Sample records for cancer differ dramatically

  1. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small region of about 70 kb on human chromosome 19q13.3 encompasses 4 genes of which 3, ERCC1, ERCC2, and PPP1R13L (aka RAI are related to DNA repair and cell survival, and one, CD3EAP, aka ASE1, may be related to cell proliferation. The whole region seems related to the cellular response to external damaging agents and markers in it are associated with risk of several cancers. Methods We downloaded the genotypes of all markers typed in the 19q13.3 region in the HapMap populations of European, Asian and African descent and inferred haplotypes. We combined the European HapMap individuals with a Danish breast cancer case-control data set and inferred the association between HapMap haplotypes and disease risk. Results We found that the susceptibility haplotype in our European sample had increased from 2 to 50 percent very recently in the European population, and to almost the same extent in the Asian population. The cause of this increase is unknown. The maximal proportion of overall genetic variation due to differences between groups for Europeans versus Africans and Europeans versus Asians (the Fst value closely matched the putative location of the susceptibility variant as judged from haplotype-based association mapping. Conclusion The combined observation that a common haplotype causing an increased risk of cancer in Europeans and a high differentiation between human populations is highly unusual and suggests a causal relationship with a recent increase in Europeans caused either by genetic drift overruling selection against the susceptibility variant or a positive selection for the same haplotype. The data does not allow us to distinguish between these two scenarios. The analysis suggests that the region is not involved in cancer risk in Africans and that the susceptibility variants may be more finely mapped in Asian populations.

  2. beta 1 integrin inhibition dramatically enhances radiotherapy efficacy in human breast cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Catherine C.; Park, Catherine C.; Zhang, Hui J.; Yao, Evelyn S.; Park, Chong J.; Bissell, Mina J.


    {beta}1 integrin signaling has been shown to mediate cellular resistance to apoptosis after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). Other signaling molecules that increase resistance include Akt, which promotes cell survival downstream of {beta}1 integrin signaling. We showed previously that {beta}1 integrin inhibitory antibodies, AIIB2, enhance apoptosis and decrease growth in human breast cancer cells in 3 dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (3D lrECM) cultures and in vivo. Here we asked whether AIIB2 could synergize with IR to modify Akt-mediated IR resistance. We used 3D lrECM cultures to test the optimal combination of AIIB2 with IR treatment of two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HMT3522-T4-2, as well as T4-2 myr-Akt breast cancer colonies or HMT3522-S-1, which form normal organotypic structures in 3D lrECM. Colonies were assayed for apoptosis and {beta}1 integrin/Akt signaling pathways were evaluated using western blot. In addition, mice bearing MCF-7 xenografts were used to validate the findings in 3D lrECM. We report that AIIB2 increased apoptosis optimally post-IR by down regulating Akt in breast cancer colonies in 3D lrECM. In vivo, addition of AIIB2 after IR significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis compared to either treatment alone. Remarkably, the degree of tumor growth inhibition using AIIB2 plus 2 Gy radiation was similar to that of 8 Gy alone. We showed previously that AIIB2 had no discernible toxicity in mice; here, its addition allowed for a significant reduction in the IR dose that was necessary to achieve comparable growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer xenografts in vivo.

  3. Metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a dramatic response to a systemic chemotherapy (temozolomide and capecitabine regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacin S


    Full Text Available Sahin Lacin, Ece Esin, Yusuf Karakas, Suayib Yalcin Department of Medical Oncology, Institute of Cancer, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Abstract: A 40-year-old male patient presented with increasing serum levels of calcitonin and CEA. He underwent potential curative surgery for medullary thyroid carcinoma, 3 years ago and then 7 months later he had metastasectomy and cervical lymph node dissection for recurrent disease. On admission he had multiple metastatic skin nodules on the chest wall and positron emission tomography–computed tomography revealed multiple visceral metastases as well. The patient had not received any systemic treatment up to that time; therefore, we considered systemic treatment with the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors (vandetanib, cabozantinib, etc. However, since these drugs are only available after cytotoxic chemotherapy, we started temozolomide and capecitabine chemotherapy. After two courses of the treatment all skin nodules disappeared and CEA and calcitonin levels normalized, radiological imaging showed a good partial response. Keywords: medullary thyroid cancer, capecitabine, temozolomide, chemotherapy

  4. Oviposition preferences for ethanol depend on spatial arrangement and differ dramatically among closely related Drosophila species. (United States)

    Sumethasorn, Matt; Turner, Thomas L


    Recent work on the model fly Drosophila melanogaster has reported inconsistencies in their preference for laying eggs on intermediate concentrations of ethanol. In this study, we resolve this discrepancy by showing that this species strongly prefers ovipositing on ethanol when it is close to a non-ethanol substrate, but strongly avoids ethanol when options are farther apart. We also show fluidity of these behaviors among other Drosophila species: D. melanogaster is more responsive to ethanol than close relatives in that it prefers ethanol more than other species in the close-proximity case, but avoids ethanol more than other species in the distant case. In the close-proximity scenario, the more ethanol-tolerant species generally prefer ethanol more, with the exception of the island endemic D. santomea This species has the lowest tolerance in the clade, but behaves like D. melanogaster We speculate that this could be an adaptation to protect eggs from parasites or predators such as parasitoid wasps, as larvae migrate to non-toxic substrates after hatching. These natural differences among species are an excellent opportunity to study how genes and brains evolve to alter ethanol preferences, and provide an interesting model for genetic variation in preferences in other organisms, including humans.

  5. Environmental variability drives rapid and dramatic changes in nutrient limitation of tropical macroalgae with different ecological strategies (United States)

    Clausing, Rachel J.; Fong, Peggy


    Nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) limits primary productivity in nearly every ecosystem worldwide, yet how limitation changes over time, particularly in connection to variation in environmental drivers, remains understudied. We evaluated temporal and species-specific variability in the relative importance of N and P limitation among tropical macroalgae in two-factor experiments conducted twice after rains and twice after dry conditions to explore potential linkages to environmental drivers. We studied three common macroalgal species with varying ecological strategies: a fast-growing opportunist, Dictyota bartayresiana; and two calcifying species likely to be slower growing, Galaxaura fasciculata and Padina boryana. On the scale of days to weeks, nutrient responses ranged among and within species from no limitation to increases in growth by 20 and 40 % over controls in 3 d with N and P addition, respectively. After light rain or dry conditions, Dictyota grew rapidly (up to ~60 % in 3 d) with little indication of nutrient limitation, while Padina and Galaxaura shifted between N, P, or no limitation. All species grew slowly or lost mass after a large storm, presumably due to unfavorable conditions on the reef prior to the experiment that limited nutrient uptake. Padina and Galaxaura both became nutrient limited 3 d post-storm, while Dictyota did not. These results suggest that differing capabilities for nutrient uptake and storage dictate the influence of nutrient history and thus drive nutrient responses and, in doing so, may allow species with differing ecological strategies to coexist in a fluctuating environment. Moreover, the great variability in species' responses indicates that patterns of nutrient limitation are more complex than previously recognized, and generalizations about N versus P limitation of a given system may not convey the inherent complexity in governing conditions and processes.

  6. Dramatic reduction of sequence artefacts from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed cancer biopsies by treatment with uracil- DNA glycosylase. (United States)

    Do, Hongdo; Dobrovic, Alexander


    Non-reproducible sequence artefacts are frequently detected in DNA from formalinfixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. However, no rational strategy has been developed for reduction of sequence artefacts from FFPE DNA as the underlying causes of the artefacts are poorly understood. As cytosine deamination to uracil is a common form of DNA damage in ancient DNA, we set out to examine whether treatment of FFPE DNA with uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) would lead to the reduction of C>T (and G>A) sequence artefacts. Heteroduplex formation in high resolution melting (HRM)-based assays was used for the detection of sequence variants in FFPE DNA samples. A set of samples that gave false positive HRM results for screening for the E17K mutation in exon 4 of the AKT1 gene were chosen for analysis. Sequencing of these samples showed multiple non-reproducible C:G>T:A artefacts. Treatment of the FFPE DNA with UDG prior to PCR amplification led to a very marked reduction of the sequence artefacts as indicated by both HRM and sequencing analysis, indicating that uracil lesions are the major cause of sequence artefacts. Similar results were shown for the BRAF V600 region in the same sample set and EGFR exon 19 in another sample set. UDG treatment specifically suppressed the formation of artefacts in FFPE DNA as it did not affect the detection of true KRAS codon 12 and true EGFR exon 19 and 20 mutations. We conclude that uracil in FFPE DNA leads to a significant proportion of sequence artefacts. These can be minimised by a simple UDG pretreatment which can be readily carried out, in the same tube, as the PCR immediately prior to commencing thermal cycling. HRM is a convenient way of monitoring both the degree of damage and the effectiveness of the UDG treatment. These findings have immediate and important implications for cancer diagnostics where FFPE DNA is used as the primary genetic material for mutational studies guiding personalised medicine strategies and where simple

  7. Combining BRAF inhibitor and anti PD-L1 antibody dramatically improves tumor regression and anti tumor immunity in an immunocompetent murine model of anaplastic thyroid cancer. (United States)

    Brauner, Eran; Gunda, Viswanath; Vanden Borre, Pierre; Zurakowski, David; Kim, Yon Seon; Dennett, Kate Virginia; Amin, Salma; Freeman, Gordon James; Parangi, Sareh


    The interaction of programmed cell death-1 and its ligand is widely studied in cancer. Monoclonal antibodies blocking these molecules have had great success but little is known about them in thyroid cancer. We investigated the role of PD-L1 in thyroid cancer with respect to BRAF mutation and MAP kinase pathway activity and the effect of anti PD-L1 antibody therapy on tumor regression and intra-tumoral immune response alone or in combination with BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi). BRAFV600E cells showed significantly higher baseline expression of PD-L1 at mRNA and protein levels compared to BRAFWT cells. MEK inhibitor treatment resulted in a decrease of PD-L1 expression across all cell lines. BRAFi treatment decreased PD-L1 expression in BRAFV600E cells, but paradoxically increased its expression in BRAFWT cells. BRAFV600E mutated patients samples had a higher level of PD-L1 mRNA compared to BRAFWT (p=0.015). Immunocompetent mice (B6129SF1/J) implanted with syngeneic 3747 BRAFV600E/WT P53-/- murine tumor cells were randomized to control, PLX4720, anti PD-L1 antibody and their combination. In this model of aggressive thyroid cancer, control tumor volume reached 782.3±174.6mm3 at two weeks. The combination dramatically reduced tumor volume to 147.3±60.8, compared to PLX4720 (439.3±188.4 mm3, P=0.023) or PD-L1 antibody (716.7±62.1, Panti PD-L1 treatment potentiates the effect of BRAFi on tumor regression and intensifies anti tumor immune response in an immunocompetent model of ATC. Clinical trials of this therapeutic combination may be of benefit in patients with ATC.

  8. Creative Dramatics. Beginnings Workshop. (United States)

    Gabriel, Julia; Sidlovskaya, Olga; Stotter, Ruth; Haugen, Kirsten; Leithold, Naomi


    Presents five articles on using creative dramatics in early childhood education: (1) "Drama: A Rehearsal for Life" (Julia Gabriel); (2) "Fairy Tales Enhance Imagination and Creative Thinking" (Olga Sidlovskaya); (3) "Starting with a Story" (Ruth Stotter); (4) "Using Creative Dramatics to Include All…

  9. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;


    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  10. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;


    , including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women......Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers...

  11. A bridging stent to surgery in patients with esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer has a dramatic negative impact on patient survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, D W; Nassar, M; Jensen, L S


    This study aimed to assess the impact of esophageal stenting on postoperative complications and survival in patients with obstructing esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. All patients treated without neoadjuvant therapy that had an R0-resection performed for esophageal and GEJ...... cancer between January 2003 and December 2010 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Data on stenting, postoperative mortality, morbidity, recurrence-free survival, complications, and length of hospital stay were collected. Kaplan-Meier plots for survival and recurrence-free survival...... curves were constructed for R0 resected patients. Data were compared between the stent and no-stent group by nonparametric tests. Two hundred seventy three consecutive R0 resected patients with esophageal or GEJ cancer were identified. Of these patients, 63 had a stent as a bridge to surgery. The male...

  12. Dramatically different kinetics and mechanism at solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces for catalytic isopropanol oxidation over size-controlled platinum nanoparticles. (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Sapi, Andras; Thompson, Christopher M; Liu, Fudong; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Krier, James M; Carl, Lindsay M; Cai, Xiaojun; Wang, Lin-Wang; Somorjai, Gabor A


    We synthesize platinum nanoparticles with controlled average sizes of 2, 4, 6, and 8 nm and use them as model catalysts to study isopropanol oxidation to acetone in both the liquid and gas phases at 60 °C. The reaction at the solid/liquid interface is 2 orders of magnitude slower than that at the solid/gas interface, while catalytic activity increases with the size of platinum nanoparticles for both the liquid-phase and gas-phase reactions. The activation energy of the gas-phase reaction decreases with the platinum nanoparticle size and is in general much higher than that of the liquid-phase reaction which is largely insensitive to the size of catalyst nanoparticles. Water substantially promotes isopropanol oxidation in the liquid phase. However, it inhibits the reaction in the gas phase. The kinetic results suggest different mechanisms between the liquid-phase and gas-phase reactions, correlating well with different orientations of IPA species at the solid/liquid interface vs the solid/gas interface as probed by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy under reaction conditions and simulated by computational calculations.

  13. Rectal and colon cancer : Not just a different anatomic site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamas, K.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.; de Vries, E. G. E.; van Vugt, M. A. T. M.; Beets-Tan, R. G.; van Etten, B.; de Groot, D. J. A.; Hospers, G. A. P.


    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total

  14. Dramatizing Nonfiction with Emerging Readers. (United States)

    Putnam, Lynne


    Presents scenarios from a kindergarten classroom in which dramatization is used extensively in conjunction with nonfiction books. Shows how the children acted out topics that ranged from the Pilgrims' first Thanksgiving to the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., showing that they were able to develop rich representations of nonfiction materials.…

  15. Learning through Dramatic Story Presentation (United States)

    Tindall, Evie


    The use of story with dramatic presentation approaches produces an engaging and powerful instructional choice for today's adult ESL educators. Two engaging and timed-tested approaches are Reader's Theater and Tableau Vivant. Both provide English language learners with content tailored to their abilities in addition to numerable opportunities to…

  16. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism. (United States)

    Desilet, Gregory


    Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general. (SR)

  17. Little Eyolf and dramatic tradition

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    Roland Lysell


    Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.

  18. Afatinib-Associated Cutaneous Toxicity: A Correlation of Severe Skin Reaction with Dramatic Tumor Response in a Woman with Exon 19 Deletion Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. (United States)

    Osborn, Lindsay P; Cohen, Philip R


    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are biological factors used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that are positive for EGFR mutations. Afatinib is one such drug that has been approved for use in this capacity. Cutaneous toxicity is the second most commonly reported adverse event with the use of afatinib. A 39-year-old woman with inoperative right lung adenocarcinoma was initially treated with afatinib. She not only developed a severe papulopustular eruption but also had a dramatic reduction of her tumor. Her cutaneous symptoms and lesions were effectively treated with oral and topical corticosteroids, oral antibiotics, and oral antihistamines. After one month of afatinib treatment, her tumor was resected, and there was no evidence of metastases. Afatinib-induced cutaneous toxicity has a positive correlation with tumor response to anti-neoplastic therapy. Supplemental systemic and topical treatments can be initiated to palliate adverse skin events in order to enable adequate duration of treatment with afatinib.

  19. Afatinib-Associated Cutaneous Toxicity: A Correlation of Severe Skin Reaction with Dramatic Tumor Response in a Woman with Exon 19 Deletion Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R


    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are biological factors used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that are positive for EGFR mutations. Afatinib is one such drug that has been approved for use in this capacity. Cutaneous toxicity is the second most commonly reported adverse event with the use of afatinib. A 39-year-old woman with inoperative right lung adenocarcinoma was initially treated with afatinib. She not only developed a severe papulopustular eruption but also had a dramatic reduction of her tumor. Her cutaneous symptoms and lesions were effectively treated with oral and topical corticosteroids, oral antibiotics, and oral antihistamines. After one month of afatinib treatment, her tumor was resected, and there was no evidence of metastases. Afatinib-induced cutaneous toxicity has a positive correlation with tumor response to anti-neoplastic therapy. Supplemental systemic and topical treatments can be initiated to palliate adverse skin events in order to enable adequate duration of treatment with afatinib.

  20. Rectal and colon cancer: Not just a different anatomic site. (United States)

    Tamas, K; Walenkamp, A M E; de Vries, E G E; van Vugt, M A T M; Beets-Tan, R G; van Etten, B; de Groot, D J A; Hospers, G A P


    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer might be responsible in part for the differing effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on overall survival, which is more evident in colon cancer than in rectal cancer. Apart from anatomic divergences, rectal and colon cancer also differ in their embryological origin and metastatic patterns. Moreover, they harbor a different composition of drug targets, such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), which is preferentially mutated in proximal colon cancers, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is prevalently amplified or overexpressed in distal colorectal cancers. Despite their differences in metastatic pattern, composition of drug targets and earlier local treatment, metastatic rectal and colon cancer are, however, commonly regarded as one entity and are treated alike. In this review, we focused on rectal cancer and its biological and clinical differences and similarities relative to colon cancer. These aspects are crucial because they influence the current staging and treatment of these cancers, and might influence the design of future trials with targeted drugs.

  1. Therapy for bone metastasis from different cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhang; Peng Tan; Baoguo Mi; Chao Song; Yi Deng; Hanfeng Guan


    The bone is the most common target organ of cancer metastasis. Bone metastasis leads to considerable morbidity due to skeletal-related events (SREs). These include bone pain, hypercalcemia, pathologic frac-tures, and compression of the spinal cord. Cancers such as those of the lung, breast, prostate, and kidney are more likely to cause SREs than other cancer types. Additionaly, some blood cancers, including multiple myeloma and lymphoma, frequently cause SREs. In this article, we review the conventional therapies for metastatic bone disease, including drug therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Among osteoclast-targeting agents, bisphosphonates and nuclear factor kappa-B ligand inhibitors are the most widely used agents to prevent cancer-related bone loss. Unsealed radioisotopes are also considered promising in cancer therapy. Currently, iodine-131, strontium-89, and radium-223 are available for the treatment of bone metastasis. However, the treatments for blood cancers with SREs are diferent from those of other cancers. In those cases, new classes of agents including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, monoclonal anti-bodies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown remarkable eficacy. We also discuss the potential development of new therapies for these diseases.

  2. Human Papillomavirus and the Development of Different Cancers. (United States)

    Gao, Ge; Smith, David I


    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are responsible for the development of almost all cervical cancers. HPV is also found in 85% of anal cancer and in 50% of penile, vulvar, and vaginal cancers, and they are increasingly found in a subset of head and neck cancers, i.e., oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC). The model for how HPV causes cancer is derived from several decades of study on cervical cancer, and it is just presumed that this model is not only completely valid for cervical cancer but for all other HPV-driven cancers as well. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has now provided the necessary tools to characterize genomic alterations in cancer cells and can precisely determine the physical status of HPV in those cells as well. We discuss recent discoveries from different applications of NGS in both cervical cancer and OPSCCs, including whole-genome sequencing and mate-pair NGS. We also discuss what NGS studies have revealed about the different ways that HPV can be involved in cancer formation, specifically comparing cervical cancer and OPSCC.

  3. Epidemiologic differences in esophageal cancer between Asian and Western populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Ze Zhang; Guang-Fu Jin; Hong-Bing Shen


    Esophageal cancer is a common cancer worldwide and has a poor prognosis.The incidence of esophageal squamous cell cancer has been decreasing,whereas the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing rapidly,particularly in Western men.Squamous cell cancer continues to be the major type of esophageal cancer in Asia,and the main risk factors include tobacco smoking,alcohol consumption,hot beverage drinking,and poor nutrition.In contrast,esophageal adenocarcinoma predominately affects the whites,and the risk factors include smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.In addition,Asians and Caucasians may have different susceptibilities to esophageal cancer due to different heritage backgrounds.However,comparison studies between these two populations are limited and need to be addressed in the near future.Ethnic differences should he taken into account in preventive and clinical practices.

  4. The Transformational Qualities of Dramatic Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gardner Salazar


    Full Text Available During the International Drama and Education Association (IDEA Congress in Kenya in 1998, the life of two educators crossed roads. Although both are from different geographical contexts (Colombia and the United States, they have shared the same passion: to encourage in their societies the implementation of dramatic arts in different educational settings (schools, universities, communities so children and adults could develop to their fullest, thus enabling them to participate actively in building a more democratic society. Fifteen years after this encounter, they met again in the 2013 IDEA Congress in Paris to reflect on their efforts during their life spans. Through examining their drama practices, they discuss how this human expression functions as a critical thinking art form, changing players, audiences, and communities. Lessons derived from their experiences might be useful for a new generation of transformational drama leaders.

  5. Cytotoxicity of dietary flavonoids on different human cancer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sak


    Full Text Available Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of chronic diseases including cancer. Anticancer effects of these polyphenols depend on several factors: Their chemical structure and concentration, and also on the type of cancer. Malignant cells from different tissues reveal somewhat different sensitivity toward flavonoids and, therefore, the preferences of the most common dietary flavonoids to various human cancer types are analyzed in this review. While luteolin and kaempferol can be considered as promising candidate agents for treatment of gastric and ovarian cancers, respectively, apigenin, chrysin, and luteolin have good perspectives as potent antitumor agents for cervical cancer; cells from main sites of flavonoid metabolism (colon and liver reveal rather large fluctuations in anticancer activity probably due to exposure to various metabolites with different activities. Anticancer effect of flavonoids toward blood cancer cells depend on their myeloid, lymphoid, or erythroid origin; cytotoxic effects of flavonoids on breast and prostate cancer cells are highly related to the expression of hormone receptors. Different flavonoids are often preferentially present in certain food items, and knowledge about the malignant tissue-specific anticancer effects of flavonoids could be purposely applied both in chemoprevention as well as in cancer treatment.

  6. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M.H.; Mailund, T.; Li, H.


    Background: A small region of about 70 kb on human chromosome 19q13.3 encompasses 4 genes of which 3, ERCC1, ERCC2, and PPP1R13L (aka RAI) are related to DNA repair and cell survival, and one, CD3EAP, aka ASE1, may be related to cell proliferation. The whole region seems related to the cellular r...

  7. Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtinaitis Juozas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania. Methods Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations. Results For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000 and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p Conclusion This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations.

  8. Introducing Dramatic Inquiry as Visual Art Education (United States)

    Rhoades, Mindi; Daiello, Vittoria S.


    This article defines dramatic inquiry, exploring its possible contributions to discourses on subjectivity, embodied pedagogy, and relational knowing in art education. As a communal, ensemble endeavor emerging from the discipline of drama education, dramatic inquiry offers strategies for enhancing arts education's critical inquiries by facilitating…

  9. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer. (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya


    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Beliefs About Lung Cancer Care (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Lin, Jenny J.; Nelson, Judith E.; Powell, Charles A.; Salazar-Schicchi, John; Berman, Andrew R.; Keller, Steven M.; Smith, Cardinale B.; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Halm, Ethan A.; Leventhal, Howard


    Background: Disparities in lung cancer treatment and palliative care are well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying these disparities are not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated racial and ethnic differences in beliefs and attitudes about lung cancer treatment and palliative care among patients receiving a new diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Patients were recruited from four medical centers in New York City and surveyed about their beliefs regarding lung cancer care, including disease-directed treatments, palliative and end-of-life care, and fatalistic and spiritual beliefs. We used univariate and multiple regression analyses to compare the distribution of beliefs among minority (black and Hispanic) and nonminority patients. Results: Of the 335 patients, 21% were black, 20% were Hispanic, and 59% were nonminority. Beliefs about chemotherapy and radiotherapy were similar across the three groups (P > .05), whereas black patients were more likely to believe that surgery might cause lung cancer to spread (P = .008). Fatalistic beliefs potentially affecting cancer treatment were more common among both minority groups (P ≤ .02). No significant differences were found in attitudes toward clinician communication about cancer prognosis (P > .05). However, both blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have misconceptions about advance directives and hospice care (P ≤ .02). Conclusions: Similarities and differences in beliefs about disease-directed treatment were observed between minority and nonminority patients with lung cancer. Minority patients hold more fatalistic views about the disease and misperceptions about advance care planning and hospice care. Further research is needed to assess the impact of these beliefs on decisions about lung cancer care and patient outcomes. PMID:22700777

  11. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd


    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer.

  12. Does urothelial cancer of bladder behave differently in young patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hua; LI You-yuan; HU Zhi-quan; ZHU Hui; ZHUANG Qian-yuan; QI Yong; YE Zhang-qun


    Background Bladder urothelial cancer has been diagnosed at an increasing rate among young adults in China while the clinical outcomes remain highly controversial.To optimize the management of young patients with bladder cancer,we examined whether bladder urothelial cancer in young patients behaved differently from that in the elder patients.Methods From 1994 to 2008,a database of bladder urothelial cancer patients at a major tertiary medical center was retrospectively reviewed.The clinical and pathological parameters of patients who were less than 40 years of age and a series of patients older than 40 years of age as the control group during the same period were compared.A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test,and Cox regression was performed to identify clinical parameters that affected the clinic outcomes.Results Young bladder cancer patients had a lower male-to-female ratio and were less likely to have advanced stages and high-grade cancers at the initial diagnosis.Tumors in young bladder cancer patients tended to be less multifocal at diagnosis.In addition,young patients had a lower recurrence rate and longer recurrence interval than older patients.The Kaplan-Meier curve and Log-rank test showed that young patients had significantly better cancer specific survival than old patients.The univariats and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that tumor grade is the sole predictor for tumor recurrence in young patients.Conclusions Young patients with bladder cancer have favorable pathological features and clinical outcomes than older patients.These findings argue for more conservative management approaches for young patients with bladder cancer.

  13. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression. (United States)

    Cheung, Otto K-W; Cheng, Alfred S-L


    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.

  14. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Ka-Wing Cheung


    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.

  15. Tissue-specificity of proteoglycans expression in different cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Suhovskih


    Full Text Available Background. Proteoglycans (PGs are complex glycosylated molecules playing an important role in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and signaling. Expression of PGs and their expression pattern change considerably during malignant transformation of mammalian cells and tissues.Objective. The aim of our work was to investigate tissue-specificity of main PGs expression (glypican-1, perlecan, syndecan-1, aggrecan, versican, CSPG4/NG2, brevican, decorin, lumican in normal cells (fibroblasts and normal epithelial prostate cells PNT2 and in different human cancer cell lines (prostate, breast, lung, brain, kidney. Expression patterns of main PGs were determined in these cells using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunocytochemical staining.Results. It was shown that fibroblasts actively expressed PGs, and PNT2 cells had lower (5–6-fold expression levels of a limited set of PG. In different cancer cell lines, overall transcriptional activities of PGs varied up to 10-fold, although their expression patterns had tissue-specific properties (for example, expression of syndecan-1 is more specific for prostate cancer cells, while perlecan is typical for lung cancer cell lines.Conclusions. Along with this, variability of the PG expression patterns in cell lines of the same tissue of origin was shown, suggesting a possible contribution of the variable PGs expression to intratumoural heterogeneity of cancer cells and their potential as perspective biomarker (s for personalised cancer diagnostics.

  16. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima


    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.

  17. Hospitality Ethical Growth via Dramatic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherif Haberih


    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to find scalable data and statistics for realistic rendering of Ethical and Dramatic English gradual growth based on Thai students within the Hospitality and Tourism Industry. We also intend to prove that Dramatic English serves English improvements for Thai students. Furthermore we intend to better understand students' behaviors and ethical growth processes based on cultural, social, personal and psychological background through Dramatic English for Hospitality Industry. Universities and Educational Organizations today are involved in complex tasks. With the burst of communication through Medias and an ever increasing student’s demand for higher quality education and services, having a competitive advantage is seen as a necessary tool. Education has evolved and its business approach requires a modern and inadequate solution. As of today, Thailand is in need of a new generation of tools applied to modernize the current educational system, and emphasize on new methods.

  18. Brain metastases free survival differs between breast cancer subtypes (United States)

    Berghoff, A; Bago-Horvath, Z; De Vries, C; Dubsky, P; Pluschnig, U; Rudas, M; Rottenfusser, A; Knauer, M; Eiter, H; Fitzal, F; Dieckmann, K; Mader, R M; Gnant, M; Zielinski, C C; Steger, G G; Preusser, M; Bartsch, R


    Background: Brain metastases (BM) are frequently diagnosed in patients with HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer; in addition, an increasing incidence was reported for triple-negative tumours. We aimed to compare brain metastases free survival (BMFS) of breast cancer subtypes in patients treated between 1996 until 2010. Methods: Brain metastases free survival was measured as the interval from diagnosis of extracranial breast cancer metastases until diagnosis of BM. HER-2 status was analysed by immunohistochemistry and reanalysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation if a score of 2+ was gained. Oestrogen-receptor (ER) and progesterone-receptor (PgR) status was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Brain metastases free survival curves were estimated with the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Results: Data of 213 patients (46 luminal/124 HER-2/43 triple-negative subtype) with BM from breast cancer were available for the analysis. Brain metastases free survival differed significantly between breast cancer subtypes. Median BMFS in triple-negative tumours was 14 months (95% CI: 11.34–16.66) compared with 18 months (95% CI: 14.46–21.54) in HER-2-positive tumours (P=0.001) and 34 months (95% CI: 23.71–44.29) in luminal tumours (P=0.001), respectively. In HER-2-positive patients, co-positivity for ER and HER-2 prolonged BMFS (26 vs 15 m; P=0.033); in luminal tumours, co-expression of ER and PgR was not significantly associated with BMFS. Brain metastases free survival in patients with lung metastases was significantly shorter (17 vs 21 months; P=0.014). Conclusion: Brain metastases free survival in triple-negative breast cancer, as well as in HER-2-positive/ER-negative, is significantly shorter compared with HER-2/ER co-positive or luminal tumours, mirroring the aggressiveness of these breast cancer subtypes. PMID:22233926

  19. The Art of Reading: Dramatizing Literacy (United States)

    Ortlieb, Evan; Cramer, Neva; Cheek, Earl, Jr.


    The art of reading refers to the act of representing and interpreting text through oral dramatic reading. To the dismay of many teachers, reading is becoming a "lost art." Students are expected to apply specific literacy techniques rather than use their imagination to learn to enact text. Based on a study of the reading perceptions of natural oral…

  20. The Psychodrama-Social Dramatics Separation. (United States)

    Klepac, Richard L.

    Social dramatics is a therapeutic and educational program that can act as a mirror to reflect images of the self in action with others. It is the modality for experiential learning to correct social dysfunction by providing models for imitation, opportunities to practice and develop individual forms from that model, and risk free environments for…

  1. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst (United States)


    .1 arcseconds. At the time of the observations, SW-3 was 258 million kilometres from the Earth; this angle corresponds to a projected distance of 5,100 kilometres. Moreover, on the TIMMI exposures which were performed at the far-infrared wavelength of 10 microns, yet another condensation was visible. These condensations are small clouds of gas and dust which emanate from the separate pieces of the nucleus. A careful comparison of the relative positions, as observed on different nights, clearly shows that they are slowly drifting apart. Fortunately, it turned out that another image of SW-3 had been obtained in early December by ESO astronomer Jesper Storm at the Danish 1.5-metre telescope. Due to unfavourable atmospheric conditions, the image sharpness is less good, but the central condensation is very elongated. The extension is about half of the distance between the outermost condensations as measured ten days later. This indicates that the splitting may have taken place by mid-November, or at least that the outward motion cannot have started much earlier. This also explains why this effect was not seen before. It therefore appears that the actual separation began about one month after the moment of maximum brightness and nearly two months after the perihelion passage. Still, there is little doubt that it is closely related to the processes which led to the dramatic outburst. Further observations will help to refine the description of the break-up process, but a simple explanation is that major cracks and rifts opened in the irregularly shaped icy nucleus already before perihelion as the surface temperature began to increase. Completely ``fresh'' cometary material was thereby exposed to the solar light and the evaporation rate increased quickly, releasing more gas and dust into space. In the course of this process, the rifts gradually widened until the definitive breakage occurred somewhat later. Split Comets About 30 comets have been observed to split in historical times and

  2. Care initiation area yields dramatic results. (United States)


    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  3. Exploring different types of Hatha yoga for patients with cancer. (United States)

    Subedi, Sunita


    Yoga has been practiced for more than 5,000 years and is based on the collective experiences of yoga practitioners over time. Western countries and sophisticated medical facilities use this practice as a complementary therapy with standard medical treatments. Yoga has been shown to improve quality of life. Several types of yoga potentially can benefit people with cancer, including Hatha yoga. The type of recommended Hatha yoga is dependent on the physical conditions and fitness level of patients. This article explores the impact of different types of Hatha yoga on various cancer-related symptoms in patients with cancer. The article also provides guidelines for healthcare personnel-particularly nurses-to help choose the right kind of Hatha yoga that suits their patients' needs and interests. Additional information is provided on measures and instructions that are essential for healthcare providers to know before recommending any yoga type to their patients. Evidence of the feasibility and potential efficacy of yoga for patients with cancer is provided.

  4. Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: A gender pattern that differs across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Menvielle (Gwenn); A.E. Kunst (Anton); I. Stirbu (Irina); B.H. Strand; C. Borrell (Carme); E. Regidor (Enrique); A. Leclerc; S. Esnaola; M. Bopp (Matthias); O. Lundberg; B. Artnik (Barbara); G. Costa (Giuseppe); P. Deboosere (Patrick); P. Martikainen (Pekka); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)


    textabstractWe used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30-74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway,

  5. Dramatically different dizygotic twins: will we include them in Research? Twin research reviews: congenital anomalies, mirror-image effects in conjoined twins, older mothers of twins; Twin statistics: 'Massachusetts, land of twins'; Tribute: Dr Victor A. McKusick. (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L


    The increased frequency of interracial marriage is a likely source of unusual-looking dizygotic (DZ) twins. Some members of DZ twin pairs born to mixed-race couples inherit very different physical features from their parents. This raises several questions, such as: Will researchers wish to include such twins in their ongoing studies? Next, new twin research concerned with congenital anomalies, mirror-image effects in conjoined twins and older mothers of twins will be reviewed. New statistics on twinning rates in Massachusetts will also be summarized, followed by a tribute to the late medical geneticist Dr. Victor A. McKusick.

  6. Comparison of the genetic effects of equimolar doses of ENU and MNU: While the chemicals differ dramatically in their mutagenicity in stem-cell spermatogonia, both elicit very high mutation rates in differentiating spermatogonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Liane B. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6420 (United States)]. E-mail:; Hunsicker, Patricia R. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6420 (United States); Russell, William L. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6420 (United States)


    Mutagenic, reproductive, and toxicity effects of two closely related chemicals, ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and methylnitrosourea (MNU), were compared at equimolar and near-equimolar doses in the mouse specific-locus test in a screen of all stages of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. In stem-cell spermatogonia (SG), ENU is more than an order of magnitude more mutagenic than MNU. During post-SG stages, both chemicals exhibit high peaks in mutation yield when differentiating spermatogonia (DG) and preleptotene spermatocytes are exposed. The mutation frequency induced by 75 mg MNU/kg during this peak interval is, to date, the highest induced by any single-exposure mutagenic treatment - chemical or radiation - that allows survival of the exposed animal and its germ cells, producing an estimated 10 new mutations per genome. There is thus a vast difference between stem cell and differentiating spermatogonia in their sensitivity to MNU, but little difference between these stages in their sensitivity to ENU. During stages following meiotic metaphase, the highest mutation yield is obtained from exposed spermatids, but for both chemicals, that yield is less than one-quarter that obtained from the peak interval. Large-lesion (LL) mutations were induced only in spermatids. Although only a few of the remaining mutations were analyzed molecularly, there is considerable evidence from recent molecular characterizations of the marker genes and their flanking chromosomal regions that most, if not all, mutations induced during the peak-sensitive period did not involve lesions outside the marked loci. Both ENU and MNU treatments of post-SG stages yielded significant numbers of mutants that were recovered as mosaics, with the proportion being higher for ENU than for MNU. Comparing the chemicals for the endpoints studied and additional ones (e.g., chromosome aberrations, toxicity to germ cells and to animals, teratogenicity) revealed that while MNU is generally more effective, the opposite

  7. Comparison of the genetic effects of equimolar doses of ENU and MNU: While the chemicals differ dramatically in their mutagenicity in stem-cell spermatogonia, both elicit very high mutation rates in differentiating spermatogonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Liane B [ORNL; Hunsicker, Patricia R [ORNL; Russell, William [Deceased


    Mutagenoic, reproductive, and toxicity effects of two closely related chemicals, ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and methylnitrosourea (MNU), were compared at equimolar and near-equimolar doses in the mouse specific-locus test in a screen of all stages of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. In stem cell spermatogonial (SG), ENU is more than an order of magnitude more mutagenic than MNU. During post-SG stages, both chemicals exhibit high peaks in mutation yield when differentiating spermatogonial (DG) and preleptotene spermatocytes are exposed. The mutation frequency induced by 75 mg MNU/kg during this peak interval is, to date, the highest induced by any single- xposure mutagenic treatment chemical or radiation that allows survival of the exposed animal and its germ cells, producing an estimated 10 new mutations per genome. There is thus a vast difference between stem cell and differentiating spermatogonial in their sensitivity to MNU, but little difference between these stages in their sensitivity to ENU. During stages following meiotic metaphase, the highest mutation yield is obtained from exposed spermatids, but for both chemicals, that yield is less than one-quarter that obtained from the peak interval. Large-lesion (LL) mutations were induced only in spermatids. Although only a few of the remaining mutations were analyzed molecularly, there is considerable evidence from recent molecular characterizations of the marker genes and their flanking chromosomal regions that most, if not all, mutations induced during the peak-sensitive period did not involve lesions outside the marked loci. Both ENU and MNU treatments of post-SG stages yielded significant numbers of mutants that were recovered as mosaics, with the proportion being higher for ENU than for MNU. Comparing the chemicals for the endpoints studied and additional ones (e.g., chromosome aberrations, toxicity to germ cells and to animals, teratogenicity) revealed that while MNU is generally more effective, the opposite

  8. On the Dramatic Features in Robert Browning’s Poems of Dramatic Monologue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper explored the three dramatic features intrinsic in Robert Browning’s poems of dramatic monologue, name-ly, the employment of first-person point of view, the use of irony, and the intricate psychological exploration and vivid character-ization. Such features are crucial in the successful presentation of various human nature and experience with profundity, making his poems an enduring classic in the English literature.

  9. Breast cancer acute radiotherapy morbidity evaluated by different scoring systems. (United States)

    López, Escarlata; Núñez, M Isabel; Guerrero, M Rosario; del Moral, Rosario; de Dios Luna, Juan; del Mar Rodríguez, M; Valenzuela, M Teresa; Villalobos, Mercedes; Ruiz de Almodóvar, José Mariano


    Reporting of the outcome of radiotherapy is not satisfactory without a description of the treatment-related side effects. The purposes of this paper were: (1) to evaluate the frequency and the severity of collateral skin reactions in a group of breast cancer patients; (2) to report the acute reactions using some current scoring systems and to compare the application of them, and (3) to investigate the variation between intra- and interobservers using these different scales. We studied 108 breast cancer patients who, after surgical treatment, received adjuvant radiotherapy. Clinical skin evaluation was always performed by the same radiotherapist the last day of treatment, and the collateral radiation effects were photographed at that moment to facilitate later evaluations by another two expert doctors. Normal tissue damage was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/The European Organisation for Research, and Treatment of Cancer/ (RTOG/EORTC), the Danish, the European, and the Biomed2 side-effect scales. The most frequent acute complications found were erythema (91.7%), dry desquamation (29.6%) and moist desquamation (35.2%). The reactions were classified as severe in 13.9, 23, 18.5 and 13% of the patients with each of the different systems used, respectively. The concordance between the scoring of radiation-induced side effects on the skin assessed by direct observation of the patients or by examination of the photographic document was sufficient. This is a warrant of accuracy in the evaluation of acute normal tissue lesions. Our results allow us to state the advantage of the RTOG system over the others in terms of evaluating the acute effects produced by radiotherapy of women with breast cancer.

  10. Dramatic response to infliximab in refractory neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamaneni Sreekanth


    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. Neurologic manifestations involving the central and/or peripheral nervous system occur in about 5% of patients. Neurosarcoidosis is often refractory to conventional treatment and therefore more effective treatment options are needed. While the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there is now a better understanding of its pathogenesis on a molecular level. It is clear that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα plays a pivotal role in the development of the granulomas and it is believed to be a key cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Taking advantage of this better understanding of disease pathogenesis, anti-TNFα agents are being increasingly used to treat refractory sarcoidosis. We report a patient with refractory neurosarcoidosis who showed dramatic improvement in the clinical and radiological manifestations following treatment with infliximab; he suffered a relapse upon discontinuation of the medication.

  11. A method to dramatically improve subcarrier tracking (United States)

    Hurd, William J.; Aguirre, Sergio


    A method is presented for achieving a dramatic improvement in phase tracking of square wave subcarriers or other square waves. The method is to set the amplitude of the phase quadrature reference signal to zero except near the zero crossings of the input signal. Without changing the loop bandwidth, the variance of the phase error can be reduced to approximately W sigma(sub 0)(2), where sigma (sub 0)(2) is the phase error variance without windowing, and W is the fraction of cycle in which the reference signal has a nonzero value. Simulation results confirm the analysis and establish minimum W versus signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, the window can be made so narrow as to achieve a phase error variance of 1.5 sigma(sub 0)(4).

  12. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening (United States)


    Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety

  13. A dramatic, objective antiandrogen withdrawal response: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litwin Alan


    Full Text Available Abstract Antiandrogen withdrawal response is an increasingly recognized entity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing a durable radiologic improvement along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA with discontinuation of the antiandrogen agent bicalutamide. We report a case in which a dramatic decline of serum PSA levels associated with a dramatic improvement in radiologic disease was achieved with bicalutamide discontinuation.

  14. Differences between men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone S Noell


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing in the United States of America (USA has led to a dramatic increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in the United States as well as the number of men undergoing aggressive treatment with radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. We compared patient characteristics and treatment selection between American men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers. Methods We evaluated 3,173 men with prostate cancer in the USA. Surveys and medical records provided information on demographics, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, symptoms, tumor characteristics, and treatment. We classified men presenting with symptoms of advanced cancer – bone pain, weight loss, or hematuria – as "clinically diagnosed"; asymptomatic men and those with only lower urinary tract symptoms were considered "screening-detected." We used multivariate analyses to determine whether screening predicted receiving aggressive treatment for a clinically localized cancer. Results We classified 11% of cancers as being clinically diagnosed. Men with screening-detected cancers were more often non-Hispanic white (77% vs. 65%, P Conclusion Most cancers were detected by screening in this American cohort. Appropriately, younger, healthier men were more likely to be diagnosed by screening. Minority status and lower socio-economic status appeared to be screening barriers. Screening detected earlier-stage cancers and was associated with receiving aggressive treatment.

  15. Different response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for different molecular subtypes in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huafeng Kang; Zhijun Dai; Xiaobin Ma; Xing Bao; Shuai Lin; Hongbing Ma; Xiaoxu Liu; Xijing Wang


    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining on the response rate for patients with locally advanced breast cancer received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: One hundred and seven breast cancer patients admitted from 2007 to 2011 who received 4 cycles of docetaxel/epirubicin-combined (TE) neoadjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed, the patients were classified into 4 subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER-2 and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) according to different combination patterns of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER-2) expression defined by IHC method. The correlation between response rate and the molecular subtypes were analyzed. Results: The pathological complete response (PCR), clinical complete response (CCR), clinical partial response (CPR), and clinical stable disease (CSD) rate of whole group was 15.89% (17/107), 22.43% (24/107), 63.55% (68/107), 14.02% (15/107), respectively, and the overall response rate (ORR) was 85.98% (92/107). The PCR rate and ORR of luminal A, luminal B, HER-2 and TNBC subtypes was 4.76% and 73.81%; 16.67% and 83.33%;17.65% and 100.00%; 30.00% and 96.67%, respectively. The PCR and ORR rate of HER-2/TNBC subtypes was higher than that of luminal A/B subtypes (P = 0.019, P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Different molecular subtypes display different response rate for patients with locally advanced breast cancer received neoadjuvant TE chemotherapy, HER-2/TNBC subtypes have a higher PCR and ORR rate than that of luminal A/B subtypes.

  16. Differences in Survival between Colon and Rectal Cancer from SEER Data


    Yen-Chien Lee; Yen-Lin Lee; Jen-Pin Chuang; Jenq-Chang Lee


    BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,1...

  17. Screening of Differently Expressed Genes in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines with Different Metastasis Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Anping; LIAO Guoning; WU Mingfu; LU Yunping; MA Ding


    In order to screen the genes differentially expressed in two human prostate cancer cells with different metastasis potentials, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was done twice on human prostate cancer cell line with high potential of metastasis PC3M-1E8 and its synogenetic cell line PC3M-2B4 with low metastasis potential. In the first subtraction PC3M-2B4 was used as tester and PC3M-1E8 as driver and the forward subtractive library was constructed. In the second one the tester and driver were interchanged and the reverse subtractive library was constructed. The screened clones of both libraries were sequenced and Gene Bank homology search was performed. Some clones were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that two subtrac-tive libraries containing 238 positive clones were constructed. Analysis of 16 sequenced clones ran-domly picked from two libraries showed that 4 differentially expressed gene fragments were identi-fied as new EST with unknown functions. It was concluded that two subtractive libraries of human prostate cancer cell lines with different metastasis potentials were constructed successfully.

  18. Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshal, Karni S.; Ferri-Lagneau, Karine F.; Haider, Jamil; Pardhanani, Pooja; Leung, TinChung, E-mail: [Biomedical/Biotechnology Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, North Carolina Research Campus, Nutrition Research Center, 500 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081 (United States)


    Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299) and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13). Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP) vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase) inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to measure cancer cell

  19. Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Pardhanani


    Full Text Available Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299 and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13. Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to

  20. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji


    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  1. Nutritional status of cancer patients given different treatment modalities. (United States)

    Usharani, K; Roy, R K; Vijayalakshmi; Prakash, Jamuna


    The nutritional status of 91 cancer patients was assessed at the time of diagnosis and follow-up assessments were carried out at the third and sixth week after initiating different treatment modalities to study the effect of type and duration of treatment on nutritional status. Parameters assessed were anthropometry, biochemical status and clinical signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiencies. Treatment modalities studied were radiotherapy, chemotherapy, chemotherapy+radiotherapy, and combined treatment modality (surgery+radiotherapy+chemotherapy). The nutritional status of male patients was affected most by chemotherapy+radiotherapy while females were affected most with radiotherapy. Biochemical parameters showed a marginal decline in total serum protein and serum albumin concentrations. Haemoglobin concentrations declined substantially with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The lymphocyte count decreased substantially irrespective of the treatment modality. Clinical examination revealed increased incidences of deficiency signs and symptoms in all patients during follow-up irrespective of treatment modality.

  2. A study of structural differences between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells using FTIR spectroscopy (United States)

    Sheng, Daping; Xu, Fangcheng; Yu, Qiang; Fang, Tingting; Xia, Junjun; Li, Seruo; Wang, Xin


    Since liver cancer seriously threatens human health, it is very urgent to explore an effective method for diagnosing liver cancer early. In this study, we investigated the structure differences of IR spectra between neoplastic liver cells and normal liver cells. The major differences of absorption bands were observed between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, the values of A2955/A2921, A1744/A1082, A1640/A1535, H1121/H1020 might be potentially useful factors for distinguishing liver cancer cells from normal liver cells. Curve fitting also provided some important information on structural differences between malignant and normal liver cancer cells. Furthermore, IR spectra combined with hierarchical cluster analysis could make a distinction between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells. The present results provided enough cell basis for diagnosis of liver cancer by FTIR spectroscopy, suggesting FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for liver cancer diagnosis.

  3. Cancer (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  4. Dramaturgie et interculturel (Dramatics and the Intercultural). (United States)

    Feldhendler, Daniel


    The use of techniques from drama and psychodrama to explore intercultural differences and relations is described. The process used incorporates eight stages of discovery of perceptions, stereotypes, cultural identity, communication taboos, and bringing together individuals from different cultures. (MSE)

  5. Gender-Associated Genomic Differences in Colorectal Cancer: Clinical Insight from Feminization of Male Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola H. Ali


    Full Text Available Gender-related differences in colorectal cancer (CRC are not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that CRC arising in females are significantly associated with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP-high. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we analyzed a cohort of 116 CRCs (57 males, 59 females for chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNA and found that CRC in females had significantly higher numbers of gains involving chromosome arms 1q21.2–q21.3, 4q13.2, 6p21.1 and 16p11.2 and copy number losses of chromosome arm 11q25 compared to males. Interestingly, a subset of male CRCs (46% exhibited a "feminization" phenomenon in the form of gains of X chromosomes (or an arm of X and/or losses of the Y chromosome. Feminization of cancer cells was significantly associated with microsatellite-stable CRCs (p-value 0.003 and wild-type BRAF gene status (p-value 0.009. No significant association with other clinicopathological parameters was identified including disease-free survival. In summary, our data show that some CNAs in CRC may be gender specific and that male cancers characterized by feminization may constitute a specific subset of CRCs that warrants further investigation.

  6. Gender-associated genomic differences in colorectal cancer: clinical insight from feminization of male cancer cells. (United States)

    Ali, Rola H; Marafie, Makia J; Bitar, Milad S; Al-Dousari, Fahad; Ismael, Samar; Bin Haider, Hussain; Al-Ali, Waleed; Jacob, Sindhu P; Al-Mulla, Fahd


    Gender-related differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) are not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that CRC arising in females are significantly associated with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP-high). Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we analyzed a cohort of 116 CRCs (57 males, 59 females) for chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNA) and found that CRC in females had significantly higher numbers of gains involving chromosome arms 1q21.2-q21.3, 4q13.2, 6p21.1 and 16p11.2 and copy number losses of chromosome arm 11q25 compared to males. Interestingly, a subset of male CRCs (46%) exhibited a "feminization" phenomenon in the form of gains of X chromosomes (or an arm of X) and/or losses of the Y chromosome. Feminization of cancer cells was significantly associated with microsatellite-stable CRCs (p-value 0.003) and wild-type BRAF gene status (p-value 0.009). No significant association with other clinicopathological parameters was identified including disease-free survival. In summary, our data show that some CNAs in CRC may be gender specific and that male cancers characterized by feminization may constitute a specific subset of CRCs that warrants further investigation.

  7. Educational differences in likelihood of attributing breast symptoms to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcu, Afrodita; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Black, Georgia;


    asked to indicate their level of agreement with a cancer avoidance statement ('I would not want to know if I have breast cancer'). RESULTS: Women were more likely to mention cancer as a possible cause of an axillary lump (64%) compared with nipple rash (30%). In multivariable analysis, low and mid......BACKGROUND: Stage at diagnosis of breast cancer varies by socio-economic status (SES), with lower SES associated with poorer survival. We investigated associations between SES (indexed by education), and the likelihood of attributing breast symptoms to breast cancer. METHOD: We conducted an online...... survey with 961 women (47-92 years) with variable educational levels. Two vignettes depicted familiar and unfamiliar breast changes (axillary lump and nipple rash). Without making breast cancer explicit, women were asked 'What do you think this […..] could be?' After the attribution question, women were...

  8. Heterogeneity of the Mac-1 expression on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with different types of epithelial ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Szyłło, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Andrzej; Sułowska, Zofia; Nowak, Marek


    The expression level of Mac-1 on the surface of neutrophils is an important indicator of neutrophil activation. Under pathological conditions, Mac-1 is believed a key adhesion molecule that facilitates cancer progression and mediates the adhesion of tumour cells to the endothelium of blood vessels. Our previous findings indicated that circulating peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) expressed enhanced levels of Mac-1, which was functionally associated with an increased adhesive function of neutrophils. The objective of the current study was to analyse whether the value of individual components of the differential white cell count, including the neutrophil and lymphocyte ratios, which are markers of blood neutrophil activation, might be associated with certain types of ovarian cancer. We showed the increase in Mac-1 expression along with a parallel decrease of L-selectin and PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils of patients with EOC of early and advanced FIGO stages, which indicates an activated state of neutrophils in comparison to neutrophils of individuals without cancer. Despite a significant difference between Mac-1 expression in patients with and without cancer, a dramatic increase in Mac-1 expression was observed in the blood of patients with undifferentiated carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC. Moreover, the expression level of Mac-1 correlated with the number of neutrophils in patients with serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated EOC. The results of an ROC analysis demonstrated that the patients with the undifferentiated type of EOC form a distinct group with regard to Mac-1 expression on blood neutrophils. The results suggested a diverse biological cadre of immune cells in patients with undifferentiated ovarian carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC.

  9. Is right-sided colon cancer different to left-sided colorectal cancer? - a systematic review. (United States)

    Lee, G H; Malietzis, G; Askari, A; Bernardo, D; Al-Hassi, H O; Clark, S K


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibits differences in incidence, pathogenesis, molecular pathways and outcome depending on the location of the tumor. This review focuses on the latest developments in epidemiological and scientific studies, which have enhanced our understanding on the underlying genetic and immunological differences between the proximal (right-sided) colon and the distal (left-sided) colorectum. The different ways in which environmental risk factors influence the pathogenesis of CRC depending on its location and the variations in surgical and oncological outcomes are also discussed in this review. In the current era of personalized medicine, we aim to reiterate the importance of tumor location in management of CRC and the implication on future clinical and scientific research.

  10. Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chien Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,130 patients with a median follow-up of 32 months were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean survival of patients with the same stage of colon and rectal cancer was evaluated. RESULTS: Around 35% of patients had stage information. Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. In stage IIIC and stage IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer patients, by about 3 months. Stage IIB colorectal cancer patients had a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA and IIIB colorectal cancer. After adjustment of age, sex and race, colon cancer patients had better survival than rectal cancer of stage IIB, but in stage IIIC and IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer. LIMITATIONS: The study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSION: This was a population-based study. The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis. Stage IIB might require more aggressive chemotherapy, and no less than that for stage III.

  11. Exploring Different Strategies for Efficient Delivery of Colorectal Cancer Therapy. (United States)

    Lin, Congcong; Ng, Huei Leng Helena; Pan, Weisan; Chen, Hubiao; Zhang, Ge; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Zhijun


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world. Currently available chemotherapy of CRC usually delivers the drug to both normal as well as cancerous tissues, thus leading to numerous undesirable effects. Much emphasis is being laid on the development of effective drug delivery systems for achieving selective delivery of the active moiety at the anticipated site of action with minimized unwanted side effects. Researchers have employed various techniques (dependent on pH, time, pressure and/or bacteria) for targeting drugs directly to the colonic region. On the other hand, systemic drug delivery strategies to specific molecular targets (such as FGFR, EGFR, CD44, EpCAM, CA IX, PPARγ and COX-2) overexpressed by cancerous cells have also been shown to be effective. This review aims to put forth an overview of drug delivery technologies that have been, and may be developed, for the treatment of CRC.

  12. DNA Repair and Ethnic Differences in Prostate Cancer Risk (United States)


    and oxidative DNA damage (14); and lycopene , vitaminE, and other antioxidants are suggested protective agents (15). Both OGG1 and XRCC1 repair...available for review. Temperature dependent equipment such as freezers, refrigerators and water baths are checked and recorded daily. Our repository...Products, Lycopene , and Prostate Cancer Risk. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 3-6- 2002;94(5):391-8. 16. Xu, J., Zheng, S. L., Turner, A., Isaacs, S. D., Wiley

  13. DNA Repair and Ethnic Differences in Prostate Cancer Risk (United States)


    Opportunity for Prostate Cancer Prevention. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2001;952:135-44. 15. Giovannucci, E., Rimm, E. B., Liu, Y., Stampfer , M. J., and Willett, W...Lombardi Cancer Center, LL (S) Level, Room 183, 3800 Reservoir Rd. NW, Washington DC 20057 Co-Investigator: Christopher Loffredo, Department of...collaboration with Dr. Loffredo and Dr. Shields on the establishment of the prostate biomarker resource. Dr. Christopher Loffredo, Co-Investigator: Dr

  14. Impact of risk factors on different interval cancer subtypes in a population-based breast cancer screening programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Blanch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000-2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%, 235 false-negatives (23.2%, 172 minimal-signs (17.2% and 114 occult tumors (11.3%. Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. RESULTS: A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR = 2.71, 95%CI: 2.28-3.23; this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR = 8.79, 95%CI: 6.24-12.40 than for true interval cancer (HR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.59-3.21. A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.60-2.78, previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.23-2.71. High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR = 4.92, 95%CI: 2.58-9.38, followed by true intervals (RRR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.18-2.36 and false-negatives (RRR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.00-2.49. CONCLUSION: The role of women's characteristics differs among

  15. Early-onset gastric cancers have a different molecular expression profile than conventional gastric cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N.A. Milne; R. Carvalho; F.M. Morsink; A.R. Musler; W.W.J. de Leng; A. Ristimaki; G.J.A. Offerhaus


    Many studies examine the molecular genetics of gastric cancer, but few look at young patients in particular and there is no comparison of molecular expression between early-onset gastric cancer (<= 45 years old) and conventional gastric cancers. Expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is elevated in g

  16. Meta-analysis of cancer transcriptomes: A new approach to uncover molecular pathological events in different cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Iqbal


    Full Text Available To explore secrets of metastatic cancers, individual expression of true sets of respective genes must spread across the tissue. In this study, meta-analysis for transcriptional profiles of oncogenes was carried out to hunt critical genes or networks helping in metastasizing cancers. For this, transcriptomic analysis of different cancerous tissues causing leukemia, lung, liver, spleen, colorectal, colon, breast, bladder, and kidney cancers was performed by extracting microarray expression data from online resource; Gene Expression Omnibus. A newly developed bioinformatics technique; Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA was applied for enrichment analysis of transcriptional profiles using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID. Furthermore, oPOSSUM (v. 2.0 and Cytoscape (v. 2.8.2 were used for in-depth analysis of transcription factors and regulatory gene networks respectively. DAVID analysis uncovered the most significantly enriched pathways in molecular functions that were 'Ubiquitin thiolesterase activity' up regulated in blood, breast, bladder, colorectal, lung, spleen, prostrate cancer. 'Transforming growth factor beta receptor activity' was inhibited in all cancers except leukemia, colon and liver cancer. oPOSSUM further revealed highly over-represented Transcription Factors (TFs; Broad-complex_3, Broad-complex_4, and Foxd3 except for leukemia and bladder cancer. From these findings, it is possible to target genes and networks, play a crucial role in the development of cancer. In the future, these transcription factors can serve as potential candidates for the therapeutic drug targets which can impede the deadly spread.

  17. Same Surgeon: Different Centre Equals Differing Lymph Node Harvest following Colorectal Cancer Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Evans


    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of surgeon relocation on lymph node (LN retrieval in colorectal cancer (CRC resection. Methods. The study population was 213 consecutive patients undergoing CRC resection by a single surgeon, at two units: unit one 110 operations (2002–2005 and unit two 103 (2005–2009. LN yields and case mix were compared. Results. Median LN harvests were significantly different between the two centres: unit 1: 13 nodes/patient and unit 2: 22 nodes/patient (<.001. In unit one 42% of cases were LN positive and in unit two 48% (=.398. There was no difference in case mix. Multivariate analysis identified unit (<.001 and pathologist (=.007 as independent predictors of harvest. Conclusions. A surgeon moving units can experience significantly different LN yield following CRC resection. Both units comply with national standards, but the “surgeon's results” at the two units appear to be pathologist dependent. This has implications for nodal harvest as a surrogate marker of surgical quality.

  18. HOTAIR:an oncogenic long non-coding RNA in different cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammadreza Hajjari; Abbas Salavaty


    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) refer to a group of RNAs that are usually more than 200 nucleotides and are not involved in protein generation. Instead, lncRNAs are involved in different regulatory processes, such as regulation of gene expression. Different lncRNAs exist throughout the genome. LncRNAs are also known for their roles in different human diseases such as cancer. HOTAIR is an lncRNA that plays a role as an oncogenic molecule in different cancer cells, such as breast, gastric, colorectal, and cervical cancer cells. Therefore, HOTAIR expression level is a potential biomarker for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in several cancers. hTis RNA takes part in epigenetic regulation of genes and plays an important role in different cellular pathways by interacting with Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). In this review, we describe the molecular function and regulation of HOTAIR and its role in different types of cancers.

  19. Exploring Different Strategies for Efficient Delivery of Colorectal Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Lin


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world. Currently available chemotherapy of CRC usually delivers the drug to both normal as well as cancerous tissues, thus leading to numerous undesirable effects. Much emphasis is being laid on the development of effective drug delivery systems for achieving selective delivery of the active moiety at the anticipated site of action with minimized unwanted side effects. Researchers have employed various techniques (dependent on pH, time, pressure and/or bacteria for targeting drugs directly to the colonic region. On the other hand, systemic drug delivery strategies to specific molecular targets (such as FGFR, EGFR, CD44, EpCAM, CA IX, PPARγ and COX-2 overexpressed by cancerous cells have also been shown to be effective. This review aims to put forth an overview of drug delivery technologies that have been, and may be developed, for the treatment of CRC.

  20. Myxoma and vaccinia viruses exploit different mechanisms to enter and infect human cancer cells. (United States)

    Villa, Nancy Y; Bartee, Eric; Mohamed, Mohamed R; Rahman, Masmudur M; Barrett, John W; McFadden, Grant


    Myxoma (MYXV) and vaccinia (VACV) viruses have recently emerged as potential oncolytic agents that can infect and kill different human cancer cells. Although both are structurally similar, it is unknown whether the pathway(s) used by these poxviruses to enter and cause oncolysis in cancer cells are mechanistically similar. Here, we compared the entry of MYXV and VACV-WR into various human cancer cells and observed significant differences: 1--low-pH treatment accelerates fusion-mediated entry of VACV but not MYXV, 2--the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits entry of VACV, but not MYXV, 3--knockdown of PAK1 revealed that it is required for a late stage event downstream of MYXV entry into cancer cells, whereas PAK1 is required for VACV entry into the same target cells. These results suggest that VACV and MYXV exploit different mechanisms to enter into human cancer cells, thus providing some rationale for their divergent cancer cell tropisms.

  1. Disparities in survival of stomach cancer among different socioeconomic groups in North-East Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, Ester J. M.; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Mulder, Nanno H.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike A.


    Background: Survival differences in stomach cancer are depended on patient, tumour and treatment factors. Some populations are more prone to develop stomach cancer, such as people with low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this population based study was to assess whether differences in socioec

  2. Cancer stage, comorbidity, and socioeconomic differences in the effect of cancer on labour market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielen, Karsten; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Andersen, Ingelise


    employment, and a considerable amount of the educational effect is mediated by comorbidity and pre-cancer labour market participation and income. CONCLUSION: The result of the study is negative in the sense that the stronger effect of breast cancer on employment among low-educated compared to highly educated...... Registry to follow 7372 women aged 30-60, who were in the labour force when diagnosed with breast cancer in 2000-06 and survived at least three years. Controls were 213,276 women without breast cancer. Inequalities in employment outlook were estimated as interaction effects in linear regression between...... educational attainment and disease on employment. RESULTS: There is significant interaction between education and breast cancer, but it is only marginally affected by including stage and comorbidity in the regression models. Education, breast cancer stage, and comorbidity all have strong effects on later...

  3. Early and late vulval cancer recurrences: Are they different? (United States)

    Ragupathy, Kalpana; Grandidge, Lisa; Strelley, Katie; Wang, Huan; Tidy, John


    Vulval cancers are rare, but after primary treatment, known to recur with a high frequency (30%). Clinico-pathological predictors of recurrence have been established to a great extent. However, there is paucity of literature on predictors of early versus late recurrence. We sought to identify such predictors through a retrospective study of vulval cancer recurrences in a single cancer centre over 11 years. Age of women, depth of invasion/site of primary tumour and presence of background VIN/lichen sclerosus do not appear to affect timing of recurrence. However, vulval cancers that recur after 2 years of primary tumour recognition are more likely to be well-differentiated tumours, have undergone radical surgery and have had a closest disease-free margin >1 cm. Late recurrences are entirely local rather than distant metastases and this translates into a better survival as shown in our study (40 months median survival in the early group versus 112 in the late recurrence group).

  4. Differences in Colorectal Cancer Outcomes by Race and Insurance. (United States)

    Tawk, Rima; Abner, Adrian; Ashford, Alicestine; Brown, Clyde Perry


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer among African American women and the third most common cancer for African American men. The mortality rate from CRC is highest among African Americans compared to any other racial or ethnic group. Much of the disparity in mortality is likely due to diagnosis at later stages of the disease, which could result from unequal access to screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of race and insurance status on CRC outcomes among CRC patients. Data were drawn from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of receiving treatment after adjusting for insurance, race, and other variables. Cox proportional hazard models were used to measure the risk of CRC death after adjusting for sociodemographic and tumor characteristics when associating race and insurance with CRC-related death. Blacks were diagnosed at more advanced stages of disease than whites and had an increased risk of death from both colon and rectal cancers. Lacking insurance was associated with an increase in CRC related-deaths. Findings from this study could help profile and target patients with the greatest disparities in CRC health outcomes.

  5. Differences in Colorectal Cancer Outcomes by Race and Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Tawk


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer among African American women and the third most common cancer for African American men. The mortality rate from CRC is highest among African Americans compared to any other racial or ethnic group. Much of the disparity in mortality is likely due to diagnosis at later stages of the disease, which could result from unequal access to screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of race and insurance status on CRC outcomes among CRC patients. Data were drawn from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Logistic regressions models were used to examine the odds of receiving treatment after adjusting for insurance, race, and other variables. Cox proportional hazard models were used to measure the risk of CRC death after adjusting for sociodemographic and tumor characteristics when associating race and insurance with CRC-related death. Blacks were diagnosed at more advanced stages of disease than whites and had an increased risk of death from both colon and rectal cancers. Lacking insurance was associated with an increase in CRC related-deaths. Findings from this study could help profile and target patients with the greatest disparities in CRC health outcomes.

  6. Comparison of Different Promoter Methylation Assays in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karijn P. M. Suijkerbuijk


    Full Text Available Background: Promoter hypermethylation has emerged as a promising cancer biomarker. Currently, a large variety of quantitative and non-quantitative techniques is used to measure methylation in clinical specimens. Here we directly compared three commonly used methylation assays and assessed the influence of tissue fixation, target sequence location and the amount of DNA on their performance.

  7. Assessment of quality of life for the patients with cervical cancer at different clinical stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xie; Fang-Hui Zhao; Si-Han Lu; He Huang; Xiong-Fei Pan; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao


    With improved overall survival of cervical cancer patients,the importance of the quality of life (QOL)is increasingly recognized.This study was conducted to compare the QOL of women with different stage cervical cancer before and after treatment to facilitate improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment.We used the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) to collect QOL information.Based on SF-36,we interviewed cervical cancer patients at West China Second Affiliated Hospital and Sichuan Cancer Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011.A total of 92 patients with precancerous lesions,93 with early cancer,and 35 with advanced cancer responded to our survey.Average physical component summary (PCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups at every time point (P < 0.05).Average mental component summary (MCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups after treatment (P < 0.05).Average PCS and MCS scores increased gradually from the pretreatment to posttreatment period for patients with precancerous lesions.However,they reached the lowest at 1 month after treatment for patients with early and advanced cancers and rebounded between 1and 6 months after treatment.Our results indicate that patients with precancerous lesions and early cervical cancer show better overall QOL than do those with advanced cervical cancer.Additionally,patients with early cancer recover more quickly than do those with advanced cancer in terms of both physical and mental functions.Thus,early detection and treatment initiatives may improve the QOL for patients with precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

  8. Decidedly Dramatic! The Power of Creative Drama in Social Studies (United States)

    Pieczura, Michelle


    Creative dramatics, a highly effective method for integrating arts education into core curriculum, produces a positive and lasting impact on student learning, in terms of creative and critical thinking, language development, listening, comprehension, retention, cooperation, and empathy and awareness of others. Creative dramatics not only has the…

  9. Radical and Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer Risk Factors (United States)


    in postmenopausal African-American women may be due to their high prevalence of estrogen receptor-negative breast tumors . Associations with waist-to...analogues were found to prevent the induction of mammary gland tumors [Anzano 1994] and induce the regression of such tumors [Colston 1992a, Colston 1992b...and Varela, G. Estudio caso-control de la relacion dieta y cancer de mama en una muestra procedente de tres poblaciones hospitaliarias espanolas

  10. Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk : impact of different treatments. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakken, Kjersti; Fournier, Agnes; Lund, Eiliv; Waaseth, Marit; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fabre, Alban; Hemon, Bertrand; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajes, Veronique; Slimani, Nadia; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano Etxezarreta, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Peeters, Petra H.; van Gils, Carla H.; Steffen, Annika; Schulz, Mandy; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Tumino, Rosario; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Berrino, Franco


    Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is characterized by use of different constituents, regimens and routes of administration. We investigated the association between the use of different types of MHT and breast cancer risk in the EPIC cohort study. The analysis is based on data from 133,744 postmenopau

  11. Breast cancer after hormone replacement therapy--does prognosis differ in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women? (United States)

    Baumgärtner, A K; Häusler, A; Seifert-Klauss, V; Schuster, T; Schwarz-Boeger, U; Kiechle, M


    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been associated with higher incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but it is unclear if breast cancers developing after HRT use have different prognosis. 1053 women with hormone receptor positive non-metastasized breast cancer were analyzed in a retrospective trial, stratifying by HRT use before diagnosis. Postmenopausal HRT users had significantly more early tumor stages (pprognosis in perimenopausal women only (TTP: HR=1.16; OS: HR=1.31). In this retrospective analysis postmenopausal HRT users seemed to have a better breast cancer prognosis. For perimenopausal HRT users however, a trend towards worse prognosis was found.

  12. Comparison of Protein Expression Profiles of Different Stages of Lymph Nodes Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Lee, Chu-Ai Lim, Yew-Teik Cheong, Manjit Singh, Lay-Harn Gam


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Breast cancer metastasis primarily happens through lymphatic system, where the extent of lymph node metastasis is the major factor influencing staging, prognosis and therapeutic decision of the disease. We aimed to study the protein expression changes in different N (regional lymph nodes stages of breast cancer. Protein expression profiles of breast cancerous and adjacent normal tissues were mapped by proteomics approach that comprises of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. Calreticulin and tropomyosin alpha 3 chains were the common up-regulated proteins in N0, N1 and N2 stages of breast cancer. Potential biomarker for each N stage was HSP 70 for N0, 80 k protein H precursor and PDI for N1 stage while 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein was found useful for N2 stage. In addition, significant up-regulation of PDI A3 was detected only in the metastasized breast cancer. The up-regulation expression of these proteins in cancerous tissues can potentially use as indicators for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of different N stages of breast cancer.

  13. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder Chris JJ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK and South Africa (SA, in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy.

  14. From Biology to Targeted Cancer Treatment and Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li MAO


    @@ Cancer is a complex disease involving accumulation of multiple molecular abnormalities during a long period of time. Because the differences in tim-ing and types of abnormalities, together with differences in inherited genetic background of individuals, patients with even same type cancer may experi- ence dramatically different clinical presentations and outcomes.

  15. Different BAG-1 isoforms have distinct functions in modulating chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu LIU; Zhuomin WANG; Yun BAI; Min WANG; Ying LI; Sen WEI; Qinghua ZHOU; Jun CHEN


    Aim:BAG-1 is a multifunctional anti-apoptotic gene with four isoforms,and different BAG-1 isoforms have different anti-apoptotic functions.In this study,we transfected BAG-1 isoforms into the human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER nega-tive) and MCF-7 (ER positive) to study their effect on apoptosis with or without estrogens.Methods: The constructed recombinant expression vectors carrying individual BAG-1 isoforms was used to transfect human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER negative) and MCF-7 (ER positive).After stable cell lines were made,a variety of apoptosis-inducing agents,including doxorubicin,docetaxel,and 5-FU,was used to treat these cell lines with or without estrogen to test the role of BAG-1.The mechanism by which BAG-1 affected the function of Bcl-2 was exploredby using the cycloheximide chase assay.Results: The BAG-1 p50 and p46 isoforms significantly enhanced the resistance to apoptosis in both cell lines according to flow cytometry analysis.BAG-1 p33 and p29 failed to protect the transfected cells from apoptosis.The cell viability assay showed that only BAG-1 p50,but not p46,p33,or p29,increased estrogen-dependent function in ER-positive cell line MCF-7.Only BAG-1 p50 dramatically increased its anti-apoptotic ability in the presence of estrogen,while estrogen has very little effect on the anti-apoptotic ability of other BAG-1 isoforms.In the detection of the expression of K-ras,Hsp70,cytochrome c,Raf-1,ER-α,and Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells by Western blot,only Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased in MCF-7 cells transfected with BAG-1 p50 and p46,respectively.Furthermore,the cycloheximide chase assay indicated that the degradation of Bcl-2 protein was extended in the BAG-1 p50 and p46 transfected MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: Distinct isoforrns of BAG-1 have different anti-apoptotic functions in breast cancer cells,and that the BAG-1 p50 isoform can potentiate the role of estrogen in ER-positive breast cancer.

  16. Proximal gastric cancer: lymph node metastatic patterns according to different T stages dictate surgical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Wu; Liu Yuyi; Ye Jinning; Peng Jianjun; He Weiling; Chen Jianhui; Chen Chuangqi


    Background As a common form of gastric cancer migration,lymph node metastasis largely affects the surgical treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer.Surgery is the fundamental curative option for gastric cancer that varies depending on different stages.The study aimed to compare the clinicopathological characteristics and lymph node metastatic patterns in patients of proximal gastric cancer with different T stages and investigate a reasonable radical gastrectomy approach in terms of the range of lymphadenectomy for proximal gastric cancer.Methods In our retrospective study,the data of 328 patients of proximal gastric cancer with different T stages were analyzed.By comparing the differences of lymph node metastatic rate and ratio,we investigated the clinicopathological characteristics and metastatic patterns of lymph nodes.Also,we were especially interested in the differences in survival rates between patients with and without No.5 and 6 group metastasis with the same TNM stage.Results The overall lymph node metastatic rate and ratio of advanced proximal gastric cancer were 73.4% and 23.3%,respectively.The tumors of different T stages were statistically significant in size and differentiation degree (P <0.05),multivariate analysis showed that the depth of tumor invasion was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis in proximal gastric cancer (RR,12.025; 95% CI,2.326 to 62.157; P=0.003).The overall survival rate of patients with No.5,6 group lymph node metastasis and those without was significantly different,but the differences in survival rates between patients with and without No.5 and 6 group metastasis with the same TNM stage were not statistically significant.Conclusions Different T stages in proximal gastric cancer showed different patterns and characteristics of lymph node metastasis.D2 lymphadenectomy in patients with early gastric cancer had little survival benefit because metastasis to level 2 nodes was rare.Therefore the range of the

  17. Breast cancer with different prognostic characteristics developing in Danish women using hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, A T; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic;


    The aim of this study is to investigate the risk of developing prognostic different types of breast cancer in women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A total of 10 874 postmenopausal Danish Nurses were followed since 1993. Incident breast cancer cases and histopathological information were...... retrieved through the National Danish registries. The follow-up ended on 31 December 1999. Breast cancer developed in 244 women, of whom 172 were invasive ductal carcinomas. Compared to never users, current users of HRT had an increased risk of a hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, but a neutral risk...... of receptor-negative breast cancer, relative risk (RR) 3.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.27-4.77) and RR 0.99 (95% CI: 0.42-2.36), respectively (P for difference=0.013). The risk of being diagnosed with low histological malignancy grade was higher than high malignancy grade with RR 4.13 (95% CI: 2...

  18. Assessment of breast cancer tumour size using six different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Uder, Michael; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Adamietz, Boris [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Haeberle, Lothar; Fasching, Peter A.; Bani, Mayada R.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W. [Erlangen University Hospital, University Breast Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen (Germany); Wachter, David [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Erlangen (Germany)


    Tumour size estimates using mammography (MG), conventional ultrasound (US), compound imaging (CI) and real-time elastography (RTE) were compared with histopathological specimen sizes. The largest diameters of 97 malignant breast lesions were measured. Two US and CI measurements were made: US1/CI1 (hypoechoic nucleus only) and US2/CI2 (hypoechoic nucleus plus hyperechoic halo). Measurements were compared with histopathological tumour sizes using linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. Size prediction was best with ultrasound (US/CI/RTE: R{sup 2} 0.31-0.36); mammography was poorer (R{sup 2} = 0.19). The most accurate method was US2, while US1 and CI1 were poorest. Bland-Altman plots showed better size estimation with US2, CI2 and RTE, with low variation, while mammography showed greatest variability. Smaller tumours were better assessed than larger ones. CI2 and US2 performed best for ductal tumours and RTE for lobular cancers. Tumour size prediction accuracy did not correlate significantly with breast density, but on MG tumours were more difficult to detect in high-density tissue. The size of ductal tumours is best predicted with US2 and CI2, while for lobular cancers RTE is best. Hyperechoic tumour surroundings should be included in US and CI measurements and RTE used as an additional technique in the clinical staging process. (orig.)

  19. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomomi Kimura


    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries.The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians.Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference,this alone cannot fully explain the-lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries,nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States.Soy food consumption,more popular in Asian populations,is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer.Prostatespecific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status.Other biomarkers,such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA,may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone.Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West,and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genomewide association studies.Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity.Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions,respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione Stransferase Pi (GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis,aggressiveness,and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown.Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned.In this review,the differences in PSA screening practice,reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer,and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are discussed.

  20. Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. / Alan Blyth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blyth, Alan


    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. Barbara Bonney, Randi Stene, Hakan Hagegard, Ruth Tellefsen, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi." CD 437 519 - 2GH

  1. The Effects of Dramatization on English Literature Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周思菡; 周思蕊


    The article discusses the role that the dramatization of English literature plays in addressing two major difficulties in English literary work comprehension for intermediate English learners in China, namely the linguistic difficulty and the cultural misunderstanding. By taking the dramatization of British writer Jane Austin’s masterpiece Pride and Prejudice as a case study, the first part of the essay examines the role of dramatization in tackling linguistic difficulties based on the interactive reading model de-veloped by David E. Rumelhart(1977) while the second part analyzes how an integral framework for understanding target culture is constructed through the process of dramatization with a reference to Galloway’s(1992) four-stage approach to a cultural read-ing of authentic materials.

  2. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews. (United States)

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others


    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  3. Drug Overdose Deaths Climb Dramatically in U.S. (United States)

    ... Drug Overdose Deaths Climb Dramatically in U.S. Prescription painkillers and heroin lead the increase, latest government data ... fatalities linked to the illicit use of prescription painkillers, new government statistics reveal. Drug overdose deaths increased ...

  4. Theodramatic Rehearsal: Fighting Self-Deception through the Dramatic Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Vaden


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to appropriate the insights of dramatic theology for Christian psychology and soul care. According to Kevin Vanhoozer, Scripture is the ‘script’ for human beings’ fitting participation in the acts and deeds of God in the world (i.e., ‘theodrama’. Keeping with this dramatic paradigm, the author will explore what ‘rehearsal’ might entail by drawing from a branch of psychotherapy called ‘psychodrama.’ The main question to be addressed in this appropriation of dramatic theology is, “How might dramatic rehearsal combat self-deception?” The author will only begin to answer this question, but in the attempt it is hoped that further reflection and clarity will be induced.

  5. A p53 genetic polymorphism of gastric cancer: Difference between early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Young Yi; Woon Jung Lee


    AIM: To investigate the role of the polymorphism of p53 codon 72 in early gastric cancer (EGC) and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) in Korean patients.METHODS:DNA was extracted from blood samples of gastric cancer patients (n = 291) and controls (n=216).tn the p53 codon 72 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP.RESULTS: Patients with gastric cancer had a significantly higher frequency of the homozygous proline (Pro) allele than the control (P=0.032). Patients with AGC had a significantly higher frequency of the Arg/Arg (arginine)allele (P=0.038) than EGC and a similar Pro/Pro allele.The signet ring cell type had a higher frequency of the Pro/Pro allele than other types (P=0.031). The Pro/Pro genotype carries a 3.9-fold increased risk of developing gastric cancer (95% CI,1.3-15.4,P=0.039)when compared to Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro genotypes and to develop EGC is a 5.25 fold increased risk (95% CI,1.8-19.6,P=0.021).CONCLUSION: The Pro/Pro genotype of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism carries a higher risk for gastric cancer in general and is also associated with a much higher risk for EGC than AGC.

  6. Gene expression profile differences in gastric cancer, pericancerous epithelium and normal gastric mucosa by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Ding Yu; Shen-Hua Xu; Hang-Zhou Mou; Zhi-Ming Jiang; Chi-Hong Zhu; Xiang-Lin Liu


    AIM: To study the difference of gene expression in gastric cancer (T), pericancerous epithelium (P) and normal tissue of gastric mucosa (C), and to screen an associated novel gene in early gastric carcinogenesis by oligonudeotide microarray.METHODS: U133A (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) gene chip was used to detect the gene expression profile difference in T, P and C, respectively. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the detected results.RESULTS: When gastric cancer was compared with normal gastric mucosa, 766 genes were found, with a difference of more than four times in expression levels. Of the 766 genes,530 were up-regulated (Signal Log Ratio [SLR]>2), and 236 were down-regulated (SLR<-2). When pericancerous epithelium was compared with normal gastric mucosa, 64genes were found, with a difference of more than four times in expression levels. Of the 64 genes, 50 were up-regulated (SLR>2), and 14 were down-regulated (SLR<-2). Compared with normal gastric mucosa, a total of 143 genes with a difference in expression levels (more than four times, either in cancer or in pericancerous epithelium) were found in gastric cancer (T) and pericancerous epithelium (P). Of the 143 genes, 108 were up-regulated (SLR>2), and 35were down-regulated (SLR<-2).CONCLUSION: To apply a gene chip could find 143 genes associated with the genes of gastric cancer in pericancerous epithelium, although there were no pathological changes in the tissue slices. More interesting, six genes of pericancerous epithelium were up-regulated in comparison with genes of gastric cancer and three genes were down-regulated in comparison with genes of gastric cancer. It is suggested that these genes may be related to the carcinogenesis and development of early gastric cancer.

  7. Repeated occurrence of second primary lung cancer at different sites in trachea: a case report. (United States)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Park, Yun Ji; Gang, Su Jin; Chung, Myung Ja; Kim, So Ri


    Multiple or second primary lung cancers can develop at any sites in the lung with same or different histologic types, synchronously and/or metachronously. In case of metachronous occurrence of the second primary lung cancer, it is easy to confuse with the primary lung cancer as a recurrence of precedent lung malignancy treated successfully or metastasis. Previous reports have demonstrated that majority of the second primary lung malignancies have same histologic types regardless of their developing time and location. However, the repeated occurrence of the second primary lung malignancy, in particular with the different histologic features, is a very rare condition.A 62-year-old male who had past history of squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and the recurrence of lung malignancy on the trachea, which was also resected successfully visited our hospital due to blood tinged sputum. Evaluation using bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography revealed the tracheal mass looked similar grossly to the previous recurred tracheal mass that was resected surgically. Unexpectedly, the newly developed tracheal mass was confirmed as small cell lung cancer, the different histologic type from previous ones.In this report, we describe an interesting case of subsequent occurrence of second primary lung cancers showing histologic shifting at different sites in trachea, suggesting that it is important for physician to make an effort to identify the histologic characteristics of second primary lung cancers for the correct and adequate treatment no matter what they exhibit similar gross morphology.

  8. Concentration of Cd, Pb, Hg, and Se in Different Parts of Human Breast Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality between women in the world. Metals involved in environmental toxicology are closely related to tumor growth and cancer. On the other hand, some metals such as selenium have anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study is to determine the concentration of cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in separated parts of tegmen, tumor, tumor adiposity, and tegmen adiposity of 14 breast cancer tissues which have been analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption (AA-670 and ICP-OES (ULTIMA 2CE. Our results show that Se and Hg have maximum and minimum concentration, respectively. Statistical analysis reveals no significant differences between metal accumulations in different parts of cancer tissues (P>0.05 and this observation might be due to the close relation of separated parts of fatty breast organ. Thus, we could conclude that a high level of these heavy metals is accumulated in Iranian cancerous breasts and their presence can be one of the reasons of cancer appearance.

  9. Gastric Cancer in the Young: Is It a Different Clinical Entity? A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Pisanu


    Full Text Available Background. The rate of gastric cancer in young patients has increased over the past few decades. The aim of this study was to search for independent risk factors related to patients of younger age. Methods. From January 1996 to December 2012, a series of 179 consecutive patients were admitted to our surgical department because of a gastric cancer. We carried out a retrospective cohort study in 20 patients younger than 50 and in 112 patients aged 50 and older treated by curative gastrectomy. The comparison involved the evaluation of patient and tumor characteristics. Results. Younger patients had significantly less comorbidities and a more favorable American Society of Anesthesiology score; they had significantly less preoperative weight loss and a significantly longer duration of symptoms; Helicobacter pylori infection and diffuse histological type were significantly associated with younger age. There was no statistically significant difference regarding overall and cancer-related 5-year survival; advanced cancer stage and diffuse histological type were the independent negative prognostic factors influencing cancer-related survival. Conclusions. We do not have sufficient evidence to consider gastric cancer in younger patients as a different clinical entity. Further studies are needed to understand carcinogenesis in younger patients and to improve gastric cancer classification.

  10. Decreased glucose uptake by hyperglycemia is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chae Kyun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Yong Jin; Hong, Mee Kyoung; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To clarify the difference in glucose uptake between human cancer cells and monocytes, we studied ({sup 18}F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in three human colon cancer cell lines (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5), one human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H522), and human peripheral blood monocytes. The FDG uptake of both cancer cells and monocytes was increased in glucose-free medium, but decreased in the medium containing 16.7 mM glucose (hyperglycemic). The level of Glut1 mRNA decreased in human colon cancer cells and NCI-H522 under hyperglycemic condition. Glut1 protein expression was also decreased in the four human cancer cell lines under hyperglycemic condition, whereas it was consistently undetectable in monocytes. SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and NCI-H522 showed a similar level of hexokinase activity (7.5-10.8 mU/mg), while SNU-C5 and moncytes showed lower range of hexokinase activity (4.3-6.5 mU/mg). These data suggest that glucose uptake is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes.

  11. Gender differences among young adult cancer patients: a study of blogs. (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Gillham, David


    The Internet has increasing relevance and practical use as a tool to support cancer care. For example, health support Web sites are now widely used to connect specific groups of patients who may otherwise have remained isolated, and understanding their health-related online behaviors will help in the development of more effective health support Web sites. This article examined blogs written by young adults affected by cancer and in particular examined the gender differences in these blog entries through content analysis. The results showed there is little difference in blog content between genders. This suggests that the blog environment could lessen the gender-typical behaviors often expected by society and may provide an outlet for young adult cancer patients to more freely share their cancer-related experiences, at the same time providing an opportunity for social connection. This is particularly significant for male patients who are known to inhibit their emotions as well as the expression of their health concerns.

  12. Increased risk of breast cancer following different regimens of hormone replacement therapy frequently used in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Lynge, Elsebeth


    Epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of breast cancer following hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether different treatment regimens or the androgenecity of progestins influence the risk of breast cancer differently. The Danish Nurse Cohort...... was established in 1993, where all female nurses aged 45 years and above received a mailed questionnaire (n = 23,178). A total of 19,898 women returned the questionnaire (86%). The questionnaire included information on HRT types and regimens, reproductive history and lifestyle-related factors. Breast cancer cases...... were ascertained using nationwide registries. The follow-up ended on 31 December 1999. Women with former cancer diagnoses, women with missing information on HRT, surgical menopause, premenopausal, as well as hysterectomized women were excluded, leaving 10,874 for analyses. Statistical analyses were...

  13. Haralick texture analysis of prostate MRI: utility for differentiating non-cancerous prostate from prostate cancer and differentiating prostate cancers with different Gleason scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibmer, Andreas; Hricak, Hedvig; Sala, Evis; Vargas, Hebert Alberto [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York City, NY (United States); Gondo, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Eastham, James [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Urology, New York City, NY (United States); Veeraraghavan, Harini; Fehr, Duc [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York City, NY (United States); Zheng, Junting; Goldman, Debra; Moskowitz, Chaya [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York City, NY (United States); Fine, Samson W.; Reuter, Victor E. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York City, NY (United States)


    To investigate Haralick texture analysis of prostate MRI for cancer detection and differentiating Gleason scores (GS). One hundred and forty-seven patients underwent T2- weighted (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI. Cancers ≥0.5 ml and non-cancerous peripheral (PZ) and transition (TZ) zone tissue were identified on T2WI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, using whole-mount pathology as reference. Texture features (Energy, Entropy, Correlation, Homogeneity, Inertia) were extracted and analysed using generalized estimating equations. PZ cancers (n = 143) showed higher Entropy and Inertia and lower Energy, Correlation and Homogeneity compared to non-cancerous tissue on T2WI and ADC maps (p-values: <.0001-0.008). In TZ cancers (n = 43) we observed significant differences for all five texture features on the ADC map (all p-values: <.0001) and for Correlation (p = 0.041) and Inertia (p = 0.001) on T2WI. On ADC maps, GS was associated with higher Entropy (GS 6 vs. 7: p = 0.0225; 6 vs. >7: p = 0.0069) and lower Energy (GS 6 vs. 7: p = 0.0116, 6 vs. >7: p = 0.0039). ADC map Energy (p = 0.0102) and Entropy (p = 0.0019) were significantly different in GS ≤3 + 4 versus ≥4 + 3 cancers; ADC map Entropy remained significant after controlling for the median ADC (p = 0.0291). Several Haralick-based texture features appear useful for prostate cancer detection and GS assessment. (orig.)

  14. Genes dysregulated to different extent or oppositely in estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianxiao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Directly comparing gene expression profiles of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor-negative (ER- breast cancers cannot determine whether differentially expressed genes between these two subtypes result from dysregulated expression in ER+ cancer or ER- cancer versus normal controls, and thus would miss critical information for elucidating the transcriptomic difference between the two subtypes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarray datasets from TCGA, we classified the genes dysregulated in both ER+ and ER- cancers versus normal controls into two classes: (i genes dysregulated in the same direction but to a different extent, and (ii genes dysregulated to opposite directions, and then validated the two classes in RNA-sequencing datasets of independent cohorts. We showed that the genes dysregulated to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers enriched in glycerophospholipid and polysaccharide metabolic processes, while the genes dysregulated to a larger extent in ER- cancers than in ER+ cancers enriched in cell proliferation. Phosphorylase kinase and enzymes of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor biosynthesis were upregulated to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers, whereas glycogen synthase and phospholipase A2 were downregulated to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers. We also found that the genes oppositely dysregulated in the two subtypes significantly enriched with known cancer genes and tended to closely collaborate with the cancer genes. Furthermore, we showed the possibility that these oppositely dysregulated genes could contribute to carcinogenesis of ER+ and ER- cancers through rewiring different subpathways. CONCLUSIONS: GPI-anchor biosynthesis and glycogenolysis were elevated and hydrolysis of phospholipids was depleted to a larger extent in ER+ cancers than in ER- cancers. Our findings indicate that the genes oppositely dysregulated in the two subtypes are potential

  15. CYP450 polymorphisms as risk factors for early-onset lung cancer: gender-specific differences. (United States)

    Timofeeva, Maria N; Kropp, Silke; Sauter, Wiebke; Beckmann, Lars; Rosenberger, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Jäger, Birgit; Mittelstrass, Kirstin; Dienemann, Hendrik; Bartsch, Helmut; Bickeböller, Heike; Chang-Claude, Jenny C; Risch, Angela; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich


    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, involved in metabolism of tobacco carcinogens, are also involved in estrogen metabolism and many are regulated by estrogens. These genes may thus be of relevance to gender-specific differences in lung cancer risk, particularly in early-onset lung cancer, where a high proportion of women is observed. We conducted a case-control study to investigate genetic polymorphisms in cytochromes that might modify the risk of developing early-onset lung cancer. In total, 638 Caucasian patients under the age of 51 with primary lung cancer and 1300 cancer-free control individuals, matched by age and sex, were included in this analysis. Thirteen polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A13, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes were analyzed. No significant association was found for any of the analyzed polymorphisms and lung cancer risk overall. However, among women, a significantly increased risk of early-onset lung cancer was observed for carriers of the minor allele of CYP1B1 SNP rs1056836 [odds ratio (OR) 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.94; P lung cancer risk was observed in the group of women carriers of the minor allele of CYP2A13 SNP rs1709084 (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.70; P = 0.05). The effect of these two polymorphisms was shown to be modified by smoking. Haplotype analysis was performed for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13. No differences between cases and controls were observed for both genes (P = 0.63 and P = 0.42 for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13, respectively). Our results suggest that the CYP1B1 and the CYP2A13 genotypes may contribute to individual susceptibility to early-onset lung cancer in women.

  16. Cancer detection rates of different prostate biopsy regimens in patients with renal failure. (United States)

    Hoşcan, Mustafa Burak; Özorak, Alper; Oksay, Taylan; Perk, Hakkı; Armağan, Abdullah; Soyupek, Sedat; Serel, Tekin Ahmet; Koşar, Alim


    We aimed to evaluate the cancer detection rates of 6-, 10-, 12-core biopsy regimens and the optimal biopsy protocol for prostate cancer diagnosis in patients with renal failure. A total of 122 consecutive patients with renal failure underwent biopsy with age-specific prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels up to 20 ng/mL. The 12-core biopsy technique (sextant biopsy + lateral base, lateral mid-zone, lateral apex, bilaterally) performed to all patients. Pathology results were examined separately for each sextant, 10-core that exclude parasagittal mid-zones from 12-cores (10a), 10-core that exclude apex zones from 12-cores (10b) and 12-core biopsy regimens. Of 122 patients, 37 (30.3%) were positive for prostate cancer. The cancer detection rates for sextant, 10a, 10b and 12 cores were 17.2%, 29%, 23.7% and 30.7%, respectively. Biopsy techniques of 10a, 10b and 12 cores increased the cancer detection rates by 40%, 27.5% and 43.2% among the sextant technique, respectively. Biopsy techniques of 10a and 12 cores increased the cancer detection rates by 17.1% and 21.6% among 10b biopsy technique, respectively. There were no statistical differences between 12 core and 10a core about cancer detection rate. Adding lateral cores to sextant biopsy improves the cancer detection rates. In our study, 12-core biopsy technique increases the cancer detection rate by 5.4% among 10a core but that was not statistically different. On the other hand, 12-core biopsy technique includes all biopsy regimens. We therefore suggest 12-core biopsy or minimum 10-core strategy incorporating six peripheral biopsies with elevated age- specific PSA levels up to 20 ng/mL in patients with renal failure.

  17. Do stage of disease, comorbidity or access to treatment explain socioeconomic differences in survival after ovarian cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else Helene; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Høgdall, Claus


    educated women. After adjustment for comorbid conditions, cancer stage, tumour histology, operation status and lifestyle factors, socioeconomic differences in survival persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic disparities in survival after ovarian cancer were to some extent, but not fully explained...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Biryukov


    Full Text Available In Russia, there is presently a growing interest in low-dose intratissue radiotherapy (brachytherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer (PC. Since its inception, current brachytherapy has undergone a number of significant changes in terms of improved visualization and better treatment planning and monitoring, which is sure to have affected the higher quality of their performance and better long-term results. The main purpose of the given paper is to generalize the data of foreign investigators who have the greatest experience with brachytherapy for its further use in the treatment of patients with locally advanced PC under the conditions of Russian clinics.

  19. Feature selection using genetic algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis: experiment on three different datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufeh Aalaei


    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study addresses feature selection for breast cancer diagnosis. The present process uses a wrapper approach using GA-based on feature selection and PS-classifier. The results of experiment show that the proposed model is comparable to the other models on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets. Materials and Methods: To evaluate effectiveness of proposed feature selection method, we employed three different classifiers artificial neural network (ANN and PS-classifier and genetic algorithm based classifier (GA-classifier on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets include Wisconsin breast cancer dataset (WBC, Wisconsin diagnosis breast cancer (WDBC, and Wisconsin prognosis breast cancer (WPBC. Results: For WBC dataset, it is observed that feature selection improved the accuracy of all classifiers expect of ANN and the best accuracy with feature selection achieved by PS-classifier. For WDBC and WPBC, results show feature selection improved accuracy of all three classifiers and the best accuracy with feature selection achieved by ANN. Also specificity and sensitivity improved after feature selection. Conclusion: The results show that feature selection can improve accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of classifiers. Result of this study is comparable with the other studies on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets.

  20. Feature selection using genetic algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis: experiment on three different datasets (United States)

    Aalaei, Shokoufeh; Shahraki, Hadi; Rowhanimanesh, Alireza; Eslami, Saeid


    Objective(s): This study addresses feature selection for breast cancer diagnosis. The present process uses a wrapper approach using GA-based on feature selection and PS-classifier. The results of experiment show that the proposed model is comparable to the other models on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets. Materials and Methods: To evaluate effectiveness of proposed feature selection method, we employed three different classifiers artificial neural network (ANN) and PS-classifier and genetic algorithm based classifier (GA-classifier) on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets include Wisconsin breast cancer dataset (WBC), Wisconsin diagnosis breast cancer (WDBC), and Wisconsin prognosis breast cancer (WPBC). Results: For WBC dataset, it is observed that feature selection improved the accuracy of all classifiers expect of ANN and the best accuracy with feature selection achieved by PS-classifier. For WDBC and WPBC, results show feature selection improved accuracy of all three classifiers and the best accuracy with feature selection achieved by ANN. Also specificity and sensitivity improved after feature selection. Conclusion: The results show that feature selection can improve accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of classifiers. Result of this study is comparable with the other studies on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets. PMID:27403253

  1. Asymmetric Cancer Hallmarks in Breast Tumors on Different Sides of the Body (United States)

    Campoy, Emanuel M.; Laurito, Sergio R.; Branham, María T.; Urrutia, Guillermo; Mathison, Angela; Gago, Francisco; Orozco, Javier; Urrutia, Raul; Mayorga, Luis S.; Roqué, María


    During the last decades it has been established that breast cancer arises through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in different cancer related genes. These alterations confer the tumor oncogenic abilities, which can be resumed as cancer hallmarks (CH). The purpose of this study was to establish the methylation profile of CpG sites located in cancer genes in breast tumors so as to infer their potential impact on 6 CH: i.e. sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, induction of angiogenesis, genome instability and invasion and metastasis. For 51 breast carcinomas, MS-MLPA derived-methylation profiles of 81 CpG sites were converted into 6 CH profiles. CH profiles distribution was tested by different statistical methods and correlated with clinical-pathological data. Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis revealed that CH profiles segregate in two main groups (bootstrapping 90–100%), which correlate with breast laterality (p = 0.05). For validating these observations, gene expression data was obtained by RealTime-PCR in a different cohort of 25 tumors and converted into CH profiles. This analyses confirmed the same clustering and a tendency of association with breast laterality (p = 0.15). In silico analyses on gene expression data from TCGA Breast dataset from left and right breast tumors showed that they differed significantly when data was previously converted into CH profiles (p = 0.033). We show here for the first time, that breast carcinomas arising on different sides of the body present differential cancer traits inferred from methylation and expression profiles. Our results indicate that by converting methylation or expression profiles in terms of Cancer Hallmarks, it would allow to uncover veiled associations with clinical features. These results contribute with a new finding to the better understanding of breast tumor behavior, and can moreover serve as proof of principle for other

  2. Regional differences of physiological functions and cancer susceptibility in the human large intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, A; DeVries, EGE; Mulder, NH; Kleibeuker, JH


    Regional differences in function, metabolism and morphology between proximal colon, distal colon and rectum may be important in the pathogenesis and biologic behaviour of tumours originating from these segments. Thus, the effect of primary prevention of colorectal cancer may also differ from one lar

  3. Cancer mortality trends in two cohorts of elderly people having different life-styles. (United States)

    Mazza, A; Casiglia, E; Scarpa, R; Sica, E; Biasin, R; Privato, G; Pizziol, A; Pessina, A C


    We analyzed cancer mortality trends in 3282 elderly subjects from two general Italian populations with different life-style patterns taking part in the Cardiovascular Study in the Elderly (CASTEL). The aim of the study was to evaluate which predictors were able to influence cancer mortality. Age, gender, tobacco smoking, the presence of respiratory symptoms, increased serum levels of ALT and ALP, and the town of residence were powerful predictors. Subjects living in Chioggia (low income, rural) had significantly greater lung and liver cancer mortality, compared with those living in Castelfranco (industrial). The findings suggest that an incongruous life-style (smoking, alcohol consumption, poor hygienic conditions) may increase cancer mortality despite the favorable environmental conditions typical of rural Mediterranean areas.

  4. Dramatic interactions: theater work and the formation of learning communities. (United States)

    Meath-Lang, B


    This article examines the relationship of theater and dramatic study to models of learning communities in promoting identity, diversity, and culture. Theater is an example of how learning community can be achieved and levels of theater use in education are presented as ways in which educators can create ensemble and foster community. Strategies for developing learning communities using the performing arts are provided.

  5. Aspects of dramatic communication: action, non-action, interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelleman, J.


    This study is aimed at describing the dramatic means of important transitional (in the sense of innovative) Russian dramas, such as Chekhovian, Symbolist (Blok) and Absurdist (D. Charms) Drama. The reduction of action and plot, the 'disturbed' communication, the alienation of man and the conveying o

  6. On Dramatizing: The Right to Write the Play. (United States)

    Koste, V. Glasgow


    Defines "adaptation" as the transformational process of taking a narrative work and dramatizing it. Stresses the importance of knowing what to leave out and knowing what to leave in. Suggests thinking of "adopting" rather than "adapting." States that artistic freedom is the playwright's right. Emphasizes the…

  7. The Effect of Dramatized Instruction on Speaking Ability of Imam Ali University EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Khosronejad


    Full Text Available Teaching language as a second or foreign language, undoubtedly, is so demanding and seeking to find methods for facilitating this prominent practice whets the appetite of any practitioner who works in this field. Research shows that using drama in the classroom as a means of teaching helps students learn socially, academically, and developmentally. This study was an attempt to determine the effect of dramatized instruction on the speaking ability of EFL learners of Imam Ali University. Sixty EFL male students at the intermediate level participated in the study. Their age range was 19-22. Two instruments were utilized in this study; pretest, and posttest.  The data were analyzed through t-test. The data analysis indicated that the mean scores of the experimental group students (M = 72.80 were significantly different (3.29>2; df = 58 from the control group students (M = 65.39. In other words, the experimental group outperformed the control group in the posttest significantly. Moreover, the findings indicated that dramatized instruction does have a great effect on the speaking skills. This study supported the idea of effectiveness of dramatized instruction on developing speaking skill and the teachers can help the learners at lower levels promote their speaking skill through dramatized instruction in EFL classes. Key words: Drama, Dramatized Instruction, Conventional Methods

  8. Use of fluorescent proteins and color-coded imaging to visualize cancer cells with different genetic properties. (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M


    Fluorescent proteins are very bright and available in spectrally-distinct colors, enable the imaging of color-coded cancer cells growing in vivo and therefore the distinction of cancer cells with different genetic properties. Non-invasive and intravital imaging of cancer cells with fluorescent proteins allows the visualization of distinct genetic variants of cancer cells down to the cellular level in vivo. Cancer cells with increased or decreased ability to metastasize can be distinguished in vivo. Gene exchange in vivo which enables low metastatic cancer cells to convert to high metastatic can be color-coded imaged in vivo. Cancer stem-like and non-stem cells can be distinguished in vivo by color-coded imaging. These properties also demonstrate the vast superiority of imaging cancer cells in vivo with fluorescent proteins over photon counting of luciferase-labeled cancer cells.

  9. Racial differences in the anatomical distribution of colorectal cancer:a study of differences between American and Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-Hua Qing; Kai-Yun Rao; Hui-Yong Jiang; Steven D.Wexner


    AIM: To compare the racial differences of anatomical distribution of colorectal cancer (CRC) and determine the association of age, gender and time with anatomical distribution between patients from America (white) and China (oriental).METHODS: Data was collected from 690 consecutive patients in Cleveland Clinic Florida, U.S.A. and 870consecutive patients in Nan Fang Hospital affiliated to the First Military Medical University, China over the past 11years from 1990 to 2000. All patients had colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed by histology and underwent surgery.RESULTS: The anatomical subsite distribution of tumor,age and gender were significantly different between white and oriental patients. Lesions in the proximal colon (P<0.001) were found in 36.3 % of white vs 26.0 % of oriental patients and cancers located in the distal colon and rectum in 63.7 % of white and 74 % of oriental patients (P<0.001). There was a trend towards the redistribution from distal colon and rectum to proximal colon in white males over time, especially in older patients (>80 years).No significant change of anatomical distribution occurred in white women and Oriental patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 69.0 years in white patients and 48.3 years in Oriental patients (P<0.001).CONCLUSION: This is the first study comparing the anatomical distribution of colorectal cancers in whites and Chinese patients. White Americans have a higher risk of proximal CRC and this risk increased with time. The proportion of white males with CRC also increased with time.Chinese patients were more likely to have distal CRC and developed the disease at a significantly earlier age than white patients. These findings have enhanced our understanding of the disease process of colorectal cancer in these two races.

  10. Dramatic Response of a Case ofRecurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma toSystemic Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah


    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cancer among humans, and the standard treatment is surgery. Other modalities are reserved as a second line of treatment. Topical chemotherapy may be used in primary BCC. Systemic chemotherapy has no role in the primary treatment of BCC, although it may be efficacious in metastatic cases. We report the case of a patient with persistent recurrent BCC following multiple surgeries and radiotherapy, who achieved a dramatic response with a cisplatinand 5-flourouracil chemotherapy regimen.

  11. Differences in Cancer Information Seeking Behavior, Preferences, and Awareness Between Cancer Survivors and Healthy Controls: A National, Population-Based Survey (United States)

    Roach, Abbey R.; Lykins, Emily L.B.; Gochett, Celestine G.; Brechting, Emily H.; Graue, Lili O.; Andrykowski, Michael A.


    Background No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions. Methods Data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was examined. Results The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups. Conclusions Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information seeking preferences and experience. However awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer. PMID:19259869

  12. High frequency and allele-specific differences of BRCA1 founder mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer patients from Belarus. (United States)

    Bogdanova, N V; Antonenkova, N N; Rogov, Y I; Karstens, J H; Hillemanns, P; Dörk, T


    Breast cancer and ovarian cancer are common malignancies in Belarus accounting for about 3500 and 800 new cases per year, respectively. For breast cancer, the rates and age of onset appear to vary significantly in regions differentially affected by the Chernobyl accident. We assessed the frequency and distribution of three BRCA1 founder mutations 5382insC, 4153delA and Cys61Gly in two hospital-based series of 1945 unselected breast cancer patients and of 201 unselected ovarian cancer patients from Belarus as well as in 1019 healthy control females from the same population. Any of these mutations were identified in 4.4% of the breast cancer patients, 26.4% of the ovarian cancer patients and 0.5% of the controls. In the breast cancer patients, BRCA1 mutations were strongly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, with oestrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours and with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, although only 35% of the identified BRCA1 mutation carriers had such a family history. There were no marked differences in the regional distribution of BRCA1 mutations, so that the significant differences in age at diagnosis and family history of breast cancer patients from areas afflicted by the Chernobyl accident could not be explained by BRCA1. We next observed a higher impact and a shifted mutational spectrum of BRCA1 in the series of Byelorussian ovarian cancer patients where the three founder mutations accounted for 26.4% (53/201). While the Cys61Gly mutation appeared underrepresented in ovarian cancer as compared with breast cancer cases from the same population (p = 0.01), the 4153delA mutation made a higher contribution to ovarian cancer than to breast cancer (p < 0.01). BRCA1 mutations were significantly enriched among ovarian cancer cases with a first-degree family history of breast or ovarian cancer, whereas the median age at ovarian cancer diagnosis was not different between mutation carriers and non-carriers. Taken together, these results

  13. Retrospective study of cancer types in different ethnic groups and genders at Karachi. (United States)

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab


    Retrospective study of Cancer types in different ethnic groups & genders determines the pattern of cancers in different ethnic groups & genders during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Every single one male & female case with histologically and cytologically established cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient's file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 5134 patients (Male = 2432 / Female = 2702) investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. Classification of malignancy was done according to the International Classification of Disease coding system by W.H.O (ICD-10). The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions for ethnic groups & genders. Proportionately 47.37% males and among which major ethnic groups 17% Sindhi, 17% Immigrant, 4% Baloch, 3% Pukhtoon, ≈ 4% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 2% Minorities and 52.62% females, in which 16% Sindhi, 21% Immigrant, 4% Baloch 3% Pukhtoon, 5% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 3% Minorities. Mean age of males = 45.75 years, SE ± 0.227 and for females = 44.07, SE ± 0.183. The three most occurring tumors in all cancers of male were found Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT, and females Breast, Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT. The analysis of data indicates Head & Neck is most common cancer among male, in the similar way Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among female.

  14. Cancer mortality does not differ between migrants and Danish-born patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Larsen, Maja Olsbjerg; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;


    -specific hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality were estimated by ethnicity; adjusting for age, income, co-morbidity and disease stage. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in mortality for gynaecological cancers between migrant women (HR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.80) and Danish......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare cancer mortality among migrant patients with cancer mortality in Danish-born patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a historical prospective cohort study. All non-Western migrants (n = 56,273) who were granted a right to residency in Denmark......-born women. Correspondingly, migrant women (HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.49-1.17) showed no significant differences in breast cancer mortality compared with Danish-born women. Regarding lung cancer, neither migrant women (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.45-1.40) nor men (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.53-1.14) presented statistical...

  15. Similarities and differences in ablative and non-ablative iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer treatment (United States)

    Petryk, Alicia A.; Misra, Adwiteeya; Kastner, Elliot J.; Mazur, Courtney M.; Petryk, James D.; Hoopes, P. Jack


    The use of hyperthermia to treat cancer is well studied and has utilized numerous delivery techniques, including microwaves, radio frequency, focused ultrasound, induction heating, infrared radiation, warmed perfusion liquids (combined with chemotherapy), and recently, metallic nanoparticles (NP) activated by near infrared radiation (NIR) and alternating magnetic field (AMF) based platforms. It has been demonstrated by many research groups that ablative temperatures and cytotoxicity can be produced with locally NP-based hyperthermia. Such ablative NP techniques have demonstrated the potential for success. Much attention has also been given to the fact that NP may be administered systemically, resulting in a broader cancer therapy approach, a lower level of tumor NP content and a different type of NP cancer therapy (most likely in the adjuvant setting). To use NP based hyperthermia successfully as a cancer treatment, the technique and its goal must be understood and utilized in the appropriate clinical context. The parameters include, but are not limited to, NP access to the tumor (large vs. small quantity), cancer cell-specific targeting, drug carrying capacity, potential as an ionizing radiation sensitizer, and the material properties (magnetic characteristics, size and charge). In addition to their potential for cytotoxicity, the material properties of the NP must also be optimized for imaging, detection and direction. In this paper we will discuss the differences between, and potential applications for, ablative and non-ablative magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

  16. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aron J. [Department of Chemistry, Lensfield Rd., University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Mori-Sánchez, Paula, E-mail: [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  17. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei (United States)

    Cohen, Aron J.; Mori-Sánchez, Paula


    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  18. Dramatic reduction of culture time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (United States)

    Ghodbane, Ramzi; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, a critical technique for routine diagnosis of tuberculosis, takes more than two weeks. Here, step-by-step improvements in the protocol including a new medium, microaerophlic atmosphere or ascorbic-acid supplement and autofluorescence detection dramatically shortened this delay. In the best case, primary culture and rifampicin susceptibility testing were achieved in 72 hours when specimens were inoculated directly on the medium supplemented by antibiotic at the beginning of the culture.

  19. Cotton domestication: dramatic changes in a single cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasburg Jared L


    Full Text Available Abstract Investigations on the nature of genetic changes underpinning plant domestication have begun to shed light on the evolutionary history of crops and can guide improvements to modern cultivars. A recent study focused on cotton fiber cells tracks the dramatic genome-wide changes in gene expression during development that have accompanied selection for increased fiber yield and quality. See Research article:

  20. Comparative genetics of longevity and cancer: insights from long-lived rodents (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei; Zhang, Zhengdong; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Vijg, Jan


    Mammals have evolved a dramatic diversity of aging rates. Within the single order of Rodentia maximum lifespans differ from four years in mice to 32 years in naked mole rats. Cancer rates also differ significantly, from cancer-prone mice to virtually cancer-proof naked and blind mole rats. Recent progress in rodent comparative biology, in combination with the emergence of whole genome sequence information, has opened opportunities for the discovery of genetic factors controlling longevity and cancer susceptibility. PMID:24981598

  1. Gene Expression Profile Differences in Gastric Cancer and Normal Gastric Mucosa by Oligonucleotide Microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanding Yu; Shenhua Xu; HangZhou Mou; Zhiming Jiang; Chihong Zhu; Xianglin Liu


    OBJECTIVE To study the difference of gene expression in gastric cancer (T) and normal tissue of gastric mucosa (C), and to screen for associated novel genes in gastric cancers by oligonucleotide microarrays.METHODS U133A (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) gene chip was used to detect the gene expression profile difference in T and C. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the detected results.RESULTS When gastric cancers were compared with normal gastric mucosa, a total of 270 genes were found with a difference of more than 9times in expression levels. Of the 270 genes, 157 were up-regulated (Signal Log Ratio [SLR] ≥3), and 113 were down-regulated (SLR ≤-3).Using a classification of function, the highest number of gene expression differences related to enzymes and their regulatory genes (67, 24.8%),followed by signal-transduction genes (43,15.9%). The third were nucleic acid binding genes (17, 6.3%), fourth were transporter genes (15, 5.5%)and fifth were protein binding genes (12, 4.4%). In addition there were 50genes of unknown function, accounting for 18.5%. The five above mentioned groups made up 56.9% of the total gene number.CONCLUSION The 5 gene groups (enzymes and their regulatory proteins, signal transduction proteins, nucleic acid binding proteins, transporter and protein binding) were abnormally expressed and are important genes for further study in gastric cancers.

  2. Differences in cancer incidence and mortality among socio-economic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Brug, J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den


    Objectives: In this article studies on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk for cancer at different sites are reviewed. Methods: The review is restricted to studies conducted in affluent societies, after 1970. Only studies using income, education and/or occupation as SES indic

  3. Age and age-related differences in internet usage of cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, J.C.M.; Bolle, S.; Muusses, L.D.; Stephanidis, C.; Antona, M.


    This study investigates age and age-related differences in Internet usage of 952 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Older patients (> 65 years) reported significantly less Internet usage to find treatment-related information than younger ones (< 65 years). Still, 40.1% of the older patients

  4. Reimbursement of targeted cancer therapies within three different European health care systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, Jovan; Dolk, C.; Postma, Maarten


    Objectives: To identify differences in the recommendations for targeted cancer therapies (TCT) in three distinctive European health care systems: Serbian, Scottish and Dutch, and to examine the role of cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) in such recommendations. Methods: A list of currently approved T

  5. Comparing three different approaches to the measurement of needs concerning fatigue in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aagaard


    -sectional nationwide survey, patients were asked about their needs concerning fatigue in three different ways: Fatigue intensity was measured with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire, fatigue burden (the extent fatigue was a problem) and fatigue felt need...

  6. Influence of sex differences on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Uldall, Maria; Appel, Camilla


    on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain. Materials and Methods: 4T1-luc2 mammary cancer cells were introduced into the femoral cavity of female and male BALB/cJ mice. Bioluminescence tumor signal, pain-related behavior and bone degradation were monitored for 14 days. Results: Female mice demonstrated...... a significantly greater bioluminescence signal on day 2 compared to male mice and, in addition, a significant earlier onset of pain-related behavior was observed in the females. No sex difference was observed for bone degradation. Finally, a strong correlation between pain-related behavior and bone degradation...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Vorozhtsova


    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  8. Postmenopausal hormone use and incident ovarian cancer: Associations differ by regimen. (United States)

    Hildebrand, Janet S; Gapstur, Susan M; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Teras, Lauren R; Thun, Michael J; Patel, Alpa V


    Ovarian cancer has been associated in epidemiologic studies with postmenopausal hormone use. Whether associations differ by hormone regimen, current status or duration of use is unclear. We examined epithelial ovarian cancer incidence in relation to unopposed estrogen (E-only) and estrogen plus progestin (E + P) among 54,436 postmenopausal women of the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a US cohort prospectively followed for cancer incidence since 1992. Demographic, medical, reproductive and lifestyle information was collected at enrollment and updated throughout follow-up via self-administered questionnaire. Extended Cox models were used to estimate age- and multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) of ovarian cancer according to hormone regimen, current status and duration of use. During 15 years of follow-up, 297 incident cases were identified. Relative to "never" use of hormones, current E-only use was associated with a twofold higher risk [RR 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-2.85]; each 5-year increment of use was associated with a 25% higher risk (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36); ≥ 20 years of use was associated with a near threefold higher risk (RR 2.89; 95% CI 1.71-4.87; trend p = 0.01). Past E-only use was not significantly associated with ovarian cancer, although a modest increase in risk per each 5-year increment of use was suggested (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.92-1.41). Neither current nor former E + P use was associated with ovarian cancer risk (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.86-1.35; RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.68-1.71, respectively, per 5-year increment). These findings suggest that progestins may mitigate some of the detrimental effects of estrogen on the ovarian epithelium.

  9. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C


    Oxidative damage to DNA is thought to play a role in carcinogenesis by causing mutations, and indeed accumulation of oxidized DNA bases has been observed in samples obtained from tumors but not from surrounding tissue within the same patient. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway...... for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...

  10. A research about breast cancer detection using different neural networks and K-MICA algorithm. (United States)

    Kalteh, A A; Zarbakhsh, Payam; Jirabadi, Meysam; Addeh, Jalil


    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. The correct diagnosis of breast cancer is one of the major problems in the medical field. From the literature it has been found that different pattern recognition techniques can help them to improve in this domain. This paper presents a novel hybrid intelligent method for detection of breast cancer. The proposed method includes two main modules: Clustering module and the classifier module. In the clustering module, first the input data will be clustered by a new technique. This technique is a suitable combination of the modified imperialist competitive algorithm (MICA) and K-means algorithm. Then the Euclidean distance of each pattern is computed from the determined clusters. The classifier module determines the membership of the patterns using the computed distance. In this module, several neural networks, such as the multilayer perceptron, probabilistic neural networks and the radial basis function neural networks are investigated. Using the experimental study, we choose the best classifier in order to recognize the breast cancer. The proposed system is tested on Wisconsin Breast Cancer (WBC) database and the simulation results show that the recommended system has high accuracy.

  11. A research about breast cancer detection using different neural networks and K-MICA algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Kalteh


    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. The correct diagnosis of breast cancer is one of the major problems in the medical field. From the literature it has been found that different pattern recognition techniques can help them to improve in this domain. This paper presents a novel hybrid intelligent method for detection of breast cancer. The proposed method includes two main modules: Clustering module and the classifier module. In the clustering module, first the input data will be clustered by a new technique. This technique is a suitable combination of the modified imperialist competitive algorithm (MICA and K-means algorithm. Then the Euclidean distance of each pattern is computed from the determined clusters. The classifier module determines the membership of the patterns using the computed distance. In this module, several neural networks, such as the multilayer perceptron, probabilistic neural networks and the radial basis function neural networks are investigated. Using the experimental study, we choose the best classifier in order to recognize the breast cancer. The proposed system is tested on Wisconsin Breast Cancer (WBC database and the simulation results show that the recommended system has high accuracy.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in cervical cancer: different roles in tumor progression. (United States)

    Rauvala, M; Aglund, K; Puistola, U; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, T; Horvath, G; Willén, R; Stendahl, U


    The incidence of uterine cervical cancer has increased slightly in Western countries, with an increase in relatively young women. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 has turned out as a prognostic factor in many cancers. We compared the expression of the proteins MMP-2 and MMP-9 in cervical primary tumors with clinical outcome and risk factors of cervical cancer. One hundred sixty-one patients with cervical cancer treated in Umeå University Hospital or Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden, between 1991 and 1995 were included in the study. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained prior to treatment were examined immunohistochemically by specific antibodies for MMP-2 and MMP-9. Forty-two percent of the tumors were intensively positive for MMP-2 and 31% for MMP-9. Nineteen percent of the samples were intensively positive for both proteinases and 47% negative or weak for both. Overexpression of MMP-2 seemed to predict unfavorable survival under Kaplan-Meier analysis and in the multivariate analysis. Early sexual activity and low parity seemed to correlate to overexpression of MMP-2. MMP-9 was not associated with survival or sexual behavior. Intensive MMP-9 was noted in grade 1 tumors. We conclude that MMP-2 and MMP-9 have different roles in uterine cervical cancer. MMP-2 could be associated with aggressive behavior, but MMP-9 expression diminishes in high-grade tumors.

  13. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

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    Fernández-Navarro Pablo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Methods Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively. Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Results Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Conclusion Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying

  14. Differences in integrin expression and signaling within human breast cancer cells

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    Liu Yongqing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrins are used as prognostic indicators in breast cancer. Following engagement with extracellular matrix proteins, their signaling influences numerous cellular processes including migration, proliferation, and death. Integrin signaling varies between cell types through differential expression of integrin subunits, and changes within a given cell upon exposure to a cell agonist or through changes in its surroundings. These variations in signaling can profoundly affect the phenotypic, tumorogenecity and metastatic properties of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated if there were differences in the expression of integrins, integrin structures, and integrin co-receptors within three breast cancer cells and if these differences effected integrin signaling. Methods Expression of integrins, urokinase receptor and vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor (VEGFR in metastatic MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231, non-metastatic MCF7 and non-breast cancer Hek-293 cells was measured by flow cytometry. Cell adhesion was assessed using collagen, fibrinogen, fibronectin and vitronectin coated plates. Changes in kinase levels following PMA stimulation, and cell adhesion-induced activation of kinases were determined by western blot analysis. Distribution of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Results All cells expressed αv integrins, while high β5 and αvβ5 expression was restricted to the cancer cells and high β3 and αvβ3 expression was restricted to MDA-MB-435 cells. The two metastatic cells were the least adhesive, but all cells adhered well to most proteins in the absence of PMA. All proliferating cells expressed activated pSrc, but only proliferating metastatic cells expressed high pMEK levels. PMA treatment resulted in time-dependent changes in activated kinase levels, and only MDA-MB-231 cells constitutively expressed high levels of activated pMEK. MDA-MB-435 cells formed

  15. Authoring for Engagement in Interactive Dramatic Experiences for Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad


    ’s control over communicating a theme. To address this problem, this paper contributes a method for organizing narrative events in a free-roaming virtual environment. The Interactive Dramatic Experience Model (IDEM) retains the freedom of navigation while maintaining the possibility to construct various...... coherent narratives that enable the theme to be communicated. This may be of particular relevance when using digital, interactive, and representational technologies in the mediation of ethically relevant and socially responsible themes. In order to explore the use of the IDEM, we have developed...

  16. Stuttering therapy in 1837 and a young boy's dramatic experience. (United States)

    Preus, A


    This is a historical account of the first known case of stuttering therapy in Norway. In his autobiography, school administrator and politician Nils Hertzberg relates how he in 1837 as a 10-year-old boy travelled on horseback, skis and by boat across Norway from west to east and back in order to receive therapy from a travelling German speech teacher C.F. Bansmann. The article provides extracts from the exciting and dramatic journey, describes Bansmann's method and offers some comments on stuttering and stuttering therapy.

  17. Dramatic response to levetiracetam in post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor (United States)

    Striano, P; Elefante, Andrea; Coppola, Antonietta; Tortora, Fabio; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo


    Holmes’ tremor refers to an unusual combination of rest, postural and kinetic tremor of extremities. Common causes of Holmes’ tremor include stroke, trauma, vascular malformations and multiple sclerosis, with lesions involving the thalamus, brain stem or cerebellum. Although some drugs (eg, levodopa and dopaminergic drugs, clonazepam and propranolol) have been occasionally reported to give some benefit, medical treatment of Holmes’ tremor is unsatisfactory, and many patients require thalamic surgery to achieve satisfactory control. We report a patient in whom post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor dramatically responded to levetiracetam treatment. PMID:21686707

  18. Dramatic regression of presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma with photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuray Tuncer


    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used for treatment of various intraocular tumors including choroidal hemangioma, vasoproliferative tumor, amelanotic choroidal melanoma and choroidal neovascular membrane due to choroidal osteoma. This case report documents the effect of PDT for a presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma. A 42-year-old female with a juxtapapillary acquired astrocytoma was treated with a single session of PDT using standard parameters. The tumor showed dramatic regression over 6 months into a fibrotic scar. It remained regressed and stable with 20/20 vision after 51 months of follow-up. We believe that PDT can be used as a primary treatment for acquired retinal astrocytoma.

  19. Difference in Membrane Repair Capacity Between Cancer Cell Lines and a Normal Cell Line. (United States)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K; Novak, Ivana; McNeil, Paul L; Gehl, Julie


    Electroporation-based treatments and other therapies that permeabilize the plasma membrane have been shown to be more devastating to malignant cells than to normal cells. In this study, we asked if a difference in repair capacity could explain this observed difference in sensitivity. Membrane repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique, providing a sensitive index of repair capacity. The normal primary cell line of all tested cell lines exhibited the slowest rate of dye entry after laser disruption and lowest level of dye uptake. Significantly, more rapid dye uptake and a higher total level of dye uptake occurred in six of the seven tested cancer cell lines (p normal cell line (98 % viable cells) was higher than in the three tested cancer cell lines (81-88 % viable cells). These data suggest more effective membrane repair in normal, primary cells and supplement previous explanations why electroporation-based therapies and other therapies permeabilizing the plasma membrane are more effective on malignant cells compared to normal cells in cancer treatment.

  20. Chemotherapy-induced prospective memory impairment in breast cancer patients with different hormone receptor expression (United States)

    Li, Wen; Gan, Chen; Lv, Yue; Wang, Shanghu; Cheng, Huaidong


    Abstract This study aimed to investigate prospective memory impairment in patients with breast cancer with different expression of hormone receptors, including the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR). A total of 120 patients with breast cancer who underwent chemotherapy following surgery were divided into 2 groups. The A group included 60 patients with ER−/PR− status, and the B group included 60 patients with ER+/PR+ status. After 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, all patients were administered neuropsychological and prospective memory tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), verbal fluency test (VFT), and digit span test (DST), as well as examination of event-based prospective memory (EBPM) and time-based prospective memory (TBPM). As the neuropsychological background test results showed, there were no significant differences in MMSE, DST, and TBPM scores (∗:P > 0.05) between patients with breast cancer in the ER−/PR− and ER+/PR+ groups, while the VFT and EBPM scores were significantly greater in patients with breast cancer with ER+/PR+ status than in those with ER−/PR− status (∗∗: P memory impairment. PMID:28353608

  1. Androgen receptors and serum testosterone levels identify different subsets of postmenopausal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secreto Giorgio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen receptors (AR are frequently expressed in breast cancers, but their implication in cancer growth is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the role of the androgen/AR pathway in breast cancer development. Methods AR expression was evaluated by immunochemistry in a cohort of 528 postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously examined for the association of serum testosterone levels with patient and tumor characteristics. AR expression was classified according to the percentage of stained cells: AR-absent (0% and AR-poorly (1%-30%, AR-moderately (>30%-60%, and AR-highly (>60% positive. Results Statistical analysis was performed in 451 patients who experienced natural menopause. AR-high expression was significantly related with low histologic grade and estrogen receptor (ER- and progesterone receptor (PR-positive status (P trendP=0.022, although a trend across the AR expression categories was not present. When women defined by ER status were analyzed separately, regression analysis in the ER-positive group showed a significant association of high testosterone levels with AR-highly-positive expression (OR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.10-3.16, but the association was essentially due to patients greater than or equal to 65 years (OR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82. In ER-positive group, elevated testosterone levels appeared also associated with AR-absent expression, although the small number of patients in this category limited the appearance of significant effects (OR 1.92; 95% CI, 0.73–5.02: the association was present in both age groups ( Conclusions The findings in the present study confirm that testosterone levels are a marker of hormone-dependent breast cancer and suggest that the contemporary evaluation of ER status, AR expression, and circulating testosterone levels may identify different subsets of cancers whose growth may be influenced by androgens.

  2. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut


    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  3. Using dramatic role-play to develop emotional aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dinapoli


    Full Text Available As university educators, we need to prepare students for the transition from the information age to what Daniel H. Pink (2005 calls the conceptual age, which is governed by artistry, empathy and emotion, by including in the curricula activities that stimulate both hemispheres of the brain. This can be done by promoting activities that energize what Daniel Goleman (1995 refers to as emotional intelligence, and it further maintains that, as Paul Ekman (2003 suggests, the ability to detect feelings improves communication. Recognizing the need to include in the curricula procedures that help develop students’ right brain aptitudes and enhance their communication skills, I have endeavoured to introduce dramatic scene study as a sustained activity in my English for Specific Purposes courses at the Universidad de Valencia. My aim was to energize the students’ creative and emotional aptitudes, as well as to dynamize effective teamwork. This article sustains that dramatic role-play, based on scripted scene study and related improvisational activities, is one way of achieving this.

  4. Identification of Personalized Chemoresistance Genes in Subtypes of Basal-Like Breast Cancer Based on Functional Differences Using Pathway Analysis.

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    Tong Wu

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease that is clinically classified into several subtypes. Among these subtypes, basal-like breast cancer largely overlaps with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, and these two groups are generally studied together as a single entity. Differences in the molecular makeup of breast cancers can result in different treatment strategies and prognoses for patients with different breast cancer subtypes. Compared with other subtypes, basal-like and other ER+ breast cancer subtypes exhibit marked differences in etiologic factors, clinical characteristics and therapeutic potential. Anthracycline drugs are typically used as the first-line clinical treatment for basal-like breast cancer subtypes. However, certain patients develop drug resistance following chemotherapy, which can lead to disease relapse and death. Even among patients with basal-like breast cancer, there can be significant molecular differences, and it is difficult to identify specific drug resistance proteins in any given patient using conventional variance testing methods. Therefore, we designed a new method for identifying drug resistance genes. Subgroups, personalized biomarkers, and therapy targets were identified using cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes. We found that basal-like breast cancer could be further divided into at least four distinct subgroups, including two groups at risk for drug resistance and two groups characterized by sensitivity to pharmacotherapy. Based on functional differences among these subgroups, we identified nine biomarkers related to drug resistance: SYK, LCK, GAB2, PAWR, PPARG, MDFI, ZAP70, CIITA and ACTA1. Finally, based on the deviation scores of the examined pathways, 16 pathways were shown to exhibit varying degrees of abnormality in the various subgroups, indicating that patients with different subtypes of basal-like breast cancer can be characterized by differences in the functional status of

  5. Histopathologic differences account for racial disparity in uterine cancer survival☆,☆☆ (United States)

    Smotkin, David; Nevadunsky, Nicole S.; Harris, Kimala; Einstein, Mark H.; Yu, Yiting; Goldberg, Gary L.


    Objective The incidence for uterine cancers has been reported to be higher among white women, whereas mortality is higher among black women. Reasons for the higher mortality among black women are not completely understood. The aim of our study is to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity, histopathologic subtype, and survival in uterine cancer. Methods We abstracted socio-demographic, treatment, and survival data for all women who were diagnosed with uterine cancer at Montefiore Medical Center from January 1999 through December 2009. Pathology records were reviewed. Results 984 patients were identified. Racial/ethnic distribution was 382 (39%) white, 308 (31%) black, 232 (24%) Hispanic, and 62 (6.3%) other races, mixed, or unknown. 592 (60%) patients had endometrioid histology. Blacks were much more likely than whites to have non-endometrioid histologies (p<0.001), including papillary serous, carcinosarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma. Blacks and Hispanics were at least as likely as whites to receive either chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The hazard ratio for death for black versus white patients was 1.94 (p<0.001) when all histological subtypes were included. The hazard ratio for Hispanics for death was 1.2 (p=0.32) compared to whites. However, when patients were divided into endometrioid and non-endometrioid histological subtypes, there was no significant difference in survival by race/ethnicity. Conclusion Black patients with uterine cancer are much more likely to die and are much more likely to have non-endometrioid histologies than white patients. There are no differences in survival among white, black, or Hispanic women with uterine cancer, after control for histological subtype. PMID:22940487

  6. Pain in the cancer patient: different pain characteristics CHANGE pharmacological treatment requirements. (United States)

    Müller-Schwefe, Gerhard; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Aldington, Dominic; Alon, Eli; Coaccioli, Stefano; Coluzzi, Flaminia; Huygen, Frank; Jaksch, Wolfgang; Kalso, Eija; Kocot-Kępska, Magdalena; Kress, Hans-Georg; Mangas, Ana Cristina; Ferri, Cesar Margarit; Morlion, Bart; Nicolaou, Andrew; Hernández, Concepción Pérez; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Schäfer, Michael; Sichère, Patrick


    Twenty years ago, the main barriers to successful cancer pain management were poor assessment by physicians, and patients' reluctance to report pain and take opioids. Those barriers are almost exactly the same today. Cancer pain remains under-treated; in Europe, almost three-quarters of cancer patients experience pain, and almost a quarter of those with moderate to severe pain do not receive any analgesic medication. Yet it has been suggested that pain management could be improved simply by ensuring that every consultation includes the patient's rating of pain, that the physician pays attention to this rating, and a plan is agreed to increase analgesia when it is inadequate. After outlining current concepts of carcinogenesis in some detail, this paper describes different methods of classifying and diagnosing cancer pain and the extent of current under-treatment. Key points are made regarding cancer pain management. Firstly, the pain may be caused by multiple different mechanisms and therapy should reflect those underlying mechanisms - rather than being simply based on pain intensity as recommended by the WHO three-step ladder. Secondly, a multidisciplinary approach is required which combines both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, such as psychotherapy, exercise therapy and electrostimulation. The choice of analgesic agent and its route of administration are considered, along with various interventional procedures and the requirements of palliative care. Special attention is paid to the treatment of breakthrough pain (particularly with fast-acting fentanyl formulations, which have pharmacokinetic profiles that closely match those of breakthrough pain episodes) and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, which affects around one third of patients who receive chemotherapy. Finally, the point is made that medical education should place a greater emphasis on pain therapy, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level.

  7. Dynamic volume perfusion CT in patients with lung cancer: Baseline perfusion characteristics of different histological subtypes

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    Shi, Jingyun, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine (China); Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schmid-Bindert, Gerald, E-mail: [Division of Surgical Oncology and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Sudarski, Sonja, E-mail: [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Pilz, Lothar R., E-mail: [Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Liu, Bo, E-mail: [Siemens Healthcare, No. 278, Zhouzhu Road, Shanghai, 201318 (China); Haberland, Ulrike, E-mail: [Siemens Healthcare Sector, H IM CR R and D PA SC, Siemensstraße 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Klotz, Ernst, E-mail: [Siemens Healthcare Sector, H IM CR R and D PA SC, Siemensstraße 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); and others


    Objective: To evaluate dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) tumor baseline characteristics of three different subtypes of lung cancer in untreated patients. Materials and methods: 173 consecutive patients (131 men, 42 women; mean age 61 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed lung cancer underwent dVPCT prior to biopsy. Tumor permeability, blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantitatively assessed as well as tumor diameter and volume. Tumor subtypes were histologically determined and compared concerning their dVPCT results. dVPCT results were correlated to tumor diameter and volume. Results: Histology revealed adenocarcinoma in 88, squamous cell carcinoma in 54 and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in 31 patients. Tumor permeability was significantly differing between adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC (all p < 0.05). Tumor BF and BV were higher in adenocarcinomathan in SCLC (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0002 respectively). BV was also higher in squamous cell carcinoma compared to SCLC (p = 0.01). MTT was not differing between tumor subtypes. Regarding all tumors, tumor diameter did not correlate with any of the dVPCT parameters, whereas tumor volume was negatively associated with permeability, BF and BV (r = −0.22, −0.24, −0.24, all p < 0.05). In squamous cell carcinoma, tumor diameter und volume correlated with BV (r = 0.53 and r = −0.40, all p < 0.05). In SCLC, tumor diameter und volume correlated with MTT (r = 0.46 and r = 0.39, all p < 0.05). In adenocarcinoma, no association between morphological and functional tumor characteristics was observed. Conclusions: dVPCT parameters are only partially related to tumor diameter and volume and are significantly differing between lung cancer subtypes.

  8. Multiple breast cancer cell-lines derived from a single tumor differ in their molecular characteristics and tumorigenic potential.

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    Goar Mosoyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer cell lines are widely used tools to investigate breast cancer biology and to develop new therapies. Breast cancer tissue contains molecularly heterogeneous cell populations. Thus, it is important to understand which cell lines best represent the primary tumor and have similarly diverse phenotype. Here, we describe the development of five breast cancer cell lines from a single patient's breast cancer tissue. We characterize the molecular profiles, tumorigenicity and metastatic ability in vivo of all five cell lines and compare their responsiveness to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT treatment. METHODS: Five breast cancer cell lines were derived from a single patient's primary breast cancer tissue. Expression of different antigens including HER2, estrogen receptor (ER, CK8/18, CD44 and CD24 was determined by flow cytometry, western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC. In addition, a Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH assay for HER2 gene amplification and p53 genotyping was performed on all cell lines. A xenograft model in nude mice was utilized to assess the tumorigenic and metastatic abilities of the breast cancer cells. RESULTS: We have isolated, cloned and established five new breast cancer cell lines with different tumorigenicity and metastatic abilities from a single primary breast cancer. Although all the cell lines expressed low levels of ER, their growth was estrogen-independent and all had high-levels of expression of mutated non-functional p53. The HER2 gene was rearranged in all cell lines. Low doses of 4-OHT induced proliferation of these breast cancer cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: All five breast cancer cell lines have different antigenic expression profiles, tumorigenicity and organ specific metastatic abilities although they derive from a single tumor. None of the studied markers correlated with tumorigenic potential. These new cell lines could serve as a model for detailed genomic and proteomic analyses to

  9. [Different strategies between Japan and other countries for the diagnosis and treatment of rectal cancer]. (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki


    In the treatment of rectal cancer, various attempts have been made to reduce the local recurrence rate. In Japan, lateral node dissection (LND) has been widely performed as a standard procedure for lower rectal cancers. Studies since the 1980s have shown that LND reduces the local recurrence rate and improves the survival rate. However, significant sexual or urinary dysfunction has been reported due to impairment of autonomic nerves by LND. To overcome these problems, autonomic nerve-preserving LND has been introduced. At present, autonomic nerve-preserving LND is the standard procedure for the treatment of lower rectal cancers in Japan. On the other hand, radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision is the standard procedure in other countries. Survival data also differ between Japan and elsewhere. In Japanese series, the postoperative survival rate is higher than those in other countries. This may be due to differences in the method of lymph node examination, surgical technique, etc. However, this is a very important issue in determining the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. In Japan, these differences need to be taken into account in determining the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy regimen.

  10. Individual Difference Variables and the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Analgesic Imagery Interventions on Cancer Pain


    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Wanta, Britt; Bumpus, Molly


    Clinicians in acute care settings are often called upon to manage cancer pain unrelieved by medications. Cognitive-behavioral strategies, such as relaxation and imagery, are recommended for cancer pain management; however, there appear to be individual differences in their effects. This pilot study examined variation in pain outcomes achieved with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and analgesic imagery interventions among hospitalized patients with cancer pain, and assessed the influence of...

  11. Media and identification processes: a ritual and dramatic construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Sola-Morales


    Full Text Available The present theoretical paper analyzes the way mediatic communication construct identifications. The thesis proposed is that the media configure ritually and dramatically identifications made by individuals and groups. First of all, we show the limitations of the concept of “identity” and we propose to use “identification” instead. Second, we explore the extent of social drama theory and role theory and we open it to new theoretical challenges and perspectives. Thirdly, it is shown that the concept of "ritual" is very useful to understand and interpret the identity construction through the media. All this leads us to conclude that both the theatricality and rituality are key to understanding the processes of identification that individuals and groups make in relation to the media.

  12. Microalloying Boron Carbide with Silicon to Achieve Dramatically Improved Ductility. (United States)

    An, Qi; Goddard, William A


    Boron carbide (B4C) is a hard material whose value for extended engineering applications such as body armor; is limited by its brittleness under impact. To improve the ductility while retaining hardness, we used density functional theory to examine modifying B4C ductility through microalloying. We found that replacing the CBC chain in B4C with Si-Si, denoted as (B11Cp)-Si2, dramatically improves the ductility, allowing a continuous shear to a large strain of 0.802 (about twice of B4C failure strain) without brittle failure. Moreover, (B11C)-Si2 retains low density and high hardness. This ductility improvement arises because the Si-Si linkages enable the icosahedra accommodate additional shear by rotating instead of breaking bonds.

  13. Risk of prostate cancer and its correlation with different biochemical parameters in non diabetic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma


    Full Text Available Background: It has been hypothesized that men with long term diabetes have a lower risk of prostate cancer then non-diabetic men. Whether diabetes influences level of biomarkers such as prostate specific antigen (PSA, which is involved in the detection of prostate cancer is, unknown. In view of the aforementioned controversial literature, it was decided to evaluate this relation-ship in non-diabetic men. We evaluated the correlation between fasting glucose, prostate specific antigen and different biochemical lipid profile parameters with serum uric acid and serum creatinine in non-diabetic male between age group 40-61 years. Methods: Association between fasting serum glucose , different lipid parameters, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and prostate specific antigen in 83 non-diabetic males aged 40 to 61years were studied retrospectively. Glucose and lipid parameters and serum creatinine, serum uric acid were measured on fully automated analyser using standard reagent kits. Serum prostate specific antigen was measured by TOSOH-AIA-360, immunoassay method. Results: Correlations between different biochemical parameters were determined. Prostate specific antigen were negatively correlated with HDL (r= -0.22, p= 0.03 in age group 40-61 years. At the same fasting blood sugar were correlated positively(r= 0.34, p= 0.02 with prostate specific antigen in age group 51-60 years , but not in age group 40-50 years. Conclusion: We concluded that serum HDL (high density lipoprotein was negatively associated and FBS (fasting blood sugar was positively associated with risk of prostate cancer. We also suggest that in men of this age group a low HDL level should not be ignored while assessing prostate cancer risk especially if accompanied with an elevated FBS level even in the upper normal range. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 476-481

  14. Preliminary Study of Brain Glucose Metabolism Changes in Patients with Lung Cancer of Different Histological Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ling Li; Chang Fu; Ang Xuan; Da-Peng Shi; Yong-Ju Gao; Jie Zhang; Jun-Ling Xu


    Background:Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors.This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types.Methods:One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer,who visited People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013,were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology,which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases),squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases),and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases).The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (1 8F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of these cases was retrospectively studied.The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM) software,with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison.Results:The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction.The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal,bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus.Besides,the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group.The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255) was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217) and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292).Conclusions:The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  15. Five-Year Survival Among Stage IIIA Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Two Different Treatment Modalities. (United States)

    Bilfinger, Thomas; Keresztes, Roger; Albano, Denise; Nemesure, Barbara


    BACKGROUND Five-year survival rates among stage IIIA lung cancer patients range between 2% and 15%, and there is currently no consensus regarding optimal treatment approaches for these patients. The current investigation evaluated survival outcomes among stage IIIA lung cancer patients receiving 2 different treatment modalities, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection versus chemoradiation alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study is based on 127 patients attending the Lung Cancer Evaluation Center at Stony Brook Cancer Center between 2002 and 2014. Patients were treated either with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection or a regimen of chemoradiation alone. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare survival outcomes between groups and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate treatment effects on survival, while adjusting for possible confounders. RESULTS Approximately one-fourth (n=33) of patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, whereas 94 patients received definitive chemoradiation. Patients in the surgical group were found to be significantly younger than those receiving chemoradiation alone (60.1 vs. 67.9 years, respectively; p=0.001). Five-year survival among patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection was significantly higher than that among patients receiving chemoradiation alone (63% vs. 19%, respectively; p<0.001), whereas the hazard ratio (HR) was 3-4 times greater in the latter group (HR=3.77, 95% confidence interval=1.87, 7.61). CONCLUSIONS Findings from this study indicate that preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection can improve survival outcomes for stage IIIA lung cancer patients compared with chemoradiation alone. The results reflect a select surgical group of patients; thus, the data highlight the need to develop new therapies that may result in more patients being viable surgical candidates.

  16. HER2 over-expression and response to different chemotherapy regimens in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin ZHANG; Yan LIU


    Purpose: To exam the relationship between HER2 over-expression and different adjuvant chemotherapies in breast cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 1625 primary breast cancer patients who received post-surgery adjuvant chemotherapy in Tianjin Cancer Hospital, China, from July 2002 to November 2005 were included in the study. Among them, 600 patients were given CMF (CTX+MTX+5-Fu) regimen, 600 given CEF (CTX+E-ADM+5-Fu) regimen, and 425 given anthracyclines plus taxanes regimen, with mean follow-up time of 42 months. Results: In CMF treatment group, the 3-year disease free survival (DFS)in HER2 over-expressed patients was lower than that of the HER2-negative ones (89.80% vs 91.24%, P=0.0348); in node-positive subgroup, the 3-year DFS was 84.72% in HER2 over-expressed patients, and 90.18% in the HER-2-negative ones (P=0.0271).Compared to CMF regimen, anthracyclines and anthracyclines plus taxanes regimens are more effective (P<0.05) in node-positive HER2 over-expression than those in the node-negative. Conclusion: HER2 over-expression is an independent index for predicting poor prognosis and short DFS for breast cancer patients. HER2 over-expressed patients are resistant to CMF regimen chemotherapy, but sensitive to anthracyclines-based or anthracyclines plus taxanes regimen. HER2 expression can be taken as a marker for therapies in breast cancer.

  17. Different survival outcomes after curative R0-resection for Eastern Asian and European gastric cancer (United States)

    Kim, Young-Woo; Joo, Jungnam; Yoon, Hong Man; Eom, Bang Wool; Ryu, Keun Won; Choi, Il Ju; Kook, Myeong Cherl; Schuhmacher, Christoph; Siewert, Joerg Ruediger; Reim, Daniel


    Abstract Several retrospective analyses on patients who underwent gastric cancer (GC) surgery revealed different survival outcomes between Eastern (Korean, Japanese) and Western (USA, Europe) countries due to potential ethnical and biological differences. This study investigates treatment outcomes between specialized institution for GC in Korea and Germany. The prospectively documented databases of the Gastric Cancer Center of the National Cancer Center, Korea (NCCK) and the Department of Surgery of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Germany were screened for patients who underwent primary surgical resection for GC between 2002 and 2008. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ2 testing, and 2 cohorts were matched using a propensity score matching (PSM) method. Patients’ survival was estimated using Kaplan–Meier method, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used for comparison. Three thousand seven hundred ninety-five patients were included in the final analysis, 3542 from Korea and 253 from Germany. Baseline characteristics revealed statistically significant differences for age, tumor location, pT stage, grading, lymphatic vessel infiltration (LVI), comorbidities, number of dissected lymph nodes (LN), postoperative complications, lymph-node ratio stage, and application of adjuvant chemotherapy. After PSM, 171 patients in TUM were matched to NCCK patients, and baseline characteristics for both cohorts were well balanced. Patients in Korea had significantly longer survival than those in Germany both before and after PSM. When the analysis was performed for each UICC stage separately, same trend was found over all UICC stages before PSM. However, significant difference in survival was observed only for UICC I after PSM. This analysis demonstrates different survival outcomes after surgical treatment of GC on different continents in specialized centers after balancing of baseline characteristics by PSM. PMID:27428238

  18. Breast cancer detection rates using four different types of mammography detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, Alistair; Warren, Lucy M.; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, National Coordinating Centre for the Physics in Mammography (NCCPM), Guildford (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Wallis, Matthew G. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cooke, Julie [Jarvis Breast Screening and Diagnostic Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom); Given-Wilson, Rosalind M. [St George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Chakraborty, Dev P. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Halling-Brown, Mark D. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Scientific Computing, Department of Medical Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Looney, Padraig T. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, National Coordinating Centre for the Physics in Mammography (NCCPM), Guildford (United Kingdom)


    To compare the performance of different types of detectors in breast cancer detection. A mammography image set containing subtle malignant non-calcification lesions, biopsy-proven benign lesions, simulated malignant calcification clusters and normals was acquired using amorphous-selenium (a-Se) detectors. The images were adapted to simulate four types of detectors at the same radiation dose: digital radiography (DR) detectors with a-Se and caesium iodide (CsI) convertors, and computed radiography (CR) detectors with a powder phosphor (PIP) and a needle phosphor (NIP). Seven observers marked suspicious and benign lesions. Analysis was undertaken using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics weighted figure of merit (FoM). The cancer detection fraction (CDF) was estimated for a representative image set from screening. No significant differences in the FoMs between the DR detectors were measured. For calcification clusters and non-calcification lesions, both CR detectors' FoMs were significantly lower than for DR detectors. The calcification cluster's FoM for CR NIP was significantly better than for CR PIP. The estimated CDFs with CR PIP and CR NIP detectors were up to 15 % and 22 % lower, respectively, than for DR detectors. Cancer detection is affected by detector type, and the use of CR in mammography should be reconsidered. (orig.)

  19. Impact of the difference in surgical site on the physique in gastrointestinal tract cancer patients. (United States)

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira; Kogure, Eisuke; Ishii, Takaya


    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe physical function, physique (only BMI), and nutrition status (evaluated by serum albumin levels) from before surgery to after discharge among perioperative patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer and to examine the effect of difference in surgical site (i.e., stomach, colon, and rectum) in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 70 patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer [36 males and 34 females, aged 59.3 ± 11.4 years (mean ± SD)]. The subjects were classified into three levels according to surgical site (stomach, colon, and rectum). We evaluated patients' physical function, physique, and nutrition status in the three points: before surgery, after surgery, and after discharge. The 6-minute walk distance was measured for physical function. Body mass index was measured for physique. The serum albumin level was measured for nutrition status. [Results] Significant declines in 6-minute walk distance, body mass index, and serum albumin were observed after surgery among the study subjects. In addition, a significant decline in body mass index was observed after discharge compared with before surgery. Regarding body mass index, a significant interaction between surgical site and evaluation times was observed for ANOVA. [Conclusion] These results suggest that BMI after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and that body mass index changes from before surgery to after surgery are efficacy the difference of surgical site in patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer.

  20. Changes in the gastric potential difference during chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrin, B; Højgaard, L; Mouridsen, H T


    Nausea and vomiting are frequent side-effects of intravenous cancer chemotherapy. How these complications were related to the gastric mucosal function was investigated by measuring the gastric mucosal potential difference (PD). Eight patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy...... were investigated. The liquid junction-corrected gastric PD and pH were measured with a newly developed microelectrode. The measurements started half an hour before chemotherapy and continued for 4-5 hours. Nausea, vomiting, psychological stress and sleeping episodes were registered. The initial PD...... values were -34 mV +/- 8 mV (mean +/- SD). During the observation period 6 of 8 patients had one or more episodes of nausea and vomiting. All episodes were preceded by a significant decline in PD. The magnitude of the decline in PD was unrelated to the time-lag between administration of chemotherapy...

  1. Comparison of efficacy of different route of administration of chemotherapy on unresectable, advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Caihua


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two neoadjuvant chemotherapies (FLEEOX and XELOX with different routes of administration for unresectable gastric cancer. Methods A total of 85 patients with unresectable gastric cancer hospitalized from January 2007 to December 2009 received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The FLEEOX group (48 patients received the FLEEOX regimen(fluorouracil, leucovorin, http://epirubicin, epotoside, and oxaliplatin, which combined arterial with venous administration for one or two cycles, while the XELOX group (37 patients received XELOX (capecitabine plus oxaliplatin via venous administration for two to four cycles. The clinical response and overall survival of the two groups were compared. Results In the FLEEOX group, the clinical response rate (RR of chemotherapy was 85.4% (41 of 48 patients and the median survival time was 25 months. The 1-year and 2-year disease-free survival (DFS rates were 85.4% and 45.8%, respectively. In the XELOX group, the clinical RR was 59.5% and the median survival time was 9 months, while the 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 35.2% and 8.3%, respectively. The clinical RR, the R0 resection rate, the median survival time, and the 1-year and 2-year DFS rates were significantly better (P 0.05 in the FLEEOX group than in the XELOX group. In addition, there were no significant differences in the rates of toxic and adverse reactions or post-operative complications between the two groups. Conclusions For patients with a preoperative diagnosis of unresectable gastric cancer, the efficacy of the FLEEOX regimen, which combines arterial with venous administration, was better than that of the XELOX regimen, using venous administration only. This combination of arterial and venous administration could be useful for improving the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer.

  2. Costs and health effects of breast cancer interventions in epidemiologically different regions of Africa, North America, and Asia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.T.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Groot, C.A. de; Anderson, B.O.; Hortobagyi, G.N.


    We estimated the costs and health effects of treating stage I, II, III, and IV breast cancer individually, of treating all stages, and of introducing an extensive cancer control program (treating all stages plus early stage diagnosis) in three epidemiologically different world regions--Africa, North

  3. Discrimination, developmental science, and the law: addressing dramatic shifts in civil rights jurisprudence. (United States)

    Levesque, Roger J R


    The civil rights movement fostered dramatic shifts in legal responses to discrimination based on race, gender, and a host of other group characteristics. The legal system now evinces yet another dramatic shift, as it moves from considering difference to focusing on neutrality, from efforts that seek to counter subjugation to those that adopt a "color-blind" approach. The shifting approach already has reached laws regulating responses to the group that spurred massive civil rights reform: minority youth. The shift requires a different body of empirical evidence to address it and a new look at equality jurisprudence. This article notes the need to turn to the current understanding of prejudice and discrimination for guidance, and uses, as illustration, developmental science to shed light on the development, manifestation, and alleviation of invidious discrimination. Using that understanding, the analysis details how the legal system can benefit from that research and better address discrimination in light of dramatic changes in law. The article articulates the need to address discrimination by recognizing and enlisting the law's inculcative powers through multiple sites of inculcation, ranging from families, schools, health and justice systems to religious and community groups. The discussion concludes with brief suggestions for reform benefiting from understandings of prejudice and its expression.

  4. Tobacco and lung cancer: risks, trends, and outcomes in patients with cancer. (United States)

    Warren, Graham W; Cummings, K Michael


    Tobacco use, primarily associated with cigarette smoking, is the largest preventable cause of cancer mortality, responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. Approximately 85% of lung cancers result from smoking, with an additional fraction caused by secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmokers. The risk of lung cancer is dose dependent, but can be dramatically reduced with tobacco cessation, especially if the person discontinues smoking early in life. The increase in lung cancer incidence in different countries around in the world parallels changes in cigarette consumption. Lung cancer risks are not reduced by switching to filters or low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes. In patients with cancer, continued tobacco use after diagnosis is associated with poor therapeutic outcomes including increased treatment-related toxicity, increased risk of second primary cancer, decreased quality of life, and decreased survival. Tobacco cessation in patients with cancer may improve cancer treatment outcomes, but cessation support is often not provided by oncologists. Reducing the health related effects of tobacco requires coordinated efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco, accurately assess tobacco use in clinical settings, and increase access to tobacco cessation support. Lung cancer screening and coordinated international tobacco control efforts offer the promise to dramatically reduce lung cancer mortality in the coming decades.

  5. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet (United States)


    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  6. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C


    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv...

  7. New therapies for hereditary angioedema: disease outlook changes dramatically. (United States)

    Frank, Michael M; Jiang, Haixiang


    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with episodic attacks of nonpitting edema that may affect any external or mucosal body surface. Attacks most often affect the extremities, causing local swelling, the GI tract, leading to severe abdominal pain, and the mouth and throat, at times causing asphyxiation. Most patients with HAE have low levels of the plasma serine protease inhibitor C1 inhibitor. The edema in these patients is caused by unregulated generation of bradykinin. Effective chronic therapy of patients with impeded androgens or plasmin inhibitors has been available for decades, but in the United States, we do not have therapy for acute attacks. Five companies have completed or are in the process of conducting phase 3 clinical trials, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of products designed to terminate acute attacks or to be used in prophylaxis. Two companies, Lev Pharmaceuticals and CSL Behring, have preparations of C1 inhibitor purified from plasma that have been used in Europe for decades (trade names Cinryze and Berinert P, respectively). One company, Pharming, has developed a recombinant C1 inhibitor preparation. One company, Dyax, is testing a kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide), and one company, Jerini, is completing testing of a bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist (Icatibant). Although little has been published thus far, all of these products may prove effective. It is likely that HAE treatment will change dramatically within the next few years.

  8. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper (United States)

    Huang, Jianwen; Zhou, Yuanxiang; Zhou, Zhongliu; Liu, Rui


    Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μ m , while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  9. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Huang


    Full Text Available Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μm, while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  10. The Ifugao Alim: Chanted Narrated Dramatic Discourse in Ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bona de Santos


    Full Text Available This paper, by way of introducing the little-known Ifugao alim, gives the readers an idea of what has been written about it by Ifugao and non-Ifugao writers and scholars, and recounts my own discovery and study of it. It will focus on the Piwong alim, which was the topic of my dissertation (Rosario de Santos del Rosario 2003, and which I recorded during a live performance in 1975 in Piwong, Hingyon, during the ritual called hongan di tagu—a prestige ritual of the kadangyan, for the welfare of a sick woman. In particular, the paper discusses the Piwong alim’s significance, structure, content and voice, and presents illustrations, through excerpts, which give the reader an insight into its ideological direction and unique aesthetics. The Piwong alim uses a mix of ritual genres, external and internal narration and dramatic character dialogues and monologues.The alim has been considered, by varied Ifugaos, as the crown jewel of its elaborate ritual; a sociological charter; and a magical myth that brings wellbeing.

  11. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  12. The characteristics of side effects of different modes of chemotherapy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko I.M.


    Full Text Available The vast majority of breast cancer patients have logged phenomenon of systemic toxicity during the period of chemotherapy, the frequency and severity of which increases through special courses of drug therapy. The authors of the study set out to examine the changes in the major features of hematological parameters in different regimes of chemotherapy for breast cancer; to evaluate the nature and manifestations of hepato- and nephrotoxicity in these patients; to explore the major trends in blood clotting in this group of patients. In retrospect, 8237 common blood tests indicators were analyzed, 4048 biochemical blood tests and 1909 coagulation tests in 440 patients. Depending on the mode of treatment, the patients were divided into two groups: patients receiving paclitaxel in monochemotherapy ± Herceptin; patients receiving combinated chemotherapy in the mode of docetaxel, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide ±Herceptin. It has been proven that chemotherapy for breast cancer with the use of the above combination of drugs is characterized by the higher profile of haematological toxicity (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. At the same time the both groups had the same incidence of hepato- and nephrotoxicity. The monochemotherapy with paclitaxel is determined by the high incidence of hypercoagulation changes. Coagulation disorders during the use of combination of docetaxel, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide ± Herceptin have no typical pattern of coagulation (characterized by both hypo- and hypercoagulation changes.

  13. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio-Mejía Lina Sofía


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural. RESULTS: During 1990-2000 a total of 48 761 cervical cancer (CC deaths were reported in Mexico (1990=4 280 deaths/year; 2000=4 620 deaths/year. On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference=Mexico City found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR]=10.99; Nayarit, RR=10.5. Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population. CONCLUSIONS: CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chen; Min Wang; Xin-yan Wang; Shan Gao; Jun Wang; Xiao-ming Guan


    Objective To identify differential genes between normal ovarian epithelium tissue and ovarian epithelial cancer using representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA). Methods cDNA-RDA was performed to identify the differentially expressed sequences between cDNAs from cancer tissue and cDNAs from normal ovarian tissue in the same patient who was in the early stage of ovarian serous cystadeno carcinoma. These differentially expressed fragments were cloned and analyzed, then sequenced and compared with known genes.Results Three differentially expressed cDNA fragments were isolated using cDNA from normal ovarian tissue as tester and cDNA from cancer tissue as driver amplicon by cDNA-RDA. DP Ⅲ-1 and DP Ⅲ-2 cDNA clone showed significant ho mology to the cDNA of alpha actin gene; DPⅢ-3 cDNA clone showed significant homology to the cDNA of transgelin gene. Conclusion cDNA-RDA can be used to sensitively identify the differentially expressed genes in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma. Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma involves alteration of multiple genes.

  15. The molecular mechanism of different sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines to TRAIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jindan; LIU Yanxin; LIU Shilian; ZHENG Dexian


    Although Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis of various cancer cells, some caner cell lines are resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying TRAIL-resistance, two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 (resistant to TRAIL) and MDA-MB-231 (sensitive to TRAIL), were used as a model system to analyze the different sensitivities to TRAIL cytotoxicity. PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin, but not MEK and ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 nor PI3K inhibitor LY294002, was shown to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells significantly, suggesting that PKCδ might play an important role in the resistance of MCF-7 cells to TRAIL. In contrast, rottlerin, U0126, and Ly294002 had no effect on MDA-MB-231 apoptosis induced by TRAIL under the same conditions. Further experiment showed that the combination of rottlerin and TRAIL cleaved PARP in the MCF-7 cells synergistically, but not in the MDA-MB-231 cells. The role of PKCδ in TRAIL-resistant MCF-7 cells was confirmed by knocking down the endogenous PKCδ expression using RNAi technology. Furthermore, caspase-3 reconstitution in MCF-7 cells was unable to alter PKCδ expression, suggesting that innate caspase-3 deficient in the cells does not cause PKCδ high expression. These data provide evidence for the first time that PKCδ plays a critical role in breast cancer cell lines to TRAIL cytotoxicity.

  16. Characterization of gastric cancer models from different cell lines orthotopically constructed using improved implantation techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Bo Li; Chun-Ping Xiang; Yu Zhang; Yuan-Yuan Li; Xiao-Ling Wu


    AIM: To develop orthotopic gastric cancer mouse models from different cell lines and characterize the tumor features to assist further in preclinical trials and clinical treatment strategies. METHODS: Human gastric cancer SGC-7901 and BGC- 823 cell suspensions were injected subcutaneously into nude mice to develop solid tumors, and tumor tissue pieces were then implanted under the serous coat of the stomach. An autopsy was performed on all animals of the SGC-7901 and BGC-823 models to observe the primary tumor growth and metastases using pathological and immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: Both models showed large tumors in situ resulting in pressure and infiltration of the adjacent organs. The gastric cavity became smaller, along with stenosis of the cardia or pylorus. There were biological and statistical differences between the two models. The metastasis rate in involved organs (lymph nodes, kidney, spleen, testis) was significantly higher in the BGC-823 model compared to the SGC-7901 model (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The median survival of the BGC-823 model was shorter than that of SGC-7901 (23 d vs 84 d, P < 0.05). Histopathologically, the primary tumor and metastatic lesions of the two models showed obvious atypia and mucus in the cytoplasm. Compared with the SGC-7901 model, BGC-823 appeared more poorly differentiated (absence of adenoid structure), had a smaller volume, and richer capillary structure. Immunohistochemical staining revealed cytokeratin 20 and epithelial membrane antigen expression was positive in the SGC-7901 tumors, while negative in BGC-823 ones. CONCLUSION: Models using the SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cell lines were established which could function in gastric cancer research on carcinogenesis mechanism and drug discovery. The two models showed different tumor behavior and the latter was more malignant than the former.

  17. [Differences in the levels of serum immunoglobulins in various cancer patients]. (United States)

    Imir, T; Gülmezoğlu, E


    IgG and IgM were purified from human peripheral blood sera and IgA from human colostrum. A method is established to measure the Ig classes quantitatively which is a modification of Mancini's radialimmundiffusion technique. Three Ig clases were detected from 136 cancer patients and compared with 34 healthy controls. In sarcoma there was an increase in the 3 classes of Ig in serum. These differences were also significant in patients with bone tumors. A raised level of three classes of Ig was seen.

  18. The UICC/WHO-CCCE cancer education project : A different approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagedoorn, Emilie; de Vries, Jakob; Robinson, E


    The Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) and the WHO-Collaborating Centre for Cancer Education (WHO-CCCE) have started an international pilot project offering assistance to medical schools that want to implement in their curricula a two-week multidisciplinary cancer course aimed at cancer ca

  19. Genome-wide Investigation of multifocal and unifocal prostate cancer-are they Genetically different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ibeawuchi (Chinyere); H. Schmidt (Hartmut); R. Voss (Reinhard); A. Titze (Anja); M. Abbas (Mahmoud); J. Neumann (Joerg); E. Eltze (Elke); A.M. Hoogland (Marije); G.W. Jenster (Guido); B. Brandt (Burkhard); A. Semjonow (Axel)


    textabstractProstate cancer is widely observed to be biologically heterogeneous. Its heterogeneity is manifested histologically as multifocal prostate cancer, which is observed more frequently than unifocal prostate cancer. The clinical and prognostic significance of either focal cancer type is not

  20. Translating Population Difference: The Use and Re-Use of Genetic Ancestry in Brazilian Cancer Genetics. (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra


    In the past ten years, there has been an expansion of scientific interest in population genetics linked to both understanding histories of human migration and the way that population difference and diversity may account for and/or be implicated in health and disease. In this article, I examine how particular aspects of a globalizing research agenda related to population differences and genetic ancestry are taken up in locally variant ways in the nascent field of Brazilian cancer genetics. Drawing on a broad range of ethnographic data from clinical and nonclinical contexts in the south of Brazil, I examine the ambiguities that attention to genetic ancestry generates, so revealing the disjunctured and diverse ways a global research agenda increasingly orientated to questions of population difference and genetic ancestry is being used and reused.

  1. What Is Breast Cancer? (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  2. Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guschanski Katerina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli. Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years. However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years, followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears

  3. Intake of whole grains from different cereal and food sources and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen


    A high intake of whole grains has been associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer, but few studies are available on the association with whole grains from different cereals, for example, wheat, rye and oats, and none has addressed these separately. The objective of this study was to i......A high intake of whole grains has been associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer, but few studies are available on the association with whole grains from different cereals, for example, wheat, rye and oats, and none has addressed these separately. The objective of this study...... was to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer....

  4. Rural-Urban Differences in Colon Cancer Risk in Blacks and Whites: The North Carolina Colon Cancer Study (United States)

    Yeomans Kinney, Anita; Harrell, Janna; Slattery, Marty; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S.


    Context: Geographic and racial variations in cancer incidence have been observed. Studies of colorectal carcinoma indicate a higher incidence and mortality rate for blacks than for whites in the United States. Purpose: We evaluated the effect of rural versus urban residence on colon cancer risk and stage of disease at diagnosis in blacks and…

  5. Preclinical evaluation of 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate on liver cancer and cancer stem cells with different p53 status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lamy

    Full Text Available Isothiocyanates from plants of the order Brassicales are considered promising cancer chemotherapeutic phytochemicals. However, their selective cytotoxicity on liver cancer has been barely researched. Therefore, in the present study, we systematically studied the chemotherapeutic potency of 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC. Selective toxicity was investigated by comparing its effect on liver cancer cells and their chemoresistant subpopulations to normal primary hepatocytes and liver tissue slices. Additionally, in a first assessment, the in vivo tolerability of MTBITC was investigated in mice. Growth arrest at G2/M and apoptosis induction was evident in all in vitro cancer models treated with MTBITC, including populations with cancer initiating characteristics. This was found independent from TP53; however cell death was delayed in p53 compromised cells as compared to wt-p53 cells which was probably due to differential BH3 only gene regulation i. e. Noxa and its antagonist A1. In normal hepatocytes, no apoptosis or necrosis could be detected after repeated administration of up to 50 µM MTBITC. In mice, orally applied MTBITC was well tolerated over 18 days of treatment for up to 50 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, we could show here that the killing effect of MTBITC has a definite selectivity for cancer cells over normal liver cells and its cytotoxicity even applies for chemoresistant cancer initiating cells. Our study could serve for a better understanding of the chemotherapeutic properties of isothiocyanates on human liver-derived cancer cells.

  6. Different effects of ERβ and TROP2 expression in Chinese patients with early-stage colon cancer. (United States)

    Fang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ji-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Pei-Rong; Ou, Qing-Jian; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Jiang, Wu; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen


    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and TROP2 expressed in colon carcinoma and might play an important role there. We explored the relationship of ERβ and TROP2 expression with the prognosis of early-stage colon cancer. ERβ and TROP2 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa and tumoral tissues from 220 Chinese patients with T(3)N(0)M(0) (stage IIa) and T(4)N(0)M(0) (stage IIb) colon cancer in the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, who underwent curative surgical resection between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) data, and the ROC curve, Kaplan-Meier estimate, log rank test, and Jackknife method were used to show the effect of ERβ and TROP2 expression at different stages of cancer. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different between the patients with stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer (83 vs. 80 %, respectively). The high expression of ERβ was related to decreasing OS in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, while the high expression of TROP2 was related to decreasing OS in stage IIb colon cancer. The expression of ERβ and TROP2 has tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effect in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi


    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  8. Therapeutic effect analysis of different neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the locally cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Ju Li


    Objective:To explore the therapeutic effect of different neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the locally cervical cancer.Methods:A total of 85 patients with cervical cancer for the initial treatment who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2011 to January, 2013 were included in the study and divided into the observation group and the control group according to different chemotherapy regimens. The way of drug administration is by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The patients in the observation group were given Taxol in combined with carboplatin for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, while the patients in the control group were given irinotecan in combined with carboplatin. The remission degree of clinical symptoms, chemotherapeutic effect, toxic and side effect, and operation evaluation 14 and 20 days after chemotherapy were evaluated.Results:The comparison of clinical symptom remission between the two groups was not statistically significant. The occurrence rate of myelosuppression in III-IV degree in the observation was significantly higher than that in the control group, but the occurrence rate of diarrhea was significantly lower than that in the control group. The comparisons of operation time and intraoperative amount of bleeding after chemotherapy between the two groups were not statistically significant. The comparisons of the occurrence rates of parametrial infiltration and lymphatic metastasis and the muscular layer invasion depth were not statistically significant.Conclusions:Arterial embolism neoadjuvant chemotherapy can obviously shorten the tumor volume in patients with local cervical cancer, relieve the clinical symptoms, and enhance the living qualities, but in the clinical application, appropriate chemotherapy regimen should be chosen according to the specific condition.

  9. Toxicities of different first-line chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (United States)

    Qu, Chang-Ping; Sun, Gui-Xia; Yang, Shao-Qin; Tian, Jun; Si, Jin-Ge; Wang, Yi-Feng


    Abstract Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the 5th leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world, and several chemotherapy regimens have been applied in the treatment of OC. We aim to compare toxicities of different chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) using network meta-analysis. Methods: Literature research in Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE was performed up to November 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different chemotherapy regimens were included. Network meta-analysis combined direct and indirect evidence to assess pooled odds ratios (ORs) and draw the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curves. Results: Thirteen eligible RCTs were included in this network meta-analysis, including 8 chemotherapy regimens (paclitaxel + carboplatin [PC], pegylated liposomal doxorubicin [PLD] + carboplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine + carboplatin, paclitaxel, PC + epirubicin, PC + topotecan, docetaxel + carboplatin). Gemcitabine + carboplatin regimen exerted higher incidence of anemia when compared with carboplatin and paclitaxel regimens. The incidence of febrile neutropenia of gemcitabine + carboplatin regimen was higher than that of PC, PLD + carboplatin, carboplatin, and PC + topotecan regimens. Topotecan PC + epirubicin regimen had a higher toxicity, comparing with PC, PLD + carboplatin, and PC + topotecan regimens. As for thrombocytopenia, gemcitabine + carboplatin chemotherapy regimen produced an obviously higher toxicity than PC and carboplatin. As for nausea, PLD + carboplatin chemotherapy regimen had a significantly higher toxicity than that of carboplatin chemotherapy regimen. Moreover, when compared with PC and carboplatin chemotherapy regimens, the toxicity of PC + epirubicin was greatly higher to patients with AOC. Conclusion: The nonhematologic toxicity of PLD + carboplatin regimen was higher than other regimens, which

  10. Urban-rural difference in the trend of colo-rectal cancer mortality with special reference to the subsites of colon cancer in Japan. (United States)

    Tajima, K; Hirose, K; Nakagawa, N; Kuroishi, T; Tominaga, S


    In order to study the effect of urbanization on the epidemiological features of colo-rectal cancer in Japan, the age-adjusted death rates (AADRs) for right-sided (cecum, ascending and transverse) colon, left-sided (descending and sigmoid) colon and rectum cancers during three periods, 1969-71, 1974-76 and 1979-81, were compared among five areas with different population sizes; ten metropolitan cities (greater than 1,000,000), large cities (1,000,000-150,000), medium-sized cities (150,000-50,000), small cities (less than 50,000) and counties. The AADR for left-sided colon cancer has been increasing in recent years, especially in males, and was higher in urban areas than in rural areas, which may imply that the recent increase in the incidence of left-sided colon cancer is associated with an urbanization of the life styles of Japanese people. In Japan, the daily consumption of carbohydrate has been decreasing, but that of total fat has been increasing in recent years, and the ratio of fat/carbohydrate consumption as an energy source was strongly correlated with the AADRs for left-sided colon cancer among the five areas in the three periods. From this correlation analysis, it was suggested that urbanization of life style, namely, the recent westernization of eating habits of Japanese people might be associated with the recent increase of the AADRs for colon cancer, especially of left-sided colon cancer, in Japan.

  11. Differences in trial knowledge and motives for participation among cancer patients in phase 3 clinical trials. (United States)

    Godskesen, T M; Kihlbom, U; Nordin, K; Silén, M; Nygren, P


    While participants in clinical oncology trials are essential for the advancement of cancer therapies, factors decisive for patient participation have been described but need further investigation, particularly in the case of phase 3 studies. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in trial knowledge and motives for participation in phase 3 clinical cancer trials in relation to gender, age, education levels and former trial experience. The results of a questionnaire returned from 88 of 96 patients (92%) were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. There were small, barely relevant differences in trial knowledge among patients when stratified by gender, age or education. Participants with former trial experience were less aware about the right to withdraw. Male participants and those aged ≥65 years were significantly more motivated by a feeling of duty, or by the opinions of close ones. Men seem more motivated than women by external factors. With the awareness that elderly and single male participants might be a vulnerable group and participants with former trial experience are less likely to be sufficiently informed, the information consent process should focus more on these patients. We conclude that the informed consent process seems to work well, with good results within most subgroups.

  12. Vascular Differences Detected by MRI for Metastatic Versus Nonmetastatic Breast and Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaver M. Bhujwalla


    Full Text Available Several studies have linked vascular density, identified in histologic sections, to “metastatic risk.” Functional information of the vasculature, not readily available from histologic sections, can be obtained with contrast-enhanced MRI to exploit for therapy or metastasis prevention. Our aims were to determine if human breast and prostate cancer xenograffs preselected for differences in invasive and metastatic characteristics established correspondingly different vascular volume and permeability, quantified here with noninvasive MRI of the intravascular contrast agent albumin-GdDTPA. Tumor vascular volume and permeability of human breast and prostate cancer xenografts were characterized using MRI. Parallel studies confirmed the invasive behavior of these cell lines. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in the cell lines was measured using ELISA and Western blots. Metastasis to the lungs was evaluated with spontaneous as well as experimental assay. Metastatic tumors formed vasculature with significantly higher permeability or vascular volume (P < .05, two-sided unpaired t test. The permeability profile matched VEGF expression. Within tumors, regions of high vascular volume usually exhibited low permeability whereas regions of low vascular volume exhibited high permeability. We observed that although invasion was necessary, without adequate vascularization it was not sufficient for metastasis to occur.

  13. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in different stages of cervical cancer: Prognostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srivastava


    Full Text Available Background: Free radical Injury is associated with cancer, but how the extent of oxidative stress correlates with the FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage in Carcinoma Cervix (Ca Cx, and its significance as a prognostic marker, is not clear and needs an in-depth study. Aim: To correlate the blood levels of Lipid Peroxidation (LPO, Reduced Glutathione (GSH, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, and Vitamin A and E levels with the clinical stage in Ca Cx. Settings and Design: This is a Prospective Case Control Study. Materials and Methods: LPO, SOD, reduced GSH were estimated by Bio Chemical Assays and Vitamins by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Statistical Analysis: The cases and controls were compared using One Way ANOVA and different stages over different time periods were individually compared by Repeated Measure Analysis of Variance. Results: The results indicated a statistically significant increase of LPO vis-a-vis the FIGO stage of Ca Cx and control, while the antioxidant status as depicted by GSH and SOD decreased. Vitamin A and E levels were significantly lower in cancer cases as compared to the control. Conclusion: Increased LPO and reduced antioxidant levels may be taken as associated predictive markers, thus suggesting that Ca Cx cases should get nutritive supplements to contain the blood LPO level and maintain a positive balance of antioxidants for a better outcome in terms of delayed recurrence and better Quality of Life (QOL.

  14. Distinct DNA methylation epigenotypes in bladder cancer from different Chinese sub-populations and its implication in cancer detection using voided urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Joanna HM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world and the incidence is particularly high in southwestern Taiwan. Previous studies have identified several tumor-related genes that are hypermethylated in bladder cancer; however the DNA methylation profile of bladder cancer in Taiwan is not fully understood. Methods In this study, we compared the DNA methylation profile of multiple tumor suppressor genes (APC, DAPK, E-cadherin, hMLH1, IRF8, p14, p15, RASSF1A, SFRP1 and SOCS-1 in bladder cancer patients from different Chinese sub-populations including Taiwan (104 cases, Hong Kong (82 cases and China (24 cases by MSP. Two normal human urothelium were also included as control. To investigate the diagnostic potential of using DNA methylation in non-invasive detection of bladder cancer, degree of methylation of DAPK, IRF8, p14, RASSF1A and SFRP1 was also accessed by quantitative MSP in urine samples from thirty bladder cancer patients and nineteen non-cancer controls. Results There were distinct DNA methylation epigenotypes among the different sub-populations. Further, samples from Taiwan and China demonstrated a bimodal distribution suggesting that CpG island methylator phentotype (CIMP is presented in bladder cancer. Moreover, the number of methylated genes in samples from Taiwan and Hong Kong were significantly correlated with histological grade (P SFRP1, IRF8, APC and RASSF1A were significantly associated with increased tumor grade, stage. Methylation of RASSF1A was associated with tumor recurrence. Patients with methylation of APC or RASSF1A were also significantly associated with shorter recurrence-free survival. For methylation detection in voided urine samples of cancer patients, the sensitivity and specificity of using any of the methylated genes (IRF8, p14 or sFRP1 by qMSP was 86.7% and 94.7%. Conclusions Our results indicate that there are distinct methylation epigenotypes among different Chinese sub

  15. How specific Raman spectroscopic models are: a comparative study between different cancers (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Kumar, K. Kalyan; Chowdary, M. V. P.; Maheedhar, K.; Krishna, C. Murali


    Optical spectroscopic methods are being contemplated as adjunct/ alternative to existing 'Gold standard' of cancer diagnosis, histopathological examination. Several groups are actively pursuing diagnostic applications of Ramanspectroscopy in cancers. We have developed Raman spectroscopic models for diagnosis of breast, oral, stomach, colon and larynx cancers. So far, specificity and applicability of spectral- models has been limited to particular tissue origin. In this study we have evaluated explicitly of spectroscopic-models by analyzing spectra from already developed spectralmodels representing normal and malignant tissues of breast (46), cervix (52), colon (25), larynx (53), and oral (47). Spectral data was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using scores of factor, Mahalanobis distance and Spectral residuals as discriminating parameters. Multiparametric limit test approach was also explored. The preliminary unsupervised PCA of pooled data indicates that normal tissue types were always exclusive from their malignant counterparts. But when we consider tissue of different origin, large overlap among clusters was found. Supervised analysis by Mahalanobis distance and spectral residuals gave similar results. The 'limit test' approach where classification is based on match / mis-match of the given spectrum against all the available spectra has revealed that spectral models are very exclusive and specific. For example breast normal spectral model show matches only with breast normal spectra and mismatch to rest of the spectra. Same pattern was seen for most of spectral models. Therefore, results of the study indicate the exclusiveness and efficacy of Raman spectroscopic-models. Prospectively, these findings might open new application of Raman spectroscopic models in identifying a tumor as primary or metastatic.

  16. Transcriptional coexpression network reveals the involvement of varying stem cell features with different dysregulations in different gastric cancer subtypes. (United States)

    Kalamohan, Kalaivani; Periasamy, Jayaprakash; Bhaskar Rao, Divya; Barnabas, Georgina D; Ponnaiyan, Srigayatri; Ganesan, Kumaresan


    Despite the advancements in the cancer therapeutics, gastric cancer ranks as the second most common cancers with high global mortality rate. Integrative functional genomic investigation is a powerful approach to understand the major dysregulations and to identify the potential targets toward the development of targeted therapeutics for various cancers. Intestinal and diffuse type gastric tumors remain the major subtypes and the molecular determinants and drivers of these distinct subtypes remain unidentified. In this investigation, by exploring the network of gene coexpression association in gastric tumors, mRNA expressions of 20,318 genes across 200 gastric tumors were categorized into 21 modules. The genes and the hub genes of the modules show gastric cancer subtype specific expression. The expression patterns of the modules were correlated with intestinal and diffuse subtypes as well as with the differentiation status of gastric tumors. Among these, G1 module has been identified as a major driving force of diffuse type gastric tumors with the features of (i) enriched mesenchymal, mesenchymal stem cell like, and mesenchymal derived multiple lineages, (ii) elevated OCT1 mediated transcription, (iii) involvement of Notch activation, and (iv) reduced polycomb mediated epigenetic repression. G13 module has been identified as key factor in intestinal type gastric tumors and found to have the characteristic features of (i) involvement of embryonic stem cell like properties, (ii) Wnt, MYC and E2F mediated transcription programs, and (iii) involvement of polycomb mediated repression. Thus the differential transcription programs, differential epigenetic regulation and varying stem cell features involved in two major subtypes of gastric cancer were delineated by exploring the gene coexpression network. The identified subtype specific dysregulations could be optimally employed in developing subtype specific therapeutic targeting strategies for gastric cancer.

  17. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Global Ultraviolet Indea in Different Regions of Iran with Skin Cancer in 1383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Naddafi


    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Skin cancer is the most frequent malignancy in Iran. Exposure to the excessive ultraviolet radiation is an important factor in creating skin tumors. The purpose of this study is to determine how the ultraviolet index has been distributed in all townships throughout the country, to determine different kinds of skin cancer and to evaluate a geographical distribution of skin cancers with regard to the UV geographical distribution."nMaterials and Methods: This study is ecologic, descriptive and analytical in nature. A total number of 6921 skin cancer cases registered at the Center for Disease Control of Iran in 2004 were thoroughly analyzed and UV data were collected from the world wide web. With the help of ArcGIS software and SPSS, the statistical analysis was done. "nResults:The incidence rates were 10.13 for the total skin cancer, 7.53 for basal cell carcinoma, 1.79 for squamous cell carcinoma and 0.39 for malignant melanoma per 100000 population of Iran. The mean ultraviolet index differed from 9 in July to 3 in January. The correlation between the skin cancer incidence at the level of districts and ultraviolet index was not significantly observed. "nConclusion:Skin cancer is a public health problem in Iran. Further research in this regard would lead to skin cancer registration improvement and more understanding of different climatic, cultural and behavioral factors in developing skin tumors. With this knowledge the possibility of more effective prevention of the most prevalent cancer in Iran can be created.

  18. Effects of astragali radix on the growth of different cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Lin; Hui-Fang Dong; JJ Oppenheim; OM Howard


    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of a Chinese herb medicine Astragali radix (AR) on growth of different cancer cell lines.METHODS: To observe the in vitro effects of AR on tumor cell proliferation by trypan blue exclusion, MTS method and tritium thymidine incorporation assay. Apoptosis was detected by DNA ladder method.RESULTS: The inhibition rates of AR on the cell respiration of AGS, KATOⅢ, HT29, MDA231, MEL7 and MEL14 were 68.25%, 62.36%, 22.8%, 27.69%, 2.85% and 5.14%respectively at the concentration of 100 ug/ml; it inhibited AGS DNA synthesis by 87.33% at the concentration of 50ug/ml. The inhibitory effect on AGS was time-and dosedependent. AR did not induce apoptosis in AGS cells.CONCLUSION: AR specifically inhibits gastric cancer cells growth in vitro and the mechanism is mainly cytostatic but not cytotoxic or inducing apoptosis.

  19. The prophylactic effect of probiotic Enterococcus lactis IW5 against different human cancer cells

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    Full Text Available Enterococcus lactis IW5 was obtained from human gut and the potential probiotic characteristics of this organism were then evaluated. Results showed that this strain was highly resistant to low pH and high bile salt and adhered strongly to Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal cell lines. The supernatant of E. lactis IW5 strongly inhibited the growth of several pathogenic bacteria and decreased the viability of different cancer cells, such as HeLa, AGS, HT-29, and MCF-7. Conversely, E. lactis IW5 did not inhibit the viability of normal FHs-74 cells. This strain did not generate toxic enzymes, including β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and was highly susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, penicillin, vancomycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazol, and chloramphenicol but resistant to erythromycin and tetracyclin. This study provided evidence for the effect of E. lactis IW5 on cancer cells. Therefore, E. lactis IW5, as a bioactive therapeutics, should be subjected to other relevant tests to verify the therapeutic suitability of this strain for clinical applications.

  20. Anti-proliferative activity of Fumaria vaillantii extracts on different cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haji Abbas Tabrizi


    Full Text Available Plant-derived natural products are known to have cancer chemo-preventive and chemo-therapeutic properties. Plant extracts or their active constituents are used as folk medicine in traditional therapies by 80% of the world population. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-proliferative potential of Fumaria vaillantii extracts on three different cancer cell lines including malignant melanoma SKMEL-3, human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and human myelogenous leukemia K562 as well as human gingival fibroblast (HGF as normal cell line. Anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, flowcytometry and annexin methods. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods. Chloroform fraction had the lowest IC 50 value at 72 h (0.1 μg/ml in MCF-7 cells. Flowcytometry and annexin-V analysis indicated that the chloroform fraction induced necrosis in MCF-7 cells. In addition, the colorimetric methods showed that the methanolic fraction possessed the highest amount of total phenolics (33.03 ± 0.75 mg/g of dry powder and flavonoids (10.5 ± 2.0 mg/g of dry powder.The collective data demonstrated that F. vaillantii chloroform fraction may contain effective compounds with chemo-therapeutic potential act through an apoptotic independent pathway.

  1. Survival ensembles by the sum of pairwise differences with application to lung cancer microarray studies


    Johnson, Brent A.; Long, Qi


    Lung cancer is among the most common cancers in the United States, in terms of incidence and mortality. In 2009, it is estimated that more than 150,000 deaths will result from lung cancer alone. Genetic information is an extremely valuable data source in characterizing the personal nature of cancer. Over the past several years, investigators have conducted numerous association studies where intensive genetic data is collected on relatively few patients compared to the numbers of gene predicto...

  2. Ionizing Radiation Promotes the Migratory and Invasive Potential of Lung Cancer Cells by Different Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Jin Nyoung; Kang, Ga Young; Um, Hong Duck [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Although radiation therapy is a major therapeutic modality for cancer treatment, previous reports have suggested that ionizing radiation (IR) can promote the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells. It was consistently reported that IR can induce certain types of matrix metalloproteinases, which are critical to the degradation of extracellular matrix. Given that the motility of cancer cells is an additional requirement for their metastasis, this study investigated whether IR can also influence the migratory potential of cancer cells.

  3. A comparison of three different adaptive strategies in image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Soendergaard, Jimmi; Petersen, Joergen B. (Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)), E-mail:; Hoeyer, Morten; Muren, Ludvig Paul (Dept. of Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark))


    The urinary bladder shows considerable individual variation in shape and position during a course of radiotherapy (RT). In this study we have developed and compared three different adaptive RT (ART) strategies for bladder cancer involving daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging and plan selection. Material and methods. Ten patients treated for bladder cancer had daily CBCTs acquired that were registered online using bony anatomy registration. Seven patients received intensity modulated RT (IMRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique to the bladder and pelvic lymph nodes. Three patients received treatment to the bladder only. Retrospectively, we compared three ART strategies that were all based on daily selection of the most suitable plan from a library consisting of three IMRT-plans corresponding to a small, medium and large target volume. ART method A utilised population-based margins while methods B and C used the bladder as seen on CBCT-scans from the first week of treatment; method B without delineation of the bladder on CBCT and method C with delineation of the bladder. Total dose distributions were calculated using the planning CT. For each patient, we calculated ratios of the dose volume histograms (DVHs) for the three ART strategies relative to non-adaptive therapy. Results. The inter-patient variation was large for all three ART strategies. The mean ratios of the volumes receiving 57 Gy or more (corresponding to 95% of prescribed dose) for methods A, B and C were 0.66 (SD: 0.11), 0.67 (SD: 0.13) and 0.67 (SD: 0.16) respectively when compared to the non-adaptive plan. Conclusion. When using any of the ART strategies, it is possible to reduce significantly the volumes receiving high doses compared to the use of a standard non-adaptive plan. The differences in dose volume parameters between the three methods were small compared with the differences from the standard plan.

  4. [Epidemiological aspects of childhood cancer]. (United States)

    Lacour, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline


    In France, cancer hits around 1700 children (0-14 years) each year. The age-standardized incidence rate for all cancers combined is 152 cases per million children per year, with a sex ratio of 1.2. In other terms, one child out of 440 develops a cancer before the age of 15 in industrial countries. The most frequent cancers were leukaemia (29%), embryonal tumours apart central nervous system (25%), central nervous system tumour (23%) and lymphoma (12%). The incidence varies between countries with higher overall rates in industrialized countries. These variations may reflect differences in diagnostic techniques or registration or in the distribution of possible risk factors. Five-year survival after childhood cancer has dramatically improved in the last 30 years, reaching yet 80%.

  5. Ethnic Differences in Survival after Breast Cancer in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng-Har; Saxena, Nakul; Taib, Nur Aishah; Lim, Siew-Eng; Iau, Philip; Adami, Hans-Olov; Bulgiba, Awang M.; Lee, Soo-Chin; Verkooijen, Helena M.


    Background: The burden of breast cancer in Asia is escalating. We evaluated the impact of ethnicity on survival after breast cancer in the multi-ethnic region of South East Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using the Singapore-Malaysia hospital-based breast cancer registry, we analyzed the assoc

  6. Exon-level transcriptome profiling in murine breast cancer reveals splicing changes specific to tumors with different metastatic abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Bemmo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the second most frequent type of cancer affecting women. We are increasingly aware that changes in mRNA splicing are associated with various characteristics of cancer. The most deadly aspect of cancer is metastasis, the process by which cancer spreads from the primary tumor to distant organs. However, little is known specifically about the involvement of alternative splicing in the formation of macroscopic metastases. Our study investigates transcript isoform changes that characterize tumors of different abilities to form growing metastases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To identify alternative splicing events (ASEs that are associated with the fully metastatic phenotype in breast cancer, we used Affymetrix Exon Microarrays to profile mRNA isoform variations genome-wide in weakly metastatic (168FARN and 4T07 and highly metastatic (4T1 mammary carcinomas. Statistical analysis identified significant expression changes in 7606 out of 155,994 (4% exons and in 1725 out of 189,460 (1% intronic regions, which affect 2623 out of 16,654 (16% genes. These changes correspond to putative alternative isoforms-several of which are novel-that are differentially expressed between tumors of varying metastatic phenotypes. Gene pathway analysis showed that 1224 of genes expressing alternative isoforms were involved in cell growth, cell interactions, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell death and have been previously linked to cancers and genetic disorders. We chose ten predicted splice variants for RT-PCR validation, eight of which were successfully confirmed (MED24, MFI2, SRRT, CD44, CLK1 and HNRNPH1. These include three novel intron retentions in CD44, a gene in which isoform variations have been previously associated with the metastasis of several cancers. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal that various genes are differently spliced and/or expressed in association with the metastatic phenotype of tumor cells. Identification of

  7. Generation of Multicellular Breast Cancer Tumor Spheroids: Comparison of Different Protocols. (United States)

    Froehlich, Karolin; Haeger, Jan-Dirk; Heger, Julia; Pastuschek, Jana; Photini, Stella Mary; Yan, Yan; Lupp, Amelie; Pfarrer, Christiane; Mrowka, Ralf; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Schmidt, André


    Multicellular tumor spheroids are widely used models in tumor research. Because of their three dimensional organization they can simulate avascular tumor areas comprising proliferative and necrotic cells. Nonetheless, protocols for spheroid generation are still inconsistent. Therefore, in this study the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 have been used to compare different spheroid generation models including hanging drop, liquid overlay and suspension culture techniques, each under several conditions. Experimental approaches differed in cell numbers (400-10,000), media and additives (25 % methocel, 25 % methocel plus 1 % Matrigel, 3.5 % Matrigel). In total, 42 different experimental setups have been tested. Generation of spheroids was evaluated by light microscopy and the structural composition was assessed immunohistochemically by means of Ki-67, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cPARP) and mucin-1 (MUC-1) expression. Although the tested cell lines diverged widely in their capacity of forming spheroids we recommend hanging drops supplemented with 25 % methocel as the most reliable and efficient method with regard to success of generation of uniform spheroids, costs, experimental complexity and time expenditure in the different cell lines. MCF-7 cells formed spheroids under almost all analyzed conditions, and MDA-MB-231 cells under only one protocol (liquid overlay technique, 3.5 % Matrigel), while SK-BR-3 did not under neither condition. Therefore, we outline specific methods and recommend the use of adapted and standardized spheroid generation protocols for each cell line.

  8. Effect of different concentration of HPV DNA probe immobilization for cervical cancer detection based IDE biosensor (United States)

    Roshila, M. L.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.


    This paper principally delineates to the detection process of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test. HPV is an extremely common virus infection that infected to human by the progressions cell in the cervix cell. The types of HPV that give a most exceedingly awful infected with cervical cancer is 16 and 18 other than 31 and 45. The HPV DNA probe is immobilized with a different concentration to stabilize the sensitivity. A technique of rapid and sensitive for the HPV identification was proposed by coordinating basic DNA extraction with a quality of DNA. The extraction of the quality of DNA will make a proficiency of the discovery procedure. It will rely on the sequence of the capture probes and the way to support their attached. The fabrication, surface modification, immobilization and hybridization procedures are described by current-voltage (I-V) estimation by utilizing KEITHLEY 6487. This procedure will play out a decent affectability and selectivity of HPV discovery.

  9. Differing self-similarity in light scattering spectra: A potential tool for pre-cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sayantan; Purwar, Harsh; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K


    The fluctuations in the elastic light scattering spectra of normal and dysplastic human cervical tissues analyzed through wavelet transform based techniques reveal clear signatures of self-similar behavior in the spectral fluctuations. Significant differences in the power law behavior ascertained through the scaling exponent was observed in these tissues. The strong dependence of the elastic light scattering on the size distribution of the scatterers manifests in the angular variation of the scaling exponent. Interestingly, the spectral fluctuations in both these tissues showed multi-fractality (non-stationarity in fluctuations), the degree of multi-fractality being marginally higher in the case of dysplastic tissues. These findings using the multi-resolution analysis capability of the discrete wavelet transform can contribute to the recent surge in the exploration for non-invasive optical tools for pre-cancer detection.

  10. Review on adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer - why do treatment guidelines differ so much?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Laurids Ø; Qvortrup, Camilla; Pfeiffer, Per


    chemotherapy for patients already treated with preoperative (chemo) radiotherapy. For patients not treated preoperatively, several studies support the use of single agent 5-FU chemotherapy. Treatment guidelines seem to differ according to if preoperative chemoradiation is considered of importance for use......BACKGROUND: The use of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial for rectal adenocarcinoma. Both international and national guidelines display a great span varying from recommending no adjuvant chemotherapy at all, over single drug 5-fluororuacil (5-FU), to combinations of 5-FU....../oxaliplatin. METHODS: A review of the literature was made identifying 24 randomized controlled trials on adjuvant treatment of rectal cancer based on about 10 000 patients. The trials were subdivided into a number of clinically relevant subgroups. RESULTS: As regards patients treated with preoperative (chemo...

  11. Differences and Trading: Examining the Effects of Childhood Cancer on the Parental Subsystem-Part 1. (United States)

    Moules, Nancy J; Estefan, Andrew; McCaffrey, Graham; Tapp, Dianne M; Strother, Douglas


    This article is the first of a three-part report of a research study that used hermeneutic inquiry to examine the effects of childhood cancer on the relationship between the parents of the child. In Part 1, we identity the topic of investigation and the relevant literature; describe the research question, method, and design; and begin our interpretations of the data with a focus on the couples who remained together and those who experienced relationship demise. In this analysis, we discovered that issues of difference and trading played a strong role in how the couples fared in their relationships. In Part 2 of this series, we focus on further interpretations, and in Part 3, we discuss the implications of the study for other parents and for health care professionals.

  12. Effects of different general anaesthetic techniques on immune responses in patients undergoing surgery for tongue cancer. (United States)

    Zhang, T; Fan, Y; Liu, K; Wang, Y


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different general anaesthesia techniques on immune responses in patients undergoing surgery for tongue cancer. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2 patients undergoing elective reconstructive surgery for tongue cancer were randomised to three groups. Group 1 received propofol induction and maintenance (TIVA), group 2 received propofol induction and sevoflurane maintenance (MIXED) and group 3 received sevoflurane induction and maintenance (SEVO). All patients received an infusion of remifentanil. Blood samples were obtained at eight time-points: 30 minutes before induction (T0); one hour (T1), three hours (T2) and five hours (T3) after induction; at the end of the operation (T4); and 24 hours (T5), 48 hours (T6) and 72 hours (T7) after operation. The T lymphocyte subsets (including CD3(+) cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and CD3(+)CD8(+)cells) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, natural killer cells and B lymphocytes were analysed by flow cytometry. All immunological indicators except CD3(+)CD8(+) cells were significantly decreased in all groups at T1~T5 compared to T0 (P <0.05). The percentages of CD3(+) cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and natural killer cells, and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios were significantly lower in the MIXED groups and SEVO groups but not the TIVA group at T6 as compared with T0 (P <0.05). There were minor but statistically significant differences in the percentages of CD3(+) cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and natural killer cells, and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios between the SEVO group and the TIVA group at T2approxT6 (P <0.05). These findings suggest that propofol has slightly less effect on cellular immune responses than sevoflurane.

  13. Pioglitazone and bladder cancer in human studies: is it diabetes itself, diabetes drugs, flawed analyses or different ethnicities? (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao


    This article reviews human observations on pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk. The PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events trial showed an imbalance in bladder cancer between users of pioglitazone and placebo (14 versus six cases, p = 0.069). However, after excluding bladder cancer probably ascribed to other etiology, a blind assessment concluded that the imbalance might not be related to pioglitazone. Epidemiologic studies conducted in the United States and France using insurance databases independently suggested that pioglitazone use for >2 years might confer a 20%-40% higher risk. Another study evaluating bladder cancer risk in diabetic patients using the National Health Insurance in Taiwan did not find any incident bladder cancer case among 422 pioglitazone users for a follow-up of up to 3 years. Because observational studies may suffer from selection and information bias, and inadequate adjustment for confounders may inflate the estimated risk, causal inference from these studies should be interpreted with caution. While investigating cancer risk associated with a medication, indication bias should also be attended, especially when the medication is used at a late stage of the disease. Because pioglitazone is usually a second or third line antidiabetic agent, the users are always characterized by older age, longer diabetes duration, poorer glycemic control, and higher rates of complications and comorbidities. Biased estimates will also result if these differences are not appropriately addressed in the analyses. Current evidence neither concludes nor excludes a causal role of pioglitazone on bladder cancer. Clinical trials aiming at evaluating the risk of cancer associated with a medication is not ethical and may not be expected to provide an answer on the issue of pioglitazone-related bladder cancer. However, a meta-analysis using all available clinical trials to compare the bladder cancer risk between pioglitazone and comparators

  14. Different Effects of BORIS/CTCFL on Stemness Gene Expression, Sphere Formation and Cell Survival in Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Alberti

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells are cancer cells characterized by stem cell properties and represent a small population of tumor cells that drives tumor development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance. To date, the molecular mechanisms that generate and regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. BORIS (Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites or CTCFL (CTCF-like is a DNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal tissues only in germ cells and is re-activated in tumors. Recent evidences have highlighted the correlation of BORIS/CTCFL expression with poor overall survival of different cancer patients. We have previously shown an association of BORIS-expressing cells with stemness gene expression in embryonic cancer cells. Here, we studied the role of BORIS in epithelial tumor cells. Using BORIS-molecular beacon that was already validated, we were able to show the presence of BORIS mRNA in cancer stem cell-enriched populations (side population and spheres of cervical, colon and breast tumor cells. BORIS silencing studies showed a decrease of sphere formation capacity in breast and colon tumor cells. Importantly, BORIS-silencing led to down-regulation of hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1 and cancer stem cell markers (ABCG2, CD44 and ALDH1 genes. Conversely, BORIS-induction led to up-regulation of the same genes. These phenotypes were observed in cervical, colon and invasive breast tumor cells. However, a completely different behavior was observed in the non-invasive breast tumor cells (MCF7. Indeed, these cells acquired an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype after BORIS silencing. Our results demonstrate that BORIS is associated with cancer stem cell-enriched populations of several epithelial tumor cells and the different phenotypes depend on the origin of tumor cells.

  15. Dramatic Differences in Organophosphorus Hydrolase Activity between Human and Chimeric Recombinant Mammalian Paraoxonase-1 Enzymes (United States)


    with phenyl acetate and paraoxonwere determined by Michaelis - Menten steady state kinetics . The data from four or more independent experiments were fit...paraoxon was followed atA412 for 20 min at room temperature as described above. The data were fit using Michaelis - Menten steady state kinetics to derive...for 4 h at room temperature as described above. The data were fit using Michaelis - Menten steady state kinetics to derive the KM and Vmax values of

  16. Proteomic analysis of human saliva from lung cancer patients using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Xiao, Hua; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Hui; Lee, Jay M; Garon, Edward B; Wong, David T W


    Lung cancer is often asymptomatic or causes only nonspecific symptoms in its early stages. Early detection represents one of the most promising approaches to reduce the growing lung cancer burden. Human saliva is an attractive diagnostic fluid because its collection is less invasive than that of tissue or blood. Profiling of proteins in saliva over the course of disease progression could reveal potential biomarkers indicative of oral or systematic diseases, which may be used extensively in future medical diagnostics. There were 72 subjects enrolled in this study for saliva sample collection according to the approved protocol. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis combined with MS was the platform for salivary proteome separation, quantification, and identification from two pooled samples. Candidate proteomic biomarkers were verified and prevalidated by using immunoassay methods. There were 16 candidate protein biomarkers discovered by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and MS. Three proteins were further verified in the discovery sample set, prevalidation sample set, and lung cancer cell lines. The discriminatory power of these candidate biomarkers in lung cancer patients and healthy control subjects can reach 88.5% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity with AUC = 0.90. This preliminary data report demonstrates that proteomic biomarkers are present in human saliva when people develop lung cancer. The discriminatory power of these candidate biomarkers indicate that a simple saliva test might be established for lung cancer clinical screening and detection.

  17. Gender-associated Differences of Lung Cancer and Mechanism%肺癌的性别差异及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢昕; 廖永德; 唐和孝; 陈广; 具晟; 游良琨


    Lung cancer has been viewed as the most common malignant cancer with high incidence, mortality and poor survival all over the world. A lot of investigations indicated there are significant gender-associated differences in lung cancer in several characteristics such as epidemiology, pathology, clinical outcome and prognosis. The insight into these differences may help to clarify the gender-associated characteristics of lung cancer, and to drawn out new approach for treatment and prevent of lung cancer depending on gender-associated characteristics. Furthmore, study on mechanism of gender-associated characteristics may even help to illuminate the pathogenesis of lung cancer.%肺癌是全球发病率、死亡率最高、治疗效果差的恶性肿瘤.肺癌在流行病学、病理类型、疗效和预后、甚至发病机制等多方面均表现出明显性别差异.对这些差异的深入剖析能更好地认识男女性别肺癌各自的特点,为肺癌防治采用不同的性别化措施提供新线索和思路;而对导致性别差异的具体机制进行深入研究,有助于阐明肺癌的发病机制.

  18. Contour Detection-Based Realistic Finite-Difference-Time- Domain Models for Microwave Breast Cancer Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梁; 肖夏; 宋航; 路红; 刘佩芳


    In this paper, a collection of three-dimensional(3D)numerical breast models are developed based on clinical magnetic resonance images(MRIs). A hybrid contour detection method is used to create the contour, and the internal space is filled with different breast tissues, with each corresponding to a specified interval of MRI pixel intensity. The developed models anatomically describe the complex tissue structure and dielectric properties in breasts. Besides, they are compatible with finite-difference-time-domain(FDTD)grid cells. Convolutional perfect matched layer(CPML)is applied in conjunction with FDTD to simulate the open boundary outside the model. In the test phase, microwave breast cancer detection simulations are performed in four models with varying radio-graphic densities. Then, confocal algorithm is utilized to reconstruct the tumor images. Imaging results show that the tumor voxels can be recognized in every case, with 2 mm location error in two low density cases and 7 mm─8 mm location errors in two high density cases, demonstrating that the MRI-derived models can characterize the indi-vidual difference between patients’ breasts.

  19. Genetic variants in the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and risk of different types of cancer. (United States)

    Tan, Juan; Yu, Chen-Yang; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Hao-Yan; Guan, Jian; Chen, Ying-Xuan; Fang, Jing-Yuan


    Members of the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway regulate cell proliferation, migration and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling, and are frequently dysregulated in cancer. Whether germline genetic variants in inositol phosphate metabolism pathway are associated with cancer risk remains to be clarified. We examined the association between inositol phosphate metabolism pathway genes and risk of eight types of cancer using data from genome-wide association studies. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate SNP-level associations. Gene- and pathway-based associations were tested using the permutation-based adaptive rank-truncated product method. The overall inositol phosphate metabolism pathway was significantly associated with risk of lung cancer (P = 2.00 × 10(-4)), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (P = 5.70 × 10(-3)), gastric cancer (P = 3.03 × 10(-2)) and renal cell carcinoma (P = 1.26 × 10(-2)), but not with pancreatic cancer (P = 1.40 × 10(-1)), breast cancer (P = 3.03 × 10(-1)), prostate cancer (P = 4.51 × 10(-1)), and bladder cancer (P = 6.30 × 10(-1)). Our results provide a link between inherited variation in the overall inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and several individual genes and cancer. Further studies will be needed to validate these positive findings, and to explore its mechanisms.

  20. Application of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dyes) to laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for cancer proteomics. (United States)

    Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo


    Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics.

  1. Is social inequality related to different patient concerns in routine oral cancer follow-up clinics? (United States)

    Allen, Sarah; Lowe, Derek; Harris, Rebecca V; Brown, Steve; Rogers, Simon N


    Oral cancer has a higher incidence in the lower social strata, and these patients are less likely to engage in supportive interventions and report a poorer quality of life (QoL). The aim of this paper is to compare the Patient Concerns Inventory (PCI) responses across social groups attending routine oral cancer follow-up clinics with particular focus on the deprivation lower quartile. The PCI package is completed by patients as part of their routine review consultation with SNR. Patients were those diagnosed between 2008 and 2012. Deprivation was stratified using the IMD 2010 from postcode. Of the 106 eligible patients, 85 % used the PCI. Just over half (54 %) were living in the most deprived quartile, with two-thirds (68 %) of males in the most deprived quartile, compared with 35 % of females (p = 0.004). In regard to number and type of PCI items selected by patients at their first PCI clinic, there were no notable differences in respect of IMD classification. The two commonest concerns were fear of recurrence (43 %) and sore mouth (43 %). The most deprived quartile reported significant problems in regard to mood (p = 0.004) and recreation (p = 0.02), and a non-significant trend (36 vs 18 %, p = 0.09) in stating their overall QoL as being less than good. It is possible to identify the concerns of patients from lower socioeconomic strata as part of routine follow-up clinics. This allows for targeted multi-professional intervention and supports to improve the outcome in this hard to reach group.

  2. Hypoxia-induced modulation of apoptosis and BCL-2 family proteins in different cancer cell types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Sermeus

    Full Text Available Hypoxia plays an important role in the resistance of tumour cells to chemotherapy. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Moreover, according to the cell lines, hypoxia differently influences cell death. The study of the effects of hypoxia on the apoptosis induced by 5 chemotherapeutic drugs in 7 cancer cell types showed that hypoxia generally inhibited the drug-induced apoptosis. In most cases, the effect of hypoxia was the same for all the drugs in one cell type. The expression profile of 93 genes involved in apoptosis as well as the protein level of BCL-2 family proteins were then investigated. In HepG2 cells that are strongly protected against cell death by hypoxia, hypoxia decreased the abundance of nearly all the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins while none of them are decreased in A549 cells that are not protected against cell death by hypoxia. In HepG2 cells, hypoxia decreased NOXA and BAD abundance and modified the electrophoretic mobility of BIM(EL. BIM and NOXA are important mediators of etoposide-induced cell death in HepG2 cells and the hypoxia-induced modification of these proteins abundance or post-translational modifications partly account for chemoresistance. Finally, the modulation of the abundance and/or of the post-translational modifications of most proteins of the BCL-2 family by hypoxia involves p53-dependent and -independent pathways and is cell type-dependent. A better understanding of these cell-to-cell variations is crucial in order to overcome hypoxia-induced resistance and to ameliorate cancer therapy.

  3. Long Non-Coding RNA as Potential Biomarker for Prostate Cancer: Is It Making a Difference? (United States)

    Deng, Junli; Tang, Jie; Wang, Guo; Zhu, Yuan-Shan


    Whole genome transcriptomic analyses have identified numerous long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts that are increasingly implicated in cancer biology. LncRNAs are found to promote essential cancer cell functions such as proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, with the potential to serve as novel biomarkers of various cancers and to further reveal uncharacterized aspects of tumor biology. However, the biological and molecular mechanisms as well as the clinical applications of lncRNAs in diverse diseases are not completely understood, and remain to be fully explored. LncRNAs may be critical players and regulators in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and progression, and could serve as potential biomarkers for prostate cancer. This review focuses on lncRNA biomarkers that are already available for clinical use and provides an overview of lncRNA biomarkers that are under investigation for clinical development in prostate cancer. PMID:28272371

  4. Cancer (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  5. Interindividual Difference in Metabolism of Carcinogens as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer (United States)


    polymorphism capture only a fraction of the enzyme variability in at risk individuals. We therefore decided to determine expression of CYP1B1 in the breast to...cytochrome P4501B1 ( CYP1B1 ) polymorphism with steroid receptor status in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 56: 5038-5041. 10. Hanna, I.H., Roodi, N., Guengrich...patients and CYP1B1 expression is compared in specimen from cancer patients and healthy controls to establish if breast cancer patients have an increased

  6. Fulminant hepatic failure resulting from small-cell lung cancer and dramatic response of chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyoichi Kaira; Atsushi Takise; Rieko Watanabe; Masatomo Mori


    Prompt treatment in tumor-associated encephalopathy may prolong survival. We describe a 69-year-old male patient who was presented with fulminant hepatic failure, secondary to small-cell lung carcinoma with rapidly progressing encephalopathy. Both symptoms remitted following chemotherapy, suggesting swift diagnosis and administration of chemotherapy to be effective in treatment of fulminant hepatic failure and encephalopathy.

  7. Liposomes versus metallic nanostructures: differences in the process of knowledge translation in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajardo-Ortiz D


    Full Text Available David Fajardo-Ortiz,1 Luis Duran,1 Laura Moreno,1 Héctor Ochoa,2 Víctor M Castaño1,3,41Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 2El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristobal de las Casas, Mexico; 3Molecular Material Department, Applied Physics and Advanced Technology Center, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Juriquilla, Mexico; 4Advanced Technology Center, CIATEQ, Queretaro, MexicoAbstract: This research maps the knowledge translation process for two different types of nanotechnologies applied to cancer: liposomes and metallic nanostructures (MNs. We performed a structural analysis of citation networks and text mining supported in controlled vocabularies. In the case of liposomes, our results identify subnetworks (invisible colleges associated with different therapeutic strategies: nanopharmacology, hyperthermia, and gene therapy. Only in the pharmacological strategy was an organized knowledge translation process identified, which, however, is monopolized by the liposomal doxorubicins. In the case of MNs, subnetworks are not differentiated by the type of therapeutic strategy, and the content of the documents is still basic research. Research on MNs is highly focused on developing a combination of molecular imaging and photothermal therapy.Keywords: nanotechnology, citation network analysis, basic research, clinics, health care

  8. Morphometry of tumor cells in different grades and types of breast cancer. (United States)

    Prvulović, Ivana; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Sustercić, Dunja; Jakić-Razumović, Jasminka; Manojlović, Spomenka


    The aim of the study was to compare morphometric characteristics of different types and grades of breast cancer. Morphometric analysis was performed using the SFORM software (Vamstec, Zagreb) on the May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) breast tissue specimens. The study included 42 patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma by breast smear FNAC at Merkur University Hospital during the 2001-2005 period. Postoperative tumor histopathology and semi-quantitative tumor grading by the method of Elston and Ellis' showed invasive ductal carcinoma grade I in 10, invasive ductal carcinoma grade II in 9, invasive ductal carcinoma grade III in 13, and invasive lobular carcinoma in 13 patients, the latter also including a subtype of invasive tubulolobular carcinoma. The following parameters were assessed by use of Statistica 7.1 and chi2-test: tumor area, circumference, maximal radius, minimal radius, convexity, length, width, elongation, nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and shape factor. Morphometric analysis yielded statistically significant differences among all study groups (p < 0.001). Morphometric parameters showed significant individual correlation with tumor type and grade, whereby the area, convexity and circumference were most significant at both nuclear and cellular level.

  9. The Different Roles of hRAD50 in Microsatellite Stable and Unstable Colorectal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Gao


    Full Text Available RAD50 protein is essential for DNA double-strand break repair and maintaining genomic integrity. In this study, we investigated the clinicopathological significance of hRAD50 expression and mutation in microsatellite stable (MSS and unstable (MSI colorectal cancers (CRCs. hRAD50 expression was examined in primary CRC (n=268, the corresponding distant (n=69 and adjacent normal mucosa (n=138, and lymph node metastasis (n=44 by immunohistochemistry. hRAD50 mutation was analyzed in 87 primary CRCs by PCR-SSCP-DNA sequencing. hRAD50 expression was increased in MSS primary CRCs, but not MSI ones, compared with distant/adjacent normal mucosa (p<0.05. There was no difference in the hRAD50 expression between primary and metastatic CRCs. The increased hRAD50 expression in MSS primary CRCs was related (p<0.05 or tended to be related (p=0.05 to early tumor stage, better differentiation, high inflammatory infiltration, p53 overexpression. Frameshift mutations of (A9 at coding region of hRAD50 were only found in MSI CRCs. Our results suggest that hRAD50 may play different roles in the development of MSS and MSI CRCs: increased hRAD50 expression in MSS CRCs may be a cellular response against tumor from further progression, while hRAD50 mutation may be involved in the development of MSI CRCs.

  10. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Milman, N


    in pregnant women carrying trisomy 21 foetuses and in women with normal pregnancies, throughout pregnancy and postpartum. Material and methods. Employing ELISA methods, serum collected at gestational weeks (GW) 18, 32, 39 and 8 weeks postpartum from women carrying normal foetuses (n = 141) was analysed...... comparable to concentrations previously measured in non-pregnant women. TFF1 concentrations rose throughout pregnancy and postpartum, being 1.5 times higher postpartum compared to 18 GW. No differences in the levels of TFFs were observed between women carrying trisomy 21 and those with healthy foetuses......Objective. Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs...

  11. Multiple chimeric antigen receptors successfully target chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in several different cancer histologies and cancer stem cells


    Beard, Rachel E; Zheng, Zhili; Lagisetty, Kiran H.; Burns, William R.; Tran, Eric; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Abate-Daga, Daniel; Rosati, Shannon F.; Fine, Howard A.; Ferrone, Soldano; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Morgan, Richard A.


    Background The development of immunotherapy has led to significant progress in the treatment of metastatic cancer, including the development of genetic engineering technologies that redirect lymphocytes to recognize and target a wide variety of tumor antigens. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are hybrid proteins combining antibody recognition domains linked to T cell signaling elements. Clinical trials of CAR-transduced peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have induced remission of both solid ...

  12. Dramatic destabilization of the Ru(0001) surface upon oxygen adsorption (United States)

    Reuter, K.; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. V.; Scheffler, M.; Stampfl, C.


    Under high oxygen pressures, where most other transition metal surfaces typically form inert surface oxides, Ru(0001) displays the highest rates for oxidation reactions. This unusual behavior has been attributed to the fact that Ru can exist in different oxidation states and to the ease with which its surface can be loaded with high concentrations of subsurface oxygen. Yet, recent experiments have also indicated that high oxygen loads in the subsurface region destabilize Ru(0001) and lead to the emission of RuOx (xA. Böttcher, H. Conrad and H. Niehus, J. Chem. Phys. (submitted).). We perform density functional theory calculations to gain a fundamental understanding of the O-Ru bond in on-surface as well as subsurface oxygen phases. After completion of a full monolayer coverage on the surface, Ru(0001) is found to strongly bind even up to another full monolayer in the sites directly below the first substrate layer. In agreement with the experimental findings, this highly loaded O-Ru-O fringe is then relatively instable against lift-off, which might lead to either RuOx fragmentation or restructuring. The relation between charge transfer towards the oxygen and bond formation, as well as substrate destabilization is discussed.

  13. The electron donating capacity of biochar is dramatically underestimated (United States)

    Prévoteau, Antonin; Ronsse, Frederik; Cid, Inés; Boeckx, Pascal; Rabaey, Korneel


    Biochars have gathered considerable interest for agronomic and engineering applications. In addition to their high sorption ability, biochars have been shown to accept or donate considerable amounts of electrons to/from their environment via abiotic or microbial processes. Here, we measured the electron accepting (EAC) and electron donating (EDC) capacities of wood-based biochars pyrolyzed at three different highest treatment temperatures (HTTs: 400, 500, 600 °C) via hydrodynamic electrochemical techniques using a rotating disc electrode. EACs and EDCs varied with HTT in accordance with a previous report with a maximal EAC at 500 °C (0.4 mmol(e-).gchar-1) and a large decrease of EDC with HTT. However, while we monitored similar EAC values than in the preceding study, we show that the EDCs have been underestimated by at least 1 order of magnitude, up to 7 mmol(e-).gchar-1 for a HTT of 400 °C. We attribute this existing underestimation to unnoticed slow kinetics of electron transfer from biochars to the dissolved redox mediators used in the monitoring. The EDC of other soil organic constituents such as humic substances may also have been underestimated. These results imply that the redox properties of biochars may have a much bigger impact on soil biogeochemical processes than previously conjectured.

  14. The enhanced bladder cancer susceptibility of NAT2 slow acetylators towards aromatic amines: a review considering ethnic differences. (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Prior, Verena; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M


    Human bladder cancer may be caused by exposure to aromatic amines. The polymorphic enzyme N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is involved in the metabolism of these compounds. Two classical studies on chemical workers in Europe, exposed in the past to aromatic amines like benzidine, unambiguously showed that the slow acetylator status is a genetic risk factor for arylamine-induced bladder cancer. In the former benzidine industry in Huddington, Great Britain, 22 of 23 exposed cases with bladder cancer, but only 57% of 95 local controls without bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype. In Leverkusen, Germany, 82% of 92 benzidine-exposed chemical workers with bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype, whereas only 48% of 331 chemical workers who had worked at that plant were of the slow acetylator phenotype. This is in line with several smaller studies, which also show an over-representation of the slow acetylator status in formerly arylamine-exposed subjects with bladder cancer. Some of these studies included also subjects that were exposed to aromatic amines by having applied dyes, paints and varnishes. These European findings are in contrast to a large study on Chinese workers occupationally exposed to aromatic amines. In this study, only five of 38 bladder cancer cases occupationally exposed to arylamines were of the slow acetylator genotype. This is much lower than the ratio of slow acetylators to the general population in China. This points to different mechanisms of susceptibility for bladder cancer upon exposure to aromatic amines between European (Caucasian) and Chinese populations.

  15. Differences in the progesterone receptor contents between familial breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers stratified by patient age. (United States)

    Fukutomi, T; Akashi-Tanaka, S


    In the present study, we investigated the estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) contents of familial breast cancers (FBCs) and compared the findings with those of sporadic breast cancers., stratified by the patients' age. To evaluate the hormone receptor contents of Japanese FBCs, we collected a consecutive series of 250 FBCs and 2,533 sporadic breast cancers (SBCs). These patients were divided into the three groups stratified by the patients' age at initial surgery (group I, under 40 years old; group II, 40-60 years old; group III, over 60 years old). The clinicopathological features of FBCs and SBCs, including ERs and PRs, were analyzed for each group. In all age groups, the PR contents of FBCs were significantly lower than those of SBCs, particularly for group III. In FBCs, the PR content was significantly lower in group III than in groups I or II. In addition, there was a nonsignificant trend towards a high frequency of ER-positive, PR-negative tumors in FBC patients aged 60 years and over. These data indicate that the loss of ER function and/or loss of binding capacity of PR to progesterone was associated with some late-onset FBCS.

  16. Impact of different IMRT techniques to improve conformity and normal tissue sparing in upper esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin E Amin


    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for cervical esophageal cancer is challenging. Although IMRT techniques using inverse planning algorithms are facilitating the treatment planning process, the irradiation dose to the normal tissues can be a critical issue. This study was performed to investigate the effect of beam numbers and their directions and local optimization on: (1 dose conformity and homogeneity to the planning target volume (PTV and (2 dose to the organ at risks (OARs.Methods: Four upper esophageal cancer cases were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. Eight IMRT plans were generated for each case with the same dose-volume constraints but with different beam numbers and arrangements. Local optimization using regular structures drawn automatically around the PTV with margins from 0.5-1.5 cm was performed. IMRT plans were evaluated with respect to isodose distributions, dose-volume histograms (DVHs parameters, homogeneity index (HI, and conformity index (CI. The statistical comparison between the types of plans was done using the One Way ANOVA test.Results: The results showed that IMRT using three or five beams was not sufficient to obtain good dose optimization. The seven field plans showed the best coverage for the PTV with tolerable doses for the OARs, and the beam orientation was very critical. Increasing beams (Bs number from 7 to 13 did not show significant differences in the PTV coverage, while the mean lung dose was increased. The PTV coverage were 95.1, 95.1, 98.1, 97.3, 97.3, 97.3, 97.0, and 97.0% for 3Bs, 5Bs, 7Bs, 9Bs, 13Bs, 7Bs(30, 7Bs(60 (beam angles were changed from 0o to 30o and 60o, and 7Bs(R (seven IMRT plans with ring, respectively. The mean heart dose did not exceed 0.36 Gy with p < 0.05. For lung doses, the best plan was the one with 9Bs which reduced lung volume doses V20Gy (% and V30Gy (%, and reduced mean lung dose from 5.4 to 4.5 Gy with p < 0.05 for 7Bs(R plans. IMRT improved the

  17. Gender differences in the trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore, 1968–2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); C.S. Wong (Chia Siong); K.S. Chia (Kee Seng); X. Sim (Xueling); C.S. Tan (Chuen Seng); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); H.M. Verkooijen (Helena)


    textabstractBackground and aims Over the past decades, incidence trends of colorectal cancer are sharply increased in Singapore. In this population-based study we describe changes in colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore and explore the reasons behind these changes through age-period cohort (APC

  18. Gender differences in the trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore, 1968-2002.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, IM de; Wong, C.S.; Chia, K.S.; Sim, X.; Tan, C.S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Verkooijen, H.M.


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Over the past decades, incidence trends of colorectal cancer are sharply increased in Singapore. In this population-based study we describe changes in colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore and explore the reasons behind these changes through age-period cohort (APC) modeling.

  19. Individual differences in emotional expressivity predict oxytocin responses to cortisol administration : Relevance to breast cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob


    Reduced emotional expression has been consistently related to susceptibility or fast progression of breast cancer. Breast cancer development and reduced emotional expression have both been related to rejection- and separation-related conditions. The neuropeptide oxytocin is low in response to reject

  20. Reimbursement of targeted cancer therapies within 3 different European health care systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlović, Jovan; Dolk, Christiaan; Tolley, Keith; Simoens, Steven; Postma, Maarten J.


    PURPOSE: Targeted cancer therapies (TCTs) are drugs that specifically act on molecular targets within the cancer cell, causing its regression and/or destruction. Although TCTs offer clinically important gains in survival in one of the most challenging therapeutic areas, these gains are followed by c

  1. The Optimality of Different Strategies for Supplemental Staging of Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Fischer, Barbara Malene B; Mortensen, Jann;


    To assess the expected costs and outcomes of alternative strategies for staging of lung cancer to inform a Danish National Health Service perspective about the most cost-effective strategy.......To assess the expected costs and outcomes of alternative strategies for staging of lung cancer to inform a Danish National Health Service perspective about the most cost-effective strategy....

  2. Anticancer Effects of Different Seaweeds on Human Colon and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Moussavou


    Full Text Available Seafoods and seaweeds represent some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Seaweed has been shown to have several biological activities, including anticancer activity. This review focuses on colorectal and breast cancers, which are major causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women. It also describes various compounds extracted from a range of seaweeds that have been shown to eradicate or slow the progression of cancer. Fucoidan extracted from the brown algae Fucus spp. has shown activity against both colorectal and breast cancers. Furthermore, we review the mechanisms through which these compounds can induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. By considering the ability of compounds present in seaweeds to act against colorectal and breast cancers, this review highlights the potential use of seaweeds as anticancer agents.

  3. 92-Gene molecular profiling in identification of cancer origin: a retrospective study in Chinese population and performance within different subgroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After cancer diagnosis, therapy for the patient is largely dependent on the tumor origin, especially when a metastatic tumor is being treated. However, cases such as untypical metastasis, poorly differentiated tumors or even a limited number of tumor cells may lead to challenges in identifying the origin. Moreover, approximately 3% to 5% of total solid tumor patients will not have to have their tumor origin identified in their lifetime. The THEROS CancerTYPE ID® is designed for identifying the tumor origin with an objective, rapid and standardized procedure. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a blinded retrospective study to evaluate performance of the THEROS CancerTYPE ID® in a Chinese population. In total, 184 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples of 23 tumor origins were collected from the tissue bank of Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FDUSCC. A standard tumor cell enrichment process was used, and the prediction results were compared with reference diagnosis, which was confirmed by two experienced pathologists at FDUSCC. All of the 184 samples were successfully analyzed, and no tumor specimens were excluded because of sample quality issues. In total, 151 samples were correctly predicted. The agreement rate was 82.1%. A Pearson Chi-square test shows that there is no difference between this study and the previous evaluation test performed by bioTheranostics Inc. No statistically significant decrease was observed in either the metastasis group or tumors with high grades. CONCLUSIONS: A comparable result with previous work was obtained. Specifically, specimens with a high probability score (>0.85 have a high chance (agreement rate = 95% of being correctly predicted. No performance difference was observed between primary and metastatic specimens, and no difference was observed among three tumor grades. The use of laser capture micro-dissection (LCM makes the THEROS CancerTYPE ID® accessible to almost all

  4. ABL tyrosine kinase inhibition variable effects on the invasive properties of different triple negative breast cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Chevalier

    Full Text Available The non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL drives myeloid progenitor expansion in human chronic myeloid leukemia. ABL inhibition by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib is a first-line treatment for this disease. Recently, ABL has also been implicated in the transforming properties of solid tumors, including triple negative (TN breast cancer. TN breast cancers are highly metastatic and several cell lines derived from these tumors display high invasive activity in vitro. This feature is associated with the activation of actin-rich membrane structures called invadopodia that promote extracellular matrix degradation. Here, we investigated nilotinib effect on the invasive and migratory properties of different TN breast cancer cell lines. Nilotinib decreased both matrix degradation and invasion in the TN breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 468. However, and unexpectedly, nilotinib increased by two-fold the invasive properties of the TN breast cancer cell line BT-549 and of Src-transformed fibroblasts. Both display much higher levels of ABL kinase activity compared to MDA-MB 231. Similar effects were obtained by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of ABL expression, confirming ABL central role in this process. ABL anti-tumor effect in BT-549 cells and Src-transformed fibroblasts was not dependent on EGF secretion, as recently reported in neck and squamous carcinoma cells. Rather, we identified the TRIO-RAC1 axis as an important downstream element of ABL activity in these cancer cells. In conclusion, the observation that TN breast cancer cell lines respond differently to ABL inhibitors could have implications for future therapies.

  5. Aggressive Surgery in Palliative Setting of Lung Cancer: Is it Helpful? (United States)

    Byregowda, Suman; Prabhash, Kumar; Puri, Ajay; Joshi, Amit; Noronha, Vanita; Patil, Vijay M; Panda, Pankaj Kumar; Gulia, Ashish


    With increase in survival and progression-free survival in the advanced metastatic cancers, the expectation of quality of life (QOL) has increased dramatically. Palliative care plays a vital role in the management of these advanced cancer patients. At present scenario, palliative care in advanced cancer has seen a completely different approach. Aggressive surgical procedures have been performed to improve the QOL in the advanced cancer patients. We report a case of advanced lung cancer with pathological femur fracture, treated with extensive total femur replacement surgery to provide better QOL. PMID:27803575

  6. Cytotoxic and toxicogenomic effects of silibinin in bladder cancer cells with different TP53 status. (United States)

    DE Oliveira, Daiane Teixeira; Savio, Andre Luiz Ventura; Marcondes, Joao Paulo DE Castro; Barros, Tatiane Martins; Barbosa, Ludmila Correia; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Favero; DA Silva, Glenda Nicioli


    Silibinin is a natural phenol found in the seeds of the milk thistle plant. Recent data have shown its effectiveness for preventing/treating bladder tumours. Therefore, in this study we investigated the cytotoxic and toxicogenetic activity of silibinin in bladder cancer cells with different TP53 statuses. Two bladder urothelial carcinoma cell lines were used: RT4 (wild-type TP53 gene) and T24 (mutated TP53 gene). Cell proliferation, clonogenic survival, apoptosis rates, genotoxicity and relative expression profile of FRAP/mTOR, FGFR3, AKT2 and DNMT1 genes and of miR100 and miR203 were evaluated. Silibinin promoted decreased proliferation and increased late apoptosis in TP53 mutated cells. Increased early apoptosis rates, primary DNA damage, and decrease of cell colonies in the clonogenic survival assay were detected in both RT4 and T24 cell lines. Down-regulation of FRAP/mTOR, AKT2, FGFR3, DNMT1 and miR100 expression occurred in RT4 cells. Modulation of miR203 was observed in both cell lines. In conclusion, despite the reduction of clone formation in both cell lines, the toxicogenomic effect of silibinin on FRAP/mTOR, AKT2, FGFR3, DNMT1 and miR100 was dependent on the TP53 status. Taken together, the data confirmed the role of silibinin as an antiproliferative compound, whose mechanism of action was related to the TP53 status.

  7. Cytotoxic and toxicogenomic effects of silibinin in bladder cancer cells with different TP53 status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Silibinin is a natural phenol found in the seeds of the milk thistle plant. Recent data have shown its effectiveness forpreventing/treating bladder tumours. Therefore, in this study we investigated the cytotoxic and toxicogenetic activityof silibinin in bladder cancer cells with different TP53 statuses. Two bladder urothelial carcinoma cell lines were used:RT4 (wild-type TP53 gene) and T24 (mutated TP53 gene). Cell proliferation, clonogenic survival, apoptosis rates,genotoxicity and relative expression profile of FRAP/mTOR, FGFR3, AKT2 and DNMT1 genes and of miR100 andmiR203 were evaluated. Silibinin promoted decreased proliferation and increased late apoptosis in TP53 mutatedcells. Increased early apoptosis rates, primary DNA damage, and decrease of cell colonies in the clonogenic survivalassay were detected in both RT4 and T24 cell lines. Down-regulation of FRAP/mTOR, AKT2, FGFR3, DNMT1 andmiR100 expression occurred in RT4 cells. Modulation of miR203 was observed in both cell lines. In conclusion,despite the reduction of clone formation in both cell lines, the toxicogenomic effect of silibinin on FRAP/mTOR,AKT2, FGFR3, DNMT1 and miR100 was dependent on the TP53 status. Taken together, the data confirmed the role ofsilibinin as an antiproliferative compound, whose mechanism of action was related to the TP53 status.

  8. Identification of Differently Expressed Genes in Chemical Carcinogen-induced Rat Bladder Cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangfu CHEN; Franky L. CHAN; Xu ZHANG; Peter S.F. CHAN


    Possible altered gene expression patterns in bladder turnout carcinogenesis in rat bladder cancers induced by BBN [N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine] was examined by cDNA microarray analysis of gene expression profiles.Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were given drinking water containing 0.05% BBN ad libitum for 24 to 28-weeks.Equal numbers of control rats were given tap water without BBN.After treatment,the rat bladders were excised for RNA extraction and histopathological examinations.Total RNAs were extracted from rat transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tissues and micro-dissected normal rat bladder epithelia.The atlas glass rat microarray was used,which included oligonucleotides of 1081 rat genes.Some of the up-regulated genes in rat bladder TCCs were further confirmed by Northern blotting.Our results showed that the transcriptions of 30 genes were significantly elevated in the rat bladder TCCs,and these included fly proto-oncogene,Lipocortin 2,COX Ⅳ,COX Ⅴ a,and cathepsin D.Also,15 genes were significantly down-regulated in the rat bladder TCCs and they included B7.1,TNFrl,APOAI and VHL.The resuits of cDNA microarray analysis demonstrated that normal rat bladder epithelia and bladder TCC exhibited different and specific gene statement profiles.The increased expressions of the identified genes may play an important role in the chemically induced bladder carcinogenesis.

  9. Estimation of Nickel in Different Smokeless Tobacco Products and Their Impact on Human Health of Oral Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam S; Sahito, Oan M


    It has been extensively investigated that the chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products may enhance the inflammation of the oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between nickel (Ni) exposure via different SLT products with oral cancer (different sites) incidence in the population of Sindh, Pakistan. The different brands of SLT products (mainpuri, gutkha, and moist snuff) commonly consumed by the studied population were analyzed for Ni contents. The biological samples of oral cancer patients and noncancerous control subjects of both genders, who have or have not consumed SLT products, were collected. The concentration of Ni in biological samples and SLT products were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the Ni level was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). The study suggested that exposure of Ni as a result of chewing different SLT products may be synergistic with risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  10. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf


    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...

  11. Cost-effectiveness of targeted therapeutics in metastatic renal cell cancer seen from two different economic perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlović, J.; Postma, M.J.


    Objectives: To assess the cost-effectiveness of first line metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) drugs from the perspective of two different economic and clinical settings, The Netherlands (NL) and Serbia (SRB). Methods: The research included all first line mRCC therapeutics recommended by the Europea

  12. Is retention of zoledronic acid onto bone different in multiple myeloma and breast cancer patients with bone metastasis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Plesner, Torben; Jakobsen, Erik H;


    -specific factors may differently influence Zol retention in MM and BC patients. We tested this hypothesis in an investigator initiated phase II clinical trial in which we compared the whole-body retention (WBrt) of Zol in a cohort of 30 multiple myeloma (MM) and 30 breast cancer (BC) (20 Zol naive and 40 with six...

  13. Different therapeutic effects of distinct KISS1 fragments on breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Yi


    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. In these studies, a metastasis suppressor gene, KISS1 and its truncated fragment, were overexpressed in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. In addition, KISS1 expression was downregulated in MDA-MB-157 cell line using a KISS1-specific siRNA. The effects of KISS1 on breast cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro were then identified. Our results indicate that KISS1 can induce apoptosis and inhibit mobility of breast cancer cells. Moreover, the expression of KISS1 in established xenografted tumors was associated with a decrease in tumor size and weight. Accordingly, the survival rate of these mice was significantly higher compared to that of mice bearing tumors that did not express KISS1. We also confirm that KISS1 could decrease the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The plasma levels of metastin and the number of CTCs were significantly positively correlated. Furthermore, we found that KISS1 can inactivate p-MEK and p-ERK. Overall, these studies demonstrate the antitumor activity of KISS1 in the breast cancer cell lines and provide insight into relevant mechanisms that may lead to novel treatments for breast cancer.

  14. Androgen receptor gene methylation and exon one CAG repeat length in ovarian cancer: differences from breast cancer. (United States)

    Kassim, Samar; Zoheiry, Nivan M; Hamed, Wael M; Going, James J; Craft, John A


    More than one neoplastic founder clone can exist in benign epithelial tumours. Although theories of clonal selection make pluriclonality appear unlikely in carcinomas, published data do not exclude this possibility. This study looked for evidence of multiclonal X inactivation in ovarian carcinoma using AR methylation as a marker. Fifteen unifocal ovarian carcinomas and 14 multifocal carcinomas all in Scottish patients were studied. One representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour block was chosen for each of the former and two for the latter. From each of these 43 tumour blocks three samples each of approximately 10(4) carcinoma cells were obtained by microdissection (129 in all). DNA released by proteinase K digestion was subjected to PCR amplification of the androgen receptor gene AR exon I CAG repeat polymorphism with and without prior digestion with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes HpaII and HhaI. Complex amplification patterns were consistent with mosaic X inactivation in some ovarian carcinomas but acquired anomalies of AR methylation cannot be excluded. Parallel analysis of other X-linked polymorphic loci would strengthen the inference of clonality status from DNA methylation data in tumour X studies. Strikingly, the number of CAG repeats in the 29 ovarian tumour patients (median 16, range 11 - 20) was substantially fewer than in 34 previously studied breast cancer patients from the same scottish population (median 21, range 14 - 26; P CAG repeat were over-represented in the ovarian cancer patients but not in the breast cancer series. These findings reinforce recent suggestions that AR may have a role in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  15. Expression and significance of S100P, CD147, and OCT4 in different prostate cancer tissue TNM stages. (United States)

    Wang, Q; Zhang, J G; Wang, W


    The aim of this project was to investigate the expression and significance of S100P, CD147, and OCT4 in prostate cancer tissue at different TNM stages. We enrolled 54 patients with prostate cancer, 40 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 20 subjects with normal prostates. S100P, CD147, and OCT4 were detected by immunohistochemistry. The positive rate of S100P detection was 18.52% in prostate cancer tissues, significantly lower than in normal and benign prostate hyperplasia tissues (P ˂ 0.05). The positive expression rate of CD147 and OCT4 were 100 and 77.38% in prostate cancer tissue, respectively, both markedly higher than in normal and benign prostate hyperplasia tissue (P ˂ 0.05). The positive rate of S100P in stage V was 0, which was significantly lower than in stages I (37.50%) and II (35.71%) (P ˂ 0.05). OCT4 expression in stages III (86.67%) and V (94.12%) was higher than in stage I (37.50%). The positive rate of S100P in patients with distant metastasis was 4%, which was significantly lower than that in patients without metastases (P ˂ 0.05). In contrast, the positive rate of OCT4 in patients with distant metastasis was 92%. S100P, CD147, and OCT4 expression in prostate cancer patients with different degrees of differentiation had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrated that S100P expression in prostate cancer tissue was significantly decreased, whereas CD147 and OCT4 expression was increased. Their expression levels were closely associated with TNM stage and distant metastasis, but were not related to the degree of differentiation.

  16. Racial Differences in Prostate Cancer Risk Remain Among US Servicemen With Equal Access to Care (United States)


    occupational in nature, cadmium has been studied as a possible carcinogen for human prostate cancer [19,20]. Cadmium is commonly used as a component in nickel...G, Thun MJ, Travis R, Virtamo J, Andriole G, Gelmann E, Willett WC, Hunter DJ. A common 8q24 variant in prostate and breast cancer from a large nested...Case-control study of toenail cadmium and prostate cancer risk in Italy. Sci Total Environ 2007;373(1):77–81. 20. Sahmoun AE, Case LD, Jackson SA

  17. The Effect of Different Comorbidities on Survival of Non-small Cells Lung Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, Maria; Jakobsen, Erik; Møller, Henrik


    of each comorbid disease groups on survival. METHODS: The analysis is based on all patients with NSCLC who were registered in 2009-2011, in total 10,378 patients. To estimate the effect of each comorbidity group on the survival, we fitted a Cox regression model for each comorbidity group adjusting for age......PURPOSE: Primary lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancers. Comorbidity has been shown to be a negative prognostic factor in the overall lung cancer population. The significance of the individual comorbidities is less well known. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect...... have a significant impact on survival of NSCLC patients....

  18. Reproducible cancer biomarker discovery in SELDI-TOF MS using different pre-processing algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been much interest in differentiating diseased and normal samples using biomarkers derived from mass spectrometry (MS studies. However, biomarker identification for specific diseases has been hindered by irreproducibility. Specifically, a peak profile extracted from a dataset for biomarker identification depends on a data pre-processing algorithm. Until now, no widely accepted agreement has been reached. RESULTS: In this paper, we investigated the consistency of biomarker identification using differentially expressed (DE peaks from peak profiles produced by three widely used average spectrum-dependent pre-processing algorithms based on SELDI-TOF MS data for prostate and breast cancers. Our results revealed two important factors that affect the consistency of DE peak identification using different algorithms. One factor is that some DE peaks selected from one peak profile were not detected as peaks in other profiles, and the second factor is that the statistical power of identifying DE peaks in large peak profiles with many peaks may be low due to the large scale of the tests and small number of samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the DE peak detection power in large profiles could be improved by the stratified false discovery rate (FDR control approach and that the reproducibility of DE peak detection could thereby be increased. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing and evaluating pre-processing algorithms in terms of reproducibility can elucidate the relationship among different algorithms and also help in selecting a pre-processing algorithm. The DE peaks selected from small peak profiles with few peaks for a dataset tend to be reproducibly detected in large peak profiles, which suggests that a suitable pre-processing algorithm should be able to produce peaks sufficient for identifying useful and reproducible biomarkers.

  19. Two different BRCA2 mutations found in a multigenerational family with a history of breast, prostate, and lung cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caporale DA


    Full Text Available Diane A Caporale, Erica E SwensonDepartment of Biology, University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI, USAAbstract: Breast and lung cancer are two of the most common malignancies in the United States, causing approximately 40,000 and 160,000 deaths each year, respectively. Over 80% of hereditary breast cancer cases are due to mutations in two breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. These are tumor-suppressor genes associated with DNA repair. Since the discovery of these two genes in the mid-1990s, several other breast cancer predisposition genes have been identified, such as the CHEK2 gene encoding a regulator of BRCA1. Recently, studies have begun investigating the roles of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene expression in lung cancer. We conducted a family-based case study that included a bloodline of Italian heritage with several cases of breast cancer and associated cancers (prostate and stomach through multiple generations and on a nonblood relative of Scottish/Irish descent who was consecutively diagnosed with breast and lung cancer. Cancer history and environmental risk factors were recorded for each family member. To investigate possible genetic risks, we screened for mutations in specific hypervariable regions of the BRCA1, BRCA2, and CHEK2 genes. DNA was extracted and isolated from the individuals' hair follicles and cheek cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, allele-specific PCR, and DNA sequencing were performed to identify and verify the presence or absence of mutations in these regions. Genotypes of several family members were determined and carriers of mutations were identified. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of two different BRCA2 frameshift mutations within the same family. Specifically, three Italian family members were found to be carriers of the BRCA2-c.2808_2811delACAA (3036delACAA mutation, a 4-nucleotide deletion in exon 11, which is a truncated mutation that causes deleterious function of

  20. Lung cancer risk perception and distress: difference by smoking status, and role of physical activity and race among US population

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    Sunil Mathur


    Full Text Available Background: cigarette smoking is the greatest known risk factor for lung cancer, and people with different smoking status may process risk information differently. While psychological distress has been linked with smoking status, little is known about the impact of distress on lung cancer perception or the moderating role of physical activity and race. This study explores the association of lung cancer perception and distress and investigates the effects of physical activity and race on that association.Methods: the study uses a national, biennial survey (the Health Information National Trends Survey that was designed to collect nationally representative data on the American public’s need for, access to, and use of cancer-related information using a cross-sectional, complex sample survey design. Out of 5 586 participants, 1 015 were current smokers, 1 599 were former smokers, 2 877 were never smokers. Of the sample, 1 765 participants answered the lung cancer risk perception question and had no personal history of lung cancer. Statistical analysis contrasts smokers, former smokers, and never smokers to examine the association of lung cancer perception and distress and the moderating role of physical activity and race.Results: distress and lung cancer risk perception were significantly positively associated (p value < 0.001. Respondents who were current smokers and were distressed had very high odds of agreeing that they have a somewhat high chance (odds ratio=900.8, CI: 94.23, 8 611.75; p value < 0.001 or a very high chance (odds ratio=500.44 CI: 56.53, 4 430.02, p value < 0.001 of developing lung cancer in the future as compared to not distressed never smokers. However, race and physical activity status did not significantly affect perception of risk. Perceptions of risk are important precursors of health change.Conclusions: elevated distress level and higher perceived risk, in addition to physical activity status and race, could potentially

  1. Dramatic Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta


    Presents a creative way to teach photosynthesis. Revolves around the growth of a lily planted and stored in the classroom. Combines the concepts of particle theory, transformation, and changes of phase and mass in a holistic approach. The six-step teaching sequence is founded on the notions of challenge, variation, and drama. (Author/NB)

  2. Childhood Cancer (United States)

    ... Cancer? Cancer Treatment Coping With Cancer en español Cáncer infantil Every cell in the body has a system that controls its growth, interaction with other cells, and even its life span. ... cancer . Different kinds of cancer have different signs, symptoms, ...

  3. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment: ever more used with major regional differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;


    The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval debulking...

  4. Amaryllidaceae alkaloids belonging to different structural subgroups display activity against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. (United States)

    Van Goietsenoven, Gwendoline; Andolfi, Anna; Lallemand, Benjamin; Cimmino, Alessio; Lamoral-Theys, Delphine; Gras, Thierry; Abou-Donia, Amina; Dubois, Jacques; Lefranc, Florence; Mathieu, Véronique; Kornienko, Alexander; Kiss, Robert; Evidente, Antonio


    Fifteen Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (1-15) were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against six distinct cancer cell lines. Several of these natural products were found to have low micromolar antiproliferative potencies. The log P values of these compounds did not influence their observed activity. When active, the compounds displayed cytostatic, not cytotoxic activity, with the exception of pseudolycorine (3), which exhibited cytotoxic profiles. The active compounds showed similar efficacies toward cancer cells irrespective of whether the cell lines were responsive or resistant to proapoptotic stimuli. Altogether, the data from the present study revealed that lycorine (1), amarbellisine (6), haemanthamine (14), and haemanthidine (15) are potentially useful chemical scaffolds to generate further compounds to combat cancers associated with poor prognoses, especially those naturally resistant to apoptosis, such as glioblastoma, melanoma, non-small-cell lung, and metastatic cancers.

  5. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups. (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A


    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  6. Differences in vitamin D nutritional status between newly diagnosed cancer patients from rural or urban settings in Kentucky. (United States)

    Christopher, K L; Wiggins, A T; Van Meter, E M; Means, R T; Hayslip, J W; Roach, J P


    Although poor nutritional status and weight loss in cancer patients is known to affect outcomes, little is known about malnutrition differences based on geographic location. We investigated nutritional and inflammatory status of 220 newly diagnosed adults with solid tumors at the University of Kentucky's Markey Cancer Center during December 2008 through October 2011. Chi-square tests were used to determine any associations between suboptimal nutritional levels and rural-urban areas of residence. Out of the 13 lab values collected, the only significant difference between rural and urban participants was found for vitamin D resulting in more rural subjects (67.4%) having a suboptimal vitamin D status as compared to those residing in urban areas (53.3%, P = 0.04). Controlling for baseline demographics including age, race, sex, body mass index, nutritional status, and type of cancer, logistic regression analyses concluded those in rural areas had nearly a twofold increase in the odds of having a suboptimal vitamin D level compared to those in urban areas (odd's ratio = 1.97; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.74). Further investigation into the rural-urban differences in vitamin D needs to be investigated in order to improve outcomes during cancer treatment.

  7. Treatment of breast cancer with different antiprogestins: Preclinical and clinical studies


    Bakker, Gerard; Setyono-Han, Buddy; Portengen, Henk; Jong, Frank de; Foekens, John; Klijn, Jan


    markdownabstractAbstract Treatment with antiprogestins in a new treatment modality for breast cancer. Previously, in rats with DMBA-induced mammary tumors we observed significant growth inhibitory effects of chronic treatment with the antiprogestin mifepristone (RU486). In addition, in 11 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, we observed one objective response, six instances of short-term stable disease, and four instances of progressive disease. Side-effects appeared mainly due to antigluco...

  8. Comparison of different nutritional assessments in detecting malnutrition among gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung; Wan; Ryu; In; Ho; Kim


    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of preoperative and postoperative malnutrition and the relationships between objective and subjective nutritional assessment of gastric cancer patients. METHODS: From October 2005 to July 2006, we studied 80 patients with no evidence of recurrent disease and no loss to follow-up after curative surgery for gastric cancer. In this group, 9 patients underwent total gastrectomy and 71 patients subtotal gastrectomy. At admission, 6 and 12 mo after surgery, the patients were assess...

  9. The association between different kinds of fat intake and breast cancer risk in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahmi


    Full Text Available So far several animal and case-control studies have confirmed this hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer. However, cohort studies have not shown this relationship. The aim of this study was to review the studies on the relationship between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk among women. Electronic database PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the key words: Breast cancer, dietary fat, serum estrogen, saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. The evidence of the studies regarding to the association of total and subtypes of fat intake with breast cancer risk are inconsistent. Several studies have shown that, among several types of fat, SFAs and w-3 PUFA intake are associated with an increased and reduced risk of breast cancer, respectively. The relationship between MUFAs intake and breast cancer risk is conflicting. Narrow ranges of fat intake among populations, measurement errors, high correlation between specific types of dietary fat, the confounding variables like body fatness and high-energy intake and other dietary components such as fiber and antioxidants might be probable explanations for these inconsistent results. Although we are not at a stage where we can justifiably advise women to reduce their fat intake to decrease the risk of developing breast cancer, it seems the current guidelines to lower total fat consumption and recommendation to consumption of unsaturated fats such as MUFAs and w-3 fatty acids and also reduction of SFAs (meat and dairy products intake to avoid heart disease is also useful for breast cancer risk.

  10. Prognostic value of FGFR gene amplification in patients with different types of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjia Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR gene amplification has been reported in different types of cancer. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to further characterize the prognostic value of FGFR gene amplification in patients with cancer. METHODS: A search of several databases, including MEDLINE (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, was conducted to identify studies examining the association between FGFR gene amplification and cancer. A total of 24 studies met the inclusion criteria, and overall incidence rates, hazard risk (HR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis of 24 studies, the prevalence of FGFR gene amplification was FGFR1: 0.11 (95% CI: 0.08-0.13 and FGFR2: 0.04 (95% CI: 0.02-0.06. Overall survival was significantly worse among patients with FGFR gene amplification: FGFR1 [HR 1.57 (95% CI: 1.23-1.99; p = 0.0002] and FGFR2 [HR 2.27 (95% CI: 1.73-3.00; p<0.00001]. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence supports the conclusion that the outcomes of patients with FGFR gene amplified cancers is worse than for those with non-FGFR gene amplified cancers.

  11. Race and sex differences in associations of vegetables, fruits, and carotenoids with lung cancer risk in New Jersey (United States). (United States)

    Dorgan, J F; Ziegler, R G; Schoenberg, J B; Hartge, P; McAdams, M J; Falk, R T; Wilcox, H B; Shaw, G L


    We used data from a case-control study conducted in New Jersey between 1980 and 1983 to evaluate race and sex differences in associations of vegetable, fruit, and carotenoid consumption with lung cancer. Cases included 736 White males, 860 White females, 269 Black males, and 86 Black females with incident, histologically confirmed, primary cancer of the trachea, bronchus, or lung. Controls were identified through drivers' license and Health Care Financing Administration files and included 548 White males, 473 White females, 170 Black males, and 47 Black females. Usual intakes of vegetables (predominantly yellow/green) and fruit (predominantly yellow/orange) as well as other food sources of carotenoids were ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. White females showed significant inverse associations of lung cancer with vegetables, fruit, and carotenoids. White males showed nonsignificant inverse associations with vegetables and carotenoids, and Black females just with vegetables. No inverse associations were found for Black males. Vegetable consumption was associated with risk of all histologic types of lung cancer, but the pattern of increasing risk with decreasing intake was limited to smokers. We infer that consumption of yellow/green vegetables and carotenoids may confer protection from lung cancer to White male and White female smokers. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect in Blacks.

  12. Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainities for Different Mission Time Periods (United States)

    Kim,Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.


    Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic ray (GCR), which includes high energy protons and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. For long duration missions, space radiation presents significant health risks including cancer mortality. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is essential for radiation protection of crews on long term space missions outside of the protection of the Earth s magnetic field and for optimization of mission planning and costs. For the assessment of organ dosimetric quantities and cancer risks, the particle spectra at each critical body organs must be characterized. In implementing a PRA approach, a statistical model of SPE fluence was developed, because the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature while the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle. Spectral variability of SPEs was also examined, because the detailed energy spectra of protons are important especially at high energy levels for assessing the cancer risk associated with energetic particles for large events. An overall cumulative probability of a GCR environment for a specified mission period was estimated for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment represented by the deceleration potential (theta). Finally, this probabilistic approach to space radiation cancer risk was coupled with a model of the radiobiological factors and uncertainties in projecting cancer risks. Probabilities of fatal cancer risk and 95% confidence intervals will be reported for various periods of space missions.

  13. Incidence and survival differences of differentiated thyroid cancer among younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltz MM


    Full Text Available Melissa M Boltz,1 Laura M Enomoto,1,2 Rollyn M Ornstein,3 Brian D Saunders,1,4 Christopher S Hollenbeak1,2,51Department of Surgery, 2Division of Outcomes Research and Quality, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine and Eating Disorders, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey Children’s Hospital, 4Division of General Surgery Specialties and Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Public Health Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USAAbstract: Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, with an estimated 60,220 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2013. For reasons that are unclear, differentiated thyroid cancer is three times more common in females than in males. However, among adolescent and young adult females between ages 15–39 years, differentiated thyroid cancer remains under-recognized. The disparity in cancer incidence and outcomes in this population may be secondary to the tumor's biology, and risk factors unique to women. This review summarizes the incidence and survival rates of thyroid cancer in women younger than 45 years of age, as well as the pathophysiology, etiology, risk factors, prognosis, and current and emerging treatment options for this patient population.Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer, young adult women, adolescents, incidence, risk factors, treatment

  14. Different APC genotypes in proximal and distal sporadic colorectal cancers suggest distinct WNT/β-catenin signalling thresholds for tumourigenesis. (United States)

    Christie, M; Jorissen, R N; Mouradov, D; Sakthianandeswaren, A; Li, S; Day, F; Tsui, C; Lipton, L; Desai, J; Jones, I T; McLaughlin, S; Ward, R L; Hawkins, N J; Ruszkiewicz, A R; Moore, J; Burgess, A W; Busam, D; Zhao, Q; Strausberg, R L; Simpson, A J; Tomlinson, I P M; Gibbs, P; Sieber, O M


    Biallelic protein-truncating mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are prevalent in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Mutations may not be fully inactivating, instead producing WNT/β-catenin signalling levels 'just-right' for tumourigenesis. However, the spectrum of optimal APC genotypes accounting for both hits, and the influence of clinicopathological features on genotype selection remain undefined. We analysed 630 sporadic CRCs for APC mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) using sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays, respectively. Truncating APC mutations and/or LOH were detected in 75% of CRCs. Most truncating mutations occurred within a mutation cluster region (MCR; codons 1282-1581) leaving 1-3 intact 20 amino-acid repeats (20AARs) and abolishing all Ser-Ala-Met-Pro (SAMP) repeats. Cancers commonly had one MCR mutation plus either LOH or another mutation 5' to the MCR. LOH was associated with mutations leaving 1 intact 20AAR. MCR mutations leaving 1 vs 2-3 intact 20AARs were associated with 5' mutations disrupting or leaving intact the armadillo-repeat domain, respectively. Cancers with three hits had an over-representation of mutations upstream of codon 184, in the alternatively spliced region of exon 9, and 3' to the MCR. Microsatellite unstable cancers showed hyper-mutation at MCR mono- and di-nucleotide repeats, leaving 2-3 intact 20AARs. Proximal and distal cancers exhibited different preferred APC genotypes, leaving a total of 2 or 3 and 0 to 2 intact 20AARs, respectively. In conclusion, APC genotypes in sporadic CRCs demonstrate 'fine-tuned' interdependence of hits by type and location, consistent with selection for particular residual levels of WNT/β-catenin signalling, with different 'optimal' thresholds for proximal and distal cancers.

  15. Correcting for the study bias associated with protein-protein interaction measurements reveals differences between protein degree distributions from different cancer types. (United States)

    Schaefer, Martin H; Serrano, Luis; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A


    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are associated with multiple types of biases partly rooted in technical limitations of the experimental techniques. Another source of bias are the different frequencies with which proteins have been studied for interaction partners. It is generally believed that proteins with a large number of interaction partners tend to be essential, evolutionarily conserved, and involved in disease. It has been repeatedly reported that proteins driving tumor formation have a higher number of PPI partners. However, it has been noticed before that the degree distribution of PPI networks is biased toward disease proteins, which tend to have been studied more often than non-disease proteins. At the same time, for many poorly characterized proteins no interactions have been reported yet. It is unclear to which extent this study bias affects the observation that cancer proteins tend to have more PPI partners. Here, we show that the degree of a protein is a function of the number of times it has been screened for interaction partners. We present a randomization-based method that controls for this bias to decide whether a group of proteins is associated with significantly more PPI partners than the proteomic background. We apply our method to cancer proteins and observe, in contrast to previous studies, no conclusive evidence for a significantly higher degree distribution associated with cancer proteins as compared to non-cancer proteins when we compare them to proteins that have been equally often studied as bait proteins. Comparing proteins from different tumor types, a more complex picture emerges in which proteins of certain cancer classes have significantly more interaction partners while others are associated with a smaller degree. For example, proteins of several hematological cancers tend to be associated with a higher number of interaction partners as expected by chance. Solid tumors, in contrast, are usually associated with a degree

  16. Metabolic irradiation of differentiated thyroid cancers and periodic hemodialysis; Irradiation metabolique des cancers differencies de la thyroide et hemodialyse periodique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courbon, F.; Hoff, M. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire CHU TOULOUSE RANGUEIL (France); Caselles, O. [Unite de Physique, CENTRE CLAUDIUS REGAUD TOULOUSE (France); Duthil, P.; Zerdoud, S.; Berry, I.; Regis, H. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire CHU TOULOUSE RANGUEIL (France)


    The association of a terminal renal insufficiency with a thyroid well-differentiated cancer is a rare contingency which complicates the {sup 131}I therapy in these patients. A women 56 years old has been treated by administration of 3700 MBq (100 mCi) of {sup 131}I for a thyroid well-differentiated cancer after a complete thyroidectomy (with a {sup 131}I fixation rate on 24 h < 1%). Due to a terminal renal insufficiency 3 weekly hemodialysis sessions were necessary. The hemo-dialyses were achieved at the 3. and 5. day after the iodine administration. The dose rate at 1 meter during the first three days remained constant at 90 {mu}Gy/h. The circulatory activity amounted up to 1.8% of the injected activity. The post-dosage whole-body scintigraphy evidenced an iodo-fixation cervical relic with a iodine biological half-time of 77.66 h, while the delivered dose amounted up to 250 mGy. The first dialysis at the 3D has reduced the dose rate at 1 meter to 60% and the circulatory activity to 73%. The cumulative activity over 5 days at the level of tumoral residue is only slightly modified by the dialyses. The dose rate at 1 meter of the dialysis appliance after washing was lower than 10 {mu}Gy/h. No significant radioactivity was detected in the disposable material used in dialysis. In conclusion, the administration of {sup 131}I does not result in any contamination of the materials of dialysis. The biological half-time of iodine at the level of thyroid tumor parenchyma is short. Consequently, this treatment should be reserved for the cases of detectable masses with `tracing` doses of {sup 131}I, but higher `therapeutic` activities of {sup 131}I are necessary. To reduce the dose delivered in critical organs the hemodialysis could be carried out after the 24. hour

  17. Sub-sets of cancer stem cells differ intrinsically in their patterns of oxygen metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Gammon

    Full Text Available The glycolytic response of hypoxic cells is primarily mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α but even in the presence of abundant oxygen tumours typically show high rates of glycolysis. Higher levels of HIF-1α in tumours are associated with a poorer prognosis and up-regulation of markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT due to HIF-1α actions. We have recently shown that EMT occurs within the CD44(high cancer stem cell (CSC fraction and that epithelial and EMT CSCs are distinguished by high and low ESA expression, respectively. We here show that hypoxia induces a marked shift of the CSC fraction towards EMT leading to altered cell morphology, an increased proportion of CD44(high/ESA(low cells, patterns of gene expression typical of EMT, and enhanced sphere-forming ability. The size of EMT fractions returned to control levels in normoxia indicating a reversible process. Surprisingly, however, even under normoxic conditions a fraction of EMT CSCs was present and maintained high levels of HIF-1α, apparently due to actions of cytokines such as TNFα. Functionally, this EMT CSC fraction showed decreased mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, consumed far less oxygen per cell, and produced markedly reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. These differences in the patterns of oxygen metabolism of sub-fractions of tumour cells provide an explanation for the general therapeutic resistance of CSCs and for the even greater resistance of EMT CSCs. They also identify potential mechanisms for manipulation of CSCs.

  18. SnoN expression is differently regulated in microsatellite unstable compared with microsatellite stable colorectal cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leggett Barbara A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoN is an important regulator of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signalling pathway and has been shown to exhibit both tumour promotion and suppression activity. Methods To further explore the role of this complex molecule in colorectal tumorigenesis, we examined 52 paired normal and tumour colorectal specimens stratified by level of microsatellite instability; 18 with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H and 34 microsatellite stable (MSS. SnoN transcript expression was quantitated by real-time PCR and analysed with respect to clinical indicators of prognosis. Results Within the MSI-H subgroup, SnoN was commonly either up-regulated (6/18, 33% or down-regulated (7/18, 39%. A significantly different distribution of SnoN expression was observed in MSS cancers compared with MSI-H (P ≤ 0.001. Whilst 17/34 (50% of MSS tumours demonstrated up-regulation, none showed down-regulated expression. Within the MSI-H subgroup, up-regulation was significantly correlated with lack of repeat tract mutation in the TGFβRII gene (P ≤ 0.025, suggesting that SnoN is more frequently up-regulated in the presence of functional TGFβ signalling. Conclusion Together these data support the notion that SnoN has both oncogenic and tumour suppressive properties depending on other genetic changes within the tumour, and that the MSI-H pathway of colorectal tumorigenesis presents an excellent model for the study of these opposing functions.

  19. "I Did Not Wash My Feet with that Woman": Using Dramatic Performance to Teach Biblical Studies (United States)

    Torbett, David


    The student dramatic performance is an effective way for undergraduates to learn biblical studies. In this article I will give an example of a dramatic performance assignment that I developed over a number of courses and used most recently and most successfully in an undergraduate course in the Hebrew Bible at a small liberal arts college in the…

  20. Enhancing Creative Dramatic Play and Story Reenactments in a Primary Grade Classroom. (United States)

    Schierholt, Carla G.

    A classroom research project in Alaska explored what role dramatic play and story reenactments have as a teaching/learning method for young childrens' development. A review of the literature identified several common elements that helped teachers elicit successful dramatic story reenactments: choosing a familiar book or story; encouraging…

  1. Guiding the Noticing: Using a Dramatic Performance Experience to Promote Tellability in Narrative Writing (United States)

    Clark, Shanetia


    In this article, the author describes her use of dramatic performance to promote tellability in narrative writing within a seventh and eighth grade English and language arts classroom. By experiencing dramatic performance, the students were able to actively and physically perform the writing process: brainstorming, drafting, revising, and editing.…

  2. The Effectiveness of Creative Dramatics and Storytelling in a Library Setting (United States)

    Amato, Anthony; And Others


    This 2-year study involving 298 grade school pupils investigates the comparative effectiveness of creative dramatics and storytelling. While the results indicate neither had an effect on children's interests and reading achievement, there is indication that storytelling may have more influence than creative dramatics on self-image and empathy.…

  3. The Impact of Dramatic Play Centre on Promoting the Development of Children's Early Writing Skills (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi


    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of dramatic play centre (DPC) on promoting the development of children's early writing skills in the Jordanian context. It also intends to investigate the forms of children's writing skills that emerge through the use of dramatic play. Observations and interviews were conducted to obtain…

  4. On the Major Dramatic Conftict of Shakespeare's the Merchant of Venice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    "The Merchant of Venice", a master piece with humanist idea by William Shakespeare, presents readers a dramatic conflict between friendship and greediness, love and cruelty.This essay illustrates briefly how this conflict is created, developed and dramatized. At the same time, the root causes for this conflict is analysed.

  5. Racial differences in receipt of adjuvant hormonal therapy among Medicaid enrollees in South Carolina diagnosed with breast cancer. (United States)

    Felder, Tisha M; Do, D Phuong; Lu, Z Kevin; Lal, Lincy S; Heiney, Sue P; Bennett, Charles L


    Several factors contribute to the pervasive Black-White disparity in breast cancer mortality in the U.S., such as tumor biology, access to care, and treatments received including adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT), which significantly improves survival for hormone receptor-positive breast cancers (HR+). We analyzed South Carolina Central Cancer Registry-Medicaid linked data to determine if, in an equal access health care system, racial differences in the receipt of AHT exist. We evaluated 494 study-eligible, Black (n = 255) and White women (n = 269) who were under 65 years old and diagnosed with stages I-III, HR+ breast cancers between 2004 and 2007. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess receipt of ≥1 AHT prescriptions at any point in time following (ever-use) or within 12 months of (early-use) breast cancer diagnosis. Seventy-two percent of the participants were ever-users (70 % Black, 74 % White) and 68 % were early-users (65 % Black, 71 % White) of AHT. Neither ever-use (adjusted OR (AOR) = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.48-1.17) nor early-use (AOR = 0.70, 95 % CI 0.46-1.06) of AHT differed by race. However, receipt of other breast cancer-specific treatments was independently associated with ever-use and early-use of AHT [ever-use: receipt of surgery (AOR = 2.15, 95 % CI 1.35-3.44); chemotherapy (AOR = 1.97, 95 % CI 1.22-3.20); radiation (AOR = 2.33, 95 % CI 1.50-3.63); early-use: receipt of surgery (AOR = 2.03, 95 % CI 1.30-3.17); chemotherapy (AOR = 1.90, 95 % CI 1.20-3.03); radiation (AOR = 1.73, 95 % CI 1.14-2.63)]. No racial variations in use of AHT among women with HR+ breast cancers insured by Medicaid in South Carolina were identified, but overall rates of AHT use by these women is low. Strategies to improve overall use of AHT should include targeting breast cancer patients who do not receive adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation.

  6. Lung cancer screening: review and performance comparison under different risk scenarios. (United States)

    Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Franco, Eduardo L


    Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignant diseases and is responsible for substantial mortality worldwide. Compared with never smokers, former smokers remain at relatively high risk for lung cancer, accounting for approximately half of all newly diagnosed cases in the US. Screening offers former smokers the best opportunity to reduce their risk of advanced stage lung cancer and there is now evidence that annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is effective in preventing mortality. Studies are being conducted to evaluate whether the benefits of LDCT screening outweigh its costs and potential harms and to determine the most appropriate workup for patients with screen-detected lung nodules. Program efficiency would be optimized by targeting high-risk current smokers, but low uptake among this group is a concern. Former smokers may be invited for screening; however, if fewer long-term current smokers and more former smokers with long quit duration elect to attend, this could have very adverse effects on cost and screening test parameters. To illustrate this point, we present three possible screening scenarios with lung cancer prevalence ranging from between 0.62 and 5.0 %. In summary, cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening may be improved if linked to successful smoking cessation programs and if better approaches are developed to reach very high-risk patients, e.g., long-term current smokers or others based on more accurate risk prediction models.

  7. No difference in the frequency of locus-specific methylation in the peripheral blood DNA of women diagnosed with breast cancer and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Thestrup, Britta Boserup; Cold, Søren


    , to the pathology of different diseases, remains open. Recently, a number of studies addressed the question of the prevalence of aberrant methylation of cancer-related genes in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA and indicated a strong possibility that the presence of constitutional methylation of different genes...... might predispose for cancer development. Here, we have used the methlyation-sensitive high-resolution melting approach to examine the methylation status of the BRCA1, BRCA2, APC, RASSF1A and RARβ2 genes in PBLs of a group of women diagnosed with breast cancer, and an age-matched control group...... with no signs of breast cancer. No significant differences in the frequency of methylation of the above genes were found between cases and controls in our study. Hence, testing for the presence of methylation of cancer-related genes in PBL DNA from women diagnosed with sporadic breast cancer and classified...

  8. Evidence for toxicity differences between inorganic arsenite and thioarsenicals in human bladder cancer cells. (United States)

    Naranmandura, Hua; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Iwata, Katsuya; Lee, Jane; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Weinfeld, Michael; Le, X Chris


    Arsenic toxicity is dependent on its chemical species. In humans, the bladder is one of the primary target organs for arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced carcinogenicity, and what arsenic species are responsible for this carcinogenicity. The present study aimed at comparing the toxic effect of DMMTA(V) with that of inorganic arsenite (iAs(III)) on cell viability, uptake efficiency and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) toward human bladder cancer EJ-1 cells. The results were compared with those of a previous study using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Although iAs(III) was known to be toxic to most cells, here we show that iAs(III) (LC(50)=112 microM) was much less cytotoxic than DMMTA(V) (LC(50)=16.7 microM) in human bladder EJ-1 cells. Interestingly, pentavalent sulfur-containing DMMTA(V) generated a high level of intracellular ROS in EJ-1 cells. However, this was not observed in the cells exposed to trivalent inorganic iAs(III) at their respective LC(50) dose. Furthermore, the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of DMMTA(V) but not iAs(III), suggesting that production of ROS was the main cause of cell death from exposure to DMMTA(V), but not iAs(III). Because the cellular uptake of iAs(III) is mediated by aquaporin proteins, and because the resistance of cells to arsenite can be influenced by lower arsenic uptake due to lower expression of aquaporin proteins (AQP 3, 7 and 9), the expression of several members of the aquaporin family was also examined. In human bladder EJ-1 cells, mRNA/proteins of AQP3, 7 and 9 were not detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/western blotting. In A431 cells, only mRNA and protein of AQP3 were detected. The large difference in toxicity between the two cell lines could be related to their differences in uptake of arsenic species.

  9. Analysis of different components in the peritumoral tissue microenvironment of colorectal cancer: A potential prospect in tumorigenesis. (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Liu, Hong; Gong, Xiuli; Wen, Bin; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jinyuan; Hu, Fengliang


    The present study aimed to observe the varying expression of biomarkers in the microenvironment adjacent to colorectal cancer lesions to provide additional insight into the functions of microenvironment components in carcinogenesis and present a novel or improved indicator for early diagnosis of cancer. A total of 144 human samples from three different locations in 48 patients were collected, these locations were 10, 5 and 2 cm from the colorectal cancer lesion, respectively. The biomarkers analyzed included E‑cadherin, cytokeratin 18 (CK18), hyaluronidase‑1 (Hyal‑1), collagen type I (Col‑I), Crumbs3 (CRB3), vimentin, proteinase activated receptor 3 (PAR‑3), α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), cyclin D1 (CD1) and cluster of differentiation (CD)133. In addition, crypt architecture was observed. Related functional analysis of proteins was performed using hierarchical index cluster analysis. More severe destroyed crypt architecture closer to the cancer lesions was observed compared with the 10 cm sites, with certain crypts degraded entirely. Expression levels of E‑cadherin, CK18, CRB3 and PAR‑3 were lower in 2 cm sites compared with the 10 cm sites (all P0.05 and P=0.0001, respectively), while the expression of vimentin, α‑SMA, CD1 and CD133 were not. Hyal‑1 and Col‑I may be independently important in cancer initiation in the tumor microenvironment. The results of the present study suggest that the biomarkers in the tissue microenvironment are associated with early tumorigenesis and may contribute to the development of carcinomas. These observations may be useful for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

  10. Inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols, tocopherol phosphates, and tocopherol quinones on growth of colon cancer cells. (United States)

    Dolfi, Sonia C; Yang, Zhihong; Lee, Mao-Jung; Guan, Fei; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S


    Tocopherols are the major source of dietary vitamin E. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols (T), tocopheryl phosphates (TP), and tocopherol quinones (TQ) on human colon cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells were investigated. δ-T was more active than γ-T in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, decreasing cancer cell colony formation, and inducing apoptosis; however, α-T was rather ineffective. Similarly, the rate of cellular uptake also followed the ranking order δ-T > γ-T ≫ α-T. TP and TQ generally had higher inhibitory activities than their parent compounds. Interestingly, the γ forms of TP and TQ were more active than the δ forms in inhibiting cancer cell growth, whereas the α forms were the least effective. The potencies of γ-TQ and δ-TQ (showing IC50 values of ∼0.8 and ∼2 μM on HCT116 cells after a 72 h incubation, respectively) were greater than 100-fold and greater than 20-fold higher, respectively, than those of their parent tocopherols. Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by δ-T, γ-TP, and γ-TQ was characterized by the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP1 and DNA fragmentation. These studies demonstrated the higher growth inhibitory activity of δ-T than γ-T, the even higher activities of the γ forms of TP and TQ, and the ineffectiveness of the α forms of tocopherol and their metabolites against colon cancer cells.

  11. Involvement of Different networks in mammary gland involution after the pregnancy/lactation cycle: Implications in breast cancer. (United States)

    Zaragozá, Rosa; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Lluch, Ana; Ribas, Gloria; Viña, Juan R


    Early pregnancy is associated with a reduction in a woman's lifetime risk for breast cancer. However, different studies have demonstrated an increase in breast cancer risk in the years immediately following pregnancy. Early and long-term risk is even higher if the mother age is above 35 years at the time of first parity. The proinflammatory microenvironment within the mammary gland after pregnancy renders an "ideal niche" for oncogenic events. Signaling pathways involved in programmed cell death and tissue remodeling during involution are also activated in breast cancer. Herein, the major signaling pathways involved in mammary gland involution, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), and retinoid acid receptors (RARs)/retinoid X receptors (RXRs), are reviewed as part of the complex network of signaling pathways that crosstalk in a contextual-dependent manner. These factors, also involved in breast cancer development, are important regulatory nodes for signaling amplification after weaning. Indeed, during involution, p65/p300 target genes such as MMP9, Capn1, and Capn2 are upregulated. Elevated expression and activities of these proteases in breast cancer have been extensively documented. The role of these proteases during mammary gland involution is further discussed. MMPs, calpains, and cathepsins exert their effect by modification of the extracellular matrix and intracellular proteins. Calpains, activated in the mammary gland during involution, cleave several proteins located in cell membrane, lysosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei favoring cell death. Besides, during this period, Capn1 is most probably involved in the modulation of preadipocyte differentiation through chromatin remodeling. Calpains can be implicated in cell anchoring loss, providing a proper microenvironment for tumor growth. A better understanding of the role of any of these proteases in tumorigenesis may

  12. Overall survival differences between patients with inflammatory and noninflammatory breast cancer presenting with distant metastasis at diagnosis. (United States)

    Fouad, Tamer M; Kogawa, Takahiro; Liu, Diane D; Shen, Yu; Masuda, Hiroko; El-Zein, Randa; Woodward, Wendy A; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Alvarez, Ricardo H; Arun, Banu; Lucci, Anthony; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Babiera, Gildy; Buchholz, Thomas A; Valero, Vicente; Ueno, Naoto T


    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive disease. Previous studies have shown that among patients with stage III breast cancer, IBC is associated with a worse prognosis than noninflammatory breast cancer (non-IBC). Whether this difference holds true among patients with stage IV breast cancer has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that overall survival (OS) is worse in patients with IBC than in those with non-IBC among patients with distant metastasis at diagnosis (stage IV disease). We reviewed the records of 1504 consecutive patients with stage IV breast cancer (IBC: 206; non-IBC: 1298) treated at our institution from 1987 through 2012. Survival curves for IBC and non-IBC subcohorts were compared. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine predictors of OS. The median follow-up period was 4.7 years. IBC was associated with shorter median OS time than non-IBC (2.27 vs. 3.40 years; P = 0.0128, log-rank test). In a multicovariate Cox model that included 1389 patients, the diagnosis of IBC was a significant independent predictor of worse OS (hazard ratio = 1.431, P = 0.0011). Other significant predictors of worse OS included Black (vs. White) ethnicity, younger age at diagnosis, negative HER2 status, and visceral (vs. nonvisceral) site of metastasis. IBC is associated with shorter OS than non-IBC in patients with distant metastasis at diagnosis. The prognostic impact of IBC should be taken into consideration among patients with stage IV breast cancer.

  13. Usual dietary intake among female breast cancer survivors is not significantly different from women with no cancer history: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006. (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tooze, Janet A


    Dietary intake is a modifiable behavior that may reduce the risk of recurrence and death among breast cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are encouraged to consume a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains and limit red meat, processed meat, and alcohol intake. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006), this study examined whether breast cancer survivors and women with no history of cancer differed in the distribution of usual intake of foods included in the dietary recommendations for preventing cancer and recurrences. Participants completed one or two 24-hour dietary recalls. The food groups included in this analysis were whole fruit; total vegetables; dark green and orange vegetables; whole grains; red meat; processed meat; alcohol; and calories from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugar. The National Cancer Institute Method was used to estimate the distribution of usual intake and to compare breast cancer survivors (n=102) to noncancer respondents (n=2,684). Using age and cancer survivor as covariates, subgroup estimates of usual intake were constructed. No significant group differences were found, except that survivors reported a greater intake of whole grains. More than 90% of both groups did not meet recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; 75.4% and 70.2%, respectively, consumed less than the red meat recommendation; and cancer survivors was not significantly different from women with no history of cancer.

  14. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO)-reactive T cells differ in their functional characteristics in health and cancer (United States)

    Hjortsø, Mads Duus; Larsen, Stine Kiaer; Kongsted, Per; Met, Özcan; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Andersen, Gitte Holmen; Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Svane, Inge Marie; Becker, Jürgen C; Straten, Per thor; Andersen, Mads Hald


    Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) physiologically regulates systemic tryptophan levels in the liver. However, numerous studies have linked cancer with activation of local and systemic tryptophan metabolism. Indeed, similar to other heme dioxygenases TDO is constitutively expressed in many cancers. In the present study, we detected the presence of both CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell reactivity toward TDO in peripheral blood of patients with malignant melanoma (MM) or breast cancer (BC) as well as healthy subjects. However, TDO-reactive CD4+ T cells constituted distinct functional phenotypes in health and disease. In healthy subjects these cells predominately comprised interferon (IFN)γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α producing Th1 cells, while in cancer patients TDO-reactive CD4+ T-cells were more differentiated with release of not only IFNγ and TNFα, but also interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-10 in response to TDO-derived MHC-class II restricted peptides. Hence, in healthy donors (HD) a Th1 helper response was predominant, whereas in cancer patients CD4+ T-cell responses were skewed toward a regulatory T cell (Treg) response. Furthermore, MM patients hosting a TDO-specific IL-17 response showed a trend toward an improved overall survival (OS) compared to MM patients with IL-10 producing, TDO-reactive CD4+ T cells. For further characterization, we isolated and expanded both CD8+ and CD4+ TDO-reactive T cells in vitro. TDO-reactive CD8+ T cells were able to kill HLA-matched tumor cells of different origin. Interestingly, the processed and presented TDO-derived epitopes varied between different cancer cells. With respect to CD4+ TDO-reactive T cells, in vitro expanded T-cell cultures comprised a Th1 and/or a Treg phenotype. In summary, our data demonstrate that the immune modulating enzyme TDO is a target for CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses both in healthy subjects as well as patients with cancer; notably, however, the functional phenotype of these T-cell responses differ

  15. Clinical significance of different types of p53 gene alteration in surgically treated prostate cancer. (United States)

    Kluth, Martina; Harasimowicz, Silvia; Burkhardt, Lia; Grupp, Katharina; Krohn, Antje; Prien, Kristina; Gjoni, Jovisa; Haß, Thomas; Galal, Rami; Graefen, Markus; Haese, Alexander; Simon, Ronald; Hühne-Simon, Julia; Koop, Christina; Korbel, Jan; Weischenfeld, Joachim; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Quaas, Alexander; Wilczak, Waldemar; Tsourlakis, Maria-Christina; Minner, Sarah; Schlomm, Thorsten


    Despite a multitude of p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies, data on the combined effect of nuclear p53 protein accumulation and TP53 genomic inactivation are lacking for prostate cancer. A tissue microarray including 11,152 prostate cancer samples was analyzed by p53 IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Nuclear p53 accumulation was found in 10.1% of patients including 1.4% with high-level and 8.7% with low-level immunostaining. TP53 sequencing revealed that 17 of 22 (77%) cases with high-level p53 immunostaining, but only 3% (1 of 31) low-level p53 cases carried putative dominant-negative mutations. TP53 deletions occurred in 14.8% of cancers. Both deletions and protein accumulation were linked to unfavorable tumor phenotype and prostate specific antigen (PSA) recurrence (pp53 positivity (8.7%) had identical risks of PSA recurrence, which were markedly higher than in cancers without p53 alterations (pp53 deletion and low-level p53 positivity (1.5%) had a worse prognosis than patients with only one of these alterations (pp53 immunostaining or homozygous inactivation through deletion of one allele and disrupting translocation involving the second allele had the worst outcome, independent from clinical and pathological parameters. These data demonstrate a differential clinical impact of various TP53 alterations in prostate cancer. Strong p53 immunostaining-most likely accompanying dominant negative or oncogenic p53 mutation-has independent prognostic relevance and may thus represent a clinical useful molecular feature of prostate cancer.

  16. Ethnic differences in survival after breast cancer in South East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Bhoo-Pathy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The burden of breast cancer in Asia is escalating. We evaluated the impact of ethnicity on survival after breast cancer in the multi-ethnic region of South East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Singapore-Malaysia hospital-based breast cancer registry, we analyzed the association between ethnicity and mortality following breast cancer in 5,264 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2007 (Chinese: 71.6%, Malay: 18.4%, Indian: 10.0%. We compared survival rates between ethnic groups and calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR to estimate the independent effect of ethnicity on survival. Malays (n = 968 presented at a significantly younger age, with larger tumors, and at later stages than the Chinese and Indians. Malays were also more likely to have axillary lymph node metastasis at similar tumor sizes and to have hormone receptor negative and poorly differentiated tumors. Five year overall survival was highest in the Chinese women (75.8%; 95%CI: 74.4%-77.3% followed by Indians (68.0%; 95%CI: 63.8%-72.2%, and Malays (58.5%; 95%CI: 55.2%-61.7%. Compared to the Chinese, Malay ethnicity was associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.34; 95%CI: 1.19-1.51, independent of age, stage, tumor characteristics and treatment. Indian ethnicity was not significantly associated with risk of mortality after breast cancer compared to the Chinese (HR: 1.14; 95%CI: 0.98-1.34. CONCLUSION: In South East Asia, Malay ethnicity is independently associated with poorer survival after breast cancer. Research into underlying reasons, potentially including variations in tumor biology, psychosocial factors, treatment responsiveness and lifestyle after diagnosis, is warranted.

  17. Overcoming Resistance of Cancer Cells to PARP-1 Inhibitors with Three Different Drug Combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Yalon

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARPis show promise for treatment of cancers which lack capacity for homologous recombination repair (HRR. However, new therapeutic strategies are required in order to overcome innate and acquired resistance to these drugs and thus expand the array of cancers that could benefit from them. We show that human cancer cell lines which respond poorly to ABT-888 (a PARPi, become sensitive to it when co-treated with vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi. Vorinostat also sensitized PARPis insensitive cancer cell lines to 6-thioguanine (6-TG-a drug that targets PARPis sensitive cells. The sensitizing effect of vorinostat was associated with increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 2α which in and of itself increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to ABT-888. Importantly, these drug combinations did not affect survival of normal fibroblasts and breast cells, and significantly increased the inhibition of xenograft tumor growth relative to each drug alone, without affecting the mice weight or their liver and kidney function. Our results show that combination of vorinostat and ABT-888 could potentially prove useful for treatment of cancer with innate resistance to PARPis due to active HRR machinery, while the combination of vorinostat and 6-TG could potentially overcome innate or acquired resistance to PARPis due to secondary or reversal BRCA mutations, to decreased PARP-1 level or to increased expression of multiple drug resistant proteins. Importantly, drugs which increase phosphorylation of eIF2α may mimic the sensitizing effect of vorinostat on cellular response to PARPis or to 6-TG, without activating all of its downstream effectors.

  18. Ethnic differences in allelic distribution of IFN-g in South African women but no link with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Anna-Lise


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The failure of specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPV to raise effective immune responses may be important in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in South African women. Polymorphisms of a number of cytokine genes have been implicated in inducing susceptibility or resistance to cancers caused by infectious agents owing to their role in determining host immune response. Polymorphisms of IL-10 and IFN-γ genes are believed to influence the expression and/or secretion levels of their respective cytokines. Methods and Results In this study, women with histologically proven cancer of the cervix (n = 458 and hospital-based controls (n = 587 were investigated for bi-allelic -1082 (A/G polymorphisms of IL-10 and the bi-allelic +874(A/T polymorphisms of IFN-γ. In addition, the distributions of the allelic frequencies were stratified in both the African and mixed race population groups of South Africa. We found striking differences in the allele distribution of IFN-γ (X2 = 0.02 among the two ethnic groups. A significant increase in the allele distribution of the IFN-γ AA genotype was found in the African group compared to the mixed population group (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2–1.0. For IL-10 there were no significant allelic differences between the two South African ethnic groups. Furthermore, when the ethnic groups were combined the IL-10 allelic frequencies in the combined South African data were similar to those observed in an Oriental population from Southern China and in an Italian population. However, the allele frequencies of the IFN-γ genotype among the two South African ethnic groups were different when compared to an Italian Caucasoid group. While crude analysis of these data showed both statistically significantly increased and diminished risks of cervical cancer among high producers of INF-γ and low producers of IL-10 respectively, these associations were no longer significant when the


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cervical cancer is the main cause of death inwomen.The influence of HPV plays an i mportantrole incervial cancer.It has been provedthat humanpapillomavirus(HPV)infectionis ani mportant fac-tor in cervical carcinogenesis.Multiple HPVinfec-tion was associated less frequently with cervical car-cinoma and with precancerous lesions compared withnor mal cytology[1].The activation of oncogene,in-activition of tumor suppressor gene and instabilityof genome are also majority reason.We establisheda cell line of human...

  20. Cancer (United States)

    ... uses a surgical tool to remove the tumor.Mohs' surgery. Layers of cancer cells are removed one ... usually have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The medicine may have ...

  1. SU-E-T-633: Dose Differences in Lung Cancer SBRT: The Influences of MLC Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)


    Purpose: The aim is to compare the plan dose distribution of lung SBRT with MLCs in different width. Methods: Cases with phase INSCLC were enrolled. 9 cases were undergone 4D-CT scanning in the supine position with both arms raised. 3D-CT images without IV contrast were afterwards acquired with 3mm thickness and used for dose calculations. ITV was generated by using the inspiration and expiration images. The ITV can be expanded by geometric set-up uncertainty (5 mm) to generate the PTV. All chest normal tissues including chest wall were contoured by doctors. A total dose of 55 Gy will be given in 5 fractions within 10–14 days with an inter fraction interval of 2–3 days. Guided by the RTOG trial 3502 protocol, 11–13 non-coplanar fields with 6MV photon were arranged. Three types of MLCs with width of 3mm, 5mm and 10mm at isocenter position, were used separately to generate a CRT plan for each case. Monte Carlo algorithm was applied to dose calculation. All plans were adjusted as possible to meet the dose constraints. Dose-volume parameters from plans as followed were compared and analysized: PTV V55Gy, COMPTV D70% (70% of normalization dose), volume A (body minus PTV), and R100% and R50% (the ratio of x% of prescription dose isoline volume to PTV volume). Results: MLCs, 3mm and 5mm wide, played the identical roles on dosimetry of the plans, excluding the parameter volume A (p<0.05). On the contrary, MLC with width of 10mm was significantly inferior to the other two types on most parameters (p<0.05). For R50%, all types contributed equally (p>0.05). Conclusion: For lung cancer SBRT, MLC width had influence to dosimetry, especially in irradiation area. Small size MLC, e.g. 3mm and 5mm, are helpful to generate a high quality treatment plan, which could meet the strict criteria for targets and OAR.

  2. Different Association of Human Papillomavirus 16 Variants with Early and Late Presentation of Cervical Cancer (United States)

    Alfaro, Ana; Juárez-Torres, Eligia; Medina-Martínez, Ingrid; Mateos-Guerrero, Norma; Bautista-Huerta, Maura; Román-Bassaure, Edgar; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Berumen, Jaime


    The median age of cervical cancer (CC) presentation coincides with the mean age of menopause presentation (49 years) in Mexico. Here, we investigated the association between different HPV16 variants and early (≤ 49 years) or delayed (≥ 50 years) CC presentation. We conducted a case-case study that included 462 CCs, 386 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 63 adenocarcinomas (ACC), and 13 additional cell types. Variants were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. The risk conferred by each variant for developing CC earlier than 50 years was analyzed using a univariate logistic regression model considering old-aged patients (≥ 50 years) and non-HPV16 cases as the reference variables. Overall, the frequency of HPV16 was 50.9%, and the only identified variants were the European A1/2 (31.2%) and the Asian-American D2 (10.8%), and D3 (8.9%). D2 was mainly associated with ≤ 49-year-old patients (15.9%); A1/2 was uniformly distributed between the two age groups (~31%), whereas D3 increased with age to a frequency of 11.8% in the older group. Only the D2 variant conferred a 3.3-fold increase in the risk of developing CC before 50 years of age (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.7–6.6, p < 0.001) in relation with non-HPV16 cases. Remarkably, this risk was higher for ACC (OR = 6.0, 95% CI = 1.1–33, p < 0.05) than for SCC (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3–5.9, p < 0.01). Interestingly, when analyzing only the HPV16-positive CC, D2 increases (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.2–5, p < 0.05) and D3 decreases (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.2–0.9, p < 0.05) the risk to develop CC before 50 years old in relation with A1/2 variant. These results indicated that D2 variant is associated with early and D3 with delayed CC presentation, whereas A1/2 variant was uniformly distributed between the two age groups. PMID:28036379

  3. Uterine Cancer (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  4. Gender-Related Survival Differences Associated With Polymorphic Variants of Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ) in Patients with Metastatic Colon Cancer


    Press, Oliver A.; Zhang, Wu; Gordon, Michael A.; Yang, Dongyun; Haiman, Christopher A; Azuma, Mizutomo; Iqbal, Syma; Lenz, Heinz-Josef


    Estrogen replacement therapy in women has demonstrated a protective effect in the development of colonic carcinomas. Gender-related differences in the development of colonic carcinomas have also been reported. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is expressed in colon carcinomas and has demonstrated prognostic value in colon cancer patients. This study investigated an ERβ 3’ non-coding polymorphism associated with transcriptional activity to determine clinical outcome in patients with metastatic colo...

  5. Developing and comparing two different prognostic indexes for predicting disease-free survival of nonmetastatic breast cancer patients


    TOKATLI, Zehra Füsun; Türe, Mevlüt; Ömürlü, İmran Kurt; ALAS, Ruşen Çoşar; Uzal, Mustafa Cem


    To determine 2 different prognostic indexes (PI) for the differentiation of subgroups of nonmetastatic breast cancer patients with the Cox regression analysis and survival tree (ST) methods and the additional usage of the Kaplan-Meier estimates to investigate the predictive power of these methods. Materials and methods: Prognostic factors data were collected for 410 patients. The Cox regression analysis examines the relationship of the survival distribution and covariates. The ST method is ...

  6. Response of Lymphocytes to Radiation in Untreated Breast Cancer Patients as Detected with Three Different Genetic Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To detect the response of lymphocytes to radiation in untreated breast cancer patients with three different genetic assays.Methods Blood samples were collected from 25 untreated patients and 25 controls.Each blood sample was divided into two parts:one was irradiated by 3-Gy X-ray (irradiated sample),the other was not irradiated (non-irradiated sample).The radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was assessed by comet assay,cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and 6-TG-resistant cells scored (TG) assay.Results The baseline values of micronucleated cell frequency (MCF) and micronucleus frequency (MNF) in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01),and 3-Gy X-ray induced genetic damage to lymphocytes in the patients increased significantly as compared with that in the controls as detected with the three genetic assays (P<0.01).The proportion of radiosensitive cases in the patient group was 48% for the mean tail length (MTL),40% for the mean tail moment (MTM),40% for MCE 44% for MNE and 48% for mutation frequencies of the hprt gene (Mfs-hprt),respectively,whereas the proportion of radiosensitive cases in the control group was only 8% for all the parameters.Conclusion The difference in the lymphocyte radiosensitivity between the breast cancer patients and the controls is significant.Moreover,there are wide individual variations in lymphocyte radiosensitivity of patients with breast cancer.In some cases,the radiosensitivity of the same patient may be different as detected with the different assays.It is suggested that multiple assays should be used to assess the radiosensitivity of patients with breast cancer before therapy.

  7. Do Physician Recommendations for Colorectal Cancer Screening Differ by Patient Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida J Sewitch


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer screening is underutilized, resulting in preventable morbidity and mortality. In the present study, age-related and other disparities associated with physicians’ delivery of colorectal cancer screening recommendations were examined. The present cross-sectional study included 43 physicians and 618 of their patients, aged 50 to 80 years, without past or present colorectal cancer. Of the 285 screen-eligible patients, 45% received a recommendation. Multivariate analyses revealed that, compared with younger nonde-pressed patients, older depressed patients were less likely to receive fecal occult blood test recommendations, compared with no recommendation (OR=0.31, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.02, as well as less likely to receive colonoscopy recommendations, compared with no recommendation (OR=0.14; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.66. Comorbidity and marital status were associated with delivery of fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy recommendations, respectively, compared with no recommendation. In summary, patient age and other characteristics appeared to influence physicians’ delivery of colorectal cancer screening and choice of modality.

  8. Salinomycin induces activation of autophagy, mitophagy and affects mitochondrial polarity: differences between primary and cancer cells. (United States)

    Jangamreddy, Jaganmohan Reddy; Ghavami, Saeid; Grabarek, Jerzy; Kratz, Gunnar; Wiechec, Emilia; Fredriksson, Bengt-Arne; Rao Pariti, Rama Krishna; Cieślar-Pobuda, Artur; Panigrahi, Soumya; Łos, Marek J


    The molecular mechanism of Salinomycin's toxicity is not fully understood. Various studies reported that Ca(2+), cytochrome c, and caspase activation play a role in Salinomycin-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, Salinomycin may target Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to promote differentiation and thus elimination of cancer stem cells. In this study, we show a massive autophagic response to Salinomycin (substantially stronger than to commonly used autophagic inducer Rapamycin) in prostrate-, breast cancer cells, and to lesser degree in human normal dermal fibroblasts. Interestingly, autophagy induced by Salinomycin is a cell protective mechanism in all tested cancer cell lines. Furthermore, Salinomycin induces mitophagy, mitoptosis and increased mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψ) in a subpopulation of cells. Salinomycin strongly, and in time-dependent manner decreases cellular ATP level. Contrastingly, human normal dermal fibroblasts treated with Salinomycin show some initial decrease in mitochondrial mass, however they are largely resistant to Salinomycin-triggered ATP-depletion. Our data provide new insight into the molecular mechanism of preferential toxicity of Salinomycin towards cancer cells, and suggest possible clinical application of Salinomycin in combination with autophagy inhibitors (i.e. clinically-used Chloroquine). Furthermore, we discuss preferential Salinomycins toxicity in the context of Warburg effect.

  9. Hard and Heavy Music: Can It Make a Difference in the Young Cancer Patients' Life?


    Fereshteh Ahmadi


    The aim of the present article is to discuss the role hard and heavy music plays in coping with cancer. Here, hard and heavy music refers to genres such as heavy metal, hard rock, hard rap, punk rock and aggressive pop music.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of differently designed immunoliposome formulations in rats with or without hepatic colon cancer metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, GA; Morselt, HWM; Gorter, A; Allen, TM; Zalipsky, S; Kamps, JAAM; Scherphof, GL


    Purpose. Compare pharmacokinetics of tumor-directed immunoliposomes in healthy and tumor-bearing rats (hepatic colon. cancer metastases). Methods. A tumor cell-specific monoclonal antibody was attached to polyethyleneglycol-stabilized liposomes, either in a random orientation via a lipid anchor (MPB

  11. Rice varietal differences in bioactive bran components for inhibition of colorectal cancer cell growth (United States)

    Studies support that the bran fraction of rice contains bioactive compounds capable of inhibiting the formation of colonic tumors. Screening bran extracts from diverse rice varieties represents a novel approach to assessing the colon cancer chemopreventive properties of rice bran. We analyzed a pane...

  12. Hard and Heavy Music: Can It Make a Difference in the Young Cancer Patients' Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ahmadi


    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to discuss the role hard and heavy music plays in coping with cancer. Here, hard and heavy music refers to genres such as heavy metal, hard rock, hard rap, punk rock and aggressive pop music.

  13. Predicting intentions to engage in cancer prevention and detection behaviors: examining differences between Black and White adults. (United States)

    Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Fishbein, Martin


    Reducing cancer-related mortality rates can be achieved by increasing cancer screening rates and by increasing the number of people who engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. This study uses the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IM; Fishbein, 2000) to examine differences between Blacks and Whites in the US in the degree to which attitudes, perceived behavioral control (PBC) and normative pressure contribute to predicting intentions to engage in three cancer screening behaviors (mammogram, colonoscopy and PSA test) and three healthy lifestyle behaviors (controlling ones diet to lose weight, eating fruits and vegetables and exercising regularly). Prior research has demonstrated that these behaviors are effective at reducing incidence and mortality rates for some cancers. Results indicated that for Blacks intentions to engage in all behaviors were driven by PBC. Patterns were more varied for Whites and indicated that normative pressure was a particularly important determinant of screening intentions whereas attitudes were most strongly associated with dieting intentions. Results suggest that interventions targeting these behaviors should be tailored by behavior and by ethnicity.

  14. Dramatic capability of the story of Amir Hasanak the vizier in Tarikh-e Beyhaghi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    پروین گلی زاده


    Full Text Available Literary adaptation is recasting literary books such as novels, short stories, or even poems in a new form such as films, stage plays, or even video games. Persian literature abounds with dramatic events. There are many fascinating narratives such as Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, Khmseh of Nezami, Mathnavi of Rumi, and Tarikh-e Beyhaghi of Beyhaghi, which have the dramatic capacity of literary adaptation. In this paper, the writer examines the dramatic capability of “The execution of Amir Hasanak the vizier”. The structure and artistic aspects of the story will be studied in the light of the elements of drama. Keywords: Beyhaghi, Hasanak, narration, dialogue, suspense

  15. Prognostic evaluation of the B cell/IL-8 metagene in different intrinsic breast cancer subtypes. (United States)

    Hanker, Lars C; Rody, Achim; Holtrich, Uwe; Pusztai, Lajos; Ruckhaeberle, Eugen; Liedtke, Cornelia; Ahr, Andre; Heinrich, Tomas M; Sänger, Nicole; Becker, Sven; Karn, Thomas


    We recently reported that a ratio of high B cell and low IL-8 metagene expression identified 32 % of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) with good prognosis and was the only significant predictor in multivariate analysis including routine clinicopathological variables. However, the clinical relevance of this signature in other breast cancer subtypes remains unclear. We compiled Affymetrix gene expression datasets from 4,467 primary breast cancer samples and excluded 329 triple negative samples which were used as discovery cohort in our previous study. Molecular classification of the remaining 4,138 samples was performed by two methods, including single genes (ER, PgR, HER2, and Ki67) and a centroid-based method using the intrinsic gene list. The prognostic value within the respective subtypes was assessed by analyzing the event-free survival of patients as a function of the B cell/IL-8 metagene ratio using previously published cutoff. ER-negative subtypes had the highest expression of the B cell and the IL-8 metagenes. The IL-8/B cell signature assigned a considerable fraction of samples (range 20.7-42.0 %) into the "good prognosis" group. However, a significant prognostic value was only observed in the subgroup of triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.035). The prognostic value of the B cell/IL-8 ratio is mainly confined to the basal-like and TNBC subtypes of breast cancer. This result underlines the importance of subtype-specific analyses and suggests a sequential multistep approach to developing and applying outcome predictors in the clinic.

  16. Influence of different operation methods for the pain stress and digestive function of patients with esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhao


    Objective:To observe and compare the influence state of different operation methods for the pain stress and digestive function of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods:A total of 56 patients with esophageal cancer treated with surgery in our hospital from January 2013 to August 2015 were selected as the research object. According to the differences of operation methods, 56 cases were divided into Group A (thoracotomy group) 28 cases and Group B (thoracic surgery group) 28 cases, then the serum levels of pain stress and gastrointestinal hormones, stomach digestive function indexes of two groups at the 1st day before the surgery and at the 1st, 3rd and 7th day after the surgery were compared. Results:The serum levels of pain stress and gastrointestinal hormones, stomach digestive function indexes of two groups at the 1st day before the surgery were compared. Those statistical indexes of Group B at the 1st, 3rd and 7th day after the surgery were all obviously better than those of Group A, and there are significant differences. Conclusion:The influence of thoracoscopic surgery for the pain stress and digestive function of patients with esophageal cancer are obviously better than those of thoracic surgery, and it has better control effect for the postoperative discomfort and digestive function of patients.

  17. Zeolite molecular sieves have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media. (United States)

    Fontes, Nuno; Partridge, Johann; Halling, Peter J; Barreiros, Susana


    Zeolite molecular sieves very commonly are used as in situ drying agents in reaction mixtures of enzymes in nonaqueous media. They often affect enzyme behavior, and this has been interpreted in terms of altered hydration. Here, we show that zeolites can also have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in low water media, resulting from their cation-exchange ability. Initial rates of transesterification catalyzed by cross-linked crystals of subtilisin were compared in supercritical ethane, hexane, and acetonitrile with water activity fixed by pre-equilibration. Addition of zeolite NaA (4 A powder) still caused remarkable rate enhancements (up to 20-fold), despite the separate control of hydration. In the presence of excess of an alternative solid-state acid-base buffer, however, zeolite addition had no effect. The more commonly used Merck molecular sieves (type 3 A beads) had similar but somewhat smaller effects. All zeolites have ion-exchange ability and can exchange H+ for cations such as Na+ and K+. These exchanges will tend to affect the protonation state of acidic groups in the protein and, hence, enzymatic activity. Zeolites pre-equilibrated in aqueous suspensions of varying pH-pNa gave very different enzyme activities. Their differing basicities were demonstrated directly by equilibration with an indicator dissolved in toluene. The potential of zeolites as acid-base buffers for low-water media is discussed, and their ability to overcome pH memory is demonstrated.

  18. Children's cancer centers (United States)

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  19. Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Huang, Zhiwei


    Raman spectroscopy is an optical vibrational technology capable of probing biomolecular changes of tissue associated with cancer transformation. This study aimed to characterize in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of tissues belonging to different anatomical regions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and explore the implications for early detection of neoplastic lesions during clinical gastroscopy. A novel fiber-optic Raman endoscopy technique was utilized for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements of normal esophageal (distal, middle, and proximal), gastric (antrum, body, and cardia) as well as cancerous esophagous and gastric tissues from 107 patients who underwent endoscopic examinations. The non-negativity-constrained least squares minimization coupled with a reference database of Raman active biochemicals (i.e., actin, histones, collagen, DNA, and triolein) was employed for semiquantitative biomolecular modeling of tissue constituents in the upper GI. A total of 1189 in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from different locations in the upper GI. The Raman spectra among the distal, middle, and proximal sites of the esophagus showed no significant interanatomical variability. The interanatomical variability of Raman spectra among normal gastric tissue (antrum, body, and cardia) was subtle compared to cancerous tissue transformation, whereas biomolecular modeling revealed significant differences between the two organs, particularly in the gastroesophageal junction associated with proteins, DNA, and lipids. Cancerous tissues can be identified across interanatomical regions with accuracies of 89.3% [sensitivity of 92.6% (162/175) specificity of 88.6% (665/751)], and of 94.7% [sensitivity of 90.9% (30/33) specificity of 93.9% (216/230)] in the gastric and esophagus, respectively, using partial least squares-discriminant analysis together with the leave-one tissue site-out, cross validation. This work demonstrates that Raman endoscopy technique has

  20. RB1 in cancer: different mechanisms of RB1 inactivation and alterations of pRb pathway in tumorigenesis. (United States)

    Di Fiore, Riccardo; D'Anneo, Antonella; Tesoriere, Giovanni; Vento, Renza


    Loss of RB1 gene is considered either a causal or an accelerating event in retinoblastoma. A variety of mechanisms inactivates RB1 gene, including intragenic mutations, loss of expression by methylation and chromosomal deletions, with effects which are species-and cell type-specific. RB1 deletion can even lead to aneuploidy thus greatly increasing cancer risk. The RB1gene is part of a larger gene family that includes RBL1 and RBL2, each of the three encoding structurally related proteins indicated as pRb, p107, and p130, respectively. The great interest in these genes and proteins springs from their ability to slow down neoplastic growth. pRb can associate with various proteins by which it can regulate a great number of cellular activities. In particular, its association with the E2F transcription factor family allows the control of the main pRb functions, while the loss of these interactions greatly enhances cancer development. As RB1 gene, also pRb can be functionally inactivated through disparate mechanisms which are often tissue specific and dependent on the scenario of the involved tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The critical role of the context is complicated by the different functions played by the RB proteins and the E2F family members. In this review, we want to emphasize the importance of the mechanisms of RB1/pRb inactivation in inducing cancer cell development. The review is divided in three chapters describing in succession the mechanisms of RB1 inactivation in cancer cells, the alterations of pRb pathway in tumorigenesis and the RB protein and E2F family in cancer.

  1. Clinical usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in discriminating different pathological changes in two patients with lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Shioya, Sumie; Ohta, Yasuyo; Yamabayashi, Hajime; Haida, Munetaka


    Two patients of lung cancer who developed homogeneous opacities in the left upper lung field were evaluated by MRI. Case 1 was a 46-year-old man with Horner's sign on the left side. MRI saggital images disclosed invasion to adjacent tissues which was not clearly demonstrated by conventional CT. Case 2 was a 66-year-old man with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. MRI revealed two different components in the homogeneous lesion which was not detected by CT. The difference in strength of signal intensity between each lesion was very prominent both in the T/sub 2/ weighted image (i.e., long SE) and in the IR image, not in the short SE image. This investigation presents two patients with lung cancer in whom MRI was found useful in distinguishing different lung pathological fundings. With conventional chest roentgenogram and CT, homogeneous opacities in the left upper lung were demonstrated. MRI revealed two components with different signal intensity in the homogeneous lesions. The difference was further enhanced in T/sub 2/ weighted MRI. In vitro measurement of T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ values of lung pathological tissues strongly suggested that one of two components corresponds to tumor and the other to non-tumor lesion. The results indicate that the T/sub 2/ weighted MRI is useful to distinguish different pathological changes in the lung.

  2. The role of hormones in the differences in the incidence of breast cancer between Mongolia and the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Troisi

    Full Text Available There are striking differences in breast cancer incidence between Asian and western women. Rates vary substantially within Asia also, with Mongolia's even lower than China's. These profound differences have been speculated to be due in part to diet, mediated by circulating hormone concentrations.Sex steroid hormone concentrations were measured in women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia and the United Kingdom (U.K.. Diet was obtained by interview and national survey data. Mean hormone differences were compared by country, and systematic variation by number of days since last menstrual period was modeled and adjusted for age and parity; difference in overall area under the curves was assessed.The diet in Mongolia was higher in meat and dairy than in the U.K. Mean testosterone concentrations were 18.5% lower (p<0.0001 while estradiol concentrations were 19.1% higher (p = 0.02 in Mongolian than British women, adjusted for age and parity. Progesterone was almost 50% higher in Mongolian women (p = 0.04, particularly during the follicular phase and early luteal surge. Hormone concentrations generally were similar in Mongolian women born in Ulaanbaatar compared with those born in rural areas, although there was a decreasing progesterone trend by degree of westernization (rural Mongolia; urban Mongolia; U.K.. Mean hormone differences were similar when restricted to parous women, and with further adjustment for body mass index, height, and smoking status.These data augment accumulating evidence that circulating estrogens are unlikely to explain reduced breast cancer rates in Asia compared with the west, and suggest casting a wider net with respect to biomarkers. Lower testosterone and higher progesterone in Mongolian women raise the possibility that these hormones may be important to consider. In addition, the almost exclusive dietary reliance of Mongolians on meat and dairy argues against beneficial effects of a low-fat diet on circulating hormones

  3. Gene Expression Architecture of Mouse Dorsal and Tail Skin Reveals Functional Differences in Inflammation and Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics (United States)

    Inherited germline polymorphisms can cause gene expression levels in normal tissues to differ substantially between individuals. We present an analysis of the genetic architecture of normal adult skin from 470 genetically unique mice, demonstrating the effect of germline variants, skin tissue location, and perturbation by exogenous inflammation or tumorigenesis on gene signaling pathways.

  4. Lung cancer attributable to indoor radon exposure in France using different risk models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O.C.; Laurier, D.L.; Rogel, A.R.; Billon, S.B.; Tirmarche, M.T. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Hemon, Dh. [INSERM -U170-IFR69, 94 - Villejuif (France); Verger, P.V. [Regional Health Observatory Provence Alpes Cote d' Azur, 13 - Marseille (France)


    Full text of publication follows: Radon exposure is omnipresent for the general public, but at variable levels, because radon mainly comes from granitic and volcanic subs oils as well as from certain construction materials. Inhalation of radon is the main source of exposure to radioactivity in the general population of most countries. In 1988, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared radon to be carcinogenic for humans (lung cancer): radon is classed in the group 1. The exposure of the overall general population to a carcinogenic component led scientists to assess the lung cancer risk associated to indoor radon. The aim of this work is to provide the first lung cancer risk assessment associated with indoor radon exposure in France, using all available epidemiological results and performing an uncertainty analysis. The number of lung cancer deaths potentially associated with radon in houses is estimated for the year 1999 according to several dose-response relationships which come from either cohorts of miners or joint analysis of residential case-controls studies. The variability of indoor radon exposure in France and uncertainties related to each of the dose-response relationships are considered. The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miners cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interaction between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980's by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the INSERM. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions and b y 96 departments for the year

  5. Monitoring different stages of breast cancer using tumour markers CA 15-3, CEA and TPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V;


    % of the patients receiving first-line chemotherapy (cohort B). Trials are necessary to determine whether tumour marker-guided therapy has any prognostic impact. The data suggest that tumour marker information may be used to stop ineffective treatments and reduce unnecessary adverse effects.......-individual biological variation, and the rate of increase. Patient cohorts were as follows: (A) 90 stage II breast cancer patients who were monitored postoperatively, (B) 204 recurrent breast cancer patients who were monitored during first-line chemotherapy, and (C) 112 patients who were monitored during the time...... period after first-line chemotherapy. The sensitivity for progression was 44% (cohort A), 69% (cohort B), and 68% (cohort C) without any false progression signals. Marker lead-times exceeded 3 months in 20% (cohort A) and 27% (cohort C) of patients. Marker lead-times were 1-6 months among 33...

  6. Neurocognitive impairment in dramatic personalities: histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial disorders. (United States)

    Burgess, J W


    Thirty-seven patients with personalities in the dramatic cluster (DSM-III-R histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial) and 40 controls matched for age and gender were evaluated on 16 neurocognitive variables. The evaluation screened for deficits in functions of attention, memory, language, abstraction, and behavior planning/sequencing. Analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in neurocognitive performance among patients with dramatic personalities, particularly in subtests requiring multi-step, multi-element associative operations.

  7. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution


    Edwige Heitzmann; Hervé Javelot; Luisa Weiner; Bruno Michel


    Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsi...

  8. Salinomycin induces activation of autophagy, mitophagy and affects mitochondrial polarity : Differences between primary and cancer cells


    Jangamreddy, Jaganmohan; Ghavami, Saeid; Grabarek, Jerzy; Kratz, Gunnar; Wiechec, Emilia; Fredriksson, Bengt-Arne; Rao, Rama K.; Cieślar-Pobuda, Artur; Panigrahi, Soumya; Łos, Marek


    The molecular mechanism of Salinomycin's toxicity is not fully understood. Various studies reported that Ca2 +, cytochrome c, and caspase activation play a role in Salinomycin-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, Salinomycin may target Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to promote differentiation and thus elimination of cancer stem cells. In this study, we show a massive autophagic response to Salinomycin (substantially stronger than to commonly used autophagic inducer Rapamycin) in prostrate-, br...

  9. Global Epigenetic Changes May Underlie Ethnic Differences and Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer (United States)


    with ESRD and diabetes patients without nephropathy . Epigenetics 2011; 6: 20–28. 19 Toperoff G, Aran D, Kark JD, Rosenberg M, Dubnikov T, Nissan B et al...therapeutic targets for prostate cancer treatment . In this study we sought to investigate whether differential DNA methylation changes may...genomic DNA extracted from prostate tissues were modified by sodium bisulfite treatment . The bisulfite treated DNA were used in a PCR reaction with

  10. Interspecies differences in membrane-associated protease activities of thyrocytes and their relevance for thyroid cancer studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich Eleonore


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the role of proteases involved in human thyroid cancer progression and tissue invasion, thyrocytes from other species could potentially be used provided their characteristics are similar. It is not known whether dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N activities, which are overexpressed in human thyroid cancer, are, as in human, also absent in normal thyrocytes of other species, making them suitable models for studies on the regulation of these proteases. Methods To assess the role of these proteases, activity was measured in thyroid tissue of human, mouse, rat, porcine, bovine and ovine origin. The lysosomal protease, dipeptidyl peptidase II, was used for comparison. Results Murine, rat, ovine, bovine and human thyrocytes all lacked dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N activity, but porcine thyrocytes were found to possess both. In contrast, lysosomal dipeptidyl peptidase II was strongly expressed in all species. These activity patterns were maintained in cultured cells. Cultured porcine thyrocytes formed follicles with typical morphology upon stimulation with TSH but differed from human thyrocytes in their response to thiamazole. Conclusions These species differences in the expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N, indicate that porcine thyrocytes cannot be considered appropriate for the study of proteases in human cancer development.

  11. NASA space cancer risk model-2014: Uncertainties due to qualitative differences in biological effects of HZE particles (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis

    Uncertainties in estimating health risks from exposures to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) — comprised of protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei are an important limitation to long duration space travel. HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation leading to large uncertainties in predicting risks to humans. Our NASA Space Cancer Risk Model-2012 (NSCR-2012) for estimating lifetime cancer risks from space radiation included several new features compared to earlier models from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) used at NASA. New features of NSCR-2012 included the introduction of NASA defined radiation quality factors based on track structure concepts, a Bayesian analysis of the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF) and its uncertainty, and the use of a never-smoker population to represent astronauts. However, NSCR-2012 did not include estimates of the role of qualitative differences between HZE particles and low LET radiation. In this report we discuss evidence for non-targeted effects increasing cancer risks at space relevant HZE particle absorbed doses in tissue (Mars exploration will be described, and compared to those of our earlier NSCR-2012 model.

  12. Antioxidant status in breast cancer patients of different ages after radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasapović Jelena


    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of breast cancer radiotherapy on the antioxidant (AO enzyme activities of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GR, as well as on the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxides (LP in blood of patients aged 45-58 years and older than 60 years. The results show that in blood of patients aged 45-58 years, radiotherapy increased the activities of CuZnSOD, CAT, and GR, as well as the concentration of GSH, without affecting the activity of GPx and concentration of LP. In patients older than 60 years, radiotherapy increased the activities of CuZnSOD and CAT, lowered the activity of GPx and concentration of GSH, and increased the concentration of LP. Our results indicate that the response to radiotherapy involves age-related impairment of AO capacity for elimination of H2O2, causing oxidative damage to blood cells. This suggests that cytotoxic effects of radiation on healthy tissues might be more pronounced during the aging of breast cancer patients, and should be considered in the further development of individualization protocols in cancer radiotherapy.

  13. Two different approaches in skin cancer therapy: using a photosensitizer/a natural product (United States)

    Abraham, Annie; Gayathri, Devi D.; Cibin, T. R.; Ramaiah, D.


    This paper deals with two potential modes for the treatment of skin cancer-one a novel approach using a squaraine dye and the other using a natural product- the flavonoid fraction of Saraca asoka. Squaraine dye is a photosensitizing agent, which is preferentially taken up and retained by the tumor cells and when irradiated with high power visible light results in the selective destruction of the tumor cells by photodynamic therapy. The uniqueness of this mode of treatment lies in the selective destruction of tumor cells without affecting the neighbouring normal cells, which is much advantageous over radiation therapy now frequently used. The chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of the plant component are explored as well. The experimental models were Swiss albino mice in which skin tumor was induced by DMBA. Marked reduction in tumor volume and burden in the treated groups were observed. The reversal of biochemical enzyme markers like rhodanese, myeloperoxidase, β-D glucuronidase, lactate dehydrogenase, hexokinase and sialic acid to near normal levels were observed in the PDT and flavonoid fraction treated groups. The live photographs of the experimental animals and histopathological data further support the obtained results. The study assumes importance as it combines a traditional treatment mode and a novel aspect in cancer therapy using the same experimental models. Also this is the first report on PDT using a squaraine dye for skin cancer therapy in vivo.

  14. The Exposure of Breast Cancer Cells to Fulvestrant and Tamoxifen Modulates Cell Migration Differently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysia Lymperatou


    Full Text Available There is no doubt that there are increased benefits of hormonal therapy to breast cancer patients; however, current evidence suggests that estrogen receptor (ER blockage using antiestrogens is associated with a small induction of invasiveness in vitro. The mechanism by which epithelial tumor cells escape from the primary tumor and colonize to a distant site is not entirely understood. This study investigates the effect of two selective antagonists of the ER, Fulvestrant (Fulv and Tamoxifen (Tam, on the invasive ability of breast cancer cells. We found that 17β-estradiol (E2 demonstrated a protective role regarding cell migration and invasion. Fulv did not alter this effect while Tam stimulated active cell migration according to an increase in Snail and a decrease in E-cadherin protein expression. Furthermore, both tested agents increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and enhanced invasive potential of breast cancer cells. These changes were in line with focal adhesion kinase (FAK rearrangement. Our data indicate that the anti-estrogens counteracted the protective role of E2 concerning migration and invasion since their effect was not limited to antiproliferative events. Although Fulv caused a less aggressive result compared to Tam, the benefits of hormonal therapy concerning invasion and metastasis yet remain to be investigated.

  15. Effects of a novel carbocyclic analog of pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleoside on pleiotropic induction of cell death in prostate cancer cells with different androgen responsiveness. (United States)

    Suh, Hyewon; Choi, Ko-woon; Lee, Jongbok; Ryou, Chongsuk; Rhee, Hakjune; Lee, Chul-Hoon


    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and is one of the leading causes of male cancer death in the world. Recently, in the course of our screening for a novel anticancer compound, we synthesized carbocyclic analogs of pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleoside; compounds 5, and 6. In the current study, we report the effects of compound 5 on pleiotropic induction of cell death via up-regulation of AR-associated p21(Cip1) protein in prostate cancer cells with different androgen responsiveness, such as LNCaP (androgen-dependent and -sensitive), LNCaP(C4-2) (androgen-independent and -sensitive; androgen-refractory), and DU145 (androgen-independent and -insensitive) cells. The treatment of LNCaP cells with 6 μM compound 5 for 24 h stimulated the androgen receptor (AR) activity and dramatically up-regulated transcription (56-fold) of p21(Cip1), which, in turn, induces typical apoptosis in the cells. However, induction of apoptosis through up-regulation (23-fold) of AR-associated p21(Cip1) achieved in LNCaP(C4-2) cells was possible by intensive cell treatment with compound 5 (9 μM, 48 h), because the cells are less sensitive and independent to androgen than LNCaP cells. Furthermore, 6 μM compound 5-treated DU145 cells, which exhibit extremely low AR activation due to no androgen responsiveness and dependency, showed neither up-regulation of p21(Cip1) nor apoptotic induction. Instead, a different type of cell death, autophagy-like death through the LC3B-associated autophagosome formation, was obviously induced in DU145 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that pleiotropic induction of prostate cancer cell death by compound 5 is determined by how efficiently and how abundantly androgen-dependent activation of the AR occurs, whereas compound 6 shows no induction of apoptosis in LNCaP cells.

  16. Stem cells in normal mammary gland and breast cancer. (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Yin, Xin; Ma, Tao; Lu, Jun


    The mammary gland is a structurally dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic alterations with age, menstrual cycle, and reproductive status. Mammary gland stem cells, the minor cell population within the mature organ, are thought to have multiple functions in regulating mammary gland development, tissue maintenance, major growth, and structural remodeling. In addition, accumulative evidence suggests that breast cancers are initiated and maintained by a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell features (called cancer stem cells). A variety of methods have been developed to identify and characterize mammary stem cells, and several signal transduction pathways have been identified to be essential for the self-renewal and differentiation of mammary gland stem cells. Understanding the origin of breast cancer stem cells, their relationship to breast cancer development, and the differences between normal and cancer stem cells may lead to novel approaches to breast cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  17. A poorly known high-latitude parasitoid wasp community: unexpected diversity and dramatic changes through time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    Full Text Available Climate change will have profound and unanticipated effects on species distributions. The pace and nature of this change is largely unstudied, especially for the most diverse elements of terrestrial communities--the arthropods--here we have only limited knowledge concerning the taxonomy and the ecology of these groups. Because Arctic ecosystems have already experienced significant increases in temperature over the past half century, shifts in community structure may already be in progress. Here we utilise collections of a particularly hyperdiverse insect group--parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera; Braconidae; Microgastrinae--at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the early and mid-twentieth century to compare the composition of the contemporary community to that present 50-70 years ago. Morphological and DNA barcoding results revealed the presence of 79 species of microgastrine wasps in collections from Churchill, but we estimate that 20% of the local fauna awaits detection. Species composition and diversity between the two time periods differ significantly; species that were most common in historic collections were not found in contemporary collections and vice versa. Using barcodes we compared these collections to others from across North America; contemporary Churchill species are most affiliated with more south-western collections, while historic collections were more affiliated with eastern collections. The past five decades has clearly seen a dramatic change of species composition within the area studied coincident with rising temperature.

  18. Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and Accutase dramatically increase mouse embryonic stem cell derivation. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Xinglong; Hu, Chunchao; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Xiangyun


    Although it has been 30 yr since the development of derivation methods for mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, the biology of derivation of ES cells is poorly understood and the efficiency varies dramatically between cell lines. Recently, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and the cell dissociation reagent Accutase were reported to significantly inhibit apoptosis of human ES cells during passaging. Therefore, in the current study, C57BL/6×129/Sv mouse blastocysts were used to evaluate the effect of the combination of the two reagents instead of using the conventional 129 line in mouse ES cell derivation. The data presented in this study suggests that the combination of Y-27632 and Accutase significantly increases the efficiency of mouse ES cell derivation; furthermore, no negative side effects were observed with Y-27632 and Accutase treatment. The newly established ES cell lines retain stable karyotype, surface markers expression, formed teratomas, and contributed to viable chimeras and germline transmission by tetraploid complementation assay. In addition, Y-27632 improved embryoid body formation of ES cells. During ES cell microinjection, Y-27632 prevented the formation of dissociation-induced cell blebs and facilitates the selection and the capture of intact cells. The methods presented in this study clearly demonstrate that inhibition of Rho kinase with Y-27632 and Accutase dissociation improve the derivation efficiently and reproducibility of mouse ES cell generation which is essential for reducing variability in the results obtained from different cell lines.

  19. Analysing the development of TV news programmes: from information to dramatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Rodríguez Fidalgo, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Abstract: The TV news programme is the backbone of all television networks, be they national, regional or local. These types of programmes have been changing over the time. The essence of the information is being modified and has adopted a new format. Based on these principles, this research analyses the evolution of the language used on the Spanish TV news programmes, from their origins until today. This research has been carried out in three different phases: late 1980s, the 1990s and recent years. These stages were thoroughly examined through surveys applied to representative samples of the population. The results showed that TV news programmes have been acquiring a changing narrative style throughout time: they began using an “objective” narrative, followed by a mediated type, and finally dramatized narrative which uses shocking visual content and aims to achieve audience’s sensibilization and identification with news’ protagonists. The spectacularization of information has become the identitary feature of the current TV news programmes as a response to the need of reaching higher audience ratings.

  20. Who gets custody now? Dramatic changes in children's living arrangements after divorce. (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R; Brown, Patricia R; Cook, Steven T


    This article reexamines the living arrangements of children following their parents' divorce, using Wisconsin Court Records, updating an analysis that showed relatively small but significant increases in shared custody in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These changes have accelerated markedly in the intervening years: between 1988 and 2008, the proportion of mothers granted sole physical custody fell substantially, the proportion of parents sharing custody increased dramatically, and father-sole custody remained relatively stable. We explore changes in the correlates of alternative custody outcomes, showing that some results from the earlier analysis still hold (for example, cases with higher total family income are more likely to have shared custody), but other differences have lessened (shared-custody cases have become less distinctive as they have become more common). Despite the considerable changes in marriage and divorce patterns over this period, we do not find strong evidence that the changes in custody are related to changes in the characteristics of families experiencing a divorce; rather, changes in custody may be the result of changes in social norms and the process by which custody is determined.

  1. Association between different EGFR mutation status and survival in pemetrexed-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the association between different epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)mutation status and survival in pemetrexed-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC).Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed to assess146 patients with advanced NSCLC at Cancer

  2. [The effect of alloxan on the multiplication of different types of normal or cancerous cells, and on the transformation of chick embryo fibroblasts by Rous virus in vitro]. (United States)

    Grobon, P; Latarjet, R


    The action of alloxan was studied in vitro, on different categories of normal or cancerous cells. At concentrations of 250 and 350 gamma/ml, alloxan does not significantly inhibit the growth of normal cells, whereas it does inhibit the growth of cancerous cells. Furthermore, alloxan inhibits infection and transformation of chicken-embryo fibroblasts infected by the Rous virus.

  3. Dramatic reduction of dimensionality in large biochemical networks owing to strong pair correlations (United States)

    Dworkin, Michael; Mukherjee, Sayak; Jayaprakash, Ciriyam; Das, Jayajit


    Large multi-dimensionality of high-throughput datasets pertaining to cell signalling and gene regulation renders it difficult to extract mechanisms underlying the complex kinetics involving various biochemical compounds (e.g. proteins and lipids). Data-driven models often circumvent this difficulty by using pair correlations of the protein expression levels to produce a small number (fewer than 10) of principal components, each a linear combination of the concentrations, to successfully model how cells respond to different stimuli. However, it is not understood if this reduction is specific to a particular biological system or to nature of the stimuli used in these experiments. We study temporal changes in pair correlations, described by the covariance matrix, between concentrations of different molecular species that evolve following deterministic mass-action kinetics in large biologically relevant reaction networks and show that this dramatic reduction of dimensions (from hundreds to less than five) arises from the strong correlations between different species at any time and is insensitive to the form of the nonlinear interactions, network architecture, and to a wide range of values of rate constants and concentrations. We relate temporal changes in the eigenvalue spectrum of the covariance matrix to low-dimensional, local changes in directions of the system trajectory embedded in much larger dimensions using elementary differential geometry. We illustrate how to extract biologically relevant insights such as identifying significant timescales and groups of correlated chemical species from our analysis. Our work provides for the first time, to our knowledge, a theoretical underpinning for the successful experimental analysis and points to a way to extract mechanisms from large-scale high-throughput datasets. PMID:22378749

  4. mtDNA sequence variants in subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer stages in relation to ethnic and age difference

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    Yao Xuebiao


    Full Text Available Abstract Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality among women in the United States. For this disease, differences in age-adjusted incidence and survival rates between African American and Caucasian women are substantial. The objective of this study was to examine mtDNA sequence variants in 118 frozen tissues of three subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (serous, n = 48 endometrioid, n = 47 and mucinous, n = 23 and matched paracancerous normal tissues (n = 18 in relation to racial/ethnic and age differences. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based sequencing were used to evaluate two regions of mtDNA spanning 5317 to 7608 and 8282 to 10110 bp and including ND subunits 2, 3, MT-COI, II, and III, ATPase 8, a part of ATPase 6, and tRNA genes in frozen ovarian tissues obtained from the southern regional Cooperative Human Tissue Network (CHTN and University of Alabama-Birmingham (UAB Ovarian Spore Center. Thirty-nine mtDNA variants were detected of which 28 were previously unreported. One somatic variant of C9500T was observed. A variant, C7028T in the MT-CO1 gene, had an ascending frequency from borderline (8% to stages III/IV (75% among the three ovarian cancer subtypes and stages. It was found in 86% (42/49 of African-American and 43% (37/87 of the Caucasian women. A variant, T8548G in the ATPase 6 gene was detected at a frequency of 72% (18/25 in ovarian serous subtype tissues in stages III/IV. Of the African American patients under age 40, 95% (20/21 harbored the T8548G variant; this was in contrast to only 22% (8/35 of Caucasian patients in same age group. Variants C7256T and G7520A had a frequency of 54% (6/11 in endometrioid stage III; no corresponding variants were observed in mucinous subtype stage III. Furthermore, variants C7256T and G7520A were absent in serous ovarian cancer subtype. Interestingly, the C7520T variant in tRNA gene was present in 74% (36/49 of

  5. Different glycosylation of cadherins from human bladder non-malignant and cancer cell lines

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    Lityńska Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to determine whether stage of invasiveness of bladder cancer cell lines contributes to alterations in glycan pattern of their cadherins. Results Human non-malignant epithelial cell of ureter HCV29, v-raf transfected HCV29 line (BC3726 and transitional cell cancers of urine bladder Hu456 and T24 were grown in cell culture. Equal amounts of protein from each cell extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and were blotted on an Immobilon P membrane. Cadherins were immunodetected using anti-pan cadherin mAb and lectin blotting assays were performed, in parallel. N-oligosaccharides were analysed by specific reaction with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA, Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA, Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA, Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA, Aleuria aurantia agglutinin (AAA, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA-L and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA. The cadherin from HCV29 cell line possessed bi- and/or 2,4-branched triantennary complex type glycans, some of which were α2,6-sialylated. The cadherin from BC3726 cell line exhibited exclusively high mannose type glycans. Cadherins from Hu456 and T24 cell lines expressed high mannose type glycans as well as β1,6-branched oligosaccharides with poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures and α2,3-linked sialic acid residues. Additionally, the presence of fucose and α2,6-sialic acid residues on the cadherin from T24 cell line was detected. Conclusions These results indicate that N-glycosylation pattern of cadherin from bladder cancer cell line undergoes modification during carcinogenesis.

  6. Different role of COX-2 and angiogenesis in canine inflammatory and non-inflammatory mammary cancer. (United States)

    Clemente, Mónica; Sánchez-Archidona, Ana Rodríguez; Sardón, David; Díez, Lucía; Martín-Ruiz, Asunción; Caceres, Sara; Sassi, Francesco; Dolores Pérez-Alenza, M; Illera, Juan C; Dunner, Susana; Peña, Laura


    Human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) are the most aggressive and fatal types of mammary cancer, and both have a very poor prognosis and low survival rate. Human IBC is characterised by exacerbated angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymphangiotropism. Lymphangiotropism is also characteristic of IMC, but microvascular density (MVD) and lymphangiogenesis have not been previously studied in canine IMC. In this study immunohistochemical expression of several angiogenesis-related factors (cyclooxygenase [COX]-2, vascular endothelial growth factors A and D [VEGF-A, VEGF-D], and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 [VEGFR-3]), MVD, lymphatic proliferation index (LPI), and Ki-67 tumour proliferation index (PI) were studied in 21 canine IMC samples, 20 canine high-grade malignant non-IMC mammary tumours (MMTs), and four normal mammary gland samples (NMGs). All mammary neoplasms were histologically categorised as grade III. COX-2 values were also analysed by RT-PCR in seven IMCs, six MMTs and four NMGs. The expressions of COX-2, VEGF-A, and VEGF-D were significantly higher in IMC, MVD and LPI tumours, but not PI. In MMTs, COX-2 immunoexpression was significantly associated with VEGF-A, while in IMCs COX-2 was associated with VEGF-D (lymphangiogenic factor), its receptor VEGFR-3, and LPI. These results suggested that lymphangiogenic pathway stimulation isa specific role of COX-2 in IMC angiogenesis, which justifies the use of COX-2-based targeted palliative therapies in dogs. The exacerbated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and the increased expression of angiogenesis-related factors further support canine IMC as a natural model for the study of human IBC.

  7. The comparison between two different methods of radiotherapy in palliation and survival of patients with esophageal cancer

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    Keshvary M


    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in our country. Patients often seek medical advice in advanced and inoperable stages or with cervical esophageal cancer, in which operation is accompanied by sever morbidity. In this conditions many of them cannot tolerate chemo-radiation, or refuse it. Therefore radiotherapy is applied as a single modality in palliation of many patients with esophageal cancer. One of the palliative radio therapeutic methods is application of 5000 CGY in 20 fractions (Long Course; but considering the great number of our patients and limited capacity of radiotherapy centers, as well as emphasis of literature on palliation with 4000 CGY in 13 fractions (short course, we decided to compare these two methods (which are both used in our departments. In this retrospective analytic study, the files of 283 patients with esophageal cancer referred to cancer institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital from 1989-1999 were studied. Patients were between 27-97 years old (mean age=58.3 and most of them were male (53.7 percent. The mean length of lesion was 8.5 cm. The most common site of lesion was middle third at esophagus (48.1 percent and the most common pathology was squamous cell carcinoma (99.6 percent. Fifty-four percent of patients were hot tea drinkers habitually. From the mentioned variables, only length of lesion had significant relationship with overall survival (P=0.04. Thirty-eight of 283 patients were excluded from analytic study because of incomplete follow-up. The number of patients had been treated by long course (5000 CGY in 20 fractions was 137 and the remainder (108 patients by short course (4000 CGY in 13 fractions. No significant difference was seen statistically between these two groups in overall and dysphagia-free survival (Kaplan-Meyer test. Also total dosage of spinal cord is lower in the short course. Thus regarding to less required time in short course and comparable palliation and survival between

  8. Immunohistochemical study of the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at different stages of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; Maase, Hans von der; Sørensen, Flemming B.


    PURPOSE: The cell cycle is known to be deregulated in cancer. We therefore analyzed the expression of the cell cycle related proteins p21, p27, p16, Rb, and L-myc by immunohistochemical staining of bladder tumors. METHODS: The tissue material consisted of bladder tumors from three groups......(kip1) ( P=0.03), Rb ( P=0.00002), and L-myc ( P=0.00000007) in muscle invasive tumors compared to noninvasive tumors. Tumors presenting as muscle invasive at first diagnosis had significantly lower levels of p16/CDKN2A ( P=0.01) when compared to muscle invasive tumors that followed Ta or T1 precursor...

  9. Efficacy and toxicity differences in lung cancer populations in the era of clinical trials globalization: the 'common arm' approach. (United States)

    Mack, Philip C; Gandara, David R; Lara, Primo N


    Historically, notable variability has been observed in clinical trial outcomes between different regions and populations worldwide, even when employing the same cytotoxic regimen in lung cancer. These divergent results underscore the inherent challenges in interpreting trials conducted abroad and raise questions regarding the general applicability of transnational clinical trials. Various reasons have been postulated to account for these differences in efficacy and toxicity, including trial design, eligibility criteria, patient demographics and, perhaps most intriguingly, population-related pharmacogenomics. However, without methodology to control for such variables, these hypotheses remain largely untested. The authors previously developed the 'common arm' approach in order to directly compare efficacy and toxicity results of trials simultaneously performed in different countries. By standardizing clinical trial-associated variables such as treatment regimens (dose, schedule, and so on), eligibility, staging, response and toxicity criteria, this approach has the potential to determine the underlying reasons for divergences in trial outcomes across countries, and whether population-associated polymorphisms contribute to these differences. In the past decade, Japanese and US investigators have applied the common arm analytic method to trials in both extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and advanced nonSCLC. In the SCLC analysis, a comparison of the cisplatin/irinotecan arms from both trials revealed significant differences in response rates and overall survival. Significant differences were also observed in the distribution of gender and performance status. The common arm analysis in nonSCLC included two trials from Japan and one from the USA, each containing a 'common' carboplatin/paclitaxel arm. Clinical results were similar in the two Japanese trials, but were significantly different from the US trial with regard to survival, neutropenia, febrile

  10. Diosmin-induced senescence, apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells of different p53 status and ERK activity. (United States)

    Lewinska, Anna; Adamczyk-Grochala, Jagoda; Kwasniewicz, Ewa; Deregowska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej


    Relatively low bioavailability of plant-derived nutraceuticals with anticancer properties may limit their usefulness for prevention and therapy of cancer. In the present study, we have screened for nutraceuticals (n=30) that would act at low micromolar range against phenotypically distinct breast cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7 (ER(+), PR(+/-), HER2(-)), MDA-MB-231 (ER(-), PR(-), HER2(-)) and SK-BR-3 (ER(-), PR(-), HER2(+)), and diosmin, a citrus fruit flavonoid belonging to a flavone subclass, was selected. MCF-7 cell line was found to be the most sensitive to diosmin treatment. Diosmin caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, elevation in p53, p21 and p27 levels and stress-induced premature senescence when used at lower concentrations (5 and 10μM). Diosmin (20μM) also promoted apoptosis that was not observed in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). Diosmin stimulated oxidative and nitrosative stress, DNA damage and changes in global DNA methylation patterns. The status of p53 (wild type versus mutant) and the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in a steady state, and diosmin-induced autophagy may reflect diverse response to diosmin treatment in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells, which in turn results in different cell fates. Taken together, diosmin that acts at low micromolar range against breast cancer cells may be considered as a promising candidate for anticancer therapy.

  11. Different affinity windows for virus and cancer-specific T-cell receptors: implications for therapeutic strategies. (United States)

    Aleksic, Milos; Liddy, Nathaniel; Molloy, Peter E; Pumphrey, Nick; Vuidepot, Annelise; Chang, Kyong-Mi; Jakobsen, Bent K


    T-cell destiny during thymic selection depends on the affinity of the TCR for autologous peptide ligands presented in the context of MHC molecules. This is a delicately balanced process; robust binding leads to negative selection, yet some affinity for the antigen complex is required for positive selection. All TCRs of the resulting repertoire thus have some intrinsic affinity for an MHC type presenting an assortment of peptides. Generally, TCR affinities of peripheral T cells will be low toward self-derived peptides, as these would have been presented during thymic selection, whereas, by serendipity, binding to pathogen-derived peptides that are encountered de novo could be stronger. A crucial question in assessing immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer is whether natural TCR repertoires have the capacity for efficiently recognizing tumor-associated peptide antigens. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of TCR affinities to a range of HLA-A2 presented antigens. TCRs that bind viral antigens fall within a strikingly higher affinity range than those that bind cancer-related antigens. This difference may be one of the key explanations for tumor immune escape and for the deficiencies of T-cell vaccines against cancer.

  12. The Revised 2016 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancers: Differences from the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines (United States)


    Increased detection of thyroid nodules using high-resolution ultrasonography has resulted in a world-wide increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Despite the steep increase in its incidence, the age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer has remained stable, which leads toward a trend of more conservative treatment. The latest American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer revised in 2015 suggested that fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed for thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm and lobectomy might be sufficient for 1 to 4 cm intrathyroidal DTC. In addition, active surveillance instead of immediate surgical treatment was also recommended as a treatment option for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on the results of a few observational studies from Japan. The Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) has organized a task force team to develop revised guidelines for thyroid nodules and DTC after an extensive review of articles and intense discussion on whether we should accept the changes in the 2015 ATA guidelines. This paper introduces and discusses the updated major issues and differences in the ATA and the KTA guidelines. PMID:27704738

  13. Comparison of arc-modulated cone beam therapy and helical tomotherapy for three different types of cancer

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    Ulrich, Silke; Sterzing, Florian; Nill, Simeon; Schubert, Kai; Herfarth, Klaus K.; Debus, Juergen; Oelfke, Uwe [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)


    Purpose: Arc-modulated cone beam therapy (AMCBT) is a fast treatment technique deliverable in a single rotation with a conventional C-arm shaped linac. In this planning study, the authors assess the dosimetric properties of single-arc therapy in comparison to helical tomotherapy for three different tumor types. Methods: Treatment plans for three patients with prostate carcinoma, three patients with anal cancer, and three patients with head and neck cancer were optimized for helical tomotherapy and AMCBT. The dosimetric comparison of the two techniques is based on physical quantities derived from dose-volume histograms. Results: For prostate cancer, the quality of dose distributions calculated for AMCBT was of equal quality as that generated for tomotherapy with the additional benefits of a faster delivery and a lower integral dose. For highly complex geometries, the plan quality achievable with helical tomotherapy could not be achieved with arc-modulated cone beam therapy. Conclusions: Rotation therapy with a conventional linac in a single arc is capable to deliver a high and homogeneous dose to the target and spare organs at risk. Advantages of this technique are a fast treatment time and a lower integral dose in comparison to helical tomotherapy. For highly complex cases, e.g., with several target regions, the dose shaping capabilities of AMCBT are inferior to those of tomotherapy. However, treatment plans for AMCBT were also clinically acceptable.

  14. Comparison of cervical cell morphology using two different cytology techniques for early detection of pre-cancerous lesions. (United States)

    Moosa, Najla Yussuf; Khattak, Nuzhat; Alam, Muhammad Irfan; Sher, Alam; Shah, Walayat; Mobashar, Shumaila; Alam, Muhammad Imran; Javid, Asima


    Cervical cancer is an issue of foremost importance globally, specifically affecting the developing nations. Significant advances have taken place with regard to diagnosis of cervical cancer, especially with screening. Appropriate screening measures can thus reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The most desirable screening technique should be less invasive, easy to perform, cost-effective and cover a wide range of diagnostic icons. Manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) can be considered as one of the suitable technique for screening with the above-mentioned benefits. The aim of the current study was to compare two cervical screening techniques on the basis of different morphological parameters and staining parameters by using modified acetic acid Pap staining to see the possibility of reducing time economy involved in conventional Pap staining (CPS). The study was conducted on a total 88 cases and all were analyzed with both MLBC and CPS. Forty eight cases that were regarded as satisfactory on the basis of Bethesda system by both methods were further recruited for investigation. Their morphological parameters and staining quality were compared and scored according to a scoring system defined in the study. Quality indices was calculated for both staining procedures and smear techniques.

  15. Gene set based integrated data analysis reveals phenotypic differences in a brain cancer model.

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    Kjell Petersen

    Full Text Available A key challenge in the data analysis of biological high-throughput experiments is to handle the often low number of samples in the experiments compared to the number of biomolecules that are simultaneously measured. Combining experimental data using independent technologies to illuminate the same biological trends, as well as complementing each other in a larger perspective, is one natural way to overcome this challenge. In this work we investigated if integrating proteomics and transcriptomics data from a brain cancer animal model using gene set based analysis methodology, could enhance the biological interpretation of the data relative to more traditional analysis of the two datasets individually. The brain cancer model used is based on serial passaging of transplanted human brain tumor material (glioblastoma--GBM through several generations in rats. These serial transplantations lead over time to genotypic and phenotypic changes in the tumors and represent a medically relevant model with a rare access to samples and where consequent analyses of individual datasets have revealed relatively few significant findings on their own. We found that the integrated analysis both performed better in terms of significance measure of its findings compared to individual analyses, as well as providing independent verification of the individual results. Thus a better context for overall biological interpretation of the data can be achieved.

  16. Difference in protein expression profile and chemotherapy drugs response of different progression stages of LNCaP sublines and other human prostate cancer cells.

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    Hui-Ping Lin

    Full Text Available Androgen ablation therapy is the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. However, 80-90% of the patients who receive androgen ablation therapy ultimately develop recurrent tumors in 12-33 months after treatment with a median overall survival time of 1-2 years after relapse. LNCaP is a commonly used cell line established from a human lymph node metastatic lesion of prostatic adenocarcinoma. We previously established two relapsed androgen receptor (AR-rich androgen-independent LNCaP sublines 104-R1 (androgen depleted for 12 months and 104-R2 cells (androgen depleted for 24 months from AR-positive androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells. LNCaP 104-R1 and 104-R2 mimics the AR-positive hormone-refractory relapsed tumors in patients receiving androgen ablation therapy. Androgen treatment stimulates proliferation of 104-S cells, but causes growth inhibition and G1 cell cycle arrest in 104-R1 and 104-R2 cells. We investigated the protein expression profile difference between LNCaP 104-S vs. LNCaP 104-R1, 104-R2, PC-3, and DU-145 cells as well as examined the sensitivity of these prostate cancer cells to different chemotherapy drugs and small molecule inhibitors. Compared to 104-S cells, 104-R1 and 104-R2 cells express higher protein levels of AR, PSA, c-Myc, Skp2, BCL-2, P53, p-MDM2 S166, Rb, and p-Rb S807/811. The 104-R1 and 104-R2 cells express higher ratio of p-Akt S473/Akt, p-EGFR/EGFR, and p-Src/Src, but lower ratio of p-ERK/ERK than 104-S cells. PC-3 and DU-145 cells express higher c-Myc, Skp2, Akt, Akt1, and phospho-EGFR but less phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK. Overexpression of Skp2 increased resistance of LNCaP cells to chemotherapy drugs. Paclitaxel, androgen, and inhibitors for PI3K/Akt, EGFR, Src, or Bcl-2 seem to be potential choices for treatment of advanced prostate cancers. Our study provides rationale for targeting Akt, EGFR, Src, Bcl-2, and AR signaling as a treatment for AR-positive relapsed prostate tumors after hormone therapy.

  17. Recognition of tumor antigens in 4T1 cells by natural IgM from three strains of mice with different susceptibilities to spontaneous breast cancer (United States)

    Díaz-Zaragoza, Mariana; Hernández-Ávila, Ricardo; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro


    The issue of antibody responses to tumors is potentially important to cancer immunologists. Early detection of cancer represents one of the most promising approaches to reduce the growing cancer burden. Natural immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies have been associated with the recognition and elimination of cancerous and precancerous cells. Using natural IgM antibodies, the present study identified a set of antigens in healthy mice from three different strains and examined whether the global patterns of antibodies are able to discriminate between a condition of more or less susceptibility to breast cancer. The current study performed two-dimensional (2D) immunoblotting to detect antigens from 4T1 cells using natural IgM from serum of healthy female mice from three different strains. The t-test was used to analyze the total number of spots. There were no significant differences in the numbers of antigens recognized in each strain. However, differences in patterns were observed on 2D immunoblots among the three strains. The reactivity patterns of natural IgM antibodies to particular antigens exhibited non-random clustering, which discriminated between strains with different susceptibilities to spontaneous breast cancer. The results demonstrated that the patterns of reactivity to defined subsets of antigens are able to provide information regarding differential diagnosis associated with breast cancer sensitivity. Therefore, it may be concluded that it is possible to segregate the IgM humoral immune response toward cancer antigens according to the genetic background of individuals. In addition, it is possible to identify the recognized antigens that allow grouping or discriminate between the different IgM antibodies expressed. The possible association between a particular antigen and cancer susceptibility requires further study, but the methodology exposed in the present study may identify potential candidates for this possible association.

  18. Therapeutic potential and critical analysis of trastuzumab and bevacizumab in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents against metastatic breast/colorectal cancer affecting various endpoints. (United States)

    Wahid, Mohd; Mandal, Raju K; Dar, Sajad A; Jawed, Arshad; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammad Y; Akhter, Naseem; Haque, Shafiul


    Researchers are working day and night across the globe to eradicate or at least lessen the menace of cancer faced by the mankind. The two very frequently occurring cancers faced by the human beings are metastatic breast cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer. The various chemotherapeutic agents like anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, irinotecan, fluorouracil and leucovorin etc., have been used impressively for long. But the obstinate character of metastatic breast cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer needs more to tackle the threat. So, the scientists found the use of monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab (Herceptin(®)) and bevacizumab (Avastin(®)) for the same. The current study critically investigates the therapeutic potential of trastuzumab and bevacizumab in combination with various chemotherapeutic agents against metastatic breast cancer and metastatic colorectal cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first critical analysis showing percent wise increase in various positive endpoints like median time to disease progression, median survival, and progression free survival etc. for the treatment of metastatic breast/colorectal cancer using trastuzumab and bevacizumab in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents and provides the rational for the success and failure of the selected monoclonal antibodies.

  19. Pharmacological and clinical differences among transmucosal fentanyl formulations for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain: a review article. (United States)

    Corli, O; Roberto, A


    Breakthrough pain (BTP) is highly prevalent (59.2%) in chronic cancer patients and normally needs rescue treatments' with opioids when pain flares up. Transmucosal oral/nasal fentanyl formulations are commonly used in clinical practice. The different methods of release influence the pharmacokinetics and clinical properties of these formulations. The aim of this review was to assess and weigh these differences. Clinical trials comparing one transmucosal fentanyl with placebo or another active drug were included. We searched Medline for the last ten years and analyzed 13 studies, totaling 1447 patients. Clinical data on efficacy and safety were compared. In parallel, we report the differences in delivery systems, bioavailability, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), plasma half-life, and time to reach Cmax (tmax). Considerable variability emerged between formulations. This suggests some considerations on the choice of the fentanyl formulation in the light of the BTP features in each clinical case.

  20. Differences in Regional Diagnostic Strategies and in Intended Versus Actual First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik


    BACKGROUND: Triage of patients with ovarian cancer to primary debulking surgery (PDS) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is challenging. In Denmark, the use of NACT has increased, but substantial differences in the use of NACT or PDS exist among centers. We aimed to characterize the differences b......-line treatments as well as in the diagnostic process and use of NACT, calling for further discussion on diagnostic strategy and therapeutically approach for patients with advanced ovarian cancer....

  1. Pinpointing differences in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in adherent and non-adherent cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Holm, Jacob Bak; Poulsen, Kristian Arild


    Platinum compounds are used in the treatment of cancer. We demonstrate that cisplatin-induced (10 µM) apoptosis (caspase-3 activity) is pronounced within 18 hours in non-adherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC), whereas there is no increase in caspase-3 activity in the adherent Ehrlich Lettré...... ascites tumour cells (ELA). Loss of KCl and cell shrinkage are hallmarks in apoptosis and has been shown in EATC. However, we find no reduction in cell volume and only a minor loss of K(+) which is accompanied by net uptake of Na(+) following 18 hours cisplatin exposure in ELA. Glutathione and taurine...... have previously been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptosis. We find, however, that increase or decrease in the cellular content of glutathione and taurine has no effect on cisplatin-induced cell death in EATC and ELA. Nevertheless, knock-down of the taurine transporter TauT leads...

  2. Cell Adhesion Regulates Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Coregulators in Different Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer cells adhere to a tumor basement membrane, while secretoryepithelial cells reside in a suprabasal cell compartment. Since tumor cells are derived fromsuprabasal epithelial cells, they experience de-novo substratum adhesion in the context ofoncogenesis. We therefore analyzed whether cell-matrix adhesion could affect the proteinexpression and activity of the AR. In this study, AR protein expression declined uponsuspension of BPH-1-AR cells, but not in PC-3-AR cells shown by Western blot. In a timecourse study, BPH-1 cell lost AR expression within 6 hours, and the synthetic androgen,R1881 reduced the loss of AR expression. We further explored the mechanism of AR loss insuspended BPH-1 cells. BPH-1-AR cells underwent apoptosis (anoikis when suspended for2 - 5 hours. Suspension did not induce significant apoptosis or decreasing of AR expressionin PC-3 cells. Inhibition of apoptosis in suspended BPH-1-AR cells, either by expression ofBcl-2 or Bcl-xl or by treatment with Z-VAD, a caspase inhibitor, prevented loss of ARprotein. In contrast, the calpain protease inhibitor , ALLN, accelerated the loss of AR proteinexpression. Additionally, cell-matrix adhesion changed the expression of coregulators of ARin the mRNA level of prostate cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that AR proteinexpression was reduced through activation of cell death pathways, and thus indirectly through cell suspension in BPH-AR cells. The activity of AR can also be regulated by adhesion in PC-3-AR and LNCaP cells through affecting the coregulators level.

  3. Sex differences in the relationship of IL-6 signaling to cancer cachexia progression. (United States)

    Hetzler, Kimbell L; Hardee, Justin P; Puppa, Melissa J; Narsale, Aditi A; Sato, Shuichi; Davis, J Mark; Carson, James A


    A devastating aspect of cancer cachexia is severe loss of muscle and fat mass. Though cachexia occurs in both sexes, it is not well-defined in the female. The Apc(Min/+) mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; circulating IL-6 is a critical regulator of cancer cachexia in the male Apc(Min/+) mouse. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IL-6 signaling and cachexia progression in the female Apc(Min/+) mouse. Male and female Apc(Min/+) mice were examined during the initiation and progression of cachexia. Another group of females had IL-6 overexpressed between 12 and 14 weeks or 15-18 weeks of age to determine whether IL-6 could induce cachexia. Cachectic female Apc(Min/+) mice lost body weight, muscle mass, and fat mass; increased muscle IL-6 mRNA expression was associated with these changes, but circulating IL-6 levels were not. Circulating IL-6 levels did not correlate with downstream signaling in muscle in the female. Muscle IL-6r mRNA expression and SOCS3 mRNA expression as well as muscle IL-6r protein and STAT3 phosphorylation increased with severe cachexia in both sexes. Muscle SOCS3 protein increased in cachectic females but decreased in cachectic males. IL-6 overexpression did not affect cachexia progression in female Apc(Min/+) mice. Our results indicate that female Apc(Min/+) mice undergo cachexia progression that is at least initially IL-6-independent. Future studies in the female will need to determine mechanisms underlying regulation of IL-6 response and cachexia induction.

  4. Differences in Patient Outcomes of Prevalence, Interval, and Screen-Detected Lung Cancers in the CT Arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. (United States)

    Schabath, Matthew B; Massion, Pierre P; Thompson, Zachary J; Eschrich, Steven A; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Goldof, Dmitry; Aberle, Denise R; Gillies, Robert J


    Lung cancer screening identifies cancers with heterogeneous behaviors. Some lung cancers will be identified among patients who had prior negative CT screens and upon follow-up scans develop a de novo nodule that was determined to be cancerous. Other lung cancers will be identified among patients who had one or more prior stable positive scans that were not determined to be lung cancer (indeterminate pulmonary nodules), but in follow-up scans was diagnosed with an incidence lung cancer. Using data from the CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial, this analysis investigated differences in patient characteristics and survival endpoints between prevalence-, interval-, and screen-detected lung cancers, characterized based on sequence of screening results. Lung cancers immediately following a positive baseline (T0), and prior to the T1 screen, formed the prevalence cohort. Interval cancers were diagnosed following a negative screen at any time point prior to the next screening round. Two cohorts of screen-detected lung cancers (SDLC) were identified that had a baseline positive screen that was that was not determined to be lung cancer (i.e., an indeterminate pulmonary nodule), but in follow-up scans was diagnosed with an incidence lung cancer 12 (SDLC1) or 24 (SDLC2) months later. Two other incidence cohorts had screen-detected lung cancers that had baseline negative screen and upon follow-up scans developed a de novo nodule determined to be cancerous at 12 (SDLC3) or 24 (SDLC4) months later. Differences in patient characteristics, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed. The lung cancer-specific death rate was higher for SDLC3/SDLC4 compared to SDLC1/SDLC2 lung cancers (136.6/1,000 person-years vs. 71.3/1,000 person-years, P < 0.001). Moreover, PFS and OS were significantly lower for SDLC3/SDLC4 compared to SDLC1/SDLC2 (P < 0.004; P < 0.002, respectively). The findings were consistent when stratified by stage and histology

  5. Mouse models of anemia of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airie Kim

    Full Text Available Anemia of cancer (AC may contribute to cancer-related fatigue and impair quality of life. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of AC could facilitate better treatment, but animal models to study AC are lacking. We characterized four syngeneic C57BL/6 mouse cancers that cause AC. Mice with two different rapidly-growing metastatic lung cancers developed the characteristic findings of anemia of inflammation (AI, with dramatically different degrees of anemia. Mice with rapidly-growing metastatic melanoma also developed a severe anemia by 14 days, with hematologic and inflammatory parameters similar to AI. Mice with a slow-growing peritoneal ovarian cancer developed an iron-deficiency anemia, likely secondary to chronically impaired nutrition and bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. Of the four models, hepcidin mRNA levels were increased only in the milder lung cancer model. Unlike in our model of systemic inflammation induced by heat-killed Brucella abortus, ablation of hepcidin in the ovarian cancer and the milder lung cancer mouse models did not affect the severity of anemia. Hepcidin-independent mechanisms play an important role in these murine models of AC.

  6. Are there biologic differences between male and female breast cancer explaining inferior outcome of men despite equal stage and treatment?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.C.; Gani, C.; Rehm, H.M.E.; Eckert, F.; Bamberg, M.; Weinmann, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Hehr, T. [Marienhospital Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology


    Background: Reasons for inferior outcome of male compared to female breast cancer are still under debate. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed male breast cancer cases to figure out possible treatment- and gender-related differences. Patients and methods: A total of 40 men (median age 62 years) were curatively treated with mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy from 1982-2007. They presented predominantly in stages II and IIIb. Postoperative radiotherapy was applied with doses of 1.8-2.5 Gy to a median of 50 Gy including regional lymphatics in 22 patients. Adjuvant systemic treatment consisted of chemotherapy (22.5%) and antihormonal treatment (55%). For reasons of comparison, we estimated outcome of a virtual female matched cohort for no/equal to men/optimal adjuvant treatment with the Adjuvant.Online {sup registered} 8.0 algorithm. Results: After a median follow-up of 47 months, the estimated 5-year local control rate was 97%, disease-free and distant metastasis-free survival rates reached 79% and 82%, respectively. With update of survival data by tumor registry, mean overall survival reached 120 months with 5- and 10-year overall survival rates of 66% and 43%, respectively. Predominant prognostic factor was T-stage for overall survival (T1/2 vs. T4: > 80% vs. 30%). The generated virtual matched cohorts of women with equal characteristics reached superior 10-year-overall survival for no/equal to men/optimal adjuvant treatment with 55/59/68%. Conclusion: Compared to historical and virtual matched cohorts of women, male breast cancer patients had inferior outcome despite of equal stage and treatment which indicates that biological differences (of tumor or population) may contribute to worse prognosis. (orig.)

  7. Quality of life in Chinese women treated surgically for breast cancer with one of three different procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To determine the quality of life of patients treated with one of three different types of surgery for breast cancer.Methods This was a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey completed by Chinese patients without active disease after at least 2 years of follow-up after breast cancer surgery.Results This study totally included 139 breast cancer patients:44 ( 31.6%) had undergone modified radical mastectomy with reconstruction, 41(29.5%)had a quadrantectomy with axillary lymph node dissection, and 54(38.9%)had a modified radical mastectomy without reconstruction.The EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23 question-naires were used;their reliability was>0.82.Global health status(94.30 ±12.04, P=0.028)and role functio-ning(85.16 ±17.23, P=0.138)were highest in the quadrantectomy group.Pain score was highest in the modi-fied radical mastectomy with reconstruction group(26.13 ±30.15, P =0.042).The breast symptom score (22.56 ±22.30, P=0.009)and body image perception(85.56 ±19.72, P=0.025)were highest in the conser-vative treatment group.The overall health of patients given modified radical mastectomy without reconstruction was lower(72.61 ±20.89, P=0.014) in women older than 50 years compared with younger women.Conclu-sions The quadrantectomy with axillary lymph node dissection procedure had better acceptance, but the overall health status did not differ between groups.Overall health status is lower in women older than 50 years receiving a modified radical mastectomy without reconstruction.

  8. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution (United States)

    Heitzmann, Edwige; Weiner, Luisa; Michel, Bruno


    Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsidering the real risk of tardive dyskinesia associated with aripiprazole, particularly in the elderly. PMID:27818825

  9. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwige Heitzmann


    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsidering the real risk of tardive dyskinesia associated with aripiprazole, particularly in the elderly.

  10. 99Tcm-N(NOEt2 Uptake Kinetics Difference among KMB17 Human Embryonic Lung Diploid Fibroblast and Different Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei JIA


    Full Text Available Background and objective PET/CT imaging is expensive, so searching the tumor imaging agent for SPECT/CT is necessary. 99Tcm-N(NOEt2 [bis (N-ethoxy-N-ethyl dithiocarbamato nitrido99Tcm (V] can be uptaken by lung cancer cells and other cells alike. The aim of this study is to evaluate the distinctive value in lung tumor with 99Tcm-N(NOEt2, the difference in its uptake kinetics in human embryonic lung diploid fibroblasts KMB17 and several kinds of lung cancer cells lines. Methods Firstly, six different cell culture medium which contained YTMLC Gejiu human lung squamous carcinoma cell, SPC-A1 human lung adenocarcinoma cell, AGZY low metastatic human lung adenocarcinoma, 973 high metastatic human lung adenocarcinoma cell, GLC-82 Gejiu human lung adenocarcinoma cell, and KMB17 human embryonic lung diploid fibroblast, respectively with equal cell density of 1×106/mL and the same volume were prepared; secondly, the same radioactive dose of 99Tcm-N(NOEt2 was added into each sample and then 300 μL mixed sample was taken out respectively and cultured in 37 oC culture box; Finally, 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 75 min, 90 min after cultivation, centrifuged each cultured sample and determined the intracellular radiocounts of each sample, calculated each cell sample’s uptake rate of 99Tcm-N(NOEt2 at different time. Results Statistical difference was found among six cell samples, and the uptake rate sequence from high to low is 973 and SPC-A1>YTMLC>GLC-82>AGZY>KMB17 respectively; furthermore, 30 min-45 min after culture, the uptake rate reached stability, and the 45 min uptake rate of each sample was higher than its 96.7% uptake peak. Conclusion Based on the results above mentioned, it is supposed that there are discriminative clinical value when using 99Tcm-N(NOEt2 as a tumor targeting imaging agent, and 30 min or so after injection may be the best imaging time in the early imaging stage.

  11. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Trp1197Stop causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Nesterovitch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes many peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, including asthma. Previously, a molecular mechanism underlying a 5-fold familial increase of blood ACE was discovered: Pro1199Leu substitution enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Carriers of this mutation were Caucasians from Europe (mostly Dutch or had European roots. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found a family of African-American descent whose affected members' blood ACE level was increased 13-fold over normal. In affected family members, codon TGG coding for Trp1197 was substituted in one allele by TGA (stop codon. As a result, half of ACE expressed in these individuals had a length of 1196 amino acids and lacked a transmembrane anchor. This ACE mutant is not trafficked to the cell membrane and is directly secreted out of cells; this mechanism apparently accounts for the high serum ACE level seen in affected individuals. A haplotype of the mutant ACE allele was determined based on 12 polymorphisms, which may help to identify other carriers of this mutation. Some but not all carriers of this mutation demonstrated airflow obstruction, and some but not all have hypertension. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified a novel Trp1197Stop mutation that results in dramatic elevation of serum ACE. Since blood ACE elevation is often taken as a marker of disease activity (sarcoidosis and Gaucher diseases, it is important for clinicians and medical scientists to be aware of alternative genetic causes of elevated blood ACE that are not apparently linked to disease.

  12. Investigation of the dramatic changes in lake level of the Bosten Lake in northwestern China (United States)

    Guo, Mengjing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaode; Chen, Yongmin; Li, Jing


    Bosten Lake, located in the arid region of northwest China, is the largest inland freshwater lake in China. Water resources in Bosten Lake are of great importance for the regional drinking water supply, agricultural irrigation, and economic development of Xinjiang province. In this study, the dynamics of the lake level in Bosten Lake were investigated from 1956 to 2010. We found that the lake level experienced three different periods of change due to the combined influences of climate variation and human activities. Generally, the lake level has shown a significant downward trend since the first observation started in 1956 and dropped to its lowest level in 1987. Thereafter, the lake level presented a continuous upward trend and rose to its highest value in 2002. Then, the level decreased dramatically from 2002 to 2010. A water balance model and the climate elasticity method were used to estimate the reasons for the lake level changes of Bosten Lake. The results showed that an increase in lake evaporation led to the continuous decrease in lake level from 1958 to 1987. Then, human-controlled lake outflow and increasing lake inflow together led to the increase in lake level from 1988 to 2002. During 2003 to 2010, the emergency project of transferring water to Tarim River led to the increase in lake outflow, while the lake inflow obviously decreased because of a decrease in precipitation. These factors resulted in a sharp decrease in the lake level from 2003 to 2010. The changes in lake level indicate changes in available water resources from Bosten Lake. This reason for the analysis of the change in lake level in this study is to support the water resources management of Bosten Lake.

  13. Influence of the Different Primary Cancers and Different Types of Bone Metastasis on the Lesion-based Artificial Neural Network Value Calculated by a Computer-aided Diagnostic System,BONENAVI, on Bone Scintigraphy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objective(s: BONENAVI, a computer-aided diagnostic system, is used in bone scintigraphy. This system provides the artificial neural network (ANN and bone scan index (BSI values. ANN is associated with the possibility of bone metastasis, while BSI is related to the amount of bone metastasis. The degree of uptake on bone scintigraphy can be affected by the type of bone metastasis. Therefore, the ANN value provided by BONENAVI may be influenced by the characteristics of bone metastasis. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between ANN value and characteristics of bone metastasis. Methods: We analyzed 50 patients (36 males, 14 females; age range: 42–87 yrs, median age: 72.5 yrs with prostate, breast, or lung cancer who had undergone bone scintigraphy and were diagnosed with bone metastasis (32 cases of prostate cancer, nine cases of breast cancer, and nine cases of lung cancer. Those who had received systematic therapy over the past years were excluded. Bone metastases were diagnosed clinically, and the type of bone metastasis (osteoblastic, mildly osteoblastic,osteolytic, and mixed components was decided visually by the agreement of two radiologists. We compared the ANN values (case-based and lesion-based among the three primary cancers and four types of bone metastasis.Results: There was no significant difference in case-based ANN values among prostate, breast, and lung cancers. However, the lesion-based ANN values were the highest in cases with prostate cancer and the lowest in cases of lung cancer (median values: prostate cancer, 0.980; breast cancer, 0.909; and lung cancer, 0.864. Mildly osteoblastic lesions showed significantly lower ANN values than the other three types of bone metastasis (median values: osteoblastic, 0.939; mildly osteoblastic, 0.788; mixed type, 0.991; and osteolytic, 0.969. The possibility of a lesion-based ANN value below 0.5 was 10.9% for bone metastasis in prostate cancer, 12.9% for breast cancer, and 37

  14. [A case of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome with dramatic improvement in consciousness immediately after intravenous infusion of thiamine]. (United States)

    Kikuchi, A; Chida, K; Misu, T; Okita, N; Nomura, H; Konno, H; Takase, S; Takeda, A; Itoyama, Y


    A 68-year-old man was hospitalized on March 4, 1998 for disturbances in consciousness. In 1995, he had received proximal subtotal gastrectomy and reconstructive surgery of the jejunal interposition for gastric cancer. Thereafter he had been taking enough food without the habit of taking liquor. In October 1997, his short term memory was becoming gradually worse. On February 12, 1998, he suffered from numbness in the feet, and then dysphagia, unsteady gait, and diplopia developed gradually. On February 26, brain MRI showed no abnormalities. On March 3, he had a fever of 38.5 degrees C and his consciousness became unclear. Neurological examination revealed semi-coma, total ophthalmoplegia, and absence of doll's eye movement. Deep tendon reflexes were absent. The serum thiamine level was 9 ng/ml (normal range: 20-50). Brain MRI demonstrated symmetrical high intensity lesions in the periaqueductal area of the midbrain, dorsomedial nuclei of bilateral thalami, and vestibular nuclei. About 30 seconds after intravenous infusion of thiamine, his consciousness improved dramatically, but returned to semi-coma after about two minutes. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome usually occurs acutely. In the present case, however, the disease showed slow onset, chronic progression, and then rapid worsening after fever. Reconstructive surgery of the jejunal interposition might have caused the slow onset of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, and fever might have facilitated the rapid progression of the disease. An immediate high concentration of thiamine modifies the kinetics of acetylcholine receptor ion channels, thereby maintaining wakefulness, and the level of consciousness may change dramatically.

  15. Gender difference in bone metastasis of human small cell lung cancer, SBC-5 cells in natural killer-cell depleted severe combined immunodeficient mice. (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Goto, Hisatsugu; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Otsuka, Shinsaku; Ogino, Hirokazu; Kakiuchi, Soji; Uehara, Hisanori; Yano, Seiji; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Sone, Saburo


    Lung cancer frequently develops multiple organ metastases, which thus makes this disease a leading cause of malignancy-related death worldwide. A gender difference is reported to affect the incidence and mortality of lung cancer; however, whether and how the gender difference is involved in lung cancer metastasis is unclear. This study evaluated the gender difference in multiple organ metastases in human small cell lung cancer (SBC-5) cells by using natural killer cell-depleted severe combined immunodeficient mice. Among multiple organ metastases, only bone metastasis formation significantly increased in female mice in comparison to males, while no significant difference was observed in the metastases to the liver and lungs. The suppression of androgen by castration or androgen receptor antagonist treatment in male mice also induced a significant increase of bone metastases. The number of osteoclasts in the bone metastatic lesions was greater in female mice and in mice with androgen suppression than in control male. However, there was no significant difference in the serum concentration of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) associated with gender or androgen suppression. An in vitro study also indicated that sex steroid treatment had no effect on the proliferation or PTHrP production in SBC-5 cells. These results indicate that the balance of sex steroids therefore plays an important role in the formation of bone metastasis in small cell lung cancer, and suggests diverse mechanisms of interaction between cancer cells and host cells in the bone microenvironment.

  16. Differences in outcome for positive margins in a large cohort of breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving therapy. (United States)

    Jobsen, Jan J; Van Der Palen, Job; Ong, Francisca; Meerwaldt, Jacobus H


    A study of the possible difference in outcome for positive margins for invasive carcinoma (IC) versus ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and with regard to different age categories in a large prospective cohort of patients with invasive breast cancer. A total of 2 291 BCT were analyzed. Margins were positive for IC in 8.7% and for DCIS in 4.6%. The median follow-up was 83 months. The 10-year local recurrence-free survival for negative margins vs. positive margins for IC vs. positive for DCIS for women 40 years 94.7% vs. 92.6% vs. 82.6% (HR4.2). The 10-year distant disease-free survival for negative margins vs. positive margins for IC vs. positive for DCIS women 40 years.

  17. Examining plasma microRNA markers for colorectal cancer at different stages. (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Yuexin; Cogdell, David; Calin, George A; Sun, Baocun; Kopetz, Scott; Hamilton, Stanley R; Zhang, Wei


    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising biomarkers; however, few miRNAs have been reproducible and can be used in clinical practice. In this study, we screened the levels of 754 miRNAs using TaqMan array in 50 individual plasma samples from 10 demographically matched healthy controls and 40 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (10 each of stage I-IV) and identified 22 miRNAs associated with the presence of and stages of CRC. Then we performed the validation for 11 miRNAs in an independent cohort including 187 CRC cases and 47 healthy controls. Comprehensive analyses showed that plasma miR-96 distinguished stage I-IV CRC from healthy controls with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.740; miR-203 separated stage III-IV CRC patients from stage I-II with an AUC of 0.757; and miR-141 differentiated stage IV CRC from stage I-III patients with an AUC of 0.851. Survival analyses showed that plasma miR-96 and miR-200b were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Thus, we propose four miRNAs (miR-96, miR-203, miR-141 and miR-200b) as clinically validated circulating biomarkers for CRC prognosis that warrant further evaluation for clinical utility.

  18. Region-specific differences in colorectal cancer: Slovakia and Hungary have highest incidence in Europe. (United States)

    Simko, V; Ginter, E


    Epidemiological data on colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit high incidence in Central East Europe. Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia represent the lead. For decades it was the Czech Republic but it attained the fourth rank after the mid-2000. Remarkably, the Ashkenazi Jews who imigrated to the USA from Central Europe have the highest incidence of CRC among US minorities. They also have high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a risk for CRC. Notably, countries surrounding the Central European focus of CRC, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Russia have substantially lower incidence. CRC in Central Europe has higher incidence than CRC among the highest at-risk cohort in the USA, the elderly blacks. Research and the genome wide screening identified genetic mutations associated with CRC in Ashkenazis from Central Europe. Some risk factors for CRC are non genotypic as evidenced by wide variation in CRC incidence in the course of only a few decades. Recent trends offer hope that identification of the non-innate pathogenic mechanisms would potentially reduce the burden of this third most lethal malignancy (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 40).

  19. Different Gene Expression and Activity Pattern of Antioxidant Enzymes in Bladder Cancer. (United States)

    Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonowski, Zbigniew; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Konecki, Tomasz; Fendler, Wojciech; Sosnowski, Marek; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Reszka, Edyta


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role in and contribution of antioxidant enzymes to bladder cancer (BC) etiology and recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR). We enrolled 40 patients with BC who underwent TUR and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The analysis was performed at diagnosis and recurrence, taking into account the time of recurrence. Gene expression of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes. The activity of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) was examined in plasma, and GPX1 and copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in erythrocytes. SOD2 and GPX1 expression and GPX1 and SOD1 activity were significantly higher in patients at diagnosis of BC in comparison to controls. In patients who had recurrence earlier than 1 year from TUR, CAT and SOD2 expression was lower (at diagnosis p=0.024 and p=0.434, at recurrence p=0.022 and p=0.010), while the GPX1 and GPX3 activity was higher (at diagnosis p=0.242 and p=0.394, at recurrence p=0.019 and p=0.025) compared to patients with recurrence after 1 year from TUR. This study revealed that the gene expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes are elevated in blood of patients with BC, although a low expression of CAT might contribute to the recurrence of BC, in early prognosis.

  20. Erotic Language as Dramatic Action in Plays by Lyly and Shakespeare (United States)

    Knoll, Gillian


    This study closely examines the language of desire in the dramatic works of John Lyly and William Shakespeare, and argues that contemplative and analytical speeches about desire function as modes of action in their plays. Erotic speeches do more than express desire in a purely descriptive or perlocutionary capacity distinct from the action of the…

  1. The Devil and his Dramatic Function in Calderon’s Autos Sacramentales

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    Luis Iglesias Feijoo


    Full Text Available In some Calderón’s autos sacramentales the character of the Devil draws the plot and establishes the dramatic action as a demiurge. He elaborates plans and strategies to confuse the Man, but he always fails. This function approaches the autos to the metatheater. Finally certain parallels with Shakespeare are suggested.

  2. Athenian and Shakespearean Tragedies in Oceania: Teaching Dramatic Literatures in Fiji (United States)

    Anae, Nicole


    This paper presents a theorised classroom-based narrative discussing the author's interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of English dramatic literatures--in particular, Sophocles' "Oedipus the King" and Shakespeare's "Macbeth"--to i-Taukei, Indo-Fijian and Pacific Islander tertiary students at a South Pacific university.…

  3. Examining Young Children's Perception toward Augmented Reality-Infused Dramatic Play (United States)

    Han, Jeonghye; Jo, Miheon; Hyun, Eunja; So, Hyo-jeong


    Amid the increasing interest in applying augmented reality (AR) in educational settings, this study explores the design and enactment of an AR-infused robot system to enhance children's satisfaction and sensory engagement with dramatic play activities. In particular, we conducted an exploratory study to empirically examine children's perceptions…

  4. Creating Intersubjectivity during Socio-Dramatic Play at an Australian Kindergarten (United States)

    Whitington, Victoria; Floyd, Irene


    Socio-dramatic play (SDP) creates a zone of proximal development in which optimum cognitive development occurs. To participate successfully in this kind of play children and their partners must create shared meaning, or what is referred to in the socio-cultural literature as intersubjectivity. Based on intersubjectivity and SDP, this study…

  5. Engaging in Dramatic Activities in English as a Foreign Language Classes at the University Level (United States)

    Algarra Carrasco, Victoria


    In this article, we discuss how, through dramatic activities, fiction and reality can work together to help the English as a Foreign language learner communicate in a more personal and meaningful way. The kind of activities proposed are designed to help engender a space where students can personally engage with each other in an atmosphere that is…

  6. Art-House Cinema, Avant-Garde Film, and Dramatic Modernism (United States)

    Cardullo, Bert


    In this article, the author talks about art-house cinema, avant-garde film, and dramatic modernism. He believes that the most important modes of film practice are art-house cinema and the avant-garde, both of which contrast with the classical Hollywood mode of film practice. While the latter is characterized by its commercial imperative, corporate…

  7. Lord Kelvin and the Age-of-the-Earth Debate: A Dramatization. (United States)

    Stinner, Art; Tecihman, Jurgen


    Presents a dramatization of a fictitious debate about the age of the earth that takes place at the Royal Institution, London, England, in the year 1872 among Sir William Thomson, T.H. Huxley, Sir Charles Lyell, and Hermann von Helmholtz. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  8. The Effect of Literacy Intervention in Preschool Children's Dramatic Play on Literacy Behaviors. (United States)

    Johnson, Emily A.

    This study on the effect of participation in field trips as a literacy intervention in play investigated how preschool children incorporated the literacy behaviors emphasized during the field trips into their play activities. Authentic literacy materials were included in two dramatic play centers before and after 15 children participated in…

  9. Didactique du francais langue seconde, dramatisation, et theatre (French Second Language Teaching, Dramatization, and Theater). (United States)

    Fancy, Alex


    Use of dramatics in French second language education is advocated with theoretical and practical arguments, and a four-stage approach to language acquisition through theater is proposed. The approach is based on activities of a bilingual theater troupe that offers Mount Allison University (New Brunswick) students an opportunity to participate in…

  10. An integrated analysis of genes and pathways exhibiting metabolic differences between estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells

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    Davie James R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex hormone estrogen (E2 is pivotal to normal mammary gland growth and differentiation and in breast carcinogenesis. In this in silico study, we examined metabolic differences between ER(+ve breast cancer cells during E2 deprivation. Methods Public repositories of SAGE and MA gene expression data generated from E2 deprived ER(+ve breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and ZR75-1 were compared with normal breast tissue. We analyzed gene ontology (GO, enrichment, clustering, chromosome localization, and pathway profiles and performed multiple comparisons with cell lines and tumors with different ER status. Results In all GO terms, biological process (BP, molecular function (MF, and cellular component (CC, MCF-7 had higher gene utilization than ZR75-1. Various analyses showed a down-regulated immune function, an up-regulated protein (ZR75-1 and glucose metabolism (MCF-7. A greater percentage of 77 common genes localized to the q arm of all chromosomes, but in ZR75-1 chromosomes 11, 16, and 19 harbored more overexpressed genes. Despite differences in gene utilization (electron transport, proteasome, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and expression (ribosome in both cells, there was an overall similarity of ZR75-1 with ER(-ve cell lines and ER(+ve/ER(-ve breast tumors. Conclusion This study demonstrates integral metabolic differences may exist within the same cell subtype (luminal A in representative ER(+ve cell line models. Selectivity of gene and pathway usage for strategies such as energy requirement minimization, sugar utilization by ZR75-1 contrasted with MCF-7 cells, expressing genes whose protein products require ATP utilization. Such characteristics may impart aggressiveness to ZR75-1 and may be prognostic determinants of ER(+ve breast tumors.

  11. Distinct phenotypes of human prostate cancer cells associate with different adaptation to hypoxia and pro-inflammatory gene expression.

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    Linda Ravenna

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and inflammation are strictly interconnected both concurring to prostate cancer progression. Numerous reports highlight the role of tumor cells in the synthesis of pro-inflammatory molecules and show that hypoxia can modulate a number of these genes contributing substantially to the increase of cancer aggressiveness. However, little is known about the importance of the tumor phenotype in this process. The present study explores how different features, including differentiation and aggressiveness, of prostate tumor cell lines impact on the hypoxic remodeling of pro-inflammatory gene expression and malignancy. We performed our studies on three cell lines with increasing metastatic potential: the well differentiated androgen-dependent LNCaP and the less differentiated and androgen-independent DU145 and PC3. We analyzed the effect that hypoxic treatment has on modulating pro-inflammatory gene expression and evaluated the role HIF isoforms and NF-kB play in sustaining this process. DU145 and PC3 cells evidenced a higher normoxic expression and a more complete hypoxic induction of pro-inflammatory molecules compared to the well differentiated LNCaP cell line. The role of HIF1α and NF-kB, the master regulators of hypoxia and inflammation respectively, in sustaining the hypoxic pro-inflammatory phenotype was different according to cell type. NF-kB was observed to play a main role in DU145 and PC3 cells in which treatment with the NF-kB inhibitor parthenolide was able to counteract both the hypoxic pro-inflammatory shift and HIF1α activation but not in LNCaP cells. Our data highlight that tumor prostate cell phenotype contributes at a different degree and with different mechanisms to the hypoxic pro-inflammatory gene expression related to tumor progression.

  12. Gender Differences in Elders’ Participation in the National Can-cer Screening Program: Evidence from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–12

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    Yang-Hyun KIM


    Full Text Available Background: Cancer-screening programs are effective in reducing cancer prevalence and mortality; however, cancer remains the leading cause of death in elderly people in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with elders’ participation in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP and differences in screening rates by gender.Methods: Original data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 5,505 elderly individuals over age 60. Selected demographic variables, cancer screening participation, physical and psychological health status, and lifestyle were examined.Results: The NCSP participation rates decreased in both men and women as age increased. Private medical insurance (OR 95% CI: 1.04–1.78, one or more chronic disease (OR 95% CI: 1.07–1.71, and current smoker (OR 95% CI: 0.52–0.94 had the strongest associations with cancer screening participation among men after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, cancer screening participation among women was significantly associated only with living place (OR 95% CI: 1.06–2.203 after multivariate adjustment.Conclusions: Effective health promoting interventions for elders require individualized programs that address gender-related factors associated with elders’ participation in cancer screening programs.

  13. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

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    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Serour, Francis [Department of Pediatric Surgery, The E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Chaouat, Malka [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Karem, Jerusalem (Israel); Gonen, Pinhas [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Tommasino, Massimo [International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon (France); Sherman, Levana [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)


    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling.

  14. Cardiac glycoside-induced cell death and Rho/Rho kinase pathway: Implication of different regulation in cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Özdemir, Aysun; Şimay, Yaprak Dilber; İbişoğlu, Burçin; Yaren, Biljana; Bülbül, Döne; Ark, Mustafa


    Previously, we demonstrated that the Rho/ROCK pathway is involved in ouabain-induced apoptosis in HUVEC. In the current work, we investigated whether the Rho/ROCK pathway is functional during cardiac glycosides-induced cytotoxic effects in cancer cell lines, as well as in non-tumor cells. For that purpose, we evaluated the role of ROCK activation in bleb formation and cell migration over upstream and downstream effectors in addition to ROCK cleavage after cardiac glycosides treatment. All three cardiac glycosides (ouabain, digoxin and bufalin) induced cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cells and increased the formation of blebbing in HeLa cells. In contrast to our previous study, ROCK inhibitor Y27632 did not prevent bleb formation. Observation of ROCK II cleavage after ouabain, digoxin and oxaliplatin treatments in HeLa and/or HepG2 cells suggested that cleavage is independent of cell type and cell death induction. While inhibiting cleavage of ROCK II by the caspase inhibitors z-VAD-fmk, z-VDVAD-fmk and z-DEVD-fmk, evaluation of caspase 2 siRNA ineffectiveness on this truncation indicated that caspase-dependent ROCK II cleavage is differentially regulated in cancer cell lines. In HeLa cells, ouabain induced the activation of ROCK, although it did not induce phosphorylation of ERM, an upstream effector. While Y27632 inhibited the migration of HeLa cells, 10nM ouabain had no effect on cell migration. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the Rho/ROCK pathway is regulated differently in cancer cell lines compared to normal cells during cardiac glycosides-induced cell death.

  15. Different prognostic value of circulating and disseminated tumor cells in primary breast cancer: Influence of bisphosphonate intake? (United States)

    Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Reiter, Katharina; Aktas, Bahriye; Bittner, Ann-Kathrin; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Kimmig, Rainer; Hoffmann, Oliver


    Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood of breast cancer patients (pts) are known to correlate with worse outcome. Here we demonstrate a different prognostic value of DTCs and CTCs and explain these findings by early clodronate intake. CTCs (n = 376 pts) were determined using the AdnaTest BreastCancer (Qiagen Hannover GmbH, Germany) and DTCs (n = 525 pts) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. Clodronate intake was recommended in case of DTC-positivity. CTCs were detected in 22% and DTCs in 40% of the pts, respectively. DTCs were significantly associated with nodal status (p = 0.03), grading (p = 0.01), lymphangiosis (p = 0.03), PR status (p = 0.02) and clodronate intake (p < 0.0001), no significant associations were demonstrated for CTCs. CTCs significantly correlated with reduced PFS (p = 0.0227) and negative prognostic relevance was predominantly related to G2 tumors (p = 0.044), the lobular (p = 0.024) and the triple-negative subtype (p = 0.005), HR-negative pts (p = 0.001), postmenopausal women (p = 0.013) and patients who had received radiation therapy (p = 0.018). No prognostic significance was found for DTCs. Therefore early clodronate intake can improve prognosis of breast cancer patients and CTCs might be a high risk indicator for the onset of metastasis not limited to bone metastasis. PMID:27212060

  16. Different prognostic value of circulating and disseminated tumor cells in primary breast cancer: Influence of bisphosphonate intake? (United States)

    Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Reiter, Katharina; Aktas, Bahriye; Bittner, Ann-Kathrin; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Kimmig, Rainer; Hoffmann, Oliver


    Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood of breast cancer patients (pts) are known to correlate with worse outcome. Here we demonstrate a different prognostic value of DTCs and CTCs and explain these findings by early clodronate intake. CTCs (n = 376 pts) were determined using the AdnaTest BreastCancer (Qiagen Hannover GmbH, Germany) and DTCs (n = 525 pts) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. Clodronate intake was recommended in case of DTC-positivity. CTCs were detected in 22% and DTCs in 40% of the pts, respectively. DTCs were significantly associated with nodal status (p = 0.03), grading (p = 0.01), lymphangiosis (p = 0.03), PR status (p = 0.02) and clodronate intake (p < 0.0001), no significant associations were demonstrated for CTCs. CTCs significantly correlated with reduced PFS (p = 0.0227) and negative prognostic relevance was predominantly related to G2 tumors (p = 0.044), the lobular (p = 0.024) and the triple-negative subtype (p = 0.005), HR-negative pts (p = 0.001), postmenopausal women (p = 0.013) and patients who had received radiation therapy (p = 0.018). No prognostic significance was found for DTCs. Therefore early clodronate intake can improve prognosis of breast cancer patients and CTCs might be a high risk indicator for the onset of metastasis not limited to bone metastasis.

  17. Dosimetric comparison using different multileaf collimeters in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for upper thoracic esophageal cancer

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    Fu Yuchuan


    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To study the impacts of multileaf collimators (MLC width [standard MLC width of 10 mm (sMLC and micro-MLC width of 4 mm (mMLC] in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT planning for the upper thoracic esophageal cancer (UTEC. Methods and materials 10 patients with UTEC were retrospectively planned with the sMLC and the mMLC. The monitor unites (MUs and dose volume histogram-based parameters [conformity index (CI and homogeneous index (HI] were compared between the IMRT plans with sMLC and with mMLC. Results The IMRT plans with the mMLC were more efficient (average MUs: 703.1 ± 68.3 than plans with the sMLC (average MUs: 833.4 ± 73.8 (p p 5 (3260.3 ± 374.0 vs 3404.5 ± 374.4/gEUD (1815.1 ± 281.7 vs 1849.2 ± 297.6 of the spinal cord, the V10 (33.2 ± 6.5 vs 34.0 ± 6.7, V20 (16.0 ± 4.6 vs 16.6 ± 4.7, MLD (866.2 ± 174.1 vs 887.9 ± 172.1 and gEUD (938.6 ± 175.2 vs 956.8 ± 171.0 of the lungs were observed in the plans with the mMLC, respectively (p Conclusions Comparing to the sMLC, the mMLC not only demonstrated higher efficiencies and more optimal target coverage, but also considerably improved the dose sparing of OARs in the IMRT planning for UTEC.

  18. MicroRNAs and Recent Insights into Pediatric Ovarian Cancers

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    Jessica Anne Crawford


    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most common pediatric gynecologic malignancy. When diag-nosed in children, ovarian cancers present unique challenges that differ dramatically from those faced by adults. Here, we review the spectrum of ovarian cancers found in young women and girls and discuss the biology of these diseases. A number of advances have re-cently shed significant new understanding on the potential causes of ovarian cancer in this unique population. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding how altered expression of non-coding RNA transcripts known as microRNAs play a key role in the etiology of ovarian germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors. Emerging transgenic models for these diseases are also reviewed. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities for understanding pediatric ovarian cancers, delineating clinically useful biomarkers and developing targeted therapies are discussed.

  19. Dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH: diet components may be related to lower prevalence of different kinds of cancer: A review on the related documents

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    Shokouh Onvani


    Full Text Available Background: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH eating plan is a healthy dietary pattern. Our object is to review surveys in the field of major components of DASH diet and different kinds of cancers. Materials and Methods: Our search result from PubMed search engine recruited to find related articles. Results: Adherence to the DASH diet components was significantly related to lower prevalence of various cancers due to their high content of fiber, nutrients, vitamins, mineral, and antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: In this review, positive association of DASH diet components and different cancers were observed. However, the exact association of DASH with cancers should be clarified in future longitudinal studies due to potential interaction among foods and nutrients.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Five Different Fecal Markers for the Detection of Precancerous and Cancerous Lesions of the Colorectum

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    Mariann Rutka


    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second deadliest malignancy worldwide. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different fecal markers in the detection of colorectal adenomas and cancer. Methods. Stool samples of patients referred to colonoscopy were collected for the analysis of tumor M2 pyruvate kinase (M2PK, human hemoglobin (Hb, hemoglobin/haptoglobin (Hb/Hp complex, fecal calprotectin (FC, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. Results. Sensitivity and specificity of M2PK for adenomas sized > 1 cm were 60% and 67.5% and for CRC were 94.7% and 67.5%. Sensitivity and specificity of iFOBT for adenomas sized ≥ 1 cm were 80% and 72.5% and for CRC were 94.7% and 72.5%. Sensitivity and specificity of Hb/Hp complex for adenomas sized ≥ 1 cm were 80% and 52.9% and for CRC were 100% and 52.9%. Sensitivity of FC and MMP-9 for CRC was 77.8% and 72.2%. Combined use of M2PK, iFOBT, and FC resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 47.5% for the detection of adenomas sized ≥ 1 cm. Discussion. In CRC, sensitivity of M2PK, iFOBT, and Hb/Hp complex proved to be high. Combined use of M2PK, iFOBT, and FC may be valuable in the detection of large adenomas.

  1. A study on differences between radiation-induced micronuclei and apoptosis of lymphocytes in breast cancer patients after radiotherapy

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    Taghavi-Dehaghani, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Ziafazeli, T. [Radiation Molecular Genetic Lab., National Radiation Protection Dept. (NRPD), Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA), Tehran (Iran); Sardari-Kermani, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Cancer Inst., Tehran (Iran)


    Cancer patients' responses to radiotherapy vary in severity. It has been suggested that it may be due to differences in intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity. Prediction of tissue reactions to radiotherapy would permit tailoring of dosage to each patient. Towards this goal the micronucleus and apoptosis tests have been proposed as methods for measurement of chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes. In this study, gamma-ray sensitivity of cultured lymphocytes of 26 breast cancer patients with early or late reactions was investigated. After irradiation with 4 Gy gamma radiation in G{sub 0}, the frequency of micronuclei for patients with early reactions was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for patients with late reactions. In the contrary the frequency of apoptosis for patients with early reactions was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the other group. It could be suggested that such a reduced amount of micronuclei in the late effects group is due to the presence of some residual DNA damages which are not completely repaired and lesions show increasing severity when the patients' cells are irradiated again. These induced damages, probably are high enough to stimulate other endpoints like apoptosis instead of micronuclei. (orig.)

  2. Functional roles and clinical values of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 in different types of cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(o)k(c)e Güllü; Sevgi Karabulut; Mustafa Akkiprik


    Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are critical regulators of the mitogenic activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs).IGFBP5,one of these IGFBPs,has special structural features,including a nuclear transport domain,heparin-binding motif,and IGF/extracellular matrix/acid-labile subunit-binding sites.Furthermore,IGFBP5 has several functional effects on carcinogenesis and even normal cell processes,such as cell growth,death,motility,and tissue remodeling.These biological effects are sometimes related with IGF (IGF-dependent effects) and sometimes not (IGF-independent effects).The functional role of IGFBP5 is most likely determined in a cell-type and tissue-type specific manner but also depends on cell context,especially in terms of the diversity of interacting proteins and the potential for nuclear localization.Clinical findings show that IGFBP5 has the potential to be a useful clinical biomarker for predicting response to therapy and clinical outcome of cancer patients.In this review,we summarize the functional diversity and clinical importance of IGFBP5 in different types of cancers.

  3. Differences in Multi-Modal Ultrasound Imaging between Triple Negative and Non-Triple Negative Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Li, Ziyao; Tian, Jiawei; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Hui; Wu, Tong


    The objective of this study was to identify multi-modal ultrasound imaging parameters that could potentially help to differentiate between triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC. Conventional ultrasonography, ultrasound strain elastography and 3-D ultrasound (3-D-US) findings from 50 TNBC and 179 non-TNBC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemical examination was used as the reference gold standard for cancer subtyping. Different ultrasound modalities were initially analyzed to define TNBC-related features. Subsequently, logistic regression analysis was applied to TNBC-related features to establish models for predicting TNBC. TNBCs often presented as micro-lobulated, markedly hypo-echoic masses with an abrupt interface (p = 0.015, 0.0015 and 0.004, compared with non-TNBCs, respectively) on conventional ultrasound, and showed a diminished retraction pattern phenomenon in the coronal plane (p = 0.035) on 3-D-US. Our findings suggest that B-mode ultrasound and 3-D-US in multi-modality ultrasonography could be a useful non-invasive technique for differentiating TNBCs from non-TNBCs.

  4. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethno-pharmacological important plants of Darjeeling district of West Bengal against different human cancer cell lines


    Tiwary, Bipransh K; Bihani, Sony; Kumar, Anoop; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Ghosh, Runu


    Background Plant derived components have attracted particular attention as an alternative source to battle several diseases including cancer. The variation in the climate, the geographical location and the rich ethnomedicinal traditions has made the Darjeeling Himalayas an abode of invaluable repository of traditional medicinal plants. In this study, we explored the in vitro anticancer properties of traditionally used medicinal plants from the Darjeeling hills against different human cancer c...

  5. The relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Northern Europe and North America. A commentary on differences between the conclusions reached by two recent reviews

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    Hamling Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokeless tobacco is an alternative for smokers who want to quit but require nicotine. Reliable evidence on its effects is needed. Boffetta et al. and ourselves recently reviewed the evidence on cancer, based on Scandinavian and US studies. Boffetta et al. claimed a significant 60–80% increase for oropharyngeal, oesophageal and pancreatic cancer, and a non-significant 20% increase for lung cancer, data for other cancers being "too sparse". We found increases less than 15% for oesophageal, pancreatic and lung cancer, and a significant 36% increase for oropharyngeal cancer, which disappeared in recent studies. We found no association with stomach, bladder and all cancers combined, using data as extensive as that for oesophageal, pancreatic and lung cancer. We explain these differences. Methods For those cancers Boffetta et al. considered, we compared the methods, studies and risk estimates used in the two reviews. Results One major reason for the difference is our more consistent approach in choosing between study-specific never smoker and combined smoker/non-smoker estimates. Another is our use of derived as well as published estimates. We included more studies, and avoided estimates for data subsets. Boffetta et al. also included some clearly biased or not smoking-adjusted estimates. For pancreatic cancer, their review included significantly increased never smoker estimates in one study and combined smoker/non-smoker estimates in another, omitting a combined estimate in the first study and a never smoker estimate in the second showing no increase. For oesophageal cancer, never smoker results from one study showing a marked increase for squamous cell carcinoma were included, but corresponding results for adenocarcinoma and combined smoker/non-smoker results for both cell types showing no increase were excluded. For oropharyngeal cancer, Boffetta et al. included a markedly elevated estimate that was not smoking-adjusted, and

  6. Quantification of extraprostatic extension in prostate cancer: different parameters correlated to biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, B.A. van; Oort, I.M. van; Witjes, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.


    AIMS: Different methods to substage extraprostatic extension (EPE) were correlated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and results: A total of 157 consecutive RP specimens with EPE were completely embedded. Twenty-three patients with adjuvant therapy or detect

  7. Racial Differences in Lifestyle Modification in Men with Newly-Diagnosed Prostate Cancer (United States)


    damage in lymphocytes as measured by single-cell gel electrophoresis (alkaline Comet assay), and serum PSA levels will be assessed at 12- and 24...types, and/or doses of vitamin, mineral and herbal supplements between baseline and 12-, and 24-months, and whether changes differ by race

  8. Evaluation of Two Different Analytical Methods for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Primary Breast Cancer

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    B. A. S. Jaeger


    Full Text Available Background. Evidence is accumulating that circulating tumor cells (CTC out of peripheral blood can serve as prognostic marker not only in metastatic but also in early breast cancer (BC. Various methods are available to detect CTC. Comparisons between the different techniques, however, are rare. Material and Methods. We evaluate two different methods for CTC enrichment and detection in primary BC patients: the FDA-approved CellSearch System (CSS; Veridex, Warren, USA and a manual immunocytochemistry (MICC. The cut-off value for positivity was ≥1 CTC. Results. The two different nonoverlapping patient cohorts evaluated with one or the other method were well balanced regarding common clinical parameters. Before adjuvant CHT 21.1% (416 out of 1972 and 20.6% (247 out of 1198 of the patients were CTC-positive, while after CHT 22.5% (359 out of 1598 and 16.6% (177 out of 1066 of the patients were CTC-positive using CSS or MICC, respectively. CTC positivity rate before CHT was thus similar and not significantly different (P=0.749, while CTC positivity rate immediately after CHT was significantly lower using MICC compared to CSS (P<0.001. Conclusion. Using CSS or MICC for CTC detection, we found comparable prevalence of CTC before but not after adjuvant CHT.

  9. Replication error deficient and proficient colorectal cancer gene expression differences caused by 3'UTR polyT sequence deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilding, Jennifer L; McGowan, Simon; Liu, Ying


    , and have distinct pathologies. Regulatory sequences controlling all aspects of mRNA processing, especially including message stability, are found in the 3'UTR sequence of most genes. The relevant sequences are typically A/U-rich elements or U repeats. Microarray analysis of 14 RER+ (deficient) and 16 RER......- (proficient) colorectal cancer cell lines confirms a striking difference in expression profiles. Analysis of the incidence of mononucleotide repeat sequences in the 3'UTRs, 5'UTRs, and coding sequences of those genes most differentially expressed in RER+ versus RER- cell lines has shown that much...... of this differential expression can be explained by the occurrence of a massive enrichment of genes with 3'UTR T repeats longer than 11 base pairs in the most differentially expressed genes. This enrichment was confirmed by analysis of two published consensus sets of RER differentially expressed probesets for a large...

  10. Effects of Different Operative Procedures on the Digestive and Nutritional Status of Patients Treated with a Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Liang; Xishan Hao


    Postgastrectomy syndromes evoked by the loss of several gastric functions after total or subtotal gastrectomy are very common. Different kinds of reconstruction have been developed to overcome the problem. Patients with preservation of a duodenal passage and jejunal interposition with or without a pouch show a better quality of life and minimal symptoms postoperatively. A jejunal interposition with or without a pouch after proximal or distal subtotal gastrictomy seems to improve the nutritional condition and quality of life. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI), Visick score, Spitzer index and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire (QLQ-C30) are available to evaluate the quality of life and nutritional status after gastrectomy.

  11. No differences in short-term morbidity and mortality after robot-assisted laparoscopic versus laparoscopic resection for colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helvind, Neel Maria; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Mogensen, Anders Skibsted


    BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted laparoscopy has been reported to be a safe and feasible alternative to traditional laparoscopy. The aim of this study was to compare short-term results in patients with colonic cancer who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic colonic resection (RC) or laparoscopic colonic...... journals. Biochemical markers [C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count] were recorded before surgery and for the first 3 days after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients underwent RC and 162 patients underwent LC. There were no significant differences...... in the rate of conversion to open surgery, number of permanent enterostomies, number of intraoperative complications, level of postoperative cellular stress response, number of postoperative complications, length of postoperative hospital stay, or 30-day mortality between the two groups...

  12. Comparative analysis of cell death induction by Taurolidine in different malignant human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritter Peter R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurolidine (TRD represents an anti-infective substance with anti-neoplastic activity in many malignant cell lines. So far, the knowledge about the cell death inducing mechanisms and pathways activated by TRD is limited. The aim of this study was therefore, to perform a comparative analysis of cell death induction by TRD simultaneously in different malignant cell lines. Materials and methods Five different malignant cell lines (HT29/Colon, Chang Liver/Liver, HT1080/fibrosarcoma, AsPC-1/pancreas and BxPC-3/pancreas were incubated with increasing concentrations of TRD (100 μM, 250 μM and 1000 μM for 6 h and 24 h. Cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis were analyzed by FACS analysis (Propidiumiodide/AnnexinV staining. Additionally, cells were co-incubated with the caspase Inhibitor z-VAD, the radical scavenger N-Acetylcystein (NAC and the Gluthation depleting agent BSO to examine the contribution of caspase activation and reactive oxygen species in TRD induced cell death. Results All cell lines were susceptible to TRD induced cell death without resistance toward this anti-neoplastic agent. However, the dose response effects were varying largely between different cell lines. The effect of NAC and BSO co-treatment were highly different among cell lines - suggesting a cell line specific involvement of ROS in TRD induced cell death. Furthermore, impact of z-VAD mediated inhibition of caspases was differing strongly among the cell lines. Conclusion This is the first study providing a simultaneous evaluation of the anti-neoplastic action of TRD across several malignant cell lines. The involvement of ROS and caspase activation was highly variable among the five cell lines, although all were susceptible to TRD induced cell death. Our results indicate, that TRD is likely to provide multifaceted cell death mechanisms leading to a cell line specific diversity.

  13. Different Phenotypes in Human Prostate Cancer: α6 or α3 Integrin in Cell-extracellular Adhesion Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Schmelz


    Full Text Available The distribution of α6/α3 integrin in adhesion complexes at the basal membrane in human normal and cancer prostate glands was analyzed in 135 biopsies from 61 patients. The levels of the polarized α6/α3 integrin expression at the basal membrane of prostate tumor glands were determined by quantitative immunohistochemistry. The α6/α3 integrin expression was compared with Gleason sum score, pathological stage, and preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA. The associations were assessed by statistical methods. Eighty percent of the tumors expressed the α6 or α3 integrin and 20% was integrin-negative. Gleason sum score, but not serum PSA, was associated with the integrin expression. Low Gleason sum score correlated with increased integrin expression, high Gleason sum score with low and negative integrin expression. Three prostate tumor phenotypes were distinguished based on differential integrin expression. Type I coexpressed both α6 and α3 subunits, type II exclusively expressed a6 integrin, and type III expressed α3 integrin only. Fifteen cases were further examined for the codistribution of vinculin, paxillin, and CD 151 on frozen serial sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The α6/α3 integrins, CD151, paxillin, and vinculin were present within normal glands. In prostate carcinoma, α6 integrin was colocalized with CD 151, but not with vinculin or paxillin. In tumor phenotype I, the α6 subunit did not colocalize with the α3 subunit indicating the existence of two different adhesion complexes. Human prostate tumors display on their cell surface the α6β1 and/or α3β1 integrins. Three tumor phenotypes associated with two different adhesion complexes were identified, suggesting a reorganization of cell adhesion structures in prostate cancer.

  14. Colon cancer molecular subtypes identified by expression profiling and associated to stroma, mucinous type and different clinical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Villamil Beatriz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon cancer patients with the same stage show diverse clinical behavior due to tumor heterogeneity. We aimed to discover distinct classes of tumors based on microarray expression patterns, to analyze whether the molecular classification correlated with the histopathological stages or other clinical parameters and to study differences in the survival. Methods Hierarchical clustering was performed for class discovery in 88 colon tumors (stages I to IV. Pathways analysis and correlations between clinical parameters and our classification were analyzed. Tumor subtypes were validated using an external set of 78 patients. A 167 gene signature associated to the main subtype was generated using the 3-Nearest-Neighbor method. Coincidences with other prognostic predictors were assesed. Results Hierarchical clustering identified four robust tumor subtypes with biologically and clinically distinct behavior. Stromal components (p BRAF mutations. Tumor subtypes were validated using an external set of 78 patients. A 167 gene signature associated to the Low-stroma-subtype distinguished low risk patients from high risk patients in the external cohort (Dukes B and C:HR = 8.56(2.53-29.01; Dukes B,C and D:HR = 1.87(1.07-3.25. Eight different reported survival gene signatures segregated our tumors into two groups the Low-stroma-subtype and the other tumor subtypes. Conclusions We have identified novel molecular subtypes in colon cancer with distinct biological and clinical behavior that are established from the initiation of the tumor. Tumor microenvironment is important for the classification and for the malignant power of the tumor. Differential gene sets and biological pathways characterize each tumor subtype reflecting underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis that may be used for the selection of targeted therapeutic procedures. This classification may contribute to an improvement in the management of the patients with CRC and to a

  15. Synchrotron nanoscopy imaging study of scalp hair in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals: Difference in medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements. (United States)

    Han, Sung-Mi; Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Jeon, Jae-Kun; Hwang, Min-Young; Lim, Jun; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Ki


    Nanoscopic synchrotron X-ray imaging was performed on scalp hair samples of patients with breast cancer and healthy individuals to investigate any structural differences as diagnostic tool. Hair strands were divided into 2-3 segments along the strands from root to tip, followed by imaging either in projection or in CT scanning with a monochromatic 6.78-keV X-ray using zone-plate optics with a resolving power of 60 nm. All the examined cancer hairs exhibited medulla loss with cancer stage-dependent pattern; complete loss, discontinuous or trace along the strands. In contrast, medullas were well retained without complete loss in the healthy hair. In the CT-scanned axial images, the cortical spindle compartments had no contrast in the healthy hair, but appeared hypointense in contrast to the surrounding hyperintense cortical membrane complex in the cancer hair. In conclusion, observation of medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements in the hair strands of breast cancer patients demonstrated structural variations in the cancer hair, providing a new platform for further synchrotron X-ray imaging study of screening breast cancer patients.

  16. Quantification of differences in the effective atomic numbers of healthy and cancerous tissues: A discussion in the context of diagnostics and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M. L. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovation Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia); Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3001 (Australia) and Medical Physics, WBRC, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3000 (Australia)


    Purpose: There are a range of genetic and nongenetic factors influencing the elemental composition of different human tissues. The elemental composition of cancerous tissues frequently differs from healthy tissue of the same organ, particularly in high-Z trace element concentrations. For this reason, one could suggest that this may be exploited in diagnostics and perhaps even influence dosimetry. Methods: In this work, for the first time, effective atomic numbers are computed for common cancerous and healthy tissues using a robust, energy-dependent approach between 10 keV and 100 MeV. These are then quantitatively compared within the context of diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: Differences between effective atomic numbers of healthy and diseased tissues are found to be typically less than 10%. Fibrotic tissues and calcifications of the breast exhibit substantial (tens to hundreds of percent) differences to healthy tissue. Expectedly, differences are most pronounced in the photoelectric regime and consequently most relevant for kV imaging/therapy and radionuclides with prominent low-energy peaks. Cancerous tissue of the testes and stomach have lower effective atomic numbers than corresponding healthy tissues, while diseased tissues of the other organ sites typically have higher values. Conclusions: As dose calculation approaches improve in accuracy, there may be an argument for the explicit inclusion of pathologies. This is more the case for breast, penile, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and stomach cancer, less so for testicular and kidney cancer. The calculated data suggest dual-energy computed tomography could potentially improve lesion identification in the aforementioned organs (with the exception of testicular cancer), with most import in breast imaging. Ultimately, however, the differences are very small. It is likely that the assumption of a generic 'tissue ramp' in planning will be sufficient for the foreseeable future, and that the Z differences do

  17. Gene Expression Architecture of Mouse Dorsal and Tail Skin Reveals Functional Differences in Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Quigley


    Full Text Available Inherited germline polymorphisms can cause gene expression levels in normal tissues to differ substantially between individuals. We present an analysis of the genetic architecture of normal adult skin from 470 genetically unique mice, demonstrating the effect of germline variants, skin tissue location, and perturbation by exogenous inflammation or tumorigenesis on gene signaling pathways. Gene networks related to specific cell types and signaling pathways, including sonic hedgehog (Shh, Wnt, Lgr family stem cell markers, and keratins, differed at these tissue sites, suggesting mechanisms for the differential susceptibility of dorsal and tail skin to development of skin diseases and tumorigenesis. The Pten tumor suppressor gene network is rewired in premalignant tumors compared to normal tissue, but this response to perturbation is lost during malignant progression. We present a software package for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL network analysis and demonstrate how network analysis of whole tissues provides insights into interactions between cell compartments and signaling molecules.

  18. Differences in breast cancer incidence and stage distribution between urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship, Poland in years 2001-2002. (United States)

    Krzyzak, Michalina; Maslach, Dominik; Juczewska, Marzena; Lasota, Wieslaw; Rabczenko, Daniel; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Szpak, Andrzej


    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in breast cancer incidence and stage of disease between the urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship in 2001-2002, before the introduction of the Population Screening Programme in 2006. Analysis was based on 696 breast cancer cases diagnosed in years 2001-2002 and registered in the CR in Bialystok (Voivodship Cancer Registry). An average annual number of incidence, as well as crude and standardised incidence rates, were calculated. Age-specific incidence rates for 5-year age groups were also calculated and grouped as follows: =70 years old. Incidence differences related to place of residence: urban or rural, were presented with the use of u/r (urban/rural) ratio. In order to evaluate the stage of disease, a simplified classification recommended by ENCR (European Network of Cancer Registries) for population registries (localised, regional, metastatic) was applied. The breast cancer incidence rate in the urban population was higher than in rural areas with u/r ratio amounting to 1.4. The highest incidence and largely marked differences between urban and rural areas were among women aged 50-69 years with the u/r ratio amounting to 1.8. Overall, the proportion of stage localised in Podlaskie Voivodship was 33.1 percent and differed between urban and rural areas. The proportion of localised cancer was higher in urban areas, but patients were younger when compared to those living in rural areas. Knowledge of differences in incidence and breast cancer stage in urban and rural women investigated in this research, together with other epidemiological indicators, should be used for monitoring the Population Screening Programmes in these populations.

  19. Biological and Genomic Differences of ERG Oncoprotein-Stratified Prostate Cancers from African and Caucasian Americans (United States)


    patients. The objective of this proposal is to determine associations and racial differences of key clinico -pathologic features and SNPs for both ERG...AA men will be estimated. Regions in AA genomes that are enriched for European ancestry in cases with the fusion compared to cases without the...each point in the genome in AA men. Regions in AA genomes that are enriched for European ancestry in cases with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, compared to

  20. Characterization of Genes Associated with Different Phenotypes of Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cong YANG; Xu LI; Wei CHEN


    To identify genes associated with morphological phenotypes of human bladder transitional cell carcinoma, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to create a subtractive cDNA library of two established cell lines, BLZ-211 and BLS-211, derived from a patient with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, then to screen for differentially expressed genes. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to further confirm the selected differentially expressed genes. Forward and reverse subtractive cDNA libraries yielded 168 and 305 putative clones, and among them more than 90% contained the inserts.After differential screening, 36 different transcripts were obtained from 64 cDNA clones of a forward and reverse subtraction library. Among them, 17 were identified as known genes by homology, for example,Vimentin, Keratin7, DDH and UCH-L1. The remaining 19 were unknown expressed genes, and were collected as new expressed sequence tags by the GenBank dbEST database with the accession numbers DR008207,DR010178, DR159652-DR159660, DY230447-DY230448, and DY505708-DY505713. Their function will be studied further. Thus, SSH appears to be a useful technique for identifying differentially expressed genes between cell lines or clones. Our results, as revealed by SSH, also suggest that differences in gene expression of cytoskeletal proteins might contribute to the different morphologies in BLZ-211 and BLS-211 cells.

  1. Dramatic Decline of Respiratory Illness Among US Military Recruits After the Renewed Use of Adenovirus Vaccines (United States)


    Naval Health Research Center Dramatic Decline of Respiratory Illness Among US Military Recruits After the Renewed Use of Adenovirus Vaccines ...Renewed Use of Adenovirus Vaccines Jennifer M. Radin,1,2 Anthony W. Hawksworth,1 Patrick J. Blair,1 Dennis J. Faix,3 Rema Raman,4 Kevin L. Russell,5...hiatus, oral vaccines against adenovirus types 4 (Ad4) and 7 (Ad7) were again produced and administered to US military recruits. This study examined the

  2. Cancer-associated lysosomal changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallunki, T; Olsen, O D; Jaattela, Marja


    Rapidly dividing and invasive cancer cells are strongly dependent on effective lysosomal function. Accordingly, transformation and cancer progression are characterized by dramatic changes in lysosomal volume, composition and cellular distribution. Depending on one's point of view, the cancer-associated......-targeting anti-cancer drugs. In this review we compile our current knowledge on cancer-associated changes in lysosomal composition and discuss the consequences of these alterations to cancer progression and the possibilities they can bring to cancer therapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 July 2012; doi...

  3. [Leanness, obesity, and breast cancer risk-different impact of body weight on breast cancer risk according to women's life stages]. (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Saji, Shigehira


    Numerous epidemiological studies, although not all, in Western countries have reported a possible differential impact of BMI on breast cancer risk in women of various lifestages. Among premenopausal women, a number of epidemiological studies in Western populations suggested a weak inverse association between BMI and breast cancer risk. Conversely, there exists substantial evidence for a statistically significant positive association between body weight and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. The cumulative exposure to estrogen throughout a woman's life is one of the significant risk factors for breast cancer. After menopause, adipose tissue is a major source of estrogen. Therefore, an increase in body fat after menopause is one of the possible explanations for the positive association of body weight with the development of breast cancer. To evaluate the impact of body weight on the risk of breast cancer, we need to consider the role of adipose tissue in the development and differentiation of normal mammary glands. Special attention should be paid to women in their twenties and/or during their lactation periods when the development of normal mammary glands is significant. Further studies are needed to investigate the association between BMI and breast cancer risk, considering the role of body fat in the development of mammary glands.

  4. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Sales, M. Goreti F. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Maria H. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Costa-Rodrigues, João, E-mail: [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); ESTSP — Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal)


    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.


    Chen, G F; Shi, T P; Wang, B J; Wang, X Y; Zang, Q


    This study aimed to analyze the clinical efficacy of different resections in treating non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), including partial cystectomy, transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and holmium laser resection of bladder tumor. Two hundred and sixteen patients were recruited with NMIBC who were available for follow-up visits in hospital, including 62 cases treated with partial cystectomy, 90 cases treated with TURBT and 64 cases with holmium laser resection. Analysis was made on the cases with tumor relapse in the two years, on operation time, blood loss, time for indwelling urinary catheter, hospital stay and complications after operation. Results were compared to the clinical efficacy of these operation patterns. It was found that the two-year relapse rate for TURBT group, partial cystectomy group and Holmium laser resection group was 41%, 31%, and 33% respectively, and the difference had no statistical significance (p>0.05). Both the TURBT group and holmium laser resection group had shorter operation time, hospital stay and time for indwelling urinary catheter as well as much less blood loss when compared with the partial cystectomy group; the difference had statistical significance (pspasm. Therefore, this study presumes that holmium laser resection and TURBT are much safer and quicker for recovery and obviously superior to the partial cystectomy.

  6. Screening of Trace Elements in Hair of the Female Population with Different Types of Cancers in Wielkopolska Region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Czerny


    Full Text Available Background. Cancer constitutes a major health problem worldwide. Thus, search for reliable and practical markers of the disease process remains the key issue of the diagnostic process. Objectives. The study aims at linking the trace element status of an organism, assessed by hair analysis, with the occurrence of cancer diseases. Material and Methods. Hair samples were collected from 299 patients with cancer diseases confirmed by a histopathological test and from 100 controls. Cancer patients were divided into three groups, depending on cancer type: hormone-dependent cancer, cancer of the alimentary tract, and cancer with high glycolytic activity. Mineral element analysis of hair was performed using an atomic emission spectrophotometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Results. Statistically significantly lower concentrations of selenium, zinc, copper, germanium and boron, iron, and magnesium were observed in the three groups of cancer patients. Disturbance in the axis glucose-insulin and changes in concentrations of heavy metals and toxic elements were also noted. Conclusions. It seems safe to conclude that our results confirmed usefulness of hair element analysis in screening tests for the assessment of the biomarker of various cancer diseases in a female population.

  7. Automated generation of IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses: Comparison of different planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voet, Peter W. J.; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: To compare IMRT planning strategies for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses.Methods: All plans were generated fully automatically (i.e., no human trial-and-error interactions) using iCycle, the authors' in-house developed algorithm for multicriterial selection of beam angles and optimization of fluence profiles, allowing objective comparison of planning strategies. For 18 prostate cancer patients (eight with bilateral hip prostheses, ten with a right-sided unilateral prosthesis), two planning strategies were evaluated: (i) full exclusion of beams containing beamlets that would deliver dose to the target after passing a prosthesis (IMRT{sub remove}) and (ii) exclusion of those beamlets only (IMRT{sub cut}). Plans with optimized coplanar and noncoplanar beam arrangements were generated. Differences in PTV coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were quantified. The impact of beam number on plan quality was evaluated.Results: Especially for patients with bilateral hip prostheses, IMRT{sub cut} significantly improved rectum and bladder sparing compared to IMRT{sub remove}. For 9-beam coplanar plans, rectum V{sub 60Gy} reduced by 17.5%{+-} 15.0% (maximum 37.4%, p= 0.036) and rectum D{sub mean} by 9.4%{+-} 7.8% (maximum 19.8%, p= 0.036). Further improvements in OAR sparing were achievable by using noncoplanar beam setups, reducing rectum V{sub 60Gy} by another 4.6%{+-} 4.9% (p= 0.012) for noncoplanar 9-beam IMRT{sub cut} plans. Large reductions in rectum dose delivery were also observed when increasing the number of beam directions in the plans. For bilateral implants, the rectum V{sub 60Gy} was 37.3%{+-} 12.1% for coplanar 7-beam plans and reduced on average by 13.5% (maximum 30.1%, p= 0.012) for 15 directions.Conclusions: iCycle was able to automatically generate high quality plans for prostate cancer patients with prostheses. Excluding only beamlets that passed through the prostheses (IMRT{sub cut} strategy) significantly improved

  8. Combining different views of mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker of breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S.; Karemore, Gopal; Chernoff, Konstantin

    analysis (LDA, QDA) where respectively Fisher criterion and Likelihood ratio were used as combination scores. LDA and QDA parameters were obtained from the training set. Performance was evaluated by AUC statistics. Correlations were analyses as Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. RESULTS...... No significant difference in age was found between cases and controls. The AUC values for RMLO, LMLO, RCC and LCC views are respectively 0.604, 0.579, 0.602 and 0.605. Combination of views yielded RMLO & LMLO: 0.600; RCC & LCC: 0.612; RMLO & RCC: 0.632; LMLO & LCC: 0.623. The correlation of scores from...... contralateral views was 0.72-0.75. Scatter plots are shown below. CONCLUSION The MTR AUCs are a little lower than earlier reported probably due to the smaller training set. MTR scores obtained from two contralateral views correlated well, but not as highly as previously reported on density (>0.85). We conclude...

  9. Renal cell cancer histological subtype distribution differs by race and sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Loren; Morgans, Alicia K; Edwards, Todd L;


    University Medical Center (1998-2012) were classified as clear-cell, papillary, chromophobe and other subtypes. In pairwise comparisons, we used multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between race, sex, age, end-stage renal...... disease (ESRD) and body mass index at diagnosis according to histological subtype. RESULTS: The RCC subtype distribution was significantly different in black people from that in white people (P people than white...... people (35.7 vs 13.8%). In multivariate analyses, compared with clear-cell RCC, people with papillary RCC were significantly more likely to be black (OR 4.15; 95% CI 2.64-6.52) and less likely to be female (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.43-0.83). People with chromophobe RCC were significantly more likely...

  10. Different regression equations relate age to the incidence of Lauren types 1 and 2 stomach cancer in the SEER database: these equations are unaffected by sex or race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriva-Internati Maurizio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although impacts upon gastric cancer incidence of race, age, sex, and Lauren type have been individually explored, neither their importance when evaluated together nor the presence or absence of interactions among them have not been fully described. Methods This study, derived from SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER Program of the National Cancer Institute data, analyzed the incidences of gastric cancer between the years 1992–2001. There were 7882 patients who had developed gastric cancer. The total denominator population was 145,155, 669 persons (68,395,787 for 1992–1996, 78,759,882 for 1997–2001. Patients with multiple tumors were evaluated as per the default of the SEER*Stat program. 160 age-, five year period (1992–1996 vs 1997–2001-, sex-, race (Asian vs non-Asian-, Lauren type- specific incidences were derived to form the stratified sample evaluated by linear regression. (160 groups = 2 five year periods × 2 race groups × 2 sexes × 2 Lauren types × 10 age groups. Linear regression was used to analyze the importance of each of these explanatory variables and to see if there were interactions among the explanatory variables. Results Race, sex, age group, and Lauren type were found to be important explanatory variables, as were interactions between Lauren type and each of the other important explanatory variables. In the final model, the contribution of each explanatory variable was highly statistically significant (t > 5, d.f. 151, P Conclusion The change of the incidence of stomach cancer with respect to age for Lauren type 1 stomach cancer differs from that for Lauren type 2 stomach cancers. The relationships between age and Lauren type do not differ across gender or race. The results support the notion that Lauren type 1 and Lauren type 2 gastric cancers have different etiologies and different patterns of progression from pre-cancer to cancer. The results should be validated by

  11. Gene expression profile differences in high and low metastatic human ovarian cancer cell lines by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许沈华; 牟瀚舟; 吕桂泉; 朱赤红; 羊正炎; 高永良; 楼洪坤; 刘祥麟; 程勇; 杨文


    Objectives To study the difference between gene expressions of high (H0-8910PM) and low (HO-8910) metastatic human ovarian carcinoma cell lines and screen novel associated genes by cDNA microarray. Methods cDNA retro-transcribed from equal quantities of mRNA derived from high and low metastatic tumor cells or normal ovarian tissues were labeled with Cy5 and Cy3 fluorescein as probes. The mixed probe was hybridized with two pieces of BioDoor 4096 double dot human whole gene chip and scanned with a ScanArray 3000 laser scanner. The acquired image was analyzed by ImaGene 3.0 software. Results A total of 355 genes with expression levels more than 3 times larger were found by comparing the HO-8910 cell with normal ovarian epithelial cells. A total of 323 genes with expression levels more than 3 times larger in HO-8910PM cells compared to normal ovarian epithelium cells were also detected. A total of 165 genes whose expression levels were more than two times those of HO-8910PM cells compared to their mother cell line (HO-8910) were detected. Twenty-one genes with expression levels >3 times were found from comparison of these two tumor cell lines.Conclusions cDNA microarray techniques are effective in screening differential gene expression between two human ovarian cancer cell lines (H0-8910PM; HO-8910) and normal ovarian epithelial cells. These genes may be related to the genesis and development of ovarian carcinoma. Analysis of the human ovarian cancer gene expression profile with cDNA microarray may help in gene diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

  12. Correlation between Gli2, FAK expression in colonic adenocarcinoma tissue with different clinical pathological characteristics and cancer cell proliferation, invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Su


    Objective:To study the correlation between glioma-associated oncogene homologue 2 (Gli2), focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression in colonic adenocarcinoma tissue with different clinical pathological characteristics and cancer cell proliferation, invasion.Methods: 56 patients with colonic adenocarcinoma who received surgical resection in our hospital between May 2012 and December 2015 were selected, cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were collected respectively, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the Gli2 and FAK protein-positive rate, and fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of Gli2 and FAK as well as the proliferation and invasionn genes.Results:Gli2 and FAK mRNA expression and protein-positive rate in colonic adenocarcinoma tissues were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissues (P<0.05); Gli2 and FAK mRNA expression and protein-positive rate in colonic adenocarcinoma tissues with low differentiation, no differentiation, extraserosal infiltration and Dukes stage D were significantly higher than those in colonic adenocarcinoma tissues with high differentiation, medium differentiation, intraserosal infiltration, Dukes stage B-C (P<0.05); CyclinD1, CDK4, c-myc, N-cadherin and vimentin mRNA expression in Gli2- and FAK-positive colonic adenocarcinoma tissues were significantly higher than those in Gli2- and FAK-negative colonic adenocarcinoma tissues (P<0.05).Conclusions:Gli2 and FAK expression are high in colonic adenocarcinoma tissues and associated with the clinical pathological staging of tumor, and highly expressed Gli2 and FAK can promote cell proliferation and invasion.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Li Xu; Wang Xiang


    Objective To examine the differentially expressed invasion-related genes in two anchorage-independent uterine cervical carcinoma cell lines derived from the same patient using a cDNA array. Methods Two human uterine cervical carcinoma subclonal cell lines CS03 and CS07 derived from a single donor line CS1213 were established by limited dilution procedure. The two cDNA samples retro-transcribed from total RNA derived from CS03 and CS07 cells were screened by a cDNA microarray carrying 234 human cell-cycle related genes and 1011 human signal transduction and membrane receptor -associated genes, scanned with a ScanArray 3000 laser scanner. Results The cDNA microarray analysis showed that 12 genes in CS03 were up-regulated compared to CS07, and 24 genes in CS07 were up-regulated. The function of a number of differentially expressed genes was consistently associated with cell-cycle, cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, signal transduction and tumor metastasis, including p34cdc2, TSC22, plasminogen activator inhibitor I (PAI-1)and desmosome associated protein(Pinin). Conclusion Multiple genes are differentially expressed in uterine cervical carcinoma cell lines even came from the same patient. It is suggested that these genes are involved in the different phenotypic characteristics and development of cervical carcinoma.

  14. Differences between endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis and Enterococcus spp. and their association with colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Corredoira, J; García-País, M J; Coira, A; Rabuñal, R; García-Garrote, F; Pita, J; Rodríguez-Macías, A; Blanco, M; Lopez-Roses, L; López-Álvarez, M J; Alonso-García, M P


    Streptococcus bovis group and Enterococcus spp. share phenotypic characteristics and intestinal habitat. Both have been associated with endocarditis and colorectal neoplasm (CRN). We studied all cases of endocarditis diagnosed between 1988 and 2014 in our centre and caused by S. bovis (109, 48.8 % of the bacteremia) and by Enterococcus spp. (36, 3.4 % of the bacteremia). Patients were seen until death or during a long-term follow-up, in order to rule out a concomitant CRN. The 109 cases of S. bovis endocarditis (SbIE) compared with the 36 caused by enterococci showed: a higher proportion of males (91 % vs. 72 %, p=0.005), more multivalvular involvement (28 % vs. 6 %, p=0.004), embolic complications (44 vs. 22 %, p=0.02) and colorectal neoplasm (64 % vs. 25 %, p=0.001). SbIE showed fewer co-morbidities (32 vs. 58 %, p=0.005), and less frequently urinary infection source (0 vs. 25 %, p=0.001) and healthcare-related infection (2 vs. 44 %, p=0.001). A total of 123 patients were followed up for an extended period (mean: 65.9 ± 57.5 months). During the follow-up, 6 of 28 (21 %) cases with enterococcal endocarditis and 43 of 95 (45.2 %, p=0.01) cases with SbIE developed a new CRN. These neoplasiae appeared a mean of 60.4 months later (range 12-181 months). Among the 43 cases with SbIE and CRN, 12 had had a previously normal colonoscopy and 31 had had a previous CRN and developed a second neoplasm. Cases of SbIE present important differences with those caused by Enterococcus spp. Colonoscopy must be mandatory both in the initial evaluation of SbIE, as during the follow-up period.

  15. Molecular Subtyping of Primary Prostate Cancer Reveals Specific and Shared Target Genes of Different ETS Rearrangements

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    Paula Paulo


    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate whether ETS transcription factors frequently involved in rearrangements in prostate carcinomas (PCa, namely ERG and ETV1, regulate specific or shared target genes. We performed differential expression analysis on nine normal prostate tissues and 50 PCa enriched for different ETS rearrangements using exon-level expression microarrays, followed by in vitro validation using cell line models. We found specific deregulation of 57 genes in ERG-positive PCa and 15 genes in ETV1-positive PCa, whereas deregulation of 27 genes was shared in both tumor subtypes. We further showed that the expression of seven tumor-associated ERG target genes (PLA1A, CACNA1D, ATP8A2, HLA-DMB, PDE3B, TDRD1, and TMBIM1 and two tumor-associated ETV1 target genes (FKBP10 and GLYATL2 was significantly affected by specific ETS silencing in VCaP and LNCaP cell line models, respectively, whereas the expression of three candidate ERG and ETV1 shared targets (GRPR, KCNH8, and TMEM45B was significantly affected by silencing of either ETS. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the expression of TDRD1, the topmost overexpressed gene of our list of ERG-specific candidate targets, is inversely correlated with the methylation levels of a CpG island found at -66 bp of the transcription start site in PCa and that TDRD1 expression is regulated by direct binding of ERG to the CpG island in VCaP cells. We conclude that ETS transcription factors regulate specific and shared target genes and that TDRD1, FKBP10, and GRPR are promising therapeutic targets and can serve as diagnostic markers for molecular subtypes of PCa harboring specific fusion gene rearrangements.

  16. Killing effect of different doses of preoperative iodine 131 therapy on thyroid cancer cells and its effect on salivary gland function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Zheng; Tao Pu; Yi Luo; Xing-An Zhang; Zu-Mao Li


    Objective:To study the killing effect of different doses of preoperative iodine 131 therapy on thyroid cancer cells and its effect on salivary gland function.Methods:Patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2014 were enrolled for study, given preoperative iodine 131 therapy and randomly divided into control group, low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group. Then cell apoptotic rate, cell cycle, cancer promoting gene and cancer suppressor gene expression in thyroid carcinoma tissue as well as salivary gland function were detected.Results: (1) cancer cell killing effect: compared with control group, cell apoptotic rates and number of cells in G0/G1 phase of low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group increased, number of cells in S and G2/M phase decreased, BRAF, Livin, MCM7 and CDK2 expression decreased, CCNG2 and PTEN expression increased; cell killing effect of middle dose group and high dose group were better than that of low dose group, and cell killing effect of middle dose group and high dose group had no differences; (2) salivary gland function: compared with control group, UI and SR in bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular glands of low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group decreased; salivary gland damage effect of low dose group and middle dose group were weaker than that of high dose group, and salivary gland damage effect of low dose group and middle dose group had no differences.Conclusion:Middle dose of iodine 131 can take the killing effect on cancer cells and the protective effect on salivary glands into account; it’s an ideal dosage for preoperative iodine 131 internal radiation therapy of thyroid cancer patients.

  17. Validation of a quantitative 12-multigene expression assay (Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay in Korean patients with stage II colon cancer: implication of ethnic differences contributing to differences in gene expression

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    Jeong DH


    Full Text Available Duck Hyoun Jeong,1 Woo Ram Kim,1 Byung Soh Min,1 Young Wan Kim,2 Mi Kyung Song,3 Nam Kyu Kim1 1Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Department of Surgery, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, 3Department of Research Affairs, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Purpose: To evaluate the Recurrence Score® of the quantitative 12-multigene expression assay and to determine risk groups based on the continuous Recurrence Score® in Korean patients.Method: A total of 95 patients with pathological T3N0 tumors and mismatch repair-proficient tumors were enrolled. The Recurrence Score® was used to classify risk groups (low risk, <30; intermediate risk, 30–40; high risk, ≥41.Results: Fifty-four patients (56.8% were aged over 70 years. There were 49 men (51.6% and 56 cases of right-sided colon cancer (58.9%. Eight cases (8.4% had well-differentiated tumors, and 86 cases (90.5% showed moderate differentiation. Only one case (1.1% had a poorly differentiated tumor. Three patients (3.2% had lymphovascular invasion. Sixty-one patients were identified as low risk (64.2% and 34 patients as intermediate risk (35.8%. There were no high-risk patients. Although not significant, the 3-year recurrence risk increased with the Recurrence Score®.Conclusion: Distribution patterns of risk groups based on the Recurrence Score®, particularly the absence of a high-risk group, were different from the prior validation studies. These findings suggest that ethnic differences between Koreans and Western patients are potential contributing factors for different gene expressions in the quantitative 12-multigene expression assay. Keywords: colonic neoplasms, gene expression, adjuvant chemotherapy, ethnic groups

  18. Racial and ethnic differences in personal cervical cancer screening amongst post-graduate physicians: Results from a cross-sectional survey

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    Ross Joseph S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in cervical cancer screening have been attributed to socioeconomic, insurance, and cultural differences. Our objective was to explore racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations among female post-graduate physicians. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey at one university hospital among a convenience sample of 204 female post-graduate physicians (52% of all potential participants, examining adherence to United States Preventive Services Task Force cervical cancer screening recommendations, perception of adherence to recommendations, and barriers to obtaining care. Results Overall, 83% of women were adherent to screening recommendations and 84% accurately perceived adherence or non-adherence. Women who self-identified as Asian were significantly less adherent when compared with women who self-identified as white (69% vs. 87%; Relative Risk [RR] = 0.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.64–0.97; P Conclusion Among a small group of insured, highly-educated physicians who have access to health care, we found racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations, suggesting that culture may play a role in cervical cancer screening.

  19. Moses revisited. August Strindberg’s and Edvard Munch’s dramatic use of the figure of Moses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Storskog


     1903 and Den fri Kjærligheds By (The City of Free Love, ca. 1905. In the first case, the focus is on the examination of Moses as an archetypical character. Analogies are subsequently drawn between the biblical hero and other dramatic characters in the production of the Swedish playwright, such as Gustav Vasa or Birger jarl. In the latter case, I outline the strategy for a parodic reuse of the biblical source in Munch’s invention of a modern Moses created to mock his fellow painter and maestro Christian Krohg and the bohemian ideal of free love. Although the qualities of the Moses character take on different and opposite meanings in the two authors, it is of interest that the issue of a return to the common heritage of biblical culture should make itself evident in the years following both Strindberg’s and Munch’s farewell to the secular milieus of the Bohème.

  20. Berberine inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cells and induces G₀/G₁ or G₂/M phase arrest at different concentrations. (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Du, Shanshan; Wang, Jiaqiang


    Prostate cancer is the second most common disease of the male reproductive system. Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt that is extracted from plants. The aim of the current study was to explore the antitumor activity of berberine in prostate cancer cells and identify the underlying mechanism of its effects. PC3 human and RM‑1 mouse prostate cancer cells were treated with increasing concentrations of berberine, followed by analysis of the cell viability with an MTT assay. The results demonstrated that berberine markedly inhibited the proliferation of PC3 and RM‑1 cells, and that the inhibitory effects to PC3 and RM‑1 were enhanced in a concentration‑ and time‑dependent manner. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle of PC3 human prostate cancer cells, and the results demonstrated that G0/G1 phase arrest was induced following treatment with 10 µM berberine (Pberberine (50 µM) the survival rate of PC3 cells at the G2/M phase was significantly increased compared with the cells treated with 10 µM berberine, which suggests that different cell cycle signaling pathways were activated when PC3 cells were treated with low and high concentrations of berberine. Thus, clarifying the mechanism underlying these effects in prostate cancer may provide novel molecular targets for prostate cancer therapy.

  1. Changes of Serum Trace Elements, AFP, CEA, SF, T3, T4 and IGF- Ⅱ in Different Periods of Rat Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-xu Zhang; Dan-dan Liu; Bai-jie Jin; Ya-wei Wang; Qj Liu; Ru-bing Duan; Peng Zhao; Ming-xia Ma


    Objective:Based on liver cancer model built in SD rats,the contents of trace elements (Cu,Fe,Zn,Ca and Mg),AFP,CEA,SF,TH and IGF-Ⅱ in serum were measured at different stages to explore the molecular changes during the rat liver cancer development.Methods:The SD rat liver cancer model was built by using diethylnitrosamine (DENA) as the mutagen.During 16 weeks of DENA gavage,blood samples were taken in the 14th,28th,56th,77th,105th and 112th days respectively after the first day of gavage with DENA,then the contents of five trace elements (Cu,Fe,Zn,Ca and Mg),T3,T4,IGF-Ⅱ,AFP,CEA and SF in serum were determined.Results:During the development of the rat liver cancer,in the test group,the Cu content significantly increased in serum,while the contents of Fe,Zn and Ca significantly decreased.The content of Mg showed no significant change.AFP and CEA of the test group showed same expression level with the control group; while the content of SF was lower than that of the control group when cancerization appeared.T3 and T4 increased at the first stage and then went down,and the content of IGF-Ⅱ was always high.Conclusion:Cu,Fe,Zn,Ca,T3,T4,SF and IGF-Ⅱ are closely related to the development of liver cancer.The changes of their contents in the development of cancer could enlighten the researches on cancer pathogenesis and prevention.

  2. Heterogeneous methodology of racial/ethnic classification may be responsible for the different risk assessments for prostate cancer between Black and White men in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero


    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate if the different results of prostate cancer risk between black and white Brazilian men may be associated with the varying methodology used to define participants as either Blacks or Whites. Patients and Methods We evaluated median PSA values, rate of PSA level ≥4.0 ng/mL, indications for prostate biopsy, prostate cancer detection rate, biopsy/cancer rate, cancer/biopsy rate, and the relative risk of cancer between blacks versus whites, blacks versus non-blacks (browns and whites, non-whites (browns and blacks versus whites, African versus non-African descendants, and African descendants or blacks versus non-African descendants and non-blacks. Results From 1544 participants, there were 51.4% whites, 37.2% browns, 11.4% blacks, and 5.4% African descendants. Median PSA level was 0.9 ng/mL in whites, browns, and non-African descendants, compared to 1.2 ng/mL in blacks, and African descendants or blacks, and 1.3 ng/mL in African descendants. Indications for prostate biopsy were present in 16.9% for African descendants, 15.9% of black, 12.3% of white, 11.4% for non-African descendants, and 9.9% of brown participants. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 30.3% of performed biopsies: 6.2% of African descendants, 5.1% of blacks, 3.3% of whites, 3.0% of non-African descendants, and 2.6% of browns. Conclusions Median PSA values were higher for Blacks versus Whites in all classification systems, except for non-white versus white men. The rate of prostate biopsy, prostate cancer detection rate, and relative risk for cancer was increased in African descendants, and African descendants or blacks, compared to non-African descendants, and non-African descendants and non-blacks, respectively.

  3. Dramatic role of critical current anisotropy on flux avalanches in MgB2 films. (United States)

    Albrecht, J; Matveev, A T; Strempfer, J; Habermeier, H-U; Shantsev, D V; Galperin, Y M; Johansen, T H


    Anisotropic penetration of magnetic flux in MgB(2) films grown on vicinal sapphire substrates is investigated using magneto-optical imaging. Regular penetration above 10 K proceeds more easily along the substrate surface steps, the anisotropy of the critical current being 6%. At lower temperatures the penetration occurs via abrupt dendritic avalanches that preferentially propagate perpendicular to the surface steps. This inverse anisotropy in the penetration pattern becomes dramatic very close to 10 K where all flux avalanches propagate in the strongest pinning direction. The observed behavior is fully explained using a thermomagnetic model of the dendritic instability.

  4. Dramatic changes in the magnetic coupling mechanism for La-doped CaMnO3. (United States)

    Granado, E; Moreno, N O; Martinho, H; García, A; Sanjurjo, J A; Torriani, I; Rettori, C; Neumeier, J J; Oseroff, S B


    The exchange interactions in polycrystalline samples of Ca1-xLaxMnO3 (0.00< or =x< or =0.05) are studied by means of Raman scattering and electron paramagnetic resonance. Dramatic reductions in the spin-phonon interactions and magnetic correlations are observed for La doping levels as small as approximately 2%-3%. These results show that the charge carriers play an important role in the overall exchange coupling in the electron-doped manganites, even at very low doping levels.


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    Ketan L


    Full Text Available Phenytoin is still one of the most commonly used antiepileptic drugs in clinical practice around the globe. It has a range of familiar prejudicious and side effects, which have been reported formerly including ataxia, dizziness, visual disturbance, nystagmus, diplopia and cognitive dysfunctions amongst others. Here we are reporting a rare case of phenytoin toxicity presenting dramatically as a behavioural disorder resulting from underlying primary adverse effects of phenytoin, which were clinically overlooked. Discontinuation of phenytoin resulted in remission of side effects as well as the secondary behavioural manifestations.

  6. Gorham-Stout Disease of the Skull Base With Hearing Loss: Dramatic Recovery and Antiangiogenic Therapy. (United States)

    Nozawa, Akifumi; Ozeki, Michio; Kuze, Bunya; Asano, Takahiko; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Fukao, Toshiyuki


    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. We present a 6-year-old male with GSD involving the skull base who presented with recurrent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, severe hearing loss, and facial palsy secondary to cerebellar herniation into the internal auditory canal. After 2 months of treatment with pegylated interferon (IFN) α-2b (50 μg/week), his hearing recovered dramatically. Two years later, new bone formation appeared radiologically and IFN was switched to sirolimus. One year after the switch, CSF rhinorrhea disappeared. Antiangiogenic therapy might inhibit proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in osteolytic lesions and lead to new bone formation.

  7. Critical success factors simplified implementing the powerful drivers of dramatic business improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Marvin T


    Critical-to-success factors (CSFs) have become essential elements to strategic planning and no business can achieve consistent success without effectively adopting them. To take full advantage of CSFs, however, an organization must first understand what they are and how they can be used to drive organizational initiatives and processes. Critical Success Factors Simplified: Implementing the Powerful Drivers of Dramatic Business Improvement provides a concise manual on CSFs that will teach you how to identify and select the right CSFs, measure their impact, and adjust them as needed to reach your goals.

  8. Popular culture and romantic sensibility: Mário de Andrade's dramatic dances

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    Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available The text examines the notion of dramatic dances in the work of the Brazilian modernist writer Mário de Andrade (1893-1945 and investigates the reasons bumba-meu-boi (the ox merriment, or ox-dance - a widespread and popular Brazilian festivity - was so extremely valued by the author. It analyzes the connections found in the use of an ethnographic perspective, a romantic view of popular culture, and the pursuit of authenticity in the construction of aesthetical forms by andradian modernism.

  9. A case of Lewis-Sumner syndrome showing dramatic improvement after plasma exchange. (United States)

    Park, Young-Eun; Yook, Ji-Won; Kim, Dae-Seong


    We report a patient with Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS) who showed an improvement only with plasma exchange (PE). The patient, 32-yr old man, had progressive multifocal motor-sensory deficits with persistent, multiple conduction blocks and marked slowing of NCVs. Nerve pathology supported a diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy by revealing marked loss of myelinated fibers with inter- and intrafascicular variation. Although the patient was refractory to treatment with corticosteroid and intravenous immunoglobulin, PE produced a dramatic improvement. Our experience strongly proposes that PE should be tried for refractory LSS.

  10. Recent improvement in lung cancer screening: a comparison of the results carried out in two different time periods.

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    Full Text Available

    To evaluate recent improvements in lung cancer screening, we compared the results of recently conducted lung cancer screening with those of a previous screening. This study compared the survival of lung cancer patients detected by lung cancer screening conducted between 1976 and 1984 (early period with that conducted between 1989 and 1997 (late period. Two hundred seventy-six patients with lung cancer were detected in the early period and 541 patients with lung cancer were detected in the late period. The median survival time (late : 49.8 vs. early : 27.8 months and the 5-year survival rate (late : 47.8 vs. early : 34.8% of the patients with lung cancer detected in the late period were significantly better than those in the early period (p = 0.0054. Among patients undergoing resection, the proportion of pathological stage I patients in the late period was significantly higher than that in the early period (late : 60.8 vs. early : 54.9%, p = 0.005. Multivariate analysis showed that the screening time period was a significant prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.685, 95% confidence interval : 0.563-0.832, p = 0.0002. These results were consistent with the findings of case-control studies of lung cancer screening programs in the late period recently conducted in Japan, which also showed a greater efficacy for screening than for previous case-control studies in the early period.

  11. Recent improvement in lung cancer screening: a comparison of the results carried out in two different time periods. (United States)

    Kitajima, Takuji; Nishii, Kenji; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Takuo; Gemba, Kenichi; Kodani, Tsuyoshi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Sobue, Tomotaka


    To evaluate recent improvements in lung cancer screening, we compared the results of recently conducted lung cancer screening with those of a previous screening. This study compared the survival of lung cancer patients detected by lung cancer screening conducted between 1976 and 1984 (early period) with that conducted between 1989 and 1997 (late period). Two hundred seventy-six patients with lung cancer were detected in the early period and 541 patients with lung cancer were detected in the late period. The median survival time (late : 49.8 vs. early : 27.8 months) and the 5-year survival rate (late : 47.8 vs. early : 34.8%) of the patients with lung cancer detected in the late period were significantly better than those in the early period (p = 0.0054). Among patients undergoing resection, the proportion of pathological stage I patients in the late period was significantly higher than that in the early period (late : 60.8 vs. early : 54.9%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that the screening time period was a significant prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.685, 95% confidence interval : 0.563-0.832, p = 0.0002). These results were consistent with the findings of case-control studies of lung cancer screening programs in the late period recently conducted in Japan, which also showed a greater efficacy for screening than for previous case-control studies in the early period.

  12. Changes in Female Support Network Systems and Adaptation after Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Differences between Older and Younger Patients (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Palmquist, Aunchalee E. L.; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Singletary, S. Eva; Koehly, Laura M.


    Purpose: This study evaluates the changes in social networks of older and younger breast cancer patients over a 6-month period following their first diagnosis and how such modifications are associated with changes in the patients' mood state. Design and Methods: Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were interviewed shortly after their diagnosis…

  13. Differences in gene expression profiles and carcinogenesis pathways involved in cisplatin resistance of four types of cancer. (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Li, Hui; Hou, Shengcai; Hu, Bin; Liu, Jie; Wang, Jun


    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard therapy used for the treatment of several types of cancer. However, its efficacy is largely limited by the acquired drug resistance. To date, little is known about the RNA expression changes in cisplatin-resistant cancers. Identification of the RNAs related to cisplatin resistance may provide specific insight into cancer therapy. In the present study, expression profiling of 7 cancer cell lines was performed using oligonucleotide microarray analysis data obtained from the GEO database. Bioinformatic analyses such as the Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway were used to identify genes and pathways specifically associated with cisplatin resistance. A signal transduction network was established to identify the core genes in regulating cancer cell cisplatin resistance. A number of genes were differentially expressed in 7 groups of cancer cell lines. They mainly participated in 85 GO terms and 11 pathways in common. All differential gene interactions in the Signal-Net were analyzed. CTNNB1, PLCG2 and SRC were the most significantly altered. With the use of bioinformatics, large amounts of data in microarrays were retrieved and analyzed by means of thorough experimental planning, scientific statistical analysis and collection of complete data on cancer cell cisplatin resistance. In the present study, a novel differential gene expression pattern was constructed and further study will provide new targets for the diagnosis and mechanisms of cancer cisplatin resistance.

  14. The difference in enhancement patterns of prostate cancer with different Gleason scores%不同Gleason评分前列腺癌超声造影表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费翔; 唐杰; 李岩密; 张艳; 石怀银


    目的 探讨不同Gleason评分前列腺癌的超声造影表现差异.方法 65例经直肠前列腺超声引导下穿刺活检确诊为前列腺癌的患者纳入本研究.穿刺前首先先进行经直肠前列腺超声造影与超声引导下前列腺穿刺活检.根据前列腺癌Gleason分级分为Gleason评分≥4+3组(35例)和Gleason评分≤3+4组(30例).记录两组前列腺癌超声造影表现并进行统计分析.结果 33.3%(10/30)Gleason评分≤3+4与62.9%(22/35)Gleason评分≥4+3的前列腺癌造影表现为快速增强(P=0.018),30.0%(9/30)Gleason评分≤3+4与68.6%(24/35)Gleason评分≥4+3的前列腺癌造影表现为高增强(P=0.002),80.0%(28/35)Gleason评分≥4+3的前列腺癌造影可以观察到不对称血管结构的存在,33.3%(10/30)Gleason评分≤3+4的前列腺癌造影表现存在不对称血管结构(P=0.000),54.3%(19/35)Gleason评分≥4+3与13.3%(4/30)Gleason评分≤3+4的前列腺癌造影表现为快退(P=0.001),53.3%(16/30)Gleason评分≤3+4的前列腺癌造影后病灶边界清楚,91.4%(32/35)Gleason评分≥4+3的前列腺癌造影后病灶边界清楚(P=0.001).43.3%(13/30)Gleason评分≤3+4与80.0%(28/35)Gleason评分≥4+3的前列腺造影呈不均匀性增强(P=0.002).结论 不同Gleason 评分的前列腺癌超声造影表现存在差异,通过观察超声造影表现差异对判断前列腺癌的Gleason分级具有一定临床价值.%Objective To compare enhancement patterns in prostate cancer ( PCa ) with different Gleason scores ( GS ) by contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound ( CETRUS ). Methods A total of 65 conspicuous prostatic cancers detected by transrectal ultrasound ( TRUS ) were enrolled in this study. Each patient had successive grey-scale TRUS, CETRUS, and targeted-biopsy of prostate under ultrasound guidance on the same day. Patients were classified into two groups of PCa with GS≤3 +4 =7 ( n = 30 ) and PCa with GS≥4 +3 =7 ( n = 35 ) according to the pathological findings. The videotapes

  15. Only two residues are responsible for the dramatic difference in receptor binding between swine and new pandemic H1 hemagglutinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.P.; de Vries, E.; Moore, K.S.; Rigter, A.; Rottier, P.; de Haan, C.A.


    In view of its critical role in influenza A virus (IAV) tropism and pathogenesis, we evaluated the receptor binding properties of HA proteins of the closely related swine and new pandemic human IAVs. We generated recombinant soluble trimeric H1 ectodomains of several IAVs and analyzed their sialic a

  16. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators. (United States)

    Delmore, Kira E; Fox, James W; Irwin, Darren E


    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We attached light-level geolocators to birds at the edges of this contact zone to provide, to our knowledge, the first direct test of a putative divide using data from individual birds over the entire annual cycle. Coastal thrushes migrated along the west coast to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Some of these birds used multiple wintering sites. Inland thrushes migrated across the Rocky Mountains, through central North America to Columbia and Venezuela. These birds migrated longer distances than coastal birds and performed a loop migration, navigating over the Gulf of Mexico in autumn and around this barrier in spring. These findings support the suggestion that divergent migratory behaviour could contribute to reproductive isolation between migrants, advance our understanding of their non-breeding ecology, and are integral to development of detailed conservation strategies for this group.

  17. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Southeast China. (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming


    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case-control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time time was, the higher was the risk for GC (Ptrend time and post-dinner walk on GC risk was detected (AOR = 1.862, 95% CIs = 1.584-3.885, synergy index [SI] = 2.654, 95% CIs = 2.27-3.912). Participants with dinner-to-bed time times likely to suffer from GC (AOR = 7.401, 95% CIs = 4.523-13.16) than those with dinner-to-bed time ≥4 hours who took such walk. The risk of GC due to dinner-to-bed time time 55 years old.

  18. Differences between Total Intravenous Anesthesia and Inhalation Anesthesia in Free Flap Surgery of Head and Neck Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Chang

    Full Text Available Many studies have evaluated risk factors associated with complications after free flap surgery, but these studies did not evaluate the impact of anesthesia management. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the differences between patients who received inhalation and total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA in free flap surgery.One hundred and fifty-six patients who underwent free flap surgery for head and neck cancer were retrospectively divided into the TIVA (96 patients and the inhalation group (87 patients. Perioperative hemodynamic data and postoperative medical complications were determined by documented medical records.Ninety-six patients in the TIVA group were compared with 87 patients who received inhalation anesthesia. There were no differences in gender, age, classification of physical status based on American Society for Anesthesiologists (ASA score, and cormobidities between the two groups. Patients in the TIVA group required less perioperative crystalloid (4172.46 ± 1534.95 vs. 5183.91 ± 1416.40 ml, p < 0.0001 and colloid (572.46 ± 335.14 vs. 994.25 ± 434.65 ml, p < 0.0001 to maintain hemodynamic stability. Although the mean anesthesia duration was shorter in the TIVA group (11.02 ± 2.84 vs. 11.70± 1.96 hours, p = 0.017, the blood loss was similar between groups (p = 0.71. There was no difference in surgical complication rate, but patients in the TIVA group developed fewer pulmonary complications (18 vs. 47, p = 0.0008. After multivariate regression, patients in the TIVA group had a significantly reduced risk of pulmonary complication compared with the inhalation group (Odds ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.92.Total intravenous anesthesia was associated with significantly fewer pulmonary complications in patients who received free flap reconstruction.

  19. Differential expression analsis of matrix metallo-proteinase 20 (MMP20) in human esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The aim of this study was to investigate the different expressions of MMP20 in the process of esophageal cancer. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to detect the mRNA expression and protein expression of MMP20. Compared with the corresponding normal esophagus tissues, results showed the common trend of the dramatical overexpression of MMP20 in the esopha-geal cancer tissues. The analysis of MMP20 expression in different clinical early stages of esophageal cancer by RT-PCR indicated that MMP20 was much more overexpressed in the esophageal cancer with invasion than in the early stages. This suggested that MMP20 might play an important role in the progression of esophageal cancer. It probably plays a critical role in tumor invasion.

  20. A dramatic increase of C1q protein in the CNS during normal aging. (United States)

    Stephan, Alexander H; Madison, Daniel V; Mateos, José María; Fraser, Deborah A; Lovelett, Emilie A; Coutellier, Laurence; Kim, Leo; Tsai, Hui-Hsin; Huang, Eric J; Rowitch, David H; Berns, Dominic S; Tenner, Andrea J; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Barres, Ben A


    The decline of cognitive function has emerged as one of the greatest health threats of old age. Age-related cognitive decline is caused by an impacted neuronal circuitry, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible are unknown. C1q, the initiating protein of the classical complement cascade and powerful effector of the peripheral immune response, mediates synapse elimination in the developing CNS. Here we show that C1q protein levels dramatically increase in the normal aging mouse and human brain, by as much as 300-fold. This increase was predominantly localized in close proximity to synapses and occurred earliest and most dramatically in certain regions of the brain, including some but not all regions known to be selectively vulnerable in neurodegenerative diseases, i.e., the hippocampus, substantia nigra, and piriform cortex. C1q-deficient mice exhibited enhanced synaptic plasticity in the adult and reorganization of the circuitry in the aging hippocampal dentate gyrus. Moreover, aged C1q-deficient mice exhibited significantly less cognitive and memory decline in certain hippocampus-dependent behavior tests compared with their wild-type littermates. Unlike in the developing CNS, the complement cascade effector C3 was only present at very low levels in the adult and aging brain. In addition, the aging-dependent effect of C1q on the hippocampal circuitry was independent of C3 and unaccompanied by detectable synapse loss, providing evidence for a novel, complement- and synapse elimination-independent role for C1q in CNS aging.

  1. Robert Browning’s Dramatic Monologue as a Medium of Intransigence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintija Čuljat


    Full Text Available Probing the dramatic monologue mould of Robert Browning (1812-1899 has maintained a long tradition of portraying this poet as an experimenter and pursuer of the Victorian representation de-norming process. Browning’s narrative verse employs ambiguation through syntactic rendition of his dramatic personae who voice their minds beyond the restraints of dialogic turn-taking and divulge their impulses through verbal dominance. Browning’s bicentenary seems a most auspicious moment to creatively explore the tenacity of his discordant narrative vein in literary translation. Browning’s fixation on engendering a poetic form that would fully sustain the self-projecting techniques of his protagonists resulted in the employment of narrative verse whose dialogic nature is undermined and embedded in his creations’ monologues. The poet utilizes innuendoes which originate not only from the pool of poetic references but also from the syntactic realizations disclosing a disparity between the speakers’ intentions and their verbal acts. Their interlocutors are being gradually drawn into a puzzling locutionary display.

  2. Is a prostate cancer screening anxiety measure invariant across two different samples of age-appropriate men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Suzanne K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to explore the influence of anxiety on decision–making processes, valid anxiety measures are needed. We evaluated a prostate cancer screening (PCS anxiety scale that measures anxiety related to the prostate–specific antigen (PSA test, the digital rectal examination (DRE, and the decision to undergo PCS (PCS-D using two samples in different settings. Methods We assessed four psychometric properties of the scale using baseline data from a randomized, controlled decision aid trial (n = 301, private clinic; n = 149, public. Results The 3-factor measure had adequate internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the 3–factor model did not have adequate fit. When subscales were considered separately, only the 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure had adequate fit and was invariant across clinics. Conclusions Our results support the use of a 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure with age-appropriate men in public and private settings. The development of unique anxiety items relating to the PSA test and DRE is still needed.

  3. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) MR Imaging for Prostate Cancer: An Evaluation of Diffusion Coefficient and Perfusion Fraction Derived from Different b-Value Combinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.; Turkbey, B.; Bernardo, M.; Kruecker, J.; Kadoury, S.; Merino, M.J.; Wood, B.J.; Pinto, P.A.; Choyke, P.L.


    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different b-values on intravoxelincoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion parameters for prostate cancer detection. Materials and methods: Thirty three patients (mean age of 61.6 years, mean serum PSA of 10 ng/dl) undergoing endorectal coil MRI of the prostate under

  4. TP53 germline mutation testing in 180 families suspected of Li-Fraumeni syndrome: mutation detection rate and relative frequency of cancers in different familial phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, M.W.G.; Verhoef, S.; Rookus, M.A.; Pruntel, R.; van der Hout, A.H.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Kluijt, I.; Sijmons, R.H.; Aalfs, C.M.; Wagner, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; van Asperen, C.J.; Gómez García, E.B.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; ten Kate, L.P.; Menko, F.H.; van 't Veer, L.J.


    Background Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome. Most families fulfilling the classical diagnostic criteria harbour TP53 germline mutations. However, TP53 germline mutations may also occur in less obvious phenotypes. As a result, different criteria a

  5. Biography: Dr Iain Frame, director of research, prostate cancer UK. (United States)

    Frame, Iain; Maprayil, Sophia


    Sophia Maprayil, Commissioning Editor for Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, talks to Dr Iain Frame, Director of Research for Prostate Cancer UK. Iain is Prostate Cancer UK's first Director of Research, responsible for overseeing the development and implementation of the charity's ambitious new research strategy. He joined Prostate Cancer UK in 2012 from Diabetes UK where he held the post of Research Director for 5 years. Since joining Prostate Cancer UK in 2012 Iain has overseen a dramatic increase in the charity's research spend, from 2 million a year, to 7.5 million a year. Previously Iain worked in research management at the Wellcome Trust and before that as a parasitologist and researcher exploring various aspects of molecular biology of a number of different parasites.

  6. Fractal dimension (df) as a new structural biomarker of clot microstructure in different stages of lung cancer. (United States)

    Davies, Nia Anne; Harrison, Nicholas Kim; Morris, Roger H Keith; Noble, Simon; Lawrence, Matthew James; D'Silva, Lindsay Antonio; Broome, Laura; Brown, Martin Rowan; Hawkins, Karl M; Williams, Phylip Rhodri; Davidson, Simon; Evans, Phillip Adrian


    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients, and is the second commonest cause of death associated with the disease. Patients with chronic inflammation, such as cancer, have been shown to have pathological clot structures with modulated mechanical properties. Fractal dimension (df) is a new technique which has been shown to act as a marker of the microstructure and mechanical properties of blood clots, and can be performed more readily than current methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We measured df in 87 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer prior to treatment and 47 matched-controls. Mean group values were compared for all patients with lung cancer vs controls and for limited disease vs extensive disease. Results were compared with conventional markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis and SEM images. Significantly higher values of df were observed in lung cancer patients compared with controls and patients with extensive disease had higher values than those with limited disease (p< 0.05), whilst conventional markers failed to distinguish between these groups. The relationship between df of the incipient clot and mature clot microstructure was confirmed by SEM and computational modelling: higher df was associated with highly dense clots formed of smaller fibrin fibres in lung cancer patients compared to controls. This study demonstrates that df is a sensitive technique which quantifies the structure and mechanical properties of blood clots in patients with lung cancer. Our data suggests that df has the potential to identify patients with an abnormal clot microstructure and greatest VTE risk.


    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P


    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  8. Distinct anti-oncogenic effect of various microRNAs in different mouse models of liver cancer. (United States)

    Tao, Junyan; Ji, Junfang; Li, Xiaolei; Ding, Ning; Wu, Heng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xin Wei; Calvisi, Diego F; Song, Guisheng; Chen, Xin


    Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is a typical feature of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the in vivo relevance of miRNAs along hepatocarcinogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we show that liver tumors induced in mice by c-Myc overexpression or AKT/Ras co-expression exhibit distinct miRNA expression profiles. Among the downregulated miRNAs, eight (miR-101, miR-107, miR-122, miR-29, miR-365, miR-375, miR-378, and miR-802) were selected and their tumor suppressor activity was determined by overexpressing each of them together with c-Myc or AKT/Ras oncogenes in mouse livers via hydrodynamic transfection. The tumor suppressor activity of these microRNAs was extremely heterogeneous in c-Myc and AKT/Ras mice: while miR-378 had no tumor suppressor activity, miR-107, mir-122, miR-29, miR-365 and miR-802 exhibited weak to moderate tumor suppressor potential. Noticeably, miR-375 showed limited antineoplastic activity against c-Myc driven tumorigenesis, whereas it strongly inhibited AKT/Ras induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, miR-101 significantly suppressed both c-Myc and AKT/Ras liver tumor development. Altogether, the present data demonstrate that different oncogenes induce distinct miRNA patterns, whose modulation differently affects hepatocarcinogenesis depending on the driving oncogenes. Finally, our findings support a strong tumor suppressor activity of miR-101 in liver cancer models regardless of the driver oncogenes involved, thus representing a promising therapeutic target in human HCC.

  9. Adaptation of cancer cells from different entities to the MDM2 inhibitor nutlin-3 results in the emergence of p53-mutated multi-drug-resistant cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaelis, M.; Rothweiler, F.; Barth, S.; Cinatl, J.; van Rikxoort, M.; Loeschmann, N.; Voges, Y.; Breitling, R.; von Deimling, A.; Roedel, F.; Weber, K.; Fehse, B.; Mack, E.; Stiewe, T.; Doerr, H. W.; Speidel, D.; Cinatl, J.; Cinatl jr., J.; Stephanou, A.


    Six p53 wild-type cancer cell lines from infrequently p53-mutated entities (neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and melanoma) were continuously exposed to increasing concentrations of the murine double minute 2 inhibitor nutlin-3, resulting in the emergence of nutlin-3-resistant, p53-mutated sublines d

  10. Longitudinal, population-based study of racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival: impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status, treatment and comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroup Antoinette


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer, if detected early, has greater than 90% 5-year survival. However, survival has been shown to vary across racial/ethnic groups in the United States, despite the availability of early detection methods. Methods This study evaluated the joint effects of sociodemographic factors, tumor characteristics, census-based socioeconomic status (SES, treatment, and comorbidities on survival after colorectal cancer among and within racial/ethnic groups, using the SEER-Medicare database for patients diagnosed in 1992–1996, and followed through 1999. Results Unadjusted colorectal cancer-specific mortality rates were higher among Blacks and Hispanic males than whites (relative rates (95% confidence intervals = 1.34 (1.26–1.42 and 1.16 (1.04–1.29, respectively, and lower among Japanese (0.78 (0.70–0.88. These patterns were evident for all-cause mortality, although the magnitude of the disparity was larger for colorectal cancer mortality. Adjustment for stage accounted for the higher rate among Hispanic males and most of the lower rate among Japanese. Among Blacks, stage and SES accounted for about half of the higher rate relative to Whites, and within stage III colon and stages II/III rectal cancer, SES completely accounted for the small differentials in survival between Blacks and Whites. Comorbidity did not appear to explain the Black-White differentials in colorectal-specific nor all-cause mortality, beyond stage, and treatment (surgery, radiation, chemotherapy explained a very small proportion of the Black-White difference. The fully-adjusted relative mortality rates comparing Blacks to Whites was 1.14 (1.09–1.20 for all-cause mortality and 1.21 (1.14–1.29 for colorectal cancer specific mortality. The sociodemographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics also had different impacts on mortality within racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion In this comprehensive analysis, race/ethnic-specific models revealed

  11. Chemometric analysis of the interactions among different parameters describing health conditions, breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids. (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Tokarz, Andrzej


    We investigated how different doses of conjugated linoleic acids applied for various periods of time influence breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats treated or not with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). We also search for interactions among parameters describing health conditions and cancer risk. Animals were divided into 18 groups with different diet modifications (vegetable oil, 1.0%, 2.0% additions of CLA) and different periods of supplementation. In groups treated with DMBA mammary adenocarcinomas appeared. Due to the complexity of experiment apart from statistical analysis a chemometric tool-Partial Least Square method was applied. Analysis of pairs of correlated parameters allowed to identify some regularities concerning the relationships between fatty acid profiles and clinical features of animals. Fatty acids profile was the result of prolonged exposure to high dose of CLA and DMBA administration. These two factors underlined the differences in fatty acids profiles among clusters of animals.

  12. Characteristics of Differently Located Colorectal Cancers Support Proximal and Distal Classification: A Population-Based Study of 57,847 Patients (United States)

    Yang, Jiao; Du, Xiang lin; Li, Shu ting; Wang, Bi yuan; Wu, Yin ying; Chen, Zhe ling; Lv, Meng; Shen, Yan wei; Wang, Xin; Dong, Dan feng; Li, Dan; Wang, Fan; Li, En xiao; Yi, Min


    Background It has been suggested that colorectal cancer be regarded as several subgroups defined according to tumor location rather than as a single entity. The current study aimed to identify the most useful method for grouping colorectal cancer by tumor location according to both baseline and survival characteristics. Methods Cases of pathologically confirmed colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2000 to 2012 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database and categorized into three groups: right colon cancer (RCC), left colon cancer (LCC), and rectal cancer (ReC). Adjusted hazard ratios for known predictors of disease-specific survival (DSS) in colorectal cancer were obtained using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results The study included 57847 patients: 43.5% with RCC, 37.7% with LCC, and 18.8% with ReC. Compared with LCC and ReC, RCC was more likely to affect old patients and women, and to be at advanced stage, poorly differentiated or un-differentiated, and mucinous. Patients with LCC or ReC had better DSS than those with RCC in subgroups including stage III or IV disease, age ≤70 years and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. Conversely, patients with LCC or ReC had worse DSS than those with RCC in subgroups including age ˃70 years and mucinous adenocarcinoma. Conclusions RCC differed from both LCC and ReC in several clinicopathologic characteristics and in DSS. It seems reasonable to group colorectal cancer into right-sided (i.e., proximal) and left-sided (i.e., distal) ones. PMID:27936129

  13. Comparison of the characteristics of atmospheric pressure plasma jets using different working gases and applications to plasma-cancer cell interactions

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    Hea Min Joh


    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jets employing nitrogen, helium, or argon gases driven by low-frequency (several tens of kilohertz ac voltage and pulsed dc voltage were fabricated and characterized. The changes in discharge current, optical emission intensities from reactive radicals, gas temperature, and plume length of plasma jets with the control parameters were measured and compared. The control parameters include applied voltage, working gas, and gas flow rate. As an application to plasma-cancer cell interactions, the effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on the morphology and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level of human lung adenocarcinoma cell (A549 and human bladder cancer cell (EJ were explored. The experimental results show that the plasma can effectively control the i