and its correlation with different biochemical parameters in non diabetic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been hypothesized that men with long term diabetes have a lower risk of prostate cancer then non-diabetic men. Whether diabetes influences level of biomarkers such as prostate specific antigen (PSA, which is involved in the detection of prostate cancer is, unknown. In view of the aforementioned controversial literature, it was decided to evaluate this relation-ship in non-diabetic men. We evaluated the correlation between fasting glucose, prostate specific antigen and different biochemical lipid profile parameters with serum uric acid and serum creatinine in non-diabetic male between age group 40-61 years. Methods: Association between fasting serum glucose , different lipid parameters, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and prostate specific antigen in 83 non-diabetic males aged 40 to 61years were studied retrospectively. Glucose and lipid parameters and serum creatinine, serum uric acid were measured on fully automated analyser using standard reagent kits. Serum prostate specific antigen was measured by TOSOH-AIA-360, immunoassay method. Results: Correlations between different biochemical parameters were determined. Prostate specific antigen were negatively correlated with HDL (r= -0.22, p= 0.03 in age group 40-61 years. At the same fasting blood sugar were correlated positively(r= 0.34, p= 0.02 with prostate specific antigen in age group 51-60 years , but not in age group 40-50 years. Conclusion: We concluded that serum HDL (high density lipoprotein was negatively associated and FBS (fasting blood sugar was positively associated with risk of prostate cancer. We also suggest that in men of this age group a low HDL level should not be ignored while assessing prostate cancer risk especially if accompanied with an elevated FBS level even in the upper normal range. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 476-481

  8. Using dramatic role-play to develop emotional aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dinapoli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As university educators, we need to prepare students for the transition from the information age to what Daniel H. Pink (2005 calls the conceptual age, which is governed by artistry, empathy and emotion, by including in the curricula activities that stimulate both hemispheres of the brain. This can be done by promoting activities that energize what Daniel Goleman (1995 refers to as emotional intelligence, and it further maintains that, as Paul Ekman (2003 suggests, the ability to detect feelings improves communication. Recognizing the need to include in the curricula procedures that help develop students’ right brain aptitudes and enhance their communication skills, I have endeavoured to introduce dramatic scene study as a sustained activity in my English for Specific Purposes courses at the Universidad de Valencia. My aim was to energize the students’ creative and emotional aptitudes, as well as to dynamize effective teamwork. This article sustains that dramatic role-play, based on scripted scene study and related improvisational activities, is one way of achieving this.

  9. HER2 over-expression and response to different chemotherapy regimens in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin ZHANG; Yan LIU

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To exam the relationship between HER2 over-expression and different adjuvant chemotherapies in breast cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 1625 primary breast cancer patients who received post-surgery adjuvant chemotherapy in Tianjin Cancer Hospital, China, from July 2002 to November 2005 were included in the study. Among them, 600 patients were given CMF (CTX+MTX+5-Fu) regimen, 600 given CEF (CTX+E-ADM+5-Fu) regimen, and 425 given anthracyclines plus taxanes regimen, with mean follow-up time of 42 months. Results: In CMF treatment group, the 3-year disease free survival (DFS)in HER2 over-expressed patients was lower than that of the HER2-negative ones (89.80% vs 91.24%, P=0.0348); in node-positive subgroup, the 3-year DFS was 84.72% in HER2 over-expressed patients, and 90.18% in the HER-2-negative ones (P=0.0271).Compared to CMF regimen, anthracyclines and anthracyclines plus taxanes regimens are more effective (P<0.05) in node-positive HER2 over-expression than those in the node-negative. Conclusion: HER2 over-expression is an independent index for predicting poor prognosis and short DFS for breast cancer patients. HER2 over-expressed patients are resistant to CMF regimen chemotherapy, but sensitive to anthracyclines-based or anthracyclines plus taxanes regimen. HER2 expression can be taken as a marker for therapies in breast cancer.

  10. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers

  11. Breast cancer detection rates using four different types of mammography detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the performance of different types of detectors in breast cancer detection. A mammography image set containing subtle malignant non-calcification lesions, biopsy-proven benign lesions, simulated malignant calcification clusters and normals was acquired using amorphous-selenium (a-Se) detectors. The images were adapted to simulate four types of detectors at the same radiation dose: digital radiography (DR) detectors with a-Se and caesium iodide (CsI) convertors, and computed radiography (CR) detectors with a powder phosphor (PIP) and a needle phosphor (NIP). Seven observers marked suspicious and benign lesions. Analysis was undertaken using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics weighted figure of merit (FoM). The cancer detection fraction (CDF) was estimated for a representative image set from screening. No significant differences in the FoMs between the DR detectors were measured. For calcification clusters and non-calcification lesions, both CR detectors' FoMs were significantly lower than for DR detectors. The calcification cluster's FoM for CR NIP was significantly better than for CR PIP. The estimated CDFs with CR PIP and CR NIP detectors were up to 15 % and 22 % lower, respectively, than for DR detectors. Cancer detection is affected by detector type, and the use of CR in mammography should be reconsidered. (orig.)

  12. Breast cancer detection rates using four different types of mammography detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, Alistair; Warren, Lucy M.; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, National Coordinating Centre for the Physics in Mammography (NCCPM), Guildford (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Wallis, Matthew G. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cooke, Julie [Jarvis Breast Screening and Diagnostic Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom); Given-Wilson, Rosalind M. [St George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Chakraborty, Dev P. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Halling-Brown, Mark D. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Scientific Computing, Department of Medical Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Looney, Padraig T. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, National Coordinating Centre for the Physics in Mammography (NCCPM), Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    To compare the performance of different types of detectors in breast cancer detection. A mammography image set containing subtle malignant non-calcification lesions, biopsy-proven benign lesions, simulated malignant calcification clusters and normals was acquired using amorphous-selenium (a-Se) detectors. The images were adapted to simulate four types of detectors at the same radiation dose: digital radiography (DR) detectors with a-Se and caesium iodide (CsI) convertors, and computed radiography (CR) detectors with a powder phosphor (PIP) and a needle phosphor (NIP). Seven observers marked suspicious and benign lesions. Analysis was undertaken using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics weighted figure of merit (FoM). The cancer detection fraction (CDF) was estimated for a representative image set from screening. No significant differences in the FoMs between the DR detectors were measured. For calcification clusters and non-calcification lesions, both CR detectors' FoMs were significantly lower than for DR detectors. The calcification cluster's FoM for CR NIP was significantly better than for CR PIP. The estimated CDFs with CR PIP and CR NIP detectors were up to 15 % and 22 % lower, respectively, than for DR detectors. Cancer detection is affected by detector type, and the use of CR in mammography should be reconsidered. (orig.)

  13. Changes in the gastric potential difference during chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrin, B; Højgaard, L; Mouridsen, H T

    1991-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are frequent side-effects of intravenous cancer chemotherapy. How these complications were related to the gastric mucosal function was investigated by measuring the gastric mucosal potential difference (PD). Eight patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy...... were investigated. The liquid junction-corrected gastric PD and pH were measured with a newly developed microelectrode. The measurements started half an hour before chemotherapy and continued for 4-5 hours. Nausea, vomiting, psychological stress and sleeping episodes were registered. The initial PD...... values were -34 mV +/- 8 mV (mean +/- SD). During the observation period 6 of 8 patients had one or more episodes of nausea and vomiting. All episodes were preceded by a significant decline in PD. The magnitude of the decline in PD was unrelated to the time-lag between administration of chemotherapy...

  14. Clinical trial enrollment, patient characteristics, and survival differences in prospectively registered metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorbye, Halfdan; Pfeiffer, Per; Cavalli-Björkman, Nina;

    2009-01-01

    oncological consideration at 3 hospitals in Scandinavia covering defined populations were registered consecutively during 2003 to 2006. Clinical trial enrollment, patient characteristics, and treatment were recorded prospectively, and the follow-up was complete. RESULTS: Palliative chemotherapy was initiated...... was then only 2.1 months. The median survival for all 760 nonresectable mCRC patients was 10.7 months. CONCLUSIONS: mCRC patients enrolled into clinical trials differ in characteristics from patients receiving chemotherapy outside protocol and have better survival, even when given the same treatment. Although......BACKGROUND: Trial accrual patterns were examined to determine whether metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients enrolled in trials are representative of a general cancer population concerning patient characteristics and survival. METHODS: A total of 760 mCRC patients referred for their first...

  15. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to compare the risk of different estrogens, progestins, and combinations. Results A total of 3593 cases of breast cancer were identified and compared with 9098 controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for breast cancer (BC associated with current or past use of HRT was 1.2 (1.1–1.3, and almost identical for lag times from 6 months to 6 years prior to diagnosis. No significant trend of increasing BC risk was found with increasing duration of HRT use, or time since first or last use in aggregate. Many established BC risk factors significantly modified the effect of HRT on BC risk, particularly first-degree family history of BC, higher age, lower education, higher body mass index (BMI, and never having used oral contraceptives (OCs during lifetime. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT formulation groups (estrogens, progestins, and combinations were too small for strong conclusions. Nevertheless, the BC risk seems not to vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in BC risk was observed between HRT containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion The BC risk of HRT use is rather small. Low risk estimates for BC and a high potential for

  16. Costs and health effects of breast cancer interventions in epidemiologically different regions of Africa, North America, and Asia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.T.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Groot, C.A. de; Anderson, B.O.; Hortobagyi, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    We estimated the costs and health effects of treating stage I, II, III, and IV breast cancer individually, of treating all stages, and of introducing an extensive cancer control program (treating all stages plus early stage diagnosis) in three epidemiologically different world regions--Africa, North

  17. Dance dramatization of the russian folk tale The Rabbit’s House

    OpenAIRE

    Jamnik, Lucija

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents the entire process of creating a dance dramatization of the Russian tale The Rabbit's House with active participation of children. The theoretical part focuses on the following basic notions we explored in detail and applied while working with the children: movement and movement of a preschool child; dance and the differences between dance and movement; music and dance education and related tasks; the types of activities related to movement and dance with special emphas...

  18. Microalloying Boron Carbide with Silicon to Achieve Dramatically Improved Ductility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Goddard, William A

    2014-12-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a hard material whose value for extended engineering applications such as body armor; is limited by its brittleness under impact. To improve the ductility while retaining hardness, we used density functional theory to examine modifying B4C ductility through microalloying. We found that replacing the CBC chain in B4C with Si-Si, denoted as (B11Cp)-Si2, dramatically improves the ductility, allowing a continuous shear to a large strain of 0.802 (about twice of B4C failure strain) without brittle failure. Moreover, (B11C)-Si2 retains low density and high hardness. This ductility improvement arises because the Si-Si linkages enable the icosahedra accommodate additional shear by rotating instead of breaking bonds.

  19. Tobacco and lung cancer: risks, trends, and outcomes in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Graham W; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use, primarily associated with cigarette smoking, is the largest preventable cause of cancer mortality, responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. Approximately 85% of lung cancers result from smoking, with an additional fraction caused by secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmokers. The risk of lung cancer is dose dependent, but can be dramatically reduced with tobacco cessation, especially if the person discontinues smoking early in life. The increase in lung cancer incidence in different countries around in the world parallels changes in cigarette consumption. Lung cancer risks are not reduced by switching to filters or low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes. In patients with cancer, continued tobacco use after diagnosis is associated with poor therapeutic outcomes including increased treatment-related toxicity, increased risk of second primary cancer, decreased quality of life, and decreased survival. Tobacco cessation in patients with cancer may improve cancer treatment outcomes, but cessation support is often not provided by oncologists. Reducing the health related effects of tobacco requires coordinated efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco, accurately assess tobacco use in clinical settings, and increase access to tobacco cessation support. Lung cancer screening and coordinated international tobacco control efforts offer the promise to dramatically reduce lung cancer mortality in the coming decades.

  20. Sequential Treatment by Ionizing Radiation and Sodium Arsenite Dramatically Accelerates TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis of Human Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2007-01-01

    Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. There is a lack of effective treatments for individuals with advanced disease. Many melanomas exhibit high levels of radioresistance. The direct consequence of γ-irradiation for most melanoma cells is growth arrest at the G2-M phase of cell cycle. However, radiation-induced signaling pathways may affect numerous additional targets in cancer cells. We show in the present study that γ-irradiation, as well as α-particle exposure, dramatically incr...

  1. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  2. The molecular mechanism of different sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines to TRAIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jindan; LIU Yanxin; LIU Shilian; ZHENG Dexian

    2004-01-01

    Although Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis of various cancer cells, some caner cell lines are resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying TRAIL-resistance, two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 (resistant to TRAIL) and MDA-MB-231 (sensitive to TRAIL), were used as a model system to analyze the different sensitivities to TRAIL cytotoxicity. PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin, but not MEK and ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 nor PI3K inhibitor LY294002, was shown to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells significantly, suggesting that PKCδ might play an important role in the resistance of MCF-7 cells to TRAIL. In contrast, rottlerin, U0126, and Ly294002 had no effect on MDA-MB-231 apoptosis induced by TRAIL under the same conditions. Further experiment showed that the combination of rottlerin and TRAIL cleaved PARP in the MCF-7 cells synergistically, but not in the MDA-MB-231 cells. The role of PKCδ in TRAIL-resistant MCF-7 cells was confirmed by knocking down the endogenous PKCδ expression using RNAi technology. Furthermore, caspase-3 reconstitution in MCF-7 cells was unable to alter PKCδ expression, suggesting that innate caspase-3 deficient in the cells does not cause PKCδ high expression. These data provide evidence for the first time that PKCδ plays a critical role in breast cancer cell lines to TRAIL cytotoxicity.

  3. [Different coexisting genotypes in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agelopoulos, K; Schmidt, H; Korsching, E; Buerger, H; Brandt, B

    2008-11-01

    Intratumor genetic heterogeneity, a well-known characteristic of numerous cancers, often confounds a precise diagnosis and leads to therapy resistance. This study deals with such chromosomal variability, which may be due to an inherent genetic instability affecting heterogeneity and clonal effects. Subpopulations of the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 were isolated according to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression by FACS. Whole genome profiling (CGH; mapping arrays) and determination of egfr gene amplification (fluorescence in situ hybridisation, FISH; qPCR) were done directly after sorting or after several passages of cell culture. Subpopulations differed in the amplification of the egfr-locus 7p11-14 showing egfr gene amplification rates of up to 60-fold in high-level expressing populations and less than 2-fold in low-level expressing populations. However, after several passages the original low-level cells showed a new amplification of the egfr gene, which was as heterogeneous as the original amplification detected in MDA-MB-468. Additional, spontaneously expressed fragile sites could be shown in FISH analyses which may affect cell culture heterogeneity. Understanding the precise chromosomal process would clarify mechanisms in vivo and improve both diagnosis and therapy of corresponding cancers. PMID:18751981

  4. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio-Mejía Lina Sofía

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural. RESULTS: During 1990-2000 a total of 48 761 cervical cancer (CC deaths were reported in Mexico (1990=4 280 deaths/year; 2000=4 620 deaths/year. On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference=Mexico City found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR]=10.99; Nayarit, RR=10.5. Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population. CONCLUSIONS: CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection.

  5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Regulates the Secretion of Different Angiogenic Factors in Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezzetti, Daniela; Gallo, Marianna; Roma, Cristin; D'Alessio, Amelia; Maiello, Monica R; Bevilacqua, Simona; Normanno, Nicola; De Luca, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is one of the main mediators of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, it has been described an autocrine feed-forward loop in NSCLC cells in which tumor-derived VEGFA promoted the secretion of VEGFA itself, amplifying the proangiogenic signal. In order to investigate the role of VEGFA in lung cancer progression, we assessed the effects of recombinant VEGFA on proliferation, migration, and secretion of other angiogenic factors in A549, H1975, and HCC827 NSCLC cell lines. We found that VEGFA did not affect NSCLC cell proliferation and migration. On the other hand, we demonstrated that VEGFA not only produced a strong and persistent increase of VEGFA itself but also significantly induced the secretion of a variety of angiogenic factors, including follistatin (FST), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-8, leptin (LEP), platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), and platelet-derived growth factor bb (PDGF-BB). PI3K/AKT, RAS/ERK, and STAT3 signalling pathways were found to mediate the effects of VEGFA in NSCLC cell lines. We also observed that VEGFA regulation mainly occurred at post-transcriptional level and that NSCLC cells expressed different isoforms of VEGFA. Collectively, our data suggested that VEGFA contributes to lung cancer progression by inducing a network of angiogenic factors, which might offer potential for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26542886

  6. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  7. Characterization of gastric cancer models from different cell lines orthotopically constructed using improved implantation techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Bo Li; Chun-Ping Xiang; Yu Zhang; Yuan-Yuan Li; Xiao-Ling Wu

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To develop orthotopic gastric cancer mouse models from different cell lines and characterize the tumor features to assist further in preclinical trials and clinical treatment strategies. METHODS: Human gastric cancer SGC-7901 and BGC- 823 cell suspensions were injected subcutaneously into nude mice to develop solid tumors, and tumor tissue pieces were then implanted under the serous coat of the stomach. An autopsy was performed on all animals of the SGC-7901 and BGC-823 models to observe the primary tumor growth and metastases using pathological and immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: Both models showed large tumors in situ resulting in pressure and infiltration of the adjacent organs. The gastric cavity became smaller, along with stenosis of the cardia or pylorus. There were biological and statistical differences between the two models. The metastasis rate in involved organs (lymph nodes, kidney, spleen, testis) was significantly higher in the BGC-823 model compared to the SGC-7901 model (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The median survival of the BGC-823 model was shorter than that of SGC-7901 (23 d vs 84 d, P < 0.05). Histopathologically, the primary tumor and metastatic lesions of the two models showed obvious atypia and mucus in the cytoplasm. Compared with the SGC-7901 model, BGC-823 appeared more poorly differentiated (absence of adenoid structure), had a smaller volume, and richer capillary structure. Immunohistochemical staining revealed cytokeratin 20 and epithelial membrane antigen expression was positive in the SGC-7901 tumors, while negative in BGC-823 ones. CONCLUSION: Models using the SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cell lines were established which could function in gastric cancer research on carcinogenesis mechanism and drug discovery. The two models showed different tumor behavior and the latter was more malignant than the former.

  8. [I was born a woman, the life of Mame: the dramatization of intergenerational inclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheras Amat, M del Pilar; Muriel Fernández, Rafael; Llamas Martínez, M Victoria; Hallaga Messari, Asmaa; Bitoden Yaka, Albert; Ndour, Mame Awa; Dieng, Ousseynou; Márquez Bernal, Victoriano; Sevillano, Manuel Garrido

    2010-01-01

    I was born a woman, the life of Mame is the dramatization a fictitious intergenerational story. However, the story is based on true events and the feelings of real immigrant women. The dramatization narrates the life of a woman, from the time her parents-who had recently emigrated from Senegal-settled in Andalusia, up to the adolescence of Mame's own daughter. The story is told with one person on stage who, through the use of three costume changes, plays three different generations of women: mother, daughter and granddaughter, with the video-recorded testimonies of other characters (a teacher and a midwife), who express their views of the host society against a background of African music and pictures of their native country. The present article describes their goals, such as communication in conferences, and includes a concise summary of the script, reflections on the process of integrating, and the evaluation made after a performance. PMID:20022142

  9. Dramatic Clinical Response of Relapsed Metastatic Extramammary Paget’s Disease to Trastuzumab Monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wakabayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of 68-year-old Japanese woman with metastatic HER2-positive extramammary Paget’s disease that showed the validity of trastuzumab monotherapy. We administered trastuzumab at a loading dose of 8 mg/kg i.v., followed by a 6 mg/kg maintenance dose every three weeks according to a protocol for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancers and a near-complete response was achieved after the tenth infusion. The patient experienced a moderate headache and flushing during the first infusion, but had no advanced effects during subsequent infusions with ibuprofen and d-chlorpheniramine maleate. Given the dramatic response, the patient has had 17 infusions of trastuzumab with no disease progression. Thus, trastuzumab has few side effects and is well tolerated for elderly patients. It may become a new choice of the adjubant therapy of this disease.

  10. Discrimination, developmental science, and the law: addressing dramatic shifts in civil rights jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Roger J R

    2014-01-01

    The civil rights movement fostered dramatic shifts in legal responses to discrimination based on race, gender, and a host of other group characteristics. The legal system now evinces yet another dramatic shift, as it moves from considering difference to focusing on neutrality, from efforts that seek to counter subjugation to those that adopt a "color-blind" approach. The shifting approach already has reached laws regulating responses to the group that spurred massive civil rights reform: minority youth. The shift requires a different body of empirical evidence to address it and a new look at equality jurisprudence. This article notes the need to turn to the current understanding of prejudice and discrimination for guidance, and uses, as illustration, developmental science to shed light on the development, manifestation, and alleviation of invidious discrimination. Using that understanding, the analysis details how the legal system can benefit from that research and better address discrimination in light of dramatic changes in law. The article articulates the need to address discrimination by recognizing and enlisting the law's inculcative powers through multiple sites of inculcation, ranging from families, schools, health and justice systems to religious and community groups. The discussion concludes with brief suggestions for reform benefiting from understandings of prejudice and its expression.

  11. The UICC/WHO-CCCE cancer education project : A different approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagedoorn, Emilie; de Vries, Jakob; Robinson, E

    2000-01-01

    The Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) and the WHO-Collaborating Centre for Cancer Education (WHO-CCCE) have started an international pilot project offering assistance to medical schools that want to implement in their curricula a two-week multidisciplinary cancer course aimed at cancer ca

  12. Preclinical evaluation of 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate on liver cancer and cancer stem cells with different p53 status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lamy

    Full Text Available Isothiocyanates from plants of the order Brassicales are considered promising cancer chemotherapeutic phytochemicals. However, their selective cytotoxicity on liver cancer has been barely researched. Therefore, in the present study, we systematically studied the chemotherapeutic potency of 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC. Selective toxicity was investigated by comparing its effect on liver cancer cells and their chemoresistant subpopulations to normal primary hepatocytes and liver tissue slices. Additionally, in a first assessment, the in vivo tolerability of MTBITC was investigated in mice. Growth arrest at G2/M and apoptosis induction was evident in all in vitro cancer models treated with MTBITC, including populations with cancer initiating characteristics. This was found independent from TP53; however cell death was delayed in p53 compromised cells as compared to wt-p53 cells which was probably due to differential BH3 only gene regulation i. e. Noxa and its antagonist A1. In normal hepatocytes, no apoptosis or necrosis could be detected after repeated administration of up to 50 µM MTBITC. In mice, orally applied MTBITC was well tolerated over 18 days of treatment for up to 50 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, we could show here that the killing effect of MTBITC has a definite selectivity for cancer cells over normal liver cells and its cytotoxicity even applies for chemoresistant cancer initiating cells. Our study could serve for a better understanding of the chemotherapeutic properties of isothiocyanates on human liver-derived cancer cells.

  13. Translating Population Difference: The Use and Re-Use of Genetic Ancestry in Brazilian Cancer Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    In the past ten years, there has been an expansion of scientific interest in population genetics linked to both understanding histories of human migration and the way that population difference and diversity may account for and/or be implicated in health and disease. In this article, I examine how particular aspects of a globalizing research agenda related to population differences and genetic ancestry are taken up in locally variant ways in the nascent field of Brazilian cancer genetics. Drawing on a broad range of ethnographic data from clinical and nonclinical contexts in the south of Brazil, I examine the ambiguities that attention to genetic ancestry generates, so revealing the disjunctured and diverse ways a global research agenda increasingly orientated to questions of population difference and genetic ancestry is being used and reused.

  14. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  15. Different effects of ERβ and TROP2 expression in Chinese patients with early-stage colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ji-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Pei-Rong; Ou, Qing-Jian; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Jiang, Wu; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and TROP2 expressed in colon carcinoma and might play an important role there. We explored the relationship of ERβ and TROP2 expression with the prognosis of early-stage colon cancer. ERβ and TROP2 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa and tumoral tissues from 220 Chinese patients with T(3)N(0)M(0) (stage IIa) and T(4)N(0)M(0) (stage IIb) colon cancer in the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, who underwent curative surgical resection between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) data, and the ROC curve, Kaplan-Meier estimate, log rank test, and Jackknife method were used to show the effect of ERβ and TROP2 expression at different stages of cancer. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different between the patients with stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer (83 vs. 80 %, respectively). The high expression of ERβ was related to decreasing OS in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, while the high expression of TROP2 was related to decreasing OS in stage IIb colon cancer. The expression of ERβ and TROP2 has tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effect in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, respectively.

  16. Genetic and Prognostic Differences of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer between Elderly Patients and Younger Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Kenichi; Tomizawa, Kenji; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Simon; Kitahara, Hirokazu; Shimamatsu, Shinichiro; Kohno, Mikihiro; Yoshida, Tsukihisa; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Yatabe, Yasushi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Many elderly patients suffer from lung cancers, but it is not clear if their lung cancers differ from those of younger patients. In this study, we compared genetic and prognostic characteristics of lung cancers of patients aged ≥75 years with those of patients aged ≤ 64 years. In the genetic analysis, we explored 292 surgically treated non-squamous cell lung cancers with known mutational status of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). In the prognostic analysis, we retrospectively analyzed 405 surgically treated non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) before the era of routine clinical application of post-surgical adjuvant chemotherapy. Postsurgical recurrence-free survival (RFS) was compared between elderly patients and younger counterparts. The genetic analysis showed elderly non-squamous cell lung cancer patients to have higher prevalence of EGFR mutations (53.1 % vs 42.0%, P = 0.15) and lower prevalence of the ALK translocation (0 % vs 4.5%, P = 0.23) than their younger counterparts. The prognostic analysis showed postsurgical RFS was similar between the elderly NSCLC patients and the younger patients. However in multivariate analysis, adjusting for gender, smoking status, pathological stage, and histology, elderly patients had significantly worse prognoses (HR 1.57, 95% CI, 1.08-2.29; P = 0.02) compared with younger patients. These results suggest differences in genetic and prognostic aspects between elderly lung cancer patients and younger lung cancer patients. PMID:23251849

  17. Social Cognitive Mediators of Sociodemographic Differences in Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Hing Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examined if and how sociodemographic differences in colorectal cancer (CRC screening uptake can be explained by social cognitive factors. Methods. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with individuals aged 60–70 years (n=1309 living in England as part of a population-based omnibus survey. Results. There were differences in screening uptake by SES, marital status, ethnicity, and age but not by gender. Perceived barriers (stand. b=-0.40, p<0.001, social norms (stand. b=0.33, p<0.001, and screening knowledge (stand. b=0.17, p<0.001 had independent associations with uptake. SES differences in uptake were mediated through knowledge, social norms, and perceived barriers. Ethnic differences were mediated through knowledge. Differences in uptake by marital status were primarily mediated through social norms and to a lesser extent through knowledge. Age differences were largely unmediated, except for a small mediated effect via social norms. Conclusions. Sociodemographic differences in CRC screening uptake were largely mediated through social cognitive factors. Impact. Our findings suggest that multifaceted interventions might be needed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities. Ethnic differences might be reduced through improved screening knowledge. Normative interventions could emphasise screening as an activity endorsed by important others outside the immediate family to appeal to a wider audience.

  18. Therapeutic effect analysis of different neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the locally cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Ju Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the therapeutic effect of different neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the locally cervical cancer.Methods:A total of 85 patients with cervical cancer for the initial treatment who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2011 to January, 2013 were included in the study and divided into the observation group and the control group according to different chemotherapy regimens. The way of drug administration is by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The patients in the observation group were given Taxol in combined with carboplatin for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, while the patients in the control group were given irinotecan in combined with carboplatin. The remission degree of clinical symptoms, chemotherapeutic effect, toxic and side effect, and operation evaluation 14 and 20 days after chemotherapy were evaluated.Results:The comparison of clinical symptom remission between the two groups was not statistically significant. The occurrence rate of myelosuppression in III-IV degree in the observation was significantly higher than that in the control group, but the occurrence rate of diarrhea was significantly lower than that in the control group. The comparisons of operation time and intraoperative amount of bleeding after chemotherapy between the two groups were not statistically significant. The comparisons of the occurrence rates of parametrial infiltration and lymphatic metastasis and the muscular layer invasion depth were not statistically significant.Conclusions:Arterial embolism neoadjuvant chemotherapy can obviously shorten the tumor volume in patients with local cervical cancer, relieve the clinical symptoms, and enhance the living qualities, but in the clinical application, appropriate chemotherapy regimen should be chosen according to the specific condition.

  19. Palliative effect of Re-186 HEDP in different cancer patients with bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical picture of bone metastases is manifested by pain and loss of mechanical stability. Standard treatment options for bone metastases include external beam radiotherapy and the use of analgesics. Due to a large number of lesions in many patients, the use of radionuclide therapy with beta emitters may be preferable. Re-186 hydroxyethydilene diphosphonate (Re-186 HEDP) is one of the radiopharmaceuticals suitable for palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain. The aim of this study was to investigate palliative and side effects of Re-186 HEDP in pts with different type of cancers. Material and method: Thirty one (17 male, 14 female) patients with cancer (10 prostate, 10 breast, 4 rectum, 5 lung, 2 nasopharynx) and bone metastases were included in the study. Therapy was started with a fixed dose of 1295 MBq of Re-186 HEDP. If necessary, the same dose was repeated at least 3 times after an interval of 10-12 weeks A total of 40 standard doses (1295 MBq Re HEDP, Mallinckrodt, Holland) were given; 6 pts received repeated doses (3 doses in 3 pts, 2 doses in 3 pts). The pts with bone marrow suppression were excluded from the study. The pain relief was assessed with ECOG and Karnofsky status index. All pts were evaluated with standard evaluation forms filled daily a maximum of 10 weeks. Results: The respond rate was found as 87.5% in pts with breast and prostate Ca, 75% in pts with rectum Ca, 50% in pts with nasopharynx Ca and 20% in pts with lung Ca. The overall response rate was 67.5%. The palliation period varied between 6 to 10 weeks. The mean palliation period was 8.1 ± 1.3 weeks. Maximal palliation effect was observed between the 3rd and the 7th weeks. Any serious side effects were not seen except mild haematologic toxicity. Discussion and conclusion: It is concluded that Re-186 HEDP is a highly effective agent in the palliation of metastatic bone pain in pts with prostate, breast, rectum cancer, mildly effective in pts with nasopharynx cancer, but not

  20. The Ifugao Alim: Chanted Narrated Dramatic Discourse in Ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bona de Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by way of introducing the little-known Ifugao alim, gives the readers an idea of what has been written about it by Ifugao and non-Ifugao writers and scholars, and recounts my own discovery and study of it. It will focus on the Piwong alim, which was the topic of my dissertation (Rosario de Santos del Rosario 2003, and which I recorded during a live performance in 1975 in Piwong, Hingyon, during the ritual called hongan di tagu—a prestige ritual of the kadangyan, for the welfare of a sick woman. In particular, the paper discusses the Piwong alim’s significance, structure, content and voice, and presents illustrations, through excerpts, which give the reader an insight into its ideological direction and unique aesthetics. The Piwong alim uses a mix of ritual genres, external and internal narration and dramatic character dialogues and monologues.The alim has been considered, by varied Ifugaos, as the crown jewel of its elaborate ritual; a sociological charter; and a magical myth that brings wellbeing.

  1. New therapies for hereditary angioedema: disease outlook changes dramatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael M; Jiang, Haixiang

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with episodic attacks of nonpitting edema that may affect any external or mucosal body surface. Attacks most often affect the extremities, causing local swelling, the GI tract, leading to severe abdominal pain, and the mouth and throat, at times causing asphyxiation. Most patients with HAE have low levels of the plasma serine protease inhibitor C1 inhibitor. The edema in these patients is caused by unregulated generation of bradykinin. Effective chronic therapy of patients with impeded androgens or plasmin inhibitors has been available for decades, but in the United States, we do not have therapy for acute attacks. Five companies have completed or are in the process of conducting phase 3 clinical trials, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of products designed to terminate acute attacks or to be used in prophylaxis. Two companies, Lev Pharmaceuticals and CSL Behring, have preparations of C1 inhibitor purified from plasma that have been used in Europe for decades (trade names Cinryze and Berinert P, respectively). One company, Pharming, has developed a recombinant C1 inhibitor preparation. One company, Dyax, is testing a kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide), and one company, Jerini, is completing testing of a bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist (Icatibant). Although little has been published thus far, all of these products may prove effective. It is likely that HAE treatment will change dramatically within the next few years. PMID:18206518

  2. New therapies for hereditary angioedema: disease outlook changes dramatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael M; Jiang, Haixiang

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with episodic attacks of nonpitting edema that may affect any external or mucosal body surface. Attacks most often affect the extremities, causing local swelling, the GI tract, leading to severe abdominal pain, and the mouth and throat, at times causing asphyxiation. Most patients with HAE have low levels of the plasma serine protease inhibitor C1 inhibitor. The edema in these patients is caused by unregulated generation of bradykinin. Effective chronic therapy of patients with impeded androgens or plasmin inhibitors has been available for decades, but in the United States, we do not have therapy for acute attacks. Five companies have completed or are in the process of conducting phase 3 clinical trials, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of products designed to terminate acute attacks or to be used in prophylaxis. Two companies, Lev Pharmaceuticals and CSL Behring, have preparations of C1 inhibitor purified from plasma that have been used in Europe for decades (trade names Cinryze and Berinert P, respectively). One company, Pharming, has developed a recombinant C1 inhibitor preparation. One company, Dyax, is testing a kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide), and one company, Jerini, is completing testing of a bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist (Icatibant). Although little has been published thus far, all of these products may prove effective. It is likely that HAE treatment will change dramatically within the next few years.

  3. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μm, while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  4. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Binnebose

    Full Text Available Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment.

  5. Differences in trial knowledge and motives for participation among cancer patients in phase 3 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godskesen, T M; Kihlbom, U; Nordin, K; Silén, M; Nygren, P

    2016-05-01

    While participants in clinical oncology trials are essential for the advancement of cancer therapies, factors decisive for patient participation have been described but need further investigation, particularly in the case of phase 3 studies. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in trial knowledge and motives for participation in phase 3 clinical cancer trials in relation to gender, age, education levels and former trial experience. The results of a questionnaire returned from 88 of 96 patients (92%) were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. There were small, barely relevant differences in trial knowledge among patients when stratified by gender, age or education. Participants with former trial experience were less aware about the right to withdraw. Male participants and those aged ≥65 years were significantly more motivated by a feeling of duty, or by the opinions of close ones. Men seem more motivated than women by external factors. With the awareness that elderly and single male participants might be a vulnerable group and participants with former trial experience are less likely to be sufficiently informed, the information consent process should focus more on these patients. We conclude that the informed consent process seems to work well, with good results within most subgroups. PMID:25904313

  6. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in different stages of cervical cancer: Prognostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radical Injury is associated with cancer, but how the extent of oxidative stress correlates with the FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage in Carcinoma Cervix (Ca Cx, and its significance as a prognostic marker, is not clear and needs an in-depth study. Aim: To correlate the blood levels of Lipid Peroxidation (LPO, Reduced Glutathione (GSH, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, and Vitamin A and E levels with the clinical stage in Ca Cx. Settings and Design: This is a Prospective Case Control Study. Materials and Methods: LPO, SOD, reduced GSH were estimated by Bio Chemical Assays and Vitamins by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Statistical Analysis: The cases and controls were compared using One Way ANOVA and different stages over different time periods were individually compared by Repeated Measure Analysis of Variance. Results: The results indicated a statistically significant increase of LPO vis-a-vis the FIGO stage of Ca Cx and control, while the antioxidant status as depicted by GSH and SOD decreased. Vitamin A and E levels were significantly lower in cancer cases as compared to the control. Conclusion: Increased LPO and reduced antioxidant levels may be taken as associated predictive markers, thus suggesting that Ca Cx cases should get nutritive supplements to contain the blood LPO level and maintain a positive balance of antioxidants for a better outcome in terms of delayed recurrence and better Quality of Life (QOL.

  7. Vascular Differences Detected by MRI for Metastatic Versus Nonmetastatic Breast and Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaver M. Bhujwalla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have linked vascular density, identified in histologic sections, to “metastatic risk.” Functional information of the vasculature, not readily available from histologic sections, can be obtained with contrast-enhanced MRI to exploit for therapy or metastasis prevention. Our aims were to determine if human breast and prostate cancer xenograffs preselected for differences in invasive and metastatic characteristics established correspondingly different vascular volume and permeability, quantified here with noninvasive MRI of the intravascular contrast agent albumin-GdDTPA. Tumor vascular volume and permeability of human breast and prostate cancer xenografts were characterized using MRI. Parallel studies confirmed the invasive behavior of these cell lines. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in the cell lines was measured using ELISA and Western blots. Metastasis to the lungs was evaluated with spontaneous as well as experimental assay. Metastatic tumors formed vasculature with significantly higher permeability or vascular volume (P < .05, two-sided unpaired t test. The permeability profile matched VEGF expression. Within tumors, regions of high vascular volume usually exhibited low permeability whereas regions of low vascular volume exhibited high permeability. We observed that although invasion was necessary, without adequate vascularization it was not sufficient for metastasis to occur.

  8. Estimation of Nickel in Different Smokeless Tobacco Products and Their Impact on Human Health of Oral Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam S; Sahito, Oan M

    2015-01-01

    It has been extensively investigated that the chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products may enhance the inflammation of the oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between nickel (Ni) exposure via different SLT products with oral cancer (different sites) incidence in the population of Sindh, Pakistan. The different brands of SLT products (mainpuri, gutkha, and moist snuff) commonly consumed by the studied population were analyzed for Ni contents. The biological samples of oral cancer patients and noncancerous control subjects of both genders, who have or have not consumed SLT products, were collected. The concentration of Ni in biological samples and SLT products were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the Ni level was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients compared to controls (P cancer.

  9. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Two Different Fractionation Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This is a retrospective study comparing our experience with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer, using two different fractionation schemes, 600 cGy × 3 fractions (patient group 1) and 950 cGy × 2 fractions (patient group 2). Methods and Materials: A total of 165 patients were treated for prostate cancer using external beam radiation therapy up to a dose of 45 Gy, followed by an HDR brachytherapy prostate radiation boost. Between July 1997 and Nov 1999, 64 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 600 cGy × 3 fractions; and between June 2000 and Nov 2005, 101 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 950 cGy × 2 fractions. All but 9 patients had at least one of the following risk features: pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >10, a Gleason score ≥7, and/or clinical stage T3 disease. Results: Median follow-up was 105 months for group 1 and 43 months for group 2. Patients in group 2 had a greater number of high-risk features than group 1 (p = 0.02). Adjusted for comparable follow-up, there was no difference in biochemical no-evidence-of-disease (bNED) rate between the two fractionation scheme approaches, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 93.5% in group 1 and 87.3% in group 2 (p = 0.19). The 5-year estimates of progression-free survival were 86% for group 1 and 83% for group 2 (p = 0.53). Among high-risk patients, there were no differences in bNED or PFS rate due to fractionation. Conclusions: Results were excellent for both groups. Adjusted for comparable follow-up, no differences were found between groups.

  10. Differences in the tumor microenvironment between African-American and European-American breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damali N Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the

  11. Difference of cell cycle arrests induced by lidamycin in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; He, Hongwei; Feng, Yun; Zhang, Min; Ren, Kaihuan; Shao, Rongguang

    2006-02-01

    Lidamycin (LDM) is a member of the enediyne antibiotic family. It is undergoing phase I clinical trials in China as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which LDM induced cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells. The results showed that LDM induced G1 arrest in p53 wild-type MCF-7 cells at low concentrations, and caused both G1 and G2/M arrests at higher concentrations. In contrast, LDM induced only G2/M arrest in p53-mutant MCF-7/DOX cells. Western blotting analysis indicated that LDM-induced G1 and G2/M arrests in MCF-7 cells were associated with an increase of p53 and p21, and a decrease of phosphorylated retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk), Cdc2 and cyclin B1 protein levels. However, LDM-induced G2/M arrest in MCF-7/DOX cells was correlated with the reduction of cyclin B1 expression. Further study indicated that the downregulation of cyclin B1 by LDM in MCF-7 cells was associated with decreasing cyclin B1 mRNA levels and promoting protein degradation, whereas it was only due to inducing cyclin B1 protein degradation in MCF-7/DOX cells. In addition, activation of checkpoint kinases Chk1 or Chk2 maybe contributed to LDM-induced cell cycle arrest. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that LDM induces different cell cycle arrests in human breast cancer cells, which are dependent on drug concentration and p53 status. These findings are helpful in understanding the molecular anti-cancer mechanisms of LDM and support its clinical trials. PMID:16428935

  12. Site-Dependent Differences in Clinical, Pathohistological, and Molecular Parameters in Metastatic Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wilmanns, Sandra Steinhauer, Joachim Grossmann, Günther Ruf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to develop a metastatic score specific to the hepatic and peritoneal site in colorectal cancer patients from clinical, pathohistological and molecular markers potentially reflecting oncogenic activation (OA or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, where OA may reflect an activation and EMT the functional loss of certain genes. The primary tumour stage (OA, EMT, lymphonodal stage (OA, the presence of a lymphangiosis carcinomatosa (OA, histological grade (OA, EMT, and immunoblot extraction of E-cadherin (OA, EMT were differentially rated with zero to one or two points due to their potential contribution to each process and the resulting scores were validated in 27 colorectal cancer patients (three patients with pre-malignant adenomas, 16 with primaries and two with local recurrencies, three of which were metastatic to the peritoneum, six metastatic to the liver and two metastatic to both, the liver and the peritoneum, and five with hepatic secondaries, one of which at histology was metastatic to the peritoneum too. As a single parameter only the N-stage significantly contributed to OA (p<0.05. Median OA and EMT scores, however, were 3.5 and 2 in the case of primaries without further spread, 5 and 4 in those nodal positive, 5 and 4 in the case of peritoneal implants, 6 and 2 in the case of liver metastases, and 6.5 and 3 in the case of a simultaneous hepatic and peritoneal spread, respectively. These differences were significant when scores from patients with and without liver metastases (OA, p<0.002 or with peritoneal implants and isolated hepatic spread (EMT, p<0.01 were compared. The results suggest a site-specific contribution of OA and EMT to tumour progression in human colon cancer.

  13. How specific Raman spectroscopic models are: a comparative study between different cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Kumar, K. Kalyan; Chowdary, M. V. P.; Maheedhar, K.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2010-02-01

    Optical spectroscopic methods are being contemplated as adjunct/ alternative to existing 'Gold standard' of cancer diagnosis, histopathological examination. Several groups are actively pursuing diagnostic applications of Ramanspectroscopy in cancers. We have developed Raman spectroscopic models for diagnosis of breast, oral, stomach, colon and larynx cancers. So far, specificity and applicability of spectral- models has been limited to particular tissue origin. In this study we have evaluated explicitly of spectroscopic-models by analyzing spectra from already developed spectralmodels representing normal and malignant tissues of breast (46), cervix (52), colon (25), larynx (53), and oral (47). Spectral data was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using scores of factor, Mahalanobis distance and Spectral residuals as discriminating parameters. Multiparametric limit test approach was also explored. The preliminary unsupervised PCA of pooled data indicates that normal tissue types were always exclusive from their malignant counterparts. But when we consider tissue of different origin, large overlap among clusters was found. Supervised analysis by Mahalanobis distance and spectral residuals gave similar results. The 'limit test' approach where classification is based on match / mis-match of the given spectrum against all the available spectra has revealed that spectral models are very exclusive and specific. For example breast normal spectral model show matches only with breast normal spectra and mismatch to rest of the spectra. Same pattern was seen for most of spectral models. Therefore, results of the study indicate the exclusiveness and efficacy of Raman spectroscopic-models. Prospectively, these findings might open new application of Raman spectroscopic models in identifying a tumor as primary or metastatic.

  14. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, C. M.; Nagle, C. M.; Whiteman, D C; Ness, R; C. L. Pearce; Pike, M. C.; Rossing, M A; Terry, Kathryn Lynne; Wu, A. H.; Risch, H A; Yu, H.; Doherty, J. A.; Chang-Claude, J; Hein, R.; Nickels, S

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher body-mass index (BMI) increases a woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We ev...

  15. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Global Ultraviolet Indea in Different Regions of Iran with Skin Cancer in 1383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Naddafi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Skin cancer is the most frequent malignancy in Iran. Exposure to the excessive ultraviolet radiation is an important factor in creating skin tumors. The purpose of this study is to determine how the ultraviolet index has been distributed in all townships throughout the country, to determine different kinds of skin cancer and to evaluate a geographical distribution of skin cancers with regard to the UV geographical distribution."nMaterials and Methods: This study is ecologic, descriptive and analytical in nature. A total number of 6921 skin cancer cases registered at the Center for Disease Control of Iran in 2004 were thoroughly analyzed and UV data were collected from the world wide web. With the help of ArcGIS software and SPSS, the statistical analysis was done. "nResults:The incidence rates were 10.13 for the total skin cancer, 7.53 for basal cell carcinoma, 1.79 for squamous cell carcinoma and 0.39 for malignant melanoma per 100000 population of Iran. The mean ultraviolet index differed from 9 in July to 3 in January. The correlation between the skin cancer incidence at the level of districts and ultraviolet index was not significantly observed. "nConclusion:Skin cancer is a public health problem in Iran. Further research in this regard would lead to skin cancer registration improvement and more understanding of different climatic, cultural and behavioral factors in developing skin tumors. With this knowledge the possibility of more effective prevention of the most prevalent cancer in Iran can be created.

  16. Effective combination treatment of lung cancer cells by single vehicular delivery of siRNA and different anticancer drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xue, Shanshan; Sun, Jinghua; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ping; Ji, Liangnian; Mao, Zongwan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, lung cancer has become one of the fastest growing cancers in the world. Thus, the development of efficient combination therapy to treat lung cancer has attracted significant attention in the cancer therapy field. In this article, we developed a single vehicle drug delivery system, based on quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles, to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA; target Bcl-2) and different anticancer drugs (carboplatin, paclitaxel, and doxorubicin) simultaneously for treating A549 lung cancer cells efficiently by combination therapy. The QD nanoparticles were conjugated with l-arginine (l-Arg) and different kinds of hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins (HP-α-CDs, HP-β-CDs, and HP-γ-CDs) on the surface to form the delivery nanocarriers (QD nanocarriers). They were able to not only bind and transport the siRNA through electrostatic interactions with l-Arg residues but also accommodate various disparate anticancer drugs using different HP-CD modifications. Compared with free drug treatments, the use of QD nanocarriers to deliver Bcl-2 siRNA and different anticancer drugs simultaneously exerted a threefold to fourfold increase in cytotoxicity in A549 cells, which greatly improved the treatment efficacy through combined action. Furthermore, the QD nanocarriers could be used as a probe for real-time imaging of the drug delivery and release because of their strong fluorescence properties. These findings indicate that multifunctional QD nanocarriers hold great promise as a powerful tool for combination therapy for lung cancer.

  17. The prophylactic effect of probiotic Enterococcus lactis IW5 against different human cancer cells

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    YOUSEF eNAMI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus lactis IW5 was obtained from human gut and the potential probiotic characteristics of this organism were then evaluated. Results showed that this strain was highly resistant to low pH and high bile salt and adhered strongly to Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal cell lines. The supernatant of E. lactis IW5 strongly inhibited the growth of several pathogenic bacteria and decreased the viability of different cancer cells, such as HeLa, AGS, HT-29, and MCF-7. Conversely, E. lactis IW5 did not inhibit the viability of normal FHs-74 cells. This strain did not generate toxic enzymes, including β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and was highly susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, penicillin, vancomycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazol, and chloramphenicol but resistant to erythromycin and tetracyclin. This study provided evidence for the effect of E. lactis IW5 on cancer cells. Therefore, E. lactis IW5, as a bioactive therapeutics, should be subjected to other relevant tests to verify the therapeutic suitability of this strain for clinical applications.

  18. Effects of astragali radix on the growth of different cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Lin; Hui-Fang Dong; JJ Oppenheim; OM Howard

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of a Chinese herb medicine Astragali radix (AR) on growth of different cancer cell lines.METHODS: To observe the in vitro effects of AR on tumor cell proliferation by trypan blue exclusion, MTS method and tritium thymidine incorporation assay. Apoptosis was detected by DNA ladder method.RESULTS: The inhibition rates of AR on the cell respiration of AGS, KATOⅢ, HT29, MDA231, MEL7 and MEL14 were 68.25%, 62.36%, 22.8%, 27.69%, 2.85% and 5.14%respectively at the concentration of 100 ug/ml; it inhibited AGS DNA synthesis by 87.33% at the concentration of 50ug/ml. The inhibitory effect on AGS was time-and dosedependent. AR did not induce apoptosis in AGS cells.CONCLUSION: AR specifically inhibits gastric cancer cells growth in vitro and the mechanism is mainly cytostatic but not cytotoxic or inducing apoptosis.

  19. Anti-proliferative activity of Fumaria vaillantii extracts on different cancer cell lines

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    Fatemeh Haji Abbas Tabrizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived natural products are known to have cancer chemo-preventive and chemo-therapeutic properties. Plant extracts or their active constituents are used as folk medicine in traditional therapies by 80% of the world population. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-proliferative potential of Fumaria vaillantii extracts on three different cancer cell lines including malignant melanoma SKMEL-3, human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and human myelogenous leukemia K562 as well as human gingival fibroblast (HGF as normal cell line. Anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, flowcytometry and annexin methods. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods. Chloroform fraction had the lowest IC 50 value at 72 h (0.1 μg/ml in MCF-7 cells. Flowcytometry and annexin-V analysis indicated that the chloroform fraction induced necrosis in MCF-7 cells. In addition, the colorimetric methods showed that the methanolic fraction possessed the highest amount of total phenolics (33.03 ± 0.75 mg/g of dry powder and flavonoids (10.5 ± 2.0 mg/g of dry powder.The collective data demonstrated that F. vaillantii chloroform fraction may contain effective compounds with chemo-therapeutic potential act through an apoptotic independent pathway.

  20. Differential Expression of Proteins in Lung Cancer Using Difference in Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, P; Aulak, K. S.; Masri, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection of lung cancer is problematic due to the lack of a marker with high diagnosis sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to develop techniques to identify the differential expression protein profiles between tumor and tumor free of lung cancer tissues. Methods: 2-dimensional differential ingel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of...

  1. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized.This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups.A population-based, case-control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups.Individuals with dinner-to-bed time 55 years old. PMID:27100427

  2. Are different groups of cancer patients offered rehabilitation to the same extent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit;

    2012-01-01

    The number of cancer survivors is growing and cancer is now viewed as a chronic disease. This has highlighted the importance of providing adequate rehabilitation to prevent physical, psychological, and social sequelae of cancer. However, it is unclear whether those in need of rehabilitation are o...... are offered this....

  3. Different Array CGH profiles within hereditary breast cancer tumors associated to BRCA1 expression and overall survival

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Carolina; Aravena, Andrés; Tapia, Teresa; Rozenblum, Ester; Solís, Luisa; Corvalán, Alejandro; Camus, Mauricio; Alvarez, Manuel; Munroe, David; Maass, Alejandro; Carvallo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background Array CGH analysis of breast tumors has contributed to the identification of different genomic profiles in these tumors. Loss of DNA repair by BRCA1 functional deficiency in breast cancer has been proposed as a relevant contribution to breast cancer progression for tumors with no germline mutation. Identifying the genomic alterations taking place in BRCA1 not expressing tumors will lead us to a better understanding of the cellular functions affected in this heterogeneous disease. M...

  4. Exon-level transcriptome profiling in murine breast cancer reveals splicing changes specific to tumors with different metastatic abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Bemmo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the second most frequent type of cancer affecting women. We are increasingly aware that changes in mRNA splicing are associated with various characteristics of cancer. The most deadly aspect of cancer is metastasis, the process by which cancer spreads from the primary tumor to distant organs. However, little is known specifically about the involvement of alternative splicing in the formation of macroscopic metastases. Our study investigates transcript isoform changes that characterize tumors of different abilities to form growing metastases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To identify alternative splicing events (ASEs that are associated with the fully metastatic phenotype in breast cancer, we used Affymetrix Exon Microarrays to profile mRNA isoform variations genome-wide in weakly metastatic (168FARN and 4T07 and highly metastatic (4T1 mammary carcinomas. Statistical analysis identified significant expression changes in 7606 out of 155,994 (4% exons and in 1725 out of 189,460 (1% intronic regions, which affect 2623 out of 16,654 (16% genes. These changes correspond to putative alternative isoforms-several of which are novel-that are differentially expressed between tumors of varying metastatic phenotypes. Gene pathway analysis showed that 1224 of genes expressing alternative isoforms were involved in cell growth, cell interactions, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell death and have been previously linked to cancers and genetic disorders. We chose ten predicted splice variants for RT-PCR validation, eight of which were successfully confirmed (MED24, MFI2, SRRT, CD44, CLK1 and HNRNPH1. These include three novel intron retentions in CD44, a gene in which isoform variations have been previously associated with the metastasis of several cancers. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal that various genes are differently spliced and/or expressed in association with the metastatic phenotype of tumor cells. Identification of

  5. Comparing three different approaches to the measurement of needs concerning fatigue in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aagaard;

    2015-01-01

    -sectional nationwide survey, patients were asked about their needs concerning fatigue in three different ways: Fatigue intensity was measured with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire, fatigue burden (the extent fatigue was a problem) and fatigue felt need......: In total, 1447 patients participated (61 %). Of these, 34 % reported at least quite a bit fatigue (intensity), 36 % reported at least quite a bit fatigue burden, and 35 % reported experiencing an unmet need. There was a high correlation between fatigue intensity and fatigue burden (0.91). Fatigue intensity...... was also correlated with experiencing an unmet need and having at least a little fatigue predicted experiencing an unmet need. CONCLUSION: Overall, no matter which approach was used, about a third of the patients had a need concerning fatigue. In nearly all cases, patients who had fatigue also experienced...

  6. Differing self-similarity in light scattering spectra: A potential tool for pre-cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sayantan; Purwar, Harsh; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K

    2011-01-01

    The fluctuations in the elastic light scattering spectra of normal and dysplastic human cervical tissues analyzed through wavelet transform based techniques reveal clear signatures of self-similar behavior in the spectral fluctuations. Significant differences in the power law behavior ascertained through the scaling exponent was observed in these tissues. The strong dependence of the elastic light scattering on the size distribution of the scatterers manifests in the angular variation of the scaling exponent. Interestingly, the spectral fluctuations in both these tissues showed multi-fractality (non-stationarity in fluctuations), the degree of multi-fractality being marginally higher in the case of dysplastic tissues. These findings using the multi-resolution analysis capability of the discrete wavelet transform can contribute to the recent surge in the exploration for non-invasive optical tools for pre-cancer detection.

  7. Different Effects of BORIS/CTCFL on Stemness Gene Expression, Sphere Formation and Cell Survival in Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Alberti

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells are cancer cells characterized by stem cell properties and represent a small population of tumor cells that drives tumor development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance. To date, the molecular mechanisms that generate and regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. BORIS (Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites or CTCFL (CTCF-like is a DNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal tissues only in germ cells and is re-activated in tumors. Recent evidences have highlighted the correlation of BORIS/CTCFL expression with poor overall survival of different cancer patients. We have previously shown an association of BORIS-expressing cells with stemness gene expression in embryonic cancer cells. Here, we studied the role of BORIS in epithelial tumor cells. Using BORIS-molecular beacon that was already validated, we were able to show the presence of BORIS mRNA in cancer stem cell-enriched populations (side population and spheres of cervical, colon and breast tumor cells. BORIS silencing studies showed a decrease of sphere formation capacity in breast and colon tumor cells. Importantly, BORIS-silencing led to down-regulation of hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1 and cancer stem cell markers (ABCG2, CD44 and ALDH1 genes. Conversely, BORIS-induction led to up-regulation of the same genes. These phenotypes were observed in cervical, colon and invasive breast tumor cells. However, a completely different behavior was observed in the non-invasive breast tumor cells (MCF7. Indeed, these cells acquired an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype after BORIS silencing. Our results demonstrate that BORIS is associated with cancer stem cell-enriched populations of several epithelial tumor cells and the different phenotypes depend on the origin of tumor cells.

  8. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  9. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  10. Comparative accuracy of different techniques in planning radiation therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the results of the analysis of several factors contributing to the accuracy of treatment planning in the radiation therapy of breast cancer. Different techniques (non-radiological vs CT-based) were used for the acquisition of patients' data; different methods (manual vs computerized) were employed for dose calculation. As for geometric parameters describing the external outline and target volume, mean differences were lower than 4%. Switching from a completely manual method to a CT-based one with computerized calculation, a 3.56% mean decrease in the value of reference isodose (p<0.01) was observed, togheter with a 3.87% mean increase in the estimated inhomogeneity (p<0.001). The non-CT-based outline of target volume exhibited geographic missing of inner portions of the target in 8/16 patients. Our results demonstarte that treatment planning procedures can be a significant source of clinically relevant inaccuracy, which may affect treatment outcome and tumor control

  11. Gender-associated Differences of Lung Cancer and Mechanism%肺癌的性别差异及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢昕; 廖永德; 唐和孝; 陈广; 具晟; 游良琨

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer has been viewed as the most common malignant cancer with high incidence, mortality and poor survival all over the world. A lot of investigations indicated there are significant gender-associated differences in lung cancer in several characteristics such as epidemiology, pathology, clinical outcome and prognosis. The insight into these differences may help to clarify the gender-associated characteristics of lung cancer, and to drawn out new approach for treatment and prevent of lung cancer depending on gender-associated characteristics. Furthmore, study on mechanism of gender-associated characteristics may even help to illuminate the pathogenesis of lung cancer.%肺癌是全球发病率、死亡率最高、治疗效果差的恶性肿瘤.肺癌在流行病学、病理类型、疗效和预后、甚至发病机制等多方面均表现出明显性别差异.对这些差异的深入剖析能更好地认识男女性别肺癌各自的特点,为肺癌防治采用不同的性别化措施提供新线索和思路;而对导致性别差异的具体机制进行深入研究,有助于阐明肺癌的发病机制.

  12. Proteomic analysis of human saliva from lung cancer patients using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Hui; Lee, Jay M; Garon, Edward B; Wong, David T W

    2012-02-01

    Lung cancer is often asymptomatic or causes only nonspecific symptoms in its early stages. Early detection represents one of the most promising approaches to reduce the growing lung cancer burden. Human saliva is an attractive diagnostic fluid because its collection is less invasive than that of tissue or blood. Profiling of proteins in saliva over the course of disease progression could reveal potential biomarkers indicative of oral or systematic diseases, which may be used extensively in future medical diagnostics. There were 72 subjects enrolled in this study for saliva sample collection according to the approved protocol. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis combined with MS was the platform for salivary proteome separation, quantification, and identification from two pooled samples. Candidate proteomic biomarkers were verified and prevalidated by using immunoassay methods. There were 16 candidate protein biomarkers discovered by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and MS. Three proteins were further verified in the discovery sample set, prevalidation sample set, and lung cancer cell lines. The discriminatory power of these candidate biomarkers in lung cancer patients and healthy control subjects can reach 88.5% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity with AUC = 0.90. This preliminary data report demonstrates that proteomic biomarkers are present in human saliva when people develop lung cancer. The discriminatory power of these candidate biomarkers indicate that a simple saliva test might be established for lung cancer clinical screening and detection.

  13. Interrogating differences in expression of targeted gene sets to predict breast cancer outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    parameters in predicting recurrence/mortality, and when combined, offered some improvement relative to clinical information alone for disease recurrence (median difference in C-values of 0.03, 95% CI of -0.08 to 0.13). Collectively, results suggest that these genes form the basis for a clinical laboratory test to predict clinical outcome of breast cancer

  14. Hypoxia-induced modulation of apoptosis and BCL-2 family proteins in different cancer cell types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Sermeus

    Full Text Available Hypoxia plays an important role in the resistance of tumour cells to chemotherapy. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Moreover, according to the cell lines, hypoxia differently influences cell death. The study of the effects of hypoxia on the apoptosis induced by 5 chemotherapeutic drugs in 7 cancer cell types showed that hypoxia generally inhibited the drug-induced apoptosis. In most cases, the effect of hypoxia was the same for all the drugs in one cell type. The expression profile of 93 genes involved in apoptosis as well as the protein level of BCL-2 family proteins were then investigated. In HepG2 cells that are strongly protected against cell death by hypoxia, hypoxia decreased the abundance of nearly all the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins while none of them are decreased in A549 cells that are not protected against cell death by hypoxia. In HepG2 cells, hypoxia decreased NOXA and BAD abundance and modified the electrophoretic mobility of BIM(EL. BIM and NOXA are important mediators of etoposide-induced cell death in HepG2 cells and the hypoxia-induced modification of these proteins abundance or post-translational modifications partly account for chemoresistance. Finally, the modulation of the abundance and/or of the post-translational modifications of most proteins of the BCL-2 family by hypoxia involves p53-dependent and -independent pathways and is cell type-dependent. A better understanding of these cell-to-cell variations is crucial in order to overcome hypoxia-induced resistance and to ameliorate cancer therapy.

  15. Different clinical characteristics in sporadic young-age onset colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Jun Gi; Oh, Seung Tack; Kang, Won Kyung; Lee, Myung Ah

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in young-age patients, but the clinical history is not established. Authors analyzed the clinical characteristics of young-age onset CRC to support basic information for setting treatment policies.Between January 2006 to January 2014, 100 CRC patients diagnosed at the age of 10 to 39 were analyzed. The clinicopathologic characteristics were reviewed based on medical records. Survival outcomes including overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. This study was conducted as a retrospective, observation study.Among 100 patients, 86 patients were diagnosed as CRC at their thirties. Seventy-nine patients had no familial history of cancer. At initial diagnosis, 59 patients showed the normal CEA level (≤3 ng/mL), and 61 patients were diagnosed as advanced CRC (40% stage III, 21% stage IV). Sixty-four patients had lower location-sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid junction, or rectum. Recurrence rate was 7.9% in stage I to III CRC. Although median OS was not reached, patients with normal CEA level showed better survival outcome (P = 0.013) and patients with perineural invasion showed poorer survival (P = 0.011). The 5-year survival rate of total patient population was estimated as 75%. However, median OS of stage IV patients were 19 months (range 7.9-60.63 months), shorter than historical data of >24 months.Young-age CRC was most commonly diagnosed at their thirties, with no familial history, normal range of CEA and located below sigmoid colon. In young-age onset stage IV CRC, patients showed inferior OS compared to historical data. Based on our data, different surveillance program other than serum CEA level (e.g., sigmoidoscopy) is needed in young-age patient population. PMID:27631240

  16. Dramatization at Extracurricular Activities as a Means to Enhance Foreign Language Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Valeryevna Kuimova; Denis Alexandrovich Polyushko

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of foreign language teaching is to learn to communicate and overcome the language barrier. The article studies dramatization and its appropriateness in foreign language teaching, provides criteria for choosing a literary work for dramatization. The use of dramatization at extracurricular activities develops communication abilities, creativity; enhances motivation to learn a foreign language and strengthens students’ confidence in a foreign language.

  17. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  18. The Effect of Different Comorbidities on Survival of Non-small Cells Lung Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, Maria; Jakobsen, Erik; Møller, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Primary lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancers. Comorbidity has been shown to be a negative prognostic factor in the overall lung cancer population. The significance of the individual comorbidities is less well known. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect...... without comorbidity: [HR 1.19 with CI (1.02; 1.39) for diabetes, HR 1.18 with CI (1.05; 1.33) for cerebrovascular disorders, and HR 1.20 with CI (1.10; 1.39 for COPD)]. CONCLUSION: Our study shows the importance of cardiovascular disease in lung cancer. Diabetes, cerebrovascular disorders, and COPD also...

  19. The impact of different dose response parameters on biologically optimized IMRT in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Ferreira, Brigida; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Adamus-Górka, Magdalena; Svensson, Roger; Lind, Bengt K.

    2008-05-01

    The full potential of biologically optimized radiation therapy can only be maximized with the prediction of individual patient radiosensitivity prior to treatment. Unfortunately, the available biological parameters, derived from clinical trials, reflect an average radiosensitivity of the examined populations. In the present study, a breast cancer patient of stage I II with positive lymph nodes was chosen in order to analyse the effect of the variation of individual radiosensitivity on the optimal dose distribution. Thus, deviations from the average biological parameters, describing tumour, heart and lung response, were introduced covering the range of patient radiosensitivity reported in the literature. Two treatment configurations of three and seven biologically optimized intensity-modulated beams were employed. The different dose distributions were analysed using biological and physical parameters such as the complication-free tumour control probability (P+), the biologically effective uniform dose (\\bar{\\bar{D}} ), dose volume histograms, mean doses, standard deviations, maximum and minimum doses. In the three-beam plan, the difference in P+ between the optimal dose distribution (when the individual patient radiosensitivity is known) and the reference dose distribution, which is optimal for the average patient biology, ranges up to 13.9% when varying the radiosensitivity of the target volume, up to 0.9% when varying the radiosensitivity of the heart and up to 1.3% when varying the radiosensitivity of the lung. Similarly, in the seven-beam plan, the differences in P+ are up to 13.1% for the target, up to 1.6% for the heart and up to 0.9% for the left lung. When the radiosensitivity of the most important tissues in breast cancer radiation therapy was simultaneously changed, the maximum gain in outcome was as high as 7.7%. The impact of the dose response uncertainties on the treatment outcome was clinically insignificant for the majority of the simulated patients

  20. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO)-reactive T cells differ in their functional characteristics in health and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Mads Duus; Larsen, Stine Kiaer; Kongsted, Per;

    2015-01-01

    in response to TDO-derived MHC-class II restricted peptides. Hence, in healthy donors (HD) a Th1 helper response was predominant, whereas in cancer patients CD4(+) T-cell responses were skewed toward a regulatory T cell (Treg) response. Furthermore, MM patients hosting a TDO-specific IL-17 response...... cells of different origin. Interestingly, the processed and presented TDO-derived epitopes varied between different cancer cells. With respect to CD4(+) TDO-reactive T cells, in vitro expanded T-cell cultures comprised a Th1 and/or a Treg phenotype. In summary, our data demonstrate that the immune...

  1. Liposomes versus metallic nanostructures: differences in the process of knowledge translation in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajardo-Ortiz D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available David Fajardo-Ortiz,1 Luis Duran,1 Laura Moreno,1 Héctor Ochoa,2 Víctor M Castaño1,3,41Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 2El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristobal de las Casas, Mexico; 3Molecular Material Department, Applied Physics and Advanced Technology Center, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Juriquilla, Mexico; 4Advanced Technology Center, CIATEQ, Queretaro, MexicoAbstract: This research maps the knowledge translation process for two different types of nanotechnologies applied to cancer: liposomes and metallic nanostructures (MNs. We performed a structural analysis of citation networks and text mining supported in controlled vocabularies. In the case of liposomes, our results identify subnetworks (invisible colleges associated with different therapeutic strategies: nanopharmacology, hyperthermia, and gene therapy. Only in the pharmacological strategy was an organized knowledge translation process identified, which, however, is monopolized by the liposomal doxorubicins. In the case of MNs, subnetworks are not differentiated by the type of therapeutic strategy, and the content of the documents is still basic research. Research on MNs is highly focused on developing a combination of molecular imaging and photothermal therapy.Keywords: nanotechnology, citation network analysis, basic research, clinics, health care

  2. Comparing Perception of Stroop Stimuli in Focused versus Divided Attention Paradigms: Evidence for Dramatic Processing Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidels, Ami; Townsend, James T.; Algom, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A huge set of focused attention experiments show that when presented with color words printed in color, observers report the ink color faster if the carrier word is the name of the color rather than the name of an alternative color, the Stroop effect. There is also a large number (although not so numerous as the Stroop task) of so-called…

  3. Dramatizing Theories of Gender and Feminism with Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Jette; Starr, Joan E.; Sitjar, Allyn; Brophy, Shannon; Korty, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Investigates what explicit and implicit theories of gender and feminism drive teachers' drama practices. Juxtaposes adults' anecdotal perceptions of gender with young people from preschool through high school in three different contexts: a university drama education classroom, an after-school drama class at a children's theatre, and a youth…

  4. Detection of Breast Cancer with Mammography in the First Screening Round in Relation to Expected Incidence in Different Age Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio (R) of prevalence of screening-detected breast cancer in the first screening round (P) was compared with the expected incidence rate (I) for different age groups in several screening programs. Published data on the first screening round from three Swedish randomized trials and six counties with service screening were used. The women invited to take part in the screening were aged 40-74 years. Not only P and I but also R increased with increasing age. With the youngest age group as reference, the increase was statistically significant for both invasive cancer and invasive cancer and carcinoma in situ together. The studied ratio (R) can be thought of as a measure of efficiency in detecting breast cancer cases in mammography screening. The reasons for the increase are probably that the breast tissue of younger women is denser, which makes the cancer more difficult to detect by mammography, and that slow-growing cancers tend to appear more frequently in older women

  5. Long Lasting Effects of Smoking: Breast Cancer Survivors’ Inflammatory Responses to Acute Stress Differ by Smoking History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeanette M.; Glaser, Ronald; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Peng, Juan; Malarkey, William B.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to be the most preventable cause of illness and death and has been linked to the development and prognosis of cancer. Current smokers have higher levels of inflammation than nonsmokers, and inflammation can remain elevated in former smokers even years following cessation. Inflammation can also be enhanced by stress. This study examined cortisol and inflammatory responses to a laboratory stressor in breast cancer survivors who formerly smoked compared to their counterparts who had never smoked. Participants included 89 women (age = 51.6 ± 8.9 years) who had completed treatment for stage 0–IIIA breast cancer within the past three years and were at least two months post surgery, radiation or chemotherapy, whichever occurred last. Cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were evaluated in response to a standardized laboratory speech and mental arithmetic stressor. Former (n=25) and never (n=64) smokers did not differ by cancer stage, cancer treatment, comorbidities, time since cancer treatment, depression, or stress. Despite having similar cortisol responses to the stressor, former smokers had exaggerated IL-6 responses two hours post-stressor compared to never smokers. This effect persisted after controlling for age, BMI, time since treatment, education, and antidepressant use. An exaggerated and prolonged inflammatory response to stress could be one mechanism underlying the persistent inflammation observed in former smokers. PMID:22727479

  6. Monitoring of permeability of different analytes in human normal and cancerous bladder tissues in vitro using optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingsong Lei; Xiaoyuan Deng; Huajiang Wei; Zhouyi Guo [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, Guangdong Province (China); Guoyong Wu [Department of Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China); Hongqin Yang; Shusen Xie [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education of China, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian (China); Yonghong He [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China)

    2014-12-31

    We report our preliminary results on quantification of glucose and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) diffusion in normal and cancerous human bladder tissues in vitro by using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The permeability coefficients (PCs) of a 30% aqueous solution of glucose are found to be (7.92 ± 0.81) × 10{sup -6} cm s{sup -1} and (1.19 ± 0.13) × 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} in normal and cancerous bladder tissues, respectively. The PCs of 50% DMSO are calculated to be (8.99 ± 0.93) × 10{sup -6} cm s{sup -1} and (1.43 ± 0.17) × 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} in normal and cancerous bladder tissues, respectively. The obtained results show a statistically significant difference in permeability of normal and cancerous tissue and indicate that the PC of 50% DMSO is about 1.13-and 1.21-fold higher than that of 30% glucose in normal bladder and cancerous bladder tissues, respectively. Thus, the quantitative measurements with the help of PCs from OCT images can be a potentially powerful method for bladder cancer detection. (optical coherence tomography)

  7. Monitoring of permeability of different analytes in human normal and cancerous bladder tissues in vitro using optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report our preliminary results on quantification of glucose and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) diffusion in normal and cancerous human bladder tissues in vitro by using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The permeability coefficients (PCs) of a 30% aqueous solution of glucose are found to be (7.92 ± 0.81) × 10-6 cm s-1 and (1.19 ± 0.13) × 10-5 cm s-1 in normal and cancerous bladder tissues, respectively. The PCs of 50% DMSO are calculated to be (8.99 ± 0.93) × 10-6 cm s-1 and (1.43 ± 0.17) × 10-5 cm s-1 in normal and cancerous bladder tissues, respectively. The obtained results show a statistically significant difference in permeability of normal and cancerous tissue and indicate that the PC of 50% DMSO is about 1.13-and 1.21-fold higher than that of 30% glucose in normal bladder and cancerous bladder tissues, respectively. Thus, the quantitative measurements with the help of PCs from OCT images can be a potentially powerful method for bladder cancer detection. (optical coherence tomography)

  8. The enhanced bladder cancer susceptibility of NAT2 slow acetylators towards aromatic amines: a review considering ethnic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Prior, Verena; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-03-10

    Human bladder cancer may be caused by exposure to aromatic amines. The polymorphic enzyme N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is involved in the metabolism of these compounds. Two classical studies on chemical workers in Europe, exposed in the past to aromatic amines like benzidine, unambiguously showed that the slow acetylator status is a genetic risk factor for arylamine-induced bladder cancer. In the former benzidine industry in Huddington, Great Britain, 22 of 23 exposed cases with bladder cancer, but only 57% of 95 local controls without bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype. In Leverkusen, Germany, 82% of 92 benzidine-exposed chemical workers with bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype, whereas only 48% of 331 chemical workers who had worked at that plant were of the slow acetylator phenotype. This is in line with several smaller studies, which also show an over-representation of the slow acetylator status in formerly arylamine-exposed subjects with bladder cancer. Some of these studies included also subjects that were exposed to aromatic amines by having applied dyes, paints and varnishes. These European findings are in contrast to a large study on Chinese workers occupationally exposed to aromatic amines. In this study, only five of 38 bladder cancer cases occupationally exposed to arylamines were of the slow acetylator genotype. This is much lower than the ratio of slow acetylators to the general population in China. This points to different mechanisms of susceptibility for bladder cancer upon exposure to aromatic amines between European (Caucasian) and Chinese populations.

  9. Impact of different IMRT techniques to improve conformity and normal tissue sparing in upper esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin E Amin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for cervical esophageal cancer is challenging. Although IMRT techniques using inverse planning algorithms are facilitating the treatment planning process, the irradiation dose to the normal tissues can be a critical issue. This study was performed to investigate the effect of beam numbers and their directions and local optimization on: (1 dose conformity and homogeneity to the planning target volume (PTV and (2 dose to the organ at risks (OARs.Methods: Four upper esophageal cancer cases were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. Eight IMRT plans were generated for each case with the same dose-volume constraints but with different beam numbers and arrangements. Local optimization using regular structures drawn automatically around the PTV with margins from 0.5-1.5 cm was performed. IMRT plans were evaluated with respect to isodose distributions, dose-volume histograms (DVHs parameters, homogeneity index (HI, and conformity index (CI. The statistical comparison between the types of plans was done using the One Way ANOVA test.Results: The results showed that IMRT using three or five beams was not sufficient to obtain good dose optimization. The seven field plans showed the best coverage for the PTV with tolerable doses for the OARs, and the beam orientation was very critical. Increasing beams (Bs number from 7 to 13 did not show significant differences in the PTV coverage, while the mean lung dose was increased. The PTV coverage were 95.1, 95.1, 98.1, 97.3, 97.3, 97.3, 97.0, and 97.0% for 3Bs, 5Bs, 7Bs, 9Bs, 13Bs, 7Bs(30, 7Bs(60 (beam angles were changed from 0o to 30o and 60o, and 7Bs(R (seven IMRT plans with ring, respectively. The mean heart dose did not exceed 0.36 Gy with p < 0.05. For lung doses, the best plan was the one with 9Bs which reduced lung volume doses V20Gy (% and V30Gy (%, and reduced mean lung dose from 5.4 to 4.5 Gy with p < 0.05 for 7Bs(R plans. IMRT improved the

  10. Individual differences in emotional expressivity predict oxytocin responses to cortisol administration : Relevance to breast cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Reduced emotional expression has been consistently related to susceptibility or fast progression of breast cancer. Breast cancer development and reduced emotional expression have both been related to rejection- and separation-related conditions. The neuropeptide oxytocin is low in response to reject

  11. The Optimality of Different Strategies for Supplemental Staging of Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Fischer, Barbara Malene B; Mortensen, Jann;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the expected costs and outcomes of alternative strategies for staging of lung cancer to inform a Danish National Health Service perspective about the most cost-effective strategy.......To assess the expected costs and outcomes of alternative strategies for staging of lung cancer to inform a Danish National Health Service perspective about the most cost-effective strategy....

  12. Fulminant hepatic failure resulting from small-cell lung cancer and dramatic response of chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyoichi Kaira; Atsushi Takise; Rieko Watanabe; Masatomo Mori

    2006-01-01

    Prompt treatment in tumor-associated encephalopathy may prolong survival. We describe a 69-year-old male patient who was presented with fulminant hepatic failure, secondary to small-cell lung carcinoma with rapidly progressing encephalopathy. Both symptoms remitted following chemotherapy, suggesting swift diagnosis and administration of chemotherapy to be effective in treatment of fulminant hepatic failure and encephalopathy.

  13. Anticancer Effects of Different Seaweeds on Human Colon and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Moussavou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seafoods and seaweeds represent some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Seaweed has been shown to have several biological activities, including anticancer activity. This review focuses on colorectal and breast cancers, which are major causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women. It also describes various compounds extracted from a range of seaweeds that have been shown to eradicate or slow the progression of cancer. Fucoidan extracted from the brown algae Fucus spp. has shown activity against both colorectal and breast cancers. Furthermore, we review the mechanisms through which these compounds can induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. By considering the ability of compounds present in seaweeds to act against colorectal and breast cancers, this review highlights the potential use of seaweeds as anticancer agents.

  14. 92-Gene molecular profiling in identification of cancer origin: a retrospective study in Chinese population and performance within different subgroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After cancer diagnosis, therapy for the patient is largely dependent on the tumor origin, especially when a metastatic tumor is being treated. However, cases such as untypical metastasis, poorly differentiated tumors or even a limited number of tumor cells may lead to challenges in identifying the origin. Moreover, approximately 3% to 5% of total solid tumor patients will not have to have their tumor origin identified in their lifetime. The THEROS CancerTYPE ID® is designed for identifying the tumor origin with an objective, rapid and standardized procedure. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a blinded retrospective study to evaluate performance of the THEROS CancerTYPE ID® in a Chinese population. In total, 184 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples of 23 tumor origins were collected from the tissue bank of Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FDUSCC. A standard tumor cell enrichment process was used, and the prediction results were compared with reference diagnosis, which was confirmed by two experienced pathologists at FDUSCC. All of the 184 samples were successfully analyzed, and no tumor specimens were excluded because of sample quality issues. In total, 151 samples were correctly predicted. The agreement rate was 82.1%. A Pearson Chi-square test shows that there is no difference between this study and the previous evaluation test performed by bioTheranostics Inc. No statistically significant decrease was observed in either the metastasis group or tumors with high grades. CONCLUSIONS: A comparable result with previous work was obtained. Specifically, specimens with a high probability score (>0.85 have a high chance (agreement rate = 95% of being correctly predicted. No performance difference was observed between primary and metastatic specimens, and no difference was observed among three tumor grades. The use of laser capture micro-dissection (LCM makes the THEROS CancerTYPE ID® accessible to almost all

  15. Identification of Differently Expressed Genes in Chemical Carcinogen-induced Rat Bladder Cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangfu CHEN; Franky L. CHAN; Xu ZHANG; Peter S.F. CHAN

    2009-01-01

    Possible altered gene expression patterns in bladder turnout carcinogenesis in rat bladder cancers induced by BBN [N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine] was examined by cDNA microarray analysis of gene expression profiles.Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were given drinking water containing 0.05% BBN ad libitum for 24 to 28-weeks.Equal numbers of control rats were given tap water without BBN.After treatment,the rat bladders were excised for RNA extraction and histopathological examinations.Total RNAs were extracted from rat transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tissues and micro-dissected normal rat bladder epithelia.The atlas glass rat microarray was used,which included oligonucleotides of 1081 rat genes.Some of the up-regulated genes in rat bladder TCCs were further confirmed by Northern blotting.Our results showed that the transcriptions of 30 genes were significantly elevated in the rat bladder TCCs,and these included fly proto-oncogene,Lipocortin 2,COX Ⅳ,COX Ⅴ a,and cathepsin D.Also,15 genes were significantly down-regulated in the rat bladder TCCs and they included B7.1,TNFrl,APOAI and VHL.The resuits of cDNA microarray analysis demonstrated that normal rat bladder epithelia and bladder TCC exhibited different and specific gene statement profiles.The increased expressions of the identified genes may play an important role in the chemically induced bladder carcinogenesis.

  16. Prediction of Depression in Cancer Patients With Different Classification Criteria, Linear Discriminant Analysis versus Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, Zahra; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Shayan, Leila; Naseri, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Logistic regression (LR) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are two popular statistical models for prediction of group membership. Although they are very similar, the LDA makes more assumptions about the data. When categorical and continuous variables used simultaneously, the optimal choice between the two models is questionable. In most studies, classification error (CE) is used to discriminate between subjects in several groups, but this index is not suitable to predict the accuracy of the outcome. The present study compared LR and LDA models using classification indices. Methods: This cross-sectional study selected 243 cancer patients. Sample sets of different sizes (n = 50, 100, 150, 200, 220) were randomly selected and the CE, B, and Q classification indices were calculated by the LR and LDA models. Results: CE revealed the a lack of superiority for one model over the other, but the results showed that LR performed better than LDA for the B and Q indices in all situations. No significant effect for sample size on CE was noted for selection of an optimal model. Assessment of the accuracy of prediction of real data indicated that the B and Q indices are appropriate for selection of an optimal model. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that LR performs better in some cases and LDA in others when based on CE. The CE index is not appropriate for classification, although the B and Q indices performed better and offered more efficient criteria for comparison and discrimination between groups.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of targeted therapeutics in metastatic renal cell cancer seen from two different economic perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlović, J.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the cost-effectiveness of first line metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) drugs from the perspective of two different economic and clinical settings, The Netherlands (NL) and Serbia (SRB). Methods: The research included all first line mRCC therapeutics recommended by the Europea

  18. Intake of whole grains from different cereal and food sources and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen;

    2013-01-01

    A high intake of whole grains has been associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer, but few studies are available on the association with whole grains from different cereals, for example, wheat, rye and oats, and none has addressed these separately. The objective of this study was to i...

  19. Estimation of Nickel in Different Smokeless Tobacco Products and Their Impact on Human Health of Oral Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam S; Sahito, Oan M

    2015-01-01

    It has been extensively investigated that the chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products may enhance the inflammation of the oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between nickel (Ni) exposure via different SLT products with oral cancer (different sites) incidence in the population of Sindh, Pakistan. The different brands of SLT products (mainpuri, gutkha, and moist snuff) commonly consumed by the studied population were analyzed for Ni contents. The biological samples of oral cancer patients and noncancerous control subjects of both genders, who have or have not consumed SLT products, were collected. The concentration of Ni in biological samples and SLT products were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the Ni level was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). The study suggested that exposure of Ni as a result of chewing different SLT products may be synergistic with risk factors associated with oral cancer. PMID:26368676

  20. Dosimetric Evaluation of Different Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Techniques for Breast Cancer After Conservative Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Wang, Yadi; Xu, Weidong; Jiang, Huayong; Liu, Qingzhi; Gao, Junmao; Yao, Bo; Hou, Jun; He, Heliang

    2015-10-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) potentially leads to a more favorite dose distribution compared to 3-dimensional or conventional tangential radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer after conservative surgery or mastectomy. The aim of this study was to compare dosimetric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) among helical tomotherapy (HT), inverse-planned IMRT (IP-IMRT), and forward-planned field in field (FP-FIF) IMRT techniques after breast-conserving surgery. Computed tomography scans from 20 patients (12 left sided and 8 right sided) previously treated with T1N0 carcinoma were selected for this dosimetric planning study. We designed HT, IP-IMRT, and FP-FIF plans for each patient. Plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram analysis in terms of PTV homogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI) as well as OARs dose and volume parameters. Both HI and CI of the PTV showed statistically significant difference among IP-IMRT, FP-FIF, and HT with those of HT were best (P IMRT showed smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral lung, and breast, while HT indicated smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung but larger exposed volumes of contralateral lung and breast as well as heart. In addition, HT demonstrated an increase in exposed volume of ipsilateral lung (except for fraction of lung volume receiving >30 Gy and 20 Gy), heart, contralateral lung, and breast compared with IP-IMRT. For breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) after conservative surgery, HT provides better dose homogeneity and conformity of PTV compared to IP-IMRT and FP-FIF techniques, especially for patients with supraclavicular lymph nodes involved. Meanwhile, HT decreases the OAR volumes receiving higher doses with an increase in the volumes receiving low doses, which is known to lead to an increased rate of radiation-induced secondary malignancies. Hence, composite factors including dosimetric advantage, clinical effect, and economic

  1. The electron donating capacity of biochar is dramatically underestimated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévoteau, Antonin; Ronsse, Frederik; Cid, Inés; Boeckx, Pascal; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-09-01

    Biochars have gathered considerable interest for agronomic and engineering applications. In addition to their high sorption ability, biochars have been shown to accept or donate considerable amounts of electrons to/from their environment via abiotic or microbial processes. Here, we measured the electron accepting (EAC) and electron donating (EDC) capacities of wood-based biochars pyrolyzed at three different highest treatment temperatures (HTTs: 400, 500, 600 °C) via hydrodynamic electrochemical techniques using a rotating disc electrode. EACs and EDCs varied with HTT in accordance with a previous report with a maximal EAC at 500 °C (0.4 mmol(e-).gchar-1) and a large decrease of EDC with HTT. However, while we monitored similar EAC values than in the preceding study, we show that the EDCs have been underestimated by at least 1 order of magnitude, up to 7 mmol(e-).gchar-1 for a HTT of 400 °C. We attribute this existing underestimation to unnoticed slow kinetics of electron transfer from biochars to the dissolved redox mediators used in the monitoring. The EDC of other soil organic constituents such as humic substances may also have been underestimated. These results imply that the redox properties of biochars may have a much bigger impact on soil biogeochemical processes than previously conjectured.

  2. Reproducible cancer biomarker discovery in SELDI-TOF MS using different pre-processing algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been much interest in differentiating diseased and normal samples using biomarkers derived from mass spectrometry (MS studies. However, biomarker identification for specific diseases has been hindered by irreproducibility. Specifically, a peak profile extracted from a dataset for biomarker identification depends on a data pre-processing algorithm. Until now, no widely accepted agreement has been reached. RESULTS: In this paper, we investigated the consistency of biomarker identification using differentially expressed (DE peaks from peak profiles produced by three widely used average spectrum-dependent pre-processing algorithms based on SELDI-TOF MS data for prostate and breast cancers. Our results revealed two important factors that affect the consistency of DE peak identification using different algorithms. One factor is that some DE peaks selected from one peak profile were not detected as peaks in other profiles, and the second factor is that the statistical power of identifying DE peaks in large peak profiles with many peaks may be low due to the large scale of the tests and small number of samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the DE peak detection power in large profiles could be improved by the stratified false discovery rate (FDR control approach and that the reproducibility of DE peak detection could thereby be increased. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing and evaluating pre-processing algorithms in terms of reproducibility can elucidate the relationship among different algorithms and also help in selecting a pre-processing algorithm. The DE peaks selected from small peak profiles with few peaks for a dataset tend to be reproducibly detected in large peak profiles, which suggests that a suitable pre-processing algorithm should be able to produce peaks sufficient for identifying useful and reproducible biomarkers.

  3. Two different BRCA2 mutations found in a multigenerational family with a history of breast, prostate, and lung cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caporale DA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane A Caporale, Erica E SwensonDepartment of Biology, University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI, USAAbstract: Breast and lung cancer are two of the most common malignancies in the United States, causing approximately 40,000 and 160,000 deaths each year, respectively. Over 80% of hereditary breast cancer cases are due to mutations in two breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. These are tumor-suppressor genes associated with DNA repair. Since the discovery of these two genes in the mid-1990s, several other breast cancer predisposition genes have been identified, such as the CHEK2 gene encoding a regulator of BRCA1. Recently, studies have begun investigating the roles of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene expression in lung cancer. We conducted a family-based case study that included a bloodline of Italian heritage with several cases of breast cancer and associated cancers (prostate and stomach through multiple generations and on a nonblood relative of Scottish/Irish descent who was consecutively diagnosed with breast and lung cancer. Cancer history and environmental risk factors were recorded for each family member. To investigate possible genetic risks, we screened for mutations in specific hypervariable regions of the BRCA1, BRCA2, and CHEK2 genes. DNA was extracted and isolated from the individuals' hair follicles and cheek cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, allele-specific PCR, and DNA sequencing were performed to identify and verify the presence or absence of mutations in these regions. Genotypes of several family members were determined and carriers of mutations were identified. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of two different BRCA2 frameshift mutations within the same family. Specifically, three Italian family members were found to be carriers of the BRCA2-c.2808_2811delACAA (3036delACAA mutation, a 4-nucleotide deletion in exon 11, which is a truncated mutation that causes deleterious function of

  4. Differences in Patient Outcomes of Prevalence, Interval, and Screen-Detected Lung Cancers in the CT Arm of the National Lung Screening Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massion, Pierre P.; Thompson, Zachary J.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Goldof, Dmitry; Aberle, Denise R.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer screening identifies cancers with heterogeneous behaviors. Some lung cancers will be identified among patients who had prior negative CT screens and upon follow-up scans develop a de novo nodule that was determined to be cancerous. Other lung cancers will be identified among patients who had one or more prior stable positive scans that were not determined to be lung cancer (indeterminate pulmonary nodules), but in follow-up scans was diagnosed with an incidence lung cancer. Using data from the CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial, this analysis investigated differences in patient characteristics and survival endpoints between prevalence-, interval-, and screen-detected lung cancers, characterized based on sequence of screening results. Lung cancers immediately following a positive baseline (T0), and prior to the T1 screen, formed the prevalence cohort. Interval cancers were diagnosed following a negative screen at any time point prior to the next screening round. Two cohorts of screen-detected lung cancers (SDLC) were identified that had a baseline positive screen that was that was not determined to be lung cancer (i.e., an indeterminate pulmonary nodule), but in follow-up scans was diagnosed with an incidence lung cancer 12 (SDLC1) or 24 (SDLC2) months later. Two other incidence cohorts had screen-detected lung cancers that had baseline negative screen and upon follow-up scans developed a de novo nodule determined to be cancerous at 12 (SDLC3) or 24 (SDLC4) months later. Differences in patient characteristics, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed. The lung cancer-specific death rate was higher for SDLC3/SDLC4 compared to SDLC1/SDLC2 lung cancers (136.6/1,000 person-years vs. 71.3/1,000 person-years, P lung cancers (HR = 1.00). Lung cancer patients who develop a de novo nodule that determined to be cancerous (i.e., at least one negative CT screen prior to cancer diagnosis) had poorer survival outcomes compared

  5. Lung cancer risk perception and distress: difference by smoking status, and role of physical activity and race among US population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Mathur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: cigarette smoking is the greatest known risk factor for lung cancer, and people with different smoking status may process risk information differently. While psychological distress has been linked with smoking status, little is known about the impact of distress on lung cancer perception or the moderating role of physical activity and race. This study explores the association of lung cancer perception and distress and investigates the effects of physical activity and race on that association.Methods: the study uses a national, biennial survey (the Health Information National Trends Survey that was designed to collect nationally representative data on the American public’s need for, access to, and use of cancer-related information using a cross-sectional, complex sample survey design. Out of 5 586 participants, 1 015 were current smokers, 1 599 were former smokers, 2 877 were never smokers. Of the sample, 1 765 participants answered the lung cancer risk perception question and had no personal history of lung cancer. Statistical analysis contrasts smokers, former smokers, and never smokers to examine the association of lung cancer perception and distress and the moderating role of physical activity and race.Results: distress and lung cancer risk perception were significantly positively associated (p value < 0.001. Respondents who were current smokers and were distressed had very high odds of agreeing that they have a somewhat high chance (odds ratio=900.8, CI: 94.23, 8 611.75; p value < 0.001 or a very high chance (odds ratio=500.44 CI: 56.53, 4 430.02, p value < 0.001 of developing lung cancer in the future as compared to not distressed never smokers. However, race and physical activity status did not significantly affect perception of risk. Perceptions of risk are important precursors of health change.Conclusions: elevated distress level and higher perceived risk, in addition to physical activity status and race, could potentially

  6. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment: ever more used with major regional differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval debulking...

  7. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  8. The association between different kinds of fat intake and breast cancer risk in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available So far several animal and case-control studies have confirmed this hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer. However, cohort studies have not shown this relationship. The aim of this study was to review the studies on the relationship between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk among women. Electronic database PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the key words: Breast cancer, dietary fat, serum estrogen, saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. The evidence of the studies regarding to the association of total and subtypes of fat intake with breast cancer risk are inconsistent. Several studies have shown that, among several types of fat, SFAs and w-3 PUFA intake are associated with an increased and reduced risk of breast cancer, respectively. The relationship between MUFAs intake and breast cancer risk is conflicting. Narrow ranges of fat intake among populations, measurement errors, high correlation between specific types of dietary fat, the confounding variables like body fatness and high-energy intake and other dietary components such as fiber and antioxidants might be probable explanations for these inconsistent results. Although we are not at a stage where we can justifiably advise women to reduce their fat intake to decrease the risk of developing breast cancer, it seems the current guidelines to lower total fat consumption and recommendation to consumption of unsaturated fats such as MUFAs and w-3 fatty acids and also reduction of SFAs (meat and dairy products intake to avoid heart disease is also useful for breast cancer risk.

  9. Immunohistochemical profile of laryngeal cancers with different clinical course and efficiency of treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Shponka I.S.; Gritsenko P.A.; Kovtunenko A.V.

    2007-01-01

    The cancer of larynx is one of the most significant medical problems because of its high prevalence, high mortality and low survival rate. The retrospective analysis of specimens of 187 patients suffering from laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma of stage III-IV was performed. The purpose of our study was to substantiate the appropriateness of assessment of immunomorphological profile in estimation of biological behaviour of laryngeal cancer for prediction its clinical course and choice of opt...

  10. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: age differences in factors influencing patients' treatment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen ML; Young JM; Solomon MJ

    2013-01-01

    Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe), Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR), Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive gu...

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: age differences in factors influencing patients’ treatment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen,Mikaela; Young, Jane; Solomon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe), Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR), Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive gu...

  12. Race and sex differences in associations of vegetables, fruits, and carotenoids with lung cancer risk in New Jersey (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, J F; Ziegler, R G; Schoenberg, J B; Hartge, P; McAdams, M J; Falk, R T; Wilcox, H B; Shaw, G L

    1993-05-01

    We used data from a case-control study conducted in New Jersey between 1980 and 1983 to evaluate race and sex differences in associations of vegetable, fruit, and carotenoid consumption with lung cancer. Cases included 736 White males, 860 White females, 269 Black males, and 86 Black females with incident, histologically confirmed, primary cancer of the trachea, bronchus, or lung. Controls were identified through drivers' license and Health Care Financing Administration files and included 548 White males, 473 White females, 170 Black males, and 47 Black females. Usual intakes of vegetables (predominantly yellow/green) and fruit (predominantly yellow/orange) as well as other food sources of carotenoids were ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. White females showed significant inverse associations of lung cancer with vegetables, fruit, and carotenoids. White males showed nonsignificant inverse associations with vegetables and carotenoids, and Black females just with vegetables. No inverse associations were found for Black males. Vegetable consumption was associated with risk of all histologic types of lung cancer, but the pattern of increasing risk with decreasing intake was limited to smokers. We infer that consumption of yellow/green vegetables and carotenoids may confer protection from lung cancer to White male and White female smokers. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect in Blacks.

  13. Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainities for Different Mission Time Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim,Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic ray (GCR), which includes high energy protons and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. For long duration missions, space radiation presents significant health risks including cancer mortality. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is essential for radiation protection of crews on long term space missions outside of the protection of the Earth s magnetic field and for optimization of mission planning and costs. For the assessment of organ dosimetric quantities and cancer risks, the particle spectra at each critical body organs must be characterized. In implementing a PRA approach, a statistical model of SPE fluence was developed, because the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature while the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle. Spectral variability of SPEs was also examined, because the detailed energy spectra of protons are important especially at high energy levels for assessing the cancer risk associated with energetic particles for large events. An overall cumulative probability of a GCR environment for a specified mission period was estimated for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment represented by the deceleration potential (theta). Finally, this probabilistic approach to space radiation cancer risk was coupled with a model of the radiobiological factors and uncertainties in projecting cancer risks. Probabilities of fatal cancer risk and 95% confidence intervals will be reported for various periods of space missions.

  14. Differences in gene expression in prostate cancer, normal appearing prostate tissue adjacent to cancer and prostate tissue from cancer free organ donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical high throughput microarrays experiments compare gene expression across two specimen classes – an experimental class and baseline (or comparison) class. The choice of specimen classes is a major factor in the differential gene expression patterns revealed by these experiments. In most studies of prostate cancer, histologically malignant tissue is chosen as the experimental class while normal appearing prostate tissue adjacent to the tumor (adjacent normal) is chosen as the baseline against which comparison is made. However, normal appearing prostate tissue from tumor free organ donors represents an alterative source of baseline tissue for differential expression studies. To examine the effect of using donor normal tissue as opposed to adjacent normal tissue as a baseline for prostate cancer expression studies, we compared, using oligonucleotide microarrays, the expression profiles of primary prostate cancer (tumor), adjacent normal tissue and normal tissue from tumor free donors. Statistical analysis using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) demonstrates the presence of unique gene expression profiles for each of these specimen classes. The tumor v donor expression profile was more extensive that the tumor v adjacent normal profile. The differentially expressed gene lists from tumor v donor, tumor v adjacent normal and adjacent normal v donor comparisons were examined to identify regulated genes. When donors were used as the baseline, similar genes are highly regulated in both tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Significantly, both tumor and adjacent normal tissue exhibit significant up regulation of proliferation related genes including transcription factors, signal transducers and growth regulators compared to donor tissue. These genes were not picked up in a direct comparison of tumor and adjacent normal tissues. The up-regulation of these gene types in both tissue types is an unexpected finding and suggests that normal appearing prostate tissue

  15. Metabolic irradiation of differentiated thyroid cancers and periodic hemodialysis; Irradiation metabolique des cancers differencies de la thyroide et hemodialyse periodique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courbon, F.; Hoff, M. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire CHU TOULOUSE RANGUEIL (France); Caselles, O. [Unite de Physique, CENTRE CLAUDIUS REGAUD TOULOUSE (France); Duthil, P.; Zerdoud, S.; Berry, I.; Regis, H. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire CHU TOULOUSE RANGUEIL (France)

    1997-12-31

    The association of a terminal renal insufficiency with a thyroid well-differentiated cancer is a rare contingency which complicates the {sup 131}I therapy in these patients. A women 56 years old has been treated by administration of 3700 MBq (100 mCi) of {sup 131}I for a thyroid well-differentiated cancer after a complete thyroidectomy (with a {sup 131}I fixation rate on 24 h < 1%). Due to a terminal renal insufficiency 3 weekly hemodialysis sessions were necessary. The hemo-dialyses were achieved at the 3. and 5. day after the iodine administration. The dose rate at 1 meter during the first three days remained constant at 90 {mu}Gy/h. The circulatory activity amounted up to 1.8% of the injected activity. The post-dosage whole-body scintigraphy evidenced an iodo-fixation cervical relic with a iodine biological half-time of 77.66 h, while the delivered dose amounted up to 250 mGy. The first dialysis at the 3D has reduced the dose rate at 1 meter to 60% and the circulatory activity to 73%. The cumulative activity over 5 days at the level of tumoral residue is only slightly modified by the dialyses. The dose rate at 1 meter of the dialysis appliance after washing was lower than 10 {mu}Gy/h. No significant radioactivity was detected in the disposable material used in dialysis. In conclusion, the administration of {sup 131}I does not result in any contamination of the materials of dialysis. The biological half-time of iodine at the level of thyroid tumor parenchyma is short. Consequently, this treatment should be reserved for the cases of detectable masses with `tracing` doses of {sup 131}I, but higher `therapeutic` activities of {sup 131}I are necessary. To reduce the dose delivered in critical organs the hemodialysis could be carried out after the 24. hour

  16. Correcting for the study bias associated with protein-protein interaction measurements reveals differences between protein degree distributions from different cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Martin H; Serrano, Luis; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are associated with multiple types of biases partly rooted in technical limitations of the experimental techniques. Another source of bias are the different frequencies with which proteins have been studied for interaction partners. It is generally believed that proteins with a large number of interaction partners tend to be essential, evolutionarily conserved, and involved in disease. It has been repeatedly reported that proteins driving tumor formation have a higher number of PPI partners. However, it has been noticed before that the degree distribution of PPI networks is biased toward disease proteins, which tend to have been studied more often than non-disease proteins. At the same time, for many poorly characterized proteins no interactions have been reported yet. It is unclear to which extent this study bias affects the observation that cancer proteins tend to have more PPI partners. Here, we show that the degree of a protein is a function of the number of times it has been screened for interaction partners. We present a randomization-based method that controls for this bias to decide whether a group of proteins is associated with significantly more PPI partners than the proteomic background. We apply our method to cancer proteins and observe, in contrast to previous studies, no conclusive evidence for a significantly higher degree distribution associated with cancer proteins as compared to non-cancer proteins when we compare them to proteins that have been equally often studied as bait proteins. Comparing proteins from different tumor types, a more complex picture emerges in which proteins of certain cancer classes have significantly more interaction partners while others are associated with a smaller degree. For example, proteins of several hematological cancers tend to be associated with a higher number of interaction partners as expected by chance. Solid tumors, in contrast, are usually associated with a degree

  17. No difference in the frequency of locus-specific methylation in the peripheral blood DNA of women diagnosed with breast cancer and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Thestrup, Britta Boserup; Cold, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    might predispose for cancer development. Here, we have used the methlyation-sensitive high-resolution melting approach to examine the methylation status of the BRCA1, BRCA2, APC, RASSF1A and RARβ2 genes in PBLs of a group of women diagnosed with breast cancer, and an age-matched control group with no...... signs of breast cancer. No significant differences in the frequency of methylation of the above genes were found between cases and controls in our study. Hence, testing for the presence of methylation of cancer-related genes in PBL DNA from women diagnosed with sporadic breast cancer and classified for...

  18. Safety, Tolerability & Potential Anti-cancer Activity of Increasing Doses of AZD5363 in Different Treatment Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Advanced Solid Malignancy; Safety and Tolerability; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics; Tumour Response; Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; PIK3CA; AKT1; PTEN; ER+; HER2+

  19. Dramatic Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta

    2003-01-01

    Presents a creative way to teach photosynthesis. Revolves around the growth of a lily planted and stored in the classroom. Combines the concepts of particle theory, transformation, and changes of phase and mass in a holistic approach. The six-step teaching sequence is founded on the notions of challenge, variation, and drama. (Author/NB)

  20. Lung cancer screening: review and performance comparison under different risk scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Franco, Eduardo L

    2014-02-01

    Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignant diseases and is responsible for substantial mortality worldwide. Compared with never smokers, former smokers remain at relatively high risk for lung cancer, accounting for approximately half of all newly diagnosed cases in the US. Screening offers former smokers the best opportunity to reduce their risk of advanced stage lung cancer and there is now evidence that annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is effective in preventing mortality. Studies are being conducted to evaluate whether the benefits of LDCT screening outweigh its costs and potential harms and to determine the most appropriate workup for patients with screen-detected lung nodules. Program efficiency would be optimized by targeting high-risk current smokers, but low uptake among this group is a concern. Former smokers may be invited for screening; however, if fewer long-term current smokers and more former smokers with long quit duration elect to attend, this could have very adverse effects on cost and screening test parameters. To illustrate this point, we present three possible screening scenarios with lung cancer prevalence ranging from between 0.62 and 5.0 %. In summary, cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening may be improved if linked to successful smoking cessation programs and if better approaches are developed to reach very high-risk patients, e.g., long-term current smokers or others based on more accurate risk prediction models.

  1. Evidence for toxicity differences between inorganic arsenite and thioarsenicals in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranmandura, Hua; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Iwata, Katsuya; Lee, Jane; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Weinfeld, Michael; Le, X Chris

    2009-07-15

    Arsenic toxicity is dependent on its chemical species. In humans, the bladder is one of the primary target organs for arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced carcinogenicity, and what arsenic species are responsible for this carcinogenicity. The present study aimed at comparing the toxic effect of DMMTA(V) with that of inorganic arsenite (iAs(III)) on cell viability, uptake efficiency and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) toward human bladder cancer EJ-1 cells. The results were compared with those of a previous study using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Although iAs(III) was known to be toxic to most cells, here we show that iAs(III) (LC(50)=112 microM) was much less cytotoxic than DMMTA(V) (LC(50)=16.7 microM) in human bladder EJ-1 cells. Interestingly, pentavalent sulfur-containing DMMTA(V) generated a high level of intracellular ROS in EJ-1 cells. However, this was not observed in the cells exposed to trivalent inorganic iAs(III) at their respective LC(50) dose. Furthermore, the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of DMMTA(V) but not iAs(III), suggesting that production of ROS was the main cause of cell death from exposure to DMMTA(V), but not iAs(III). Because the cellular uptake of iAs(III) is mediated by aquaporin proteins, and because the resistance of cells to arsenite can be influenced by lower arsenic uptake due to lower expression of aquaporin proteins (AQP 3, 7 and 9), the expression of several members of the aquaporin family was also examined. In human bladder EJ-1 cells, mRNA/proteins of AQP3, 7 and 9 were not detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/western blotting. In A431 cells, only mRNA and protein of AQP3 were detected. The large difference in toxicity between the two cell lines could be related to their differences in uptake of arsenic species.

  2. Evidence for toxicity differences between inorganic arsenite and thioarsenicals in human bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic toxicity is dependent on its chemical species. In humans, the bladder is one of the primary target organs for arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced carcinogenicity, and what arsenic species are responsible for this carcinogenicity. The present study aimed at comparing the toxic effect of DMMTAV with that of inorganic arsenite (iAsIII) on cell viability, uptake efficiency and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) toward human bladder cancer EJ-1 cells. The results were compared with those of a previous study using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Although iAsIII was known to be toxic to most cells, here we show that iAsIII (LC50 = 112 μM) was much less cytotoxic than DMMTAV (LC50 = 16.7 μM) in human bladder EJ-1 cells. Interestingly, pentavalent sulfur-containing DMMTAV generated a high level of intracellular ROS in EJ-1 cells. However, this was not observed in the cells exposed to trivalent inorganic iAsIII at their respective LC50 dose. Furthermore, the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of DMMTAV but not iAsIII, suggesting that production of ROS was the main cause of cell death from exposure to DMMTAV, but not iAsIII. Because the cellular uptake of iAsIII is mediated by aquaporin proteins, and because the resistance of cells to arsenite can be influenced by lower arsenic uptake due to lower expression of aquaporin proteins (AQP 3, 7 and 9), the expression of several members of the aquaporin family was also examined. In human bladder EJ-1 cells, mRNA/proteins of AQP3, 7 and 9 were not detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/western blotting. In A431 cells, only mRNA and protein of AQP3 were detected. The large difference in toxicity between the two cell lines could be related to their differences in uptake of arsenic species.

  3. Analysis of different components in the peritumoral tissue microenvironment of colorectal cancer: A potential prospect in tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Liu, Hong; Gong, Xiuli; Wen, Bin; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jinyuan; Hu, Fengliang

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to observe the varying expression of biomarkers in the microenvironment adjacent to colorectal cancer lesions to provide additional insight into the functions of microenvironment components in carcinogenesis and present a novel or improved indicator for early diagnosis of cancer. A total of 144 human samples from three different locations in 48 patients were collected, these locations were 10, 5 and 2 cm from the colorectal cancer lesion, respectively. The biomarkers analyzed included E‑cadherin, cytokeratin 18 (CK18), hyaluronidase‑1 (Hyal‑1), collagen type I (Col‑I), Crumbs3 (CRB3), vimentin, proteinase activated receptor 3 (PAR‑3), α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), cyclin D1 (CD1) and cluster of differentiation (CD)133. In addition, crypt architecture was observed. Related functional analysis of proteins was performed using hierarchical index cluster analysis. More severe destroyed crypt architecture closer to the cancer lesions was observed compared with the 10 cm sites, with certain crypts degraded entirely. Expression levels of E‑cadherin, CK18, CRB3 and PAR‑3 were lower in 2 cm sites compared with the 10 cm sites (all P0.05 and P=0.0001, respectively), while the expression of vimentin, α‑SMA, CD1 and CD133 were not. Hyal‑1 and Col‑I may be independently important in cancer initiation in the tumor microenvironment. The results of the present study suggest that the biomarkers in the tissue microenvironment are associated with early tumorigenesis and may contribute to the development of carcinomas. These observations may be useful for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer. PMID:27484148

  4. Analysis of different components in the peritumoral tissue microenvironment of colorectal cancer: A potential prospect in tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Liu, Hong; Gong, Xiuli; Wen, Bin; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jinyuan; Hu, Fengliang

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to observe the varying expression of biomarkers in the microenvironment adjacent to colorectal cancer lesions to provide additional insight into the functions of microenvironment components in carcinogenesis and present a novel or improved indicator for early diagnosis of cancer. A total of 144 human samples from three different locations in 48 patients were collected, these locations were 10, 5 and 2 cm from the colorectal cancer lesion, respectively. The biomarkers analyzed included E‑cadherin, cytokeratin 18 (CK18), hyaluronidase‑1 (Hyal‑1), collagen type I (Col‑I), Crumbs3 (CRB3), vimentin, proteinase activated receptor 3 (PAR‑3), α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), cyclin D1 (CD1) and cluster of differentiation (CD)133. In addition, crypt architecture was observed. Related functional analysis of proteins was performed using hierarchical index cluster analysis. More severe destroyed crypt architecture closer to the cancer lesions was observed compared with the 10 cm sites, with certain crypts degraded entirely. Expression levels of E‑cadherin, CK18, CRB3 and PAR‑3 were lower in 2 cm sites compared with the 10 cm sites (all P0.05 and P=0.0001, respectively), while the expression of vimentin, α‑SMA, CD1 and CD133 were not. Hyal‑1 and Col‑I may be independently important in cancer initiation in the tumor microenvironment. The results of the present study suggest that the biomarkers in the tissue microenvironment are associated with early tumorigenesis and may contribute to the development of carcinomas. These observations may be useful for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

  5. Individual differences in arsenic metabolism and lung cancer in a case-control study in Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although in most people this process is not complete. Previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary MMA (%MMA) and increased risks of several arsenic-related diseases, although none of these reported on lung cancer. In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were assessed in 45 lung cancer cases and 75 controls from arsenic-exposed areas in Cordoba, Argentina. Folate has also been linked to arsenic-disease susceptibility, thus an exploratory assessment of associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in folate metabolizing genes, arsenic methylation, and lung cancer was also conducted. In analyses limited to subjects with metabolite concentrations above detection limits, the mean %MMA was higher in cases than in controls (17.5% versus 14.3%, p = 0.01). The lung cancer odds ratio for subjects with %MMA in the upper tertile compared to those in the lowest tertile was 3.09 (95% CI, 1.08-8.81). Although the study size was too small for a definitive conclusion, there was an indication that lung cancer risks might be highest in those with a high %MMA who also carried cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) rs234709 and rs4920037 variant alleles. This study is the first to report an association between individual differences in arsenic metabolism and lung cancer, a leading cause of arsenic-related mortality. These results add to the increasing body of evidence that variation in arsenic metabolism plays an important role in arsenic-disease susceptibility.

  6. Involvement of Different networks in mammary gland involution after the pregnancy/lactation cycle: Implications in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragozá, Rosa; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Lluch, Ana; Ribas, Gloria; Viña, Juan R

    2015-04-01

    Early pregnancy is associated with a reduction in a woman's lifetime risk for breast cancer. However, different studies have demonstrated an increase in breast cancer risk in the years immediately following pregnancy. Early and long-term risk is even higher if the mother age is above 35 years at the time of first parity. The proinflammatory microenvironment within the mammary gland after pregnancy renders an "ideal niche" for oncogenic events. Signaling pathways involved in programmed cell death and tissue remodeling during involution are also activated in breast cancer. Herein, the major signaling pathways involved in mammary gland involution, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), and retinoid acid receptors (RARs)/retinoid X receptors (RXRs), are reviewed as part of the complex network of signaling pathways that crosstalk in a contextual-dependent manner. These factors, also involved in breast cancer development, are important regulatory nodes for signaling amplification after weaning. Indeed, during involution, p65/p300 target genes such as MMP9, Capn1, and Capn2 are upregulated. Elevated expression and activities of these proteases in breast cancer have been extensively documented. The role of these proteases during mammary gland involution is further discussed. MMPs, calpains, and cathepsins exert their effect by modification of the extracellular matrix and intracellular proteins. Calpains, activated in the mammary gland during involution, cleave several proteins located in cell membrane, lysosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei favoring cell death. Besides, during this period, Capn1 is most probably involved in the modulation of preadipocyte differentiation through chromatin remodeling. Calpains can be implicated in cell anchoring loss, providing a proper microenvironment for tumor growth. A better understanding of the role of any of these proteases in tumorigenesis may

  7. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT GENE EXPRESSION OF HUMAN CERVICAL CANCER SUBCLONE CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the main cause of death inwomen.The influence of HPV plays an i mportantrole incervial cancer.It has been provedthat humanpapillomavirus(HPV)infectionis ani mportant fac-tor in cervical carcinogenesis.Multiple HPVinfec-tion was associated less frequently with cervical car-cinoma and with precancerous lesions compared withnor mal cytology[1].The activation of oncogene,in-activition of tumor suppressor gene and instabilityof genome are also majority reason.We establisheda cell line of human...

  8. Possible effect of variable membrane potential of a cancer cell on different carcinogenic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogichadze, G; Gogichadze, T; Misabishvili, E; Kamkamidze, G

    2014-09-01

    Cancer cells (unlike normal analogs) have a variable membrane potential on their surface, which depends on the intensity of metabolism of this type of cells and the environmental hydrogen index: in the case of low-pH (acid medium) they are known to have either a low negative or even positive charge, while in the case of high-pH (alkaline medium) - a relatively high negative charge. In this paper we suggest that the processes of metastasis, progression and invasion ongoing in a macro organism can be ascribed to the presence of exactly this variable electric charge in a cancer cell. PMID:25341251

  9. Ethnic differences in allelic distribution of IFN-g in South African women but no link with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Anna-Lise

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The failure of specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPV to raise effective immune responses may be important in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in South African women. Polymorphisms of a number of cytokine genes have been implicated in inducing susceptibility or resistance to cancers caused by infectious agents owing to their role in determining host immune response. Polymorphisms of IL-10 and IFN-γ genes are believed to influence the expression and/or secretion levels of their respective cytokines. Methods and Results In this study, women with histologically proven cancer of the cervix (n = 458 and hospital-based controls (n = 587 were investigated for bi-allelic -1082 (A/G polymorphisms of IL-10 and the bi-allelic +874(A/T polymorphisms of IFN-γ. In addition, the distributions of the allelic frequencies were stratified in both the African and mixed race population groups of South Africa. We found striking differences in the allele distribution of IFN-γ (X2 = 0.02 among the two ethnic groups. A significant increase in the allele distribution of the IFN-γ AA genotype was found in the African group compared to the mixed population group (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2–1.0. For IL-10 there were no significant allelic differences between the two South African ethnic groups. Furthermore, when the ethnic groups were combined the IL-10 allelic frequencies in the combined South African data were similar to those observed in an Oriental population from Southern China and in an Italian population. However, the allele frequencies of the IFN-γ genotype among the two South African ethnic groups were different when compared to an Italian Caucasoid group. While crude analysis of these data showed both statistically significantly increased and diminished risks of cervical cancer among high producers of INF-γ and low producers of IL-10 respectively, these associations were no longer significant when the

  10. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  11. Is retention of zoledronic acid onto bone different in multiple myeloma and breast cancer patients with bone metastasis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Plesner, Torben; Jakobsen, Erik H;

    2013-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (Zol) is used to treat bone disease in both multiple myeloma (MM) and breast cancer patients with bone metastasis (BC). However, bones of MM and BC patients show a difference in retention of the bisphosphonate used for bone scintigraphy. Therefore, we hypothesized that disease......-specific factors may differently influence Zol retention in MM and BC patients. We tested this hypothesis in an investigator initiated phase II clinical trial in which we compared the whole-body retention (WBrt) of Zol in a cohort of 30 multiple myeloma (MM) and 30 breast cancer (BC) (20 Zol naive and 40 with six...... or more previous administrations). On average, 62% of the administered Zol was retained in the skeleton of both MM and BC patients and independently of the number of treatments. WBrt of Zol did not correlate with cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) levels, but linear regression analyses showed that WBrt...

  12. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C;

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv......, it does not increase risk of high-grade invasive serous cancers, and reducing BMI is therefore unlikely to prevent the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. Other modifiable factors must be identified to control this disease.......Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved...... in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case...

  13. The Impact of Dramatic Play Centre on Promoting the Development of Children's Early Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of dramatic play centre (DPC) on promoting the development of children's early writing skills in the Jordanian context. It also intends to investigate the forms of children's writing skills that emerge through the use of dramatic play. Observations and interviews were conducted to obtain…

  14. Guiding the Noticing: Using a Dramatic Performance Experience to Promote Tellability in Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shanetia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her use of dramatic performance to promote tellability in narrative writing within a seventh and eighth grade English and language arts classroom. By experiencing dramatic performance, the students were able to actively and physically perform the writing process: brainstorming, drafting, revising, and editing.…

  15. On the Major Dramatic Conftict of Shakespeare's the Merchant of Venice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋文

    2000-01-01

    "The Merchant of Venice", a master piece with humanist idea by William Shakespeare, presents readers a dramatic conflict between friendship and greediness, love and cruelty.This essay illustrates briefly how this conflict is created, developed and dramatized. At the same time, the root causes for this conflict is analysed.

  16. "I Did Not Wash My Feet with that Woman": Using Dramatic Performance to Teach Biblical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbett, David

    2010-01-01

    The student dramatic performance is an effective way for undergraduates to learn biblical studies. In this article I will give an example of a dramatic performance assignment that I developed over a number of courses and used most recently and most successfully in an undergraduate course in the Hebrew Bible at a small liberal arts college in the…

  17. SU-E-T-633: Dose Differences in Lung Cancer SBRT: The Influences of MLC Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The aim is to compare the plan dose distribution of lung SBRT with MLCs in different width. Methods: Cases with phase INSCLC were enrolled. 9 cases were undergone 4D-CT scanning in the supine position with both arms raised. 3D-CT images without IV contrast were afterwards acquired with 3mm thickness and used for dose calculations. ITV was generated by using the inspiration and expiration images. The ITV can be expanded by geometric set-up uncertainty (5 mm) to generate the PTV. All chest normal tissues including chest wall were contoured by doctors. A total dose of 55 Gy will be given in 5 fractions within 10–14 days with an inter fraction interval of 2–3 days. Guided by the RTOG trial 3502 protocol, 11–13 non-coplanar fields with 6MV photon were arranged. Three types of MLCs with width of 3mm, 5mm and 10mm at isocenter position, were used separately to generate a CRT plan for each case. Monte Carlo algorithm was applied to dose calculation. All plans were adjusted as possible to meet the dose constraints. Dose-volume parameters from plans as followed were compared and analysized: PTV V55Gy, COMPTV D70% (70% of normalization dose), volume A (body minus PTV), and R100% and R50% (the ratio of x% of prescription dose isoline volume to PTV volume). Results: MLCs, 3mm and 5mm wide, played the identical roles on dosimetry of the plans, excluding the parameter volume A (p<0.05). On the contrary, MLC with width of 10mm was significantly inferior to the other two types on most parameters (p<0.05). For R50%, all types contributed equally (p>0.05). Conclusion: For lung cancer SBRT, MLC width had influence to dosimetry, especially in irradiation area. Small size MLC, e.g. 3mm and 5mm, are helpful to generate a high quality treatment plan, which could meet the strict criteria for targets and OAR.

  18. Do Physician Recommendations for Colorectal Cancer Screening Differ by Patient Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida J Sewitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer screening is underutilized, resulting in preventable morbidity and mortality. In the present study, age-related and other disparities associated with physicians’ delivery of colorectal cancer screening recommendations were examined. The present cross-sectional study included 43 physicians and 618 of their patients, aged 50 to 80 years, without past or present colorectal cancer. Of the 285 screen-eligible patients, 45% received a recommendation. Multivariate analyses revealed that, compared with younger nonde-pressed patients, older depressed patients were less likely to receive fecal occult blood test recommendations, compared with no recommendation (OR=0.31, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.02, as well as less likely to receive colonoscopy recommendations, compared with no recommendation (OR=0.14; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.66. Comorbidity and marital status were associated with delivery of fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy recommendations, respectively, compared with no recommendation. In summary, patient age and other characteristics appeared to influence physicians’ delivery of colorectal cancer screening and choice of modality.

  19. Hard and Heavy Music: Can It Make a Difference in the Young Cancer Patients' Life?

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Ahmadi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss the role hard and heavy music plays in coping with cancer. Here, hard and heavy music refers to genres such as heavy metal, hard rock, hard rap, punk rock and aggressive pop music.

  20. Combining Different Views of Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) Marker of Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Chernoff, Konstantin;

    PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations...

  1. Hard and Heavy Music: Can It Make a Difference in the Young Cancer Patients' Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ahmadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to discuss the role hard and heavy music plays in coping with cancer. Here, hard and heavy music refers to genres such as heavy metal, hard rock, hard rap, punk rock and aggressive pop music.

  2. Response of Lymphocytes to Radiation in Untreated Breast Cancer Patients as Detected with Three Different Genetic Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LIN LOU; ZHI-JIAN CHEN; JIANG WEI; JI-LIANG HE; LI-FEN JIN; SHI-JIE CHEN; WEI ZHENG; SHI-JIE XU

    2008-01-01

    To detect the response of lymphocytes to radiation in untreated breast cancer patients with three different genetic assays.Methods Blood samples were collected from 25 untreated patients and 25 controls.Each blood sample was divided into two parts:one was irradiated by 3-Gy X-ray (irradiated sample),the other was not irradiated (non-irradiated sample).The radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was assessed by comet assay,cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and 6-TG-resistant cells scored (TG) assay.Results The baseline values of micronucleated cell frequency (MCF) and micronucleus frequency (MNF) in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01),and 3-Gy X-ray induced genetic damage to lymphocytes in the patients increased significantly as compared with that in the controls as detected with the three genetic assays (P<0.01).The proportion of radiosensitive cases in the patient group was 48% for the mean tail length (MTL),40% for the mean tail moment (MTM),40% for MCE 44% for MNE and 48% for mutation frequencies of the hprt gene (Mfs-hprt),respectively,whereas the proportion of radiosensitive cases in the control group was only 8% for all the parameters.Conclusion The difference in the lymphocyte radiosensitivity between the breast cancer patients and the controls is significant.Moreover,there are wide individual variations in lymphocyte radiosensitivity of patients with breast cancer.In some cases,the radiosensitivity of the same patient may be different as detected with the different assays.It is suggested that multiple assays should be used to assess the radiosensitivity of patients with breast cancer before therapy.

  3. Iodine deficiency and thyroid nodular pathology - epidemiological and cancer characteristics in different populations: Portugal and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, José Eduardo Carvalho; Kalk, William John; Freitas, Miguel; Marques Carreira, Isabel; Castelo Branco, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and pathology pattern of iodine deficiency (ID) related disorders are influenced by the dietary iodine intake: low iodine leads to thyroid nodular enlargement, to an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer, an increase in anaplastic carcinomas and to an alteration in the papillary to follicular neoplasia ratio. This study aims at highlighting the effects of ID by comparatively evaluating the pattern of thyroid nodular pathology in different populations that, alth...

  4. Developing and comparing two different prognostic indexes for predicting disease-free survival of nonmetastatic breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    TOKATLI, Zehra Füsun; Türe, Mevlüt; Ömürlü, İmran Kurt; ALAS, Ruşen ÇOŞAR; Uzal, Mustafa Cem

    2011-01-01

    To determine 2 different prognostic indexes (PI) for the differentiation of subgroups of nonmetastatic breast cancer patients with the Cox regression analysis and survival tree (ST) methods and the additional usage of the Kaplan-Meier estimates to investigate the predictive power of these methods. Materials and methods: Prognostic factors data were collected for 410 patients. The Cox regression analysis examines the relationship of the survival distribution and covariates. The ST method is ...

  5. Children's cancer centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  6. Prognostic evaluation of the B cell/IL-8 metagene in different intrinsic breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanker, Lars C; Rody, Achim; Holtrich, Uwe; Pusztai, Lajos; Ruckhaeberle, Eugen; Liedtke, Cornelia; Ahr, Andre; Heinrich, Tomas M; Sänger, Nicole; Becker, Sven; Karn, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that a ratio of high B cell and low IL-8 metagene expression identified 32 % of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) with good prognosis and was the only significant predictor in multivariate analysis including routine clinicopathological variables. However, the clinical relevance of this signature in other breast cancer subtypes remains unclear. We compiled Affymetrix gene expression datasets from 4,467 primary breast cancer samples and excluded 329 triple negative samples which were used as discovery cohort in our previous study. Molecular classification of the remaining 4,138 samples was performed by two methods, including single genes (ER, PgR, HER2, and Ki67) and a centroid-based method using the intrinsic gene list. The prognostic value within the respective subtypes was assessed by analyzing the event-free survival of patients as a function of the B cell/IL-8 metagene ratio using previously published cutoff. ER-negative subtypes had the highest expression of the B cell and the IL-8 metagenes. The IL-8/B cell signature assigned a considerable fraction of samples (range 20.7-42.0 %) into the "good prognosis" group. However, a significant prognostic value was only observed in the subgroup of triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.035). The prognostic value of the B cell/IL-8 ratio is mainly confined to the basal-like and TNBC subtypes of breast cancer. This result underlines the importance of subtype-specific analyses and suggests a sequential multistep approach to developing and applying outcome predictors in the clinic.

  7. Influence of different operation methods for the pain stress and digestive function of patients with esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe and compare the influence state of different operation methods for the pain stress and digestive function of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods:A total of 56 patients with esophageal cancer treated with surgery in our hospital from January 2013 to August 2015 were selected as the research object. According to the differences of operation methods, 56 cases were divided into Group A (thoracotomy group) 28 cases and Group B (thoracic surgery group) 28 cases, then the serum levels of pain stress and gastrointestinal hormones, stomach digestive function indexes of two groups at the 1st day before the surgery and at the 1st, 3rd and 7th day after the surgery were compared. Results:The serum levels of pain stress and gastrointestinal hormones, stomach digestive function indexes of two groups at the 1st day before the surgery were compared. Those statistical indexes of Group B at the 1st, 3rd and 7th day after the surgery were all obviously better than those of Group A, and there are significant differences. Conclusion:The influence of thoracoscopic surgery for the pain stress and digestive function of patients with esophageal cancer are obviously better than those of thoracic surgery, and it has better control effect for the postoperative discomfort and digestive function of patients.

  8. Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2011-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical vibrational technology capable of probing biomolecular changes of tissue associated with cancer transformation. This study aimed to characterize in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of tissues belonging to different anatomical regions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and explore the implications for early detection of neoplastic lesions during clinical gastroscopy. A novel fiber-optic Raman endoscopy technique was utilized for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements of normal esophageal (distal, middle, and proximal), gastric (antrum, body, and cardia) as well as cancerous esophagous and gastric tissues from 107 patients who underwent endoscopic examinations. The non-negativity-constrained least squares minimization coupled with a reference database of Raman active biochemicals (i.e., actin, histones, collagen, DNA, and triolein) was employed for semiquantitative biomolecular modeling of tissue constituents in the upper GI. A total of 1189 in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from different locations in the upper GI. The Raman spectra among the distal, middle, and proximal sites of the esophagus showed no significant interanatomical variability. The interanatomical variability of Raman spectra among normal gastric tissue (antrum, body, and cardia) was subtle compared to cancerous tissue transformation, whereas biomolecular modeling revealed significant differences between the two organs, particularly in the gastroesophageal junction associated with proteins, DNA, and lipids. Cancerous tissues can be identified across interanatomical regions with accuracies of 89.3% [sensitivity of 92.6% (162/175) specificity of 88.6% (665/751)], and of 94.7% [sensitivity of 90.9% (30/33) specificity of 93.9% (216/230)] in the gastric and esophagus, respectively, using partial least squares-discriminant analysis together with the leave-one tissue site-out, cross validation. This work demonstrates that Raman endoscopy technique has

  9. RB1 in cancer: different mechanisms of RB1 inactivation and alterations of pRb pathway in tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Riccardo; D'Anneo, Antonella; Tesoriere, Giovanni; Vento, Renza

    2013-08-01

    Loss of RB1 gene is considered either a causal or an accelerating event in retinoblastoma. A variety of mechanisms inactivates RB1 gene, including intragenic mutations, loss of expression by methylation and chromosomal deletions, with effects which are species-and cell type-specific. RB1 deletion can even lead to aneuploidy thus greatly increasing cancer risk. The RB1gene is part of a larger gene family that includes RBL1 and RBL2, each of the three encoding structurally related proteins indicated as pRb, p107, and p130, respectively. The great interest in these genes and proteins springs from their ability to slow down neoplastic growth. pRb can associate with various proteins by which it can regulate a great number of cellular activities. In particular, its association with the E2F transcription factor family allows the control of the main pRb functions, while the loss of these interactions greatly enhances cancer development. As RB1 gene, also pRb can be functionally inactivated through disparate mechanisms which are often tissue specific and dependent on the scenario of the involved tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The critical role of the context is complicated by the different functions played by the RB proteins and the E2F family members. In this review, we want to emphasize the importance of the mechanisms of RB1/pRb inactivation in inducing cancer cell development. The review is divided in three chapters describing in succession the mechanisms of RB1 inactivation in cancer cells, the alterations of pRb pathway in tumorigenesis and the RB protein and E2F family in cancer.

  10. Induction chemotherapy in technically unresectable locally advanced oral cavity cancers: Does it make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V M Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Locally advanced and unresectable oral cavity cancers have a poor prognosis. Induction might be beneficial in this setting by reducing tumor bulk and allowing definitive surgery. Aim: To analyze the impact of induction chemotherapy on locally advanced, technically unresectable oral cavity cancers. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with locally advanced oral cavity cancers, who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT during the period between June 2009 and December 2010. Data from a prospectively filled database were analyzed for information on patient characteristics, chemotherapy received, toxicity, response rates, local treatment offered, patterns of failure, and overall survival. The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 16. Results: 123 patients, with a median age of 42 years were analyzed. Buccal mucosa was the most common subsite (68.30%. Three drug regimen was utilized in 26 patients (21.10% and the rest received two drug regimen. Resectability was achieved in 17 patients treated with 3 drug regimen (68.00% and 36 patients receiving 2 drug regimen. Febrile neutropenia was seen in 3 patients (3.09% receiving 2 drug regimen and in 9 patients (34.62% receiving 3 drug regimen. The estimated median OS was not reached in patients who had clinical response and underwent surgery as opposed to 8 months in patients treated with non-surgical modality post NACT (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Induction chemotherapy was effective in converting technically unresectable oral cavity cancers to operable disease in approximately 40% of patients and was associated with significantly improved overall survival in comparison to nonsurgical treatment.

  11. Psychological distress in couples dealing with colorectal cancer: Gender and role differences and intracouple correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Tuinstra, J.; Hagedoorn, M.; van Sonderen, E; Ranchor, AV; van den Bos, GAM; Nijboer, C.; Sanderman, R.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. This longitudinal study examined patterns of psychological distress in couples facing colorectal cancer within 6 months after surgery. In addition, correspondence in psychological distress was investigated between patients and their spouses, taking into account the gender of the patient. Method. The study had a longitudinal design, involving three assessment points; (T 1) within 2 weeks after surgery, (T2) 3 months after baseline and (T3) 6 months after baseline. At T 1, responden...

  12. Impact of different IMRT techniques to improve conformity and normal tissue sparing in upper esophageal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Amin E Amin; Mohamed Kelaney; Samah K Elshamndy; Osiris W. Guirguis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical esophageal cancer is challenging. Although IMRT techniques using inverse planning algorithms are facilitating the treatment planning process, the irradiation dose to the normal tissues can be a critical issue. This study was performed to investigate the effect of beam numbers and their directions and local optimization on: (1) dose conformity and homogeneity to the planning target volume (PTV) and (2) dose to the organ at risks (OA...

  13. Age-related differences in persistence with bisphosphonates in women with metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, L; Hadji, P.; Kostev, K

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate age-related persistence with bisphosphonates (BIS) in women with breast cancer (BC) and bone metastases. Methods: We included a dataset of 1541 patients diagnosed with BC and bone metastases and initially treated with BIS between 1994 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was the age-related rate of BIS discontinuation within 12 months after treatment initiation. Therapy discontinuation was defined as a period of at least 90 days without treatment. A multivariate Cox r...

  14. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging during radiotherapy of locally advanced cervical cancer - Treatment response assessment using different segmentation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Tanderup, Kari; Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted;

    2015-01-01

    distribution of ADC values. This study evaluates: 1) different segmentation methods; and 2) how they affect assessment of tumor ADC value during RT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven patients with locally advanced cervical cancer underwent MRI three times during their RT: prior to start of RT (PRERT), two weeks......2-weighted MR images using the Jaccard similarity index (JSI). ADC values from segmented volumes were compared and changes of ADC values during therapy were evaluated. RESULTS: Significant difference between the four volumes (GTV, DWIcluster, DWISD4 and DWIregion) was found (p

  15. [High dose medroxyprogesterone acetate in metastatic breast cancer. Comparative clinical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of different forms of administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, H C; Wander, H E; Nagel, G A; Köbberling, J; Kleeberg, U

    1982-08-01

    In the therapy of metastatic breast cancer MAP was used with different dosages and different forms of administration. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were investigated. MAP plasma concentrations are dose dependent with great interindividual variation. The cortisol suppressive effect is dependent on plasma concentrations with only narrow interindividual variability. The oral administration of the crystal suspension is equivalent to the administration of tablets concerning plasma levels und endocrine effects. The therapy schedule for i.m. application used here leads to lower MAP plasma concentrations and correspondingly to a minor endocrine effect than in oral therapy. Tumor effective and cortisol suppressive plasma concentrations seem to have the same level. PMID:6215599

  16. Two different approaches in skin cancer therapy: using a photosensitizer/a natural product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Annie; Gayathri, Devi D.; Cibin, T. R.; Ramaiah, D.

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with two potential modes for the treatment of skin cancer-one a novel approach using a squaraine dye and the other using a natural product- the flavonoid fraction of Saraca asoka. Squaraine dye is a photosensitizing agent, which is preferentially taken up and retained by the tumor cells and when irradiated with high power visible light results in the selective destruction of the tumor cells by photodynamic therapy. The uniqueness of this mode of treatment lies in the selective destruction of tumor cells without affecting the neighbouring normal cells, which is much advantageous over radiation therapy now frequently used. The chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of the plant component are explored as well. The experimental models were Swiss albino mice in which skin tumor was induced by DMBA. Marked reduction in tumor volume and burden in the treated groups were observed. The reversal of biochemical enzyme markers like rhodanese, myeloperoxidase, β-D glucuronidase, lactate dehydrogenase, hexokinase and sialic acid to near normal levels were observed in the PDT and flavonoid fraction treated groups. The live photographs of the experimental animals and histopathological data further support the obtained results. The study assumes importance as it combines a traditional treatment mode and a novel aspect in cancer therapy using the same experimental models. Also this is the first report on PDT using a squaraine dye for skin cancer therapy in vivo.

  17. The Exposure of Breast Cancer Cells to Fulvestrant and Tamoxifen Modulates Cell Migration Differently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysia Lymperatou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that there are increased benefits of hormonal therapy to breast cancer patients; however, current evidence suggests that estrogen receptor (ER blockage using antiestrogens is associated with a small induction of invasiveness in vitro. The mechanism by which epithelial tumor cells escape from the primary tumor and colonize to a distant site is not entirely understood. This study investigates the effect of two selective antagonists of the ER, Fulvestrant (Fulv and Tamoxifen (Tam, on the invasive ability of breast cancer cells. We found that 17β-estradiol (E2 demonstrated a protective role regarding cell migration and invasion. Fulv did not alter this effect while Tam stimulated active cell migration according to an increase in Snail and a decrease in E-cadherin protein expression. Furthermore, both tested agents increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and enhanced invasive potential of breast cancer cells. These changes were in line with focal adhesion kinase (FAK rearrangement. Our data indicate that the anti-estrogens counteracted the protective role of E2 concerning migration and invasion since their effect was not limited to antiproliferative events. Although Fulv caused a less aggressive result compared to Tam, the benefits of hormonal therapy concerning invasion and metastasis yet remain to be investigated.

  18. Antioxidant status in breast cancer patients of different ages after radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasapović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of breast cancer radiotherapy on the antioxidant (AO enzyme activities of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GR, as well as on the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxides (LP in blood of patients aged 45-58 years and older than 60 years. The results show that in blood of patients aged 45-58 years, radiotherapy increased the activities of CuZnSOD, CAT, and GR, as well as the concentration of GSH, without affecting the activity of GPx and concentration of LP. In patients older than 60 years, radiotherapy increased the activities of CuZnSOD and CAT, lowered the activity of GPx and concentration of GSH, and increased the concentration of LP. Our results indicate that the response to radiotherapy involves age-related impairment of AO capacity for elimination of H2O2, causing oxidative damage to blood cells. This suggests that cytotoxic effects of radiation on healthy tissues might be more pronounced during the aging of breast cancer patients, and should be considered in the further development of individualization protocols in cancer radiotherapy.

  19. Penetrance of ATM Gene Mutations in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Different Measures of Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabelli, Monica; Cheng, Su-Chun; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The gene responsible for ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome, ATM, is also an intermediate-risk breast cancer (BC) susceptibility gene. Numerous studies have been carried out to determine the contribution of ATM gene mutations to BC risk. Epidemiological cohorts, segregation analyses, and case-control studies reported BC risk in different forms, including penetrance, relative risk, standardized incidence ratio, and odds ratio. Because the reported estimates vary both qualitatively and quantitatively, we developed a general model allowing the integration of the different types of cancer risk available in the literature. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis identifying 19 studies, and used our model to obtain a consensus estimate of BC penetrance. We estimated the cumulative risk of BC in heterozygous ATM mutation carriers to be 6.02% by 50 years of age (95% credible interval: 4.58-7.42%) and 32.83% by 80 years of age (95% credible interval: 24.55-40.43%). An accurate assessment of cancer penetrance is crucial to help mutation carriers make medical and lifestyle decisions that can reduce their chances of developing the disease. PMID:27112364

  20. Interspecies differences in membrane-associated protease activities of thyrocytes and their relevance for thyroid cancer studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich Eleonore

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the role of proteases involved in human thyroid cancer progression and tissue invasion, thyrocytes from other species could potentially be used provided their characteristics are similar. It is not known whether dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N activities, which are overexpressed in human thyroid cancer, are, as in human, also absent in normal thyrocytes of other species, making them suitable models for studies on the regulation of these proteases. Methods To assess the role of these proteases, activity was measured in thyroid tissue of human, mouse, rat, porcine, bovine and ovine origin. The lysosomal protease, dipeptidyl peptidase II, was used for comparison. Results Murine, rat, ovine, bovine and human thyrocytes all lacked dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N activity, but porcine thyrocytes were found to possess both. In contrast, lysosomal dipeptidyl peptidase II was strongly expressed in all species. These activity patterns were maintained in cultured cells. Cultured porcine thyrocytes formed follicles with typical morphology upon stimulation with TSH but differed from human thyrocytes in their response to thiamazole. Conclusions These species differences in the expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N, indicate that porcine thyrocytes cannot be considered appropriate for the study of proteases in human cancer development.

  1. NASA space cancer risk model-2014: Uncertainties due to qualitative differences in biological effects of HZE particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis

    Uncertainties in estimating health risks from exposures to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) — comprised of protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei are an important limitation to long duration space travel. HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation leading to large uncertainties in predicting risks to humans. Our NASA Space Cancer Risk Model-2012 (NSCR-2012) for estimating lifetime cancer risks from space radiation included several new features compared to earlier models from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) used at NASA. New features of NSCR-2012 included the introduction of NASA defined radiation quality factors based on track structure concepts, a Bayesian analysis of the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF) and its uncertainty, and the use of a never-smoker population to represent astronauts. However, NSCR-2012 did not include estimates of the role of qualitative differences between HZE particles and low LET radiation. In this report we discuss evidence for non-targeted effects increasing cancer risks at space relevant HZE particle absorbed doses in tissue (Mars exploration will be described, and compared to those of our earlier NSCR-2012 model.

  2. Is there a difference in outcome between stage I-II endometrial cancer of papillary serous/clear cell and endometrioid FIGO Grade 3 cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Several reports in the literature have shown that, compared with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, patients with papillary serous (PS) and clear cell (CC) histologic features do worse. However, it is unclear whether the outcome of PS/CC cancer is different from that of poorly differentiated endometrioid cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome between PS/CC and endometrioid International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Grade 3 cancer and was limited to patients with Stage I-II uterine carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between November 1987 and September 1999, 83 patients with Stage I endometrial cancer and Stage II occult endometrial cancer were treated with simple hysterectomy and high-dose-rate intravaginal brachytherapy. Forty-one patients (49%) had FIGO Grade 3 endometrioid tumors (Group 1) and 42 (51%) had PS/CC histologic features (Group 2). The mean age was 63 years (range 30-89). Comprehensive surgical staging was done in 23 (28%) of 83 patients. Capillary space-like invasion (CSLI) was seen in 24 (29%) of 83 patients. The median dose of intravaginal brachytherapy when used alone was 21 Gy in 3 fractions. Additional external beam radiotherapy was given to 42 (51%) of 83 patients to 45 Gy. The two groups were balanced with regard to age, race, comprehensive surgical staging, amount of myometrial involvement, CSLI, lower uterine segment involvement, cervical involvement, and use of external beam radiotherapy. The median follow-up was 46 months (range 4-147). Results: The pattern of relapse was as follows: vagina/pelvis in 5 of 14 patients, lungs in 8 of 15, intra-abdominal in 4 of 12, and supraclavicular lymph nodes in 1 of 14. One of the four intra-abdominal disseminations was in Group 1 and the other three in Group 2 (p=0.6). The 5-year vaginal/pelvic control, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rate was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI] 87-99%), 79% (95% CI 69-89%), and 74% (95% CI 64

  3. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf;

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...... on cervical cancer prevention. More than 6,000 women diagnosed with HG-CIN or ICC from 17 European countries were enrolled in two parallel cross-sectional studies (108288/108290). Centralised histopathology review and standardised HPV-DNA typing were applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical...... specimens dated 2001-2008. The pooled prevalence of individual HPV types was estimated using meta-analytic methods. A total of 3,103 women were diagnosed with HG-CIN and a total of 3,162 with ICC (median ages: 34 and 49 years, respectively), of which 98.5 and 91.8% were HPV-positive, respectively. The most...

  4. Comparison of the viscoelastic properties of cells from different kidney cancer phenotypes measured with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viscoelastic properties of human kidney cell lines from different tumor types (carcinoma (A-498) and adenocarcinoma (ACHN)) are compared to a non-tumorigenic cell line (RC-124). Our methodology is based on the mapping of viscoelastic properties (elasticity modulus E and apparent viscosity η) over the surface of tens of individual cells with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The viscoelastic properties are averaged over datasets as large as 15000 data points per cell line. We also propose a model to estimate the apparent viscosity of soft materials using the hysteresis observed in conventional AFM deflection–displacement curves, without any modification to the standard AFM apparatus. The comparison of the three cell lines show that the non-tumorigenic cells are less deformable and more viscous than cancerous cells, and that cancer cell lines have distinctive viscoelastic properties. In particular, we obtained that ERC−124 > EA−498 > EACHN and ηRC−124 > ηA−498 > ηACHN. (paper)

  5. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spreads in different ways, and each is treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer grows more quickly and is more likely to spread to other organs in the body. Learn more about non-small cell lung cancer. Learn ...

  6. Dramatic capability of the story of Amir Hasanak the vizier in Tarikh-e Beyhaghi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    پروین گلی زاده

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Literary adaptation is recasting literary books such as novels, short stories, or even poems in a new form such as films, stage plays, or even video games. Persian literature abounds with dramatic events. There are many fascinating narratives such as Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, Khmseh of Nezami, Mathnavi of Rumi, and Tarikh-e Beyhaghi of Beyhaghi, which have the dramatic capacity of literary adaptation. In this paper, the writer examines the dramatic capability of “The execution of Amir Hasanak the vizier”. The structure and artistic aspects of the story will be studied in the light of the elements of drama. Keywords: Beyhaghi, Hasanak, narration, dialogue, suspense

  7. Dramatic changes in DNA conductance with stretching: structural polymorphism at a critical extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Saientan; Mogurampelly, Santosh; Goddard Iii, William A; Maiti, Prabal K

    2016-09-21

    In order to interpret recent experimental studies of the dependence of conductance of ds-DNA as the DNA is pulled from the 3'end1-3'end2 ends, which find a sharp conductance jump for a very short (4.5%) stretching length, we carried out multiscale modeling to predict the conductance of dsDNA as it is mechanically stretched to promote various structural polymorphisms. We calculate the current along the stretched DNA using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, non-equilibrium pulling simulations, quantum mechanics calculations, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. For 5'end1-5'end2 attachments we find an abrupt jump in the current within a very short stretching length (6 Å or 17%) leading to a melted DNA state. In contrast, for 3'end1-3'end2 pulling it takes almost 32 Å (84%) of stretching to cause a similar jump in the current. Thus, we demonstrate that charge transport in DNA can occur over stretching lengths of several nanometers. We find that this unexpected behaviour in the B to S conformational DNA transition arises from highly inclined base pair geometries that result from this pulling protocol. We found that the dramatically different conductance behaviors for two different pulling protocols arise from how the hydrogen bonds of DNA base pairs break. PMID:27545499

  8. Understanding the Racial and Ethnic Differences in Cost and Mortality Among Advanced Stage Prostate Cancer Patients (STROBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Bruce Malkowicz, Stanley; Sanford Schwartz, J; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the study were to understand the racial/ethnic differences in cost of care and mortality in Medicare elderly with advanced stage prostate cancer.This retrospective, observational study used SEER-Medicare data. Cohort consisted of 10,509 men aged 66 or older and diagnosed with advanced-stage prostate cancer between 2001and 2004. The cohort was followed retrospectively up to 2009. Racial/ethnic variation in cost was analyzed using 2 part-models and quantile regression. Step-wise GLM log-link and Cox regression was used to study the association between race/ethnicity and cost and mortality. Propensity score approach was used to minimize selection bias.Pattern of cost and mortality varies between racial/ethnic groups. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, non-Hispanic white patients had higher unadjusted costs in treatment and follow-up phases. Quintile regression results indicated that in treatment phase, Hispanics had higher costs in the 95th quantile and non-Hispanic blacks had lower cost in the 95th quantile, compared with non-Hispanic white men. In terminal phase non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics had higher cost. After controlling for treatment, all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality was not significant for non-Hispanic black men, compared with non-Hispanic white men. However, for Asians, mortality remained significantly lower compared with non-Hispanic white men.In conclusion, relationship between race/ethnicity, cost of care, and mortality is intricate. For non-Hispanic black men, disparity in mortality can be attributed to treatment differences. To reduce racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer care and outcomes, tailored policies to address underuse, overuse, and misuse of treatment and health services are necessary. PMID:26266389

  9. Replication error deficient and proficient colorectal cancer gene expression differences caused by 3'UTR polyT sequence deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilding, Jennifer L; McGowan, Simon; Liu, Ying;

    2010-01-01

    Replication error deficient (RER+) colorectal cancers are a distinct subset of colorectal cancers, characterized by inactivation of the DNA mismatch repair system. These cancers are typically pseudodiploid, accumulate mutations in repetitive sequences as a result of their mismatch repair deficiency...

  10. Association between different EGFR mutation status and survival in pemetrexed-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郏博

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between different epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)mutation status and survival in pemetrexed-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC).Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed to assess146 patients with advanced NSCLC at Cancer

  11. Different glycosylation of cadherins from human bladder non-malignant and cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lityńska Anna

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to determine whether stage of invasiveness of bladder cancer cell lines contributes to alterations in glycan pattern of their cadherins. Results Human non-malignant epithelial cell of ureter HCV29, v-raf transfected HCV29 line (BC3726 and transitional cell cancers of urine bladder Hu456 and T24 were grown in cell culture. Equal amounts of protein from each cell extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and were blotted on an Immobilon P membrane. Cadherins were immunodetected using anti-pan cadherin mAb and lectin blotting assays were performed, in parallel. N-oligosaccharides were analysed by specific reaction with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA, Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA, Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA, Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA, Aleuria aurantia agglutinin (AAA, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA-L and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA. The cadherin from HCV29 cell line possessed bi- and/or 2,4-branched triantennary complex type glycans, some of which were α2,6-sialylated. The cadherin from BC3726 cell line exhibited exclusively high mannose type glycans. Cadherins from Hu456 and T24 cell lines expressed high mannose type glycans as well as β1,6-branched oligosaccharides with poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures and α2,3-linked sialic acid residues. Additionally, the presence of fucose and α2,6-sialic acid residues on the cadherin from T24 cell line was detected. Conclusions These results indicate that N-glycosylation pattern of cadherin from bladder cancer cell line undergoes modification during carcinogenesis.

  12. Polymorphisms of GSTP1 is associated with differences of chemotherapy response and toxicity in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bai-lin; LIN Dong-xin; SUN Tong; ZHANG Bao-ning; ZHENG Shan; L(U) Ning; XU Bing-he; WANG Xiang; CHEN Guo-ji; YU Dian-ke

    2011-01-01

    Background Although chemotherapy is one of the most important treatments of breast cancer,it is limited by significant inter-individuval variations in response and toxicity.The metabolism of epirubicin (EPI) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) is mainly mediated by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs).It has been well-known that the activities of these enzymes are polymorphic in population due to their genetic polymorphisms.The aim of this research was to examine the effects of genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A,GSTP1 and MDR1 genes on treatment response and side-effects of breast cancer patients receiving EPI/CTX chemotherapy.Methods One hundred and twenty patients with stage Ⅱ or Ⅲ invasive breast cancer were recruited and treated with three to four cycles of EPI 80 mg/m2 and CTX 600 mg/m2 every two weeks.The AJCC TNM staging system (sixth edition)was used to evaluate the pathological response of primary tumor and axillary lymph nodes.The genotypes of gene polymorphisms were determined by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods.Results Patients carrying GSTP1 105 lle/Val or 105 lle/lle genotype were more likely to have good response (OR,0.40;95% CI,0.16-0.96;P=0.024) and light toxicity (OR,0.35;95% Cl,0.13-0.78;P=0.006) than those carrying 105Val/Val genotypes.The response to the treatment was not correlated with estrogen receptor,progesterone receptor and Her2/neu status of tumors.No correlation was found between toxicity effect and patient's age,tumor staging,menopause status,and dose intensity of the drugs.Conclusion GSTP1 polymorphism was associatiated with the chemotherapy response or adverse effects of EPI and CTX regimens.

  13. Graphene as a nanocarrier for tamoxifen induces apoptosis in transformed cancer cell lines of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Rao, C N R

    2012-01-01

    A cationic amphiphile, cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl pyridinium bromide (PY(+) -Chol), is able to efficiently disperse exfoliated graphene (GR) in water by the physical adsorption of PY(+) -Chol on the surface of GR to form stable, dark aqueous suspensions at room temperature. The GR-PY(+) -Chol suspension can then be used to solubilize Tamoxifen Citrate (TmC), a breast cancer drug, in water. The resulting TmC-GR-PY(+) -Chol is stable for a long time without any precipitation. Fluorescence emission and UV absorption spectra indicate the existence of noncovalent interactions between TmC, GR, and PY(+) -Chol in these suspensions. Electron microscopy shows the existence of segregated GR sheets and TmC 'ribbons' in the composite suspensions. Atomic force microscopy indicates the presence of 'extended' structures of GR-PY(+) -Chol, which grows wider in the presence of TmC. The slow time-dependent release of TmC is noticed in a reconstituted cell culture medium, a property useful as a drug carrier. TmC-GR-PY(+) -Chol selectively enhanced the cell death (apoptosis) of the transformed cancer cells compared to normal cells. This potency is found to be true for a wide range of transformed cancer cells viz. HeLa, A549, ras oncogene-transformed NIH3T3, HepG2, MDA-MB231, MCF-7, and HEK293T compared to the normal cell HEK293 in vitro. Confocal microscopy confirmed the high efficiency of TmC-GR-PY(+) -Chol in delivering the drug to the cells, compared to the suspensions devoid of GR. PMID:22102595

  14. Different role of COX-2 and angiogenesis in canine inflammatory and non-inflammatory mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Mónica; Sánchez-Archidona, Ana Rodríguez; Sardón, David; Díez, Lucía; Martín-Ruiz, Asunción; Caceres, Sara; Sassi, Francesco; Dolores Pérez-Alenza, M; Illera, Juan C; Dunner, Susana; Peña, Laura

    2013-08-01

    Human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) are the most aggressive and fatal types of mammary cancer, and both have a very poor prognosis and low survival rate. Human IBC is characterised by exacerbated angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymphangiotropism. Lymphangiotropism is also characteristic of IMC, but microvascular density (MVD) and lymphangiogenesis have not been previously studied in canine IMC. In this study immunohistochemical expression of several angiogenesis-related factors (cyclooxygenase [COX]-2, vascular endothelial growth factors A and D [VEGF-A, VEGF-D], and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 [VEGFR-3]), MVD, lymphatic proliferation index (LPI), and Ki-67 tumour proliferation index (PI) were studied in 21 canine IMC samples, 20 canine high-grade malignant non-IMC mammary tumours (MMTs), and four normal mammary gland samples (NMGs). All mammary neoplasms were histologically categorised as grade III. COX-2 values were also analysed by RT-PCR in seven IMCs, six MMTs and four NMGs. The expressions of COX-2, VEGF-A, and VEGF-D were significantly higher in IMC, MVD and LPI tumours, but not PI. In MMTs, COX-2 immunoexpression was significantly associated with VEGF-A, while in IMCs COX-2 was associated with VEGF-D (lymphangiogenic factor), its receptor VEGFR-3, and LPI. These results suggested that lymphangiogenic pathway stimulation isa specific role of COX-2 in IMC angiogenesis, which justifies the use of COX-2-based targeted palliative therapies in dogs. The exacerbated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and the increased expression of angiogenesis-related factors further support canine IMC as a natural model for the study of human IBC.

  15. The Interview: Dramatization Techniques in Dance--A New Approach to Teaching Modern Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Gwendolyn Croom; Snygg, Fran

    1979-01-01

    The use of the interview dramatization as a teaching technique for presenting historical and chronological background information in the field of modern dance is described. Samples of the interviews are included. (JMF)

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: age differences in factors influencing patients' treatment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgensen ML

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mikaela L Jorgensen,1,2 Jane M Young,1,2 Michael J Solomon1,31Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Epidemiology and Services Research (CESR, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Discipline of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Older colorectal cancer patients are significantly less likely than younger patients to receive guideline-recommended adjuvant chemotherapy. Previous research has indicated that patient refusal of treatment is a contributing factor. This study aimed to identify potential barriers to adjuvant chemotherapy use in older patients by examining the associations between patient age, factors influencing chemotherapy treatment decisions, and preferences for information and decision-making involvement.Patients and methods: Sixty-eight patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer in Sydney, Australia, within the previous 24 months completed a self-administered survey.Results: Fear of dying, health status, age, quality of life, and understanding treatment procedures and effects were significantly more important to older patients (aged ≥65 years than younger patients in deciding whether to accept chemotherapy (all P < 0.05. Reducing the risk of cancer returning and physician trust were important factors for all patients. Practical barriers such as traveling for treatment and cost were rated lowest. Older patients preferred less information and involvement in treatment decision making than younger patients. However, 60% of the older group wanted detailed information about chemotherapy, and 83% wanted some involvement in decision making. Those preferring less information and involvement still rated many factors as important in their decision making, including understanding treatment procedures and effects.Conclusion: A range of factors appears to influence

  17. Characterization of different CTC subpopulations in non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Annkathrin Hanssen; Jenny Wagner; Gorges, Tobias M; Aline Taenzer; Uzunoglu, Faik G.; Christiane Driemel; Nikolas H Stoecklein; Knoefel, Wolfram T; Sebastian Angenendt; Siegfried Hauch; Djordje Atanackovic; Sonja Loges; Sabine Riethdorf; Klaus Pantel; Harriet Wikman

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) serve as valuable biomarkers. However, EpCAM positive CTCs are less frequently detected in NSCLC patients compared to other epithelial tumours. First, EpCAM protein expression was analysed in primary and metastatic lung cancer tissue. In both groups 21% of the samples were EpCAM negative. Second, the CellSearch system identified 15% of patients (n = 48) as CTC positive whereas a multiplex RT-PCR for PIK3CA, AKT2, TWIST, and ALDH1 following EGFR, HER2 and EpCAM ...

  18. The comparison between two different methods of radiotherapy in palliation and survival of patients with esophageal cancer

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    Keshvary M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in our country. Patients often seek medical advice in advanced and inoperable stages or with cervical esophageal cancer, in which operation is accompanied by sever morbidity. In this conditions many of them cannot tolerate chemo-radiation, or refuse it. Therefore radiotherapy is applied as a single modality in palliation of many patients with esophageal cancer. One of the palliative radio therapeutic methods is application of 5000 CGY in 20 fractions (Long Course; but considering the great number of our patients and limited capacity of radiotherapy centers, as well as emphasis of literature on palliation with 4000 CGY in 13 fractions (short course, we decided to compare these two methods (which are both used in our departments. In this retrospective analytic study, the files of 283 patients with esophageal cancer referred to cancer institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital from 1989-1999 were studied. Patients were between 27-97 years old (mean age=58.3 and most of them were male (53.7 percent. The mean length of lesion was 8.5 cm. The most common site of lesion was middle third at esophagus (48.1 percent and the most common pathology was squamous cell carcinoma (99.6 percent. Fifty-four percent of patients were hot tea drinkers habitually. From the mentioned variables, only length of lesion had significant relationship with overall survival (P=0.04. Thirty-eight of 283 patients were excluded from analytic study because of incomplete follow-up. The number of patients had been treated by long course (5000 CGY in 20 fractions was 137 and the remainder (108 patients by short course (4000 CGY in 13 fractions. No significant difference was seen statistically between these two groups in overall and dysphagia-free survival (Kaplan-Meyer test. Also total dosage of spinal cord is lower in the short course. Thus regarding to less required time in short course and comparable palliation and survival between

  19. Pre-chemotherapy differences in visuospatial working memory in breast cancer patients compared to controls: An fMRI study.

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    Carole Susan Scherling

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCognitive deficits are a side-effect of chemotherapy, however pre-treatment research is limited. This study examines neurofunctional differences during working memory between breast cancer (BC patients and controls, prior to chemotherapy. MethodsEarly stage BC females (23, scanned after surgery but before chemotherapy, were individually matched to non-cancer controls. Participants underwent fMRI while performing a Visuospatial N-back task and data was analyzed by multiple group comparisons. fMRI task performance, neuropsychological tests, hospital records and salivary biomarkers were also collected.ResultsThere were no significant group differences on neuropsychological tests, estrogen or cortisol. Patients made significantly fewer commission errors but had less overall correct responses and were slower than controls during the task. Significant group differences were observed for the fMRI data, yet results depended on the type of analysis. BC patients presented with increased activations during working memory compared to controls in areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, thalamus, and midbrain. Individual group regressions revealed a reverse relationship between brain activity and commission errors. ConclusionsThis is the first fMRI investigation to reveal neurophysiological differences during visuospatial working memory between BC patients pre-chemotherapy and controls.SignificanceThis highlights the need to better understand the pre-chemotherapy BC patient and the effects of associated confounding variables.

  20. Efficacy and toxicity differences in lung cancer populations in the era of clinical trials globalization: the 'common arm' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Philip C; Gandara, David R; Lara, Primo N

    2012-12-01

    Historically, notable variability has been observed in clinical trial outcomes between different regions and populations worldwide, even when employing the same cytotoxic regimen in lung cancer. These divergent results underscore the inherent challenges in interpreting trials conducted abroad and raise questions regarding the general applicability of transnational clinical trials. Various reasons have been postulated to account for these differences in efficacy and toxicity, including trial design, eligibility criteria, patient demographics and, perhaps most intriguingly, population-related pharmacogenomics. However, without methodology to control for such variables, these hypotheses remain largely untested. The authors previously developed the 'common arm' approach in order to directly compare efficacy and toxicity results of trials simultaneously performed in different countries. By standardizing clinical trial-associated variables such as treatment regimens (dose, schedule, and so on), eligibility, staging, response and toxicity criteria, this approach has the potential to determine the underlying reasons for divergences in trial outcomes across countries, and whether population-associated polymorphisms contribute to these differences. In the past decade, Japanese and US investigators have applied the common arm analytic method to trials in both extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and advanced nonSCLC. In the SCLC analysis, a comparison of the cisplatin/irinotecan arms from both trials revealed significant differences in response rates and overall survival. Significant differences were also observed in the distribution of gender and performance status. The common arm analysis in nonSCLC included two trials from Japan and one from the USA, each containing a 'common' carboplatin/paclitaxel arm. Clinical results were similar in the two Japanese trials, but were significantly different from the US trial with regard to survival, neutropenia, febrile

  1. Different affinity windows for virus and cancer-specific T-cell receptors: implications for therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Milos; Liddy, Nathaniel; Molloy, Peter E; Pumphrey, Nick; Vuidepot, Annelise; Chang, Kyong-Mi; Jakobsen, Bent K

    2012-12-01

    T-cell destiny during thymic selection depends on the affinity of the TCR for autologous peptide ligands presented in the context of MHC molecules. This is a delicately balanced process; robust binding leads to negative selection, yet some affinity for the antigen complex is required for positive selection. All TCRs of the resulting repertoire thus have some intrinsic affinity for an MHC type presenting an assortment of peptides. Generally, TCR affinities of peripheral T cells will be low toward self-derived peptides, as these would have been presented during thymic selection, whereas, by serendipity, binding to pathogen-derived peptides that are encountered de novo could be stronger. A crucial question in assessing immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer is whether natural TCR repertoires have the capacity for efficiently recognizing tumor-associated peptide antigens. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of TCR affinities to a range of HLA-A2 presented antigens. TCRs that bind viral antigens fall within a strikingly higher affinity range than those that bind cancer-related antigens. This difference may be one of the key explanations for tumor immune escape and for the deficiencies of T-cell vaccines against cancer.

  2. Comparison of arc-modulated cone beam therapy and helical tomotherapy for three different types of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Silke; Sterzing, Florian; Nill, Simeon; Schubert, Kai; Herfarth, Klaus K.; Debus, Juergen; Oelfke, Uwe [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: Arc-modulated cone beam therapy (AMCBT) is a fast treatment technique deliverable in a single rotation with a conventional C-arm shaped linac. In this planning study, the authors assess the dosimetric properties of single-arc therapy in comparison to helical tomotherapy for three different tumor types. Methods: Treatment plans for three patients with prostate carcinoma, three patients with anal cancer, and three patients with head and neck cancer were optimized for helical tomotherapy and AMCBT. The dosimetric comparison of the two techniques is based on physical quantities derived from dose-volume histograms. Results: For prostate cancer, the quality of dose distributions calculated for AMCBT was of equal quality as that generated for tomotherapy with the additional benefits of a faster delivery and a lower integral dose. For highly complex geometries, the plan quality achievable with helical tomotherapy could not be achieved with arc-modulated cone beam therapy. Conclusions: Rotation therapy with a conventional linac in a single arc is capable to deliver a high and homogeneous dose to the target and spare organs at risk. Advantages of this technique are a fast treatment time and a lower integral dose in comparison to helical tomotherapy. For highly complex cases, e.g., with several target regions, the dose shaping capabilities of AMCBT are inferior to those of tomotherapy. However, treatment plans for AMCBT were also clinically acceptable.

  3. The Revised 2016 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancers: Differences from the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Increased detection of thyroid nodules using high-resolution ultrasonography has resulted in a world-wide increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Despite the steep increase in its incidence, the age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer has remained stable, which leads toward a trend of more conservative treatment. The latest American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer revised in 2015 suggested that fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed for thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm and lobectomy might be sufficient for 1 to 4 cm intrathyroidal DTC. In addition, active surveillance instead of immediate surgical treatment was also recommended as a treatment option for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on the results of a few observational studies from Japan. The Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) has organized a task force team to develop revised guidelines for thyroid nodules and DTC after an extensive review of articles and intense discussion on whether we should accept the changes in the 2015 ATA guidelines. This paper introduces and discusses the updated major issues and differences in the ATA and the KTA guidelines. PMID:27704738

  4. Distinct molecular mechanisms underlying clinically relevant subtypes of breast cancer: gene expression analyses across three different platforms

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    Naume Bjørn

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has been used to define molecular phenotypes of complex diseases such as breast cancer. The luminal A and basal-like subtypes have been repeatedly identified and validated as the two main subtypes out of a total of five molecular subtypes of breast cancer. These two are associated with distinctly different gene expression patterns and more importantly, a significant difference in clinical outcome. To further validate and more thoroughly characterize these two subtypes at the molecular level in tumors at an early stage, we report a gene expression profiling study using three different DNA microarray platforms. Results Expression data from 20 tumor biopsies of early stage breast carcinomas were generated on three different DNA microarray platforms; Applied Biosystems Human Genome Survey Microarrays, Stanford cDNA Microarrays and Agilent's Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarrays, and the resulting gene expression patterns were analyzed. Both unsupervised and supervised analyses identified the different clinically relevant subtypes of breast tumours, and the results were consistent across all three platforms. Gene classification and biological pathway analyses of the genes differentially expressed between the two main subtypes revealed different molecular mechanisms descriptive of the two expression-based subtypes: Signature genes of the luminal A subtype were over-represented by genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and steroid hormone-mediated signaling pathways, in particular estrogen receptor signaling, while signature genes of the basal-like subtype were over-represented by genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, p21-mediated pathway, and G1-S checkpoint of cell cycle-signaling pathways. A minimal set of 54 genes that best discriminated the two subtypes was identified using the combined data sets generated from the three different array platforms. These predictor genes were further

  5. A poorly known high-latitude parasitoid wasp community: unexpected diversity and dramatic changes through time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    Full Text Available Climate change will have profound and unanticipated effects on species distributions. The pace and nature of this change is largely unstudied, especially for the most diverse elements of terrestrial communities--the arthropods--here we have only limited knowledge concerning the taxonomy and the ecology of these groups. Because Arctic ecosystems have already experienced significant increases in temperature over the past half century, shifts in community structure may already be in progress. Here we utilise collections of a particularly hyperdiverse insect group--parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera; Braconidae; Microgastrinae--at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the early and mid-twentieth century to compare the composition of the contemporary community to that present 50-70 years ago. Morphological and DNA barcoding results revealed the presence of 79 species of microgastrine wasps in collections from Churchill, but we estimate that 20% of the local fauna awaits detection. Species composition and diversity between the two time periods differ significantly; species that were most common in historic collections were not found in contemporary collections and vice versa. Using barcodes we compared these collections to others from across North America; contemporary Churchill species are most affiliated with more south-western collections, while historic collections were more affiliated with eastern collections. The past five decades has clearly seen a dramatic change of species composition within the area studied coincident with rising temperature.

  6. Analysing the development of TV news programmes: from information to dramatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Rodríguez Fidalgo, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The TV news programme is the backbone of all television networks, be they national, regional or local. These types of programmes have been changing over the time. The essence of the information is being modified and has adopted a new format. Based on these principles, this research analyses the evolution of the language used on the Spanish TV news programmes, from their origins until today. This research has been carried out in three different phases: late 1980s, the 1990s and recent years. These stages were thoroughly examined through surveys applied to representative samples of the population. The results showed that TV news programmes have been acquiring a changing narrative style throughout time: they began using an “objective” narrative, followed by a mediated type, and finally dramatized narrative which uses shocking visual content and aims to achieve audience’s sensibilization and identification with news’ protagonists. The spectacularization of information has become the identitary feature of the current TV news programmes as a response to the need of reaching higher audience ratings.

  7. Who gets custody now? Dramatic changes in children's living arrangements after divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R; Brown, Patricia R; Cook, Steven T

    2014-08-01

    This article reexamines the living arrangements of children following their parents' divorce, using Wisconsin Court Records, updating an analysis that showed relatively small but significant increases in shared custody in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These changes have accelerated markedly in the intervening years: between 1988 and 2008, the proportion of mothers granted sole physical custody fell substantially, the proportion of parents sharing custody increased dramatically, and father-sole custody remained relatively stable. We explore changes in the correlates of alternative custody outcomes, showing that some results from the earlier analysis still hold (for example, cases with higher total family income are more likely to have shared custody), but other differences have lessened (shared-custody cases have become less distinctive as they have become more common). Despite the considerable changes in marriage and divorce patterns over this period, we do not find strong evidence that the changes in custody are related to changes in the characteristics of families experiencing a divorce; rather, changes in custody may be the result of changes in social norms and the process by which custody is determined.

  8. Difference in protein expression profile and chemotherapy drugs response of different progression stages of LNCaP sublines and other human prostate cancer cells.

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    Hui-Ping Lin

    Full Text Available Androgen ablation therapy is the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. However, 80-90% of the patients who receive androgen ablation therapy ultimately develop recurrent tumors in 12-33 months after treatment with a median overall survival time of 1-2 years after relapse. LNCaP is a commonly used cell line established from a human lymph node metastatic lesion of prostatic adenocarcinoma. We previously established two relapsed androgen receptor (AR-rich androgen-independent LNCaP sublines 104-R1 (androgen depleted for 12 months and 104-R2 cells (androgen depleted for 24 months from AR-positive androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells. LNCaP 104-R1 and 104-R2 mimics the AR-positive hormone-refractory relapsed tumors in patients receiving androgen ablation therapy. Androgen treatment stimulates proliferation of 104-S cells, but causes growth inhibition and G1 cell cycle arrest in 104-R1 and 104-R2 cells. We investigated the protein expression profile difference between LNCaP 104-S vs. LNCaP 104-R1, 104-R2, PC-3, and DU-145 cells as well as examined the sensitivity of these prostate cancer cells to different chemotherapy drugs and small molecule inhibitors. Compared to 104-S cells, 104-R1 and 104-R2 cells express higher protein levels of AR, PSA, c-Myc, Skp2, BCL-2, P53, p-MDM2 S166, Rb, and p-Rb S807/811. The 104-R1 and 104-R2 cells express higher ratio of p-Akt S473/Akt, p-EGFR/EGFR, and p-Src/Src, but lower ratio of p-ERK/ERK than 104-S cells. PC-3 and DU-145 cells express higher c-Myc, Skp2, Akt, Akt1, and phospho-EGFR but less phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK. Overexpression of Skp2 increased resistance of LNCaP cells to chemotherapy drugs. Paclitaxel, androgen, and inhibitors for PI3K/Akt, EGFR, Src, or Bcl-2 seem to be potential choices for treatment of advanced prostate cancers. Our study provides rationale for targeting Akt, EGFR, Src, Bcl-2, and AR signaling as a treatment for AR-positive relapsed prostate tumors after hormone therapy.

  9. Hereditary/familial versus sporadic prostate cancer: few indisputable genetic differences and many similar clinicopathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, C

    2010-01-01

    Genetic factors and their interactions with environmental conditions and internal microenvironment influence the prostate cancer (PC) development, so that gene expression couldn't strictly occur on the basis of reductionist determinisms of DNA causality but should also conform to multifactorial and stochastic events, moreover, considering the pre-RNA alternative splicing-mediated multi-protein assemblying mechanisms. Nevertheless, after age and ethnic background, the strongest epidemiological risk factor for PC is a positive family history. However, apart from RNaseL-, ElaC2-, MSR1-genes, there are not other identified high-risk genetic variants which might be considered responsible for hereditary PC, moreover suggesting that familial PC is a genetically heterogeneous disease, many gene loci rather than a specific major susceptibility gene predisposing to it. Gene-environment interactions play a crucial role in cancer development especially when low penetrance genes, such as in case of genetic polymorphisms, are the major players. Several epidemiological studies show, in some families, a possible, either syncronous or metachronous, association of other tumors (breast, brain, gastrointestinal tumors, lymphomas) with PC, thus suggesting a common genetic background. As far as the role of androgen metabolism and androgen receptor (AR)-related genes in the development of familial PC is concerned, a small number of either guanine-guanine-cytosine (risk. Regarding the expression of both androgen and estrogen receptor-related genes in sporadic and hereditary PC, the immunohistochemistry findings show that the percentage of AR-positive cancer cells is higher in hereditary PC than in sporadic forms, whereas the mean number of estrogen-alpha-receptor-positive stromal cells is higher in sporadic PC rather than in that hereditary. As for 5-alpha-steroid-reductase-2 gene, the dinucleotide thymine-adenine repeated 18 times on the last exon, confers an increased PC predisposition

  10. Catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase II differently modulate the toxicity of anthracyclines in cardiac and cancer cells.

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    Anna Vavrova

    Full Text Available Anthracyclines (such as doxorubicin or daunorubicin are among the most effective anticancer drugs, but their usefulness is hampered by the risk of irreversible cardiotoxicity. Dexrazoxane (ICRF-187 is the only clinically approved cardioprotective agent against anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Its activity has traditionally been attributed to the iron-chelating effects of its metabolite with subsequent protection from oxidative stress. However, dexrazoxane is also a catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase II (TOP2. Therefore, we examined whether dexrazoxane and two other TOP2 catalytic inhibitors, namely sobuzoxane (MST-16 and merbarone, protect cardiomyocytes from anthracycline toxicity and assessed their effects on anthracycline antineoplastic efficacy. Dexrazoxane and two other TOP2 inhibitors protected isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes against toxicity induced by both doxorubicin and daunorubicin. However, none of the TOP2 inhibitors significantly protected cardiomyocytes in a model of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury. In contrast, the catalytic inhibitors did not compromise the antiproliferative effects of the anthracyclines in the HL-60 leukemic cell line; instead, synergistic interactions were mostly observed. Additionally, anthracycline-induced caspase activation was differentially modulated by the TOP2 inhibitors in cardiac and cancer cells. Whereas dexrazoxane was upon hydrolysis able to significantly chelate intracellular labile iron ions, no such effect was noted for either sobuzoxane or merbarone. In conclusion, our data indicate that dexrazoxane may protect cardiomyocytes via its catalytic TOP2 inhibitory activity rather than iron-chelation activity. The differential expression and/or regulation of TOP2 isoforms in cardiac and cancer cells by catalytic inhibitors may be responsible for the selective modulation of anthracycline action observed.

  11. Outcome of different oncoplastic surgical (OPs) techniques for centrally located breast cancer (CLBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oncoplastic breast surgery is a standard treatment of early breast cancer, offering a balance between good cosmetic outcome and limited risk of locoregional recurrence, by enabling proper resection margins. Aim of study: To present multiple techniques of partial breast reconstruction following the resection of centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) resection. Patients and methods: From January 2011 to August 2014, 21 patients underwent central quadrantectomy for carcinoma of the central region of the breast. Excisions included the nipple/areola complex, in most of the cases, down to the pectoralis fascia with a wide safety margin, and proper axillary management. Oncoplastic approaches included latissimus dorsi flap, inferior pedicle flap, Melon slice, Grisotti and round block techniques. Results: Mean age of patients was 49.5 ± 10.61 years. Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. Postoperative pathology revealed a tumor mean safety margin of 2.5± 0.83 cm, with positive axillary lymph nodes in 15 (75.0%) patients. Nineteen (95.0%) patients received postoperative breast radiotherapy, while 9/20 (45.0%) and 3/20 (15.0%) received adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, respectively, and only 8/20 (40.0%) patients received both therapies. During a median follow- up period of 14.89 months, neither local nor distant metastasis, were detected. The postoperative cosmetic result evaluated by the patients was excellent in 6/20 patients (30.0%), good in 11/20 patients (55.0%), fair in 3/20 (15.0%) with neither poor nor bad results, with an overall mean of 4.0 ± 0.5 equivalent to 80% satisfaction. Conclusion: Multiple oncoplastic breast surgery techniques can be used for the resection of CLBC with satisfying cosmetic outcomes.

  12. Differences in Patient Outcomes of Prevalence, Interval, and Screen-Detected Lung Cancers in the CT Arm of the National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabath, Matthew B; Massion, Pierre P; Thompson, Zachary J; Eschrich, Steven A; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Goldof, Dmitry; Aberle, Denise R; Gillies, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer screening identifies cancers with heterogeneous behaviors. Some lung cancers will be identified among patients who had prior negative CT screens and upon follow-up scans develop a de novo nodule that was determined to be cancerous. Other lung cancers will be identified among patients who had one or more prior stable positive scans that were not determined to be lung cancer (indeterminate pulmonary nodules), but in follow-up scans was diagnosed with an incidence lung cancer. Using data from the CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial, this analysis investigated differences in patient characteristics and survival endpoints between prevalence-, interval-, and screen-detected lung cancers, characterized based on sequence of screening results. Lung cancers immediately following a positive baseline (T0), and prior to the T1 screen, formed the prevalence cohort. Interval cancers were diagnosed following a negative screen at any time point prior to the next screening round. Two cohorts of screen-detected lung cancers (SDLC) were identified that had a baseline positive screen that was that was not determined to be lung cancer (i.e., an indeterminate pulmonary nodule), but in follow-up scans was diagnosed with an incidence lung cancer 12 (SDLC1) or 24 (SDLC2) months later. Two other incidence cohorts had screen-detected lung cancers that had baseline negative screen and upon follow-up scans developed a de novo nodule determined to be cancerous at 12 (SDLC3) or 24 (SDLC4) months later. Differences in patient characteristics, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed. The lung cancer-specific death rate was higher for SDLC3/SDLC4 compared to SDLC1/SDLC2 lung cancers (136.6/1,000 person-years vs. 71.3/1,000 person-years, P < 0.001). Moreover, PFS and OS were significantly lower for SDLC3/SDLC4 compared to SDLC1/SDLC2 (P < 0.004; P < 0.002, respectively). The findings were consistent when stratified by stage and histology

  13. Mouse models of anemia of cancer.

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    Airie Kim

    Full Text Available Anemia of cancer (AC may contribute to cancer-related fatigue and impair quality of life. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of AC could facilitate better treatment, but animal models to study AC are lacking. We characterized four syngeneic C57BL/6 mouse cancers that cause AC. Mice with two different rapidly-growing metastatic lung cancers developed the characteristic findings of anemia of inflammation (AI, with dramatically different degrees of anemia. Mice with rapidly-growing metastatic melanoma also developed a severe anemia by 14 days, with hematologic and inflammatory parameters similar to AI. Mice with a slow-growing peritoneal ovarian cancer developed an iron-deficiency anemia, likely secondary to chronically impaired nutrition and bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. Of the four models, hepcidin mRNA levels were increased only in the milder lung cancer model. Unlike in our model of systemic inflammation induced by heat-killed Brucella abortus, ablation of hepcidin in the ovarian cancer and the milder lung cancer mouse models did not affect the severity of anemia. Hepcidin-independent mechanisms play an important role in these murine models of AC.

  14. Quality of life in Chinese women treated surgically for breast cancer with one of three different procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the quality of life of patients treated with one of three different types of surgery for breast cancer.Methods This was a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey completed by Chinese patients without active disease after at least 2 years of follow-up after breast cancer surgery.Results This study totally included 139 breast cancer patients:44 ( 31.6%) had undergone modified radical mastectomy with reconstruction, 41(29.5%)had a quadrantectomy with axillary lymph node dissection, and 54(38.9%)had a modified radical mastectomy without reconstruction.The EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23 question-naires were used;their reliability was>0.82.Global health status(94.30 ±12.04, P=0.028)and role functio-ning(85.16 ±17.23, P=0.138)were highest in the quadrantectomy group.Pain score was highest in the modi-fied radical mastectomy with reconstruction group(26.13 ±30.15, P =0.042).The breast symptom score (22.56 ±22.30, P=0.009)and body image perception(85.56 ±19.72, P=0.025)were highest in the conser-vative treatment group.The overall health of patients given modified radical mastectomy without reconstruction was lower(72.61 ±20.89, P=0.014) in women older than 50 years compared with younger women.Conclu-sions The quadrantectomy with axillary lymph node dissection procedure had better acceptance, but the overall health status did not differ between groups.Overall health status is lower in women older than 50 years receiving a modified radical mastectomy without reconstruction.

  15. Are there biologic differences between male and female breast cancer explaining inferior outcome of men despite equal stage and treatment?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.C.; Gani, C.; Rehm, H.M.E.; Eckert, F.; Bamberg, M.; Weinmann, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Hehr, T. [Marienhospital Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology

    2012-09-15

    Background: Reasons for inferior outcome of male compared to female breast cancer are still under debate. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed male breast cancer cases to figure out possible treatment- and gender-related differences. Patients and methods: A total of 40 men (median age 62 years) were curatively treated with mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy from 1982-2007. They presented predominantly in stages II and IIIb. Postoperative radiotherapy was applied with doses of 1.8-2.5 Gy to a median of 50 Gy including regional lymphatics in 22 patients. Adjuvant systemic treatment consisted of chemotherapy (22.5%) and antihormonal treatment (55%). For reasons of comparison, we estimated outcome of a virtual female matched cohort for no/equal to men/optimal adjuvant treatment with the Adjuvant.Online {sup registered} 8.0 algorithm. Results: After a median follow-up of 47 months, the estimated 5-year local control rate was 97%, disease-free and distant metastasis-free survival rates reached 79% and 82%, respectively. With update of survival data by tumor registry, mean overall survival reached 120 months with 5- and 10-year overall survival rates of 66% and 43%, respectively. Predominant prognostic factor was T-stage for overall survival (T1/2 vs. T4: > 80% vs. 30%). The generated virtual matched cohorts of women with equal characteristics reached superior 10-year-overall survival for no/equal to men/optimal adjuvant treatment with 55/59/68%. Conclusion: Compared to historical and virtual matched cohorts of women, male breast cancer patients had inferior outcome despite of equal stage and treatment which indicates that biological differences (of tumor or population) may contribute to worse prognosis. (orig.)

  16. Differences in outcome for positive margins in a large cohort of breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobsen, Jan J; Van Der Palen, Job; Ong, Francisca; Meerwaldt, Jacobus H

    2007-01-01

    A study of the possible difference in outcome for positive margins for invasive carcinoma (IC) versus ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and with regard to different age categories in a large prospective cohort of patients with invasive breast cancer. A total of 2 291 BCT were analyzed. Margins were positive for IC in 8.7% and for DCIS in 4.6%. The median follow-up was 83 months. The 10-year local recurrence-free survival for negative margins vs. positive margins for IC vs. positive for DCIS for women 40 years 94.7% vs. 92.6% vs. 82.6% (HR4.2). The 10-year distant disease-free survival for negative margins vs. positive margins for IC vs. positive for DCIS women 40 years.

  17. Application of different types of mandible resection in combined treatment of oral cancer patient (pt.): results and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery is the main part of combined treatment of advanced oral cancer. Three types of mandible resection were applied in our center. Rim mandibulectomy leads to satisfactory cosmetic and functional results, in case of segmental mandibulectomy different methods of mandible restoration are applied. Middle mandibulotomy creates the optimum access to the operation field in patients with a large primary tumor of mobile tongue and a tumor thai is posteriorly located. Aims of the study: analyse of material to estimate the results and complications in cases of application of different types of mandible resection. Conclusions: Segmental mandibulectomy should be performed if erosion of alveolar ridge is detected. Rim manidibulectomy and segmental mandibylectomy with reconstructive surgery lead to good cosmetic and functional results. Usage of mini plates in reconstruction of mandibular arch decrease the number of postoperative complications even in patients after radiation therapy. Previous radiotherapy significantly increase the risk of the postoperative osteomyelitis of mandible

  18. Region-specific differences in colorectal cancer: Slovakia and Hungary have highest incidence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, V; Ginter, E

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data on colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit high incidence in Central East Europe. Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia represent the lead. For decades it was the Czech Republic but it attained the fourth rank after the mid-2000. Remarkably, the Ashkenazi Jews who imigrated to the USA from Central Europe have the highest incidence of CRC among US minorities. They also have high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a risk for CRC. Notably, countries surrounding the Central European focus of CRC, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Russia have substantially lower incidence. CRC in Central Europe has higher incidence than CRC among the highest at-risk cohort in the USA, the elderly blacks. Research and the genome wide screening identified genetic mutations associated with CRC in Ashkenazis from Central Europe. Some risk factors for CRC are non genotypic as evidenced by wide variation in CRC incidence in the course of only a few decades. Recent trends offer hope that identification of the non-innate pathogenic mechanisms would potentially reduce the burden of this third most lethal malignancy (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 40).

  19. Examining plasma microRNA markers for colorectal cancer at different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Yuexin; Cogdell, David; Calin, George A; Sun, Baocun; Kopetz, Scott; Hamilton, Stanley R; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising biomarkers; however, few miRNAs have been reproducible and can be used in clinical practice. In this study, we screened the levels of 754 miRNAs using TaqMan array in 50 individual plasma samples from 10 demographically matched healthy controls and 40 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (10 each of stage I-IV) and identified 22 miRNAs associated with the presence of and stages of CRC. Then we performed the validation for 11 miRNAs in an independent cohort including 187 CRC cases and 47 healthy controls. Comprehensive analyses showed that plasma miR-96 distinguished stage I-IV CRC from healthy controls with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.740; miR-203 separated stage III-IV CRC patients from stage I-II with an AUC of 0.757; and miR-141 differentiated stage IV CRC from stage I-III patients with an AUC of 0.851. Survival analyses showed that plasma miR-96 and miR-200b were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Thus, we propose four miRNAs (miR-96, miR-203, miR-141 and miR-200b) as clinically validated circulating biomarkers for CRC prognosis that warrant further evaluation for clinical utility.

  20. An integrated analysis of genes and pathways exhibiting metabolic differences between estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davie James R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex hormone estrogen (E2 is pivotal to normal mammary gland growth and differentiation and in breast carcinogenesis. In this in silico study, we examined metabolic differences between ER(+ve breast cancer cells during E2 deprivation. Methods Public repositories of SAGE and MA gene expression data generated from E2 deprived ER(+ve breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and ZR75-1 were compared with normal breast tissue. We analyzed gene ontology (GO, enrichment, clustering, chromosome localization, and pathway profiles and performed multiple comparisons with cell lines and tumors with different ER status. Results In all GO terms, biological process (BP, molecular function (MF, and cellular component (CC, MCF-7 had higher gene utilization than ZR75-1. Various analyses showed a down-regulated immune function, an up-regulated protein (ZR75-1 and glucose metabolism (MCF-7. A greater percentage of 77 common genes localized to the q arm of all chromosomes, but in ZR75-1 chromosomes 11, 16, and 19 harbored more overexpressed genes. Despite differences in gene utilization (electron transport, proteasome, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and expression (ribosome in both cells, there was an overall similarity of ZR75-1 with ER(-ve cell lines and ER(+ve/ER(-ve breast tumors. Conclusion This study demonstrates integral metabolic differences may exist within the same cell subtype (luminal A in representative ER(+ve cell line models. Selectivity of gene and pathway usage for strategies such as energy requirement minimization, sugar utilization by ZR75-1 contrasted with MCF-7 cells, expressing genes whose protein products require ATP utilization. Such characteristics may impart aggressiveness to ZR75-1 and may be prognostic determinants of ER(+ve breast tumors.

  1. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Serour, Francis [Department of Pediatric Surgery, The E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Chaouat, Malka [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Karem, Jerusalem (Israel); Gonen, Pinhas [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Tommasino, Massimo [International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon (France); Sherman, Levana [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling.

  2. The study of mutations of low penetrates candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in patients from different regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most widespread malignancy in the world. It is supposed, that all factors influencing on breast cancer onset can be divided into 4 groups: environmental factors, state of woman's health, heredity and concomitant disease. The inherited disposition towards breast cancer is complex, and many genetic variants and polymorphisms have been postulated to play a role in this condition. Despite genes with a high penetrance, known some genes with a low penetrance, such as ATM, CHEK2 and XRCC4. Ionizing radiation is for long being recognized as a potent carcinogen. The link between exposition to high doses of radiation and a subsequent development of breast cancer has been shown in numerous epidemiological studies. Because mutations in the known genes explain less than half of all multiple-case families, other genes involved in these repair pathways are now under current investigation in many different labs worldwide to define their role in breast cancer predisposition. The purpose of this paper is to study mutations of low penetrate candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in Byelorussian patients. This study is for the first time reveals the mutations of breast cancer genes in the Byelorussian population. Were used such methods as extraction of DNA, PCR, ARMAS-PCR and restriction analysis for this study. As a result of the work frequent mutations of CHEK2 and XRCC4 were found in family cases. It is shown that following methods are useful for cancer risk prediction for patients and their blood relatives. (authors)

  3. Gender Differences in Elders’ Participation in the National Can-cer Screening Program: Evidence from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hyun KIM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer-screening programs are effective in reducing cancer prevalence and mortality; however, cancer remains the leading cause of death in elderly people in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with elders’ participation in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP and differences in screening rates by gender.Methods: Original data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 5,505 elderly individuals over age 60. Selected demographic variables, cancer screening participation, physical and psychological health status, and lifestyle were examined.Results: The NCSP participation rates decreased in both men and women as age increased. Private medical insurance (OR 95% CI: 1.04–1.78, one or more chronic disease (OR 95% CI: 1.07–1.71, and current smoker (OR 95% CI: 0.52–0.94 had the strongest associations with cancer screening participation among men after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, cancer screening participation among women was significantly associated only with living place (OR 95% CI: 1.06–2.203 after multivariate adjustment.Conclusions: Effective health promoting interventions for elders require individualized programs that address gender-related factors associated with elders’ participation in cancer screening programs.

  4. Cardiac glycoside-induced cell death and Rho/Rho kinase pathway: Implication of different regulation in cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Aysun; Şimay, Yaprak Dilber; İbişoğlu, Burçin; Yaren, Biljana; Bülbül, Döne; Ark, Mustafa

    2016-05-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the Rho/ROCK pathway is involved in ouabain-induced apoptosis in HUVEC. In the current work, we investigated whether the Rho/ROCK pathway is functional during cardiac glycosides-induced cytotoxic effects in cancer cell lines, as well as in non-tumor cells. For that purpose, we evaluated the role of ROCK activation in bleb formation and cell migration over upstream and downstream effectors in addition to ROCK cleavage after cardiac glycosides treatment. All three cardiac glycosides (ouabain, digoxin and bufalin) induced cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cells and increased the formation of blebbing in HeLa cells. In contrast to our previous study, ROCK inhibitor Y27632 did not prevent bleb formation. Observation of ROCK II cleavage after ouabain, digoxin and oxaliplatin treatments in HeLa and/or HepG2 cells suggested that cleavage is independent of cell type and cell death induction. While inhibiting cleavage of ROCK II by the caspase inhibitors z-VAD-fmk, z-VDVAD-fmk and z-DEVD-fmk, evaluation of caspase 2 siRNA ineffectiveness on this truncation indicated that caspase-dependent ROCK II cleavage is differentially regulated in cancer cell lines. In HeLa cells, ouabain induced the activation of ROCK, although it did not induce phosphorylation of ERM, an upstream effector. While Y27632 inhibited the migration of HeLa cells, 10nM ouabain had no effect on cell migration. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the Rho/ROCK pathway is regulated differently in cancer cell lines compared to normal cells during cardiac glycosides-induced cell death.

  5. Different prognostic value of circulating and disseminated tumor cells in primary breast cancer: Influence of bisphosphonate intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Reiter, Katharina; Aktas, Bahriye; Bittner, Ann-Kathrin; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Kimmig, Rainer; Hoffmann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood of breast cancer patients (pts) are known to correlate with worse outcome. Here we demonstrate a different prognostic value of DTCs and CTCs and explain these findings by early clodronate intake. CTCs (n = 376 pts) were determined using the AdnaTest BreastCancer (Qiagen Hannover GmbH, Germany) and DTCs (n = 525 pts) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. Clodronate intake was recommended in case of DTC-positivity. CTCs were detected in 22% and DTCs in 40% of the pts, respectively. DTCs were significantly associated with nodal status (p = 0.03), grading (p = 0.01), lymphangiosis (p = 0.03), PR status (p = 0.02) and clodronate intake (p < 0.0001), no significant associations were demonstrated for CTCs. CTCs significantly correlated with reduced PFS (p = 0.0227) and negative prognostic relevance was predominantly related to G2 tumors (p = 0.044), the lobular (p = 0.024) and the triple-negative subtype (p = 0.005), HR-negative pts (p = 0.001), postmenopausal women (p = 0.013) and patients who had received radiation therapy (p = 0.018). No prognostic significance was found for DTCs. Therefore early clodronate intake can improve prognosis of breast cancer patients and CTCs might be a high risk indicator for the onset of metastasis not limited to bone metastasis. PMID:27212060

  6. Effect of different BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissues in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported the therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in the treatment of oral cancer, employing the hamster cheek pouch model. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissue in this model and assess the potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue. The data are relevant to potential control of field cancerized tissue and tolerance of normal tissue. We evaluated DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal pouch tissue 1-30 days post-BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or BPA + GB-10 employing incorporation of bromo-deoxyuridine as an end-point. The BNCT-induced potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue was monitored. A drastic, statistically significant reduction in DNA synthesis occurred in pacancerous tissue as early as 1 day post-BNCT and was sustained at virtually all time points until 30 days post-BNCT for all protocols. The histological categories evaluated individually within precancerous tissue (dysplasia, hyperplasia and NUMF [no unusual microscopic features]) responded similarly. DNA synthesis in normal tissue treated with BNCT oscillated around the very low pre-treatment values. A BNCT-induced lag in the development of second primary tumors was observed. BNCT induced a drastic fall in DNA synthesis in precancerous tissue that would be associated to the observed lag in the development of second primary tumors. The minimum variations in DNA synthesis in BNCT-treated normal tissue would correlate with the absence of normal tissue radiotoxicity. The present data would contribute to optimize therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of field-cancerized areas. (author)

  7. Different prognostic value of circulating and disseminated tumor cells in primary breast cancer: Influence of bisphosphonate intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Reiter, Katharina; Aktas, Bahriye; Bittner, Ann-Kathrin; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Kimmig, Rainer; Hoffmann, Oliver

    2016-05-23

    Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood of breast cancer patients (pts) are known to correlate with worse outcome. Here we demonstrate a different prognostic value of DTCs and CTCs and explain these findings by early clodronate intake. CTCs (n = 376 pts) were determined using the AdnaTest BreastCancer (Qiagen Hannover GmbH, Germany) and DTCs (n = 525 pts) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. Clodronate intake was recommended in case of DTC-positivity. CTCs were detected in 22% and DTCs in 40% of the pts, respectively. DTCs were significantly associated with nodal status (p = 0.03), grading (p = 0.01), lymphangiosis (p = 0.03), PR status (p = 0.02) and clodronate intake (p < 0.0001), no significant associations were demonstrated for CTCs. CTCs significantly correlated with reduced PFS (p = 0.0227) and negative prognostic relevance was predominantly related to G2 tumors (p = 0.044), the lobular (p = 0.024) and the triple-negative subtype (p = 0.005), HR-negative pts (p = 0.001), postmenopausal women (p = 0.013) and patients who had received radiation therapy (p = 0.018). No prognostic significance was found for DTCs. Therefore early clodronate intake can improve prognosis of breast cancer patients and CTCs might be a high risk indicator for the onset of metastasis not limited to bone metastasis.

  8. La dramatúrgia catalana : reserva integral zoològica?

    OpenAIRE

    Foguet i Boreu, Francesc

    2005-01-01

    Intervenció en la taula rodona "Panorama crític de la dramatúrgia catalana viva" en el marc dels actes entorn del I Encontre de Dramatúrgia dels Països Catalans celebrat a la Universitat de València els dies 24 i 25 d’octubre de 2003. Aquest encontre va comptar amb les intervencions de dramaturgs, directors, actors, crítics, escriptors i professors del País Valencià, de les Illes Balears i del Principat, que van aportar experiències del seu propi àmbit. Aquesta intervenció juntament amb les p...

  9. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Trp1197Stop causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Nesterovitch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes many peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, including asthma. Previously, a molecular mechanism underlying a 5-fold familial increase of blood ACE was discovered: Pro1199Leu substitution enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Carriers of this mutation were Caucasians from Europe (mostly Dutch or had European roots. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found a family of African-American descent whose affected members' blood ACE level was increased 13-fold over normal. In affected family members, codon TGG coding for Trp1197 was substituted in one allele by TGA (stop codon. As a result, half of ACE expressed in these individuals had a length of 1196 amino acids and lacked a transmembrane anchor. This ACE mutant is not trafficked to the cell membrane and is directly secreted out of cells; this mechanism apparently accounts for the high serum ACE level seen in affected individuals. A haplotype of the mutant ACE allele was determined based on 12 polymorphisms, which may help to identify other carriers of this mutation. Some but not all carriers of this mutation demonstrated airflow obstruction, and some but not all have hypertension. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified a novel Trp1197Stop mutation that results in dramatic elevation of serum ACE. Since blood ACE elevation is often taken as a marker of disease activity (sarcoidosis and Gaucher diseases, it is important for clinicians and medical scientists to be aware of alternative genetic causes of elevated blood ACE that are not apparently linked to disease.

  10. Influence of different variables in lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection of sentinel node in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the influence of age, injection site and tumor characteristics on visualizing sentinel nodes (SLN) by lymphoscintigraphy and tracer spread in 216 breast cancer. Two injection sites were assessed, either peritumoral injection site (166 patients) or peri-areolar (50 patients). Results: In the peri-areolar group, 6% of the observed cases were negative with lymphoscintigraphy and 4% with the probe, results to be compared with 21% (lymphoscintigraphy) and 11 % (probe) in the peritumoral group. Metastatic nodes were detected in both group, with a rate of 27% in peri-areolar group and 32% in peritumoral group. At least one SLNs was found in 82% of the cases. When lymphoscintigraphy has found more than one node, probe detection was positive in all cases. In the eventuality of negative lymphoscintigraphy, probe identification by surgeon was positive in 47% of the cases. Thirty-four percent of metastatic SLNs were observed in negative lymphoscintigraphy, 29% in negative probe detection. In case of negative lymphoscintigraphy average age of patients was 66.3 years old whereas it was 60.6 in positive ones. Neither tumor type nor harpoon have shown significant influence on the detection of node by both techniques. Probe captation intensity was higher in positive scintigraphy. Conclusion: The location of the injection site and node invasion do not show any significant influence on gamma probe detection. However the effect of massive character or not of metastatic invasion has not been taken into the consideration. Lack of scintigraphic visualization does not predict lack of probe detection. (authors)

  11. Dosimetric comparison using different multileaf collimeters in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for upper thoracic esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuchuan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To study the impacts of multileaf collimators (MLC width [standard MLC width of 10 mm (sMLC and micro-MLC width of 4 mm (mMLC] in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT planning for the upper thoracic esophageal cancer (UTEC. Methods and materials 10 patients with UTEC were retrospectively planned with the sMLC and the mMLC. The monitor unites (MUs and dose volume histogram-based parameters [conformity index (CI and homogeneous index (HI] were compared between the IMRT plans with sMLC and with mMLC. Results The IMRT plans with the mMLC were more efficient (average MUs: 703.1 ± 68.3 than plans with the sMLC (average MUs: 833.4 ± 73.8 (p p 5 (3260.3 ± 374.0 vs 3404.5 ± 374.4/gEUD (1815.1 ± 281.7 vs 1849.2 ± 297.6 of the spinal cord, the V10 (33.2 ± 6.5 vs 34.0 ± 6.7, V20 (16.0 ± 4.6 vs 16.6 ± 4.7, MLD (866.2 ± 174.1 vs 887.9 ± 172.1 and gEUD (938.6 ± 175.2 vs 956.8 ± 171.0 of the lungs were observed in the plans with the mMLC, respectively (p Conclusions Comparing to the sMLC, the mMLC not only demonstrated higher efficiencies and more optimal target coverage, but also considerably improved the dose sparing of OARs in the IMRT planning for UTEC.

  12. State of pituitary-gonadal system and morphofunctional indices of sperm in males with thyroid cancer at different stages of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have followed up 21 patients with thyroid cancer treated with radioactive iodine. The data obtained suggested the development of transient dysfunctions of pituitary-gonadal system in males with thyroid cancer in part of patients, with signs of subclinical androgen deficiency. An examination to patients having received a first course of radioiodine therapy showed different variants of abnormalities of morphofunctional indices of the sperm. Further investigations on a larger contingent of patients are necessary to clarify the impact of radioiodine therapy on the morphofunctional state of pituitary-gonadal system and reproductive function in males with thyroid cancer

  13. St Gallen 2015 subtyping of luminal breast cancers: impact of different Ki67-based proliferation assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Cornelia M; van Diest, Paul J; Decker, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Ki67 has been proposed as prognostic proliferation marker in luminal breast cancer (BC), but little is known on the influence of Ki67 assessment methods on subtyping into luminal A- and B-like tumors. Our aim was to study the influence of different Ki67-labeling index (Ki67-LI) assessment methods on the proportion of BCs classified as luminal A-like. 280 early BCs were subtyped according to the St Gallen 2015 definitions into 71 % luminal (HER2 negative), 6 % luminal B-like (HER2 positive), 13 % triple negative, 1 % HER2 positive (nonluminal), and 9 % special type. Digitized whole slides were counted manually on the screen. We used nine defined counting methods to assess the Ki67-LI (including the International Ki67 in Breast Cancer Working Group recommendations), and compared the resulting medians and the proportions of cancers classified as luminal A-like according to the formerly used cut-off <20 %. Methods assessing hot spots and tumor periphery resulted in significantly higher Ki67-LI medians than those measuring an average proliferation (27.45 % vs 16.96 %, p < 0.0001). Substantially lower median Ki67-LI were found when assessing 1020 compared to counting 100, 200, 300 cells (17.65 vs 33 %, vs 28 %, vs 24.33 %, respectively; p < 0.0001), or 510 cells (20.59 %, p = 0.019). Applying a standard Ki67-LI cut-off <20 % to define low proliferation for all methods, the proportion of luminal A-like cancers varied between 13 and 44 %. The proportion of BCs classified as luminal A-like is highly influenced by the Ki67-LI assessment method. As a consequence, the selection of a specific Ki67-LI assessment method may have a direct effect on the proportion of patients considered having low-risk disease and thus influence therapeutic decision making. This calls for a standardized assessment method. PMID:27558625

  14. A study on differences between radiation-induced micronuclei and apoptosis of lymphocytes in breast cancer patients after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghavi-Dehaghani, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Ziafazeli, T. [Radiation Molecular Genetic Lab., National Radiation Protection Dept. (NRPD), Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA), Tehran (Iran); Sardari-Kermani, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Cancer Inst., Tehran (Iran)

    2005-12-01

    Cancer patients' responses to radiotherapy vary in severity. It has been suggested that it may be due to differences in intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity. Prediction of tissue reactions to radiotherapy would permit tailoring of dosage to each patient. Towards this goal the micronucleus and apoptosis tests have been proposed as methods for measurement of chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes. In this study, gamma-ray sensitivity of cultured lymphocytes of 26 breast cancer patients with early or late reactions was investigated. After irradiation with 4 Gy gamma radiation in G{sub 0}, the frequency of micronuclei for patients with early reactions was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for patients with late reactions. In the contrary the frequency of apoptosis for patients with early reactions was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the other group. It could be suggested that such a reduced amount of micronuclei in the late effects group is due to the presence of some residual DNA damages which are not completely repaired and lesions show increasing severity when the patients' cells are irradiated again. These induced damages, probably are high enough to stimulate other endpoints like apoptosis instead of micronuclei. (orig.)

  15. Influence of radioiodine therapy on the immuno phenotype of peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with thyroid cancer of different age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the results of a study of the phenotypic composition of blood lymphocytes in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer of different all age before and on day 6 after radioiodine therapy. The phenotypic profile of peripheral blood cells was determined in patients of three age groups: patients aged under 18 years (group 1), patients whose age was within the range 19 to 40 years (group 2), and patients older than 41 years (group 3). The studies have shown that in patients with thyroid cancer, abnormalities developed in the composition of peripheral blood lymphocytes, which were more pronounced in elderly patients. Under the influence of radioiodine, disturbances in the immune system of patients are aggravated. The most significant after-effects of radioiodine therapy that had been identified in patients of all age groups, were represented by a significant decrease in the number of B-lymphocytes, an increase in natural killer cells and CD95+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, it was found that radioiodine has the most significant effect on the immune system of children and adolescents. In this age group, the content of lymphocyte subpopulations is changing: CD4+, CD8+, IRI, CD19+, CD16+CD56+, CD95+ and HLA-DR, which suggests the need for further dynamic studies in this age group of patients, which is the most sensitive to radioiodine effect in order to determine the extent of immunological disorders and the terms of their recovery

  16. Functional roles and clinical values of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 in different types of cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(o)k(c)e Güllü; Sevgi Karabulut; Mustafa Akkiprik

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are critical regulators of the mitogenic activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs).IGFBP5,one of these IGFBPs,has special structural features,including a nuclear transport domain,heparin-binding motif,and IGF/extracellular matrix/acid-labile subunit-binding sites.Furthermore,IGFBP5 has several functional effects on carcinogenesis and even normal cell processes,such as cell growth,death,motility,and tissue remodeling.These biological effects are sometimes related with IGF (IGF-dependent effects) and sometimes not (IGF-independent effects).The functional role of IGFBP5 is most likely determined in a cell-type and tissue-type specific manner but also depends on cell context,especially in terms of the diversity of interacting proteins and the potential for nuclear localization.Clinical findings show that IGFBP5 has the potential to be a useful clinical biomarker for predicting response to therapy and clinical outcome of cancer patients.In this review,we summarize the functional diversity and clinical importance of IGFBP5 in different types of cancers.

  17. No differences in short-term morbidity and mortality after robot-assisted laparoscopic versus laparoscopic resection for colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helvind, Neel Maria; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Mogensen, Anders Skibsted;

    2013-01-01

    . There was a significantly longer setup time for RC (77.1 vs. 69.7 min, P = 0.000), but surgical time was significantly shorter for RC (165.8 vs. 183.4 min, P = 0.006) and there was no difference in the overall procedure time (254.0 vs. 243.6 min, P = 0.086). CONCLUSION: We found RC to be a safe and feasible alternative......BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted laparoscopy has been reported to be a safe and feasible alternative to traditional laparoscopy. The aim of this study was to compare short-term results in patients with colonic cancer who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic colonic resection (RC) or laparoscopic colonic...... to LC for colonic cancer. We found that for RC surgical time was shorter and overall procedure time was comparable to that for LC; however, these results should be confirmed in future randomized clinical trials....

  18. Dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH: diet components may be related to lower prevalence of different kinds of cancer: A review on the related documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Onvani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH eating plan is a healthy dietary pattern. Our object is to review surveys in the field of major components of DASH diet and different kinds of cancers. Materials and Methods: Our search result from PubMed search engine recruited to find related articles. Results: Adherence to the DASH diet components was significantly related to lower prevalence of various cancers due to their high content of fiber, nutrients, vitamins, mineral, and antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: In this review, positive association of DASH diet components and different cancers were observed. However, the exact association of DASH with cancers should be clarified in future longitudinal studies due to potential interaction among foods and nutrients.

  19. Identification of Cell Type-Specific Differences in Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling in Primary Erythroid and Lung Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salopiata, Florian; Depner, Sofia; Wäsch, Marvin; Böhm, Martin E.; Mücke, Oliver; Plass, Christoph; Lehmann, Wolf D.; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Klingmüller, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, with its most prevalent form non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and is commonly treated with chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin. Lung cancer patients frequently suffer from chemotherapy-induced anemia, which can be treated with erythropoietin (EPO). However, studies have indicated that EPO not only promotes erythropoiesis in hematopoietic cells, but may also enhance survival of NSCLC cells. Here, we verified that the NSCLC cell line H838 expresses functional erythropoietin receptors (EPOR) and that treatment with EPO reduces cisplatin-induced apoptosis. To pinpoint differences in EPO-induced survival signaling in erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E, colony forming unit-erythroid) and H838 cells, we combined mathematical modeling with a method for feature selection, the L1 regularization. Utilizing an example model and simulated data, we demonstrated that this approach enables the accurate identification and quantification of cell type-specific parameters. We applied our strategy to quantitative time-resolved data of EPO-induced JAK/STAT signaling generated by quantitative immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in CFU-E and H838 cells as well as H838 cells overexpressing human EPOR (H838-HA-hEPOR). The established parsimonious mathematical model was able to simultaneously describe the data sets of CFU-E, H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. Seven cell type-specific parameters were identified that included for example parameters for nuclear translocation of STAT5 and target gene induction. Cell type-specific differences in target gene induction were experimentally validated by qRT-PCR experiments. The systematic identification of pathway differences and sensitivities of EPOR signaling in CFU-E and H838 cells revealed potential targets for intervention to selectively inhibit EPO-induced signaling in the tumor cells but leave the responses in erythroid

  20. Identification of Cell Type-Specific Differences in Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling in Primary Erythroid and Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Ruth; Steiert, Bernhard; Salopiata, Florian; Depner, Sofia; Raue, Andreas; Iwamoto, Nao; Schelker, Max; Hass, Helge; Wäsch, Marvin; Böhm, Martin E; Mücke, Oliver; Lipka, Daniel B; Plass, Christoph; Lehmann, Wolf D; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Schilling, Marcel; Klingmüller, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer, with its most prevalent form non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and is commonly treated with chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin. Lung cancer patients frequently suffer from chemotherapy-induced anemia, which can be treated with erythropoietin (EPO). However, studies have indicated that EPO not only promotes erythropoiesis in hematopoietic cells, but may also enhance survival of NSCLC cells. Here, we verified that the NSCLC cell line H838 expresses functional erythropoietin receptors (EPOR) and that treatment with EPO reduces cisplatin-induced apoptosis. To pinpoint differences in EPO-induced survival signaling in erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E, colony forming unit-erythroid) and H838 cells, we combined mathematical modeling with a method for feature selection, the L1 regularization. Utilizing an example model and simulated data, we demonstrated that this approach enables the accurate identification and quantification of cell type-specific parameters. We applied our strategy to quantitative time-resolved data of EPO-induced JAK/STAT signaling generated by quantitative immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in CFU-E and H838 cells as well as H838 cells overexpressing human EPOR (H838-HA-hEPOR). The established parsimonious mathematical model was able to simultaneously describe the data sets of CFU-E, H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. Seven cell type-specific parameters were identified that included for example parameters for nuclear translocation of STAT5 and target gene induction. Cell type-specific differences in target gene induction were experimentally validated by qRT-PCR experiments. The systematic identification of pathway differences and sensitivities of EPOR signaling in CFU-E and H838 cells revealed potential targets for intervention to selectively inhibit EPO-induced signaling in the tumor cells but leave the responses in erythroid

  1. MicroRNAs and Recent Insights into Pediatric Ovarian Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Anne Crawford

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most common pediatric gynecologic malignancy. When diag-nosed in children, ovarian cancers present unique challenges that differ dramatically from those faced by adults. Here, we review the spectrum of ovarian cancers found in young women and girls and discuss the biology of these diseases. A number of advances have re-cently shed significant new understanding on the potential causes of ovarian cancer in this unique population. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding how altered expression of non-coding RNA transcripts known as microRNAs play a key role in the etiology of ovarian germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors. Emerging transgenic models for these diseases are also reviewed. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities for understanding pediatric ovarian cancers, delineating clinically useful biomarkers and developing targeted therapies are discussed.

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancer mortality among men: To what extent do they differ between Western European populations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Menvielle (Gwenn); A.E. Kunst (Anton); I. Stirbu (Irina); C. Borrell (Carme); M. Bopp (Matthias); E. Regidor (Enrique); B.H. Strand; P. Deboosere (Patrick); O. Lundberg; A. Leclerc; G. Costa (Giuseppe); J.-F. Chastang; S. Esnaola; P. Martikainen (Pekka); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe aim to study socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancers mortality [upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus and liver)] in men and to investigate whether the contribution of these cancers to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality di

  3. Comparison of clinicopathologic features and survival in young American women aged 18–39 years in different ethnic groups with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, P.; Li, X; E.A. Mittendorf; Li, J.; Du, X L; He, J.; Ren, Y; Yang, J; Hunt, K. K.; Yi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ethnic disparities in breast cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have assessed differences specifically between Asians American(s) and other ethnic groups, particularly among Asian American(s) subgroups, in women aged 18–39 years. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify women aged 18–39 years diagnosed with breast cancer from 1973 to 2009. Incidence rates...

  4. Dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH): diet components may be related to lower prevalence of different kinds of cancer: A review on the related documents

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouh Onvani; Fahimeh Haghighatdoost; Leila Azadbakht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating plan is a healthy dietary pattern. Our object is to review surveys in the field of major components of DASH diet and different kinds of cancers. Materials and Methods: Our search result from PubMed search engine recruited to find related articles. Results: Adherence to the DASH diet components was significantly related to lower prevalence of various cancers due to their high content of fiber, nutrients, vitamins, mineral, and a...

  5. The relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Northern Europe and North America. A commentary on differences between the conclusions reached by two recent reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamling Jan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokeless tobacco is an alternative for smokers who want to quit but require nicotine. Reliable evidence on its effects is needed. Boffetta et al. and ourselves recently reviewed the evidence on cancer, based on Scandinavian and US studies. Boffetta et al. claimed a significant 60–80% increase for oropharyngeal, oesophageal and pancreatic cancer, and a non-significant 20% increase for lung cancer, data for other cancers being "too sparse". We found increases less than 15% for oesophageal, pancreatic and lung cancer, and a significant 36% increase for oropharyngeal cancer, which disappeared in recent studies. We found no association with stomach, bladder and all cancers combined, using data as extensive as that for oesophageal, pancreatic and lung cancer. We explain these differences. Methods For those cancers Boffetta et al. considered, we compared the methods, studies and risk estimates used in the two reviews. Results One major reason for the difference is our more consistent approach in choosing between study-specific never smoker and combined smoker/non-smoker estimates. Another is our use of derived as well as published estimates. We included more studies, and avoided estimates for data subsets. Boffetta et al. also included some clearly biased or not smoking-adjusted estimates. For pancreatic cancer, their review included significantly increased never smoker estimates in one study and combined smoker/non-smoker estimates in another, omitting a combined estimate in the first study and a never smoker estimate in the second showing no increase. For oesophageal cancer, never smoker results from one study showing a marked increase for squamous cell carcinoma were included, but corresponding results for adenocarcinoma and combined smoker/non-smoker results for both cell types showing no increase were excluded. For oropharyngeal cancer, Boffetta et al. included a markedly elevated estimate that was not smoking-adjusted, and

  6. La nova dramatúrgia catalana: de la perplexitat a la diversitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Batlle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Catalan theatrical world —considered only from the Principat angle— a series of factors defined the continuity and the renovation of the genre occurring between 1975 and 1985, through dramatic works already known years before and the success of new writers. The article establishes a balanced view and lists largely the authors and works of the period.

  7. Examining Young Children's Perception toward Augmented Reality-Infused Dramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghye; Jo, Miheon; Hyun, Eunja; So, Hyo-jeong

    2015-01-01

    Amid the increasing interest in applying augmented reality (AR) in educational settings, this study explores the design and enactment of an AR-infused robot system to enhance children's satisfaction and sensory engagement with dramatic play activities. In particular, we conducted an exploratory study to empirically examine children's perceptions…

  8. La nova dramatúrgia catalana : de la perplexitat a la diversitat

    OpenAIRE

    Carles Batlle

    1997-01-01

    In the Catalan theatrical world —considered only from the Principat angle— a series of factors defined the continuity and the renovation of the genre occurring between 1975 and 1985, through dramatic works already known years before and the success of new writers. The article establishes a balanced view and lists largely the authors and works of the period.

  9. Erotic Language as Dramatic Action in Plays by Lyly and Shakespeare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This study closely examines the language of desire in the dramatic works of John Lyly and William Shakespeare, and argues that contemplative and analytical speeches about desire function as modes of action in their plays. Erotic speeches do more than express desire in a purely descriptive or perlocutionary capacity distinct from the action of the…

  10. "Emergent Literacy and Dramatic Play in Early Education" by Jane Davidson. Book Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Marilyn L.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that Davidson's book provides an in-depth exploration of the contribution of dramatic play to emergent literacy and ways that teachers can implement play-based literacy learning. Maintains that the book has a balanced theoretical orientation, provides a sensitive treatment of intervention, presents a thoughtful treatment of oral and written…

  11. An Investigation of the Effects of Creative Dramatics on Ninth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridel, Shelby Jean Harvey

    The purposes of this study were to describe the use of creative dramatics within an average ninth grade arts class and to document the behavior changes in verbal and nonverbal communications, creative thinking and behavior, feeling of group closeness, self-confidence, and attitude toward the course. A teacher inexperienced in drama conducted the…

  12. Lord Kelvin and the Age-of-the-Earth Debate: A Dramatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Art; Tecihman, Jurgen

    2003-01-01

    Presents a dramatization of a fictitious debate about the age of the earth that takes place at the Royal Institution, London, England, in the year 1872 among Sir William Thomson, T.H. Huxley, Sir Charles Lyell, and Hermann von Helmholtz. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  13. The Accessibility of Socio-Dramatic Play to Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Australian Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrafton, Eleanor; Whitington, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Socio-dramatic play is preschool children's leading learning activity (Karpov 2005; Vygotsky 1978). Yet entering play often poses challenges (Corsaro 2003), particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) children (Hruska 2007). At preschool four-year-old CALD children are both acquiring a new language, and learning new rules, social…

  14. Athenian and Shakespearean Tragedies in Oceania: Teaching Dramatic Literatures in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anae, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theorised classroom-based narrative discussing the author's interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of English dramatic literatures--in particular, Sophocles' "Oedipus the King" and Shakespeare's "Macbeth"--to i-Taukei, Indo-Fijian and Pacific Islander tertiary students at a South Pacific…

  15. Art-House Cinema, Avant-Garde Film, and Dramatic Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardullo, Bert

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about art-house cinema, avant-garde film, and dramatic modernism. He believes that the most important modes of film practice are art-house cinema and the avant-garde, both of which contrast with the classical Hollywood mode of film practice. While the latter is characterized by its commercial imperative, corporate…

  16. Different dosage schedules for reducing cardiotoxicity in cancer patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. van Dalen; H.J.H. van der Pal; H.N. Caron; L.C.M. Kremer

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of anthracycline chemotherapy is limited by the occurrence of cardiotoxicity. In an effort to prevent this cardiotoxicity, different anthracycline dosage schedules (i.e. peak doses and infusion durations) have been studied. Objectives The primary objective was to determine the occ

  17. Gender difference in treatment outcomes in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify any gender differences in the outcomes of concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A comparative retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes between female and male NSCLC patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Of a total of 204 patients, 44 (22%) were females and 160 (78%) were males. There was no difference in age, body weight loss, performance status or disease stage between the sexes, whereas never-smokers and adenocarcinoma were more common in female patients (55% vs. 3%, P80% of the patients, respectively, of both sexes. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was observed in 64% of the female patients and 63% of the male patients. Severe esophagitis was encountered in <10% of the patients, irrespective of the sex. The response rate was higher in the female than in the male patients (93% vs. 79%, P=0.028), but the median progression-free survival did not differ between the sexes. The median survival time in the female and male patients was 22.3 and 24.3 months, respectively (P=0.64). This study failed to show any gender differences in the survival or toxicity among patients treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. These results contrast with the better survival in female patients undergoing surgery for localized disease or chemotherapy for metastatic disease. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Two Different Analytical Methods for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Primary Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. S. Jaeger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence is accumulating that circulating tumor cells (CTC out of peripheral blood can serve as prognostic marker not only in metastatic but also in early breast cancer (BC. Various methods are available to detect CTC. Comparisons between the different techniques, however, are rare. Material and Methods. We evaluate two different methods for CTC enrichment and detection in primary BC patients: the FDA-approved CellSearch System (CSS; Veridex, Warren, USA and a manual immunocytochemistry (MICC. The cut-off value for positivity was ≥1 CTC. Results. The two different nonoverlapping patient cohorts evaluated with one or the other method were well balanced regarding common clinical parameters. Before adjuvant CHT 21.1% (416 out of 1972 and 20.6% (247 out of 1198 of the patients were CTC-positive, while after CHT 22.5% (359 out of 1598 and 16.6% (177 out of 1066 of the patients were CTC-positive using CSS or MICC, respectively. CTC positivity rate before CHT was thus similar and not significantly different (P=0.749, while CTC positivity rate immediately after CHT was significantly lower using MICC compared to CSS (P<0.001. Conclusion. Using CSS or MICC for CTC detection, we found comparable prevalence of CTC before but not after adjuvant CHT.

  19. Effects of Different Operative Procedures on the Digestive and Nutritional Status of Patients Treated with a Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Liang; Xishan Hao

    2006-01-01

    Postgastrectomy syndromes evoked by the loss of several gastric functions after total or subtotal gastrectomy are very common. Different kinds of reconstruction have been developed to overcome the problem. Patients with preservation of a duodenal passage and jejunal interposition with or without a pouch show a better quality of life and minimal symptoms postoperatively. A jejunal interposition with or without a pouch after proximal or distal subtotal gastrictomy seems to improve the nutritional condition and quality of life. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI), Visick score, Spitzer index and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire (QLQ-C30) are available to evaluate the quality of life and nutritional status after gastrectomy.

  20. Different Phenotypes in Human Prostate Cancer: α6 or α3 Integrin in Cell-extracellular Adhesion Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Schmelz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of α6/α3 integrin in adhesion complexes at the basal membrane in human normal and cancer prostate glands was analyzed in 135 biopsies from 61 patients. The levels of the polarized α6/α3 integrin expression at the basal membrane of prostate tumor glands were determined by quantitative immunohistochemistry. The α6/α3 integrin expression was compared with Gleason sum score, pathological stage, and preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA. The associations were assessed by statistical methods. Eighty percent of the tumors expressed the α6 or α3 integrin and 20% was integrin-negative. Gleason sum score, but not serum PSA, was associated with the integrin expression. Low Gleason sum score correlated with increased integrin expression, high Gleason sum score with low and negative integrin expression. Three prostate tumor phenotypes were distinguished based on differential integrin expression. Type I coexpressed both α6 and α3 subunits, type II exclusively expressed a6 integrin, and type III expressed α3 integrin only. Fifteen cases were further examined for the codistribution of vinculin, paxillin, and CD 151 on frozen serial sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The α6/α3 integrins, CD151, paxillin, and vinculin were present within normal glands. In prostate carcinoma, α6 integrin was colocalized with CD 151, but not with vinculin or paxillin. In tumor phenotype I, the α6 subunit did not colocalize with the α3 subunit indicating the existence of two different adhesion complexes. Human prostate tumors display on their cell surface the α6β1 and/or α3β1 integrins. Three tumor phenotypes associated with two different adhesion complexes were identified, suggesting a reorganization of cell adhesion structures in prostate cancer.

  1. Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells have contrasting effects on proliferation and phenotype of cancer stem cells from different subtypes of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Francesca; Milazzo, Luisa; Ciccarelli, Carmela; Eramo, Adriana; Sette, Giovanni; Mauro, Annunziata; Macioce, Giampiero; Martinelli, Andrea; La Torre, Renato; Casalbore, Patrizia; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Giampaolo, Adele

    2016-07-15

    Studies on the role of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on tumor growth have reported both a tumor promoting and a suppressive effect. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of MSC isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord (WJMSC) on lung cancer stem cells (LCSC) derived from human lung tumors: two adenocarcinomas (AC) and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). LCSC derived from SCC and AC expressed, to varying extents, the more relevant stem cell markers. The effect of WJMSC on LCSC was investigated in vitro using conditioned medium (WJ-CM): a proliferation increase in AC-LCSC was observed, with an increase in the ALDH+ and in the CD133+ cell population. By contrast, WJ-CM hampered the growth of SCC-LCSC, with an increase in the pre-G1 phase indicating the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, the ALDH+ and CD133+ population was also reduced. In vivo, subcutaneous co-transplantation of AC-LCSC/WJMSC generated larger tumors than AC-LCSC alone, characterized by an increased percentage of CD133+ and CD166+ cells. By contrast, co-transplantation of WJMSC and SCC-LCSC did not affect the tumor size. Our results strongly suggest that WJMSC exert, both in vitro and in vivo, contrasting effects on LCSC derived from different lung tumor subtypes. PMID:27343631

  2. Gene Expression Architecture of Mouse Dorsal and Tail Skin Reveals Functional Differences in Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Quigley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inherited germline polymorphisms can cause gene expression levels in normal tissues to differ substantially between individuals. We present an analysis of the genetic architecture of normal adult skin from 470 genetically unique mice, demonstrating the effect of germline variants, skin tissue location, and perturbation by exogenous inflammation or tumorigenesis on gene signaling pathways. Gene networks related to specific cell types and signaling pathways, including sonic hedgehog (Shh, Wnt, Lgr family stem cell markers, and keratins, differed at these tissue sites, suggesting mechanisms for the differential susceptibility of dorsal and tail skin to development of skin diseases and tumorigenesis. The Pten tumor suppressor gene network is rewired in premalignant tumors compared to normal tissue, but this response to perturbation is lost during malignant progression. We present a software package for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL network analysis and demonstrate how network analysis of whole tissues provides insights into interactions between cell compartments and signaling molecules.

  3. Gene Expression Architecture of Mouse Dorsal and Tail Skin Reveals Functional Differences in Inflammation and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, David A; Kandyba, Eve; Huang, Phillips; Halliwill, Kyle D; Sjölund, Jonas; Pelorosso, Facundo; Wong, Christine E; Hirst, Gillian L; Wu, Di; Delrosario, Reyno; Kumar, Atul; Balmain, Allan

    2016-07-26

    Inherited germline polymorphisms can cause gene expression levels in normal tissues to differ substantially between individuals. We present an analysis of the genetic architecture of normal adult skin from 470 genetically unique mice, demonstrating the effect of germline variants, skin tissue location, and perturbation by exogenous inflammation or tumorigenesis on gene signaling pathways. Gene networks related to specific cell types and signaling pathways, including sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnt, Lgr family stem cell markers, and keratins, differed at these tissue sites, suggesting mechanisms for the differential susceptibility of dorsal and tail skin to development of skin diseases and tumorigenesis. The Pten tumor suppressor gene network is rewired in premalignant tumors compared to normal tissue, but this response to perturbation is lost during malignant progression. We present a software package for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) network analysis and demonstrate how network analysis of whole tissues provides insights into interactions between cell compartments and signaling molecules. PMID:27425619

  4. Mind the gap: Racial differences in breast cancer incidence and biologic phenotype, but not stage, among low-income women participating in a government-funded screening program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joan E.; Walters, Christine A.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Ford, Marvella E.; Barker-Elamin, Tiffany; Bennett, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality rates in South Carolina (SC) are 40% higher among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women. Proposed reasons include race-associated variations in care and/or tumor characteristics, which may be subject to income effects. We evaluated race-associated differences in tumor biologic phenotype and stage among low-income participants in a government-funded screening program. Methods Best Chance Network (BCN) data were linked with the SC Central Cancer Registry. Characteristics of breast cancers diagnosed in BCN participants aged 47–64 years during 1996–2006 were abstracted. Race-specific case proportions and incidence rates based on estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic grade were estimated. Results Among 33,880 low-income women accessing BCN services, repeat breast cancer screening utilization was poor, especially among EAs. Proportionally, stage at diagnosis did not differ by race (607 cancers, 53% among AAs), with about 40% advanced stage. Compared to EAs, invasive tumors in AAs were 67% more likely (proportions) to be of poor-prognosis phenotype (both ER-negative and high-grade); this was more a result of the 46% lesser AA incidence (rates) of better-prognosis (ER+ lower-grade) cancer than the 32% greater incidence of poor-prognosis disease (p-values <0.01). When compared to the general SC population, racial disparities in poor prognostic features within the BCN population were attenuated; this was due to more frequent adverse tumor features in EAs rather than improvements for AAs. Conclusion Among low-income women in SC, closing the breast cancer racial and income mortality gaps will require improved early diagnosis, addressing causes of racial differences in tumor biology, and improved care for cancers of poor-prognosis biology. PMID:23239148

  5. Synchrotron nanoscopy imaging study of scalp hair in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals: Difference in medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Mi; Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Jeon, Jae-Kun; Hwang, Min-Young; Lim, Jun; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscopic synchrotron X-ray imaging was performed on scalp hair samples of patients with breast cancer and healthy individuals to investigate any structural differences as diagnostic tool. Hair strands were divided into 2-3 segments along the strands from root to tip, followed by imaging either in projection or in CT scanning with a monochromatic 6.78-keV X-ray using zone-plate optics with a resolving power of 60 nm. All the examined cancer hairs exhibited medulla loss with cancer stage-dependent pattern; complete loss, discontinuous or trace along the strands. In contrast, medullas were well retained without complete loss in the healthy hair. In the CT-scanned axial images, the cortical spindle compartments had no contrast in the healthy hair, but appeared hypointense in contrast to the surrounding hyperintense cortical membrane complex in the cancer hair. In conclusion, observation of medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements in the hair strands of breast cancer patients demonstrated structural variations in the cancer hair, providing a new platform for further synchrotron X-ray imaging study of screening breast cancer patients.

  6. Differences in breast cancer incidence and stage distribution between urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship, Poland in years 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzak, Michalina; Maslach, Dominik; Juczewska, Marzena; Lasota, Wieslaw; Rabczenko, Daniel; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Szpak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in breast cancer incidence and stage of disease between the urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship in 2001-2002, before the introduction of the Population Screening Programme in 2006. Analysis was based on 696 breast cancer cases diagnosed in years 2001-2002 and registered in the CR in Bialystok (Voivodship Cancer Registry). An average annual number of incidence, as well as crude and standardised incidence rates, were calculated. Age-specific incidence rates for 5-year age groups were also calculated and grouped as follows: =70 years old. Incidence differences related to place of residence: urban or rural, were presented with the use of u/r (urban/rural) ratio. In order to evaluate the stage of disease, a simplified classification recommended by ENCR (European Network of Cancer Registries) for population registries (localised, regional, metastatic) was applied. The breast cancer incidence rate in the urban population was higher than in rural areas with u/r ratio amounting to 1.4. The highest incidence and largely marked differences between urban and rural areas were among women aged 50-69 years with the u/r ratio amounting to 1.8. Overall, the proportion of stage localised in Podlaskie Voivodship was 33.1 percent and differed between urban and rural areas. The proportion of localised cancer was higher in urban areas, but patients were younger when compared to those living in rural areas. Knowledge of differences in incidence and breast cancer stage in urban and rural women investigated in this research, together with other epidemiological indicators, should be used for monitoring the Population Screening Programmes in these populations.

  7. [Leanness, obesity, and breast cancer risk-different impact of body weight on breast cancer risk according to women's life stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Saji, Shigehira

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies, although not all, in Western countries have reported a possible differential impact of BMI on breast cancer risk in women of various lifestages. Among premenopausal women, a number of epidemiological studies in Western populations suggested a weak inverse association between BMI and breast cancer risk. Conversely, there exists substantial evidence for a statistically significant positive association between body weight and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. The cumulative exposure to estrogen throughout a woman's life is one of the significant risk factors for breast cancer. After menopause, adipose tissue is a major source of estrogen. Therefore, an increase in body fat after menopause is one of the possible explanations for the positive association of body weight with the development of breast cancer. To evaluate the impact of body weight on the risk of breast cancer, we need to consider the role of adipose tissue in the development and differentiation of normal mammary glands. Special attention should be paid to women in their twenties and/or during their lactation periods when the development of normal mammary glands is significant. Further studies are needed to investigate the association between BMI and breast cancer risk, considering the role of body fat in the development of mammary glands.

  8. Cancer-associated lysosomal changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallunki, T; Olsen, O D; Jaattela, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly dividing and invasive cancer cells are strongly dependent on effective lysosomal function. Accordingly, transformation and cancer progression are characterized by dramatic changes in lysosomal volume, composition and cellular distribution. Depending on one's point of view, the cancer......-targeting anti-cancer drugs. In this review we compile our current knowledge on cancer-associated changes in lysosomal composition and discuss the consequences of these alterations to cancer progression and the possibilities they can bring to cancer therapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 July 2012; doi...

  9. Gender-based analysis of esophageal cancer patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiation: differences in presentation and therapy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, P R; Correa, A M; Swisher, S G; Wu, T T; Liao, Z; Komaki, R; Walsh, G L; Vaporciyan, A A; Lee, J H; Rice, D C; Roth, J A; Ajani, J A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify gender-dependent differences in presentation at baseline and therapy outcome in esophageal carcinoma patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CTRT). We stratified patients according to gender and statistically compared pretreatment clinical stage, post-CTRT effect on carcinoma in the resected specimen, overall survival (OS), and patterns of failure. Of the 235 patients who underwent preoperative CTRT, 203 were men and 32 were women. Carcinomas in women correlated significantly with clinical stage II classification (78%vs. 55%) while cancers in men correlated significantly with clinical stage III classification (39%vs. 16%; P = 0.02). Carcinomas in women also correlated significantly with lower clinical N classification; more women had cN0 (52%) compared to men (28%; P = 0.01). Similarly, in the surgical specimens, more women had pN0 (78%) compared to men (64%; P = 0.06). At a median follow-up of 37 months, 10% more women than men remain alive (63%vs. 53%; P = 0.3). Distant metastases-free survival time was longer for women than men. Our results suggest that localized esophageal carcinoma is diagnosed in more advanced stages in men than in women. The reasons for these differences remain unclear and further expansion of these observations and study of biologic differences that might exist are warranted. PMID:16722991

  10. Screening of Trace Elements in Hair of the Female Population with Different Types of Cancers in Wielkopolska Region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Czerny

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer constitutes a major health problem worldwide. Thus, search for reliable and practical markers of the disease process remains the key issue of the diagnostic process. Objectives. The study aims at linking the trace element status of an organism, assessed by hair analysis, with the occurrence of cancer diseases. Material and Methods. Hair samples were collected from 299 patients with cancer diseases confirmed by a histopathological test and from 100 controls. Cancer patients were divided into three groups, depending on cancer type: hormone-dependent cancer, cancer of the alimentary tract, and cancer with high glycolytic activity. Mineral element analysis of hair was performed using an atomic emission spectrophotometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Results. Statistically significantly lower concentrations of selenium, zinc, copper, germanium and boron, iron, and magnesium were observed in the three groups of cancer patients. Disturbance in the axis glucose-insulin and changes in concentrations of heavy metals and toxic elements were also noted. Conclusions. It seems safe to conclude that our results confirmed usefulness of hair element analysis in screening tests for the assessment of the biomarker of various cancer diseases in a female population.

  11. Do stigma and its psychosocial impact differ between Asian-born Chinese immigrants and Western-born Caucasians with head and neck cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Sophie; Payne, Ada Y M; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary; Devins, Gerald M

    2016-07-01

    Stigma appears to influence emotional distress and well-being in cancer survivors, but cross-cultural differences have been ignored. Previous studies suggest that stigma may be especially relevant for survivors of Asian origin. However, their study designs (e.g. focused on female cancers, qualitative designs, and an absence of comparison groups) limit the strength of this conclusion. We hypothesized that (1) Asian-born Chinese immigrants (AI) would report more perceived cancer-related stigma than Western-born Caucasians (WBC); and (2) the impact of stigma on emotional distress and well-being would be greater in AI as compared to WBC. Head and neck cancer survivors (n = 118 AI and n = 404 WBC) completed measures of well-being, emotional distress, and a three-item indicator of stigma in structured interviews. The majority of respondents (59%) reported one or more indicators of stigma. Stigma correlated significantly with emotional distress (r = .13, p = .004) and well-being (r = -.09, p = .032). Contrary to our hypotheses, WBCs and AIs did not differ in reported stigma nor did we detect differences in its psychosocial impact. Stigma exerts a deleterious psychosocial impact on head and neck cancer survivors. It did not differ significantly between AI and WBC survivors. PMID:26850943

  12. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  13. Automated generation of IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses: Comparison of different planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voet, Peter W. J.; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To compare IMRT planning strategies for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses.Methods: All plans were generated fully automatically (i.e., no human trial-and-error interactions) using iCycle, the authors' in-house developed algorithm for multicriterial selection of beam angles and optimization of fluence profiles, allowing objective comparison of planning strategies. For 18 prostate cancer patients (eight with bilateral hip prostheses, ten with a right-sided unilateral prosthesis), two planning strategies were evaluated: (i) full exclusion of beams containing beamlets that would deliver dose to the target after passing a prosthesis (IMRT{sub remove}) and (ii) exclusion of those beamlets only (IMRT{sub cut}). Plans with optimized coplanar and noncoplanar beam arrangements were generated. Differences in PTV coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were quantified. The impact of beam number on plan quality was evaluated.Results: Especially for patients with bilateral hip prostheses, IMRT{sub cut} significantly improved rectum and bladder sparing compared to IMRT{sub remove}. For 9-beam coplanar plans, rectum V{sub 60Gy} reduced by 17.5%{+-} 15.0% (maximum 37.4%, p= 0.036) and rectum D{sub mean} by 9.4%{+-} 7.8% (maximum 19.8%, p= 0.036). Further improvements in OAR sparing were achievable by using noncoplanar beam setups, reducing rectum V{sub 60Gy} by another 4.6%{+-} 4.9% (p= 0.012) for noncoplanar 9-beam IMRT{sub cut} plans. Large reductions in rectum dose delivery were also observed when increasing the number of beam directions in the plans. For bilateral implants, the rectum V{sub 60Gy} was 37.3%{+-} 12.1% for coplanar 7-beam plans and reduced on average by 13.5% (maximum 30.1%, p= 0.012) for 15 directions.Conclusions: iCycle was able to automatically generate high quality plans for prostate cancer patients with prostheses. Excluding only beamlets that passed through the prostheses (IMRT{sub cut} strategy) significantly improved

  14. Molecular pathways undergoing dramatic transcriptomic changes during tumor development in the human colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The malignant transformation of precancerous colorectal lesions involves progressive alterations at both the molecular and morphologic levels, the latter consisting of increases in size and in the degree of cellular atypia. Analyzing preinvasive tumors of different sizes can therefore shed light on the sequence of these alterations. We used a molecular pathway-based approach to analyze transcriptomic profiles of 59 colorectal tumors representing early and late preinvasive stages and the invasive stage of tumorigenesis. Random set analysis was used to identify biological pathways enriched for genes differentially regulated in tumors (compared with 59 samples of normal mucosa). Of the 880 canonical pathways we investigated, 112 displayed significant tumor-related upregulation or downregulation at one or more stages of tumorigenesis. This allowed us to distinguish between pathways whose dysregulation is probably necessary throughout tumorigenesis and those whose involvement specifically drives progression from one stage to the next. We were also able to pinpoint specific changes within each gene set that seem to play key roles at each transition. The early preinvasive stage was characterized by cell-cycle checkpoint activation triggered by DNA replication stress and dramatic downregulation of basic transmembrane signaling processes that maintain epithelial/stromal homeostasis in the normal mucosa. In late preinvasive lesions, there was also downregulation of signal transduction pathways (e.g., those mediated by G proteins and nuclear hormone receptors) involved in cell differentiation and upregulation of pathways governing nuclear envelope dynamics and the G2>M transition in the cell cycle. The main features of the invasive stage were activation of the G1>S transition in the cell cycle, upregulated expression of tumor-promoting microenvironmental factors, and profound dysregulation of metabolic pathways (e.g., increased aerobic glycolysis, downregulation of pathways

  15. Gene expression profile differences in high and low metastatic human ovarian cancer cell lines by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许沈华; 牟瀚舟; 吕桂泉; 朱赤红; 羊正炎; 高永良; 楼洪坤; 刘祥麟; 程勇; 杨文

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the difference between gene expressions of high (H0-8910PM) and low (HO-8910) metastatic human ovarian carcinoma cell lines and screen novel associated genes by cDNA microarray. Methods cDNA retro-transcribed from equal quantities of mRNA derived from high and low metastatic tumor cells or normal ovarian tissues were labeled with Cy5 and Cy3 fluorescein as probes. The mixed probe was hybridized with two pieces of BioDoor 4096 double dot human whole gene chip and scanned with a ScanArray 3000 laser scanner. The acquired image was analyzed by ImaGene 3.0 software. Results A total of 355 genes with expression levels more than 3 times larger were found by comparing the HO-8910 cell with normal ovarian epithelial cells. A total of 323 genes with expression levels more than 3 times larger in HO-8910PM cells compared to normal ovarian epithelium cells were also detected. A total of 165 genes whose expression levels were more than two times those of HO-8910PM cells compared to their mother cell line (HO-8910) were detected. Twenty-one genes with expression levels >3 times were found from comparison of these two tumor cell lines.Conclusions cDNA microarray techniques are effective in screening differential gene expression between two human ovarian cancer cell lines (H0-8910PM; HO-8910) and normal ovarian epithelial cells. These genes may be related to the genesis and development of ovarian carcinoma. Analysis of the human ovarian cancer gene expression profile with cDNA microarray may help in gene diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

  16. Different regression equations relate age to the incidence of Lauren types 1 and 2 stomach cancer in the SEER database: these equations are unaffected by sex or race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriva-Internati Maurizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although impacts upon gastric cancer incidence of race, age, sex, and Lauren type have been individually explored, neither their importance when evaluated together nor the presence or absence of interactions among them have not been fully described. Methods This study, derived from SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER Program of the National Cancer Institute data, analyzed the incidences of gastric cancer between the years 1992–2001. There were 7882 patients who had developed gastric cancer. The total denominator population was 145,155, 669 persons (68,395,787 for 1992–1996, 78,759,882 for 1997–2001. Patients with multiple tumors were evaluated as per the default of the SEER*Stat program. 160 age-, five year period (1992–1996 vs 1997–2001-, sex-, race (Asian vs non-Asian-, Lauren type- specific incidences were derived to form the stratified sample evaluated by linear regression. (160 groups = 2 five year periods × 2 race groups × 2 sexes × 2 Lauren types × 10 age groups. Linear regression was used to analyze the importance of each of these explanatory variables and to see if there were interactions among the explanatory variables. Results Race, sex, age group, and Lauren type were found to be important explanatory variables, as were interactions between Lauren type and each of the other important explanatory variables. In the final model, the contribution of each explanatory variable was highly statistically significant (t > 5, d.f. 151, P Conclusion The change of the incidence of stomach cancer with respect to age for Lauren type 1 stomach cancer differs from that for Lauren type 2 stomach cancers. The relationships between age and Lauren type do not differ across gender or race. The results support the notion that Lauren type 1 and Lauren type 2 gastric cancers have different etiologies and different patterns of progression from pre-cancer to cancer. The results should be validated by

  17. Two different BRCA2 mutations found in a multigenerational family with a history of breast, prostate, and lung cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale DA; Swenson EE

    2014-01-01

    Diane A Caporale, Erica E SwensonDepartment of Biology, University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI, USAAbstract: Breast and lung cancer are two of the most common malignancies in the United States, causing approximately 40,000 and 160,000 deaths each year, respectively. Over 80% of hereditary breast cancer cases are due to mutations in two breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. These are tumor-suppressor genes associated with DNA repair. Since the discovery...

  18. Two different BRCA2 mutations found in a multigenerational family with a history of breast, prostate, and lung cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Diane A Caporale, Erica E SwensonDepartment of Biology, University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI, USAAbstract: Breast and lung cancer are two of the most common malignancies in the United States, causing approximately 40,000 and 160,000 deaths each year, respectively. Over 80% of hereditary breast cancer cases are due to mutations in two breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. These are tumor-suppressor genes associated with DNA repair. Since the disco...

  19. Ethnic differences in patients' preferences for prostate cancer investigation: a vignette-based survey in primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, T.; Ukoumunne, O. C.; Banks, J.; Raine, R; Hamilton, W.

    2015-01-01

    Minority ethnic groups in the UK have worse outcomes for some cancer types compared with the white majority. Black males have worse staging at diagnosis of prostate cancer and often present as emergencies, suggesting possible delays in the diagnostic pathway. Delay may arise from lower awareness of cancer symptoms, reluctance to report symptoms, reduced desire for investigation, or a combination of these. Reduced desire for investigation was examined in this study

  20. Análise Dramatúrgica e Teoria Sociológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira João Gabriel L.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo relata a reflexão sociológica sobre os usos da perspectiva dramatúrgica nas ciências sociais contemporâneas a partir de experiência extensiva na utilização de encenações teatrais para o ensino de Sociologia, realizada com alunos de graduação da Universidade de Brasília. Busca desvendar as afinidades entre a Sociologia e as artes cênicas através da aplicação da metáfora do theatrum mundi a objetos sociológicos diferenciados. Faz uma exegese atualizada da perspectiva dramatúrgica, mostrando seu desdobramento nos estudos contemporâneos sobre a performance na vida, na cultura e no palco.

  1. "Shadows of the heart": a dramatic video for the treatment resistance of spouse abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosny, S

    1994-11-01

    Successful intervention with spouse abusers, most of whom are ordered into treatment by the courts, must overcome formidable anger and resistance, often expressed by high attrition and scant participation in the group treatment process. The dramatic video "Shadows of the Heart" dissipates client resistance by providing internal motivation to control violent behavior. The video dramatizes spouse abuse from the viewpoint of a young boy, who as a man has become a spouse abuser. As clients experience compassion for the child witness to family violence, they learn to convert their habitual anger response into nonviolent actions. Developed to combat treatment resistance, the video presentation was tested in a randomized experiment with 106 male spouse abusers drawn from seven public and private agencies. Results indicate that the video presentation significantly increased attendance and participation in the group treatment process. PMID:7992138

  2. Some reflections on the analysis of discourse and dramatic text: Stoppard's Jumpers

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto García, Jesús Manuel

    1995-01-01

    Our proposal in this paper is basically to analyse dramatic texts according to the structure of those parts whose purpose is mainly dialogic in nature, mainly monologic, or, finally, those parts that emphasise the connection between writer and reader (or producer) from the organisational point of view. At the same time we also intend to study some basic pragmatic points such as reference, the informative nature of discourse, the kinds of illocutionary acts present in the text and the conversa...

  3. Phenotypic evolution in microalgae: a dramatic morphological shift in Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (Chlorophyta) after exposure to TNT

    OpenAIRE

    Costas, Eduardo; López Rodas, Victoria; García-Villada, Libertad; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Phenotypic evolution in microalgae: a dramatic morphological shift in Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (Chlorophyta) after exposure to TNT. The occurrence of rapid morphological evolution in the microalga Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (Chlorophyta) was induced after exposure of the wild strains of the alga to the potent algal poison 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). After exposing a wildtype population (consisted of representative spherical-ellipsoidal cells) to doses of TNT that were lethal for most...

  4. Differences between endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis and Enterococcus spp. and their association with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, J; García-País, M J; Coira, A; Rabuñal, R; García-Garrote, F; Pita, J; Rodríguez-Macías, A; Blanco, M; Lopez-Roses, L; López-Álvarez, M J; Alonso-García, M P

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus bovis group and Enterococcus spp. share phenotypic characteristics and intestinal habitat. Both have been associated with endocarditis and colorectal neoplasm (CRN). We studied all cases of endocarditis diagnosed between 1988 and 2014 in our centre and caused by S. bovis (109, 48.8 % of the bacteremia) and by Enterococcus spp. (36, 3.4 % of the bacteremia). Patients were seen until death or during a long-term follow-up, in order to rule out a concomitant CRN. The 109 cases of S. bovis endocarditis (SbIE) compared with the 36 caused by enterococci showed: a higher proportion of males (91 % vs. 72 %, p=0.005), more multivalvular involvement (28 % vs. 6 %, p=0.004), embolic complications (44 vs. 22 %, p=0.02) and colorectal neoplasm (64 % vs. 25 %, p=0.001). SbIE showed fewer co-morbidities (32 vs. 58 %, p=0.005), and less frequently urinary infection source (0 vs. 25 %, p=0.001) and healthcare-related infection (2 vs. 44 %, p=0.001). A total of 123 patients were followed up for an extended period (mean: 65.9 ± 57.5 months). During the follow-up, 6 of 28 (21 %) cases with enterococcal endocarditis and 43 of 95 (45.2 %, p=0.01) cases with SbIE developed a new CRN. These neoplasiae appeared a mean of 60.4 months later (range 12-181 months). Among the 43 cases with SbIE and CRN, 12 had had a previously normal colonoscopy and 31 had had a previous CRN and developed a second neoplasm. Cases of SbIE present important differences with those caused by Enterococcus spp. Colonoscopy must be mandatory both in the initial evaluation of SbIE, as during the follow-up period.

  5. Data on alteration of hormone and growth factor receptor profiles over progressive passages of breast cancer cell lines representing different clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Madhumathy G; Desai, Krisha; Prabhu, Jyothi S; Hari, P S; Remacle, Jose; Sridhar, T S

    2016-09-01

    Human breast cancers are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours consisting of several molecular subtypes with a variable profile of hormone, growth factor receptors and cytokeratins [1]. Here, the data shows immunofluorescence profiling of four different cell lines belonging to distinct clinical subtypes of breast cancer. Post revival, the cell lines were passaged in culture and immunophenotyping was done for ER, HER-2, AR and EGFR. Data for the markers from early passage (5th) through passages as late as 25 for the different cell lines is presented. PMID:27508248

  6. Killing effect of different doses of preoperative iodine 131 therapy on thyroid cancer cells and its effect on salivary gland function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Zheng; Tao Pu; Yi Luo; Xing-An Zhang; Zu-Mao Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the killing effect of different doses of preoperative iodine 131 therapy on thyroid cancer cells and its effect on salivary gland function.Methods:Patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2014 were enrolled for study, given preoperative iodine 131 therapy and randomly divided into control group, low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group. Then cell apoptotic rate, cell cycle, cancer promoting gene and cancer suppressor gene expression in thyroid carcinoma tissue as well as salivary gland function were detected.Results: (1) cancer cell killing effect: compared with control group, cell apoptotic rates and number of cells in G0/G1 phase of low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group increased, number of cells in S and G2/M phase decreased, BRAF, Livin, MCM7 and CDK2 expression decreased, CCNG2 and PTEN expression increased; cell killing effect of middle dose group and high dose group were better than that of low dose group, and cell killing effect of middle dose group and high dose group had no differences; (2) salivary gland function: compared with control group, UI and SR in bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular glands of low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group decreased; salivary gland damage effect of low dose group and middle dose group were weaker than that of high dose group, and salivary gland damage effect of low dose group and middle dose group had no differences.Conclusion:Middle dose of iodine 131 can take the killing effect on cancer cells and the protective effect on salivary glands into account; it’s an ideal dosage for preoperative iodine 131 internal radiation therapy of thyroid cancer patients.

  7. OA01.46. Effect of LAS-02, a cancero-static compound on p53 levels in cases of different types of cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sharma, Vinamra; Asthana, Aditi; Srivastava, Ashok; Saxena, R C; Trivedi, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer is one of the life threatening diseases spreading worldwide now a days. Oncogenes on one hand are well known to be activated by proto-oncogenes and are suppressed by tumor suppressor genes (TSG). There are different strategies for targeting to the regulation of tumor suppression gene. P53 is a most targeted gene that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as tumor suppression to maintain the integrity of DNA. Method: In the present study p53 was used as a parameter to evaluate the efficacy of a new herbo-mineral compound LAS02 a cancero-static compound formulated by Lavanya Ayurveda Hospital and Research Centre Lucknow, in different type of malignancies such as breast cancer, bone marrow, hepatic, ovarian, head & neck carcinoma. The serum samples were taken from the cancer patients at Lavanya Ayurvedic hospital and was tested by solid phase sandwich enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Result: The main p53 valves before treatment more found to be 4.76 U/ml however, after treatment with our new herbo-mineral drug, the mean values of post treated p53 values were found to be significantly raised to 35.94 U/ml, which signifies the efficacy of treatment of LAS02 in enhancing the expression of p53 gene in different types of cancers. Conclusion: p53 protein is a guard of DNA and helps in enhancing repair of the damage of DNA done by cancerous pathology.

  8. Racial and ethnic differences in personal cervical cancer screening amongst post-graduate physicians: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Joseph S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in cervical cancer screening have been attributed to socioeconomic, insurance, and cultural differences. Our objective was to explore racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations among female post-graduate physicians. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey at one university hospital among a convenience sample of 204 female post-graduate physicians (52% of all potential participants, examining adherence to United States Preventive Services Task Force cervical cancer screening recommendations, perception of adherence to recommendations, and barriers to obtaining care. Results Overall, 83% of women were adherent to screening recommendations and 84% accurately perceived adherence or non-adherence. Women who self-identified as Asian were significantly less adherent when compared with women who self-identified as white (69% vs. 87%; Relative Risk [RR] = 0.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.64–0.97; P Conclusion Among a small group of insured, highly-educated physicians who have access to health care, we found racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations, suggesting that culture may play a role in cervical cancer screening.

  9. Changes of Serum Trace Elements, AFP, CEA, SF, T3, T4 and IGF- Ⅱ in Different Periods of Rat Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-xu Zhang; Dan-dan Liu; Bai-jie Jin; Ya-wei Wang; Qj Liu; Ru-bing Duan; Peng Zhao; Ming-xia Ma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Based on liver cancer model built in SD rats,the contents of trace elements (Cu,Fe,Zn,Ca and Mg),AFP,CEA,SF,TH and IGF-Ⅱ in serum were measured at different stages to explore the molecular changes during the rat liver cancer development.Methods:The SD rat liver cancer model was built by using diethylnitrosamine (DENA) as the mutagen.During 16 weeks of DENA gavage,blood samples were taken in the 14th,28th,56th,77th,105th and 112th days respectively after the first day of gavage with DENA,then the contents of five trace elements (Cu,Fe,Zn,Ca and Mg),T3,T4,IGF-Ⅱ,AFP,CEA and SF in serum were determined.Results:During the development of the rat liver cancer,in the test group,the Cu content significantly increased in serum,while the contents of Fe,Zn and Ca significantly decreased.The content of Mg showed no significant change.AFP and CEA of the test group showed same expression level with the control group; while the content of SF was lower than that of the control group when cancerization appeared.T3 and T4 increased at the first stage and then went down,and the content of IGF-Ⅱ was always high.Conclusion:Cu,Fe,Zn,Ca,T3,T4,SF and IGF-Ⅱ are closely related to the development of liver cancer.The changes of their contents in the development of cancer could enlighten the researches on cancer pathogenesis and prevention.

  10. Colon cancer molecular subtypes identified by expression profiling and associated to stroma, mucinous type and different clinical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colon cancer patients with the same stage show diverse clinical behavior due to tumor heterogeneity. We aimed to discover distinct classes of tumors based on microarray expression patterns, to analyze whether the molecular classification correlated with the histopathological stages or other clinical parameters and to study differences in the survival. Hierarchical clustering was performed for class discovery in 88 colon tumors (stages I to IV). Pathways analysis and correlations between clinical parameters and our classification were analyzed. Tumor subtypes were validated using an external set of 78 patients. A 167 gene signature associated to the main subtype was generated using the 3-Nearest-Neighbor method. Coincidences with other prognostic predictors were assesed. Hierarchical clustering identified four robust tumor subtypes with biologically and clinically distinct behavior. Stromal components (p < 0.001), nuclear β-catenin (p = 0.021), mucinous histology (p = 0.001), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.039) and BRAF mutations (p < 0.001) were associated to this classification but it was independent of Dukes stages (p = 0.646). Molecular subtypes were established from stage I. High-stroma-subtype showed increased levels of genes and altered pathways distinctive of tumour-associated-stroma and components of the extracellular matrix in contrast to Low-stroma-subtype. Mucinous-subtype was reflected by the increased expression of trefoil factors and mucins as well as by a higher proportion of MSI and BRAF mutations. Tumor subtypes were validated using an external set of 78 patients. A 167 gene signature associated to the Low-stroma-subtype distinguished low risk patients from high risk patients in the external cohort (Dukes B and C:HR = 8.56(2.53-29.01); Dukes B,C and D:HR = 1.87(1.07-3.25)). Eight different reported survival gene signatures segregated our tumors into two groups the Low-stroma-subtype and the other tumor subtypes. We have identified novel

  11. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer - Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise;

    2013-01-01

    Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition...... of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth), body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use). The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from...... the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 breast cancer cases) aged 50-70 years at baseline. The crude absolute rate of breast cancer was 399 cases per 100,000 person-years. A high educational level compared to low was associated with 74 (95% CI 22-125) extra breast cancer cases per 100,000 person...

  12. Differences between Total Intravenous Anesthesia and Inhalation Anesthesia in Free Flap Surgery of Head and Neck Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Chang

    Full Text Available Many studies have evaluated risk factors associated with complications after free flap surgery, but these studies did not evaluate the impact of anesthesia management. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the differences between patients who received inhalation and total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA in free flap surgery.One hundred and fifty-six patients who underwent free flap surgery for head and neck cancer were retrospectively divided into the TIVA (96 patients and the inhalation group (87 patients. Perioperative hemodynamic data and postoperative medical complications were determined by documented medical records.Ninety-six patients in the TIVA group were compared with 87 patients who received inhalation anesthesia. There were no differences in gender, age, classification of physical status based on American Society for Anesthesiologists (ASA score, and cormobidities between the two groups. Patients in the TIVA group required less perioperative crystalloid (4172.46 ± 1534.95 vs. 5183.91 ± 1416.40 ml, p < 0.0001 and colloid (572.46 ± 335.14 vs. 994.25 ± 434.65 ml, p < 0.0001 to maintain hemodynamic stability. Although the mean anesthesia duration was shorter in the TIVA group (11.02 ± 2.84 vs. 11.70± 1.96 hours, p = 0.017, the blood loss was similar between groups (p = 0.71. There was no difference in surgical complication rate, but patients in the TIVA group developed fewer pulmonary complications (18 vs. 47, p = 0.0008. After multivariate regression, patients in the TIVA group had a significantly reduced risk of pulmonary complication compared with the inhalation group (Odds ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.92.Total intravenous anesthesia was associated with significantly fewer pulmonary complications in patients who received free flap reconstruction.

  13. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case-control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time time was, the higher was the risk for GC (Ptrend time and post-dinner walk on GC risk was detected (AOR = 1.862, 95% CIs = 1.584-3.885, synergy index [SI] = 2.654, 95% CIs = 2.27-3.912). Participants with dinner-to-bed time times likely to suffer from GC (AOR = 7.401, 95% CIs = 4.523-13.16) than those with dinner-to-bed time ≥4 hours who took such walk. The risk of GC due to dinner-to-bed time time 55 years old.

  14. Is a prostate cancer screening anxiety measure invariant across two different samples of age-appropriate men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Suzanne K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to explore the influence of anxiety on decision–making processes, valid anxiety measures are needed. We evaluated a prostate cancer screening (PCS anxiety scale that measures anxiety related to the prostate–specific antigen (PSA test, the digital rectal examination (DRE, and the decision to undergo PCS (PCS-D using two samples in different settings. Methods We assessed four psychometric properties of the scale using baseline data from a randomized, controlled decision aid trial (n = 301, private clinic; n = 149, public. Results The 3-factor measure had adequate internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the 3–factor model did not have adequate fit. When subscales were considered separately, only the 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure had adequate fit and was invariant across clinics. Conclusions Our results support the use of a 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure with age-appropriate men in public and private settings. The development of unique anxiety items relating to the PSA test and DRE is still needed.

  15. Anti-cancer Parasporin Toxins are Associated with Different Environments: Discovery of Two Novel Parasporin 5-like Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, David R; Short, John D; Bailey, Jeffery; Hinojosa, Gabriela; Tavarez, Lourdes; Salazar, Martha; Rampersad, Joanne N

    2016-02-01

    Cry toxins are primarily a family of insecticidal toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). However, some Cry toxins, called parasporins (PSs), are non-insecticidal and have been shown to differentially kill human cancer cells. Based on amino acid homology, there are currently six different classes of parasporins (PS1-6). It is not known what role parasporins play in nature, nor if certain PSs are associated with Bt found in particular environments. Herein, we present ten parasporin-containing isolates of Bt from the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Genes coding for PS1 and PS6 were found in isolates associated mainly with artificial aquatic environments (e.g., barrels with rain water), while Bt possessing two novel PS5-like genes (ps5-1 and ps5-2), were isolated from manure collected directly from the rectum of cattle. The amino acid sequences inferred from the two PS5-like genes were 51 % homologous to each other, while being only 41 or 45 % similar to PS5Aa1/Cry64Aa, the only reported member of the parasporin five class. The low level of amino acid homology between the two PS5-like genes and PS5Aa1 indicate that the two PS5-like genes may represent a new class of parasporins, or greatly expand the level of diversity within the current parasporin 5 class. PMID:26563301

  16. Fractal dimension (df) as a new structural biomarker of clot microstructure in different stages of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nia Anne; Harrison, Nicholas Kim; Morris, Roger H Keith; Noble, Simon; Lawrence, Matthew James; D'Silva, Lindsay Antonio; Broome, Laura; Brown, Martin Rowan; Hawkins, Karl M; Williams, Phylip Rhodri; Davidson, Simon; Evans, Phillip Adrian

    2015-11-25

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients, and is the second commonest cause of death associated with the disease. Patients with chronic inflammation, such as cancer, have been shown to have pathological clot structures with modulated mechanical properties. Fractal dimension (df) is a new technique which has been shown to act as a marker of the microstructure and mechanical properties of blood clots, and can be performed more readily than current methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We measured df in 87 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer prior to treatment and 47 matched-controls. Mean group values were compared for all patients with lung cancer vs controls and for limited disease vs extensive disease. Results were compared with conventional markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis and SEM images. Significantly higher values of df were observed in lung cancer patients compared with controls and patients with extensive disease had higher values than those with limited disease (p< 0.05), whilst conventional markers failed to distinguish between these groups. The relationship between df of the incipient clot and mature clot microstructure was confirmed by SEM and computational modelling: higher df was associated with highly dense clots formed of smaller fibrin fibres in lung cancer patients compared to controls. This study demonstrates that df is a sensitive technique which quantifies the structure and mechanical properties of blood clots in patients with lung cancer. Our data suggests that df has the potential to identify patients with an abnormal clot microstructure and greatest VTE risk.

  17. The causal relevance of body mass index in different histological types of lung cancer: A Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Torres, Robert; Haycock, Philip C; Relton, Caroline L; Martin, Richard M; Smith, George Davey; Kraft, Peter; Gao, Chi; Tworoger, Shelley; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R; Park, Sungshim L; Haiman, Christopher; Field, John K; Davies, Michael; Marcus, Michael; Liu, Geoffrey; Caporaso, Neil E; Christiani, David C; Wei, Yongyue; Chen, Chu; Doherty, Jennifer A; Severi, Gianluca; Goodman, Gary E; Hung, Rayjean J; Amos, Christopher I; McKay, James; Johansson, Mattias; Brennan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with lung cancer risk in observational studies, even though it increases the risk of several other cancers, which could indicate confounding by tobacco smoking or reverse causality. We used the two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to circumvent these limitations of observational epidemiology by constructing a genetic instrument for BMI, based on results from the GIANT consortium, which was evaluated in relation to lung cancer risk using GWAS results on 16,572 lung cancer cases and 21,480 controls. Results were stratified by histological subtype, smoking status and sex. An increase of one standard deviation (SD) in BMI (4.65 Kg/m(2)) raised the risk for lung cancer overall (OR = 1.13; P = 0.10). This was driven by associations with squamous cell (SQ) carcinoma (OR = 1.45; P = 1.2 × 10(-3)) and small cell (SC) carcinoma (OR = 1.81; P = 0.01). An inverse trend was seen for adenocarcinoma (AD) (OR = 0.82; P = 0.06). In stratified analyses, a 1 SD increase in BMI was inversely associated with overall lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 0.50; P = 0.02). These results indicate that higher BMI may increase the risk of certain types of lung cancer, in particular SQ and SC carcinoma. PMID:27487993

  18. Dramatical Impact Of Low Amounts of Swelling Clays On The Rheology Of Alpine Debris Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardou, E.; Bowen, P.; Banfill, P. G.; Boivin, P.

    2004-12-01

    Field observations show that the role and amount of swelling clays in the complex hard suspensions of alpine debris flow type were underestimated (see Boivin et al., this session). This work aims at exploring to which extent the swelling clay content influences the global rheology of a flow of rock grains from which the size spectrum extends from clays to gravel. We made a sample from calibrated materials with a grain size distribution similar to that of a viscoplastic debris flow (Bardou et al., 2003). Four replicates were made with the same grading curve. The clay content of the samples was 2% dry weight only, and different 2:1 swelling clay to 1:1 clay ratio were used. The swelling clay ratio (SCR) was calculated as the percentage of 2:1 clay in the clay fraction of the bulk samples. The 1:1 clay was (industrial) kaolinite and the 2:1 clay was a natural soil smectite. The smectite content in the bulk sample ranged from 0% to 2% dry weight, corresponding to SCR ranging from 0 to 80%. The four prepared samples were sheared in the large-size apparatus fully described in Tattersall and Banfill (1983). This apparatus is based on the measure of the torque necessary to rotate an impeller immersed in the sample. The impeller has the form of an "H" and moves in a plane according to two parallel axes. The observed behaviour were very contrasted. The sample with SCR=0 was poorly sensitive to changes in the solid concentration, in contrast to the three samples with SCR>0. Moreover, a small change in the SCR of the clay fraction induced a dramatic change of the behaviour of the mixture. For SCR=0, only little changes in the rheological parameters of the bulk samples were observed with respect to changes in the solid concentration. On the contrary the rheological parameters of the bulk samples with SCR>0, apparently followed a power law according to solid concentration. These tests carried out in the laboratory accord with observations realised on natural debris flow material

  19. Gorham-Stout Disease of the Skull Base With Hearing Loss: Dramatic Recovery and Antiangiogenic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Akifumi; Ozeki, Michio; Kuze, Bunya; Asano, Takahiko; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. We present a 6-year-old male with GSD involving the skull base who presented with recurrent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, severe hearing loss, and facial palsy secondary to cerebellar herniation into the internal auditory canal. After 2 months of treatment with pegylated interferon (IFN) α-2b (50 μg/week), his hearing recovered dramatically. Two years later, new bone formation appeared radiologically and IFN was switched to sirolimus. One year after the switch, CSF rhinorrhea disappeared. Antiangiogenic therapy might inhibit proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in osteolytic lesions and lead to new bone formation.

  20. Dramatic changes in the magnetic coupling mechanism for La-doped CaMnO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado, E; Moreno, N O; Martinho, H; García, A; Sanjurjo, J A; Torriani, I; Rettori, C; Neumeier, J J; Oseroff, S B

    2001-06-01

    The exchange interactions in polycrystalline samples of Ca1-xLaxMnO3 (0.00< or =x< or =0.05) are studied by means of Raman scattering and electron paramagnetic resonance. Dramatic reductions in the spin-phonon interactions and magnetic correlations are observed for La doping levels as small as approximately 2%-3%. These results show that the charge carriers play an important role in the overall exchange coupling in the electron-doped manganites, even at very low doping levels.

  1. USUAL ERRATIC PHENOMENON AND DRAMATIC OUTCOME A CASE REPORT OF PHENYTOIN TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin is still one of the most commonly used antiepileptic drugs in clinical practice around the globe. It has a range of familiar prejudicious and side effects, which have been reported formerly including ataxia, dizziness, visual disturbance, nystagmus, diplopia and cognitive dysfunctions amongst others. Here we are reporting a rare case of phenytoin toxicity presenting dramatically as a behavioural disorder resulting from underlying primary adverse effects of phenytoin, which were clinically overlooked. Discontinuation of phenytoin resulted in remission of side effects as well as the secondary behavioural manifestations.

  2. Critical success factors simplified implementing the powerful drivers of dramatic business improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Marvin T

    2010-01-01

    Critical-to-success factors (CSFs) have become essential elements to strategic planning and no business can achieve consistent success without effectively adopting them. To take full advantage of CSFs, however, an organization must first understand what they are and how they can be used to drive organizational initiatives and processes. Critical Success Factors Simplified: Implementing the Powerful Drivers of Dramatic Business Improvement provides a concise manual on CSFs that will teach you how to identify and select the right CSFs, measure their impact, and adjust them as needed to reach your goals.

  3. Dramatic role of critical current anisotropy on flux avalanches in MgB2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J; Matveev, A T; Strempfer, J; Habermeier, H-U; Shantsev, D V; Galperin, Y M; Johansen, T H

    2007-03-16

    Anisotropic penetration of magnetic flux in MgB(2) films grown on vicinal sapphire substrates is investigated using magneto-optical imaging. Regular penetration above 10 K proceeds more easily along the substrate surface steps, the anisotropy of the critical current being 6%. At lower temperatures the penetration occurs via abrupt dendritic avalanches that preferentially propagate perpendicular to the surface steps. This inverse anisotropy in the penetration pattern becomes dramatic very close to 10 K where all flux avalanches propagate in the strongest pinning direction. The observed behavior is fully explained using a thermomagnetic model of the dendritic instability.

  4. Distinct anti-oncogenic effect of various microRNAs in different mouse models of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Junyan; Ji, Junfang; Li, Xiaolei; Ding, Ning; Wu, Heng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xin Wei; Calvisi, Diego F; Song, Guisheng; Chen, Xin

    2015-03-30

    Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is a typical feature of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the in vivo relevance of miRNAs along hepatocarcinogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we show that liver tumors induced in mice by c-Myc overexpression or AKT/Ras co-expression exhibit distinct miRNA expression profiles. Among the downregulated miRNAs, eight (miR-101, miR-107, miR-122, miR-29, miR-365, miR-375, miR-378, and miR-802) were selected and their tumor suppressor activity was determined by overexpressing each of them together with c-Myc or AKT/Ras oncogenes in mouse livers via hydrodynamic transfection. The tumor suppressor activity of these microRNAs was extremely heterogeneous in c-Myc and AKT/Ras mice: while miR-378 had no tumor suppressor activity, miR-107, mir-122, miR-29, miR-365 and miR-802 exhibited weak to moderate tumor suppressor potential. Noticeably, miR-375 showed limited antineoplastic activity against c-Myc driven tumorigenesis, whereas it strongly inhibited AKT/Ras induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, miR-101 significantly suppressed both c-Myc and AKT/Ras liver tumor development. Altogether, the present data demonstrate that different oncogenes induce distinct miRNA patterns, whose modulation differently affects hepatocarcinogenesis depending on the driving oncogenes. Finally, our findings support a strong tumor suppressor activity of miR-101 in liver cancer models regardless of the driver oncogenes involved, thus representing a promising therapeutic target in human HCC.

  5. Divergent genomic and epigenomic landscapes of lung cancer subtypes underscore the selection of different oncogenic pathways during tumor development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Lockwood

    Full Text Available For therapeutic purposes, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has traditionally been regarded as a single disease. However, recent evidence suggest that the two major subtypes of NSCLC, adenocarcinoma (AC and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC respond differently to both molecular targeted and new generation chemotherapies. Therefore, identifying the molecular differences between these tumor types may impact novel treatment strategy. We performed the first large-scale analysis of 261 primary NSCLC tumors (169 AC and 92 SqCC, integrating genome-wide DNA copy number, methylation and gene expression profiles to identify subtype-specific molecular alterations relevant to new agent design and choice of therapy. Comparison of AC and SqCC genomic and epigenomic landscapes revealed 778 altered genes with corresponding expression changes that are selected during tumor development in a subtype-specific manner. Analysis of >200 additional NSCLCs confirmed that these genes are responsible for driving the differential development and resulting phenotypes of AC and SqCC. Importantly, we identified key oncogenic pathways disrupted in each subtype that likely serve as the basis for their differential tumor biology and clinical outcomes. Downregulation of HNF4α target genes was the most common pathway specific to AC, while SqCC demonstrated disruption of numerous histone modifying enzymes as well as the transcription factor E2F1. In silico screening of candidate therapeutic compounds using subtype-specific pathway components identified HDAC and PI3K inhibitors as potential treatments tailored to lung SqCC. Together, our findings suggest that AC and SqCC develop through distinct pathogenetic pathways that have significant implication in our approach to the clinical management of NSCLC.

  6. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmore, Kira E; Fox, James W; Irwin, Darren E

    2012-11-22

    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We attached light-level geolocators to birds at the edges of this contact zone to provide, to our knowledge, the first direct test of a putative divide using data from individual birds over the entire annual cycle. Coastal thrushes migrated along the west coast to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Some of these birds used multiple wintering sites. Inland thrushes migrated across the Rocky Mountains, through central North America to Columbia and Venezuela. These birds migrated longer distances than coastal birds and performed a loop migration, navigating over the Gulf of Mexico in autumn and around this barrier in spring. These findings support the suggestion that divergent migratory behaviour could contribute to reproductive isolation between migrants, advance our understanding of their non-breeding ecology, and are integral to development of detailed conservation strategies for this group.

  7. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators

    OpenAIRE

    Delmore, Kira E.; Fox, James W.; Irwin, Darren E

    2012-01-01

    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We atta...

  8. Longitudinal, population-based study of racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival: impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status, treatment and comorbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer, if detected early, has greater than 90% 5-year survival. However, survival has been shown to vary across racial/ethnic groups in the United States, despite the availability of early detection methods. This study evaluated the joint effects of sociodemographic factors, tumor characteristics, census-based socioeconomic status (SES), treatment, and comorbidities on survival after colorectal cancer among and within racial/ethnic groups, using the SEER-Medicare database for patients diagnosed in 1992–1996, and followed through 1999. Unadjusted colorectal cancer-specific mortality rates were higher among Blacks and Hispanic males than whites (relative rates (95% confidence intervals) = 1.34 (1.26–1.42) and 1.16 (1.04–1.29), respectively), and lower among Japanese (0.78 (0.70–0.88)). These patterns were evident for all-cause mortality, although the magnitude of the disparity was larger for colorectal cancer mortality. Adjustment for stage accounted for the higher rate among Hispanic males and most of the lower rate among Japanese. Among Blacks, stage and SES accounted for about half of the higher rate relative to Whites, and within stage III colon and stages II/III rectal cancer, SES completely accounted for the small differentials in survival between Blacks and Whites. Comorbidity did not appear to explain the Black-White differentials in colorectal-specific nor all-cause mortality, beyond stage, and treatment (surgery, radiation, chemotherapy) explained a very small proportion of the Black-White difference. The fully-adjusted relative mortality rates comparing Blacks to Whites was 1.14 (1.09–1.20) for all-cause mortality and 1.21 (1.14–1.29) for colorectal cancer specific mortality. The sociodemographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics also had different impacts on mortality within racial/ethnic groups. In this comprehensive analysis, race/ethnic-specific models revealed differential effects of covariates on survival after colorectal

  9. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  10. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer. PMID:27509656

  11. Individual Differences in Arsenic Metabolism and Lung Cancer in a Case-Control Study in Cordoba, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmaus, Craig; Yuan, Yan; Kalman, Dave; Rey, Omar A.; Skibola, Christine F.; Dauphine, Dave; Basu, Anamika; Porter, Kristin E.; Hubbard, Alan; Bates, Michael N.; Smith, Martyn T.; Smith, Allan H.

    2010-01-01

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although in most people this process is not complete. Previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary MMA (%MMA) and increased risks of several arsenic-related diseases, although none of these reported on lung cancer. In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were assessed in 45 lung cancer cases and 75 controls from arsenic-exposed areas in Cordoba, ...

  12. Race or Resource? BMI, Race, and Other Social Factors as Risk Factors for Interlimb Differences among Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors with Lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine T. Dean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High BMI is a risk factor for upper body breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL onset. Black cancer survivors are more likely to have high BMI than White cancer survivors. While observational analyses suggest up to 2.2 times increased risk of BCRL onset for Black breast cancer survivors, no studies have explored race or other social factors that may affect BCRL severity, operationalized by interlimb volume difference (ILD. Materials and Methods. ILD was measured by perometry for 296 overweight (25 > BMI 6 months from treatment in the WISER Survivor trial. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between social and physical factors and ILD. Results. Neither Black race (−0.26, p=0.89 nor BMI (0.22, p=0.10 was associated with ILD. Attending college (−4.89, p=0.03 was the strongest factor associated with ILD, followed by having more lymph nodes removed (4.75, p=0.01, >25% BCRL care adherence (4.10, p=0.01, and years since treatment (0.55, p<0.001. Discussion. Neither race nor BMI was associated with ILD among overweight cancer survivors. Education, a proxy for resource level, was the strongest factor associated with greater ILD. Tailoring physical activity and weight loss interventions designed to address BCRL severity by resource rather than race should be considered.

  13. Race or Resource? BMI, Race, and Other Social Factors as Risk Factors for Interlimb Differences among Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors with Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anagha; Kim, Taehoon; Herling, Matthew; Brown, Justin C.; Zhang, Zi; Evangelisti, Margaret; Hackley, Renata; Kim, Jiyoung; Cheville, Andrea; Troxel, Andrea B.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High BMI is a risk factor for upper body breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) onset. Black cancer survivors are more likely to have high BMI than White cancer survivors. While observational analyses suggest up to 2.2 times increased risk of BCRL onset for Black breast cancer survivors, no studies have explored race or other social factors that may affect BCRL severity, operationalized by interlimb volume difference (ILD). Materials and Methods. ILD was measured by perometry for 296 overweight (25 > BMI 6 months from treatment) in the WISER Survivor trial. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between social and physical factors and ILD. Results. Neither Black race (−0.26, p = 0.89) nor BMI (0.22, p = 0.10) was associated with ILD. Attending college (−4.89, p = 0.03) was the strongest factor associated with ILD, followed by having more lymph nodes removed (4.75, p = 0.01), >25% BCRL care adherence (4.10, p = 0.01), and years since treatment (0.55, p < 0.001). Discussion. Neither race nor BMI was associated with ILD among overweight cancer survivors. Education, a proxy for resource level, was the strongest factor associated with greater ILD. Tailoring physical activity and weight loss interventions designed to address BCRL severity by resource rather than race should be considered. PMID:27433356

  14. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources. PMID:23979671

  15. Evaluation of the Impact of Different Types of Health Education on the Adoption and Preservation of Prohealth Attitudes in Preventing Cancer in Juveniles Younger than 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Krzysztof; Zalewska, Marta; Majkowicz, Mikołaj; Zaucha, Jan Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Reduction in the incidence of cancer can be achieved through appropriate health behaviors. We hypothesized that education would improve knowledge of cancer prevention, and this, in turn, will affect and individual's readiness to modify lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cancer prevention education on adopting and preserving prohealth attitudes among high school students in Poland. Research participants were 307 high school students varying by gender, place of residence, parents' education, and type of school education. Participants were divided into five groups, of which four were educated using different methods according to classification methods based on the concept of multilateral learning. The fifth (control) group was not educated. The effects of education were assessed 1 month and 1 year after education. General knowledge about cancer and healthy lifestyle level before education was low. After education, both increased compared with the control group. There was a clear relationship between level of knowledge and readiness to adopt and healthy attitudes and behavior. The most effective method of education was a discussion and a lecture by means of teaching complex. Education significantly improved generally low knowledge about cancer and healthy lifestyle in high school students. This indicates the urgent need to implement such educational programs.

  16. Effects of multidisciplinary team care on the survival of patients with different stages of non-small cell lung cancer: a national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chou Pan

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, cancer is the top cause of death, and the mortality rate of lung cancer is the highest of all cancers. Some studies have demonstrated that multidisciplinary team (MDT care can improve survival rates of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. However, no study has discussed the effect of MDT care on different stages of NSCLC. The target population for this study consisted of patients with NSCLC newly diagnosed in the 2005-2010 Cancer Registry. The data was linked with the 2002-2011 National Health Insurance Research Database and the 2005-2011 Cause of Death Statistics Database. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore whether the involvement of MDT care had an effect on survival. This study applied the propensity score as a control variable to reduce selection bias between patients with and without involvement of MDT care. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR of death of MDT participants with stage III & IV NSCLC was significantly lower than that of MDT non-participants (adjusted HR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.90. This study revealed that MDT care are significantly associated with higher survival rate of patients with stage III and IV NSCLC, and thus MDT care should be used in the treatment of these patients.

  17. Mothers of Children with Autism have Different Rates of Cancer According to the Presence of Intellectual Disability in Their Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jennifer C; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Leonard, Helen M; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are neurodevelopmental disorders with strong genetic components. Increasingly, research attention has focused on whether genetic factors conveying susceptibility for these conditions, also influence the risk of other health conditions, such as cancer. We examined the occurrence of hospital admissions and treatment/services for cancer in mothers of children with ASD with or without ID compared with other mothers. After linking Western Australian administrative health databases, we used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of any hospitalisations and treatment/services for cancer in these groups of mothers. Mothers of children with ASD without ID had greater risk of admissions for cancer (HR 1.29 [95 % CI 1.1, 1.7]), and for treatment/services in particular (HR 1.41 [95 % CI 1.0, 2.0]), than mothers of children with no ASD/ID, while mothers of children with ASD with ID were no more likely to have a cancer-related hospital admission than other mothers. Mothers of children with autism without ID had increased risk of cancer, which may relate to common genetic pathways. PMID:27384537

  18. An examination of racial differences in 5-year survival of cervical cancer among African American and white American women in the southeastern US from 1985 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragoda, Janaka; Azuero, Andres; Badiga, Suguna; Bell, Walter C; Matthews, Roland; Piyathilake, Chandrika

    2016-08-01

    Disparities in Cervical Cancer (CC) mortality outcomes between African American (AA) and White women have been studied for decades. However, conclusions about the effect of race on CC survival differ across studies. This study assessed differences in CC survival between AA and White women diagnosed between 1985 and 2010 and treated at two major hospitals in the southeastern US. The study sample included 925 AA and 1192 White women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma. Propensity score adjustment and matching were employed to compare 5-year survival between the two racial groups. Crude comparisons suggested relevant racial differences in survival. However, the racial differences became of small magnitude after propensity-score adjustment and in matched analyses. Nonlinear models identified age at diagnosis, cancer stage, mode of treatment, and histological subtype as the most salient characteristics predicting 5-year survival of CC, yet these characteristics were also associated with race. Crude racial differences in survival might be partly explained by underlying differences in the characteristics of racial groups, such as age at diagnosis, histological subtype, cancer stage, and the mode of treatment. The study results highlight the need to improve access to early screening and treatment opportunities for AA women to improve posttreatment survival from CC. PMID:27185053

  19. HNPCC versus sporadic microsatellite-unstable colon cancers follow different routes toward loss of HLA class I expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormalities in Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I expression are common in colorectal cancer. Since HLA expression is required to activate tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), HLA class I abnormalities represent a mechanism by which tumors circumvent immune surveillance. Tumors with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) are believed to face strong selective pressure to evade CTL activity since they produce large amounts of immunogenic peptides. Previous studies identified the prevalence of HLA class I alterations in MSI-H tumors. However, those reports did not compare the frequency of alterations between hereditary and sporadic MSI-H tumors neither the mechanisms that led to HLA class I alterations in each subgroup. To characterize the HLA class I expression among sporadic MSI-H and microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors, and HNPCC tumors we compared immunohistochemically the expression of HLA class I, β2-microglobulin (β2m), and Antigen Processing Machinery (APM) components in 81 right-sided sporadic and 75 HNPCC tumors. Moreover, we investigated the genetic basis for these changes. HLA class I loss was seen more frequently in MSI-H tumors than in MSS tumors (p < 0.0001). Distinct mechanisms were responsible for HLA class I loss in HNPCC and sporadic MSI-H tumors. Loss of HLA class I expression was associated with β2m loss in HNPCC tumors, but was correlated with APM component defects in sporadic MSI-H tumors (p < 0.0001). In about half of the cases, loss of expression of HLA class I was concordant with the detection of one or more mutations in the β2m and APM components genes. HLA class I aberrations are found at varying frequencies in different colorectal tumor types and are caused by distinct genetic mechanisms. Chiefly, sporadic and hereditary MSI-H tumors follow different routes toward HLA class I loss of expression supporting the idea that these tumors follow different evolutionary pathways in tumorigenesis. The resulting variation in

  20. Trends in cancer incidence in Maputo, Mozambique, 1991-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina Lorenzoni

    Full Text Available Very limited information is available regarding the incidence of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed changes in cancer patterns from 1991 to 2008 in Maputo (Mozambique.We calculated the rates of incidence of different cancer sites by sex in the 5-year age-group of the population of Maputo city as well as age-standardized rates (ASRs and average annual percentage changes (AAPC.Over the 18-year study period a total of 12,674 cases of cancer (56.9% females were registered with an overall increase in the risk of cancer in both sexes. In males, the most common cancers were those of the prostate, Kaposi sarcoma (KS and the liver. Prostate cancer showed the most dramatic increase over the whole study period (AAPC +11.3%; 95% CI: 9.7-13.0, with an ASR of 61.7 per 105 in 2003-2008. In females, the most frequent cancers were of the uterine cervix, the breast and KS, with the former increasing along the whole study period (AAPC + 4.7%; 95% CI: 3.4-6 with an ASR of 62.0 per 105 in 2003-2008 as well as breast cancer (AAPC +6.5%; 95%CI: 4.3-8.7.Overall, the risk of cancer rose in both sexes during the study period, particularly among cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (prostate, breast, combined with increasingly rising incidences or limited changes in cancers associated with infection and poverty (uterine cervix, liver. Moreover, the burden of AIDS-associated cancers has shown a marked increase.

  1. Dosimetric comparison in a cancer of the Cervix with different therapeutic modalities; Comparacion dosimetrica en un cancer de Cervix con distintas modalidades terapeuticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Iracheta, L.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Samper Ots, P.; Penas Cabrera, M. D. de las; Jimenez Gonzalez, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cervical cancer is usually treated with radiotherapy composed of 3D (RC3D) and supine position, and is usually not usually outline the small intestine in cases of exclusively pelvic irradiation. In our Center we wanted to check what dose receives the small intestine in these cases and if the positioning of the patient or used irradiation technique influence the distribution of the histogram dose-volume. (Author)

  2. Effects of postmastectomy radiotherapy on prognosis in different tumor stages of breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao-Miao Jia; Zhi-Jie Liang; Qin Chen; Ying Zheng; Ling-Mei Li; Xu-Chen Cao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on the locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS) and overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients under different tumor stages and with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 527 patients with one to three positive lymph nodes who underwent modiifed radical or partial mastectomy and axillary dissection from January 2000 to December 2002. hTe patients were divided into the T1-T2 N1 and T3-T4 N1 groups. hTe effects of PMRT on the LRFFS and OS of these two patient groups were analyzed using SPSS 19.0, Pearson’s χ2-test, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazard model. Results: For T1-T2 N1 patients, no statistical signiifcance was observed in the effects of PMRT on LRFFS [hazard ratio (HR)=0.726; 95% conifdence interval (CI): 0.233-2.265;P=0.582] and OS (HR=0.914; 95% CI: 0.478-1.745;P=0.784) of the general patients. Extracapsular extension (ECE) and high histological grade were the risk factors for LRFFS and OS with statistical significance in multivariate analysis. Stratification analysis showed that PMRT statistically improved the clinical outcomes in high-risk patients [ECE (+), LRFFS:P=0.026, OS:P=0.007; histological grade III, LRFFS:P Conclusion: PMRT could reduce ECE (+), histological grade III-related LRR, and total mortality of T1-T2 N1 patients. T3-T4 N1 patients with ER/PR (-) could beneift from PMRT by improving LRFFS and OS. However, PMRT could only reduce LRR but failed to improve OS for T3-T4 N1 patients with ER/PR (+) who received endocrine therapy.

  3. Production of anti-cancer triterpene (betulinic acid) from callus cultures of different Ocimum species and its elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Harshita; Pandey, Pallavi; Singh, Sailendra; Gupta, Ruby; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-03-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is gaining unmatched attention owing to its unique anti-cancer activity with selective melanoma growth inhibition without damaging normal cells. It is also well-known for its multifaceted pharmacokinetics, entailing antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-HIV and antioxidant merits. Considering the escalating demand with diminishing bioresource of this molecule, the present study was undertaken that revealed the untapped potentials of Ocimum calli, contrasting to that in the in vitro derived leaves, as effective production alternative of BA in three out of four tested species (i.e. Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Ocimum sanctum excluding Ocimum grattisimum). Callus inductions were obtained in all the four species with different 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) concentrations with kinetin. Notably, 2,4-D favoured maximum callus growth in all whereas NAA proved beneficial for the highest metabolite yield in the calli of each BA-producing species. The O. basilicum calli demonstrated the maximum growth (growth index (GI) 678.7 ± 24.47) and BA yield (2.59 ± 0.55 % dry weight [DW]), whereas those in O. kilimandscharicum (GI 533.33 ± 15.87; BA 1.87 ± 0.6 % DW) and O. sanctum (GI 448 ± 16.07; BA 0.39 ± 0.12 % DW) followed a descending order. The O. gratissimum calli revealed minimum growth (GI 159 ± 13.25) with no BA accumulation. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at 200-μM concentration after 48-h exposure doubled the BA yield (5.10 ± 0.18 % DW) in NAA-grown O. basilicum calli compared to that in the untreated counterpart (2.61 ± 0.19 % DW), which further enthused its future application. PMID:25308098

  4. The clinical significance of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy in different clinical stages breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Xu; Xinhong Wu; Yaojun Feng; Feng Yuan; Wei Fan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to study the success and false negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in dif-ferent clinical stages breast cancer patients being carried out with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and the clinical signifi-cance of SLNB, we conducting this trial. Methods:One hunderd and thirty-seven cases were enrol ed in this clinical research from March 2003 to March 2007. Al of the patients’ sentinel lymph nodes were detected with 99mTc-Dx and methylene blue. There were 61 patients with stage T1-2N0M0 carried SLNB without NAC (group A), 76 cases were carried out NAC 3-4 cycles before SLNB, including 39 T2-4N0-1M0 cases (group B) and 27 T2-4N2-3M0 cases (group C). The success and false negative rate of SLNB were analysed with chi-square test. Results:In group A, the successful and false negative rate of SLNB were 92.31%(36/39), 8.57%(3/35), and in group B and C were 92.31%(36/39), 8.57%(3/35) and 74.07%(20/27), 18.52%(5/27), respectively. The successful rate of group C decreased and false negative rate increased significantly compared with group A and B (P0.05). Conclusion:The SLNB can accurately predict lymph node status of axil ary lymph node in N0-1 stage patients with NAC, but in N2-3 stage patients the success rate decreased and false rate increased negative significantly.

  5. Differences in electrophysiological properties of functionally identified nociceptive sensory neurons in an animal model of cancer-induced bone pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong Fang; Ungard, Robert; Seidlitz, Eric; Zacal, Natalie; Huizinga, Jan; Henry, James L

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone cancer pain is often severe, yet little is known about mechanisms generating this type of chronic pain. While previous studies have identified functional alterations in peripheral sensory neurons that correlate with bone tumours, none has provided direct evidence correlating behavioural nociceptive responses with properties of sensory neurons in an intact bone cancer model. Results In a rat model of prostate cancer-induced bone pain, we confirmed tactile hypersensitivity using the von Frey test. Subsequently, we recorded intracellularly from dorsal root ganglion neurons in vivo in anesthetized animals. Neurons remained connected to their peripheral receptive terminals and were classified on the basis of action potential properties, responses to dorsal root stimulation, and to mechanical stimulation of the respective peripheral receptive fields. Neurons included C-, Aδ-, and Aβ-fibre nociceptors, identified by their expression of substance P. We suggest that bone tumour may induce phenotypic changes in peripheral nociceptors and that these could contribute to bone cancer pain. Conclusions This work represents a significant technical and conceptual advance in the study of peripheral nociceptor functions in the development of cancer-induced bone pain. This is the first study to report that changes in sensitivity and excitability of dorsal root ganglion primary afferents directly correspond to mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia behaviours following prostate cancer cell injection into the femur of rats. Furthermore, our unique combination of techniques has allowed us to follow, in a single neuron, mechanical pain-related behaviours, electrophysiological changes in action potential properties, and dorsal root substance P expression. These data provide a more complete understanding of this unique pain state at the cellular level that may allow for future development of mechanism-based treatments for cancer-induced bone pain. PMID:27030711

  6. Different fatty acid metabolism effects of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and C75 in Adenocarcinoma lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is overexpressed and hyperactivated in several human carcinomas, including lung cancer. We characterize and compare the anti-cancer effects of the FASN inhibitors C75 and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in a lung cancer model. We evaluated in vitro the effects of C75 and EGCG on fatty acid metabolism (FASN and CPT enzymes), cellular proliferation, apoptosis and cell signaling (EGFR, ERK1/2, AKT and mTOR) in human A549 lung carcinoma cells. In vivo, we evaluated their anti-tumour activity and their effect on body weight in a mice model of human adenocarcinoma xenograft. C75 and EGCG had comparable effects in blocking FASN activity (96,9% and 89,3% of inhibition, respectively). In contrast, EGCG had either no significant effect in CPT activity, the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid β-oxidation, while C75 stimulated CPT up to 130%. Treating lung cancer cells with EGCG or C75 induced apoptosis and affected EGFR-signaling. While EGCG abolished p-EGFR, p-AKT, p-ERK1/2 and p-mTOR, C75 was less active in decreasing the levels of EGFR and p-AKT. In vivo, EGCG and C75 blocked the growth of lung cancer xenografts but C75 treatment, not EGCG, caused a marked animal weight loss. In lung cancer, inhibition of FASN using EGCG can be achieved without parallel stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and this effect is related mainly to EGFR signaling pathway. EGCG reduce the growth of adenocarcinoma human lung cancer xenografts without inducing body weight loss. Taken together, EGCG may be a candidate for future pre-clinical development

  7. Differences in Regional Diagnostic Strategies and in Intended Versus Actual First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triage of patients with ovarian cancer to primary debulking surgery (PDS) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is challenging. In Denmark, the use of NACT has increased, but substantial differences in the use of NACT or PDS exist among centers. We aimed to characterize the differences...... and 4% never had debulking surgery. Of the 288 patients (53%) referred to NACT, 44% were never debulked. Fourteen patients (3%) were referred to palliative treatment. The use of different imaging modalities, diagnostic laparoscopy, and laparotomy varied significantly among the centers. Diagnostic......-line treatments as well as in the diagnostic process and use of NACT, calling for further discussion on diagnostic strategy and therapeutically approach for patients with advanced ovarian cancer....

  8. Human Renal Normal, Tumoral, and Cancer Stem Cells Express Membrane-Bound Interleukin-15 Isoforms Displaying Different Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Azzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrarenal interleukin-15 (IL-15 participates to renal pathophysiology, but the role of its different membrane-bound isoforms remains to be elucidated. In this study, we reassess the biology of membrane-bound IL-15 (mb-IL-15 isoforms by comparing primary cultures of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC to peritumoral (ptumTEC, tumoral (RCC, and cancer stem cells (CSC/CD105+. RPTEC express a 14 to 16 kDa mb-IL-15, whose existence has been assumed but never formally demonstrated and likely represents the isoform anchored at the cell membrane through the IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα chain, because it is sensitive to acidic treatment and is not competent to deliver a reverse signal. By contrast, ptumTEC, RCC, and CSC express a novel N-hyperglycosylated, short-lived transmembrane mb-IL-15 (tmb-IL-15 isoform around 27 kDa, resistant to acidic shock, delivering a reverse signal in response to its soluble receptor (sIL-15Rα. This reverse signal triggers the down-regulation of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin in ptumTEC and RCC but not in CSC/CD105+, where it promotes survival. Indeed, through the AKT pathway, tmb-IL-15 protects CSC/CD105+ from non-programmed cell death induced by serum starvation. Finally, both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 are sensitive to metalloproteases, and the cleaved tmb-IL-15 (25 kDa displays a powerful anti-apoptotic effect on human hematopoietic cells. Overall, our data indicate that both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 isoforms play a complex role in renal pathophysiology downregulating E-cadherin and favoring cell survival. Moreover, “apparently normal” ptumTEC cells, sharing different properties with RCC, could contribute to organize an enlarged peritumoral “preneoplastic” environment committed to favor tumor progression.

  9. A Case of Hailey-Hailey Disease That Responds Dramatically to Acyclovir Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İjlal Erturan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hailey-Hailey disease is an autosomal dominantly inherited chronic bullous dermatosis that tends to remain localized to flexural areas. The typical onset of the disease is through papulovesicles or flaccid bullae on an erythematous background. Lesions are often painful and itchy and sometimes cause a burning sensation. Although there is no effective treatment for the disease, topical and systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics are often used in the treatment. Hailey-Hailey disease creates a predisposition to infections due to the deterioration of skin barrier function. Underlying secondary infections should be investigated, particularly in cases with treatment failure. In this article we present a case of Hailey-Hailey disease who did not obtain benefits with conventional treatment modalities and was showing dramatic improvement due to treatment with acyclovir.

  10. Stabilizing Cloud Feedback Dramatically Expands the Habitable Zone of Tidally Locked Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S

    2013-01-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) is the circumstellar region where a planet can sustain surface liquid water. Searching for terrestrial planets in the HZ of nearby stars is the stated goal of ongoing and planned extrasolar planet surveys. Previous estimates of the inner edge of the HZ were based on one-dimensional radiative-convective models. The most serious limitation of these models is the inability to predict cloud behavior. Here we use global climate models with sophisticated cloud schemes to show that due to a stabilizing cloud feedback, tidally locked planets can be habitable at twice the stellar flux found by previous studies. This dramatically expands the HZ and roughly doubles the frequency of habitable planets orbiting red dwarf stars. At high stellar flux, strong convection produces thick water clouds near the substellar location that greatly increase the planetary albedo and reduce surface temperatures. Higher insolation produces stronger substellar convection and therefore higher albedo, making this phen...

  11. Publications on Peripheral Nerve Injuries during World War I: A Dramatic Increase in Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Publications from French (Jules Tinel and Chiriachitza Athanassio-Bénisty), English (James Purves-Stewart, Arthur Henry Evans and Hartley Sidney Carter), German (Otfrid Foerster and Hermann Oppenheim) and American (Charles Harrison Frazier and Byron Stookey) physicians from both sides of the front during World War I (WWI) contributed to a dramatic increase in knowledge about peripheral nerve injuries. Silas Weir Mitchell's original experience with respect to these injuries, and particularly causalgia, during the American Civil War was further expanded in Europe during WWI. Following the translation of one of his books, he was referred to mainly by French physicians. During WWI, several French books were in turn translated into English, which influenced American physicians, as was observed in the case of Byron Stookey. The establishment of neurological centres played an important role in the concentration of experience and knowledge. Several eponyms originated during this period (including the Hoffmann-Tinel sign and the Froment sign). Electrodiagnostic tools were increasingly used.

  12. Comparison of Pathologic Response Evaluation Systems after Anthracycline with/without Taxane-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy among Different Subtypes of Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Lee

    Full Text Available Several methods are used to assess the pathologic response of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC to predict clinical outcome. However, the clinical utility of these systems for each molecular subtype of breast cancer is unclear. Therefore, we applied six pathologic response assessment systems to specific subtypes of breast cancer and compared the results.Five hundred and eighty eight breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC were retrospectively analyzed, and the ypTNM stage, residual cancer burden (RCB, residual disease in breast and nodes (RDBN, tumor response ratio, Sataloff's classification, and Miller-Payne grading system were evaluated. The results obtained for each assessment system were analyzed in terms of patient survival.In triple-negative tumors, all systems were significantly associated with disease-free survival and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for disease-free survival were clearly separated by all assessment methods. For HR+/HER2- tumors, systems assessing the residual tumor (ypTNM stage, RCB, and RDBN had prognostic significance. However, for HER2+ tumors, the association between patient survival and the pathologic response assessment results varied according to the system used, and none resulted in distinct Kaplan-Meier curves.Most of the currently available pathologic assessment systems used after anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC effectively classified triple-negative breast cancers into groups showing different prognoses. The pathologic assessment systems evaluating residual tumors only also had prognostic significance in HR+/HER2- tumors. However, new assessment methods are required to effectively evaluate the pathologic response of HR+/HER2+ and HR-/HER2+ tumors to anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC.

  13. Polypeptone induces dramatic cell lysis in ura4 deletion mutants of fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzy Matsuo

    Full Text Available Polypeptone is widely excluded from Schizosaccharomyces pombe growth medium. However, the reasons why polypeptone should be avoided have not been documented. Polypeptone dramatically induced cell lysis in the ura4 deletion mutant when cells approached the stationary growth phase, and this phenotype was suppressed by supplementation of uracil. To determine the specificity of this cell lysis phenotype, we created deletion mutants of other genes involved in de novo biosynthesis of uridine monophosphate (ura1, ura2, ura3, and ura5. Cell lysis was not observed in these gene deletion mutants. In addition, concomitant disruption of ura1, ura2, ura3, or ura5 in the ura4 deletion mutant suppressed cell lysis, indicating that cell lysis induced by polypeptone is specific to the ura4 deletion mutant. Furthermore, cell lysis was also suppressed when the gene involved in coenzyme Q biosynthesis was deleted. This is likely because Ura3 requires coenzyme Q for its activity. The ura4 deletion mutant was sensitive to zymolyase, which mainly degrades (1,3-beta-D glucan, when grown in the presence of polypeptone, and cell lysis was suppressed by the osmotic stabiliser, sorbitol. Finally, the induction of cell lysis in the ura4 deletion mutant was due to the accumulation of orotidine-5-monophosphate. Cell wall integrity was dramatically impaired in the ura4 deletion mutant when grown in the presence of polypeptone. Because ura4 is widely used as a selection marker in S. pombe, caution needs to be taken when evaluating phenotypes of ura4 mutants.

  14. Palliative care needs at different phases in the illness trajectory: a survey study in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernaert, K; Pardon, K; Van den Block, L; Devroey, D; De Laat, M; Geboes, K; Surmont, V; Deliens, L; Cohen, J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the growing consensus on the benefits of initiating palliative care early in the disease trajectory, it remains unclear at what point palliative care needs emerge. This study investigates quality of life and unmet palliative care needs at three phases in the cancer trajectory, curative, life-prolonging and most advanced (prognosis care needs within the domains of palliative care. We used European reference values of the EORTC QLQ-C30 to compare the mean scores with a norm group. The groups further on in the cancer trajectory reported statistically and clinically poorer functioning compared with earlier phases, also when controlled for the effects of sex, age or type of cancer. Higher symptom burdens for fatigue, pain, dyspnoea and appetite loss were found in groups further into the trajectory, p care needs of patients from diagnosis onwards.

  15. Raman microspectroscopy of Hematoporphyrins. Imaging of the noncancerous and the cancerous human breast tissues with photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Pluska, B; Kopec, M

    2016-12-01

    Raman microspectroscopy combined with fluorescence were used to study the distribution of Hematoporphyrin (Hp) in noncancerous and cancerous breast tissues. The results demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish between noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissue and to identify differences in the distribution and photodegradation of Hematoporphyrin, which is a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT), photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of cancer. Presented results show that Hematoporphyrin level in the noncancerous breast tissue is lower compared to the cancerous one. We have proved also that the Raman intensity of lipids and proteins doesn't change dramatically after laser light irradiation, which indicates that the PDT treatment destroys preferably cancer cells, in which the photosensitizer is accumulated. The specific subcellular localization of photosensitizer for breast tissues samples soaked with Hematoporphyrin was not observed. PMID:27376758

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  17. Different prognostic roles of tumor suppressor gene BAP1 in cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Claudio; Veronese, Nicola; Yachida, Shinichi; Cheng, Liang; Nottegar, Alessia; Stubbs, Brendon; Solmi, Marco; Capelli, Paola; Pea, Antonio; Barbareschi, Mattia; Fassan, Matteo; Wood, Laura D; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-10-01

    Biallelic inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) has been demonstrated in several cancers, but its prognostic role has not been completely explained. We aimed to investigate the risk associated with loss of BAP1 (BAP1-) for all-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality and recurrence of disease in subjects with cancer. PubMed and SCOPUS were searched from database inception until 09/15/2015 without language restrictions. Prospective studies reporting data on prognostic parameters in subjects with cancer, comparing participants with presence of BAP1 (BAP1+) vs. BAP1- were included. Data were summarized using risk ratios (RR) for number of deaths/recurrences and hazard ratios (HR) for time-dependent risk related to BAP1- adjusted for potential confounders. From 261 hits, 12 studies (including 13 cohorts) with 3,447 participants (BAP1-: n = 697; BAP1+: n = 2,750), with a median follow-up over 60 months, were meta-analyzed. Compared to BAP1+, BAP1- significantly increased all-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality and risk of recurrence in all the tumor types analyzed, except for mesothelioma, in which the presence of BAP1 mutations correlates with a better prognosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BAP1 mutated colorectal and renal carcinomas are associated with high-tumor grading (P < 0.0001), and that BAP1 mutated is more common in women than in men (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, on the basis of our meta-analysis, we have demonstrated a peculiar role of BAP1 in influencing the prognosis in cancer. Thus, BAP1 could be considered as an important potential target for personalized medicine. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27223342

  18. Bladder Cancer and Arsenic Exposure: Differences in the Two Populations Enrolled in A Study in Southwest Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEVEN H. LAMM; DANIEL M. BYRD; MICHAEL B. KRUSE; MANNING FEINLEIB; SHENG-HAN LAI

    2003-01-01

    Objective Analyses of bladder cancer mortality in the Black Foot Disease (BFD) endemic area of southwest Taiwan conducted by Morales et al. showed a discontinuity in risk at 400 μg/L arsenic in the drinking water in a stratified analysis and no discontinuity in a continuous analysis. As the continuous analysis presentation had been used by both the NRC and the EPA to assess the carcinogenic risk from arsenic ingestion, an explanation of the discontinuity was sought. Methods Review of 40 years of published health studies of the BFD-endemic area of SW Taiwan showed that earlier publications had limited their cancer associations with arsenic levels in artesian well waters and that the reports of Morales et al., NRC, and EPA failed to do so. Underlying data for the Morales et al.study were obtained from the appendix to the NRC report. Bladder cancer mortality rates werecalculated from case counts and person-years of observation for each study village. Villages werecategorized by water source according to the descriptions from the underlying study. Graphic and regression analyses were conducted of the bladder cancer mortality rates using exposure as a continuous variable and simultaneously stratifying by water source. Results The median village well arsenic levels ranged from 350 to 934 μg/L for villages solely dependent on artesian well water and from 10 to 717 μg/L for villages not solely dependent on artesian well water. Bladder cancer mortality rates were found to be dependent upon the arsenic level only for those villages that were solely dependent on artesian well water for their water source. Bladder cancer mortality rates were found to be independent of arsenic level for villages with non-artesian well water sources. Conclusions The data indicate that arsenic exposure levels do not explain the bladder cancer mortality risk in SW Taiwan among villages not dependent upon artesian well water. The association for villages dependent upon artesian well water may be

  19. Metabolites of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Phenanthrene in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yesha M.; Park, Sungshim L.; Carmella, Steven G.; Paiano, Viviana; Olvera, Natalie; Stram, Daniel O.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic

    2016-01-01

    Results from the Multiethnic Cohort Study demonstrated significant differences in lung cancer risk among cigarette smokers from five different ethnic/racial groups. For the same number of cigarettes smoked, and particularly among light smokers, African Americans and Native Hawaiians had the highest risk for lung cancer, Whites had intermediate risk, while Latinos and Japanese Americans had the lowest risk. We analyzed urine samples from 331–709 participants from each ethnic group in this study for metabolites of phenanthrene, a surrogate for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Consistent with their lung cancer risk and our previous studies of several other carcinogens and toxicants of cigarette smoke, African Americans had significantly (p<0.0001) higher median levels of the two phenanthrene metabolites 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-PheOH, 0.931 pmol/ml) and phenanthrene tetraol (PheT, 1.13 pmol/ml) than Whites (3-PheOH, 0.697 pmol/ml; PheT, 0.853 pmol/ml) while Japanese-Americans had significantly (p = 0.002) lower levels of 3-PheOH (0.621 pmol/ml) than Whites. PheT levels (0.838 pmol/ml) in Japanese-Americans were not different from those of Whites. These results are mainly consistent with the lung cancer risk of these three groups, but the results for Native Hawaiians and Latinos were more complex. We also carried out a genome wide association study in search of factors that could influence PheT and 3-PheOH levels. Deletion of GSTT1 explained 2.2% of the variability in PheT, while the strongest association, rs5751777 (p = 1.8x10-62) in the GSTT2 gene, explained 7.7% of the variability in PheT. These GWAS results suggested a possible protective effect of lower GSTT1 copy number variants on the diol epoxide pathway, which was an unexpected result. Collectively, the results of this study provide further evidence that different patterns of cigarette smoking are responsible for the higher lung cancer risk of African Americans than of Whites and the

  20. Differences in reproductive risk factors for breast cancer in middle-aged women in Marin County, California and a sociodemographically similar area of Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uratsu Connie S

    2009-03-01

    The effects of reproductive risks factors, Ashkenazi Jewish heritage, smoking history, and alcohol consumption with regard to breast cancer risk in Marin County should be further evaluated. When possible, future comparisons of breast cancer incidence rates between regions should adjust for differences in income and education in addition to age and race/ethnicity, preferably by using a sociodemographically similar comparison group.