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Sample records for cancer diagnostics prognosis

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be hard to understand what prognosis means ... prognosis include: The type of cancer and where it is in your body The stage of the ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... side effects from the cancer treatments you received. Video Series This video series offers the perspectives of ... care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three cancer patients ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Series This video series offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor. The videos explain ... Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three cancer patients and their doctor, Anthony L. Back, ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ... Staging Prognosis Questions to Ask ... This statistic is another method used to estimate cancer-specific survival that does ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Research Cancer Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information for Patients and Caregivers A to ... Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... suggest that your cancer is likely to respond well to treatment. Or, he may tell you that you have a poor prognosis if the cancer is harder to control. Whatever your doctor tells you, keep in mind that a prognosis is an educated guess. Your doctor cannot be certain how it will go for you. If ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... How to best take care of yourself and manage treatment side effects How to deal with financial ... for patients (PDF-210KB) and for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... to treatment Seeking Information About Your Prognosis Is a Personal Decision When you have cancer, you and ... how long she has to live. For Doctors, a Patient-Centered Approach View this video on YouTube. ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... treatment Seeking Information About Your Prognosis Is a Personal Decision When you have cancer, you and your ... think they are too impersonal to be of value to you. It is up to you to ...

  14. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer: a diagnostic tool for prognosis and molecular analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoshen Dong; R.Katherine Alpaugh; Massimo Cristofanilli

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is characterized by a combination of tumor growth,proliferation and metastatic progression and is typically managed with palliative intent.The benefit of standard systemic therapies is relatively limited and the disease is considered incurable suggesting the need to investigate the biological drivers of the various phases of the metastatic process in order to improve the selection of molecularly driven therapies.The detection,enumeration and molecular analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) provide an intriguing opportunity to advance this knowledge.CTCs enumerated by the Food and Drugs Administration-cleared CellSearchTM system are an independent prognostic factor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MBC patients.Several published papers demonstrated the poor prognosis for MBC patients that presented basal CTC count ≥5 in 7.5 mL of blood.Therefore,the enumeration of CTCs during treatment for MBC provides a tool with the ability to predict progression of disease earlier than standard timing of anatomical assessment using conventional radiological tests.During the metastatic process cancer cells exhibit morphological and phenotypic plasticity undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).This important phenomenon is associated with down regulation of epithelial marker (e.g.,EpCAM) with potential limitations in the applicability of current CTCs enrichment methods.Such observations translated in a number of investigations aimed at improving our capabilities to enumerate and perform molecular characterization of CTCs.Theoretically,the phenotypic analysis of CTCs can represent a "liquid" biopsy of breast tumor that is able to identify a new potential target against the metastatic disease and advance the development and monitoring of personalized therapies.

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor- ... YouTube. Three cancer patients and their doctor, Anthony L. Back, M.D. -- an oncologist who is also ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three cancer patients and their doctor, Anthony L. ... One Couple's Creative Response View this video on YouTube. Vanessa, an artist, and her husband Roy discover ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... before cancer How you respond to treatment Seeking Information About Your Prognosis Is a Personal Decision When ... Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION About ...

  18. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Financial Toxicity ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What ... Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/ ... the Precision Medicine Initiative® Cancer Moonshot Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... on YouTube. Barbara’s attitude since her diagnosis with pancreatic cancer? No doctor is going to tell her how ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings ... to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives ... Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship ... Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative NCI and ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Back, M.D., coaches other oncologists about how to discuss prognosis with their patients. Good ... as the source. Please note that blog posts that are written by individuals from outside the ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... survival. The estimate of how the disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be ... Your doctor cannot be certain how it will go for you. If You Decide Not to Have ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... and Caregivers A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research ... Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... research about a specific cancer type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of Discovery Grants & Training Research Grants Funding Opportunities Funding Strategy Research Program ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... and Caregivers A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions to Ask About ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... you have cancer, you and your loved ones face many unknowns. Understanding your cancer and knowing what ... make decisions. Some of the decisions you may face include: Which treatment is best for you If ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Contacts Multicultural Media Outreach Program Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research ... Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog About ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Contact Overview History of NCI Contributing to Cancer ... History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask About ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Outreach Program Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals ... Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Meetings Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Previous ... Information Legislative Activities Hearings & Testimonies Current Congress Legislative History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and ... MORE INFORMATION About This Website Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Report (RPPR) Grant Closeout Grant Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts Training Cancer Training at NCI Funding for ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI ... Hearings & Testimonies Current Congress Legislative History ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... D Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research ... major research initiatives R&D Resources Tools and data sets for researchers Research by Cancer Type Find ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from their cancer during a certain period of time after diagnosis. The period of time may be 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, etc., with 5 years being the time period most often used. Cancer-specific survival is ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ... LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION About This Website Cancer.gov ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor about survival statistics or search for this information on your own. Or, you may find ... most commonly used statistics include: Cancer-specific survival This is the percentage of patients with a specific ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Offices & Centers Advisory Boards & Groups Budget & Appropriations Current Year Budget Annual Plan & Budget Proposal Congressional Justification NCI ... using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about people with the same type of cancer. ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research and Discovery Stories of Discovery R&D Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data ... about some of NCI's major research initiatives R&D Resources Tools and data sets for researchers Research ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Current Congress Legislative History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Contact Overview History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers Advisory Boards & Groups Budget & Appropriations ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Discovery Grants & Training Research Grants Funding Opportunities Funding Strategy Research Program Contacts Grants Process Quick Overview Application ... Cancer Training (CCT) Research Grants Funding Opportunities Funding Strategy Research Program Contacts NCI Grants Process Quick Overview ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views All Press Releases 2016 2015 2014 2013 ... NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Previous NCI Directors NCI Organization Advisory ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Cancer Research and Discovery Stories of Discovery R&D Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and ... Read about some of NCI's major research initiatives R&D Resources Tools and data sets for researchers ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what ... is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication share their perspectives on their cancer prognoses. Learn ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the size of the cancer and if it has spread to other parts of your body The ... valuable insight from the personal ways each patient has approached questions about their future. One Couple's Creative ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & Budget Proposal All Press ... NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Previous NCI Directors NCI Organization Advisory ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Research Leadership Director's Page Previous NCI Directors NCI Organization Advisory Boards Budget & Appropriations About the Annual Plan & ... Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers Advisory Boards & Groups Budget & Appropriations ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ... M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI ( ... ways each patient has approached questions about their future. One Couple's Creative Response View this video on ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ... Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & Budget Proposal All Press Releases 2016 2015 2014 ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Media Media Contacts Multicultural Media Outreach Program Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... in Cancer Research and Discovery Stories of Discovery R&D Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data ... Read about some of NCI's major research initiatives R&D Resources Tools and data sets for researchers Research ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during a certain period of time after diagnosis. Disease-free survival This statistic is the percentage of ... on YouTube. Barbara’s attitude since her diagnosis with pancreatic cancer? No doctor is going to tell her ...

  14. Autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques for oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramaniam, A. Murali; Sriraman, Rajkumari; Sindhuja, P; Mohideen, Khadijah; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Muhamed Haris, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid...

  15. Cancer Patients, Doctors Often Disagree about Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159903.html Cancer Patients, Doctors Often Disagree About Prognosis Those with advanced disease are likely to be more optimistic than their doctor, study shows To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  17. Prognosis of synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Tjønneland, Anne; Balslev, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    Currently, no consistent evidence-based guidelines for the management of synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) exist and it is uncertain how presenting with SBBC affects patients' prognosis. We conducted a review of studies analyzing the association between SBBC and prognosis. The studies...... that reported adjusted effect measures were included in meta-analyses of effect of bilaterality on breast cancer mortality. From 57 initially identified records 17 studies from 11 different countries including 8,050 SBBC patients were included. The quality of the studies varied but was generally low with small...... sample sizes, and lack of consistent, detailed histo-pathological information. When doing meta-analysis on the subgroup of studies that provided adjusted effect estimates on breast cancer mortality (nine studies including 3,631 SBBC cases), we found that bilaterality in itself had a negative impact...

  18. Endometrial cancer, types, prognosis, female hormones and antihormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, L S G

    2011-01-01

    . Prognosis is also dependent on tumor differentiation and stage, and treatment should be adjusted accordingly. In this paper, the different types of endometrial cancer, staging, prognosis, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and their relationship to estrogen and other female hormones are reviewed....

  19. Recurrent cervical cancer : detection and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn, A; Van Eijkeren, M; Kenter, G; Zwinderman, K; Ansink, A

    2002-01-01

    Background. Only a small proportion of cervical cancer recurrences is detected during routine follow-up. We investigated which percentage of recurrences is detected during follow-up, which diagnostic tools are helpful to detect recurrent disease and which factors are of prognostic significance once

  20. Pre-diagnostic smoking behaviour and poorer prognosis in a German breast cancer patient cohort - Differential effects by tumour subtype, NAT2 status, BMI and alcohol intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seibold, P.; Vrieling, A.; Heinz, J.; Obi, N.; Sinn, H.P.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations of smoking and breast cancer-specific mortality might be explained by subgroups of patients with different susceptibility to harmful effects of smoking. METHODS: We used a prospective cohort of 3340 postmenopausal breast cancer patients aged 50-74 and diagnosed

  1. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) as a tool in Coverage with Evidence Development: The case of the 70-gene prognosis signature for breast cancer diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.P. Retèl; J.M. Bueno-de-Mesquita; M.J.M. Hummel; M.J. van de Vijver; K.F.L. Douma; K. Karsenberg; F.S.A.M. van Dam; C. van Krimpen; F.E. Bellot; R.M.H. Roumen; S.C. Linn; W.H. van Harten

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene

  2. Risk, Characteristics, and Prognosis of Breast Cancer after Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-Rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  3. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Diagnostic criteria, treatment, prognosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata E. Jędrych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP is caused by inhalation of environmental antigens. Farmers and bird keepers are most frequently affected by this desease. The HP diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms (cough, dyspnea in a person exposed to environmental antigens, and the presence of characteristic changes in high resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT (bilateral, mosaic, ground glass opacities in the middle and lower lung zones, ill-defined centrilobular nodules and the sign of air-trapping on expiration. This type of HRCT pattern is most frequently found in the patients with subacute HP. Bronchioloalveolar lavage fluid (BALF examination is helpful in establishing the HP diagnosis, when the increased total number of cells, with the predominance of T lymphocytes (> 50%, and the increased number of neutrophils (> 3% and mastocytes (> 1% are found. The presence of specific serum precipitins increases the likelihood of HP. In case of atypical clinical presentation, lung biopsy is recommended. The diagnostic criterion of HP is the presence of ill-defined non-necrotising granulomas, after excluding other granulomatous lung diseases. The prevention and treatment of HP is based on the elimination of the antigen from the environment. Corticosteroids may contribute to the improvement in the acute and sub-acute form of the disease but their long term effectiveness is uncertain. The prognosis of HP patients is generally perceived as good, especially in those patients in whom antigen avoidance is possible. Nevertheless, in some patients progressive pulmonary fibrosis and development of severe respiratory insufficiency is observed. Med Pr 2016;67(4:517–527

  4. [Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Diagnostic criteria, treatment, prognosis and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrych, Małgorzata E; Szturmowicz, Monika; Bestry, Iwona; Kuś, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is caused by inhalation of environmental antigens. Farmers and bird keepers are most frequently affected by this desease. The HP diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms (cough, dyspnea) in a person exposed to environmental antigens, and the presence of characteristic changes in high resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) (bilateral, mosaic, ground glass opacities in the middle and lower lung zones, ill-defined centrilobular nodules and the sign of air-trapping on expiration). This type of HRCT pattern is most frequently found in the patients with subacute HP. Bronchioloalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) examination is helpful in establishing the HP diagnosis, when the increased total number of cells, with the predominance of T lymphocytes (> 50%), and the increased number of neutrophils (> 3%) and mastocytes (> 1%) are found. The presence of specific serum precipitins increases the likelihood of HP. In case of atypical clinical presentation, lung biopsy is recommended. The diagnostic criterion of HP is the presence of ill-defined non-necrotising granulomas, after excluding other granulomatous lung diseases. The prevention and treatment of HP is based on the elimination of the antigen from the environment. Corticosteroids may contribute to the improvement in the acute and sub-acute form of the disease but their long term effectiveness is uncertain. The prognosis of HP patients is generally perceived as good, especially in those patients in whom antigen avoidance is possible. Nevertheless, in some patients progressive pulmonary fibrosis and development of severe respiratory insufficiency is observed. Med Pr 2016;67(4):517-527. PMID:27623832

  5. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer in young patients

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shushang; Feng, Fan; Xu, Guanghui; Liu, Zhen; Tian, Yangzi; Guo, Man; Lian, Xiao; Cai, Lei; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer in young patients are both limited and controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define the clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer in young patients after curative resection. Methods From May 2008 to December 2014, 198 young patients (age ≤ 40 years) and 1096 middle-aged patients (55 ≤ age ≤ 64 years) were enrolled in this study. The clinicopathological features and prognosis of gast...

  6. Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hua Tao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer.

  7. Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qiu-Li; Xu, Wang-Hong, E-mail: mtao@buffalo.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Tao, Meng-Hua, E-mail: mtao@buffalo.edu [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2010-04-28

    In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer.

  8. Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer

  9. Gastric cancer in young people under 30 years of age: worse prognosis, or delay in diagnosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with nonspecific early symptoms. Its incidence and prognosis in young patients has shown considerable variability. Our objective was to retrospectively study patients from our institution aged <30 years with gastric carcinoma. The study was undertaken to describe the experience of gastric cancer in this population, and to demonstrate its specific clinical and pathological characteristics. We reviewed the cases of histologically confirmed gastric cancer between 1985 and 2006 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico (INCan); emphasis in our review was placed on clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, pathology, and the results. Thirty cases of gastric carcinoma were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 27 years (range, 18–30 years) and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Gastric cancer exhibits different behavior in patients aged, 30 years, but delay in diagnosis and the tumor’s behavior appear to be the most important factors in prognosis of the disease

  10. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikezie O. Madu, Yi Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues.Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of

  11. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Chikezie O; Lu, Yi

    2010-10-06

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers) for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues.Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. The

  12. Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge;

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease......-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid...... in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain.Objective and methodsTo perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX...

  13. A mathematical prognosis model for pancreatic cancer patients receiving immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuefang; Xu, Jian-Xin

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer since it typically spreads rapidly and can seldom be detected in its early stage. Pancreatic cancer therapy is thus a challenging task, and appropriate prognosis or assessment for pancreatic cancer therapy is of critical importance. In this work, based on available clinical data in Niu et al. (2013) we develop a mathematical prognosis model that can predict the overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients who receive immunotherapy. The mathematical model incorporates pancreatic cancer cells, pancreatic stellate cells, three major classes of immune effector cells CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, helper T cells, and two major classes of cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The proposed model describes the dynamic interaction between tumor and immune cells. In order for the model to be able to generate appropriate prognostic results for disease progression, the distribution and stability properties of equilibria in the mathematical model are computed and analysed in absence of treatments. In addition, numerical simulations for disease progression with or without treatments are performed. It turns out that the median overall survival associated with CIK immunotherapy is prolonged from 7 to 13months compared with the survival without treatment, this is consistent with the clinical data observed in Niu et al. (2013). The validity of the proposed mathematical prognosis model is thus verified. Our study confirms that immunotherapy offers a better prognosis for pancreatic cancer patients. As a direct extension of this work, various new therapy methods that are under exploration and clinical trials could be assessed or evaluated using the newly developed mathematical prognosis model. PMID:27338302

  14. DNA methylation markers for breast cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Fuks, François

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most of the prognostic and predictive gene expression signatures emerging for breast cancer concern the tumor component. In Dedeurwaerder et al. we show that DNA methylation profiling of breast tumors is a particularly sensitive means of capturing features of the immune component of breast tumors. Most importantly, correlation is observed between T-cell marker genes and breast cancer clinical outcome.

  15. Gene network-based cancer prognosis analysis with sparse boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shuangge; Huang, Yuan; Huang, Jian; Fang, Kuangnan

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput gene profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for markers associated with cancer development and progression. In this study, we analyse cancer prognosis studies with right censored survival responses. With gene expression data, we adopt the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to describe the interplay among genes. In network analysis, nodes represent genes. There are subsets of nodes, called modules, which are tightly connected to each othe...

  16. Can the prognosis of colorectal cancer be improved by surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takii, Yasumasa; Maruyama, Satoshi; Nogami, Hitoshi

    2016-08-27

    Surgical resection is the only curative treatment modality for colorectal cancer limited locally. Evidence for the kind of resection procedure that is effective for improving prognosis is insufficient. Prognosis improvement is expected with the no-touch isolation technique (NTIT), making it the most important resection procedure. We are conducting a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) to confirm the efficacy of NTIT in patients with colorectal cancer. The present review serves as a preface to our trial, as it focuses on basic and clinical studies that support the efficacy of NTIT. The detection ratios of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of peripheral blood indicate the progress and prognosis of colorectal cancer. In a rabbit liver tumor model, metastases increased after surgical manipulation. Also, CTCs increased during the radical excision of colorectal cancer. However, NTIT decreased the detection of CTCs of intraoperative portal vein blood in patients with colorectal cancer. Although these aforementioned results support the use of NTIT, a previous controlled prospective trial was not able to confirm the clinical benefit of NTIT, as it had an insufficient sample size and many patients were lost to follow-up. Therefore, we initiated a large-scale high-quality RCT to confirm the efficacy of NTIT for colorectal cancer. PMID:27648161

  17. Nuclear volume and prognosis in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.;

    1992-01-01

    The prognostic value of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (MNV) was investigated retrospectively in 100 ovarian cancer patients with FIGO-stage IB-II (n = 51) and stage III-IV (n = 49) serous tumors. No association was demonstrated between the MNV and the survival or between the MNV and two...

  18. Thyroid cancer : studies on etiology and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hallquist, Arne

    1994-01-01

    Thyroid cancer constitutes about 1% of all malignant tumours and the incidence is increasing in Sweden. It is rare in children before the age of 10. During puberty the female to male ratio increases to be two to three times more common in females. The ratio remains constant until menopause and thereafter declines. The etiology of this gender-dependent incidence difference is unclear. Ionizing radiation is the only well-established risk factor for the disease, while the impact of other etiolog...

  19. Immune cell interplay in colorectal cancer prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel; E; Norton; Kirsten; A; Ward-Hartstonge; Edward; S; Taylor; Roslyn; A; Kemp

    2015-01-01

    The immune response to colorectal cancer has proven to be a reliable measure of patient outcome in several studies. However, the complexity of the immune response in this disease is not well understood, par-ticularly the interactions between tumour-associated cells and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review will discuss the relationship betweencancer associated fibroblasts and macrophages, as well as between macrophages and T cells, and demonstrate how each population may support or prevent tumour growth in a different immune environment.

  20. Model Comparison for Breast Cancer Prognosis Based on Clinical Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Boughorbel

    Full Text Available We compared the performance of several prediction techniques for breast cancer prognosis, based on AU-ROC performance (Area Under ROC for different prognosis periods. The analyzed dataset contained 1,981 patients and from an initial 25 variables, the 11 most common clinical predictors were retained. We compared eight models from a wide spectrum of predictive models, namely; Generalized Linear Model (GLM, GLM-Net, Partial Least Square (PLS, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Random Forests (RF, Neural Networks, k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN and Boosted Trees. In order to compare these models, paired t-test was applied on the model performance differences obtained from data resampling. Random Forests, Boosted Trees, Partial Least Square and GLMNet have superior overall performance, however they are only slightly higher than the other models. The comparative analysis also allowed us to define a relative variable importance as the average of variable importance from the different models. Two sets of variables are identified from this analysis. The first includes number of positive lymph nodes, tumor size, cancer grade and estrogen receptor, all has an important influence on model predictability. The second set incudes variables related to histological parameters and treatment types. The short term vs long term contribution of the clinical variables are also analyzed from the comparative models. From the various cancer treatment plans, the combination of Chemo/Radio therapy leads to the largest impact on cancer prognosis.

  1. Generalized Caseview applied to prostate cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Pierre P; Bardier, Armelle; Doublet, Jean-Dominique; Sibony, Mathilde

    2008-01-01

    The interpretation of results of any study using large tables with series of numbers is always difficult. Generalized Case View Method (GCm) allows translating these tables of numbers into an image. The Method identifies each informational entity in the table with a 'pixel', forming what we call an 'infoxel'. The sum of all informational entities becomes an image, the Generalized Caseview. The method consists of two steps: the first one is to define the reference frame while the second is to visualize data through the reference frame. The 'infoxels' that constitute the reference frame should be organized according to three criteria: binary, nominal and ordinal. Here this method has been applied to visualize the results of a study about prostate cancer spread. This paper exemplifies the usefulness of associating a classical statistical tool with Generalized Caseview method to solve a biomedical problem.

  2. Toward Integrated Clinical and Gene- Expression Profiles For Breast Cancer Prognosis: A Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Kabir Ahmad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer patients with the same diagnostic and clinical prognostics profilecan have markedly different clinical outcomes. This difference is possibly causedby the limitation of current breast cancer prognostic indices, which groupmolecularly distinct patients into similar clinical classes based mainly on themorphology of diseases. Traditional clinical-based prognosis models werediscovered to contain some restrictions to address the heterogeneity of breastcancer. The invention of microarray technology and its ability to simultaneouslyinterrogate thousands of genes has changed the paradigm of molecularclassification of human cancers as well as shifting clinical prognosis models to abroader prospect. Numerous studies have revealed the potential value of geneexpressionsignatures in examining the risk of disease recurrence. However,most of these studies attempted to implement genetic-marker based prognosticmodels to replace the traditional clinical markers, yet neglecting the richinformation contained in clinical information. Therefore, this research took theeffort to integrate both clinical and microarray data in order to obtain accuratebreast cancer prognosis, by taking into account that these data complement eachother. This article presents a review of the development of breast cancerprognosis models, concentrating precisely on clinical and gene-expressionprofiles. The literature is reviewed in an explicit machine-learning framework,which includes the elements of feature selection and classification techniques.

  3. Immune responses to cancer: are they potential biomarkers of prognosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa L Whiteside

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent technical improvements in evaluations of immune cells in situ and immune monitoring of patients with cancer have provided a wealth of new data confirming that immune cells play a key role in human cancer progression. This, in turn, has revived the expectation that immune endpoints might serve as reliable biomarkers of outcome or response to therapy in cancer. The recent successes in linking the T-cell signature in human colorectal carcinoma (CRC with prognosis have provided a strong motive for searching for additional immune biomarkers that could serve as intermediate endpoints of response to therapy and outcome in human cancers. A number of potentially promising immune biomarkers have emerged, but most remain to be validated. Among them, the B-cell signature, as exemplified by expression of the immunoglobulin G kappa chain (IGKC in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL, has been validated as a biomarker of response to adjuvant therapy and better survival in patients with breast carcinoma and several other types of human solid tumors. Additional immune endpoints are being currently tested as potentially promising biomarkers in cancer. In view of currently growing use of immune cancer therapies, the search for immune biomarkers of prognosis are critically important for identifying patients who would benefit the most from adjuvant immunotherapy.

  4. [Genomic Tests as Predictors of Breast Cancer Patients Prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielčiková, Z; Petruželka, L

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal dependent breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease from a molecular and clinical perspective. The relapse risk of early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy varies. Validated predictive markers concerning adjuvant cytotoxic treatment are still lacking in ER+/ HER2-  breast cancer, which has a good prognosis in general. This can lead to the inefficient chemotherapy indication. Molecular classification of breast cancer reports evidence about the heterogeneity of hormonal dependent breast cancer and its stratification to different groups with different characteristics. Multigene assays work on the molecular level, and their aim is to provide patients risk stratification and therapy efficacy prediction. The position of multigene assays in clinical practice is not stabile yet. Non uniform level of evidence connected to patients prognosis interpretations and difficult comparison of tests are the key problems, which prevent their wide clinical use. The article is a summary of some of the most important multigene assays in breast cancer and their current position in oncology practice. PMID:26879059

  5. Whole genome RNA expression profiling for the identification of novel biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of biliary tract cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, M H

    2011-01-01

    Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is difficult to diagnose, in part related to the lack of reliable tumour markers. The aim of this project was to use whole genome RNA expression profiling in order to identify novel biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in biliary tract cancer. Chapter 1 summarises clinical aspects of BTC as well as current diagnostic and prognostic tests. Chapter 2 addresses the identification of circulating tumour cells for the diagnosis of BTC. It includes d...

  6. The role of metallothionein in oncogenesis and cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mie Ø; Larsen, Agnete; Stoltenberg, Meredin;

    2009-01-01

    The antiapoptotic, antioxidant, proliferative, and angiogenic effects of metallothionein (MT)-I+II has resulted in increased focus on their role in oncogenesis, tumor progression, therapy response, and patient prognosis. Studies have reported increased expression of MT-I+II mRNA and protein...... in various human cancers; such as breast, kidney, lung, nasopharynx, ovary, prostate, salivary gland, testes, urinary bladder, cervical, endometrial, skin carcinoma, melanoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and pancreatic cancers, where MT-I+II expression is sometimes correlated to higher tumor grade...

  7. Case-based reasoning combined with statistics for diagnostics and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many approaches used for diagnostics today are based on a precise model. This excludes diagnostics of many complex types of machinery that cannot be modelled and simulated easily or without great effort. Our aim is to show that by including human experience it is possible to diagnose complex machinery when there is no or limited models or simulations available. This also enables diagnostics in a dynamic application where conditions change and new cases are often added. In fact every new solved case increases the diagnostic power of the system. We present a number of successful projects where we have used feature extraction together with case-based reasoning to diagnose faults in industrial robots, welding, cutting machinery and we also present our latest project for diagnosing transmissions by combining Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) with statistics. We view the fault diagnosis process as three consecutive steps. In the first step, sensor fault signals from machines and/or input from human operators are collected. Then, the second step consists of extracting relevant fault features. In the final diagnosis/prognosis step, status and faults are identified and classified. We view prognosis as a special case of diagnosis where the prognosis module predicts a stream of future features.

  8. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  9. [Molecular diagnostics of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryska, A; Dziadziuszko, R; Olszewski, W; Berzinec, P; Öz, B; Gottfried, M; Cufer, T; Samarzija, M; Plank, L; Ostoros, Gy; Tímár, J

    2015-09-01

    Development of the target therapies of lung cancer was a rapid process which fundamentally changed the pathological diagnosis as well. Furthermore, molecular pathology became essential part of the routine diagnostics of lung cancer. These changes generated several practical problems and in underdeveloped countries or in those with reimbursement problems have been combined with further challenges. The central and eastern region of Europe are characterized by similar problems in this respect which promoted the foundation of NSCLC Working Group to provide up to date protocols or guidelines. This present paper is a summary of the molecular pathology and target therapy guidelines written with the notion that it has to be upgraded continuously according to the development of the field.

  10. Kinome expression profiling and prognosis of basal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemier Jocelyne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal breast cancers (BCs represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES. Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73. This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518 sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test. Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation.

  11. Applications of Machine Learning in Cancer Prediction and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence that employs a variety of statistical, probabilistic and optimization techniques that allows computers to “learn” from past examples and to detect hard-to-discern patterns from large, noisy or complex data sets. This capability is particularly well-suited to medical applications, especially those that depend on complex proteomic and genomic measurements. As a result, machine learning is frequently used in cancer diagnosis and detection. More recently machine learning has been applied to cancer prognosis and prediction. This latter approach is particularly interesting as it is part of a growing trend towards personalized, predictive medicine. In assembling this review we conducted a broad survey of the different types of machine learning methods being used, the types of data being integrated and the performance of these methods in cancer prediction and prognosis. A number of trends are noted, including a growing dependence on protein biomarkers and microarray data, a strong bias towards applications in prostate and breast cancer, and a heavy reliance on “older” technologies such artificial neural networks (ANNs instead of more recently developed or more easily interpretable machine learning methods. A number of published studies also appear to lack an appropriate level of validation or testing. Among the better designed and validated studies it is clear that machine learning methods can be used to substantially (15-25% improve the accuracy of predicting cancer susceptibility, recurrence and mortality. At a more fundamental level, it is also evident that machine learning is also helping to improve our basic understanding of cancer development and progression.

  12. The application of microRNAs in cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Kristensen, Helle;

    2012-01-01

    identified exosome-associated tumor-derived miRNAs in, e.g., blood samples from cancer patients, suggesting that miRNAs may be useful as circulation biomarkers for noninvasive diagnostic testing. In this chapter, we review the current state of development of miRNAs as cancer biomarkers with examples from......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important biological roles in cancer development and progression. During the past decade, widespread use of novel high-throughput technologies for miRNA profiling (e.g., microarrays and next-generation sequencing) has revealed deregulation of miRNA expression as a common...... hallmark of human cancer. Furthermore, miRNAs have been found to be a new class of promising cancer biomarkers with potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis in several hematologic and solid malignancies, as well as to predict response to specific treatments. Recent studies have...

  13. Machine learning applications in cancer prognosis and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Kourou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has been characterized as a heterogeneous disease consisting of many different subtypes. The early diagnosis and prognosis of a cancer type have become a necessity in cancer research, as it can facilitate the subsequent clinical management of patients. The importance of classifying cancer patients into high or low risk groups has led many research teams, from the biomedical and the bioinformatics field, to study the application of machine learning (ML methods. Therefore, these techniques have been utilized as an aim to model the progression and treatment of cancerous conditions. In addition, the ability of ML tools to detect key features from complex datasets reveals their importance. A variety of these techniques, including Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs, Bayesian Networks (BNs, Support Vector Machines (SVMs and Decision Trees (DTs have been widely applied in cancer research for the development of predictive models, resulting in effective and accurate decision making. Even though it is evident that the use of ML methods can improve our understanding of cancer progression, an appropriate level of validation is needed in order for these methods to be considered in the everyday clinical practice. In this work, we present a review of recent ML approaches employed in the modeling of cancer progression. The predictive models discussed here are based on various supervised ML techniques as well as on different input features and data samples. Given the growing trend on the application of ML methods in cancer research, we present here the most recent publications that employ these techniques as an aim to model cancer risk or patient outcomes.

  14. PBK/TOPK Expression Predicts Prognosis in Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Fang Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a common cancer with poor prognosis. We evaluated the expression of PBK/TOPK (PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase and its prognostic significance in oral cancer. PBK/TOPK expression was measured by immunohistochemical staining of samples from 287 patients with oral cancer. The association between PBK/TOPK expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The prognostic value of PBK/TOPK for overall survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. A high PBK/TOPK expression level was correlated with long overall survival. The prognostic role of PBK/TOPK expression was significant in young patients (p < 0.05, patients with smoking habits (p < 0.05, and late stage disease (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that PBK/TOPK expression is enhanced in oral cancer. High PBK/TOPK expression, either alone or in subgroups according to clinicopathological features, may serve as a favorable prognostic marker for patients with oral cancer.

  15. Using data mining techniques for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer disease

    CERN Document Server

    Kharya, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers for women in developed countries including India. It is the second most common cause of cancer death in women. The high incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in the last years. In this paper we have discussed various data mining approaches that have been utilized for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Breast Cancer Diagnosis is distinguishing of benign from malignant breast lumps and Breast Cancer Prognosis predicts when Breast Cancer is to recur in patients that have had their cancers excised. This study paper summarizes various review and technical articles on breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis also we focus on current research being carried out using the data mining techniques to enhance the breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

  16. Risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, L; Beelen, MLR; Gallee, MPW; Hollema, H; Benraadt, J; van Leeuwen, FE

    2000-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer. However, few studies have produced reliable risk estimates by duration, dose, and recency of use, or addressed the prognosis of endometrial cancers in tamoxifen-treated women. Methods We did a nationwide case-control study on the risk an

  17. Inflammation-based factors and prognosis in patients withcolorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Several parameters for predicting survival in patientswith colorectal cancer have been identified, includingthe performance status, age, gender and tumor-nodemetastasis(TNM) stage. Although the TNM stage isimportant and useful for predicting the prognosis anddetermining the appropriate treatment, it is well knownthat the survival time varies widely, even in patients withthe same stage of disease. Therefore, the identificationof new parameters capable of more precisely predictingpatient survival is needed to help select the optimaltreatment, especially in patients in the advanced stageof disease. Although the TNM stage reflects the tumorcharacteristics, cancer progression and survival are notdetermined solely based on the local characteristics ofthe tumor, but also the host systemic immune/inflammatoryresponse. Therefore, using a combination ofparameters that reflect both tumor characteristics andthe host systemic inflammatory status is thought to beimportant for accurately predicting patient survival.

  18. PROGNOSIS OF EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CANCER RELATED TO ITS ASCITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋水勤; 张国楠; 吴艳丽; 周红; 赵素兰; 谢方; 陈毅男

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the prognosis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) and its ascites. Methods: Retrospectively analysis is performed for the clinical, pathological and followed up data of 101 in-patients suffering from epithelial ovarian cancer and operated with tumor debulking surgery in our hospital from January 1986 to December 1993. The patients was divided into two groups based upon the first laparotomy finding with ascites(62) or without(39). Age average, cell type, advanced proportion and survival rate of the patients are evaluated by a c2 test. Results: For age average and cell type, no statistical difference was noted. However, there were more advanced cases in ascites group than in the other (P<0.01). The 3-, 4- and 5-year survival in the no-ascites group were 87.02%, 73.42%, 57.10% respectively compared with 65.02%, 38.66%, 28.12% in the ascites group. The 5-year survival rate of stage I, II,III, IV patients in no-ascites group are 77%, 70%, 41.1%, 0 respectively, compared with that of 60%, 56.8%, 15.46%, 0 respectively in the ascites group. The results shows that 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival in no-ascites group were significantly higher than those in ascites group(P<0.01). Conclusion: Presence of ascites is a factor of poor prognosis for EOC.

  19. Oct-4 is associated with gastric cancer progression and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang WL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Li Jiang,1 Peng-Fei Zhang,2 Guo-Feng Li,1 Jian-Hua Dong,1 Xue-Song Wang,1 Yuan-Yu Wang3 1Department of Surgery, Juxian People’s Hospital, 2Department of Surgery, Rizhao People’s Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Rizhao, 3Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Aim: To investigate the clinical significance of Oct-4 in the development and progression of gastric cancer.Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze Oct-4 expression in 412 gastric cancer cases. Oct-4 protein levels were upregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues.Results: Positive expression of Oct-4 correlated with age, depth of invasion, Lauren classification, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage. In stages I, II, and III, the 5-year survival rate of patients with high expression of Oct-4 was significantly lower than that in patients with low expression of Oct-4. In stage IV, Oct-4 expression did not correlate with the 5-year survival rate. Furthermore, multivariate analysis suggested that the depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, TNM stage, and upregulation of Oct-4 were independent prognostic factors of gastric cancer.Conclusion: Oct-4 protein is a useful marker in predicting tumor progression and prognosis. Keywords: gastric carcinoma, invasion, metastasis, survival rate

  20. Discovery of signature genes in gastric cancer associated with prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Cai, H; Wang, X; Ma, L

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of gastric cancer (GC) were analyzed with bioinformatics tools to identify signature genes associated with prognosis. Four gene expression data sets (accession number: GSE2685, GSE30727, GSE38932 and GSE26253) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out using significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) algorithm. P-value 1 were set as the threshold. A co-expression network was constructed for the GC-related genes with package WGCNA of R. Modules were disclosed with WGCNA algorithm. Survival-related signature genes were screened out via COX single-variable regression.A total of 3210 GC-related genes were identified from the 3 data sets. Significantly enriched GO biological process terms included cell death, cell proliferation, apoptosis, response to hormone and phosphorylation. Pathways like viral carcinogenesis, metabolism, EBV viral infection, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathway were significantly over-represented in the DEGs. A gene co-expression network including 2414 genes was constructed, from which 7 modules were revealed. A total of 17 genes were identified as signature genes, such as DAB2, ALDH2, CD58, CITED2, BNIP3L, SLC43A2, FAU and COL5A1.Many signature genes associated with prognosis of GC were identified in present study, some of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GC. These findings could not only improve the knowledge about GC, but also provide clues for clinical treatments. PMID:26774142

  1. Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of early gastric cancer after gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-xiang; SHAO Qin-shu; YANG Qiong; WANG Yuan-yu; YANG Jin; ZHAO Zhong-kuo; XU Ji; YE Zai-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of lymph node metastasis (LNM) is important in early gastric cancer (EGC) and affects treatment decisions.However,the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and LNM in EGC remains unclear.This study therefore explored favorable predictors of LNM in EGC.Methods A total of 716 specimens from gastric cancer patients who underwent curative gastrectomy between 1996 and 2003 at Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital were reviewed.Forty-five cases were EGC,and clinicopathological characteristics such as gender,age,tumor size,location,gross type,differentiation,invasion depth,and vessel involvement were assessed to identify predictive factors for LNM and survival time.Results The overall cumulative 5-year survival rate of EGC patients was 88.92%.Among these,22.4% developed LNM,which was associated with a poor 5-year survival rate of only 72.7%.Patients with tumors larger than 2 cm in diameters,with depth of tumor invasion to the submucosa,and with positive lymphatic or nerve involvement were also inclined to have poorer survival performances.EGC limited to the mucosa but poorly differentiated also had a high risk for LNM.Multivariate analysis identified lymphatic invasion and tumor size as independent prognosis factors related to survival in EGC patients.Conclusions Careful planning is required in EGC patients at high risk of lymph node metastases.Endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection and laparoscopic partial gastrectomy should be cautiously used in EGC,and curative gastrectomy including lymphatic dissection and postoperative adjuvant therapy might be considered to improve the prognosis.

  2. Molecular Diagnostic Applications in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Huth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, a clinically diverse disease, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Application of novel molecular diagnostic tests, which are summarized in this article, may lead to an improved survival of colorectal cancer patients.  Distinction of these applications is based on the different molecular principles found in colorectal cancer (CRC. Strategies for molecular analysis of single genes (as KRAS or TP53 as well as microarray based techniques are discussed. Moreover, in addition to the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT and colonoscopy some novel assays offer approaches for early detection of colorectal cancer like the multitarget stool DNA test or the blood-based Septin 9 DNA methylation test. Liquid biopsy analysis may also exhibit great diagnostic potential in CRC for monitoring developing resistance to treatment. These new diagnostic tools and the definition of molecular biomarkers in CRC will improve early detection and targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  3. 上皮性卵巢癌患者 LDL 与 ox-LDL 的诊价值及与预后的关系%Diagnostic values of LDL and ox-LDL in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and their relationship with prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晅; 周彦杰; 李新春

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究血清中低密度脂蛋白(LDL)和氧化型低密度脂蛋白(ox‐LDL )在临床诊断的价值,同时分析其与上皮性卵巢癌患者预后的相关性。方法选取2010年4月至2014年5月入院治疗的40例良性上皮性卵巢肿瘤患者、28例上皮性卵巢癌患者,以及同期来体检的30例健康体检者,比较各组标本血清中高密度脂蛋白、三酰甘油、LDL 和总胆固醇水平,分析血脂水平变化与上皮性卵巢癌分化的关系,同时对 LDL 及 ox‐LDL 水平与患者远期生存预测相关性进行分析。结果上皮性卵巢癌患者血清中 ox‐LDL 、LDL 水平显著高于健康体检者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高分化型上皮性卵巢癌患者 ox‐LDL 和 LDL 水平显著高于其低、中分化型患者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);LDL 及 ox‐LDL 水平与患者远期生存预测有相关性。结论 LDL 及 ox‐LDL 水平改变是上皮性卵巢癌患者远期临床预后的重要预测因素,具有重要临床意义。%Objective To study the diagnostic values of serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) and oxidation of serum lipoprotein (ox‐LDL ) in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and their relationship with prognosis . Methods 40 cases of patients with ovarian tumor ,28 cases of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer ,and 30 cases of healthy people were enrolled in the study from April 2010 to May 2014 .The serum levels of high density lipoprotein in serum (HDL) ,three glycerol (TG) ,LDL and ox‐LDL of each group were detected and compared .The relationship between the changes of lipid levels and the differentiation of epithelial ovarian cancer was analyzed ,and the correlation between the levels of LDL and ox‐LDL and the long‐term survival prediction was also analyzed .Results The serum levels of ox‐LDL and LDL in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were significantly higher than healthy people (P< 0 .05

  4. Adjusting breast cancer patient prognosis with non-HER2-gene patterns on chromosome 17.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Kotoula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HER2 and TOP2A gene status are assessed for diagnostic and research purposes in breast cancer with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. However, FISH probes do not target only the annotated gene, while chromosome 17 (chr17 is among the most unstable chromosomes in breast cancer. Here we asked whether the status of specifically targeted genes on chr17 might help in refining prognosis of early high-risk breast cancer patients. METHODS: Copy numbers (CN for 14 genes on chr17, 4 of which were within and 10 outside the core HER2 amplicon (HER2- and non-HER2-genes, respectively were assessed with qPCR in 485 paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in the frame of two randomized phase III trials. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HER2-genes CN strongly correlated to each other (Spearman's rho >0.6 and were concordant with FISH HER2 status (Kappa 0.6697 for ERBB2 CN. TOP2A CN were not concordant with TOP2A FISH status (Kappa 0.1154. CN hierarchical clustering revealed distinct patterns of gains, losses and complex alterations in HER2- and non-HER2-genes associated with IHC4 breast cancer subtypes. Upon multivariate analysis, non-HER2-gene gains independently predicted for shorter disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS in patients with triple-negative cancer, as compared to luminal and HER2-positive tumors (interaction p = 0.007 for DFS and p = 0.011 for OS. Similarly, non-HER2-gene gains were associated with worse prognosis in patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery as compared to modified radical mastectomy (p = 0.004 for both DFS and OS. Non-HER2-gene losses were unfavorable prognosticators in patients with 1-3 metastatic nodes, as compared to those with 4 or more nodes (p = 0.017 for DFS and p = 0.001 for OS. CONCLUSIONS: TOP2A FISH and qPCR may not identify the same pathology on chr17q. Non-HER2 chr17 CN patterns may further predict outcome in breast cancer

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome--prognosis and diagnostic safety. A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Munck, L K; Andersen, J R

    1985-01-01

    with irritable bowel syndrome as the final and only abdominal diagnosis in the period 1977-79 were followed up in 1984. Seventeen patients died during the follow-up period; two of these were considered diagnostic failures (chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer). Of the remaining 95 patients, 93 were...

  6. Risk and prognosis of ovarian cancer in women with endometriosis: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, H S; Kim, T. H.; Chung, H H; Song, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The risk and prognosis of ovarian cancer have not been well established in women with endometriosis. Thus, we investigated the impact of endometriosis on the risk and prognosis for ovarian cancer, and evaluated clinicopathologic characteristics of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) in comparison with non-EAOC. Methods: After we searched an electronic search to identify relevant studies published online between January 1990 and December 2012, we found 20 case–control an...

  7. DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC UTILITY OF SERUM PSA IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑群; 强水云; 李妙羡; 纪宗正

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in breast cancer women. Methods Using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay system, we measured the concentrations of these markers in the sera of 85 women with breast cancer and in 30 healthy women.Results Free PSA levels were significantly higher in women with breast cancer than healthy women (P <0. 05 ).The percentage of free PSA predominant subjects was 37. 6% in breast cancer patients and 3. 3% in healthy women.In women with breast cancer,total PSA positivity was 23.5% and free PSA positivity was 27. 1%. When compared to negatives,total PSA positive patients had a higher percentage of lymph node involvement tamours ( P >0. 05).However, patients with predominant free PSA had a higher percentage of early stage than patients with predominant PSA-ACT. Conclusion This study indicate clinical significance of preoperative measurement of serum total and free PSA in diagnosis and prognosis of women with breast cancer. The expression of KLKs is correlated with carcinogenesis of breast cancer.

  8. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kemal Kara; Ersin Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as as...

  9. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  10. Low expression of a few genes indicates good prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buechler Steven

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many breast cancer patients remain free of distant metastasis even without adjuvant chemotherapy. While standard histopathological tests fail to identify these good prognosis patients with adequate precision, analyses of gene expression patterns in primary tumors have resulted in more successful diagnostic tests. These tests use continuous measurements of the mRNA concentrations of numerous genes to determine a risk of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients with other clinical traits. Methods A survival model is constructed from genes that are both connected with relapse and have expression patterns that define distinct subtypes, suggestive of different cellular states. This in silico study uses publicly available microarray databases generated with Affymetrix GeneChip technology. The genes in our model, as represented by array probes, have distinctive distributions in a patient cohort, consisting of a large normal component of low expression values; and a long right tail of high expression values. The cutoff between low and high expression of a probe is determined from the distribution using the theory of mixture models. The good prognosis group in our model consists of the samples in the low expression component of multiple genes. Results Here, we define a novel test for risk of metastasis in estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer patients, using four probes that determine distinct subtypes. The good prognosis group in this test, denoted AP4-, consists of the samples with low expression of each of the four probes. Two probes target MKI67, antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67, one targets CDC6, cell division cycle 6 homolog (S. cerevisiae, and a fourth targets SPAG5, sperm associated antigen 5. The long-term metastasis-free survival probability for samples in AP4- is sufficiently high to render chemotherapy of questionable benefit. Conclusion A breast cancer subtype defined by low

  11. Pan-Cancer Analyses Reveal Long Intergenic Non-Coding RNAs Relevant to Tumor Diagnosis, Subtyping and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travers Ching

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs are a relatively new class of non-coding RNAs that have the potential as cancer biomarkers. To seek a panel of lincRNAs as pan-cancer biomarkers, we have analyzed transcriptomes from over 3300 cancer samples with clinical information. Compared to mRNA, lincRNAs exhibit significantly higher tissue specificities that are then diminished in cancer tissues. Moreover, lincRNA clustering results accurately classify tumor subtypes. Using RNA-Seq data from thousands of paired tumor and adjacent normal samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, we identify six lincRNAs as potential pan-cancer diagnostic biomarkers (PCAN-1 to PCAN-6. These lincRNAs are robustly validated using cancer samples from four independent RNA-Seq data sets, and are verified by qPCR in both primary breast cancers and MCF-7 cell line. Interestingly, the expression levels of these six lincRNAs are also associated with prognosis in various cancers. We further experimentally explored the growth and migration dependence of breast and colon cancer cell lines on two of the identified lncRNAs. In summary, our study highlights the emerging role of lincRNAs as potentially powerful and biologically functional pan-cancer biomarkers and represents a significant leap forward in understanding the biological and clinical functions of lincRNAs in cancers.

  12. Pan-Cancer Analyses Reveal Long Intergenic Non-Coding RNAs Relevant to Tumor Diagnosis, Subtyping and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Travers; Peplowska, Karolina; Huang, Sijia; Zhu, Xun; Shen, Yi; Molnar, Janos; Yu, Herbert; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Fogelgren, Ben; Fan, Rong; Garmire, Lana X

    2016-05-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a relatively new class of non-coding RNAs that have the potential as cancer biomarkers. To seek a panel of lincRNAs as pan-cancer biomarkers, we have analyzed transcriptomes from over 3300 cancer samples with clinical information. Compared to mRNA, lincRNAs exhibit significantly higher tissue specificities that are then diminished in cancer tissues. Moreover, lincRNA clustering results accurately classify tumor subtypes. Using RNA-Seq data from thousands of paired tumor and adjacent normal samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we identify six lincRNAs as potential pan-cancer diagnostic biomarkers (PCAN-1 to PCAN-6). These lincRNAs are robustly validated using cancer samples from four independent RNA-Seq data sets, and are verified by qPCR in both primary breast cancers and MCF-7 cell line. Interestingly, the expression levels of these six lincRNAs are also associated with prognosis in various cancers. We further experimentally explored the growth and migration dependence of breast and colon cancer cell lines on two of the identified lncRNAs. In summary, our study highlights the emerging role of lincRNAs as potentially powerful and biologically functional pan-cancer biomarkers and represents a significant leap forward in understanding the biological and clinical functions of lincRNAs in cancers.

  13. Acute Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cattle: diagnostic parameters associated with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Seiichi; Mori, Kouichiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Oikawa, Shin; Nagahata, Hajime

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis.

  14. Promise and Challenge: Markers of Prostate Cancer Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Troyer

    2004-01-01

    biomarkers that identify men at greatest risk of developing aggressive disease. Technology has been brought to bear on this problem, and the major approaches are genomics, expression analysis, and proteomics. Proteomics and DNA methylation assays may soon be used in sensitive and specific diagnostic testing of serum and tissues for cancer. Expression arrays may be used to establish both a more specific diagnosis and prognosis for a particular tumor. The proteome is only beginning to be understood, and alternative splicing and post-translational modifications of proteins such as glycosylation and phosphorylation are challenging areas of study. Finally, risk assessment and prognosis are being pursued through analysis of genomic polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs. This huge task is only beginning, and requires the combined expertise of molecular epidemiologists, oncologists, surgeons, pathologists, and basic scientists.

  15. Abnormal expression of calcyphosine is associated with poor prognosis and cell biology function in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao W

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weiwei Shao,* Quhui Wang,* Feiran Wang, Yasu Jiang, Meirong Xu, Junfei XuDepartment of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the calcyphosine (CAPS expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC and to explore its clinical and prognostic significances. CAPS expression was measured by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The relationships between the CAPS expression levels and the clinicopathological factors were investigated. The Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used to investigate the overall survival of the patients. Moreover, the effects of CAPS on biological roles of CRC cells were also evaluated by MTT assay, colony formation assay, and transwell assay. CAPS was significantly overexpressed in cancerous tissue and CRC cell lines compared with adjacent nontumor tissue and a normal human intestinal epithelial cell line. Overexpression of CAPS was significantly associated with histological grade (P=0.004, invasive depth (P<0.001, lymph node metastasis (P=0.003, tumor node metastasis stage (P=0.017, and distant metastasis (P=0.042. Furthermore, silencing of CAPS expression in CRC cells inhibited their proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that high CAPS expression might demonstrate poor prognosis in CRC patients. Cox regression analysis revealed that CAPS expression was an independent prognostic factor of CRC. Our data suggested that the upregulation of CAPS might play a role in the carcinogenesis and progression of CRC. CAPS could be used as a potential diagnostic factor and be an independent good prognostic indicator for CRC patients.Keywords: calcyphosine, colorectal cancer, prognosis

  16. Convergence of mutation and epigenetic alterations identifies common genes in cancer that predict for poor prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A Chan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification and characterization of tumor suppressor genes has enhanced our understanding of the biology of cancer and enabled the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Whereas in past decades, a handful of tumor suppressors have been slowly identified using techniques such as linkage analysis, large-scale sequencing of the cancer genome has enabled the rapid identification of a large number of genes that are mutated in cancer. However, determining which of these many genes play key roles in cancer development has proven challenging. Specifically, recent sequencing of human breast and colon cancers has revealed a large number of somatic gene mutations, but virtually all are heterozygous, occur at low frequency, and are tumor-type specific. We hypothesize that key tumor suppressor genes in cancer may be subject to mutation or hypermethylation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we show that combined genetic and epigenetic analysis of these genes reveals many with a higher putative tumor suppressor status than would otherwise be appreciated. At least 36 of the 189 genes newly recognized to be mutated are targets of promoter CpG island hypermethylation, often in both colon and breast cancer cell lines. Analyses of primary tumors show that 18 of these genes are hypermethylated strictly in primary cancers and often with an incidence that is much higher than for the mutations and which is not restricted to a single tumor-type. In the identical breast cancer cell lines in which the mutations were identified, hypermethylation is usually, but not always, mutually exclusive from genetic changes for a given tumor, and there is a high incidence of concomitant loss of expression. Sixteen out of 18 (89% of these genes map to loci deleted in human cancers. Lastly, and most importantly, the reduced expression of a subset of these genes strongly correlates with poor clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Using an unbiased genome

  17. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2014-01-01

    in the liver metastases. In addition, we prospectively compared contrast-enhanced ultrasound with CT scan in the detection of liver metastases.Results By transrectal ultrasound of polyps using the new AWS technique, a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 88% was found for cancer, whereas digital exploration...... to neoadjuvant chemoradiation of advanced rectal cancer.IOUS is a safe method with a significantly higher sensitivity in the detection of liver metastases than preoperative ultrasound and surgical palpation. Patients with liver metastases, which harboured power Doppler signal centrally, more often had advanced...... of rectal cancer, especially in early tumours. Screening for colorectal cancer will give rise to the detection of a number of early tumours. Contrast-enhanced liver ultrasound and intraoperative ultrasound has additional space in the detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer....

  18. Diagnostics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank T

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Main risk factors include advanced age, family history, male sex, and lifestyle factors. Screening can reduce incidence and death from colorectal cancer. Therefore, prevention and early detection are crucial in order to detect and remove pre-neoplastic adenomas and to detect cancers at early stages. Colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood tests are established tools for screening. Newer fecal immunochemical tests reveal higher sensitivities for advanced adenoma and cancer than guaiac-based hemoccult tests. Molecular stool and blood tests as well as virtual colonoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy are promising new developments so far not established as routine instruments for the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy is the method of choice for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and for adenoma removal. Prognosis is essentially dependent on the tumor stage at the time of the initial diagnosis. Proper staging based on imaging prior to therapy is a prerequisite. In rectal cancer, local staging is an essential requirement for the identification of appropriate candidates for neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:27493942

  19. Protein signature for non-small cell lung cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Yong; Wang, Libo; Gao, Ling; Wang, Yingping; Liu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Kai; Song, Jena; Wang, Hongxia; Bayer, Thomas A; Glaser, Laurel; Sun, Yezhou; Zhang, Weijia; Cutaia, Michael; Zhang, David Y; Ye, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Current histopathological classification and TNM staging have limited accuracy in predicting survival and stratifying patients for appropriate treatment. The goal of the study is to determine whether the expression pattern of functionally important regulatory proteins can add additional values for more accurate classification and prognostication of non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: The expression of 108 proteins and phosphoproteins in 30 paired NSCLC samples were assessed using Protein Pathway Array (PPA). The differentially expressed proteins were further confirmed using a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 94 NSCLC samples and were correlated with clinical data and survival. Results: Twelve of 108 proteins (p-CREB(Ser133), p-ERK1/2(Thr202/Tyr204), Cyclin B1, p-PDK1(Ser241), CDK4, CDK2, HSP90, CDC2p34, β-catenin, EGFR, XIAP and PCNA) were selected to build the predictor to classify normal and tumor samples with 97% accuracy. Five proteins (CDC2p34, HSP90, XIAP, CDK4 and CREB) were confirmed to be differentially expressed between NSCLC (n=94) and benign lung tumor (n=19). Over-expression of CDK4 and HSP90 in tumors correlated with a favorable overall survival in all NSCLC patients and the over-expression of p-CREB(Ser133) and CREB in NSCLC correlated with a favorable survival in smokers and those with squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. Finally, the four proteins (CDK4, HSP90, p-CREB and CREB) were used to calculate the risk score of each individual patient with NSCLC to predict survival. Conclusion: In summary, our data demonstrated a broad disturbance of functionally important regulatory proteins in NSCLC and some of these can be selected as clinically useful biomarkers for diagnosis, classification and prognosis. PMID:24959380

  20. Clinicopathologic and gene expression parameters predict liver cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC varies following surgical resection and the large variation remains largely unexplained. Studies have revealed the ability of clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression to predict HCC prognosis. However, there has been little systematic effort to compare the performance of these two types of predictors or combine them in a comprehensive model. Methods Tumor and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues were collected from 272 ethnic Chinese HCC patients who received curative surgery. We combined clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression data (from both tissue types in predicting HCC prognosis. Cross-validation and independent studies were employed to assess prediction. Results HCC prognosis was significantly associated with six clinicopathologic parameters, which can partition the patients into good- and poor-prognosis groups. Within each group, gene expression data further divide patients into distinct prognostic subgroups. Our predictive genes significantly overlap with previously published gene sets predictive of prognosis. Moreover, the predictive genes were enriched for genes that underwent normal-to-tumor gene network transformation. Previously documented liver eSNPs underlying the HCC predictive gene signatures were enriched for SNPs that associated with HCC prognosis, providing support that these genes are involved in key processes of tumorigenesis. Conclusion When applied individually, clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression offered similar predictive power for HCC prognosis. In contrast, a combination of the two types of data dramatically improved the power to predict HCC prognosis. Our results also provided a framework for understanding the impact of gene expression on the processes of tumorigenesis and clinical outcome.

  1. The Effects of Initial Symptoms on the Prognosis in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Celayir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of initial symptoms on the prognosis in patients with stomach cancer. Methods: The study was carried out first retrospectively reviewing the records of patients with stomach cancer treated and followed up in Hamidiye Şişli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Medical Oncology Clinic. Patients with stomach cancer admitted to our clinic from 2005 to 2014, followed up routinely, and with known final statuses were included in the present study. Initial symptoms of the patients were recorded, and the main symptom was identified in patients with multiple symptoms. Furthermore, demographic, clinical and pathological features of the patients were recorded, and survival analyses were performed based on the symptoms. Results: One hundred twenty nine stomach cancer cases were evaluated in the study. The median age was found to be 64 years. 69% of patients (n=89 were male and 31% (n=40 were female. The median survival was found to be 24.43 months (19.66-29.20. The initial complaint in 47% of patients (n=57 was dyspeptic problems, and in 39% (n=37 it was detected to be weight lose. While median survival was 7.57 months in patients complaining of weight loss, it was 26.19 months and 14 months in patients suffering from vomiting and bleeding, and in those with dyspepsia, respectively. Conclusion: Initial symptoms are directly correlated with survival in patients with stomach cancer. In our study, weight loss was the most significant prognostic symptom. If a patient complains of weight loss, the symptom should be taken into due consideration and prompt diagnostic interventions should be performed. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53: 241-5

  2. MicroRNAs: New Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Therapy Prediction and Therapeutic Tools for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Gloria; Cava, Claudia; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), as strong evidence has been found that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review presents the state of the art on the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of BC. Based on the results obtained in the last decade, some miRNAs are emerging as biomarkers of BC for diagnosis (i.e., miR-9, miR-10b, and miR-17-5p), prognosis (i.e., miR-148a and miR-335), and prediction of therapeutic outcomes (i.e., miR-30c, miR-187, and miR-339-5p) and have important roles in the control of BC hallmark functions such as invasion, metastasis, proliferation, resting death, apoptosis, and genomic instability. Other miRNAs are of interest as new, easily accessible, affordable, non-invasive tools for the personalized management of patients with BC because they are circulating in body fluids (e.g., miR-155 and miR-210). In particular, circulating multiple miRNA profiles are showing better diagnostic and prognostic performance as well as better sensitivity than individual miRNAs in BC. New miRNA-based drugs are also promising therapy for BC (e.g., miR-9, miR-21, miR34a, miR145, and miR150), and other miRNAs are showing a fundamental role in modulation of the response to other non-miRNA treatments, being able to increase their efficacy (e.g., miR-21, miR34a, miR195, miR200c, and miR203 in combination with chemotherapy).

  3. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William;

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark and t...

  4. Real time noninvasive cancer diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Jaliashvili, Z V; Melikishvili, Z G; Mardaleishvili, K M; Ramsden, J J

    2005-01-01

    Laser illumination of tissue results in a characteristic fluorescence emission spectrum whose features depend on the type of tissue, viz., healthy, adenoma or malignant. Hence measurement of the fluorescence is potentially a rapid and reliable diagnostic method. We have applied the technique to thyroid tissues and found that judicious normalization of the fluorescence spectrum reveals a close correlation between spectral shape and tissue type. Hence the pathological state of the tissue can be unambiguously identified from the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum. The method is rapid and portable and is therefore eminently suitable for use during operations.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF MRP GENE mRNA OVEREXPRESSION ON THE PROGNOSIS IN LUNG CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单根法; 钟竑; 张辅贤

    2000-01-01

    Objectire To study the effects of multi-drug resistance associated protein gene (MRP gene)overexpression on the prognosis of patients with lung cancer. Methods Paraffin- embedded tissues taken from radical resection of 47 cases suffering from non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were determined for the expression of MRP gene mRNA by in situ hybridization using labelled digoxigenin probes combined with immunohistochemistry. All the patients had been followed-up from 6 months to 3 years. Results The overexpression of MRP gene mRNA of all the 47 lung cancer specimens was found to be obviously related with survival time, effects of chemotherapy, recurrence or metastases after surgery, but not related with histology, tumor size, node metastases, TNM stages, age and sex. Conclusion MRP gene mRNA expression is correlated with the prognosis of lung cancer patients and may be regarded as an indicator to forecast the prognosis and to choose the chemotherapy for lung cancer patients.

  6. Surgical Treatment and Prognosis of Synchronous Double Primary Lung Cancer: a Report of 31 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feiyue Feng; Dechao Zhang; Xiangyang Liu; Yonggang Wang; Yousheng Mao

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The concept of double primary lung cancer (DPLC) has been generally accepted. Recently, an increasing incidence of synchronous DPLC has been reported, while the diagnostic standard and treatment strategies remain to be improved. This study was conducted to investigate effective surgical treatment and prognosis of synchronous DPLC.METHODS From January 1983 to April 2004, 31 patients with synchronous DPLC were operated in our department. Clinical data, such as surgical pattern, postoperative complications, and survival status, of all these patients were reviewed retrospectively.RESULTS The 31 patients with synchronous DPLC accounted for 0.67% of all the 4,649 patients operated for primary lung cancer in our department during the same period. Both tumors of the synchronous DPLC were resected with Iobectomy or pneumonectomy in 12 patients, while among the other 19 patients at least 1 tumor was treated with partial pulmonary resection. The postoperative morbidity was 29%(9/31), including 1 case of respiratory insufficiency, 3 cases of atelectasis, 2 cases of atrial fibrillation, 1 case of haemoptysis, 1 case of pleural effusion, and 1 case of wound fat necrosis.No deaths occurred during the operations or within 30 days postoperatively.The postoperative 1 -, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 52%, 29%, and 20%, respectively.CONCLUSION The incidence of synchronous DPLC is low. An aggressive and reasonable surgical approach can achieve a satisfactory outcome in patients with synchronous DPLC. The postoperative morbidity is low. Some patients might achieve long-term survival.

  7. Abnormal expression of calcyphosine is associated with poor prognosis and cell biology function in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weiwei; Wang, Quhui; Wang, Feiran; Jiang, Yasu; Xu, Meirong; Xu, Junfei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the calcyphosine (CAPS) expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore its clinical and prognostic significances. CAPS expression was measured by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The relationships between the CAPS expression levels and the clinicopathological factors were investigated. The Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used to investigate the overall survival of the patients. Moreover, the effects of CAPS on biological roles of CRC cells were also evaluated by MTT assay, colony formation assay, and transwell assay. CAPS was significantly overexpressed in cancerous tissue and CRC cell lines compared with adjacent nontumor tissue and a normal human intestinal epithelial cell line. Overexpression of CAPS was significantly associated with histological grade (P=0.004), invasive depth (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.003), tumor node metastasis stage (P=0.017), and distant metastasis (P=0.042). Furthermore, silencing of CAPS expression in CRC cells inhibited their proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that high CAPS expression might demonstrate poor prognosis in CRC patients. Cox regression analysis revealed that CAPS expression was an independent prognostic factor of CRC. Our data suggested that the upregulation of CAPS might play a role in the carcinogenesis and progression of CRC. CAPS could be used as a potential diagnostic factor and be an independent good prognostic indicator for CRC patients. PMID:26889086

  8. Diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic biomarkers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide demands development of accurate biomarkers to perfect detection, diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. Urologic (prostate, bladder, kidney), lung, breast and colorectal cancers are the most common and despite major advances in their characterization, this has seldom translated into biomarkers amenable for clinical practice. Epigenetic alterations are innovative cancer biomarkers owing to stability, frequency, reversibility and accessibility in body fluids, entailing great potential of assay development to assist in patient management. Several studies identified putative epigenetic cancer biomarkers, some of which have been commercialized. However, large multicenter validation studies are required to foster translation to the clinics. Herein we review the most promising epigenetic detection, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for the most common cancers.

  9. A new method for analyzing diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Edwards, Kasper; Kragtrup, Jakob;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To present a new methodology to illustrate, understand and measure delay in health care. The method is inspired by process mapping tools as analytical framework and demonstrates its usefulness for studying diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer. Sample. Six women with a diagnostic...... to delay in the diagnostic process. Some important contributors to diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer were found: lack of cancer suspicion, competing diseases, negative test results, inexpedient referral patterns and referrals without cancer suspicion. Conclusion. Our results point out process...

  10. Loss of partner and breast cancer prognosis - a population-based study, Denmark, 1994-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Bidstrup, P E; Frederiksen, K;

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which experiencing a stressful life event influences breast cancer prognosis remains unknown, as the findings of the few previous epidemiological studies are inconsistent. This large population-based study examines the association between a common major life event, loss of a partner...... and breast cancer recurrence and all-cause mortality.......The extent to which experiencing a stressful life event influences breast cancer prognosis remains unknown, as the findings of the few previous epidemiological studies are inconsistent. This large population-based study examines the association between a common major life event, loss of a partner...

  11. Circulating microRNAs as minimally invasive biomarkers for cancer theragnosis and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. S. Cho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel cancer biomarker discovery is urgently needed for cancer theragnosis and prognosis, and among the many possible types of samples, blood is regarded to be ideal for this discovery as it can be collected easily in a minimally invasive manner. Results of the last few years have ascertained the quantification of microRNA (miRNA as a promising approach for the detection and prognostication of cancer. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have shown that circulating cancer-associated miRNAs are readily measured in plasma or serum and they can robustly discriminate cancer patients from healthy controls, as well as distinguishing between good-prognosis and poor-prognosis patients. Furthermore, recent findings also suggest the potential of circulating miRNAs in the screening, monitoring, and treatment of cancer. This article summarizes the most significant and latest discoveries of original researches on circulating miRNAs involvement in cancer, focusing on the potential of circulating miRNAs as minimally invasive biomarkers for cancer theragnosis and prognosis.

  12. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  13. 21 CFR 866.6040 - Gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gene expression profiling test system for breast... Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6040 Gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer prognosis. (a) Identification. A gene expression profiling test system for breast cancer...

  14. Elevated C-reactive protein in the diagnosis, prognosis, and cause of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    -phase response, chronic inflammation, the molecular biology, function and measurement of CRP, circulating levels of CRP in health and disease, the principle of Mendelian randomization, the association between circulating levels of CRP and cancer prognosis, and cancer biomarkers. In the Copenhagen General...

  15. E-Cadherin as a diagnostic biomarker in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Singhai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: E-cadherin is expressed in most normal epithelial tissues. Selective loss of E-cadherin can cause dedifferentiation and invasiveness in human carcinomas, leading E-cadherin to be classified as a tumor suppressor. Loss of E-cadherin has been demonstrated in invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, but the relationship between E-cadherin expression and breast cancer histopathology and prognosis is less clear. Aim: Our objective was to assess loss of E-cadherin as a diagnostic breast cancer biomarker and as an aid to the sub-classification of invasive breast cancer. We also correlated the loss of expression of E-cadherin with various clinical and pathologic prognostic factors. Material and Methods: Breast cancer specimens after modified radical mastectomy were obtained from women who underwent surgery at Grant Medical College and Sir J.J Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India between May 2007 and October 2010. We stained 276 breast cancers specimens with monoclonal antibodies to E-cadherin. The breast cancers were classified by histopathological type. Results: A statistical correlation of E-cadherin loss with a positive diagnosis of invasive lobular carcinoma was found, but there was no correlation with any prognostic tumor variables. A negative E-cadherin stain was a sensitive and specific biomarker to confirm the diagnosis of invasive lobular carcinoma (specificity 97.7%; negative predictive value 96.8%; sensitivity 88.1%; and positive predictive value 91.2%. Positive E-cadherin expression was also associated with tubulolobular carcinomas. Conclusions: E-cadherin immunohistochemistry is helpful in classifying breast cancer cases with indeterminate histopathologic features. E-cadherin loss is uncommon in non-lobular carcinomas but shows no correlation to currently established prognostic variables.

  16. Preoperative mannan-binding lectin pathway and prognosis in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jensenius, Jens Christian;

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Deficiency of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of innate immunity is associated with increased susceptibility to infections. In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), postoperative infection is associated with poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1) the...... predictive of pneumonia, which is associated with poorer survival. MBL concentration and MBL/MASP activity was not predictive of other postoperative infections or long-term prognosis, and showed no correlation with CRP....

  17. Role of monocyte and lymphocyte counts in prognosis of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Aanchal Jain; Saurabh Bobdey; Jignasa Sathwara; Ganesh, B.; Sushma Saoba; Arshi Khan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inflammation seems to play a very crucial role in the growth and progression of many cancers. It has been reported that a peripheral blood count has been used as a cost-effective and simple parameter of systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. The aim of this study is to investigate whether components of WBC counts can predict the prognosis of patients with cervical cancer. Methods: Medical records of 549 cervical cancer patients diagnosed between 1 January 2008 to 31 ...

  18. Cervical cancer : incidence, screening and prognosis among immigrant women in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Azerkan, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant studies may help further our understanding of the aetiology of cervical cancer and improve its prevention. The overall aim of this thesis is to study the risk of cervical cancer among immigrant women in Sweden, their cervical screening attendance and their prognosis after cervical cancer diagnosis. Quantitative cohort study designs using data from population-based registers were carried out and analysed using Poisson regression and Cox proportional hazard models. A quantitative expl...

  19. Decreased expression of long noncoding RNA GAS5 indicates a poor prognosis and promotes cell proliferation in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ming; Jin, Fei-yan; Xia, Rui; Kong, Rong; Li, Jin-hai; Xu, Tong-Peng; LIU, YAN-WEN; Zhang, Er-Bao; Liu, Xiang-hua; Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death and remains a major clinical challenge due to poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged recently as major players in tumor biology and may be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and potential therapeutic targets. Although downregulation of lncRNA GAS5 (Growth Arrest-Specific Transcript) in several cancers has been studied, its role in gastric cancer remains unknown. Our studi...

  20. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer in Chinese Adolescent Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Du; Su-Sheng Shi; Yong-Kun Sun; Jin-Wan Wang; Yihebali Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal adenocarcinoma rarely occurred in adolescent.Clinical feature and prognosis of this population are not clear until now.In addition, DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status may relate to the early disease occurrence.The present study aimed to perform a retrospective analysis of adolescent patients with colorectal cancer, including clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis.Methods: The medical records of 11,503 patients diagnosed as colorectal cancer in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 1999 to December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed.Finally, 19 patients who were between 10 and 20 years old were selected as the study group.We summarized the clinicopathological characteristics, analyzed the association with prognosis and assessed the expression of MMR protein by immunohistochemical method.Results: The most common primary site was the right colon in 7 patients.Ten patients had Stage Ⅲ colorectal cancer, 5 patients had Stage Ⅳ disease.Signet ring cell carcinoma was the most fiequent pathological type (7/19).Deficient MMR was identified in 2 patients.The 5-year survival rate and median survival time were 23.2% and 26 months.Distant metastasis was identified as an independent prognostic factor (P =0.02).Conclusions: Colorectal cancer in Chinese adolescents was very rare.The chinese adolecents with colorectal cancer were frequently diagnosed in the right colon, as Stage Ⅲ/Ⅳ disease with signet ring cell carcinoma.The prognosis was relatively poor.

  1. Impact of diagnostic interval on mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer: A new perspective on the waiting list paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard;

    was statistically significant for colon cancer (p=0.02). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: After adjusting we observed the well-known waiting list paradox, but also a significantly poorer prognosis for patients with diagnostic intervals longer than 30 days. The shifting association would have been hidden if the...

  2. Timing of surgery during the menstrual cycle and prognosis of breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R A Badwe; I Mittra; R Havaldar

    2000-03-01

    There are conflicting reports on the differential effect of surgery performed during the two phases of the menstrual cycle, namely, follicular and luteal, and prognosis of operable breast cancer. A statistical meta-analysis of the published evidence suggests a modest survival benefit of 15 ± 4% when the operation is performed during the lueteal phase. Further research in this area might provide a novel avenue to understand the natural history of breast cancer. A spin off from these studies might be the understanding of the importance of events that occur at the time of surgery in determining long term prognosis.

  3. Evaluation of ceruloplasmin concentration in prognosis of human cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty,Prabir Kishore

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The serum ceruloplasmin concentration was determined in cancer patients before and after radiotherapy, and after relapse of cancer, The ceruloplasmin concentration in patients who responded to therapy, decreased to the range of normal controls. In patients who did not respond to treatment, the ceruloplasmin concentration was more or less elevated. In patients with relapse of cancer, the ceruloplasmin concentration was higher than before treatment.

  4. Indications of postoperative irradiation and prognosis in cancer of the uterine cervix; Reevaluation of its indications from prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiromizu, Kenji; Ishimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Kouichi; Onda, Takashi; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Michiko; Matsuzawa, Masumi; Sakura, Mizuyoshi (Saitama Prefectural Cancer Center, Ina (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This study reevaluated indications of postoperative radiotherapy for cancer of the uterine cervix from the viewpoint of prognosis and side effects. The subjects were 441 patients treated for clinical stage Ib or more from 1976 through 1987. According to the degree of cancer involvement, the patients were classified as cancer involvement to one third of the uterine cervix (group A), two thirds (group B), more than two thirds (group C), and the parauterine tissue (group D). Postoperative total pelvic irradiation of 40-50 Gy was given to patients with vascular involvement in groups A and B, all patients in groups C and D, and patients with lymph node (LN) metastases. Histology revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 354 patients and adenocarcinoma or adenomatous SCC in the other 87. In LN negative SCC patients (n=268), the recurrence rate for irradiated patients was 16.7% in group A, 13.6% in group B, and 21.0% in group C; the corresponding figures for non-irradiated patients were 9.6%, 8.3%, and 50.0%, respectively. In all LN positive SCC patients treated with irradiation (n=86), it was 0% in group A, 37.5% in group B, 45.7% in group C, and 54.8% in group D. The more cancer was involved, the higher the recurrence rate was in both negative and positive SCC patients. The 5-year survival rate in LN negative SCC patients was 100% and 97.2% for irradiated and non-irradiated patients, respectively, in group A, 100% and 97.0% in group B, and 89.7% and 50.0% in group C. Postoperative irradiation seemed to be unnecessary for LN negative patients in groups A and B. In SCC patients with either musculi iliacus involvement or primary LN metastases, prognosis was independent of the presence or absence of irradiation. The incidence of edema in the lower extremities and vulva was 0% for irradiation without LN dissection, 10.2% for LN dissection without irradiation, and 51.3% for both irradiation and LN dissection. (N.K.).

  5. Birth length and weight as predictors of breast cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatten Lars J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth size, and particularly birth length, is positively associated with breast cancer risk in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine whether birth size is associated with survival among breast cancer patients. Methods Information on birth size (weight, length and ponderal index (kg/length (m3 was collected from birth archives for 331 breast cancer patients who were diagnosed at two university hospitals in Norway (Bergen and Trondheim. The patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until death from breast cancer, death from another cause, or to the end of follow-up, and birth size was related to survival, using Cox regression analysis. Results Breast cancer patients with birth length ≥ 52 cm had nearly twice the risk of dying (hazard ratio, 1.92, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.41 from breast cancer compared to women with birth length less than 48 cm, after adjustment for place of birth and year of diagnosis. Similar analyses related to birth weight and ponderal index showed no clear association with breast cancer survival. Conclusions Poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high birth length may reflect effects of factors that stimulate longitudinal growth and simultaneously increase the risk of metastases and fatal outcome. It is possible that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system is involved in the underlying mechanisms.

  6. Human breast cancer: its genetics, biology and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Riaz (Muhammad)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCancer is a major public health problem, being the second leading cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases1. Among women, breast cancer is the first neoplasm for incidence and the second for mortality all over the world. World-wide, an incidence of 1.4 million new cases and a mortal

  7. Postoperative Prognosis of Breast Cancer Patients Predicted by p53 Gene Mutation in Cancer Cells Obtained by Aspiration Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, SATO; Hideji, Masuoka; Kazunori, Toda; Kosho, Watabe; Yukio, Nakamura; Tatsuya, Ito; Makoto, Meguro; Masaaki, Yamamoto; Tousei, Ohmura

    2007-01-01

    The method of cytological examination by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was developed clinically in breast cancer and enabled us to prepare cancer cell nuclei for the detection of p53 gene mutation. In the expectation that this method would improve the prediction of postoperative prognosis, the observation of 10 year survival for breast cancer patients with p53 gene mutations was done. The DNA of the aspirated cells was examined preoperatively for gene alterations in 53 patients with br...

  8. HER-2 positive and p53 negative breast cancers are associated with poor prognosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    p53 and HER-2 coexpression in breast cancer has been controversial. These markers were tested using immunohistochemistry and HercepTest. HER-2 expression is related to reduced breast cancer survival (p = .02) . p53 expression relates to HER-2 expression (p = .029). Coexpression between p53 and HER-2 has no relation to prognosis. On univariate and multivariate analysis, combination of HER-2 positive and p53 negative expression was associated with a poor prognosis (p = .018 and p = .027, respectively), while the combination of HER-2 negative and p53 positive expression was associated with a favorable prognosis (p = .022 and p = .010, respectively). Therefore the expression of these markers should be considered collectively.

  9. HER-2 positive and p53 negative breast cancers are associated with poor prognosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-06-01

    p53 and HER-2 coexpression in breast cancer has been controversial. These markers were tested using immunohistochemistry and HercepTest. HER-2 expression is related to reduced breast cancer survival (p = .02) . p53 expression relates to HER-2 expression (p = .029). Coexpression between p53 and HER-2 has no relation to prognosis. On univariate and multivariate analysis, combination of HER-2 positive and p53 negative expression was associated with a poor prognosis (p = .018 and p = .027, respectively), while the combination of HER-2 negative and p53 positive expression was associated with a favorable prognosis (p = .022 and p = .010, respectively). Therefore the expression of these markers should be considered collectively.

  10. Elevated C-reactive protein in the diagnosis, prognosis, and cause of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    -phase response, chronic inflammation, the molecular biology, function and measurement of CRP, circulating levels of CRP in health and disease, the principle of Mendelian randomization, the association between circulating levels of CRP and cancer prognosis, and cancer biomarkers. In the Copenhagen General......The aim of this review is to summarize present evidence of an association between circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and cancer risk, and to evaluate whether elevated circulating CRP levels cause cancer. Additionally, the review provides background information on the acute...

  11. Global histone post-translational modifications and cancer:Biomarkers for diagnosis,prognosis and treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafqat; Ali; Khan; Divya; Reddy; Sanjay; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Global alterations in epigenetic landscape are now recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Epigenetic mechanismssuch as DNA methylation,histone modifications,nucleosome positioning and non-coding RNAs are proven to have strong association with cancer. In particular,covalent post-translational modifications of histone proteins are known to play an important role in chromatin remodeling and thereby in regulation of gene expression. Further,histone modifications have also been associated with different aspects of carcinogenesis and have been studied for their role in the better management of cancer patients. In this review,we will explore and discuss how histone modifications are involved in cancer diagnosis,prognosis and treatment.

  12. Biological Markers May Indicate Poor Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A team of researchers has found an association between breast cancer survival and two proteins that, when present in the blood in high levels, are indicators of inflammation. Using data from the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle (HEAL) study sponsor

  13. Preoperative mannan-binding lectin pathway and prognosis in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jensenius, Jens Christian;

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Deficiency of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of innate immunity is associated with increased susceptibility to infections. In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), postoperative infection is associated with poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1) the...

  14. Status and prognosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with cardia cancer – A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Cecilie; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Achiam, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    . Therefore, the optimal treatment of cardia cancer remains controversial. A systematic review of English publications dealing with adenocarcinoma of the cardia was conducted to elucidate patterns of nodal spread and prognostic implications. METHODS: A systematic literature search based on PRISMA guidelines...... identifying relevant studies describing lymph node metastasis and the associated prognosis. Lymph node stations were classified according to the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association guidelines. RESULTS: The highest incidence of metastasis is seen in the nearest regional lymph nodes, station no. 1...

  15. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-liang Shi; Ning Qu; Tian Liao; Wen-jun Wei; Yu-Long Wang; Qing-hai Ji

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox mod...

  16. Facilitative glucose transporters: Implications for cancer detection, prognosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Carly C; Bilan, Philip J; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Tsiani, Evangelia

    2016-02-01

    It is long recognized that cancer cells display increased glucose uptake and metabolism. In a rate-limiting step for glucose metabolism, the glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins facilitate glucose uptake across the plasma membrane. Fourteen members of the GLUT protein family have been identified in humans. This review describes the major characteristics of each member of the GLUT family and highlights evidence of abnormal expression in tumors and cancer cells. The regulation of GLUTs by key proliferation and pro-survival pathways including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), Ras, c-Myc and p53 pathways is discussed. The clinical utility of GLUT expression in cancer has been recognized and evidence regarding the use of GLUTs as prognostic or predictive biomarkers is presented. GLUTs represent attractive targets for cancer therapy and this review summarizes recent studies in which GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT5 and others are inhibited to decrease cancer growth. PMID:26773935

  17. Lymph Node Metastases and Prognosis in Penile Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; Ding-wei Ye

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node status is a key prognostic factor in penile squamous cell carcinoma.Recently,growing evidence indicates a multimodality approach consisting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by consolidation surgery improves the outcome of locally advanced penile cancer.Thus,accurate estimation of survival probability in node-positive penile cancer is critical for treatment decision making,counseling of patients and follow-up scheduling.This article reviewed evolving developments in assessing the risk for cancer progression based on lymph node related variables,such as the number of metastatic lymph nodes,bilateral lymph node metastases,the ratio of positive lymph nodes,extracapsular extension of metastatic lymph nodes,pelvic lymph node metastases,metastatic deposit in sentinel lymph nodes and N stage in TNM classification.Controversial issues surrounding the prognostic value of these nodal related predictors were also discussed.

  18. Evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating cathepsin S in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Li; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Kai; Liu, Yi-Jun; Xing, Shan; Chi, Pei-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Hua; Xue, Ning; Lai, Yan-Zhen; Guo, Ling; Zhang, Ge

    2016-05-10

    To evaluate whether serum Cathepsin S (Cat S) could serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC), Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum Cat S in 496 participants including healthy controls and patients with benign gastric diseases, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer. The levels of serum Cat S were significantly increased in cancer patients, especially in GC patients. The qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining revealed the overexpression of Cat S in GC cell lines and tissues. The diagnostic value of serum Cat S for GC patients from controls resulted in an AUC of 0.803 with a sensitivity of 60.7% and a specificity of 90.0%. Moreover, the levels of serum Cat S were associated with GC tumor volume, lymphoid nodal status, metastasis status, and stages. Moreover, the patients with high levels of serum Cat S had a poorer overall survival. Univariate analysis revealed Cat S expression was a prognostic factor. The knockdown of Cat S significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of GC cells. This study suggested serum Cat S may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of GC.

  19. Mining novel biomarkers for prognosis of gastric cancer with serum proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui Mei-Hua

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although gastric caner (GC remains the second cause of cancer-related death, useful biomarkers for prognosis are still unavailable. We present here the attempt of mining novel biomarkers for GC prognosis by using serum proteomics. Methods Sera from 43 GC patients and 41 controls with gastritis as Group 1 and 11 GC patients as Group 2 was successively detected by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS with Q10 chip. Peaks were acquired by Ciphergen ProteinChip Software 3.2.0 and analyzed by Zhejiang University-ProteinChip Data Analysis System (ZJU-PDAS. CEA level were evaluated by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results After median follow-up periods of 33 months, Group 1 with 4 GC patients lost was divided into 20 good-prognosis GC patients (overall survival more than 24 months and 19 poor-prognosis GC patients (no more than 24 months. The established prognosis pattern consisted of 5 novel prognosis biomarkers with 84.2% sensitivity and 85.0% specificity, which were significantly higher than those of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and TNM stage. We also tested prognosis pattern blindly in Group 2 with 66.7% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity. Moreover, we found that 4474-Da peak elevated significantly in GC and was associated with advanced stage (III+IV and short survival (p Conclusion We have identified a number of novel biomarkers for prognosis prediction of GC by using SELDI-TOF-MS combined with sophisticated bioinformatics. Particularly, elevated expression of 4474-Da peak showed very promising to be developed into a novel biomarker associated with biologically aggressive features of GC.

  20. Implications of microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Development, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan eZhai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs with critical regulatory functions as post-transcriptional regulators. Due to the fundamental importance and broad impact of miRNAs on multiple genes and pathways, dysregulated miRNAs have been associated with human diseases, including cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is among the most deadly diseases, and miRNAs offer a new frontier for target discovery and novel biomarkers for both diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we summarize the recent advancement of miRNA research in CRC, in particular, the roles of miRNAs in colorectal cancer stem cells, EMT, chemoresistance, therapeutics, diagnosis and prognosis.

  1. Glycosylation of plasma IgG in colorectal cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Evropi Theodoratou; Kujtim Thaçi; Felix Agakov; Timofeeva, Maria N.; Jerko Štambuk; Maja Pučić-Baković; Frano Vučković; Peter Orchard; Anna Agakova; DIN, FARHAT V. N.; Ewan Brown; Rudd, Pauline M; Susan M. Farrington; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Harry Campbell

    2016-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate the potential value of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation as a novel prognostic biomarker of colorectal cancer (CRC). We analysed plasma IgG glycans in 1229 CRC patients and correlated with survival outcomes. We assessed the predictive value of clinical algorithms and compared this to algorithms that also included glycan predictors. Decreased galactosylation, decreased sialylation (of fucosylated IgG glycan structures) and increased bisecting GlcNAc in IgG glyca...

  2. Survivin: Potential role in diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Ting Wang; Xiao-Ping Qian; Bao-Rui Liu

    2007-01-01

    Survivin is a protein that is highly expressed in a vast number of malignancies, but is minimally expressed in normal tissues. It plays a role as an inhibitor of cell death in cancer cells, thus facilitating the growth of these cells.Tn the case of gastric cancer, survivin is over-expressed in tumor cells and plays a role in the carcinogenesis process. Several studies on gastric cancer have indicated that there is a relationship between survivin expression and the ultimate behavior of the carcinoma. Since the expression pattern of survivin is selective to cancer cells,it has been described as an "ideal target" for cancer therapy. Currently, several pre-clinical and clinical trials are on-going to investigate the effects of interfering with survivin function in cancer cells as a biologic therapy. Survivin is a potentially significant protein in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of gastric tumors.

  3. Ki67, chemotherapy response, and prognosis in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasching Peter A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological complete response (pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a surrogate marker for a favorable prognosis in breast cancer patients. Factors capable of predicting a pCR, such as the proliferation marker Ki67, may therefore help improve our understanding of the drug response and its effect on the prognosis. This study investigated the predictive and prognostic value of Ki67 in patients with invasive breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Methods Ki67 was stained routinely from core biopsies in 552 patients directly after the fixation and embedding process. HER2/neu, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and grading were also assessed before treatment. These data were used to construct univariate and multivariate models for predicting pCR and prognosis. The tumors were also classified by molecular phenotype to identify subgroups in which predicting pCR and prognosis with Ki67 might be feasible. Results Using a cut-off value of > 13% positively stained cancer cells, Ki67 was found to be an independent predictor for pCR (OR 3.5; 95% CI, 1.4, 10.1 and for overall survival (HR 8.1; 95% CI, 3.3 to 20.4 and distant disease-free survival (HR 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5.9. The mean Ki67 value was 50.6 ± 23.4% in patients with pCR. Patients without a pCR had an average of 26.7 ± 22.9% positively stained cancer cells. Conclusions Ki67 has predictive and prognostic value and is a feasible marker for clinical practice. It independently improved the prediction of treatment response and prognosis in a group of breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment. As mean Ki67 values in patients with a pCR were very high, cut-off values in a high range above which the prognosis may be better than in patients with lower Ki67 values may be hypothesized. Larger studies will be needed in order to investigate these findings further.

  4. Association of cancer stem cell markers genetic variants with gallbladder cancer susceptibility, prognosis, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anu; Gupta, Annapurna; Rastogi, Neeraj; Agrawal, Sushma; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Vijay; Mittal, Balraj

    2016-02-01

    Genes important to stem cell progression have been involved in the genetics and clinical outcome of cancers. We investigated germ line variants in cancer stem cell (CSC) genes to predict susceptibility and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy treatment in gallbladder cancer (GBC) patients. In this study, we assessed the effect of SNPs in CSC genes (surface markers CD44, ALCAM, EpCAM, CD133) and (molecular markers NANOG, SOX-2, LIN-28A, ALDH1A1, OCT-4) with GBC susceptibility and prognosis. Total 610 GBC patients and 250 controls were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP, ARMS-PCR, and TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Chemotoxicity graded 2-4 in 200 patients and tumor response was recorded in 140 patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Differences in genotype and haplotype frequency distributions were calculated by binary logistic regression. Gene-gene interaction model was analyzed by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR). Overall survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve and multivariate Cox-proportional methods. ALCAM Ars1157Crs10511244 (P = 0.0035) haplotype was significantly associated with GBC susceptibility. In GMDR analysis, ALCAM rs1157G>A, EpCAM rs1126497T>C emerged as best significant interaction model with GBC susceptibility and ALDH1A1 rs13959T>G with increased risk of grade 3-4 hematological toxicity. SOX-2 rs11915160A>C, OCT-4 rs3130932T>G, and NANOG rs11055786T>C were found best gene-gene interaction model for predicting response to NACT. In both Cox-proportional and recursive partitioning ALCAM rs1157GA+AA genotype showed higher mortality and hazard ratio. ALCAM gene polymorphisms associated with GBC susceptibility and survival while OCT-4, SOX-2, and NANOG variants showed an interactive role with treatment response. PMID:26318430

  5. Circulating carnosine dipeptidase 1 associates with weight loss and poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arner

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia (CC is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia.Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32 or without (n = 27 cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer.Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1 was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008. In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results.In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC.

  6. Incorporating gene co-expression network in identification of cancer prognosis markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive biomedical studies have shown that clinical and environmental risk factors may not have sufficient predictive power for cancer prognosis. The development of high-throughput profiling technologies makes it possible to survey the whole genome and search for genomic markers with predictive power. Many existing studies assume the interchangeability of gene effects and ignore the coordination among them. Results We adopt the weighted co-expression network to describe the interplay among genes. Although there are several different ways of defining gene networks, the weighted co-expression network may be preferred because of its computational simplicity, satisfactory empirical performance, and because it does not demand additional biological experiments. For cancer prognosis studies with gene expression measurements, we propose a new marker selection method that can properly incorporate the network connectivity of genes. We analyze six prognosis studies on breast cancer and lymphoma. We find that the proposed approach can identify genes that are significantly different from those using alternatives. We search published literature and find that genes identified using the proposed approach are biologically meaningful. In addition, they have better prediction performance and reproducibility than genes identified using alternatives. Conclusions The network contains important information on the functionality of genes. Incorporating the network structure can improve cancer marker identification.

  7. Terminology and details of the diagnostic process for testis cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    We examined the process and causes of diagnostic delay, defined as the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis, for testis (germ cell) cancer and the change with time. Diagnostic delay influences disease burden and may be subdivided into symptomatic interval, defined as symptom onset to first presentation, and diagnostic interval, defined as first presentation to diagnosis.

  8. Evaluation of the prognosis of cancer patients with metastatic bone tumors based on serial bone scintigrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmori, Kazuo; Matsui, Hisao; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Kanamori, Masahiko; Yudoh, Kazuo; Seto, Hikaru; Tsuji, Haruo [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    We counted the lesions at the time of detection of bone metastases and calculated the rate of increase in the number of bone metastases from changes in serial bone scintigrams, and investigated the usefulness of serial scintigrams as a prognostic indicator in patients with metastatic bone tumors. Subjects were 112 patients with bone metastases from four types of primary lesion: 21 with prostate cancer, 27 breast cancer, 39 lung cancer and 25 stomach cancer. Of these, 18 (prostate), 19 (breast), nine (lung) and eight (stomach) underwent serial bone scintigrams in which bone metastases were first detected and identified as progressing. The numbers of lesions at the time of detection of bone metastases for prostate and stomach cancers were significantly greater than those for lung cancer. The rate of increase in the number of bone metastases for stomach cancer was significantly higher than that for prostate or breast cancers. There was no correlation between the survival time after the detection of bone metastases and the number of lesions at the time of detection in the four types of cancer. However, in prostate cancer, a negative correlation existed between the survival time after the detection of bone metastases and the rate of increase in the number of bone metastases. Thus, in patients with bone metastases from prostate cancer, it appears that the rate of increase in the number of bone metastases, estimated from serial bone scintigrams, was indicative of prognosis. (author)

  9. Identifying subgroups among poor prognosis patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer by tree modelling: a validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. van Dijk (Merel); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); S.P. Stenning; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In order to target intensive treatment strategies for poor prognosis patients with non-seminomatous germ cell cancer, those with the poorest prognosis should be identified. These patients might profit most from more intensive treatment strategies. For this p

  10. Chemotherapy Effectiveness and Prognosis of Gastric Cancer Influenced by PTPN11 Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanjun Zhuo; Mingjing Shao; Ce Chen; Chongguang Lin; Deguo Jiang; Guangdong Chen; Hongjun Tian; Lina Wang; Jie Li; Xiaodong Lin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Since gastric cancer (GC) cells exhibited higher grades of SHP-2 encoded by PTPN11 than normal cells, it would be intriguing to explore whether PTPN11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) would influence chemotherapy effectiveness and GC prognosis among a Chinese population. Methods: Altogether 430 late-stage GC patients and 960 healthy controls matched with age and sex were incorporated. Three PTPN11 SNPs (i.e. rs7958372, rs12229892 and rs2301756) were genotyped by polymerase ch...

  11. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES IN THE PROPHYLAXIS OF CERVICAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Wrześniewska; Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka; Jakub Gruszka; Beata Bąk

    2013-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries with high cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The main means to change this situation is to manage an active and modern programme of cervical cancer prophylaxis and diagnostics. To a large extent, the effectiveness of a cervical cancer prophylaxis programme is decided by the availability of modern diagnostic research. The conventional Papanicolaou test and modern LBC cytology techniques were discussed in the article, taking into consideration HPV diagno...

  12. Assessing the role of IL-35 in colorectal cancer progression and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Tian-Yu; Liang, Yan-Fang; Wang, Hong-Mei; Bao, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Wang, Wan-Dang; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Kong, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Bin-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Dong; He, Long; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Cong-Yi; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent realization of Interleukin (IL)-35 in tumorigenesis, its exact impact on colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and prognosis, however, is yet to be elucidated clearly. We thus in the present report conducted comparative analysis of IL-35 levels between CRC patients and matched control subjects. IL-35 is highly expressed in all CRC tissues, which can be detected in vast majority of colorectal cancer cells. IL-35 levels in CRC lysates and serum samples are highly correlated to the severity of malignancy and the clinical stage of tumor. Particularly, a significant reduction for serum IL-35 was noted in patients after surgical resection, indicating that IL-35 promotes CRC progression associated with poor prognosis. Mechanistic study demonstrated a significant correlation between serum IL-35 levels and the number of peripheral regulatory T (Treg) cells in CRC patients, suggesting that IL-35 implicates in CRC pathogenesis probably by inducing Treg cells, while cancer cell-derived IL-35 may also recruit Treg cells into the tumor microenvironment in favor of tumor growth. Together, our data support that IL-35 could be a valuable biomarker for assessing CRC progression and prognosis in clinical settings.

  13. Soluble and nuclear oestrogen receptor status in human breast cancer in relation to prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, R E; Laing, L; McArdle, C; Smith, D C

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between oestrogen receptor (RE) content of primary breast cancer and subsequent prognosis was examined with regard to nodal status. It was found that, within a particular nodal group, patients with tumours containing fully functional RE experienced a longer disease-free interval than those with RE- disease. An earlier observation that RE- primary disease gave rise to distant metastases as first site of recurrence more frequently than did RE+ disease, was not sustained. However, patients with RE+ primary disease had a much reduced chance of dying from cancer within a 3-year period.

  14. Peritoneal lavage cytology and carcinoembryonic antigen determination in predicting peritoneal metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Kun Li; Miao Zheng; Chuan-Wen Miao; Jian-Hai Zhang; Guang-Han Ding; Wen-Shen Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) determination of peritoneal washes (pCEA) in predicting the peritoneal metastasis and prognosis after curative resection of gastric cancer.METHODS: PLC and radioimmunoassay of CEA were performed in peritoneal washes from 64 patients with gastric cancer and 8 patients with benign diseases.RESULTS: The positive rate of pCEA (40.6%) was significantly higher than that of PLC (23.4%) (P<0.05).The positive rates of PLC and pCEA correlated with the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). pCEA was found to have a higher sensitivity and a lower false-positive rate in predicting peritoneal metastasis after curative resection of gastric cancer as compared to PLC. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of patients with positive cytologic findings or positive pCEA results were significantly lower than those of patients with negative cytologic findings or negative pCEA results (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that pCEA was an independent prognostic factor for the survival of patients with gastric cancer.CONCLUSION: Intraoperative pCEA is a more sensitive and reliable predictor of peritoneal metastasis as well as prognosis in patients with gastric cancer as compared to PLC method.

  15. MicroRNAs in Pancreatic Cancer: Involvement in Carcinogenesis and Potential Use for Diagnosis and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Halkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal malignancies with increasing incidence and high mortality. Possibilities for early diagnosis are limited and there is currently no efficient therapy. Molecular markers that have been introduced into diagnosis and treatment of other solid tumors remain unreciprocated in this disease. Recent discoveries have shown that certain microRNAs (miRNAs take part in fundamental molecular processes associated with pancreatic cancer initiation and progression including cell cycle, DNA repair, apoptosis, invasivity, and metastasis. The mechanism involves both positive and negative regulation of expression of protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Various miRNAs are expressed at different levels among normal pancreatic tissue, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer and may therefore serve as a tool to differentiate chronic pancreatitis from early stages of cancer. Other miRNAs can indicate the probable course of the disease or determine the survival prognosis. In addition, there is a growing interest directed at the understanding of miRNA-induced molecular mechanisms. The possibility of intervention in the molecular mechanisms of miRNAs regulation could begin a new generation of pancreatic cancer therapies. This review summarizes the recent reports describing functions of miRNAs in cellular processes underlying pancreatic cancerogenesis and their utility in diagnosis, survival prognosis, and therapy.

  16. The associations between immunity-related genes and breast cancer prognosis in Korean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Choi

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of common genetic variation in immune-related genes on breast cancer disease-free survival (DFS in Korean women. 107 breast cancer patients of the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS were selected for this study. A total of 2,432 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 283 immune-related genes were genotyped with the GoldenGate Oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA. A multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model and polygenic risk score model were used to estimate the effects of SNPs on breast cancer prognosis. Harrell's C index was calculated to estimate the predictive accuracy of polygenic risk score model. Subsequently, an extended gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA-SNP was conducted to approximate the biological pathway. In addition, to confirm our results with current evidence, previous studies were systematically reviewed. Sixty-two SNPs were statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. The most significant SNPs were rs1952438 in SOCS4 gene (hazard ratio (HR = 11.99, 95% CI = 3.62-39.72, P = 4.84E-05, rs2289278 in TSLP gene (HR = 4.25, 95% CI = 2.10-8.62, P = 5.99E-05 and rs2074724 in HGF gene (HR = 4.63, 95% CI = 2.18-9.87, P = 7.04E-05. In the polygenic risk score model, the HR of women in the 3rd tertile was 6.78 (95% CI = 1.48-31.06 compared to patients in the 1st tertile of polygenic risk score. Harrell's C index was 0.813 with total patients and 0.924 in 4-fold cross validation. In the pathway analysis, 18 pathways were significantly associated with breast cancer prognosis (P<0.1. The IL-6R, IL-8, IL-10RB, IL-12A, and IL-12B was associated with the prognosis of cancer in data of both our study and a previous study. Therefore, our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in immune-related genes have relevance to breast cancer prognosis among Korean women.

  17. Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Guo; Bin Dong; Jia-Fu Ji; Ai-Wen Wu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the expression of myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 (MR-1) in relation to clinicopathological parameters and postoperative survival in a group of Chinese patients with gastric cancer.METHODS:In our previous study of human wholegenome gene expression profiling,the differentially expressed genes were detected in the gastric cancer and its adjacent noncancerous mucosa.We found that MR-1 was associated with the location and differentiation of tumors.In this study,MR-1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in specimens of primary cancer and the adjacent noncancerous tissues from gastric cancer patients.A set of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays based on the Universal ProbeLibrary-a collection of 165 presynthesized,fluorescence-labeled locked nucleic acid hydrolysis probes-was designed specifically to detect the expression of MR-1 mRNA.The correlation was analyzed between the expression of MR-1 and other tumor characteristics which may influence the prognosis of gastric cancer patients.A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis was carried out and clinical data were collected from medical records.RESULTS:MR-1 mRNA and protein could be detected in gastric cancer tissues as well as in matched noncancerous tissues.MR-1 was up-regulated at both mRNA (5.459 ± 0.639 vs 1.233 ± 0.238,P < 0.001) and protein levels (34.2% vs 13.2%,P =0.003) in gastric cancer tissues.Correlation analysis demonstrated that high expression of MR-1 in gastric cancer was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P =0.034).Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the postoperative survival of the MR-1 positive group tended to be poorer than that of the MR-1 negative group,and the difference was statistically significant (P =0.002).Among all the patients with stage Ⅰ-Ⅳ carcinoma,the 5-year survival rates of MR-1 positive and negative groups were 50.40% and 12.70%,respectively,with respective median survival times of 64.27 mo (95

  18. Stem cell-like gene expression in ovarian cancer predicts type II subtype and prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Schwede

    Full Text Available Although ovarian cancer is often initially chemotherapy-sensitive, the vast majority of tumors eventually relapse and patients die of increasingly aggressive disease. Cancer stem cells are believed to have properties that allow them to survive therapy and may drive recurrent tumor growth. Cancer stem cells or cancer-initiating cells are a rare cell population and difficult to isolate experimentally. Genes that are expressed by stem cells may characterize a subset of less differentiated tumors and aid in prognostic classification of ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was the genomic identification and characterization of a subtype of ovarian cancer that has stem cell-like gene expression. Using human and mouse gene signatures of embryonic, adult, or cancer stem cells, we performed an unsupervised bipartition class discovery on expression profiles from 145 serous ovarian tumors to identify a stem-like and more differentiated subgroup. Subtypes were reproducible and were further characterized in four independent, heterogeneous ovarian cancer datasets. We identified a stem-like subtype characterized by a 51-gene signature, which is significantly enriched in tumors with properties of Type II ovarian cancer; high grade, serous tumors, and poor survival. Conversely, the differentiated tumors share properties with Type I, including lower grade and mixed histological subtypes. The stem cell-like signature was prognostic within high-stage serous ovarian cancer, classifying a small subset of high-stage tumors with better prognosis, in the differentiated subtype. In multivariate models that adjusted for common clinical factors (including grade, stage, age, the subtype classification was still a significant predictor of relapse. The prognostic stem-like gene signature yields new insights into prognostic differences in ovarian cancer, provides a genomic context for defining Type I/II subtypes, and potential gene targets which following further

  19. Analysis of the Clinicopathologic Features and Prognosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehong Yang; Hong Liu; Jing Zhao

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical and pathological features,as well as prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients.METHODS A total of 509 cases of operable breast cancer from January,2002 to June,2002 treated in the Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University were analyzed.The Her-2,ER and PR status was determined using immunohistochemistry.Of the total cases,one group was identified as triple negative breast cancer,ie defined as ER,PR and Her-2 negative.The other group was nontriple-negative breast cancer.Clinicopathologic features of the groups were compared and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS)analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method.RESULTS Of the total cases,21.4% (109/509) of cases were found to be triple- negative while 78.6% (400/509) were non-triplenegative.The triple negative group had higher incidence rates than the non-triple-negative group of the medullary type and Grade Ⅲ tumors (P < 0.05).There was no other difference in the clinicopathologic features between the 2 groups.From follow-up to June,2007,21.1% (23/109) of the triple-negative group and 12.7%(51/400) of the non-triple negative group had a local recurrence or distant metastasis,resulting in a significant difference (P < 0.05).In the triple-negative group and non-triple-negative group,5-year DFS were 78.9% and 87.3% respectively.There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.031).CONCLUSION Compared with non-triple-negative breast cancer,triple-negative breast cancer patients have an increased likehood of a local recurrence or distant metastasis and a poorer prognosis.

  20. Clinical value of prognosis gene expression signatures in colorectal cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Sanz-Pamplona

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The traditional staging system is inadequate to identify those patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC at high risk of recurrence or with stage III CRC at low risk. A number of gene expression signatures to predict CRC prognosis have been proposed, but none is routinely used in the clinic. The aim of this work was to assess the prediction ability and potential clinical usefulness of these signatures in a series of independent datasets. METHODS: A literature review identified 31 gene expression signatures that used gene expression data to predict prognosis in CRC tissue. The search was based on the PubMed database and was restricted to papers published from January 2004 to December 2011. Eleven CRC gene expression datasets with outcome information were identified and downloaded from public repositories. Random Forest classifier was used to build predictors from the gene lists. Matthews correlation coefficient was chosen as a measure of classification accuracy and its associated p-value was used to assess association with prognosis. For clinical usefulness evaluation, positive and negative post-tests probabilities were computed in stage II and III samples. RESULTS: Five gene signatures showed significant association with prognosis and provided reasonable prediction accuracy in their own training datasets. Nevertheless, all signatures showed low reproducibility in independent data. Stratified analyses by stage or microsatellite instability status showed significant association but limited discrimination ability, especially in stage II tumors. From a clinical perspective, the most predictive signatures showed a minor but significant improvement over the classical staging system. CONCLUSIONS: The published signatures show low prediction accuracy but moderate clinical usefulness. Although gene expression data may inform prognosis, better strategies for signature validation are needed to encourage their widespread use in the clinic.

  1. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  2. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES IN THE PROPHYLAXIS OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Wrześniewska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Poland is one of the countries with high cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The main means to change this situation is to manage an active and modern programme of cervical cancer prophylaxis and diagnostics. To a large extent, the effectiveness of a cervical cancer prophylaxis programme is decided by the availability of modern diagnostic research. The conventional Papanicolaou test and modern LBC cytology techniques were discussed in the article, taking into consideration HPV diagnostics in the procedures for carefully selected cytological diagnosis, in the so called in-depth stage of preventive screening tests and the role of the p16 biomarker in predicting the development of a higher degree of epithelial-cell pathologies of the cervix. Colposcopy as a diagnostic method for the verification of cytological and virological abnormalities. The modern LEEP/LLETZ procedure used in diagnosis and treatment of cervical changes is used to realise the in-depth stage of cervical cancer prophylaxis programmes.

  3. The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio is associated with breast cancer prognosis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bajin; Yao, Minya; Xing, Chunyang; Wang, Wei; Yao, Jia; Hong, Yun; Liu, Yu; Fu, Peifen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common female malignancy within the spectrum of human cancer. One promising way to reduce the mortality and morbidity of BC is to explore novel diagnostic markers for early diagnosis and prognostication. The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a good reflection of inflammation, which plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the association between NLR and BC prognosis remains unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis is to explore the prognostic value of NLR in BC. Among the screened references in the database, 12 eligible studies were identified in this study. Patients with a higher NLR had a shorter disease-free survival (hazard ratio =1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.90, P=0.044) and overall survival (hazard ratio =2.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.41-2.93, Phuman epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative BC subtypes. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that NLR is a good prognostic marker for BC, and patients with a higher NLR have poorer prognoses. Future studies should perform more detailed investigations to decrease heterogeneity and determine the appropriate cut-off values for different races. PMID:27660475

  4. Colorectal cancers with aneuploids show high CD133 expression and poor prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongdong Yu; Yonghong Zhang; You Zou; Ming Tian; Deding Tao; Junbo Hu; Jianping Gong

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of DNA ploidy status in colorectal cancers with patients' prognosis and also the relationship of DNA ploidy status with expression of the colorectal cancer stem cell marker CD133.Methods:The DNA ploidy status and CD133 expression in colorectal cancers were detected by flow cytometry.The clinicopathological characteristics and progression-free survival analysis of patients was evaluated based on the clinical data.Results:DNA ploidy pattern did not correlated with gender,age,lesion diameter,histological type,depth of tumor invasion,lymphatic invasion and Dukes stage.Only primary lesion cite showed significant correlation with DNA ploidy pattern,more aneuploids were observed in colonic cancer than rectal cancer,P < 0.05.The 2-year progression-free survival rate and total progression-free time in patients with aneuploids were lower than that with diploids,P < 0.05.Tumors contained aneuploids showed higher expression of CD133 than tumors of only diploids,P < 0.05.Conclusion:Tumor DNA ploidy status is a significant prognostic factor in patients with colorectal cancer and also associated with the existence of CD133 positive colorectal cancer stem cells.

  5. Tissular and soluble miRNAs for diagnostic and therapy improvement in digestive tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albulescu, Radu; Neagu, Monica; Albulescu, Lucian; Tanase, Cristiana

    2011-01-01

    Digestive cancers (e.g., gastric, colorectal, pancreatic or hepatocarcinoma) are among the most frequently reported cancers in the world, and are characterized by invasivity, metastatic potential and poor outcomes. This group includes some of the most critical cancers (among them, are those ranked second to forth in cancer-related mortality) and, despite all sustained efforts, they maintain a profile of low survival rates and lack successful therapies. Discovery of biomarkers that improve disease characterization may make optimized or personalized therapy possible. Novel biomarkers are expected to provide, hopefully, less-invasive or noninvasive diagnostic tools that make possible earlier detection of disease. Also, they may provide a more reliable selection instrument in the drug discovery process. miRNAs, short noncoding RNAs, have emerged in the last few years as significant regulators of cellular activities, controlling protein expression at the post-transcriptional level, with a significant implication in pathology in general and, of most relevance, in cancers. Deregulation of miRNA expression levels and some genetic alterations were demonstrated in various cancers, including digestive cancers. Investigations in tissue samples have provided a considerable amount of knowledge, identifying altered expressions of miRNAs associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Overexpression of some tumor-inducing or tumor-promoting miRNAs was demonstrated, as well as the downregulation of tumor-suppressor miRNAs. Both individual miRNAs, as well as sets of multiple miRNAs, were set up as candidate biomarkers for diagnostics or monitoring, offering relevant insights into tumorigenic mechanisms. Circulating miRNAs were demonstrated as valuable instruments in tumor diagnosis and the prognosis of digestive cancers (affecting the esophagus, stomach, intestine, colorectum, liver and pancreas), and are being investigated thoroughly in order to generate and validate less

  6. Menopausal symptoms among breast cancer patients: a potential indicator of favorable prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    Full Text Available Menopausal symptoms have been suggested to be an indicator of better prognosis among patients treated for breast cancer, because women who experience these symptoms usually have a lower level of estrogen. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based, prospective cohort study involving 4,842 women with stage 0 to III primary breast cancer who were enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study between March 2002 and April 2006, were aged 20 to 75 years, and were recruited 6 months post-diagnosis. They were followed-up by in-person surveys and record linkages with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of menopausal symptoms at baseline with breast cancer recurrence. Approximately 56% of patients experienced at least one menopausal symptom, including hot flashes, night sweats, and/or vaginal dryness at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 720 women had a recurrence. Experiencing hot flashes or having ≥2 menopausal symptoms was associated with lower risk of recurrence among premenopausal women (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96 for hot flashes; 0.73, 0.56-0.96 for ≥2 menopausal symptoms. Lower recurrence risk in relation to hot flashes was also observed among women who were not overweight/obese (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99, those with relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR (HR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97, and those who used tamoxifen (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98. Consistently experiencing multiple menopausal symptoms was associated with lower recurrence risk among women with low WHR or who used tamoxifen. This large, population-based cohort study of women with breast cancer confirms that experiencing menopausal symptoms is an indicator of favorable breast cancer prognosis.

  7. PROGNOSIS OF PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER RELATED TO THE TIMING OF OPERATION DURING MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Baoning

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of operation timing during menstrual cycle on the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. Methods: 218 operated premenopausal patients with breast cancer had been followed-up for more than 10 years. Prognostic factors related to these patients had been selected to be underwent univariate analysis and multivariate analysis by Cox regression model. Results: Univariage analysis showed that the menstrual timing of operation, as other Known prognostic factors (tumor size, node status,histological grade, TNM classification, adjuvent systemic therapy, etc), had an influence on the patients' outcome.Multivariate analysis by Cox regression model indicated that disease-free rate and overall survival rate of patients operated during the periovulatory phase (123 cases) were significantly superior to those operated during the premenstrual phase (95 cases) (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in prognosis between patients who received operations during the follicular phase (96 cases)and those during the luteal phase (122 cases) (P>0.01).Conclusion: Probably there is an optimal timing of operation for premenopausal breast cancer patients. Any prospective, randomized clinical study should be carried out to make this problem clear.

  8. Gene Expression Signature TOPFOX Reflecting Chromosomal Instability Refines Prediction of Prognosis in Grade 2 Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szasz, A.; Li, Qiyuan; Sztupinszki, Z.;

    2011-01-01

    were diagnosed between 1999–2002 at the Budai MA´ V Hospital. 187 formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples were included in the qPCR-based measurement of expression of AURKA, FOXM1, TOP2A and TPX2 genes. The expression of the genes were correlated to recurrencefree survival (RFS) and...... immunophenotypical characterization of tumours. 1509 samples were in silico analyzed for further validation of the selected genes. Results: Grade 1 and 3 groups were used as training set for the selected genes. The 4-gene signature was able to split grade 2 carcinomas (n = 62) into a good and a poor prognosis group...

  9. Human papillomavirus research on the prevention, diagnosis, and prognosis of cervical cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Huang, Huei-Jean; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is third in incidence and fourth in mortality among cancers of women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, if not sufficient, to cause nearly 100% of cervical cancers. HPV testing is useful in primary screening for cervical neoplasms. The value of HPV detection or genotyping is potentially useful in triage of borderline or low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, assessment of prognosis and treatment planning for invasive cervical cancer. Studies from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital have defined the genotype distribution of cervical cancer in Taiwan and confirmed the independent prognostic value of the HPV genotype in cervical cancer. The cost-effectiveness of using HPV testing in prevention and management of cervical neoplasms depends on the medical and public health infrastructure of the individual country. The population-based HPV prevalence and genotype distribution as well as longitudinal follow-up studies have established strong support for incorporating HPV testing with cervical cytology and for future comparisons of HPV epidemiology before and after implementation of HPV prophylactic vaccines in Taiwan. Future directions in HPV research are discussed. PMID:22913856

  10. Clinical features and prognosis of obese breast cancer patients:a retrospective study*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhendong Zheng; Heng Cao; Shuxian Qu; Yongye Liu; Ying Piao; Xiaodong Xie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to investigate the prognosis of obese breast cancer patients. Methods:This study was conducted on a total of 317 breast cancer patients who were histopathological y and clinical y diagnosed at the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region (China) from 2004 to 2006. Clinical data including height, weight, age at diagnosis, tumor size, lymph node status, menopausal status, family history of cancer and hormone receptor status were col-lected. Log-rank test was performed to compare the disease free survival (DFS) and overal survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to make multivariate analysis. The Chi square test was used to compare the clinical features among normal weight group, overweight group, and obese group. Results:Obesity was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (P=0.022) and OS (P=0.032) in breast cancer patients. In the stratified analysis based on the hormone receptor status, obesity was independently associated with OS in patients with negative ER/PR (P=0.002), but such association was not observed in patients with positive hormone receptors. Obesity was also associated with lymph node status (P=0.001) and smoking (P=0.009). Conclusion:Obesity is associated with poor DFS and OS in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, maintaining normal weight may benefit breast cancer patients.

  11. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load in Relation to Breast Cancer Prognosis in the HEAL Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, F.N.; Kampman, E.; McTiernan, A.; Bernstein, L.; Baumgartner, K.; Baumgartner, R.; Ambs, A.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Neuhouser, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. Methods: We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among

  12. 2q36.3 is associated with prognosis for oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Li (Jingmei); L.S. Lindström (Linda); J.N. Foo (Jia); M. Rafiq (Meena); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); J. Dennis (Joe); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); S. Cornelissen (Sten); E.J.T. Rutgers (Emiel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); C. Apicella (Carmel); G.S. Dite (Gillian); J.L. Hopper (John); P.A. Fasching (Peter); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); C. Blomqvist (Carl); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J. Hartikainen (Jaana); V. Kataja (Vesa); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); K. Investigators (Kconfab); K.-A. Phillips (Kelly-Anne); S.-A. McLachlan (Sue-Anne); D. Lambrechts (Diether); B. Thienpont (Bernard); A. Smeets (Ann); H. Wildiers (Hans); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P. Seibold (Petra); A. Rudolph (Anja); G.G. Giles (Graham); L. Baglietto (Laura); G. Severi (Gianluca); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L. Le Marchand (Loic); V. Kristensen (Vessela); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); S. Nord (Silje); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); M. Kriege (Mieke); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); Y. Li (Yi); U. Hamann (Ute); D. Torres (Diana); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); T. Rüdiger (Thomas); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); C.-N. Hsiung (Chia-Ni); P.-E. Wu (Pei-Ei); S.-T. Chen (Shou-Tung); S.-H. Teo; N.A.M. Taib (Nur Aishah Mohd); C. Har Yip (Cheng); G. Fuang Ho (Gwo); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); H. Ito (Hidemi); H. Iwata (Hisato); K. Tajima (Kazuo); D. Kang (Daehee); J.-Y. Choi (Ji-Yeob); S.K. Park (Sue); K-Y. Yoo (Keun-Young); T. Maishman (Tom); W. Tapper (William); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); J. Brown (Judith); C. Chuen Khor (Chiea); D. Eccles (Diana); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); J. Liu (Jianjun); P. Hall (Per); K. Czene (Kamila)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractLarge population-based registry studies have shown that breast cancer prognosis is inherited. Here we analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes implicated in human immunology and inflammation as candidates for prognostic markers of breast cancer survival involving 1,804 oes

  13. Dietary fiber, carbohydrates, glycemic index, and glycemic load in relation to breast cancer prognosis in the HEAL cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, F.N.; Kampman, E.; McTiernan, A.; Bernstein, L.; Baumgartner, K.; Baumgartner, R.; Ambs, A.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Neuhouser, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. METHODS: We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among

  14. Host-guest supramolecular nanosystems for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Li-li; Fan, Yun-shan; Wang, Hao

    2013-07-26

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the construction of functional supramolecular nanosystems for applications in catalysis, energy conversion, sensing and biomedicine. The applications of supramolecular nanosystems such as liposomes, micelles, inorganic nanoparticles, carbon materials for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics have been reviewed by other groups. Here, we will focus on the recent momentous advances in the implementation of typical supramolecular hosts (i.e., cyclodextrins, calixarenes, cucurbiturils and metallo-hosts) and their nanosystems in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. We discuss the evolutive process of supramolecular nanosystems from the structural control and characterization to their diagnostic and therapeutic function exploitation and even the future potentials for clinical translation.

  15. Identifying subgroups among poor prognosis patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer by tree modelling: a validation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Merel; Steyerberg, Ewout; Stenning, S. P.; Habbema, Dik

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In order to target intensive treatment strategies for poor prognosis patients with non-seminomatous germ cell cancer, those with the poorest prognosis should be identified. These patients might profit most from more intensive treatment strategies. For this purpose, a regression tree was previously developed on 332 patients. We aimed to evaluate the performance and structure of this tree. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The previously developed tree was applied to 456 patients wi...

  16. Malnutrition in Renal Failure: Pleiotropic Diagnostic Approaches, Inefficient Therapy and Bad Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knap, Bojan; Arnol, Miha; Romozi, Karmen; Marn Pernat, Andreja; Gubenšek, Jakob; Ponikvar, Rafael; Buturović-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Večerić-Haler, Željka

    2016-06-01

    Malnutrition is very common and connected with high morbidity and mortality of patients on chronic hemodialysis. A cross-sectional, longitudinal study was performed in maintenance dialysis patients intending to determine association between modified Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), serum albumin and mortality. Cross-sectional study of phase angle (PhA) values and other indices of bioelectrical impedance body analysis (BIA) were correlated to biochemical data and malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS). In the group of 184 hemodialysis patients, we found 39 malnourished patients. In overall 50 months of observation, 25 out of 39 malnourished patients died. All patients with albumin values less than 30 g/L died. The group with albumin values greater than 30 g/L (N = 26) showed higher survival rate, 12 patients died in the observed period. SGA values higher than 21 and albumin values lower than 30 g/L are useful predictors of death in malnourished dialysis patients. PhA is an independent predictor of malnutrition with promising potential to replace other diagnostic tools. PMID:27312914

  17. Diagnostic features of lung metastases differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Geliashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The worldwide increasing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC is mainly due to a rise in its major form of differentiated TC (DTC: papillary. Most patients with DTC have a good prognosis; 10-year survival overall rates are as high as 85 %, but not greater than 40 % in a group of patients with distant metastases. At the same time, the lung is the most frequent target for distant metastases, accounting for 70 % of all sites.Objective: to estimate and compare the capabilities of different diagnostic techniques to detect lung metastases of DTC. Materials and methods. The results of diagnosing lung metastases were retrospectively analyzed in 36 patients (33 women and 3 men; mean age 53 years with DTC (29 patients with papillary TC and 7 with follicular TC treated at the department of radiotherapy with systemic therapy, Chelyabinsk Regional Clinical Oncology Center from 2011 to 2014.Results. Chest X-ray could reveal pulmonary metastases in 13 (36 % patients; lung pathology foci were absent in 23 (64 % patients. 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS proved to be of informative value in 24 (66.7 % patients, it displayed no increased accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the lung of 12 (33.3 % cases. Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT of the chest was carried out in 22 (61 % patients; out of them 21 (95.5 % were found to have 1.4-to-20-mm lung cancer foci. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT was performed in 18 (50 % patients, which showed 3–26-mm lung pathology foci in all the patents; out of them 16 (88.9 % were detected to have metastases owing to the CT component of this method. Thus, the highest sensitivity was exhibited by MSCT (95.5 %, 18FDG PET / CT (100 % due to its CT component, and 131I WBS (66.7 %.Conclusion. When lung metastases of DTC are suspected, 1 chest X-ray should be used as a screening test; 2 131I WBS should be performed in all patients; 3 MSCT of the chest is

  18. Identification and targeting of a TACE-dependent autocrine loopwhich predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2005-06-15

    The ability to proliferate independently of signals from other cell types is a fundamental characteristic of tumor cells. Using a 3D culture model of human breast cancer progression, we have delineated a protease-dependent autocrine loop which provides an oncogenic stimulus in the absence of proto-oncogene mutation. Inhibition of this protease, TACE/ADAM17, reverts the malignant phenotype by preventing mobilization of two crucial growth factors, Amphiregulin and TGF{alpha}. We show further that the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors is overcome by physiological levels of growth factors and that successful EGFR inhibition is dependent on reducing ligand bioavailability. Using existing patient outcome data, we demonstrate a strong correlation between TACE and TGF{alpha} expression in human breast cancers that is predictive of poor prognosis.

  19. Polymorphisms of interleukin-10 promoter are not associated with prognosis of advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Liu; Bao Song; Jia-Lin Wang; Zeng-Jun Li; Wan-Hu Li; Zhe-Hai Wang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between of the interleukin- 10 (IL-10) promoter polymorphisms and survival of advanced gastric cancer (GC) patients. METHODS: The IL-10 (-1082, rs1800896; -819, rs1800871; and-592, rs1800896) genotypes in 234 patients with advanced gastric cancer and in 243 healthy controls were determined by polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression for the associations between IL-10 genotypes and the risk of GC. The Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank testing was used to evaluate the association between genotype and survival of the patients. RESULTS: The IL-10 -1082 G allele and GCC (-1082, -819 and -592) haplotype were associated with increased gastric cancer risks (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-3.2, P = 0.007, for -1082 G allele, OR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.2-4.1, P = 0.005, for GCC haplotype, respectively). However, none of the three IL-10 gene polymorphisms (-1082, -819 and -592) was correlated with gastric cancer survival (P > 0.05), and none of the genotypes of the three IL-10 sites was found as independent prognostic risk factors in the multivariate test. CONCLUSION: IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms may not be associated with the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer.

  20. Does Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer Imply a Worse Prognosis? A Matched Case-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakakis, Constantine; Zagouri, Flora; Tsigginou, Alexandra; Marinopoulos, Spyros; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Keramopoulos, Antonis; Zografos, George C.; Ampela, Konstantina; Mpaltas, Dimosthenis; Papadimitriou, Christos; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios; Antsaklis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Significant controversy exists in the literature regarding the role of pregnancy in the prognosis of breast cancer. We designed a matched case-case study, matching pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) cases with breast cancer cases for stage, age, and year of diagnosis. Patients and Methods 39 consecutive cases of PABC were matched with 39 premenopausal cases of breast cancer. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses followed by adjustment for stage, grade, estrogen receptor status, and age at diagnosis, were performed. Results Regarding overall survival (OS), univariate analysis pointed to longer OS in non-PABC cases vs. PABC cases. Accordingly, a more advanced stage predicted shorter survival. In the multivariate analysis, the independent aggravating effect mediated by pregnancy persisted. Interestingly, a post hoc nested analysis within PABC cases indicated that the 3rd trimester pointed to shorter OS. The aforementioned results on OS were also replicated during the examination of relapse-free survival. Conclusion Implementing a matched case-case design, the present study points to pregnancy as a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer. PMID:24415971

  1. Use of immunohistochemical markers can refine prognosis in triple negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheang Maggie CU

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal-like breast cancer has been extensively characterized on the basis of gene expression profiles, but it is becoming increasingly common for these tumors to be defined on the basis of immunohistochemical (IHC staining patterns, particularly in retrospective studies where material for expression profiling may not be available. The IHC pattern that best defines basal-like tumors is under investigation and various combinations of ER, PR, HER2-, CK5/6+ and EGFR+ have been tested. Methods Using datasets from two different hospitals we describe how using different combinations of immunohistochemical patterns has different effects on estimating prognosis at different time intervals after diagnosis. As our baseline, we used two IHC patterns ER-/PR-/HER2-("triple negative phenotype", TNP and ER-/HER2-/CK5/6+ and/or EGFR+ ("core basal phenotype", CBP. Results There was no overall difference in survival between the two hospital-based series, but there was a difference between the TNP and non-TNP groups which was most marked at 3 years (76.8% vs 93.5%, p Conclusion Our findings suggests that CK5/6 and/or EGFR expressing tumor types have a persistently poorer prognosis over the longer term, an observation that may have important therapeutic implications as drugs that target the EGFR are currently being evaluated in breast cancer.

  2. REG4 Independently Predicts Better Prognosis in Non-Mucinous Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprio, Tuomas; Hagström, Jaana; Mustonen, Harri; Koskensalo, Selja; Andersson, Leif C.; Haglund, Caj

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the world’s three most common cancers and its incidence is rising. To identify patients who benefit from adjuvant therapy requires novel biomarkers. The regenerating islet-derived gene (REG) 4 belongs to a group of small secretory proteins involved in cell proliferation and regeneration. Its up-regulated expression occurs in inflammatory bowel diseases also in gastrointestinal cancers. Reports on the association of REG4 expression with CRC prognosis have been mixed. Our aim was to investigate tumor REG4 expression in CRC patients and its coexpression with other intestinal markers. Methods Tumor expression of REG4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 840 consecutive surgically treated CRC patients at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, synapthophysin, and chromogranin was evaluated in a subgroup of 220 consecutively operated CRC patients. REG4 expression with clinicopathological parameters, other intestinal markers, and the impact of REG4 expression on survival were assessed. Results REG4 expression associated with favorable clinicopathological parameters and with higher overall survival from non-mucinous CRC (p = 0.019). For such patients under 65, its expression was an independent marker of lower risk of death within 5 years that cancer; univariable hazard ratio (HR) = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.34–0.94); multivariable HR = 0.55; 95% CI (0.33–0.92). In non-mucinous CRC, REG4 associated with positive MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC expression. Conclusion We show, to our knowledge for the first time, that REG4 IHC expression to be an independent marker of favorable prognosis in non-mucinous CRC. Our results contradict those from studies based on quantification of REG4 mRNA levels, a discrepancy warranting further studies. PMID:25295732

  3. REG4 independently predicts better prognosis in non-mucinous colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Kaprio

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the world's three most common cancers and its incidence is rising. To identify patients who benefit from adjuvant therapy requires novel biomarkers. The regenerating islet-derived gene (REG 4 belongs to a group of small secretory proteins involved in cell proliferation and regeneration. Its up-regulated expression occurs in inflammatory bowel diseases also in gastrointestinal cancers. Reports on the association of REG4 expression with CRC prognosis have been mixed. Our aim was to investigate tumor REG4 expression in CRC patients and its coexpression with other intestinal markers. METHODS: Tumor expression of REG4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 840 consecutive surgically treated CRC patients at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, synapthophysin, and chromogranin was evaluated in a subgroup of 220 consecutively operated CRC patients. REG4 expression with clinicopathological parameters, other intestinal markers, and the impact of REG4 expression on survival were assessed. RESULTS: REG4 expression associated with favorable clinicopathological parameters and with higher overall survival from non-mucinous CRC (p = 0.019. For such patients under 65, its expression was an independent marker of lower risk of death within 5 years that cancer; univariable hazard ratio (HR = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI (0.34-0.94; multivariable HR = 0.55; 95% CI (0.33-0.92. In non-mucinous CRC, REG4 associated with positive MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC expression. CONCLUSION: We show, to our knowledge for the first time, that REG4 IHC expression to be an independent marker of favorable prognosis in non-mucinous CRC. Our results contradict those from studies based on quantification of REG4 mRNA levels, a discrepancy warranting further studies.

  4. Net platelet angiogenic activity (NPAA correlates with progression and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Lijuan Yao

    Full Text Available Circulating platelets are abundant sources of angiogensis molecules for the tumor vasculature affecting tumor growth and metastasis. The relationship between non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and intra-platelet levels of VEGF, TSP-1 and net platelet angiogenic activity (NPAA is unclear. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of these factors in the progression of NSCLC cancer and to assess its clinical significance. Platelet VEGF and TSP-1 and NPAA were measured preoperatively in 68 patients with NSCLC by ELISA or Capillary tube formation assay. VEGF, TSP-1 and NPAA distributions in cancer patients and healthy volunteers were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Kaplan-Meier method, univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between these factors and clinicopathological features, overall survival and disease-free survival. Mean intra-platelet TSP-1 level was slightly higher in patients than in healthy subjects (p = 0.092. Intra-platelet TSP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with involvement greater than T2 or stage III, compared to other patients. Mean intra-platelet VEGF level was 40.8 pg/10⁶ in patients compared to 21.9 ng/10⁶ in healthy subjects (p = 0.041. Median value of NPAA in patients was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p<0.001. Patients with high NPAA are more likely to exhibit aggressive clinical pathological features. NPAA greater than the median are associated with poor prognosis. The elevated NPAA have better correlation with tumor microvessel density (MVD than platelet-derived VEGF. The areas under receiver operating curve (AUROC of NPAA were higher than that of platelet derived VEGF in different groups. A multivariate analysis showed that NPAA are independent prognostic factors. These results indicated that NPAA may be a clinically useful indicator for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation in NSCLC patients.

  5. Cancer-testis antigens PRAME and NY-ESO-1 correlate with tumour grade and poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iura, Kunio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Hotokebuchi, Yuka; Ishii, Takeaki; Maekawa, Akira; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-07-01

    Myxoid liposarcoma is the second most common liposarcoma. Although myxoid liposarcoma is relatively chemosensitive and thus a good candidate for chemotherapy, cases with relapsed or metastatic disease still have poor outcome. Here, we performed a gene microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles in six clinical myxoid liposarcoma samples and three normal adipose tissue samples, and to identify molecular biomarkers that would be useful as diagnostic markers or treatment targets in myxoid liposarcoma. This showed that the cancer-testis antigen PRAME was up-regulated in myxoid liposarcoma. We then performed immunohistochemical, western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses to quantify the expression of PRAME and another cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1, in clinical samples of myxoid liposarcoma (n = 93), dedifferentiated (n = 46), well-differentiated (n = 32) and pleomorphic liposarcomas (n = 14). Immunohistochemically, positivity for PRAME and NY-ESO-1 was observed in 84/93 (90%) and 83/93 (89%) of the myxoid liposarcomas, and in 20/46 (43%) and 3/46 (7%) of the dedifferentiated, 3/32 (9%) and 1/32 (3%) of the well-differentiated and 7/14 (50%) and 3/21 (21%) of the pleomorphic liposarcomas, respectively. High immunohistochemical expression of PRAME and/or NY-ESO-1 was significantly correlated with tumour diameter, the existence of tumour necrosis, a round-cell component of >5%, higher histological grade and advanced clinical stage. High PRAME and NY-ESO-1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in a univariate analysis. The myxoid liposarcomas showed significantly higher protein and mRNA expression levels of PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) than the other liposarcomas. In conclusion, PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) were expressed in the vast majority of myxoid liposarcomas, and their high-level expression correlated with tumour grade and poor prognosis. Our results support the potential use of PRAME and NY

  6. Long term prognosis of women with breast cancer in New Zealand: study of survival to 30 years.

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    Hibberd, A. D.; Horwood, L J; Wells, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The long term prognosis of women with breast cancer was studied by analysing retrospectively the 30 year survival of 2019 women with histologically proved breast cancer recorded at the National Cancer Registry in New Zealand between 1950 and 1954. Excess mortality rates for successive five year survival cohorts were calculated from the survival data. From the total cohort the excess mortality rate fell rapidly during the first 10 years and then became low after 20 years. There were no signifi...

  7. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in young patients with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, C.J.; Twomey, M.; O' Regan, K.N. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Murphy, K.P.; Maher, M.M.; O' Connor, O.J. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); McLaughlin, P.D. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Emergency and Trauma Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Power, D.G. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Medical Oncology, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-04-01

    Risks associated with high cumulative effective dose (CED) from radiation are greater when imaging is performed on younger patients. Testicular cancer affects young patients and has a good prognosis. Regular imaging is standard for follow-up. This study quantifies CED from diagnostic imaging in these patients. Radiological imaging of patients aged 18-39 years, diagnosed with testicular cancer between 2001 and 2011 in two tertiary care centres was examined. Age at diagnosis, cancer type, dose-length product (DLP), imaging type, and frequency were recorded. CED was calculated from DLP using conversion factors. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In total, 120 patients with a mean age of 30.7 ± 5.2 years at diagnosis had 1,410 radiological investigations. Median (IQR) surveillance was 4.37 years (2.0-5.5). Median (IQR) CED was 125.1 mSv (81.3-177.5). Computed tomography accounted for 65.3 % of imaging studies and 98.3 % of CED. We found that 77.5 % (93/120) of patients received high CED (>75 mSv). Surveillance time was associated with high CED (OR 2.1, CI 1.5-2.8). Survivors of testicular cancer frequently receive high CED from diagnostic imaging, mainly CT. Dose management software for accurate real-time monitoring of CED and low-dose CT protocols with maintained image quality should be used by specialist centres for surveillance imaging. (orig.)

  8. Tumor markers for diagnosis, monitoring of recurrence and prognosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

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    Jing, Jie-Xian; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Ting; Tian, Bao-Guo; Du, Li-Li; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Han, Cun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS for the clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer and to analyze the efficacy of these tumor markers (TMs) in evaluating curative effects and prognosis. A total of 573 patients with upper GIT cancer between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were examined preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively by ELISA. The sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were 26.8%, 36.2%, 42.9%, 2.84%, 25.4%, 34.6%, 34.2% and 30.9%, respectively. The combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 had higher sensitivity and specificity in gastric cancer (GC) and cardiac cancer, while CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC was the best combination of diagnosis for esophageal cancer (EC). Elevation of preoperative CEA, CA19-9 and CA24-2, SCC and CA72-4 was significantly associated with pathological types (pCEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC decreased obviously 3 months after operations. When metastasis and recurrence occurred, the levels of TMs significantly increased. On multivariate analysis, high preoperative CA72-4, CA24-2 and SCC served as prognostic factors for cardiac carcinoma, GC and EC, respectively. combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC proved to be the most economic and practical strategy in diagnosis of EC; CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 proved to be a better evaluation indicator for cardiac cancer and GC. CEA and CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC, examined postoperatively during follow-up, were useful to find early tumor recurrence and metastasis, and evaluate prognosis. AFP, TPA and TPS have no significant value in diagnosis of patients with upper GIT cancer.

  9. Lung cancer associated hypercalcemia: An analysis of factors influencing survival and prognosis in 34 cases

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    Su-jie ZHANG

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  To explore the factors influencing survival time in lung cancer associated hypercalcemia patients. Methods  Thirty-four patients with pathologically confirmed lung cancer complicated with hypercalcemia, who were treated at the Department of Oncology in General Hospital of PLA from Jan. 2001 to Dec. 2010, were enrolled in this study. The clinical data analyzed included sex, age, pathological type of the malignancies, organ metastasis (bone, lung, liver, kidney, brain, number of distal metastatic site, mental status, interval between final diagnosis of lung cancer and of hypercalcemia, peak value of blood calcium during the disease course, treatment methods and so on. Survival analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox analysis with statistic software SPSS 18.0 to identify the potential prognostic factors. Results  The highest blood calcium level ranged from 2.77 to 4.87mmol/L, and the median value was 2.94mmol/L. The patients' survival time after diagnosis of hypercalcemia varied from 1 day to 1067 days, and the median survival time was 92 days. With the log-rank test, age above 50 years old, hypercalcemia occurring over 90 days after diagnosis of cancer, central nervous system symptoms and renal metastasis were predictors for poor survival (P=0.048, P=0.001, P=0.000, P=0.003. In the COX proportional hazard model analysis, age above 50 years old, hypercalcemia occurring over 90 days after cancer diagnosis, central nervous system symptoms and renal metastasis were significant prognostic factors for poor survival (HR=11.483, P=0.006; HR=4.371, P=0.002; HR=6.064, P=0.026; HR=8.502, P=0.011. Conclusions  Patients with lung cancer associated hypercalcemia have a shorter survival time and poor prognosis. Age above 50 years old, hypercalcemia occurring over 90 days after cancer diagnosis, central nervous system symptoms and renal metastasis are significant factors of poor prognosis.

  10. BRCA2 promoter polymorphism is associated with breast cancer prognosis in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lu; Fang Yi; Fan Jianlin; Hu Jianming; Xu Xiaoting; Jin Xiaohong; Wang Xiuzhen

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) is an important breast cancer-susceptibility gene.Promoter polymorphisms in BRCA2 may affect its transcription and be associated with cancer prognosis.Methods We identified five polymorphisms of the BRCA2 promoter region by in silico searching and direct sequencing:-254A/G (rs3092989),-908A/G (rs206117),-1134A/G (rs206115),-1144C/T (rs206116),and-1260CTTAGA/-(rs3072036).The-908A/G,-1134A/G,-1144C/T,and-1260CTTAGA/-polymorphisms were genotyped by direct sequencing in 491 breast cancer patients,and the-254A/G polymorphism was genotyped by Sequenom.Results The-1144C/T polymorphism was associated with clinical outcome.Carriers of the TT genotype had longer disease-free intervals (DFIs,P=0.029),especially among patients with sporadic unilateral breast cancer (P=0.010).Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that all the five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were in LD (D'>0.8).Carriers of haplotypes containing the-1144T allele showed longer DFIs (P=0.049),and the result was more significant in patients with sporadic unilateral cancer (P=0.018).There were no significant associations between the other polymorphisms and DFI.Conclusions The results of this study suggest that homozygosity for the BRCA2 T(-1144) allele is associated with a longer DFI in Chinese women with breast cancer.Further functional studies are warranted to clarify this relationship.

  11. Evaluation of preoperative serum markers for individual patient prognosis in stage I-III rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessen, Clemens; Nagel, Dorothea; Glas, Maria; Spelsberg, Fritz; Lau-Werner, Ulla; Modest, Dominik Paul; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Stieber, Petra; Schulz, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    Several independent serum biomarkers have been proposed as prognostic and/or predictive markers for colorectal cancer (CRC). To this date, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) remains the only recommended serological CRC biomarker. The present retrospective analysis investigates the prognostic value of several serum markers. A total of 256 patients with rectal cancer underwent surgery for curative intent in a university cancer center between January 1988 and June 2007. Preoperative serum was retrospectively analyzed for albumin, alkaline phosphatase (aP), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, bilirubin, CA 125, cancer antigen 19-9, cancer antigen 72-4 (CA 72-4), CEA, CRP, CYFRA 21-1, ferritin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutamate oxaloacetate transanunase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, hemoglobin, haptoglobin, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, creatinine, lactate-dehydrogenase, serum amyloid A (SAA), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated. Median follow-up time was 8.4 years. Overall 3- and 5-year CSS was 88.6 and 78.9 %, respectively. DFS rates were 72.8 % (3 years) and 67.5 % (5 years). Univariate analysis of CSS indicated aP, CA 72-4, CEA, and SAA as prognostic factors, while aP, CEA, and SAA were also prognostic with regard to DFS. Multivariate analysis confirmed SAA together with T and N stage as prognostic factors. According to UICC stage, CEA and SAA add prognostic value in stages II and III with regard to DFS and CSS, respectively. The combined use of CEA and SAA is able to identify patients with favorable and poor prognosis. In addition to tumor baseline parameters, routine analysis of SAA together with CEA provided markedly improved prognostic value on CSS and DFS in resected rectal cancer. PMID:25027407

  12. Papillary Thyroid Cancer, Macrofollicular Variant: The Follow-Up and Analysis of Prognosis of 5 Patients

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    Varlık Erol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main aim of this study was to comparatively analyze the recurrence and prognosis of this rare variant with the literature by analyzing the follow-up data of 5 patients diagnosed with papillary cancer macrofollicular variant. Methods. The demographic data, radiological and pathological data, and prognostic data of 5 patients who underwent surgery for thyroid cancer and were diagnosed with papillary cancer macrofollicular variant pathologically were retrospectively analyzed. Results. The mean age of patients whose mean follow-up period was determined as 7.2 years was 41, and the male/female ratio was 4/1. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy. The pathology report of 2 patients (40% revealed macrofollicular variant of papillary microcancer, and 3 patients papillary cancer macrofollicular variant. Central dissection was performed in one patient (20% due to macroscopic pathologic lymph node and 4 metastatic lymph nodes were reported. Also, locoregional recurrence was present in 3 out of 5 patients (60%. Conclusions. Although an impression of earlier and increased risk of recurrence in papillary carcinoma with macrofollicular variant has been documented, more studies with extensive follow-up times and large populations are required.

  13. Human papilloma virus (HPV) status associated with prognosis of cervical cancer after radiotherapy

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    Harima, Yoko; Miyazaki, Yuki; Imamura, Masahiro; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Sawada, Satoshi [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Our study explored whether the HPV status of tumors is associated with the outcome of radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. A total of 84 patients with cervical cancer (6 stage I, 10 stage II, 49 stage III, and 19 stage IV) who underwent definitive radiotherapy between January 1995 and June 2000 were included in this study. Tumor samples were obtained from all patients by punch biopsy prior to radiotherapy. The presence of HPV and its type were analyzed by PCR-based assay using the consensus primers for E6 and L1 regions. Actuarial methods were used to calculate overall survival, and disease-free survival. A total of 42 patients (50%) had cancer recurrence after radiotherapy. HPV-positive tumors were found in 76.2% (64 cases) of the patients. HPV-negative patients survived significantly shorter compared to the HPV-positive patients in the overall survival (p=0.007) and the disease-free survival (p=0.005). According to multivariate analysis, HPV status is a significant predictor of both overall (p=0.02) and disease-free survival time (p=0.005). These results of this study suggest that HPV-negative patients with cervical carcinoma are have a significantly poorer prognosis after radiotherapy, and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer. (author)

  14. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in melanoma prognosis and cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nayoung; Zakka, Labib R; Mihm, Martin C; Schatton, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    The field of systemic cancer therapy for metastatic disease has entered an exciting era with the advent of novel immunomodulatory strategies targeting immune checkpoints. At the heart of these promising efforts are the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). As the reports demonstrating efficacy of modulating TIL effector function in patients with advanced stage cancer continue to accrue, it has become essential to better understand TIL immunobiology in order to further improve clinical outcome. In addition to providing an overview of the current immunotherapies available for metastatic melanoma, this review will briefly introduce the history and classification of TILs. Moreover, we will dissect the multifaceted roles of TILs in tumour-specific immunity and melanoma immune escape. The significance of TILs in melanoma prognosis and cancer immunotherapy will also be discussed, with a particular focus on their potential utility as biomarkers of patient response. The goal of personalised medicine appears to be in realistic sight, as new immunomodulatory techniques and technological innovations continue to advance the field of cancer immunotherapy. In light of recent studies highlighting the possible utility of TILs in determining therapeutic outcome, further characterisation of TIL phenotype and function has the potential to help translate individualised care into current medical practice.

  15. Predicting non-small cell lung cancer prognosis by fully automated microscopic pathology image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Hsing; Zhang, Ce; Berry, Gerald J.; Altman, Russ B.; Ré, Christopher; Rubin, Daniel L.; Snyder, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent cancer worldwide, and histopathological assessment is indispensable for its diagnosis. However, human evaluation of pathology slides cannot accurately predict patients' prognoses. In this study, we obtain 2,186 haematoxylin and eosin stained histopathology whole-slide images of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and 294 additional images from Stanford Tissue Microarray (TMA) Database. We extract 9,879 quantitative image features and use regularized machine-learning methods to select the top features and to distinguish shorter-term survivors from longer-term survivors with stage I adenocarcinoma (P<0.003) or squamous cell carcinoma (P=0.023) in the TCGA data set. We validate the survival prediction framework with the TMA cohort (P<0.036 for both tumour types). Our results suggest that automatically derived image features can predict the prognosis of lung cancer patients and thereby contribute to precision oncology. Our methods are extensible to histopathology images of other organs. PMID:27527408

  16. Research progress of molecular diagnostics of lung cancer%肺癌分子诊断学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛剑; 娄加陶

    2011-01-01

    As a complement to imaging and c tology-based screening strategies, molecular diagnostics of lung cancer include not only the early detection but also the prognosis index and prediction of target therapy. In this paper, gene mutation, prediction of target therapy, miRNA, cancer stem cells and methylation in molecular diagnostics of lung cancer are reviewed.%肺癌的分子诊断作为影像学和细胞学筛查策略的重要补充,其内容不仅包括早期诊断,还包括预后指标及靶向治疗的预测等.该文拟对当前肺癌分子诊断的研究热点基因突变与靶向治疗预测、miRNA、肿瘤干细胞、甲基化及相关检测方法进行综述.

  17. High expression of △Np73 predicts poor prognosis in NSCLC cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; FAN Shi-zhi; JIANG Yao-guang; CHEN Jian-ming; HU Yi-jie

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of △Np73,an isoform of the p53 homologue p73,in the different stages of human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the association of △Np73 expression with in patient survival.Methods:Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) was used to study the expression of △Np73 mRNA in 51 resected NSCLC tissues.Its relation to clinicopathological factors and survival outcome were analyzed.Results:The positive rate and expression level of △Np73 mRNA in the cancer tissues were significantly higher than that in the matched non-cancer lung tissues.The incidence of positive expression of △Np73 was 50.0%,52.6%,and 87.5% in patients with stage Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ, respectively.Positive expression of △Np73 was associated with pathological TNM stage (P=0.046),while not with age,gender,histological type and differentiation status.Survival rate of patients with high △Np73 mRNA was significantly poorer than those with low △Np73 mRNA levels (P<0.001).Multivariate analysis revealed that △Np73 mRNA levels were a significant prognostic factor,independent of the other conventional prognostic factors.Conclusion:NSCLC has over-expression of △Np73 mRNA,which is closely related to TNM stages and prognosis of patients with NSCLC.These resuits suggest that measurement of △Np73 mRNA levels in tumor tissues might be useful as a promising predictor for the prognosis of patients with NSCLC.

  18. Immunosuppressive Glycodelin A is an independent marker for poor prognosis in endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge on immunosuppressive factors in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess Glycodelin (Gd) and its immunosuppressive isoform Glycodelin A (GdA) in endometrial cancer tissue and to analyze its impact on clinical and pathological features and patient outcome. 292 patients diagnosed and treated for endometrial cancer were included. Patient characteristics, histology and follow-up data were available. Gd and GdA was determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization was performed for Gd mRNA. Endometrial cancer shows intermediate (52.2%) or high (20.6%) expression for Gd in 72.8%, and GdA in 71.6% (intermediate 62.6%, high 9.0%) of all cases. The glycosylation dependent staining of GdA is tumour specific and correlates with the peptide-specific Gd staining though neither of the two is associated with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor or clinic-pathological features. Also Gd protein positively correlates with Gd mRNA as quantified by in situ hybridization. Gd positive cases have a favourable prognosis (p = 0.039), while GdA positive patients have a poor outcome (p = 0.003). Cox-regression analysis proofed GdA to be an independent prognostic marker for patient survival (p = 0.002), besides tumour stage, grade and the concomitant diagnosis of hypertension. Gd and GdA are commonly expressed in endometrial cancer tissue and seem to be of relevance in tumourigenesis. They differ not only in glycosylation but also in their biological activity, since only GdA holds prognostic significance for a poor overall survival in endometrial cancer patients. This finding might be explained by GdAs immunosuppressive capacity

  19. Expression of XPG protein in the development, progression and prognosis of gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG plays a critical role in preventing cells from oxidative DNA damage. This study aimed to investigate XPG protein expression in different gastric tissues and in patients with diverse prognoses, thus providing insights into its role in the development, progression and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC. METHODS: A total of 176 GC, 131 adjacent non-tumour tissues, 53 atrophic gastritis (AG and 49 superficial gastritis (SG samples were included. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect XPG protein expression. RESULTS: XPG expression was significantly higher in GC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumour tissues. In the progressive disease sequence SG→AG→GC, XPG expression was significantly higher in AG and GC compared with SG. Analysis of clinicopathological parameters and survival in GC patients demonstrated a significant association between XPG expression level and depth of tumour invasion, macroscopic type, Lauren's classification, smoking, Helicobacter pylori infection and family history. Cox multivariate survival analysis indicated that patients with positive XPG expression had significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.020, HR = 0.394, 95%CI 0.179-0.866, especially in aged younger than 60 years (P = 0.027, HR = 0.361, 95%CI 0.147-0.888 and male patients (P = 0.002, HR = 0.209, 95%CI 0.077-0.571. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that XPG protein expression was related to the development, progression and prognosis of GC, and might thus serve as a potential biomarker for its diagnosis and prognosis.

  20. A novel model to combine clinical and pathway-based transcriptomic information for the prognosis prediction of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. With the increasing awareness of heterogeneity in breast cancers, better prediction of breast cancer prognosis is much needed for more personalized treatment and disease management. Towards this goal, we have developed a novel computational model for breast cancer prognosis by combining the Pathway Deregulation Score (PDS based pathifier algorithm, Cox regression and L1-LASSO penalization method. We trained the model on a set of 236 patients with gene expression data and clinical information, and validated the performance on three diversified testing data sets of 606 patients. To evaluate the performance of the model, we conducted survival analysis of the dichotomized groups, and compared the areas under the curve based on the binary classification. The resulting prognosis genomic model is composed of fifteen pathways (e.g., P53 pathway that had previously reported cancer relevance, and it successfully differentiated relapse in the training set (log rank p-value = 6.25e-12 and three testing data sets (log rank p-value < 0.0005. Moreover, the pathway-based genomic models consistently performed better than gene-based models on all four data sets. We also find strong evidence that combining genomic information with clinical information improved the p-values of prognosis prediction by at least three orders of magnitude in comparison to using either genomic or clinical information alone. In summary, we propose a novel prognosis model that harnesses the pathway-based dysregulation as well as valuable clinical information. The selected pathways in our prognosis model are promising targets for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Presence of S100A9-positive inflammatory cells in cancer tissues correlates with an early stage cancer and a better prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S100A9 was originally discovered as a factor secreted by inflammatory cells. Recently, S100A9 was found to be associated with several human malignancies. The purpose of this study is to investigate S100A9 expression in gastric cancer and explore its role in cancer progression. S100A9 expression in gastric tissue samples from 177 gastric cancer patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of its dimerization partner S100A8 and the S100A8/A9 heterodimer were also assessed by the same method. The effect of exogenous S100A9 on motility of gastric cancer cells AGS and BGC-823 was then investigated. S100A9 was specifically expressed by inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils in human gastric cancer and gastritis tissues. Statistical analysis showed that a high S100A9 cell count (> = 200) per 200x magnification microscopic field in cancer tissues was predictive of early stage gastric cancer. High S100A9-positive cell count was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.009) and tumor invasion (P = 0.011). S100A9 was identified as an independent prognostic predictor of overall survival of patients with gastric cancer (P = 0.04). Patients with high S100A9 cell count were with favorable prognosis (P = 0.021). Further investigation found that S100A8 distribution in human gastric cancer tissues was similar to S100A9. However, the number of S100A8-positive cells did not positively correlate with patient survival. The inflammatory cells infiltrating cancer were S100A8/A9 negative, while those in gastritis were positive. Furthermore, exogenous S100A9 protein inhibited migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Our results suggested S100A9-positive inflammatory cells in gastric cancer tissues are associated with early stage of gastric cancer and good prognosis

  2. Relationship between H.Pylori infection and clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimed to assess the relationship between H.Pylori and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer by quantitative detection of H.Pylori. 157 patients were enrolled, all patients had a record of clinicopathological parameters. Specimens including the tumor and non-neoplastic were detected for H.Pylori by Real-Time PCR and analyzed clinical data retrospectively. Variables independently affecting prognosis were investigated by means of multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. H.Pylori infection was greater in non-neoplastic tissue than the tumor tissue (p < 0.05), H.Pylori infection and its copies were related to the tumor site and N staging (p < 0.05). Overall survival (OS) in all 157 patients has no correlation with the H.Pylori infection status (p = 0.715). As to the patients who underwent a curative surgery, relapse-free survival (RFS) has no correlation with the H.Pylori infection status (p = 0.639). Among the H.Pylori positive patients, OS and RFS of those with higher copies were longer than in patients with low copies, but there was no significant statistical difference. H.Pylori infection status and its copies were related to N staging. The OS and RFS in patients with positive H.Pylori status has no significant difference from the patients with negative H.Pylori status

  3. Molecular Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer: Novel Potential Indicators of Prognosis and Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Nagata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many clinical and molecular markers for predicting outcomes in bladder cancer (BC have been reported, their application in clinical practice remains unclear. Bladder carcinogenesis has two distinct molecular pathways that direct the development of BC. FGFR3 mutations are common in low-grade BC, while TP53 mutation or loss of RB1 is associated with muscle-invasive BC. However, no tissue-based gene markers confirmed by prospective large-scale trials in BC have been used in clinical practice. Micro-RNA analyses of BC tissue revealed that miR-145 and miR-29c⁎ function as tumor suppressors, whereas miR-183 and miR-17-5p function as oncogenic miRNAs. In liquid biopsy, circulating tumor cells (CTC, exosomes, or cell-free RNA is extracted from the peripheral blood samples of cancer patients to analyze cancer prognosis. It was reported that detection of CTC was associated with poor prognostic factors. However, application of liquid biopsy in BC treatment is yet to be explored. Although several cell-free RNAs, such as miR-497 in plasma or miR-214 in urine, could be promising novel circulating biomarkers, they are used only for diagnosing BC as the case that now stands. Here, we discuss the application of novel biomarkers in evaluating and measuring BC outcomes.

  4. Influence of Perioperative Blood Transfusion on Prognosis in Patients with Colon Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Han; WANG Xiaona; WANG Baogui; PAN Yuan; LIU Ning; WANG Dianchang; HAO Xishan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of perioperative blood transfusion on the postoperative survival of patients with colon cancer. Methods: Univariate and multivariate retrospective analyses were performed on the survival in a total of 723 colon cancer patients which were treated surgically during a period of 10 years. Results: Kaplan-Meicr estimates showed that more than 800 mL perioperative blood transfusion was the survival predictor. Blood transfusion influenced significantly the prognosis of patients 40 years old and younger, those undergoing helicoloectomy left side, those with papillary adenocarcinoma,those with big tumors (diameter ≥8 em), those with stage I tumors, those with lymphatic node metastases and those without liver metastases. In multivariate analysis only the tumor location, radicality of operation, lymphatic invasion, liver metastasis, depth of tumor invasion and TNM stage retained their significance. Conclusion: Perioperative blood transfusion is the prognostic factor for patients with colon cancer to some extent. The indication of blood transfusion must be restricted strictly, specially in patients younger than 40 years old, with right side lesion, papillary adenocarcinoma, big tumors (diameter ≥8 em), stage I tumors and lymphatic node metastases or without liver metastases. But perioperative blood transfusion may not be deleterious for patients with staging Ⅳ disease and with distant metastases.

  5. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  6. Diagnostic value of mammography for occult breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of mammography in occult breast cancer. Methods: 23 cases of non- palpable breast lesions were examined with stereotactic-guided or surgical biopsy. Results: Pathological diagnosis included ductal carcinoma in sim (7), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (5), lobular carcinoma in sim (2), carcinoma simplex (3), 4 intraductal papillary carcinoma (4), scirrhous carcinoma (1), metastatic adenocarcinoma (1) in the axilla. Conclusion: Mammography is a commonly used and effective method in diagnosis of occult breast cancer. (authors)

  7. Age at diagnosis in women with non-metastatic breast cancer: Is it related to prognosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Primary objective was to verify whether breast cancer patients aged less than 40 years at diagnosis have poorer prognosis than older patients. Secondary to assess prognostic factors influencing disease free survival. Methods: 941 women were diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer at NCI, Cairo in 2003. Epidemiologic, clinico-pathological characteristics, treatment modalities and disease free survival were compared among the two age groups. Prognostic factors were evaluated for association with disease-free survival. Results: One hundred-eighty-one patients (19.2%) were younger than 40 years and 760 (80.8%) were older. Older women presented with higher rates of comorbidities and younger women presented with more hormone non-responsive tumors. Young women presented with larger tumors pT4 = 13.8% compared to 8.6% in older women, yet not significant. Young women were treated with more conservative surgery, more adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy while older women with more radical mastectomies and more hormonal treatment. Recurrence rates were significantly higher among young women 44,2% compared to 34.5% in older women. Five year disease free survival in young women was 38.9% ± 4.6% compared to 48.6% ± 2.5% with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 95% Cl (0.91-1.64),p = 0.19. Multivariate analyses identified positive axillary lymph nodes (pN2-pN3), larger tumor size (pT3-pT4), hypertension, lobular carcinoma type and lack of adjuvant systemic treatment as independent factors associated with poor DFS. Conclusion: Young women were not found to have poorer prognosis, yet they presented with more ER negative tumors. Most of women presented with advanced stage and young women had higher recurrence rates.

  8. Analysis of Prognosis of 122 Colorectal Cancer Patients with Concurrent Liver Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihui Luo; Feng Gao; Sen Zhang; Lisheng Chen; Jianfeng Yang

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore prognostic factors and treatment choices for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with concurrent liver metastases (CLM).METHODS The data of the 122 CRC patients with CLM, who were treated in our hospital from January 2000 to December 2005, were collected. Overall survival rate of the patients in our group was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method, and the univariate and multivariate analyses of the 18 factors affecting the survival rate, including clinicopathologic factors and treatment methods, were conducted using Log-rank test and Cox regression model (SPSS13.0).RESULTS The median survival time of the 122 patients with CRC was 13 months. The 1, 2, 3 and 5-year survival rate was 52.46%, 24.59% , 12.30% and 3.28% , respectively. Univariate analysis combined with Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that the factors of prognosis included the size of the primary tumor, the levels of differentiation, lymphatic status, cancerous ileus (CI), the number, size and distribution of liver metastases, extrahepatic involvement, the serum CEA level at diagnosis, treatment modality, the extent of primary resection, chemotherapeutic modality and regimen. Multivariate analysis showed that CI,differentiation levels, serum CEA value at diagnosis and treatment modality were the independent prognostic factors of CRC patients with CLM.CONCLUSION For the CRC patients with CLM, poor differentiation of the tumor and CI, as well as a high CEA level indicate an unfavorable prognosis. Treatment choice is of special significance in treating the CRC patients with CLM, so active radical excision of the primary tumor and liver metastasis is strongly recommended in the CRC patients with hepatic metastasis alone. Interventional chemotherapy has advantages compared with the whole-body chemotherapy via peripheral vein, and the regimen of systemic chemotherapy containing oxaliplatin is preferred.

  9. Overview of diagnostic/targeted treatment combinations in personalized medicine for breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessari A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Tessari,1 Dario Palmieri,2 Serena Di Cosimo11Division of Medical Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy; 2Molecular Biology and Cancer Genetics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer includes a body of molecularly distinct subgroups, characterized by different presentation, prognosis, and sensitivity to treatments. Significant advances in our understanding of the complex architecture of this pathology have been achieved in the last few decades, thanks to new biotechnologies that have recently come into the research field and the clinical practice, giving oncologists new instruments that are based on biomarkers and allowing them to set up a personalized approach for each individual patient. Here we review the main treatments available or in preclinical development, the biomolecular diagnostic and prognostic approaches that changed our perspective about breast cancer, giving an overview of targeted therapies that represent the current standard of care for these patients. Finally, we report some examples of how new technologies in clinical practice can set in motion the development of new drugs.Keywords: breast cancer, biomarkers, gene expression profile, next generation sequencing, targeted therapy

  10. Trends in incidence and prognosis of the histological subtypes of lung cancer in North America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.G. Janssen-Heijnen (Maryska); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since the incidence of the histological subtypes of lung cancer in industrialised countries has changed dramatically over the last two decades, we reviewed trends in the incidence and prognosis in North America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe, according to period of diagno

  11. Topoisomerase 1(TOP1) gene copy number in stage III colorectal cancer patients and its relation to prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Maria Unni Koefoed; Nygård, Sune Boris; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    2013-01-01

    A Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) poison is frequently included in the treatment regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, no predictive biomarkers for Top1 poisons are available. We here report a study on the TOP1 gene copy number in CRC patients and its association with patient prognosis...

  12. Long-term prognosis of patients with local recurrence after conservative surgery and radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Voogd (Adri); F.J. van Oost (F.); E.J. Rutgers; S. Elkhuizen (Sylvia); A.N. van Geel (Albert); L.J.E.E. Scheijmans (L. J E E); M.J.C. van der Sangen (Maurice); G. Botke (G.); C.J.M. Hoekstra (C. J M); J.J. Jobsen (Jan); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); M.F. von Meyenfeldt (Maarten); J.M. Tabak (J.); J.L. Peterse (J.); M.J. Vijver (Marc ); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); G. van Tienhoven (Geertjan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied the long-term prognosis of 266 patients considered to have isolated local recurrence in the breast following conservative surgery and radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The median follow-up of the patients still alive after diagnosis of local relapse was 11.2 years. At

  13. Determinants of prognosis in breast cancer patients with tumor involvement of the skin (pT4b).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieland, A.W.; Louwman, M.W.; Voogd, A.C.; Beek, M.W. van; Vreugdenhil, G.R.; Roumen, R.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    Determinants of prognosis were studied in patients with breast cancer with histologically proven tumor extension to the skin without clinical evidence of distant metastases (i.e., pT4b N0-3 M0). Data were collected retrospectively on 77 consecutive patients diagnosed in one community teaching hospit

  14. Abnormal COX2 Protein Expression May Be Correlated with Poor Prognosis in Oral Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Ming Wang; Jie Liu; Hong-Bo Liu; Ming Ye; Yu-Fei Zhang; Dong-Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Background. The prognostic significance of COX2 for survival of patients with oral cancer remains controversial. Thus, the meta-analysis was performed in order to identify COX2 expression impact on prognosis of oral cancer. Method. Relevant literatures were searched using the following electronic databases without any language restrictions: Web of Science, the Cochrane Library Database, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CBM. Version 12.0 STATA software (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, US...

  15. 2q36.3 is associated with prognosis for oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei; Lindström, Linda; Foo, Jia; Rafiq, Meena; Schmidt, Marjanka; Pharoah, Paul; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet; Wang, Qing; Veer, Laura; Cornelissen, Sten; Rutgers, Emiel; Southey, Melissa; Apicella, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    textabstractLarge population-based registry studies have shown that breast cancer prognosis is inherited. Here we analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes implicated in human immunology and inflammation as candidates for prognostic markers of breast cancer survival involving 1,804 oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients treated with chemotherapy (279 events) from 14 European studies in a prior large-scale genotyping experiment, which is part of the Collaborative Oncological G...

  16. Data fusion in metabolomic cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Rasmus; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Savorani, Francesco;

    2013-01-01

    We have recently shown that fluorescence spectroscopy of plasma samples has promising abilities regarding early detection of colorectal cancer. In the present paper, these results were further developed by combining fluorescence with the biomarkers, CEA and TIMP-1 and traditional metabolomic meas...

  17. Alloy metal nanoparticles for multicolor cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Pedro V.; Doria, Gonçalo; Conde, João

    2011-03-01

    Cancer is a multigenic complex disease where multiple gene loci contribute to the phenotype. The ability to simultaneously monitor differential expression originating from each locus results in a more accurate indicator of degree of cancerous activity than either locus alone. Metal nanoparticles have been thoroughly used as labels for in vitro identification and quantification of target sequences. We have synthesized nanoparticles with assorted noble metal compositions in an alloy format and functionalized them with thiol-modified ssDNA (nanoprobes). These nanoprobes were then used for the simultaneous specific identification of several mRNA targets involved in cancer development - one pot multicolor detection of cancer expression. The different metal composition in the alloy yield different "colors" that can be used as tags for identification of a given target. Following a non-cross-linking hybridization procedure previously developed in our group for gold nanoprobes, these multicolor nanoprobes were used for the molecular recognition of several different targets including differently spliced variants of relevant genes (e.g. gene products involved in chronic myeloid leukemia BCR, ABL, BCR-ABL fusion product). Based on the spectral signature of mixtures, before and after induced aggregation of metal nanoparticles, the correct identification could be made. Further application to differentially quantify expression of each locus in relation to another will be presented. The differences in nanoparticle stability and labeling efficiency for each metal combination composing the colloids, as well as detection capability for each nanoprobe will be discussed. Additional studies will be conducted towards allele specific expression studies.

  18. Diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); N. van der Lubbe (Nils); H.M.A. van Agt (H. M A)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The amount of diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening has been assessed prospectively and related to mortality reduction. Assumptions are based on data from Dutch screening programmes and on a scenario for future developments. With 5 invita

  19. Delay in diagnostic workup and treatment of esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A. Grotenhuis (Brechtje); P. van Hagen (Pieter); B.P.L. Wijnhoven (Bas); V.M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); H.W. Tilanus (Hugo); J.J-B. van Lanschot (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Esophageal cancer should preferably be detected and treated at an early stage, but this may be prohibited by late onset of symptoms and delays in referral, diagnostic workup, and treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of these delays on outcome in pa

  20. A Case of Urethral Metastasis from Sigmoid Colon Cancer Diagnostically and Prognostically Indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han Seok; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Soyon; Im, Su Jin; Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hyoung; Hur, So Chong [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Urethral metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare and is known to have a poor prognosis. A 72 year old man with a history of colectomy and colostomy due to sigmoid colon cancer was admitted to the emergency room with bowel distension, rectal bleeding and urinary symptoms. Computed tomography of the abdominopelvis showed sigmoid colon cancer with multiple metastases involving the liver. Positron emission tomography with F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) showed multiple hypermetabolic foci in the liver, penis and pubic bone, which otherwise could not be diagnosed. The lesions revealed no improvement with chemotherapy and urological surgery on follow up F 18 FDG PET/CT. We present a case of urethral metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer diagnostically and prognostically indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT.

  1. The Role of Prion Protein Expression in Predicting Gastric Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhaoqing; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Changguo; He, Jing; Wang, Ying; Yu, Guohua; Yuan, Chonggang; Wang, Xuefei; Sun, Yihong; Ma, Jiyan; Liu, Fenglin; Zhao, Yulan

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that prion protein (PrP) is involved in gastric cancer (GC) development and progression, but its role in GC prognosis has been poorly characterized. A total of 480 GC patients were recruited in this retrospective study. PrP expression in cancerous and non-cancerous gastric tissues was detected by using the tissue microarray and immunohistochemical staining techniques. Our results showed that the PrP expression in GC was significantly less frequent than that in the non-cancerous gastric tissue (44.4% vs 66.4%, P < 0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed that PrP expression was associated with TNM stage, survival status and survival time. GC patients with higher TNM stages (stages II, III and IV) had significantly lower PrP expression levels in tumors than those with lower TNM stages (stages 0 and I). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that negative PrP expression was associated with poor overall survival (log-rank test: P < 0.001). The mean survival time for patients with negative PrP expression was significant lower than those with positive PrP expression (43.0±28.5m vs. 53.9±31.1m, P<0.001). In multivariate Cox hazard regression, PrP expression was an independent prognostic factor for GC survival, with a HR (hazard ratio) of 0.687 (95%CI:0.520-0.907, P=0.008). Our results revealed that negative PrP expression could independently predict worse outcome in GC and thereby could be used to guide the clinical practice. PMID:27313789

  2. Relationship Between HER2 Status and Prognosis in Women With Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhiyuan [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Marko, Nicholas F. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chao, Sam T. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Suh, John H. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Weil, Robert J., E-mail: weilr@ccf.org [Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze factors affecting outcomes in breast cancer patients with brain metastases (BM) and characterize the role of HER2 status. Methods and Materials: We identified 264 breast cancer patients treated between 1999 and 2008 for BM. HER2 status was known definitively for 172 patients and was used to define cohorts in which survival and risk factors were analyzed. Results: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated improved mean overall survival (105.7 vs. 74.3 months, p < 0.02), survival after diagnosis of BM (neurologic survival, NS) (32.2 vs. 18.9 months, p < 0.01), and survival after treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery (RS) (31.3 vs. 14.1, p < 0.01) in HER2+ patients relative to those with HER2- breast cancer. HER2+ status was an independent, positive prognostic factor for survival on univariate and multivariate hazard analysis (hazard ratio: overall survival = 0.66, 0.18; NS = 0.50, 0.34). Additionally, subgroup analysis suggests that stereotactic radiosurgery may be of particular benefit in patients with HER2+ tumors. Conclusions: Overall survival, NS, and RS are improved in patients with HER2+ tumors, relative to those with HER2- lesions, and HER2 amplification is independently associated with increased survival in patients with BM from breast cancer. Our findings suggest that the prognosis of HER2+ patients may be better than that of otherwise similar patients who are HER2- and that stereotactic radiosurgery may be beneficial for some patients with HER2+ lesions.

  3. Relationship Between HER2 Status and Prognosis in Women With Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze factors affecting outcomes in breast cancer patients with brain metastases (BM) and characterize the role of HER2 status. Methods and Materials: We identified 264 breast cancer patients treated between 1999 and 2008 for BM. HER2 status was known definitively for 172 patients and was used to define cohorts in which survival and risk factors were analyzed. Results: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated improved mean overall survival (105.7 vs. 74.3 months, p < 0.02), survival after diagnosis of BM (neurologic survival, NS) (32.2 vs. 18.9 months, p < 0.01), and survival after treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery (RS) (31.3 vs. 14.1, p < 0.01) in HER2+ patients relative to those with HER2− breast cancer. HER2+ status was an independent, positive prognostic factor for survival on univariate and multivariate hazard analysis (hazard ratio: overall survival = 0.66, 0.18; NS = 0.50, 0.34). Additionally, subgroup analysis suggests that stereotactic radiosurgery may be of particular benefit in patients with HER2+ tumors. Conclusions: Overall survival, NS, and RS are improved in patients with HER2+ tumors, relative to those with HER2− lesions, and HER2 amplification is independently associated with increased survival in patients with BM from breast cancer. Our findings suggest that the prognosis of HER2+ patients may be better than that of otherwise similar patients who are HER2− and that stereotactic radiosurgery may be beneficial for some patients with HER2+ lesions.

  4. Comprehensive molecular portrait using next generation sequencing of resected intestinal-type gastric cancer patients dichotomized according to prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bria, E.; Pilotto, S.; Simbolo, M.; Fassan, M.; de Manzoni, G.; Carbognin, L.; Sperduti, I.; Brunelli, M.; Cataldo, I.; Tomezzoli, A.; Mafficini, A.; Turri, G.; Karachaliou, N.; Rosell, R.; Tortora, G.; Scarpa, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether the presence of genetic alterations detected by next generation sequencing may define outcome in a prognostically-selected and histology-restricted population of resected gastric cancer (RGC). Intestinal type RGC samples from 34 patients, including 21 best and 13 worst prognostic performers, were studied. Mutations in 50 cancer-associated genes were evaluated. A significant difference between good and poor prognosis was found according to clinico-pathologic factors. The most commonly mutated genes in the whole population were PIK3CA (29.4%), KRAS (26.5%), TP53 (26.5%) MET (8.8%), SMAD4 (8.8%) and STK11 (8.8%). Multiple gene mutations were found in 14/21 (67%) patients with good prognosis, and 3/13 (23%) in the poor prognosis group. A single gene alteration was found in 5/21 (24%) good and 6/13 (46%) poor prognosis patients. No mutation was found in 2/21 (9.5%) and 4/13 (31%) of these groups, respectively. In the overall series, ß-catenin expression was the highest (82.4%), followed by E-Cadherin (76.5%) and FHIT (52.9%). The good prognosis group was characterized by a high mutation rate and microsatellite instability. Our proof-of-principle study demonstrates the feasibility of a molecular profiling approach with the aim to identify potentially druggable pathways and drive the development of customized therapies for RGC. PMID:26961069

  5. Evaluation of correlation between CT image features and ERCC1 protein expression in assessing lung cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Emaminejad, Nastaran; Qian, Wei; Sun, Shenshen; Kang, Yan; Guan, Yubao; Lure, Fleming; Zheng, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Stage I non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) usually have favorable prognosis. However, high percentage of NSCLC patients have cancer relapse after surgery. Accurately predicting cancer prognosis is important to optimally treat and manage the patients to minimize the risk of cancer relapse. Studies have shown that an excision repair crosscomplementing 1 (ERCC1) gene was a potentially useful genetic biomarker to predict prognosis of NSCLC patients. Meanwhile, studies also found that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was highly associated with lung cancer prognosis. In this study, we investigated and evaluated the correlations between COPD image features and ERCC1 gene expression. A database involving 106 NSCLC patients was used. Each patient had a thoracic CT examination and ERCC1 genetic test. We applied a computer-aided detection scheme to segment and quantify COPD image features. A logistic regression method and a multilayer perceptron network were applied to analyze the correlation between the computed COPD image features and ERCC1 protein expression. A multilayer perceptron network (MPN) was also developed to test performance of using COPD-related image features to predict ERCC1 protein expression. A nine feature based logistic regression analysis showed the average COPD feature values in the low and high ERCC1 protein expression groups are significantly different (p < 0.01). Using a five-fold cross validation method, the MPN yielded an area under ROC curve (AUC = 0.669±0.053) in classifying between the low and high ERCC1 expression cases. The study indicates that CT phenotype features are associated with the genetic tests, which may provide supplementary information to help improve accuracy in assessing prognosis of NSCLC patients.

  6. Patterns of recurrence and treatment in male breast cancer: A clue to prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques Abreu, Miguel; Henriques Abreu, Pedro; Afonso, Noémia; Pereira, Deolinda; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Carlos

    2016-10-15

    Male breast cancer (MBC) patients seem to have inferior survival compared to female (FBC) ones, which is not fully explained by usual prognostic factors. Recurrence analysis could show differences in relapse patterns and/or in patients' approaches that justify these outcomes. Retrospective analysis of MBC patients treated in a cancer center between 1990 and 2014, looking for relapse. For each patient, three matched FBC patients were selected by: diagnosis' year, age (within 5 years), stage and tumors' type (only luminal-like were considered). Differences between cohorts were assessed by χ(2) test and hierarchical clustering was performed to define subgroups according to relapse local. Survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier and compared using log-rank test. Statistical significance was defined as p survivals were poorer for male, median: 5 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.1-5.9 years] and 1 year (95% CI: 0-2.1 years) vs. 10 years (95% CI: 7.8-12.2 years) and 2 years (95% CI: 1.6-2.4 years), p survival, even after controlling important factors, namely the local of relapse. Palliative systemic treatment had favorable impact in prognosis and its frequently avoidance in male could justify the outcomes differences. PMID:27280781

  7. Downregulated Ku70 and ATM associated to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer among Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu YF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuanfang Lu,1,2 Jingyan Gao,1,3 Yuanming Lu,1 1Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guilin Medical University, Guangxi, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Clinical Research Center, Affiliated 2nd Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Human Anatomy and Histo-Embryology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Background: Double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs are a key factor in carcinogenesis. The necessary repair of DSBs is pivotal in maintaining normal cell division. To address the relationship between altered expression of DSB repair of proteins Ku70 and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM in colorectal cancer (CRC, we examined the expression levels and patterns of Ku70 and ATM in CRC samples. Methods: Expression and coexpression of Ku70 and ATM were investigated by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays and confirmed further with fluorescent immunohistochemistry in CRC and pericancerous samples from 112 Chinese patients. Results: Downexpression patterns for both Ku70 and ATM were found in the CRC samples and were significantly associated with advanced tumor node metastasis stage and decreased 5-year overall survival rate. Conclusion: Downregulated Ku70 and ATM were associated with poor disease-free survival. Loss of Ku70 and ATM expression might act as a biomarker to predict poor prognosis in patients with CRC. Keywords: DNA double-strand breaks, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, Ku70, colorectal cancer

  8. Preoperative serum markers for individual patient prognosis in stage I-III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessen-Jung, Clemens; Nagel, Dorothea; Glas, Maria; Spelsberg, Fritz; Lau-Werner, Ulla; Modest, Dominik Paul; Schulz, Christoph; Heinemann, Volker; Di Gioia, Dorit; Stieber, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) remains the only recommended biomarker for follow-up care of colorectal cancer (CRC), but besides CEA, several other serological parameters have been proposed as prognostic markers for CRC. The present retrospective analysis investigates a comprehensive set of serum markers with regard to cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 472 patients with colon cancer underwent surgery for curative intent between January 1988 and June 2007. Preoperative serum was analyzed for the following parameters: albumin, alkaline phosphatase (aP), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG), bilirubin, cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), CA 72-4, CEA, C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokeratin-19 soluble fragment (CYFRA 21-1), ferritin, gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), hemoglobin, haptoglobin, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum amyloid A (SAA), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. After a median follow-up period of 5.9 years, the overall 3- and 5-year CSS was 91.7 and 84.9 % and DFS rates were 82.7 % (3 years) and 77.6 % (5 years). Multivariate analyses confirmed preoperative CEA as an independent prognostic factor with regard to CSS and DFS. CA 19-9 and γGT also provided prognostic value for CSS and DFS, respectively. Younger age was negatively associated with DFS. According to UICC stage, CEA provided significant prognostic value with regard to CSS and DFS, while CA 19-9 was only prognostic for CSS. Combined analysis is able to identify patients with favorable prognosis. In addition to tumor baseline parameters, preoperative CEA could be confirmed as prognostic marker in colon cancer. CA 19-9 and γGT also provide additional prognostic value with regard to survival and recurrence in stage III and stage I disease, respectively. The combined use of CEA together with CA 19-9 and γGT improve

  9. Polymorphisms of ICAM-1 are associated with gastric cancer risk and prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Meng Tian; Yu Sun; Zhong-Wu Li; Ying Wu; Ai-Lian Zhao; Ji-You Li

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the risk, biological behavior and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) in Chinese population. METHODS: The study group consisted of 332 GC patients and 380 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and the results were confirmed by sequencing. The association of ICAM-1 K469E polymorphisms and the risk of GC were studied, and the correlation of ICAM-1 K469E polymorphisms with the clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of the patients with complete clinical and follow-up data was analyzed.RESULTS: Carriers of AA genotype had a significantly increased risk of GC compared with carriers of AG and GG genotypes [odds ratios: 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.84; P = 0.041]. GC patients with AA genotype were more prone to distant metastasis than those carrying AG and GG genotypes (18.9% vs 7.0%, respectively; P = 0.002). In addition, patients at stage Ⅳ had significantly more carriers of AA genotype than those of AG and GG genotype (27.4% vs 16.9%, respectively; P = 0.046). Follow-up study showed that the overall cumulative survival rate was 23.7% in AA genotype group and 42.9% in AG and GG genotypes group. In univariate analysis, AA genotype was correlated with the overall cumulative survival (P = 0.034). But in multivariate analysis, ICAM-1 polymorphism was not an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival (relative risk, 1.145; 95% CI: 0.851-1.540; P = 0.370). CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of ICAM-1 K469E can be a useful biomarker for identifying individuals with higher risk of GC, predicting disease progression, and guiding individualized treatment.

  10. Predictive gene lists for breast cancer prognosis: A topographic visualisation study

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    Lowe David

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The controversy surrounding the non-uniqueness of predictive gene lists (PGL of small selected subsets of genes from very large potential candidates as available in DNA microarray experiments is now widely acknowledged 1. Many of these studies have focused on constructing discriminative semi-parametric models and as such are also subject to the issue of random correlations of sparse model selection in high dimensional spaces. In this work we outline a different approach based around an unsupervised patient-specific nonlinear topographic projection in predictive gene lists. Methods We construct nonlinear topographic projection maps based on inter-patient gene-list relative dissimilarities. The Neuroscale, the Stochastic Neighbor Embedding(SNE and the Locally Linear Embedding(LLE techniques have been used to construct two-dimensional projective visualisation plots of 70 dimensional PGLs per patient, classifiers are also constructed to identify the prognosis indicator of each patient using the resulting projections from those visualisation techniques and investigate whether a-posteriori two prognosis groups are separable on the evidence of the gene lists. A literature-proposed predictive gene list for breast cancer is benchmarked against a separate gene list using the above methods. Generalisation ability is investigated by using the mapping capability of Neuroscale to visualise the follow-up study, but based on the projections derived from the original dataset. Results The results indicate that small subsets of patient-specific PGLs have insufficient prognostic dissimilarity to permit a distinction between two prognosis patients. Uncertainty and diversity across multiple gene expressions prevents unambiguous or even confident patient grouping. Comparative projections across different PGLs provide similar results. Conclusion The random correlation effect to an arbitrary outcome induced by small subset selection from very high

  11. Generation of 2,000 breast cancer metabolic landscapes reveals a poor prognosis group with active serotonin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoncikas, Vytautas; Wu, Huihai; Ward, Lara T; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Plant, Nick J

    2016-01-01

    A major roadblock in the effective treatment of cancers is their heterogeneity, whereby multiple molecular landscapes are classified as a single disease. To explore the contribution of cellular metabolism to cancer heterogeneity, we analyse the Metabric dataset, a landmark genomic and transcriptomic study of 2,000 individual breast tumours, in the context of the human genome-scale metabolic network. We create personalized metabolic landscapes for each tumour by exploring sets of active reactions that satisfy constraints derived from human biochemistry and maximize congruency with the Metabric transcriptome data. Classification of the personalized landscapes derived from 997 tumour samples within the Metabric discovery dataset reveals a novel poor prognosis cluster, reproducible in the 995-sample validation dataset. We experimentally follow mechanistic hypotheses resulting from the computational study and establish that active serotonin production is a major metabolic feature of the poor prognosis group. These data support the reconsideration of concomitant serotonin-specific uptake inhibitors treatment during breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26813959

  12. Subtype classification for prediction of prognosis of breast cancer from a biomarker panel: correlations and indications

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    Chen C

    2014-02-01

    positive correlation (P<0.001 between the estrogen receptor and the progesterone receptor (r=0.588, but a significant negative correlation (P<0.001, r=-0.618 with the HHR subtype. There were significant differences between the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 subtypes with regard to total HER2 load and hormone receptor subtypes. The rates of androgen receptor and p53 positivity were 46.3% and 57.0%, respectively. Other than the androgen receptor, differences in expression of Ki67, EGFR, and p53 did not achieve statistical significance (P>0.05 between the five subtypes. EGFR and Ki67 had prognostic significance for 5-year disease-free survival in univariate analysis, but the androgen receptor and p53 did not. Multivariate analysis identified that EGFR expression had predictive significance for 5-year disease-free survival in hormone-receptor positive patients and in those with the lymph node-positive breast cancer subtype. Conclusion: Hormone receptor expression was indeed one of the molecular profiles in the subtypes identified by quantitative HER2 and vice versa. EGFR status may provide discriminative prognostic information in addition to HER2 and hormone receptor status, and should be integrated into routine practice to help formulate more specific prediction of the prognosis and appropriate individualized treatment. Keywords: quantum dots, breast cancer, molecular classification, prognosis, prediction

  13. EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive Thyroid Cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis

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    MacMillan Christina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma. Methods EpEx, Ep-ICD and β-catenin immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies was conducted on 58 archived thyroid cancer (TC tissue blocks from 34 patients and correlated with survival analysis of these patients for up to 17 years. Results The anaplastic (ATC and aggressive thyroid cancers showed loss of EpEx and increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD. In contrast, the low grade papillary thyroid cancers (PTC showed membranous EpEx and no detectable nuclear Ep-ICD. The ATC also showed concomitant nuclear expression of Ep-ICD and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis revealed reduced overall survival (OS for TC patients showing nuclear Ep-ICD expression or loss of membranous EpEx (p Conclusion We report reciprocal loss of membrane EpEx but increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in aggressive TC; nuclear Ep-ICD correlated with poor OS of TC patients. Thus nuclear Ep-ICD localization may serve as a useful biomarker for aggressive TC and may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for aggressive TC.

  14. The Role of Epigenomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

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    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays a key role in cancer development. Genetics alone cannot explain sporadic cancer and cancer development in individuals with no family history or a weak family history of cancer. Epigenetics provides a mechanism to explain the development of cancer in such situations. Alterations in epigenetic profiling may provide important insights into the etiology and natural history of cancer. Because several epigenetic changes occur before histopathological changes, they can serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and risk assessment. Many cancers may remain asymptomatic until relatively late stages; in managing the disease, efforts should be focused on early detection, accurate prediction of disease progression, and frequent monitoring. This chapter describes epigenetic biomarkers as they are expressed during cancer development and their potential use in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Based on epigenomic information, biomarkers have been identified that may serve as diagnostic tools; some such biomarkers also may be useful in identifying individuals who will respond to therapy and survive longer. The importance of analytical and clinical validation of biomarkers is discussed, along with challenges and opportunities in this field.

  15. Effect of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy on prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽华; 熊宙芳; 王世宣

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate prognostic factors which have an influence on overall survival and to assess the rational application of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods The data of 131 patients treated between January 1990 and December 1998 in Union Hospital and Tongji Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons were performed using Log-rank test. Independent prognostic factors were identified by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results Univariate analysis showed that age, general conditions, menopausal status, stage, pathological types, location of the tumor, residual tumor and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy were prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis showed that age, stage, residual tumor, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and the number of courses of chemotherapy were the most important prognostic factors. The survival rate could not be improved through retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in the patients in early stage, advanced stage with residual tumor >2 cm or those with mucinous adenocarcinoma (P>0.05). Among patients in advanced stage cancer with a residual tumor ≤2 cm, 5-year survival was 65% and 30% for patients who did and did not undergo lymphadenectomy, respectively (P<0.01). Among patients with serous adenocarcinoma, 5-year survival was 61% and 31% for patients who did and did not undergo lymphadenectomy, respectively (P<0.01). Conclusions The prognosis of the patients with epithelial ovarian cancer may be influenced by age, stage, residual tumor, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and the number of courses of chemotherapy. Although retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy could improve the survival rate, it should be carried out selectively.

  16. Utility of SAM68 in the progression and prognosis for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is often lethal and non-MIBC (NMIBC) can recur and progress, yet prognostic markers are currently inadequate. SAM68, a member of RNA-binding proteins, has been reported to contribute to progression of other cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential utility of SAM68 in the progression and prognosis of bladder cancer. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to examine the expression of SAM68 in ten pairs of MIBC and adjacent normal bladder urothelium, and eight pairs of MIBC and non-MIBC (NMIBC) tissues from the same patient. Moreover, SAM68 protein expression level and localization were examined by immunohistochemistry in 129 clinicopathologically characterized MIBC samples. Prognostic associations were determined by multivariable analysis incorporating standard prognostic factors. SAM68 expression was elevated in MIBC tissues compared with adjacent normal bladder urothelium, and was increased at both transcriptional and translational levels in MIBC tissues compared with NMIBC tissues of the same patient. For MIBC, high expression and nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression of SAM68 were associated with higher T-stage, higher N-stage and worse recurrence-free survival. Five-year recurrence-free survival was 80% and 52.9% for MIBC patients with low and high SAM68 expression, respectively (p = 0.001). SAM68 nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression associated with worse 5-year recurrence-free survival rate (49.2%) than SAM68 expression confined to the nucleus (82.5%) or cytoplasm (75.5%) alone. On multivariable analysis SAM68 expression level, SAM68 nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression, T-stage, and N-stage were all independent prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival of MIBC patients. SAM68 expression is increased in MIBC when compared to normal urothelium and NMIBC, and appears to be a potentially useful prognostic marker for MIBC

  17. KIF2A overexpression and its association with clinicopathologic characteristics and unfavorable prognosis in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiangjun; Wang, Xudong; Zhu, Huijun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-11-01

    Kinesin superfamily protein 2A (KIF2A), an M type nonmotile microtubule depolymerase, has received attention for its role in carcinogenesis and prognostic value in several types of cancer. In this study, we evaluated the expression of KIF2A and its potential and robustness to predict clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of KIF2A was determined in 20 pairs of cancerous and adjacent nontumor tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. KIF2A immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarray (TMA), composed of 182 CRC and 179 matched adjacent nontumor tissues from surgery, 23 chronic colitis, 43 low-grade, and 18 high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias acquired through intestinal endoscopic biopsy. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to perform survival analyses. Both KIF2A mRNA and protein product exhibited CRC tissue-preferred expression, when compared with benign tissues. The high KIF2A expression was significantly correlated to TNM stage (P = 0.046) and tumor status (T) (P = 0.007). In univariate and multivariate analyses, high KIF2A expression showed a major prognostic value regarding 5-year survival. The influences of KIF2A expression on the survival were further proven by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. This study demonstrated CRC tissue-preferred expression pattern of the KIF2A and suggested that high KIF2A expression might serve as an independent maker for poor prognosis in CRC patients. PMID:26070867

  18. Targeting KRAS for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of pancreatic cancer: Hopes and realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournet, Barbara; Buscail, Camille; Muscari, Fabrice; Cordelier, Pierre; Buscail, Louis

    2016-02-01

    Mutation of the KRAS oncogene in pancreatic cancer is responsible for permanent activation of the P21 RAS protein and the cascade of signalling pathways. Consequently, multiple cellular processes, such as transformation, proliferation, invasion, and survival are activated. The aim of this review was to present all potential clinical applications of targeting KRAS in terms of diagnosis and management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction technology provides reliable assessment of KRAS mutations, both in tissues and from fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Numerous studies report that the combination of endoscopic ultrasound-guided cytopathology and a KRAS mutation assay can improve the positive and differential diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, differentiating between benign versus malignant solid pancreatic cancer, and reducing false-negative results compared to cytopathology alone. In addition, the presence of a KRAS mutation is frequently associated with a worse prognosis, both in cases of advanced and resected tumours. However, the KRAS mutation assay is not as efficient at predicting a response to both anti-epidermal growth factor receptor treatments and/or chemotherapy. Targeting of KRAS to treat pancreatic adenocarcinoma has been applied at different stages of RAS molecular intracellular processes: at the transcription level with antisense or interference RNA, at the posttranslational level with inhibitors of farnesyl transferase or anti-RAS vaccination peptides, and to target multiple signalling pathways using inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin, RAF. Despite some encouraging results at pre-clinical and phase I stages, no significant clinical benefits have been observed. Combinatory approaches with standard chemotherapy will be welcome. PMID:26735353

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C in esophageal cancer correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor patient prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naganawa Yasuhiro

    2010-06-01

    VEGF-C expression group survived. Conclusions The expression of VEGF-C correlates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. In patients with Tis and T1 esophageal tumors, the expression of VEGF-C may be a good diagnostic factor for determining metastasis of the lymph node.

  20. The evaluation of breast cancer curative effect and prognosis in 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of using 18F-Fluro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in followup studies of breast cancer patients which have been given to comprehensive treatment. Methods: Measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG PET/CT by a retrospective research breast cancer patients in PET Center during November, 2003 to December, 2010 and following up. And analyzing the prognosis of the patients. Results: 114 patients of breast cancer which was confirmed by pathology have been screened out. In which 64 patients showed negative results when having 18F-FDG PET/CT scan, while in other 50 cases of recurrence, residual or metastasis, showed positive results. Average standardized uptake value (SUVave) of the positive results was ranging from 1.0∼11.2 (3.9±1.9), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was from 1.1∼ 16.2 (5.0±2.8). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 96.0%, 100% and 98.5% in diagnosis of breast cancer, while in traditional imaging were 81.8%, 77.6% and 72.9%. By the time of following up, 33 out of 50 positive patients had undergone certain therapies of breast cancer. 17 positive patients were without any therapy. Spearman rank correlation analysis results showed the positive patients in PET/CT scanning with higher maximum standardized uptake value the worse the prognosis. Fisher exact test showed the positive patients with or without treatment prognosis had significant difference. Other 43 patients had no evidence of disease/recurrence or new metastases of breast cancer. 28 of them had undergone certain therapies of breast cancer, while 36 hadn't. Fisher exact test showed the positive patients with or without treatment prognosis hadn't significant difference. Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET/CT scan can find recurrence or metastases of breast cancer at the early stage. It will be a valid way to project prognosis of the patient. And 18F-FDG PET/CT scan can

  1. SOXs in human prostate cancer: implication as progression and prognosis factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOX genes play an important role in a number of developmental processes. Potential roles of SOXs have been demonstrated in various neoplastic tissues as tumor suppressors or promoters depending on tumor status and types. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of SOXs in the progression and prognosis of human prostate cancer (PCa). The gene expression changes of SOXs in human PCa tissues compared with non-cancerous prostate tissues was detected using gene expression microarray, and confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis and immunohositochemistry. The roles of these genes in castration resistance were investigated in LNCaP xenograft model of PCa. The microarray analysis identified three genes (SOX7, SOX9 and SOX10) of SOX family that were significantly dis-regulated in common among four PCa specimens. Consistent with the results of the microarray, differential mRNA and protein levels of three selected genes were found in PCa tissues by QRT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, we found that the immunohistochemical staining scores of SOX7 in PCa tissues with higher serum PSA level (P = 0.02) and metastasis (P = 0.03) were significantly lower than those with lower serum PSA level and without metastasis; the increased SOX9 protein expression was frequently found in PCa tissues with higher Gleason score (P = 0.02) and higher clinical stage (P < 0.0001); the down-regulation of SOX10 tend to be found in PCa tissues with higher serum PSA levels (P = 0.03) and advanced pathological stage (P = 0.01). Moreover, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the down-regulation of SOX7 and the up-regulation of SOX9 were independent predictors of shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival. Furthermore, we discovered that SOX7 was significantly down-regulated and SOX9 was significantly up-regulated during the progression to castration resistance. Our data offer the convince

  2. Prevalence of molecular subtypes and prognosis of invasive breast cancer in north-east of Morocco: retrospective study

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    Bennis Sanae

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast carcinoma is known as a heterogeneous disease because gene expression analyses identify several subtypes and the molecular profiles are prognostic and predictive for patients. Our aim, in this study, is to estimate the prevalence of breast cancer subtypes and to determine the relationship between clinico-pathological characteristics, overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS for patients coming from north-east of Morocco. Methods We reviewed 366 cases of breast cancer diagnosed between January 2007 to June 2010 at the Department of pathology. Age, size tumor, metastatic profile, node involvement profile, OS and DFS were analyzed on 181 patients. These last parameters were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test to estimate outcome differences among subgroups. Results The average age was 45 years, our patients were diagnosed late (57% stage III, 17.5% stage IV with a high average tumor size. Luminal A subtype was more prevalent (53.6% associated with favorable clinic-pathological characteristics, followed by luminal B (16.4%, Her2-overexpressing (12.6%, basal-like (12.6% and unclassified subtype (4.9%. Survival analysis showed a significant difference between subtypes. The triple negative tumors were associated with poor prognosis (49% OS, 39% DFS, whereas the luminal A were associated with a better prognosis (88% OS, 59% DFS. The luminal B and the Her2-overexpressing subtypes were associated with an intermediate prognosis (77% and 75% OS, and 41% and 38% DFS respectively. Conclusion This study showed that molecular classification by immunohistochemistry was necessary for therapeutic decision and prognosis of breast carcinoma. The luminal A subtype was associated with favorable biological characteristics and a better prognosis than triple negative tumors that were associated with a poor prognosis and unfavorable clinic-pathological characteristics.

  3. Plasma testosterone in the general population, cancer prognosis and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, D D; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2014-01-01

    .19-1.93) for the 4th quintile, and 1.52 (1.20-1.91) for the 5th quintile, versus the 1st quintile. For women, corresponding hazard ratios were 1.09 (0.81-1.46), 1.17 (0.86-1.59), 1.03 (0.76-1.39), and 1.80 (1.32-2.46). For risk of cancer, multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for risk of any cancer were 1.07 (95...... AND METHODS: Plasma testosterone was measured in 8771 20- to 94-year-old men and women who participated in a prospective study of the general population. Participants were included in 1981-1983 and followed for a median of 22 years (range: 0-30 years). RESULTS: During follow-up, 1140 men and 809 women...

  4. Downregulation of ALDOB is associated with poor prognosis of patients with gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Jin, Yi; Chen, Yuan; Yao, Hai-Bo; Xia, Ying-Jie; Ma, Ying-Yu; Wang, Wei; Shao, Qin-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the expression of ALDOB in gastric cancer (GC) tissue and to reveal its potential clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Materials and methods We screened for genes that were differentially expressed between GC and nontumor tissues using a microarray, specifically the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Array platform. We then verified the transcriptional and translational levels of ALDOB by performing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In addition, a merged data set based on the Gene Expression Omnibus was generated and a survival analysis performed. Results The microarray analysis revealed that ALDOB was downregulated (more than sevenfold) in GC compared with nontumor tissue. Both qRT-PCR and IHC validated the decrease of ALDOB in GC tissue. Moreover, we found that the expression of ALDOB was significantly related to tumor-invasion depth, lymph-node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage. The survival analysis, based on the IHC and merged data set, indicated that the overall survival was better in patients with high ALDOB expression. The Cox regression analysis showed that ALDOB expression was an independent prognostic factor for GC. Conclusion The expression of ALDOB in GC tissue was significantly related to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of the disease, thus suggesting that ALDOB could act as a novel molecular marker for GC.

  5. A New Method for Analyzing Diagnostic Delay in Gynecological Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Edwards, Kasper; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    patient reflecting the patients' pathway through the course of the disease. We combined 2 process mapping tools, namely, value stream mapping and business process modeling notation. The first method identifies the flow in a process as timelines. The latter introduces a set of easily recognizable graphical...... elements. RESULTS: Detailed information concerning the cancer patients' pathway was obtained. The method visualized the complexities within the diagnostic pathway. The role of different participants (patient, general practitioner, and local hospitals) became clear by arranging activities according...

  6. Downregulation of ALDOB is associated with poor prognosis of patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jun He,1 Yi Jin,1 Yuan Chen,2 Hai-Bo Yao,1 Ying-Jie Xia,3 Ying-Yu Ma,4 Wei Wang,2 Qin-Shu Shao1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Pancreatic Surgery, 2Department of Pathology, 3Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology of Zhejiang Province, 4Clinic Research Institute, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objectives: To examine the expression of ALDOB in gastric cancer (GC tissue and to reveal its potential clinicopathological and prognostic significance.Materials and methods: We screened for genes that were differentially expressed between GC and nontumor tissues using a microarray, specifically the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Array platform. We then verified the transcriptional and translational levels of ALDOB by performing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC. In addition, a merged data set based on the Gene Expression Omnibus was generated and a survival analysis performed.Results: The microarray analysis revealed that ALDOB was downregulated (more than sevenfold in GC compared with nontumor tissue. Both qRT-PCR and IHC validated the decrease of ALDOB in GC tissue. Moreover, we found that the expression of ALDOB was significantly related to tumor-invasion depth, lymph-node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage. The survival analysis, based on the IHC and merged data set, indicated that the overall survival was better in patients with high ALDOB expression. The Cox regression analysis showed that ALDOB expression was an independent prognostic factor for GC.Conclusion: The expression of ALDOB in GC tissue was significantly related to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of the disease, thus suggesting that ALDOB could act as a novel molecular marker for GC. Keywords: ALDOB, gastric cancer, microarray analysis, molecular marker

  7. Neural network cascade optimizes microRNA biomarker selection for nasopharyngeal cancer prognosis.

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    Wenliang Zhu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to be promising biomarkers in predicting cancer prognosis. However, inappropriate or poorly optimized processing and modeling of miRNA expression data can negatively affect prediction performance. Here, we propose a holistic solution for miRNA biomarker selection and prediction model building. This work introduces the use of a neural network cascade, a cascaded constitution of small artificial neural network units, for evaluating miRNA expression and patient outcome. A miRNA microarray dataset of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus to illustrate the methodology. Results indicated a nonlinear relationship between miRNA expression and patient death risk, implying that direct comparison of expression values is inappropriate. However, this method performs transformation of miRNA expression values into a miRNA score, which linearly measures death risk. Spearman correlation was calculated between miRNA scores and survival status for each miRNA. Finally, a nine-miRNA signature was optimized to predict death risk after nasopharyngeal carcinoma by establishing a neural network cascade consisting of 13 artificial neural network units. Area under the ROC was 0.951 for the internal validation set and had a prediction accuracy of 83% for the external validation set. In particular, the established neural network cascade was found to have strong immunity against noise interference that disturbs miRNA expression values. This study provides an efficient and easy-to-use method that aims to maximize clinical application of miRNAs in prognostic risk assessment of patients with cancer.

  8. Neural network cascade optimizes microRNA biomarker selection for nasopharyngeal cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenliang; Kan, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be promising biomarkers in predicting cancer prognosis. However, inappropriate or poorly optimized processing and modeling of miRNA expression data can negatively affect prediction performance. Here, we propose a holistic solution for miRNA biomarker selection and prediction model building. This work introduces the use of a neural network cascade, a cascaded constitution of small artificial neural network units, for evaluating miRNA expression and patient outcome. A miRNA microarray dataset of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus to illustrate the methodology. Results indicated a nonlinear relationship between miRNA expression and patient death risk, implying that direct comparison of expression values is inappropriate. However, this method performs transformation of miRNA expression values into a miRNA score, which linearly measures death risk. Spearman correlation was calculated between miRNA scores and survival status for each miRNA. Finally, a nine-miRNA signature was optimized to predict death risk after nasopharyngeal carcinoma by establishing a neural network cascade consisting of 13 artificial neural network units. Area under the ROC was 0.951 for the internal validation set and had a prediction accuracy of 83% for the external validation set. In particular, the established neural network cascade was found to have strong immunity against noise interference that disturbs miRNA expression values. This study provides an efficient and easy-to-use method that aims to maximize clinical application of miRNAs in prognostic risk assessment of patients with cancer. PMID:25310846

  9. Mitochondrial DNA content in breast cancer: Impact on in vitro and in vivo phenotype and patient prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, Marjolein J.A.; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Smid, Marcel; Look, Maxime P.; Foekens, John A.; Sleijfer, Stefan; Martens, John W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in breast cancer cell lines has been associated with transition towards a mesenchymal phenotype, but its clinical consequences concerning breast cancer dissemination remain unidentified. Here, we aimed to clarify the link between mtDNA content and a mesenchymal phenotype and its relation to prognosis of breast cancer patients. We analyzed mtDNA content in 42 breast cancer cell lines and 207 primary breast tumor specimens using a combination of quantitative PCR and array-based copy number analysis. By associating mtDNA content with expression levels of genes involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and with the intrinsic breast cancer subtypes, we could not identify a relation between low mtDNA content and mesenchymal properties in the breast cancer cell lines or in the primary breast tumors. In addition, we explored the relation between mtDNA content and prognosis in our cohort of primary breast tumor specimens that originated from patients with lymph node-negative disease who did not receive any (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy. When patients were divided based on the tumor quartile levels of mtDNA content, those in the lowest quarter (≤ 350 mtDNA molecules per cell) showed a poorer 10-year distant metastasis-free survival than patients with > 350 mtDNA molecules per cell (HR 0.50 [95% CI 0.29–0.87], P = 0.015). The poor prognosis was independent of established clinicopathological markers (HR 0.54 [95% CI 0.30–0.97], P = 0.038). We conclude that, despite a lack of evidence between mtDNA content and EMT, low mtDNA content might provide meaningful prognostic value for distant metastasis in breast cancer. PMID:27081694

  10. Role of immunohistochemical overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-11 in the prognosis of death by ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périgny, Martine; Bairati, Isabelle; Harvey, Isabelle; Beauchemin, Michel; Harel, François; Plante, Marie; Têtu, Bernard

    2008-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes thought to be involved in tumor invasion. We hypothesized that MMP-2 and MMP-11 overexpression was associated with the aggressiveness of ovarian carcinoma. This study was performed on samples from 100 patients with stage III ovarian carcinomas treated surgically between 1990 and 2000. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on ovarian tumors and peritoneal implants using monoclonal antibodies. Overexpression was defined as more than 10% of cells expressing the marker. Multivariate analyses showed that only MMP-2 overexpression by cancer cells in peritoneal implants was associated with a significant risk of death by disease (hazard ratio, 2.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-4.97; P =.003). MMP-11 overexpression was not predictive of survival. These results suggest that MMP-2 overexpression by cancer cells in peritoneal implants and not in the primary ovarian cancer is predictive of ovarian cancer prognosis and more likely reflects the presence of particularly aggressive clones of cancer cells.

  11. A decision-analytic approach to define poor prognosis patients: A case study for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. van Dijk (Merel); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Classification systems may be useful to direct more aggressive treatment to cancer patients with a relatively poor prognosis. The definition of 'poor prognosis' often lacks a formal basis. We propose a decision analytic approach to weigh benefits and harms explicitly to defin

  12. EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive Thyroid Cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx) of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma. EpEx, Ep-ICD and β-catenin immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies was conducted on 58 archived thyroid cancer (TC) tissue blocks from 34 patients and correlated with survival analysis of these patients for up to 17 years. The anaplastic (ATC) and aggressive thyroid cancers showed loss of EpEx and increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD. In contrast, the low grade papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) showed membranous EpEx and no detectable nuclear Ep-ICD. The ATC also showed concomitant nuclear expression of Ep-ICD and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis revealed reduced overall survival (OS) for TC patients showing nuclear Ep-ICD expression or loss of membranous EpEx (p < 0.0004), median OS = 5 months as compared to 198 months for patients who did not show nuclear Ep-ICD or demonstrated only membranous EpE. We report reciprocal loss of membrane EpEx but increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in aggressive TC; nuclear Ep-ICD correlated with poor OS of TC patients. Thus nuclear Ep-ICD localization may serve as a useful biomarker for aggressive TC and may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for aggressive TC

  13. An Apta-Biosensor for Colon Cancer Diagnostics

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    Mojgan Ahmadzadeh Raji

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design and implementation of an aptasensor using a modified KCHA10a aptamer. This aptasensor consists of a functionalized electrodes using various materials including 11-mercaptoandecanoic acid (11-MUA and modified KCHA10a aptamer. The HCT 116, HT 29 and HEp-2 cell lines are used in this study to demonstrate the functionality of aptasensor for colon cancer detection purposes. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry are used to verify the binding between the target cells and aptamer. The limit of detection (LOD of this aptasensor is equal to seven cancer cells. Based on the experimental results, the proposed sensor can be employed for point-of-care cancer disease diagnostics.

  14. Rectal cancer in pregnancy: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The occurrence of colorectal cancer during pregnancy is rare and is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Herein, we report such a case of rectal cancer in pregnancy and review the literature. Case report: A 31-year-old multiparous, pregnant woman, in the 20th week of gestation, presented with rectal bleeding progressing to spasmodic abdominal pain and right flank vague pain. A flexible recto sigmoidoscopy showed a large ulcerative mass located in the recto sigmoid junction, 15 cm away from anal verge. Imaging studies and biopsy proved it to be rectal adenocarcinoma with single liver metastasis. The patient’s pregnancy was terminated and neoadjuvant therapy followed by curative surgery was performed. She is currently receiving adjuvant systemic therapy to eradicate potential micro metastatic disease. Conclusion: This case suggests that colorectal cancer can mimic the signs and the symptoms of pregnancy and tends to present at an advanced stage in pregnant women.

  15. The molecular biology of cancer and its diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, S E

    1981-07-01

    The origin of cancer is discussed from the view of the two-stage model of malignant transformation. Environmental carcinogens play an integral part in the process. When the cell is transformed, cell surface changes are found for such components as fibronectin, collagen, actin, myosin, glycopeptides and enzyme activities. Hormone receptors are a fruitful line for research. Both qualitative and quantitative alterations are also seen with cancer cell enzymes. Among enzymes that can be used as markers of malignancy are the protease. A group of oncodevelopmental proteins, hormonal and non-hormonal, are in regular service for the management of cancer. Improvements in diagnostic specificity can be expected as the newer technologies are harnessed for medical use.

  16. Dephosphorylated cofilin expression is associated with poor prognosis in cases of human breast cancer: a tissue microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimaiti Y

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yusufu Maimaiti,1,2,* Zeming Liu,1,* Jie Tan,1 Kelimu Abudureyimu,2 Bangxing Huang,3 Chunping Liu,1 Yawen Guo,1 Changwen Wang,1 Xiu Nie,3 Jing Zhou,1 Tao Huang1 1Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 2Department of General Surgery, Research Institute of Minimally Invasive, People’s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi, 3Department of Pathology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Proteins in the cofilin pathway regulate actin dynamics and may be involved in cancer cell migration and invasion. However, there are no direct data that suggest that dephosphorylated cofilin can affect breast cancer prognosis.Methods: We assessed the expressions of cofilin and phosphorylated cofilin (P-cofilin in breast cancer tissue microarrays (290 patients, mean follow-up: 95.7±2.49 months to evaluate dephosphorylated cofilin and its relationship with breast cancer prognosis. The associations of pathological characteristics with cumulative survival were evaluated using Kaplan–Meier analysis.Results: Univariate analyses revealed that overall survival was associated with cofilin levels, N category, TNM stage, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and molecular subtypes. Cofilin status and TNM stage independently affected overall survival, although P-cofilin expression was not associated with patient survival. In the P-cofilin-negative subgroup, cofilin expression was significantly associated with patient survival, although cofilin expression was not significantly associated with patient survival in the P-cofilin-positive subgroup. We further analyzed the P-cofilin-negative cases and found that Ki-67 expression was significantly elevated in the subgroup that was strongly positive for

  17. Effect of chemotherapy after radical surgery of colon cancer combined with cascade primed immune cell therapy on patients’ prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Cheng Shu; Ping Gao; Xin-Jua Zuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of chemotherapy after radical surgery of colon cancer combined with cascade primed immune cell therapy on patients' prognosis.Methods:A total of78 cases of patients with colon cancer who received radical surgery of colon cancer assisted by postoperative chemotherapy in our hospital from May 2012 to December 2014 were selected for treatment and randomly divided into two groups, combined treatment group received chemotherapy combined with cascade primed immune cell therapy, simple chemotherapy group received FOLFOX chemotherapy, and then serum tumor marker contents and angiogenesis molecule contents as well as red blood cell immune function indicators in peripheral blood were detected.Results:Serum tumor markers CCSA-2, CCSA-3, CCSA-4, PTN, NGAL and sMICA as well as angiogenesis molecules VEGF, FGF10, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, Musashi1 and Dkk1 contents of combined treatment group were lower than those of conventional chemotherapy group; the proportion of CR1, CR3, CD58 and CD59 as well as the rosette formation rates of red blood cell C3b receptor and immune complex in peripheral blood of combined treatment group were significantly higher than those of conventional chemotherapy group.Conclusions:Chemotherapy after radical surgery of colon cancer combined with cascade primed immune cell therapy helps to kill tumor cells and inhibit angiogenesis while enhance red blood cell immune function, and it can improve the prognosis of radical surgery of colon cancer.

  18. Nestin expression associates with poor prognosis and triple negative phenotype in locally advanced (T4 breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Piras

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, has traditionally been noted for its importance as a neural stem cell marker. However, in recent years, expression of nestin has shown to be associated with general proliferation of progenitor cell populations within neoplasms. There is no reported study addressing nestin expression in T4 breast cancer patients. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, through immunohistochemistry, the expression and distribution of nestin in T4 breast cancer, in order to determine its association with clinical and pathological parameters as well as with patients’ outcome. Nestin was detectable in tumoral cells and in endothelial cells of blood microvessels, and it is significantly expressed in triple-negative and in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC subgroups of T4 breast tumours. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the presence of nestin in tumoral cells significantly predicted poor prognosis at 5-years survival (P=0.02 and with borderline significance at 10-years of survival (P=0.05 in T4 breast cancer patients. On the basis of these observations, we speculate that nestin expression may characterize tumours with an aggressive clinical behavior, suggesting that the presence of nestin in tumoral cells and vessels may be considered an important factor that leads to a poor prognosis. Further studies are awaited to define the biological role of nestin in the etiology of these subgroups of breast cancers.

  19. Impact of young age on the prognosis for oral cancer: a population-based study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Shou Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral cancer leads to a considerable use of health care resources. Wide resection of the tumor and reconstruction with a pedicle flap/ free flap is widely used. This study was conducted to investigate if young age at the time of diagnosis of oral cancer requiring this treatment confers a worse prognosis. METHODS: A total of 2339 patients who underwent resections for oral cancer from 2004 to 2005 were identified from The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, Cox proportional regression model, propensity scores, and sensitivity test were used to evaluate the association between 5-year survival rates and age. RESULTS: In the Cox proportional regression model, the older age group (>65 years had the worst survival rate (hazard ratio [HR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-2.22; P65 years, compared to those with younger age (<45 years (P<0.001. In sensitivity test, the adjusted hazard ratio remained no statistically elevated in the younger age group (<45 years. CONCLUSIONS: For those oral cancer patients who underwent wide excision and reconstruction, young age did not confer a worse prognosis using a Cox proportional regression model, propensity scores or sensitivity test. Young oral cancer patients may be treated using general guidelines and do not require more aggressive treatment.

  20. Randomized phase III study comparing paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) to standard BEP in intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, Ronald; Skoneczna, Iwona; Daugaard, Gedske;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC).......To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC)....

  1. Strategies for improving the outcome of patients with poor prognosis prostate cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can identify groups of patients with a poor outcome when treated with radiation therapy alone. Patterns of failure indicate the problem in these patients, including both excessive local regional failure and metastatic disease. The latter is probably present in 30-60% of these patients at the time of treatment but is not detectable by present diagnostic means. There is a clear dose response for 4-year biochemical and clinical freedom from failure and dose is an independent variable on multivariate analysis. The relative ineffectiveness of conventional dose level radiation (<70 Gy) vs 76 Gy is clearly demonstrated. If possible, despite the technological requirements of 3D conformal treatment technique (3 DCRT), future trials of adjuvant treatments should be combined with radiation-delivering doses of 75-80 Gy by 3 DCRT. The reduction in the later morbidity associated with 3 DCRT is impressive and on its own justifies adopting this technology. Adjuvant androgen deprivation with radiation in prostate cancer was originally thought to perhaps be similar to the addition of tamoxifen to breast cancer management with an opportunity for eliminating micro-metastasis. It appears that this result may have been achieved in prostate cancer, but the magnitude of effect (17%) is much more than one would expect and this trial needs to be confirmed. It is worth noting from both a cost and morbidity viewpoint that LHRH agonist used alone with radiation is the only adjuvant hormone manipulation associated with a survival advantage. The addition of androgen blockers with their cost, GI, liver and other toxicities has yet to be proven in the adjuvant setting. (orig./MG)

  2. CCL7 and CCL21 overexpression in gastric cancer is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsann-Long Hwang; Li-Yu Lee; Chee-Chan Wang; Ying Liang; Shu-Fang Huang; Chi-Ming Wu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO investigate how a complex network of CC chemokine ligands (CCLs) and their receptors influence the progression of tumor and metastasis.METHODS:In the present study,we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of CCL7,CCL8 and CCL21 in 194 gastric cancer samples and adjacent normal tissues.We analyzed their correlation with tumor metastasis,clinicopathologic parameters and clinical outcome.RESULTS:We found that the higher expression of CCL7 and CCL21 in cancer tissues than in normal tissues was significantly correlated with advanced depth of wall invasion,lymph node metastasis and higher tumor node metastasis stage.Moreover,Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that CCL7 and CCL21 overexpression in cancer tissues was correlated with poor prognosis.CONCLUSION:These results suggest that overexpression of these two CC chemokine ligands is associated with tumor metastasis and serves as a prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer.

  3. Radiation dose is associated with prognosis of small cell lung cancer with superior vena cava syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Bo; Ning, Fang-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Le; Cheng, Yu-Feng; Dong, Xin-Jun; Liu, Chang-Min; Chen, Shao-Shui

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cases develop superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). Many SCLC patients with SVCS have relatively limited disease, requiring curative rather than palliative treatment. Besides chemotherapy, radiotherapy is important for treating SCLC with SVCS. We retrospectively evaluated the influence of radiotherapy dose on the prognosis of 57 patients with SCLC with SVCS treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The mean biological equivalent radiation dose was 71.5 Gy. We administered etoposide/cisplatin as sequential and concurrent chemotherapy. All patients received at least one cycle of concurrent chemotherapy. All patients had partial or complete response; SVCS-associated symptoms were reduced in 87.7% (50/57) of patients within 3-10 days after treatment. Radiation dose did not affect 2-year local control (74.2% vs. 80.8%). Patients who received high-dose radiation had a lower 2-year overall survival rate than those who received low-dose radiation (11.6 vs. 33%; P = 0.024). The high dose group median survival was 15.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.2-19.0) compared with 18.7 months (95% CI: 13.9-23.6) in the low dose group. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 22/26 high dose patients (84.6%) and 21/31 low dose patients (67.7%). In the high dose group, 30.8% of patients had grade 3/4 esophagitis compared with 19.4% of low dose patients. Only 29.0% of low dose patients received < 4 cycles of chemotherapy in the first 12 weeks after treatment began compared with 46.2% of high dose patients. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is a tolerable modality for treating stage IIIA/IIIB SCLC with SVCS. Moderate-dose radiotherapy is preferable. PMID:26064339

  4. Polymorphisms cMyc-N11S and p27-V109G and breast cancer risk and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cMyc and p27 are key genes implicated in carcinogenesis. Whether polymorphisms in these genes affect breast cancer risk or prognosis is still unclear. In this study, we focus on a rare non-synonymous polymorphism in cMyc (N11S) and a common polymorphism in p27 (V109G) and determine their role in risk and prognosis using data collected from the Ontario Breast Cancer Family Registry. Risk factor data was collected at baseline on a large group of women (cases = 1,115 and population-based controls = 710) and clinical data (including treatment and follow-up) were collected prospectively by periodic review of medical records for a subset of cases (N = 967) for nearly a decade. A centralized pathology review was conducted. Unconditional logistic regression was used to determine the association of polymorphisms with breast cancer risk and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine their association with survival. Our results suggest that while cMyc-N11S can be considered a putatively functional polymorphism located in the N-terminal domain, it is not associated with risk, tumor characteristics or survival. The p27-G109 allele was associated with a modest protective effect in adjusted analyses and higher T stage. We found no evidence to suggest that p27-V109G alone or in combination with cMyc-N11S was associated with survival. Age at onset and first-degree family history of breast or ovarian cancer did not significantly modify the association of these polymorphisms with breast cancer risk. Further work is recommended to understand the potential functional role of these specific non-synonymous amino acid changes and a larger, more comprehensive investigation of genetic variation in these genes (e.g., using a tagSNP approach) in combination with other relevant genes is needed as well as consideration for treatment effects when assessing their potential role in prognosis

  5. A Clinical Investigation into the Factors Influencing the Prognosis of Patients with Primary Liver Cancer after Hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Xi-qing; Li Chao-long; Sheng Xing-hua

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors influencing the prognosis of patients with primary liver cancer(PLC) after hepatectomy on purpose to provide the preventive measures for improving the long-term effect.Methods All of the 189 patients who underwent hepatectomy with PLC from May,1994 to January,1998 were included by reviewing their clinical pathological characteristics and treatments. Totally, 22 factors contributed to the long-term survival rate(SR)and the disease-free SR were analysed . All patients were followed up at least 5 years. Results The 3- and 5-year cumulative SRs in the total group were 63% and 45% respectively. The 3- and 5-year SRs and disease-free SRs in the curative resection (CR) group (n=162) were 67%,47%,and 45% and 26% respectively. It was showed that the way by which a tumor was found, tumor size, portal thrombi, satellite nodule, cirrhosis type, TNM stage, tumor envelope, recurrence and treatment, vascular exclusion and transfusion, differentiation grade and CR were prognostic factors by individual variable analysis. A multivariable analysis showed that CR , tumor size and reoperation were significant factors associated with the prognosis. Conclusion The type of CR and tumor size are determinants influencing the prognosis. Early diagnosis of small carcinoma and CR as soon as possible is essential to improving the prognosis of PLC. Avoiding transfusion and controlling the progress of cirrhosis are expected to improve the disease-free SR.

  6. Effect of β-catenin alterations in the prognosis of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Frequency of point mutations in exon 3 β-catenin gene is low in our population. It would be interesting to increase the population size to test the clinically relevant influence in the prognosis found, and to test the relation of these events with Microsatellite Instabillity (MSI pathway. If these findings were confirmed, β-catenin determination would help in the selection of patients with different prognosis.

  7. Cancer among medical diagnostic x-ray workers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.X.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Li, B.X.; Zhang, J.Y.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-05-04

    Cancer incidence among 27,011 diagnostic x-ray workers was compared to that of 25,782 other medical specialists employed between 1950 and 1980 in China. X-ray workers had a 50% higher risk of developing cancer than the other specialists (relative risk (RR) = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.3-1.7). Leukemia was strongly linked to radiation work (RR = 3.5, n = 30). Cancers of the breast (RR = 1.4, n = 11), thyroid (RR = 2.1, n = 7), and skin (RR = 1.5, n = 6) were increased among x-ray workers employed for 10 or more years. High risks of cancers of the esophagus (RR = 3.5, n = 15) and liver (RR = 2.4, n = 48) were not consistent with a radiation effect since risk did not vary by duration of employment. This finding suggested that some differences might exist between groups of hospital workers in social class, alcohol intake, dietary habits, and other risk factors. No excess lung cancer (RR = 0.9, n = 22) or multiple myeloma (n = 0) was observed. Significant excesses of leukemia and cancers of the breast and thyroid occurred among x-ray workers first employed prior to 1960 when radiation exposures in China were high. In fact, it was not uncommon for employees to be given time off from x-ray work because their wbc count was severely depressed. These data indicated that repeated exposure to x-rays over many years can increase the risk of leukemia and several other tumors but apparently not that of lung cancer.

  8. Tumor specific lung cancer diagnostics with multiplexed FRET immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, D.; Hill, D.; Löhmannsröben, H.-G.; Thomas, E.; Lavigne, A.; Darbouret, B.; Bois, E.; Charbonnière, L. J.; Ziessel, R. F.; Hildebrandt, N.

    2010-02-01

    An optical multiplexed homogeneous (liquid phase) immunoassay based on FRET from a terbium complex to eight different fluorescent dyes is presented. We achieved highly sensitive parallel detection of four different lung cancer specific tumor markers (CEA, NSE, SCC and CYFRA21-1) within a single assay and show a proof-of-principle for 5- fold multiplexing. The method is well suited for fast and low-cost miniaturized point-of-care testing as well as for highthroughput screening in a broad range of in-vitro diagnostic applications.

  9. Millimeter Wave Spectroscopy for Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Konstantin; Chen, Shu; Afsar, Mohammed; Naber, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Broad-band millimeter wave transmittance measurements of normal and tumorous (cancerous) human breast tissue samples have been acquired in--vitro by employing a free-space, quasi-optical spectrometer. Freshly excised breast tissues were prepared and preserved in 10% neutral-buffered formalin solution before testing. Significant differences in the transmittance profiles have been found between the normal and tumorous tissues. It has been found that despite the inhomogeneity and variable structure and composition of each single tissue, the tumorous specimens consistently manifest much higher absorption level of millimeter wave radiation than the normal ones. It has been shown that free space, quasi-optical spectrometer is capable of contributing valuable insights into the dielectric properties of normal and tumorous human breast tissues and aiding in further developments of millimeter wave spectroscopy and mammography for the breast cancer diagnostics and detection.

  10. [Technical novelties, latest diagnostic options in the MRI and CT diagnostics of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jederán, Éva; Gõdény, Mária

    2015-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic options of colorectal cancer (CRC) have changed over the past decade. Imaging plays a major role, thus the use of scanning methods is recommended by guidelines. Accurate staging, evaluation of treatment efficacy and identification of residual and recurrent tumors are required for the modern management of colorectal cancer. If adequate technical background is provided, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives the information upon which therapeutic options may be determined. High-resolution MRI scans can be interpreted as maps providing functional and molecular information. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) has shown promising results regarding the determination of tumor volume and evaluation of treatment efficacy. Perfusion dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (P-DCE-MRI) is the subject of research in the early assessment of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a procedure utilizing biochemical analysis. Its application in CRC is under investigation. Clinical effectiveness of PET-MRI (hardware-based combination of MRI and positron emission tomography) is also being studied. Diagnostic value of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) has been proven in the detection of CRC as well as of polyps. PMID:26339907

  11. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  12. BRIEF REVIEW ON DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUE AND NOVEL MOLECULES IN CLINICAL TRIALS FOR TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISHAL KUMAR S. MODI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in both developed and undeveloped countries, and the second most frequent cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer. Although there have been many chemotherapeutic agents like 5-fluorouracil, taxol, tamoxifen, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and camptothecin and hormones are used to treat breast cancer. This review focuses on the causes of breast cancer, latest diagnostic techniques and various molecules under clinical trials for the treatment of breast cancer.

  13. Relation of nm23 gene expression to CT sign and prognosis in peripheral nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shu-hua; XU Ke; HUANG Tao; HUANG Bao-jun; ZHU Yu-sen; LI Jun; LI Shu; SUN Li-hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ CT observations and the cellular factors of molecular biology each enable one to recognize macro/micro changes in lung cancer. Growing pattern, characteristic shapes, degree of malignancy, relapse and metastasis of lung cancer are mainly determined by their molecular biology. Change of tumour shape, determined by the tumour's biological behaviour, is the basis of CT observations. That is, the pathological change acts as a bridge which links the CT observation to molecular biology and makes the investigation of internal relationship between CT sign and molecular biology behaviour possible. As a tumour suppressor gene, nm23 gene is located in chromosome 17q21.3, encoding a nucleoside diphosphate kinase.1,2 We studied the expression of nm23 in peripheral nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using the streptavidin peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical method and investigated retrospectively the relationship between nm23 gene, CT observation, biological behaviour and prognosis of NSCLC.

  14. Microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for salivary diagnostics of stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Yael; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2015-05-15

    We present a microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for saliva diagnostics with a potential application for non-invasive early diagnosis of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The primary identified cause is infection by a gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. These bacteria secrete the enzyme urease that converts urea into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3), leading to their elevated levels in breath and body fluids. The proposed optoelectronic sensor will detect clinically relevant levels of CO2 and NH3 in saliva that can potentially be used for early diagnosis of stomach cancer. The sensor is composed of the embedded in a microfluidic device array of microwells filled with ion-exchange polymer microbeads doped with various organic dyes. The optical response of this unique highly diverse sensor is monitored over a broad spectrum, which provides a platform for cross-reactive sensitivity and allows detection of CO2 and NH3 in saliva at ppm levels. PMID:25223554

  15. Hair dye use, regular exercise, and the risk and prognosis of prostate cancer: multicenter case–control and case-only studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Shu-Yu; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Huang, Shu-Pin; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects that hair dye use and regular exercise exert on the risk and prognosis of prostate cancer. Methods We studied 296 cases of histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 296 age- (in 2-y bands), ethnicity-, and hospital-matched controls in Taiwan between August 2000 and December 2008. To determine the rate of prostate cancer survival, another 608 incident prostate cancer cases occurring between August 2000 and December 2007 were investigated. Infor...

  16. Human voltage-gated proton channel hv1: a new potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    Full Text Available Solid tumors exist in a hypoxic microenvironment, and possess high-glycolytic metabolites. To avoid the acidosis, tumor cells must exhibit a dynamic cytosolic pH regulation mechanism(s. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 mediates NADPH oxidase function by compensating cellular loss of electrons with protons. Here, we showed for the first time, that Hv1 expression is increased in colorectal tumor tissues and cell lines, associated with poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry showed that Hv1 is strongly expressed in adenocarcinomas but not or lowly expressed in normal colorectal or hyperplastic polyps. Hv1 expression in colorectal cancer is significantly associated with the tumor size, tumor classification, lymph node status, clinical stage and p53 status. High Hv1 expression is associated significantly with shorter overall and recurrence-free survival. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that Hv1 is highly expressed in colorectal cancer cell lines, SW620, HT29, LS174T and Colo205, but not in SW480. Inhibitions of Hv1 expression and activity in the highly metastatic SW620 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA and Zn(2+ respectively, markedly decrease the cell invasion and migration, restraint proton extrusion and the intracellular pH recovery. Our results suggest that Hv1 may be used as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma, and a potential target for anticancer drugs in colorectal cancer therapy.

  17. A study on the effect of IL-6 gene polymorphism on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia W

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wei Jia, Guang-He Fei, Jie-Gui Hu, Xian-Wei Hu Pulmonary Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People’s Republic of China Background: Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed clinical diseases. IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine that is related to chemotactic factors and tumor biological regulation. -174G/C polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism is the -174 position change from G to C. However, the relationship between the IL-6 gene polymorphism and prognosis of lung cancer is elusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of -174G/C polymorphism on the prognosis of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Methods: DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 434 cases diagnosed with NSCLC by cytologic or histologic examination. Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (NlaIII was used to detect the genotype of -174G/C. Based on the functional activity of the IL-6 gene polymorphism, genotypes were divided into G vector (CG/GG (high yield and CC genotype (low yield. Prognosis of patients was analyzed and independent risk factors evaluated. A quantitative analysis of the degree of pain after diagnosis was performed to evaluate the correlations between gene polymorphisms and the degree of pain and use of analgesics.Results: Survival analysis showed that survival of the patients carrying the G allele (CG/GG was significantly lower than that of patients with CC genotype (42.31 versus 62.79 months; P=0.032. The IL-6 gene promoter region revealed the presence of polymorphic variants, which may be associated with changes in the gene transcription process that affect the level of serum cytokines. IL-6 -174G/C gene polymorphism is associated with a significant morphine equivalent daily dose (IL-6 GG, 69.61; GC, 73.17; CC, 181.67; P=0.004. Homozygous IL-6 -174C/C genotype carriers required higher doses of

  18. Combination chemotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients with metastatic brain involvement and a poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Naskhletashvili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy (RT is a standard treatment for breast cancer (BC patients with metastatic brain involvement. All patients (n = 15 had already received chemotherapy (CT for the underlying disease when they were found to have brain metastases. To develop effective CT regimens for patients with recurrent brain metastases, who have received RT to the brain, is a serious problem. Combination CT with gemcitabine and cisplatin showed a high efficacy (complete and partial regressions were achieved in 47.7% of cases and fair survival rates (median 10 months in a group of patients with BC brain metastases and a poor prognosis.

  19. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  20. Integration of Breast Cancer Secretomes with Clinical Data Elucidates Potential Serum Markers for Disease Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne S Ziegler

    Full Text Available Cancer cells secrete factors that influence adjacent cell behavior and can lead to enhanced proliferation and metastasis. To better understand the role of these factors in oncogenesis and disease progression, estrogen and progesterone receptor positive MCF-7 cells, triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231, DT22, and DT28 cells, and MCF-10A non-transformed mammary epithelial cells were grown in 3D cultures. A special emphasis was placed on triple negative breast cancer since these tumors are highly aggressive and no targeted treatments are currently available. The breast cancer cells secreted factors of variable potency that stimulated proliferation of the relatively quiescent MCF-10A cells. The conditioned medium from each cell line was subjected to mass spectrometry analysis and a variety of secreted proteins were identified including glycolytic enzymes, proteases, protease inhibitors, extracellular matrix proteins, and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. An investigation of the secretome from each cell line yielded clues about strategies used for breast cancer proliferation and metastasis. Some of the proteins we identified may be useful in the development of a serum-based test for breast cancer detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring.

  1. Integration of Breast Cancer Secretomes with Clinical Data Elucidates Potential Serum Markers for Disease Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Yvonne S.; Moresco, James J.; Yates, John R.; Nardulli, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells secrete factors that influence adjacent cell behavior and can lead to enhanced proliferation and metastasis. To better understand the role of these factors in oncogenesis and disease progression, estrogen and progesterone receptor positive MCF-7 cells, triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231, DT22, and DT28 cells, and MCF-10A non-transformed mammary epithelial cells were grown in 3D cultures. A special emphasis was placed on triple negative breast cancer since these tumors are highly aggressive and no targeted treatments are currently available. The breast cancer cells secreted factors of variable potency that stimulated proliferation of the relatively quiescent MCF-10A cells. The conditioned medium from each cell line was subjected to mass spectrometry analysis and a variety of secreted proteins were identified including glycolytic enzymes, proteases, protease inhibitors, extracellular matrix proteins, and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. An investigation of the secretome from each cell line yielded clues about strategies used for breast cancer proliferation and metastasis. Some of the proteins we identified may be useful in the development of a serum-based test for breast cancer detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring. PMID:27355404

  2. Overexpression of Notch3 and pS6 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch3 and pS6 play important roles in tumor angiogenesis. To assess the expression of Notch3 and pS6 in Chinese ovarian epithelial cancer patients, a ten-year follow-up study was performed in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues from 120 specimens of human ovarian epithelial cancer, 30 specimens from benign ovarian tumors, and 30 samples from healthy ovaries by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the expression of Notch3 and pS6 was higher in ovarian epithelial cancer than in normal ovary tissues and in benign ovarian tumor tissues (p0.05 but positively associated with clinical stage, pathological grading, histologic type, lymph node metastasis, and ascites (p<0.05 or p<0.01. A follow-up survey of 64 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer showed that patients with high Notch3 and pS6 expression had a shorter survival time (p<0.01, in which the clinical stage (p<0.05 and Notch3 expression (p<0.01 played important roles. In conclusion, Notch3 and pS6 are significantly related to ovarian epithelial cancer development and prognosis, and their combination represents a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in ovarian tumor angiogenesis.

  3. Diagnostic delay experienced among gynecological cancer patients: a nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard; Ottesen, Bent; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2009-01-01

    for gynecological cancer surgery in Denmark. SAMPLE: Of the 911 women alive, 648 participated, resulting in a response rate of 71.1%; of these, 30.1% were diagnosed with cervical cancer, 31.0% with endometrial cancer, and 38.9% with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Questionnaire survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnostic......OBJECTIVE: To examine diagnostic delay among gynecological cancer patients. DESIGN: Nationwide study. SETTING: The cohort comprised all women receiving their first treatment for cervical, endometrial, or ovarian cancer between 1 October 2006 and 1 December 2007 in four of the five centers...... delay calculated as total delay, patient delay, general practitioner referral delay, gynecologist appointment delay, and secondary care delay. RESULTS: Diagnostic delays were found in all parts of the diagnostic pathway. Total diagnostic delay has remained long with a median delay of 12 weeks from...

  4. CGPD: Cancer Genetics and Proteomics Database - A Dataset for Computational Analysis and Online Cancer Diagnostic Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan Riaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer Genetics and Proteomics Database (CGPD is a repository for genetics and proteomics data of those Homo sapiens genes which are involved in Cancer. These genes are categorized in the database on the basis of cancer type. 72 genes of 13 types of cancers are considered in this database yet. Primers, promoters and peptides of these genes are also made available. Primers provided for each gene, with their features and conditions given to facilitate the researchers, are useful in PCR amplification, especially in cloning experiments. CGPD also contains Online Cancer Diagnostic Center (OCDC. It also contains transcription and translation tools to assist research work in progressive manner. The database is publicly available at http://www.cgpd.comyr.com.

  5. Electrochemical sensors in breast cancer diagnostics and follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marques

    2015-12-01

    electrodes (SPCEs were used as the transducers. These SPCEs (working volume: ~40 μL are widely employed in the construction of electrochemical (biosensors because of several reasons: simplicity and low cost, versatility of design, small dimensions and possibility of incorporation in portable systems, as well as adequate electroanalytical characteristics. These SPCEs were modified with gold nanoparticles (nAu through the electrochemical deposition of ionic gold from a solution. The developed sensors were applied to the analysis of the selected biomarkers in spiked human serum samples.Besides these immunosensors, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP sensor was developed for the analysis of HER2-ECD. In this case a gold electrode was used as the transducer. The MIP was formed by surface imprinting and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltammetry were used for detection purposes.Results: For the immunoassays the following parameters were optimized: capture and detection antibody concentration, surface blocking, reaction mixtures and incubation times. The best limits of detection obtained were below the established cut-off values (25 U/mL and 15 ng/mL for CA15-3 and HER2-ECD, respectively. For the MIP sensor the most adequate polymer was chosen and the electropolymerization, template removal, and incubation conditions were optimized. The lowest HER2-ECD concentration that was analyzed was 50 µg/mL.Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that the developed sensors could be promising tools in breast cancer diagnostics and follow-up. However, further studies should be conducted using patients' samples and the results of these assays should be validated with the established analysis procedures for these cancer biomarkers.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Marques R, Pacheco J, Rama EC, Viswanathan S, Nouws H, Delerue-Matos C. Electrochemical sensors in breast cancer diagnostics and follow-up. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:34012.[This

  6. Circulating plasma MiR-141 is a novel biomarker for metastatic colon cancer and predicts poor prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyin Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC remains one of the major cancer types and cancer related death worldwide. Sensitive, non-invasive biomarkers that can facilitate disease detection, staging and prediction of therapeutic outcome are highly desirable to improve survival rate and help to determine optimized treatment for CRC. The small non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, have recently been identified as critical regulators for various diseases including cancer and may represent a novel class of cancer biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate circulating microRNAs in human plasma for use as such biomarkers in colon cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we found that circulating miR-141 was significantly associated with stage IV colon cancer in a cohort of 102 plasma samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of candidate plasma microRNA markers. We observed that combination of miR-141 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, a widely used marker for CRC, further improved the accuracy of detection. These findings were validated in an independent cohort of 156 plasma samples collected at Tianjin, China. Furthermore, our analysis showed that high levels of plasma miR-141 predicted poor survival in both cohorts and that miR-141 was an independent prognostic factor for advanced colon cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that plasma miR-141 may represent a novel biomarker that complements CEA in detecting colon cancer with distant metastasis and that high levels of miR-141 in plasma were associated with poor prognosis.

  7. Circulating Plasma MiR-141 Is a Novel Biomarker for Metastatic Colon Cancer and Predicts Poor Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, David E.; Zheng, Hong; Schetter, Aaron J.; Nykter, Matti; Harris, Curtis C.; Chen, Kexin; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the major cancer types and cancer related death worldwide. Sensitive, non-invasive biomarkers that can facilitate disease detection, staging and prediction of therapeutic outcome are highly desirable to improve survival rate and help to determine optimized treatment for CRC. The small non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), have recently been identified as critical regulators for various diseases including cancer and may represent a novel class of cancer biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate circulating microRNAs in human plasma for use as such biomarkers in colon cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings By using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we found that circulating miR-141 was significantly associated with stage IV colon cancer in a cohort of 102 plasma samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of candidate plasma microRNA markers. We observed that combination of miR-141 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a widely used marker for CRC, further improved the accuracy of detection. These findings were validated in an independent cohort of 156 plasma samples collected at Tianjin, China. Furthermore, our analysis showed that high levels of plasma miR-141 predicted poor survival in both cohorts and that miR-141 was an independent prognostic factor for advanced colon cancer. Conclusions/Significance We propose that plasma miR-141 may represent a novel biomarker that complements CEA in detecting colon cancer with distant metastasis and that high levels of miR-141 in plasma were associated with poor prognosis. PMID:21445232

  8. Considerations for Implementation of Cancer Molecular Diagnostics Into Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Physicians have provided personalized care with as much precision as possible for several centuries. However, increasingly sophisticated understanding of the human genome and of cancer biology has permitted identification of genetic and phenotypic distinctions that might permit development of new tumor biomarker tests for risk categorization, screening, differential diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, and monitoring. Both commercial and academic laboratories are offering tests for single analytes, panels of tests of single analytes, multiparameter assays coalesced into a signature, and total genomic, transcriptomic, or proteomic analyses. However, the absence of a consistent regulatory environment has led to marketing of assays without proven analytic validity or clinical utility. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval or clearance does not necessarily imply that use of the test will improve patient outcomes, and FDA discretion to permit laboratory-developed tests results in unknown benefit, or harm, of others. In this regard, a "bad tumor marker is as bad as a bad drug." Caveat emptor is not a satisfactory approach to delivering high-quality care. Rather, adoption of tumor biomarker tests should be based on high levels of evidence generated in scientifically rigorous studies that demonstrate both analytical validity and clinical utility. Doing so will ensure that clinicians and patients are confident that a tumor biomarker test is likely to improve their outcomes. PMID:27249708

  9. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortinas, Inés Vidal, E-mail: invi@montevideo.com.uy; Beretta, Mario; Alonso, Omar; Mut, Fernando [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear do Hospital ‘Asociación Española’, Br. Artigas 1515, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-08-15

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR) has reduced sensitivity. In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP) was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols. In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE) test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection. Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR) and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP). They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43). For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35). Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001). The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP.

  10. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Vidal Cortinas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR has reduced sensitivity.Objectives:In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols.Methods:In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection.Results:Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP. They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43. For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35. Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001.Conclusions:The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP.

  11. New Exercise-Dipyridamole Combined Test for Nuclear Cardiology in Insufficient Effort: Appropriate Diagnostic Sensitivity Keeping Exercise Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients not reaching 85% of the maximum predicted heart rate (MPHR) has reduced sensitivity. In an attempt to maintain diagnostic sensitivity without losing functional exercise data, a new exercise and dipyridamole combined protocol (EDCP) was developed. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this protocol and to compare its diagnostic sensitivity against standard exercise and dipyridamole protocols. In patients not reaching a sufficient exercise (SE) test and with no contraindications, 0.56 mg/kg of dipyridamole were IV administered over 1 minute simultaneously with exercise, followed by 99mTc-MIBI injection. Of 155 patients, 41 had MPS with EDCP, 47 had a SE test (≥ 85% MPHR) and 67 underwent the dipyridamole alone test (DIP). They all underwent coronary angiography within 3 months. The three stress methods for diagnosis of coronary lesions had their sensitivity compared. For stenosis ≥ 70%, EDCP yielded 97% sensitivity, SE 90% and DIP 95% (p = 0.43). For lesions ≥ 50%, the sensitivities were 94%, 88% and 95%, respectively (p = 0.35). Side effects of EDCP were present in only 12% of the patients, significantly less than with DIP (p < 0.001). The proposed combined protocol is a valid and safe method that yields adequate diagnostic sensitivity, keeping exercise prognostic information in patients unable to reach target heart rate, with fewer side effects than the DIP

  12. The mTOR Pathway and the Role of Energy Balance Throughout Life in Colorectal Cancer Etiology and Prognosis: Unravelling Mechanisms Through a Multidimensional Molecular Epidemiologic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Weijenberg, Matty P.; Hughes, Laura A. E.; Bours, Martijn J. L.; Simons, Colinda C. J. M.; van Engeland, Manon; van den Brandt, Piet A.

    2013-01-01

    Timing of exposure to lifestyle factors that influence energy balance may differentially affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and prognosis. Caloric restriction in youth and short stature, as markers of early-life exposures, have shown to decrease CRC risk, whereas large body size and low physical activity levels in adulthood are established risk factors for CRC. Regarding prognosis, overweight, sarcopenia, and their co-occurrence (sarcopenic obesity) may negatively influence the health and qu...

  13. RNA quantification using gold nanoprobes - application to cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptista Pedro V

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular nanodiagnostics applied to cancer may provide rapid and sensitive detection of cancer related molecular alterations, which would enable early detection even when those alterations occur only in a small percentage of cells. The use of gold nanoparticles derivatized with thiol modified oligonucleotides (Au-nanoprobes for the detection of specific nucleic acid targets has been gaining momentum as an alternative to more traditional methodologies. Here, we present an Au-nanoparticles based approach for the molecular recognition and quantification of the BCR-ABL fusion transcript (mRNA, which is responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and to the best of our knowledge it is the first time quantification of a specific mRNA directly in cancer cells is reported. This inexpensive and very easy to perform Au-nanoprobe based method allows quantification of unamplified total human RNA and specific detection of the oncogene transcript. The sensitivity settled by the Au-nanoprobes allows differential gene expression from 10 ng/μl of total RNA and takes less than 30 min to complete after total RNA extraction, minimizing RNA degradation. Also, at later stages, accumulation of malignant mutations may lead to resistance to chemotherapy and consequently poor outcome. Such a method, allowing for fast and direct detection and quantification of the chimeric BCR-ABL mRNA, could speed up diagnostics and, if appropriate, revision of therapy. This assay may constitute a promising tool in early diagnosis of CML and could easily be extended to further target genes with proven involvement in cancer development.

  14. Up-regulation of 91H promotes tumor metastasis and predicts poor prognosis for patients with colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwen Deng

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs play widespread roles in gene regulation and cellular processes. However, the functional roles of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC are not yet well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to measure the levels of lncRNA 91H expression in CRC and evaluate its clinical significance and biological roles in the development and progression of CRC.91H expression and copy number variation (CNV were measured in 72 CRC tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues by real-time PCR. The biological roles of 91H were evaluated by MTT, scratch wound assay, migration and invasion assays, and flow cytometry.91H was significantly overexpressed in cancerous tissue and CRC cell lines compared with adjacent normal tissue and a normal human intestinal epithelial cell line. Moreover, 91H overexpression was closely associated with distant metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with CRC, except for CNV of 91H. Multivariate analysis indicated that 91H expression was an independent prognostic indicator, as well as distant metastasis. Our in vitro data indicated that knockdown of 91H inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of CRC cells.91H played an important role in the molecular etiology of CRC and might be regarded as a novel prognosis indicator in patients with CRC.

  15. Toward development of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based cancer diagnostic immunoassay panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Jennifer H; Granger, Michael C; Firpo, Matthew A; Mulvihill, Sean J; Porter, Marc D

    2013-01-21

    Proteomic analyses of readily obtained human fluids (e.g., serum, urine, and saliva) indicate that the diagnosis of complex diseases will be enhanced by the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers from such samples. This paper describes the development of a nanoparticle-based multiplexed platform that has the potential for simultaneous read-out of large numbers of biomolecules. For this purpose, we have chosen pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) as a test bed for diagnosis and prognosis. PA is a devastating form of cancer in which an estimated 86% of diagnoses resulted in death in the United States in 2010. The high mortality rate is due, in part, to the asymptomatic development of the disease and the dearth of sensitive diagnostics available for early detection. One promising route lies in the development of a serum biomarker panel that can generate a signature unique to early stage PA. We describe the design and development of a proof-of-concept PA biomarker immunoassay array coupled with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a sensitive readout method. PMID:23150876

  16. LED-based near infrared sensor for cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Ageev, Vladimir; Zabarylo, Urszula; Usenov, Iskander; Schulte, Franziska; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Belikova, Valeria; Minet, Olaf; Feliksberger, E.; Meshkovsky, I.; Artyushenko, Viacheslav

    2016-03-01

    Optical spectroscopic technologies are increasingly used for cancer diagnostics. Feasibility of differentiation between malignant and healthy samples of human kidney using Fluorescence, Raman, MIR and NIR spectroscopy has been recently reported . In the present work, a simplification of NIR spectroscopy method has been studied. Traditional high-resolution NIR spectrometry was replaced by an optical sensor based on a set of light-emitting diodes at selected wavelengths as light sources and a photodiode. Two prototypes of the sensor have been developed and tested using 14 in-vitro samples of seven kidney tumor patients. Statistical evaluation of results using principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis has been performed. Despite only partial discrimination between tumor and healthy tissue achieved by the presented new technique, the results evidence benefits of LED-based near-infrared sensing used for oncological diagnostics. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 4 March, 2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 7 April, 2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  17. Diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein in liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine diagnostic value of alpha-fetoproteins (alpha-FP) in liver cancer. Design: Prospective study. Place and duration of study: Department of clinical oncology services Hospital Lahore, during the period from February 1998 to February 2001. Subjects and Methods: Among 200 persons studied, 100 presented with liver mass, jaundice and other symptoms directing toward liver pathology, later confirmed histopathologically, as suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while the other 100 healthy subject came to the department for blood donation and were HBs Ag pasitive on blood screening. All these subjects under went blood test for alpha-FP. This tumor marker was analyzed by using enzyme immunoassay-based kit. Results: The alpha-FP positivity was statistically evaluated. In HCC this test was statistically significant with p value of <0.001. In this study sensitivity of alpha-FP was 72% specificity 89%, positive predictive value 86.7% and negative predictive value of 76.1%. Conclusion: This study showed that alpha-FP was a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of HCC. (author)

  18. Diagnostic significance of computed tomography in gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    Gastric cancer is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in Korea. Identification and evaluation of gastric mass lesions and regional-distant metastasis by abdominal CT scan are important for the treatment planning and prognostic implications of gastric cancer patients. Author reviewed CT scans of 61 cases of pathology proven gastric cancer, retrospectively, for recent 20 month from July 1983 to Feb. 1985 at Department of Radiology, Korea University, Hae Wha Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. There were 50 cases of advanced adenocarcinoma, 8 cases of early gastric cancer, 2 cases of leiomyosarcoma, and 1 case of lymphoma in total 61 cases. 2. The sex ratio of male to female was 2 : 1. Age distribution was from 24 to 75 year old and peak incidence was in 6th decade. 3. The most frequent site of involvement with gastric cancer was gastric antrum in 51% 4. 48 of 50 patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (96%) had a wall thickness greater than 1 cm, and all of 8 cases of early gastric cancer had a wall thickness less than 1 cm. Regional lymph node tumor infiltration was found in 100% of gastric wall thickness greater than 2.0 cm, in 64% of cases of 1.5 to 2.0 cm, in 50% of cases of 1.0 to 1.5 cm, and 12.5% of cases of less than 1.0 cm. 5. In a comparison of enlargement of regional lymph node by CT scan to tumor infiltration of regional lymph node by histology, sensitivity was 52%, specificity was 87%, and reliability was 66%. 6. The structure involved by distant metastasis of these cases were the retroperitoneal lymph node in 15, liver in 8, and pancreas in 3. 7. The diagnostic accuracy of CT staging was considered about 68% by correlation of the surgical and histological findings. 8. The CT scan is one of the accurate and simple tool for evaluation of size, shape, extent, as well as distant metastasis in the cases of gastric malignancies.

  19. β-catenin-independent WNT signaling and Ki67 in contrast to the estrogen receptor status are prognostic and associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer liver metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Bleckmann, Annalen; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Menck, Kerstin; Schmick, Nadine Annette; Schubert, Antonia; Rietkötter, Eva; Arackal, Jetcy; Middel, Peter; Schambony, Alexandra; Liersch, Torsten; Homayounfar, Kia; Beißbarth, Tim; Klemm, Florian; Binder, Claudia; Pukrop, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Liver metastasis development in breast cancer patients is common and confers a poor prognosis. So far, the prognostic significance of surgical resection and clinical relevance of biomarker analysis in metastatic tissue have barely been investigated. We previously demonstrated an impact of WNT signaling in breast cancer brain metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the value of established prognostic markers and WNT signaling components in liver metastases. Overall N = 34 breast cancer liv...

  20. Genetic Variation in BCL2 3′-UTR Was Associated with Lung Cancer Risk and Prognosis in Male Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ping; Liu, Li; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhang, Kai; Hong, Xiaohua; Deng, Qifei; Xiang, Jingjun; Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Meian; WU, TANGCHUN; Guo, Huan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Bcl-2 is a critical apoptosis inhibitor with established carcinogenic potential, and can confer cancer cell resistance to therapeutic treatments by activating anti-apoptotic cellular defense. We hypothesized that genetic variants of BCL2 gene may be associated with lung cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Methods Three selected tagSNPs of BCL2 (rs2279115, rs1801018, and rs1564483) were genotyped in 1017 paired male Chinese lung cancer cases and controls by TaqMan assay. The associ...

  1. Menopausal hormone therapy in relation to breast cancer characteristics and prognosis: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lena U; Granath, Fredrik; Dickman, Paul W.; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Wedrén, Sara; Persson, Ingemar; Hall, Per

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Menopausal hormone therapy has been reported to increase the risk of certain subtypes of breast cancer and to be associated with a favorable survival. These associations could either be due to an increased mammographic surveillance or to a biological effect. We assessed these associations in a Swedish cohort of postmenopausal breast cancer patients holding information on mammographic examinations, menopausal hormone therapy use, other breast cancer risk factors, and cancer treatm...

  2. Hormone-related factors and breast cancer : studies of risk and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lena

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to explore the influences of risk factors for breast cancer on breast cancer characteristics and survival. We evaluated the associations between number and timing of births and breast cancerspecific survival using data from the Swedish Cancer Register, the Swedish Cause of Death Register, and the MultiGeneration Register. We identified more than 27,000 women born in Sweden and diagnosed with breast cancer in 1958-1997. We found a successiv...

  3. Monitoring cancer prognosis, diagnosis and treatment efficacy using metabolomics and lipidomics

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, Emily G.; Southam, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cellular metabolism is altered during cancer initiation and progression, which allows cancer cells to increase anabolic synthesis, avoid apoptosis and adapt to low nutrient and oxygen availability. The metabolic nature of cancer enables patient cancer status to be monitored by metabolomics and lipidomics. Additionally, monitoring metabolic status of patients or biological models can be used to greater understand the action of anticancer therapeutics. Objectives: Discuss...

  4. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluorescent labeled (NIRF) tracers for detection of breast cancer. Thus far, only a few molecular imaging tracers have been taken to the clinic of which most are suitable for PET. My thesis describes the e...

  5. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluoresc

  6. Serum tumour markers as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in Libyan breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfagieh, Mohamed; Abdalla, Fathi; Gliwan, Asma; Boder, Jamela; Nichols, Wafa; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset

    2012-12-01

    Results from studies on efficacy of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 15.3 (CA 15.3) and thymidine kinase (TK1) as diagnostic and prognostic tools for primary breast cancer (BC) have presented conflicting results, and usefulness of these markers for clinical use in BC remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate potential of concentration of the sera CEA, CA15.3 and TK1 peptides' use as markers in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast lesions of Libyan patients. Serum tumour markers were studied in 20 healthy subjects, 30 patient with benign lesion diseases and 50 patients with histologically confirmed BC diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Misurata, Libya during the period 2005-2009. The concentrations of the BC patients' cutoff points used for diagnostic and prognostic sensitivity were 8.82 ng/ml, 35.57 U/ml and 32.57 U/mg/protein for CEA, CA15.3 and TK1, respectively. Increased CEA (>8.82 ng/ml), CA 15.3 (>35.57 U/ml) and TK1 (>32.57 U/mg/protein) concentrations were found in 62 %, 70 % and 78 % of the BC patients, respectively. For all three tumour markers, increased concentrations correlated increased tumour size and nodal involvement. Significantly higher serum TK1 levels were found in patients with advanced disease (p < 0.0001) and TK1 levels also correlated with disease-specific survival (DSS, p < 0.07). The combined data set of the three markers' data from three markers increased the diagnostic sensitivity to 90 %. The serum marker analysis for CEA, CA 15.3, and S-TK1 concentrations is shown to be a useful tool for identification of malignant cases in our BC population and for the prognostic evaluation of patients with primary BC. Increased concentrations of the markers were also observed to be higher in patients with advanced tumours and indicative of the development of distant metastasis.

  7. Long-term prognosis of patients with lung cancer detected on low-dose chest computed tomography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kusano, Suzushi; Chonan, Tatsuya; Fukai, Shimao; Endo, Katsuyuki

    2012-02-01

    The effectiveness of lung cancer screening using low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) remains elusive. The present study examined the prognosis of patients with lung cancer detected on CT screening in Japanese men and women. Subjects were 210 patients with primary lung cancer identified on CT screening at two medical facilities in Hitachi, Japan, where a total of 61,914 CT screenings were performed among 25,385 screenees between 1998 and 2006. Prognostic status of these patients was sought by examining medical records at local hospitals, supplemented by vital status information from local government. The 5-year survival rate was estimated according to the characteristics of patients and lung nodule. A total of 203 (97%) patients underwent surgery. During a 5.7-year mean follow-up period, 19 patients died from lung cancer and 6 died from other causes. The estimated 5-year survival rate for all patients and for those on stage IA was 90% and 97%, respectively. Besides cancer stage, smoking and nodule appearance were independent predictors of a poor survival; multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 4.7 (1.3, 16.5) for current and past smokers versus nonsmokers and 4.6 (1.6, 13.9) for solid nodule versus others. Even patients with solid shadow had a 5-year survival of 82% if the lesion was 20mm or less in size. Results suggest that lung cancers detected on CT screening are mostly curative. The impact of CT screening on mortality at community level needs to be clarified by monitoring lung cancer deaths.

  8. Statistical analysis of biotissues Mueller matrix images in cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, Sergey; Ivashko, Pavlo; Goudail, François; Gruia, Ion

    2010-11-01

    This work is directed to the investigation of the scope of the technique of laser polarimetry and polarization spectrometry of oncological changes of the human prostate tissue under the conditions of multiple scattering. It was shown that the third statistic moment in the intensity distribution proved to be the most sensitive to pathological changes in orientation structure. Its value in the intensity distribution of polarization image I (0 - 90) of oncologically changed tissue is 21 times higher if compared with the similar statistic parameter of the intensity distribution of the healthy tissue. The results of studies of size linear dichroism prostate gland, as healthy and affected by malignant tumor at different stages of its development was presented. Significant difference in the values of linear dichroism and its spectral dependence in the spectral range λ = 280 - 840 nm as between research facilities, and between biotissues - healthy (or affected by benign tumors) and cancer patients was shown. These results may have diagnostic value for detection and assessment of the development of cancer.

  9. 2q36.3 is associated with prognosis for oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingmei; Lindström, Linda S.; Foo, Jia N.; Rafiq, Sajjad; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Van ‘t Veer, Laura J.; Cornelissen, Sten; Rutgers, Emiel; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Dite, Gillian S.; Hopper, John L.; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Blomqvist, Carl; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Kataja, Vesa; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Investigators, kConFab; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; McLachlan, Sue-Anne; Lambrechts, Diether; Thienpont, Bernard; Smeets, Ann; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Seibold, Petra; Rudolph, Anja; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnæs, Grethe I. Grenaker; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Nord, Silje; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje; Kriege, Mieke; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans; Li, Yi; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Ulmer, Hans U.; Rüdiger, Thomas; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Chen, Shou-Tung; Teo, Soo Hwang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Har Yip, Cheng; Fuang Ho, Gwo; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Yoo, Keun-Young; Maishman, Tom; Tapper, William J.; Dunning, Alison; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Chuen Khor, Chiea; Eccles, Diana M.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Easton, Douglas; Humphreys, Keith; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2014-01-01

    Large population-based registry studies have shown that breast cancer prognosis is inherited. Here we analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes implicated in human immunology and inflammation as candidates for prognostic markers of breast cancer survival involving 1,804 oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients treated with chemotherapy (279 events) from 14 European studies in a prior large-scale genotyping experiment, which is part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS) initiative. We carry out replication using Asian COGS samples (n=522, 53 events) and the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH) study (n=315, 108 events). Rs4458204_A near CCL20 (2q36.3) is found to be associated with breast cancer-specific death at a genome-wide significant level (n=2,641, 440 events, combined allelic hazard ratio (HR)=1.81 (1.49–2.19); P for trend=1.90 × 10−9). Such survival-associated variants can represent ideal targets for tailored therapeutics, and may also enhance our current prognostic prediction capabilities. PMID:24937182

  10. Analysis of the Relationship between Expressions of TF and MMP-9 and Prognosis of Breast Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxin Zhao; Zengmao Lin; Hongwei Yao; Yuanlian Wan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate expression of the tissue factor(TF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in breast cancers,and to assess their expression in relation to possible prognostic significance.METHODS The expression of TF and MMP-9 in 71 breast cancer specimens were determined by EnVision immunohistochemistry,and the positive expressions related to the patient clinical outcome.RESULTS Positive rates of TF and MMP-9 staining were respectively 43.7% and 42.3%. K-M monofactorial analysis showed that the 5-year survival rate of the patients with a positive expression of TF and MMP-9 was lower than those with negative expression (P < 0.05). However, the COX multifactorial analysis indicated that TNM staging and lymph node metastasis were the prognostic factors for breast cancer patients, and that TF and MMP-9 could not be used as the independent prognostic factors (P> 0.05).CONCLUSION The positive rates of TF and MMP-9 were considerably high in breast cancers, which could provide useful information for patient prognosis.

  11. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) and CD147 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane, which appear to play an important role in solid tumours, however the role of MCTs in prostate cancer is largely unknown. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the clinico-pathological value of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) expression, namely MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4, together with CD147 and gp70 as MCT1/4 and MCT2 chaperones, respectively, in prostate carcinoma. Prostate tissues were obtained from 171 patients, who performed radical prostatectomy and 14 patients who performed cystoprostatectomy. Samples and clinico-pathological data were retrieved and organized into tissue microarray (TMAs) blocks. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in neoplastic (n = 171), adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (n = 135), PIN lesions (n = 40) and normal prostatic tissue (n = 14). Protein expression was correlated with patients' clinicopathologic characteristics. In the present study, a significant increase of MCT2 and MCT4 expression in the cytoplasm of tumour cells and a significant decrease in both MCT1 and CD147 expression in prostate tumour cells was observed when compared to normal tissue. All MCT isoforms and CD147 were expressed in PIN lesions. Importantly, for MCT2 and MCT4 the expression levels in PIN lesions were between normal and tumour tissue, which might indicate a role for these MCTs in the malignant transformation. Associations were found between MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 expressions and poor prognosis markers; importantly MCT4 and CD147 overexpression correlated with higher PSA levels, Gleason score and pT stage, as well as with perineural invasion and biochemical recurrence. Our data provides novel evidence for the involvement of MCTs in prostate cancer. According to our results, we consider that MCT2 should be further explored as tumour marker and both MCT4 and CD147 as markers of poor prognosis in

  12. Over-expression of Metastasis-associated in Colon Cancer-1 (MACC1)Associates with Better Prognosis of Gastric Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-hua Ge; Jia-fu Ji; Xiao-jiang Wu; Xiao-hong Wang; Xiao-fang Xing; Lian-hai Zhang; Yu-bing Zhu; Hong Du; Bin Dong; Ying Hu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to detect metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) expression in Chinese gastric cancer and analyze the relationship between MACC1 expression and postoperative survival. Methods: The expression of MACC1 and c-MET protein in a sample of 128 gastric cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis was carried out and data were collected from medical records. Results: The positive rate of MACC1 protein expression in gastric cancer was 47.66%, higher than that in adjacent noncancerous mucosa (P<0.001). MACC1 protein expression was not related to the clinicopathological variables involved. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the survival of MACC1 positive group tended to be better than that of MACC1 negative group, particularly in patients with stage Ⅲ carcinoma (P=0.032). Cox regression analysis revealed that MACC1 protein over-expression in gastric cancer tended to be a protective factor with hazard ratio of 0.621 (P=0.057). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the positive rate of c-MET protein expression was much higher in cases with positive MACC1 expression in gastric cancer (P=0.002), but P53 expression was not associated with MACC1 expression. Conclusion: MACC1 over-expression implies better survival and may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer in Chinese patients.

  13. Human Papillomavirus Research on the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Prognosis of Cervical Cancer in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chyong-Huey Lai; Angel Chao; Huei-Jean Huang

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is third in incidence and fourth in mortality among cancers of women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, if not sufficient, to cause nearly 100% of cervical cancers. HPV testing is useful in primary screening for cervical neoplasms. The value of HPV detection or genotyping is potentially useful in triage of borderline or low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,...

  14. Transcriptional coactivator CBP upregulates hTERT expression and tumor growth and predicts poor prognosis in human lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Lu, Jianjun; Dai, Meng; Wu, Taihua; Yu, Zhenlong; Wang, Jingshu; Chen, Wangbing; Shi, Dingbo; Yu, Wendan; Xiao, Yao; Yi, Canhui; Tang, Zhipeng; Xu, Tingting; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Yuan, Yuhui; Liu, Quentin; Du, Guangwei; Deng, Wuguo

    2014-10-15

    Upregulated expression and activation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a hallmarker of lung tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism underlying the aberrant hTERT activity in lung cancer cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we found the transcriptional co-activator CBP as a new hTERT promoter-binding protein that regulated hTERT expression and tumor growth in lung adenocarcinoma cells using a biotin-streptavidin-bead pulldown technique. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay verified the immortalized cell and tumor cell-specific binding of CBP on hTERT promoter. Overexpression of exogenous CBP upregulated the expression of the hTERT promoter-driven luciferase and endogenous hTERT protein in lung cancer cells. Conversely, inhibition of CBP by CBP-specific siRNA or its chemical inhibitor repressed the expression of hTERT promoter-driven luciferase and endogenous hTERT protein as well as telomerase activity. Moreover, inhibition of CBP expression or activity also significantly reduced the proliferation of lung cancer cells in vitro and tumor growth in an xenograft mouse model in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays of lung cancers revealed a positive correlation between CBP and hTERT. Importantly, the patients with high CBP and hTERT expression had a significantly shorter overall survival. Furthermore, CBP was found to interact with and acetylate transactivator Sp1 in lung cancer cells. Inhibition of CBP by CBP-specific siRNA or its chemical inhibitor significantly inhibited Sp1 acetylation and its binding to the hTERT promoter. Collectively, our results indicate that CBP contributes to the upregulation of hTERT expression and tumor growth, and overexpression of CBP predicts poor prognosis in human lung cancers.

  15. Correlation between Protein Expression of PTEN in Human Pancreatic Cancer and the Proliferation, Infiltration, Metastasis and Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jing; XIONG Jiongxin; LI Tao; YANG Zhiyong; LI Xiaohui; LI Kai; WU Heshui; WANG Chunyou

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the correlation between protein expression of PTEN and the proliferation, infiltration, metastasis and prognosis in pancreatic cancer, immunohistochemical SP method was used to examine the protein expression of PTEN, PCNA, MVD, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TUNEL method to detect the levels of apoptosis of pancreatic cells in 41 pancreatic head cancers from regional pancreatectomy (RP) and 10 normal pancreatic tissues. The results showed that among 41 cases of pancreatic cancers, the positive staining of PTNE (39.02 %) was significantly weaker than that in normal pancreatic tissues (P<0.05). The levels of PCNA labeling index (LI), apoptotic index(AI), microvessel density (MVD), MMP-2 LI and MMP-9 LI were decreased gradually with the increase of the expression intensity of PTEN, and there was a significant difference in the above parameters among the patients having different expression levels of PTEN (P<0.01 or P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between the expression of PTEN and PCNA LI, MVD, MMP-2 LI,MMP-9 LI, and a positive correlation between AI and the expression of PTEN. The expression intensity of PTEN was correlated with the postoperative survival of the patients with pancreatic cancer(x2=22.3400, P<0.0001, RR=2.030). It was suggested that the expression levels of PTEN protein were closely related with proliferation, infiltration and metastasis in human pancreatic cancer, and the expression of PTEN protein was one of the prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer following RP.

  16. CSNK1E/CTNNB1 Are Synthetic Lethal To TP53 in Colorectal Cancer and Are Markers for Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khong-Loon Tiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two genes are called synthetic lethal (SL if their simultaneous mutations lead to cell death, but each individual mutation does not. Targeting SL partners of mutated cancer genes can kill cancer cells specifically, but leave normal cells intact. We present an integrated approach to uncovering SL pairs in colorectal cancer (CRC. Screening verified SL pairs using microarray gene expression data of cancerous and normal tissues, we first identified potential functionally relevant (simultaneously differentially expressed gene pairs. From the top-ranked pairs, ~20 genes were chosen for immunohistochemistry (IHC staining in 171 CRC patients. To find novel SL pairs, all 169 combined pairs from the individual IHC were synergistically correlated to five clinicopathological features, e.g. overall survival. Of the 11 predicted SL pairs, MSH2-POLB and CSNK1E-MYC were consistent with literature, and we validated the top two pairs, CSNK1E-TP53 and CTNNB1-TP53 using RNAi knockdown and small molecule inhibitors of CSNK1E in isogenic HCT-116 and RKO cells. Furthermore, synthetic lethality of CSNK1E and TP53 was verified in mouse model. Importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that CSNK1E-P53, CTNNB1-P53, MSH2-RB1, and BRCA1-WNT5A were independent prognosis markers from stage, with CSNK1E-P53 applicable to early-stage and the remaining three throughout all stages. Our findings suggest that CSNK1E is a promising target for TP53-mutant CRC patients which constitute ~40% to 50% of patients, while to date safety regarding inhibition of TP53 is controversial. Thus the integrated approach is useful in finding novel SL pairs for cancer therapeutics, and it is readily accessible and applicable to other cancers.

  17. The MKK7 p.Glu116Lys Rare Variant Serves as a Predictor for Lung Cancer Risk and Prognosis in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuman Qiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidence indicates that rare variants exert a vital role on predisposition and progression of human diseases, which provides neoteric insights into disease etiology. In the current study, based on three independently retrospective studies of 5,016 lung cancer patients and 5,181 controls, we analyzed the associations between five rare polymorphisms (i.e., p.Glu116Lys, p.Asn118Ser, p.Arg138Cys, p.Ala195Thr and p.Leu259Phe in MKK7 and lung cancer risk and prognosis. To decipher the precise mechanisms of MKK7 rare variants on lung cancer, a series of biological experiments was further performed. We found that the MKK7 p.Glu116Lys rare polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk, progression and prognosis. Compared with Glu/Glu common genotype, the 116Lys rare variants (Lys/Glu/+ Lys/Lys presented an adverse effect on lung cancer susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.70-4.01. These rare variants strengthened patients' clinical progression that patients with 116Lys variants had a significantly higher metastasis rate and advanced N, M stages at diagnosis. In addition, the patients with 116Lys variants also contributed to worse cancer prognosis than those carriers with Glu/Glu genotype (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.32-1.78. Functional experiments further verified that the MKK7 p.116Lys variants altered the expression of several cancer-related genes and thus affected lung cancer cells proliferation, tumor growth and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our findings proposed that the MKK7 p.Glu116Lys rare polymorphism incurred a pernicious impact on lung cancer risk and prognosis through modulating expressions of a serial of cancer-related genes.

  18. The MKK7 p.Glu116Lys Rare Variant Serves as a Predictor for Lung Cancer Risk and Prognosis in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Jiansong; Wu, Di; Wei, Yongfang; Nong, Qingqing; Zhang, Lisha; Fang, Wenxiang; Chen, Xiaoliang; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Yang, Binyao; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Yifeng; Lu, Jiachun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence indicates that rare variants exert a vital role on predisposition and progression of human diseases, which provides neoteric insights into disease etiology. In the current study, based on three independently retrospective studies of 5,016 lung cancer patients and 5,181 controls, we analyzed the associations between five rare polymorphisms (i.e., p.Glu116Lys, p.Asn118Ser, p.Arg138Cys, p.Ala195Thr and p.Leu259Phe) in MKK7 and lung cancer risk and prognosis. To decipher the precise mechanisms of MKK7 rare variants on lung cancer, a series of biological experiments was further performed. We found that the MKK7 p.Glu116Lys rare polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk, progression and prognosis. Compared with Glu/Glu common genotype, the 116Lys rare variants (Lys/Glu/+ Lys/Lys) presented an adverse effect on lung cancer susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.70–4.01). These rare variants strengthened patients’ clinical progression that patients with 116Lys variants had a significantly higher metastasis rate and advanced N, M stages at diagnosis. In addition, the patients with 116Lys variants also contributed to worse cancer prognosis than those carriers with Glu/Glu genotype (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.32–1.78). Functional experiments further verified that the MKK7 p.116Lys variants altered the expression of several cancer-related genes and thus affected lung cancer cells proliferation, tumor growth and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our findings proposed that the MKK7 p.Glu116Lys rare polymorphism incurred a pernicious impact on lung cancer risk and prognosis through modulating expressions of a serial of cancer-related genes. PMID:27028764

  19. Inflammatory breast cancer in a previously treated case of breast cancer: a diagnostic dilemma for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravind, Rahul; Kumar, Priyadarshini Venkatram; Prabaharan, Sasikala

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a relatively rare and aggressive subtype, accounting for nearly 2.5% of all diagnosed breast cancers worldwide. It is usually characterised by an acute onset, rapid clinical progression, poor prognosis and micrometastasis at the time of presentation. Prompt recognition of clinical symptoms and identification of warning signs are vital in diagnosing and appropriately treating a patient with IBC. PMID:27060073

  20. Decreased expression of the ARID1A gene is associated with poor prognosis in primary gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ARID1A gene encodes adenine-thymine (AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A, which participates in chromatin remodeling. ARID1A has been showed to function as a tumor suppressor in various cancer types. In the current study, we investigated the expression and prognosis value of ARID1A in primary gastric cancer. Meanwhile, the biological role of ARID1A was further investigated using cell model in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of ARID1A gene in primary gastric cancer pathogenesis, real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to examine the ARID1A expression in paired cancerous and noncancerous tissues. Results revealed decreased ARID1A mRNA (P = 0.0029 and protein (P = 0.0015 expression in most tumor-bearing tissues compared with the matched adjacent non-tumor tissues, and in gastric cancer cell lines. To further investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of ARID1A expression, we performed immunohistochemical analyses of the 224 paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissue blocks. Data revealed that the loss of ARID1A expression was significantly correlated with T stage (P = 0.001 and grade (P = 0.006. Consistent with these results, we found that loss of ARID1A expression was significantly correlated with poor survival in gastric cancer patients (P = 0.003. Cox regression analyses showed that ARID1A expression was an independent predictor of overall survival (P = 0.029. Furthermore, the functions of ARID1A in the proliferation and colony formation of gastric cell lines were analyzed by transfecting cells with full-length ARID1A expression vector or siRNA targeting ARID1A. Restoring ARID1A expression in gastric cancer cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation. Silencing ARID1A expression in gastric epithelial cell line significantly enhanced cell growth rate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that ARID1A may play an important role

  1. Overexpression of Mcl-1L Splice Variant Is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Chemoresistance in Oral Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palve, Vinayak; Mallick, Sanchita; Ghaisas, Gauri; Kannan, Sadhana; Teni, Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Background Altered expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, has been linked to the progression and outcome of a variety of malignancies. We have previously reported the overexpression of Mcl-1 protein in human oral cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of the expression of three known Mcl-1 isoforms in oral tumors and the effect of targeting Mcl-1L isoform on chemosensitivity of oral cancer cells. Methods The expression of Mcl-1 isoforms- Mcl-1L, Mcl-1S & Mcl-1ES was analyzed in 130 paired oral tumors and 9 oral cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR & protein by western blotting. The Mcl-1 mRNA levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and outcome of oral cancer patients. The effect of Mcl-1L shRNA or Obatoclax (a small molecule Mcl-1 inhibitor), in combination with Cisplatin on chemosensitivity of oral cancer cells was also assessed. Results Anti-apoptotic Mcl-1L was predominantly expressed, over low or undetectable pro-apoptotic Mcl-1S and Mcl-1ES isoforms. The Mcl-1L transcripts were significantly overexpressed in all cancer cell lines and in 64% oral tumors versus adjacent normals (P<0.02). In oral cancer patients, high Mcl-1L expression was significantly associated with node positivity (P = 0.021), advanced tumor size (P = 0.013) and poor overall survival (P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis indicated Mcl-1L to be an independent prognostic factor for oral cancers (P = 0.037). Mcl-1L shRNA knockdown or its inhibition by Obatoclax in combination with Cisplatin synergistically reduced viability and growth of oral cancer cells than either treatment alone. Conclusion Our studies suggest that overexpression of Mcl-1L is associated with poor prognosis and chemoresistance in oral cancers. Mcl-1L is an independent prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in oral cancers. PMID:25409302

  2. Nasal metastases from renal cell carcinoma are associated with Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center poor-prognosis classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline Victoria Choong; Tiffany Tang; Wen Yee Chay; Christopher Goh; Miah Hiang Tay; Nor Azhari Mohd Zam; Puay Hoon Tan; Min-Han Tan

    2011-01-01

    Unusual sites of metastases are recognized in patients with renai cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the prognostic implications of these sites are not well understood. We used the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk classification for metastatic RCC to evaluate 912 consecutive patients with RCC managed at the Singapore General Hospital between 1990 and 2009. Among these patients, 301 had metastases either at diagnosis or during the course of illness. Nasal metastases, all arising from clear cell RCC, were identified histologically in 4 patients (1.3% of those with metastasis). All 4 patients were classified as MSKCC poor prognosis by current risk criteria. Nasal metastases were significantly associated with lung and bone metastases. The frequency of nasal metastases in patients with metastatic RCC is about 1%, occurring predominantly in patients with clear cell RCC. Nasal metastases are associated with poor prognosis as estimated by the MSKCC risk classification, with attendant implications for selection of targeted therapy, and are usually associated with multi-organ dissemination, including concurrent lung and bone involvement.

  3. Decreased FOXP3+ and GARP+ Tregs to neoadjuvant chemotherapy associated with favorable prognosis in advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Chen, Fuchao; Xie, Huijuan

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has been an increasingly used therapeutic strategy to improve the outcome of advanced gastric cancer (GC) over the past few decades. Lymphocytic infiltration has been reported to be associated with response to NACT, but the immune cell subpopulation and its prognosis contributing to response in GC have not been clarified yet. In the current study, the tumor infiltration of FOXP3+ and GARP+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs, marked by FOXP3 and GARP) response to NACT in advanced GC and their correlation with prognosis were evaluated. The infiltration of FOXP3+ and GARP+ Tregs in 102 patients with advanced GC who were treated with or without NACT was measured using immunohistochemical method. The infiltration of FOXP3+ and GARP+ Tregs was significantly decreased in the NACT group than in the non-NACT group (P=0.023 and P=0.012, respectively) and significantly associated with tumor, node, metastasis stage (P=0.019 and P=0.011, respectively). There was no significant difference in patient's overall survival between the NACT and non-NACT groups (P=0.166); however, patients in the NACT group with decreased infiltration of FOXP3+ and GARP+ Tregs had longer overall survival (P=0.002 and PNACT could decrease the infiltration of FOXP3+ and GARP+ Tregs, and that the infiltration of GARP+ Tregs may serve as a new prognostic factor of human GC response to NACT. PMID:27366089

  4. Annexin A1 expression in breast cancer: tumor subtypes and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sobral-Leite, Marcelo; Wesseling, Jelle; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Nevanlinna, Heli; van Miltenburg, Martine H; Sanders, Joyce; Hofland, Ingrid; Blows, Fiona M.; Coulson, Penny; Patrycja, Gazinska; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Fagerholm, Rainer; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. However, little is known about the prognostic value of ANXA1 in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between ANXA1 expression, BRCA1/2 germline carriership, specific tumor subtypes and survival in breast cancer patients. ...

  5. Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (MIC-1 as A Biomarker for Diagnosis 
and Prognosis of Stage I-II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning LIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Increased macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1, member of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β superfamily, was found in patients serum with epithelial tumors. Therefore, our aim was to delineate the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum MIC-1 in patients with stage I-II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 152 consecutive patients with stage I–II NSCLC were prospectively enrolled and underwent follow up after total resection of tumor. Serum MIC-1 level was detected in lung cancer patients by ELISA, 48 benign pulmonary disease patients and 105 healthy controls, and was correlated with clinical features and prognosis of patients. Results The level of MIC-1 of NSCLC patients was significantly higher than that of controls (P<0.001 and benign pulmonary disease patients (P<0.001. A threshold of 1,000 pg/mL could be used to diagnose early-stage NSCLC with 70.4% sensitivity and 99.0% specificity. The level of MIC-1 was associated with elder age (P=0.001, female (P=0.03 and T2 (P=0.022. A threshold of 1,465 pg/mL could identify patients with early poor outcome with 72.2% sensitivity and 66.1% specificity. The overall 3-year survival rate in patients with high level of MIC-1 (≥1,465 pg/mL was significantly lower than that of patients with low MIC-1 level (77.6% vs 94.8%. Multivariable Cox regression revealed that a high level of MIC-1 was an independent risk factor for compromised overall survival (HR=3.37, 95%CI: 1.09-10.42, P=0.035. Conclusion High level of serum MIC-1 could be served as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and poorer outcome in patients with early-stage NSCLC.

  6. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Meagan B

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26858530

  7. Screening for amplification genomic loci and genes associated prognosis in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:We used a high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) coupled with patient clinical information to identify prognosis-related genomic loci and genes.Methods: aCGH coupled with patient clinical information was applied to identify prognosis-related loci and genes with high-frequency recurrent gains in 129 GC cases. The candidate loci and genes were validated using an independent cohort of 384 cases through branched DNA signal ampliifcation analysis.Results:A copy number gain of three chromosome regions, namely, 8q22, 8q24and 20q11-q13, conferred poor survival for patients. In addition, MYC, TNFRSF11B, ESRP1, CSE1L and MMP9 were found to be well correlated. Further validation verified that only MYC and TNFRSF11B within 8q24 are related to survival. Patients with gains in both MYC and TNFRSF11B presented poorer survival than those with no gains, particularly those with non-cardia GC. Gains in both of these genes were also a signiifcant independent prognostic indicator.Conclusion:Copy number gains in MYC and TNFRSF11B located at 8q24are associated with survival in GC, particularly non-cardia GC.

  8. DEK over expression as an independent biomarker for poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DEK protein is related to chromatin reconstruction and gene transcription, and plays an important role in cell apoptosis. High expression levels of the human DEK gene have been correlated with numerous human malignancies. This study explores the roles of DEK in tumor progression and as a prognostic determinant of colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer specimens from 109 patients with strict follow-up, and colorectal adenomas from 52 patients were selected for analysis of DEK protein by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between DEK over expression and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancers were evaluated by Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact tests. The survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the relationship between prognostic factors and patient survival was also analyzed by the Cox proportional hazard models. DEK protein showed a nuclear immunohistochemical staining pattern in colorectal cancers. The strongly positive rate of DEK protein was 48.62% (53/109) in colorectal cancers, which was significantly higher than that in either adjacent normal colon mucosa (9.17%, 10/109) or colorectal adenomas (13.46%, 7/52). DEK over expression in colorectal cancers was positively correlated with tumor size, grade, lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion, late stage, and disease-free survival- and 5-year survival rates. Further analysis showed that patients with late stage colorectal cancer and high DEK expression had worse survival rates than those with low DEK expression. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed high DEK expression, serosal invasion, and late stage are significant independent risk factors for mortality in colorectal cancer. DEK plays an important role in the progression of colorectal cancers and it is an independent poor prognostic factor of colorectal cancers

  9. Genetic variation in BCL2 3'-UTR was associated with lung cancer risk and prognosis in male Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Bcl-2 is a critical apoptosis inhibitor with established carcinogenic potential, and can confer cancer cell resistance to therapeutic treatments by activating anti-apoptotic cellular defense. We hypothesized that genetic variants of BCL2 gene may be associated with lung cancer susceptibility and prognosis. METHODS: Three selected tagSNPs of BCL2 (rs2279115, rs1801018, and rs1564483 were genotyped in 1017 paired male Chinese lung cancer cases and controls by TaqMan assay. The associations of these variants with risk of lung cancer and overall survival of 242 male advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients were separately investigated. RESULTS: Compared with the BCL2 3'UTR rs1564483GG genotype, the rs1564483GA, AA, and GA+AA genotypes were associated with significantly decreased susceptibilities of lung cancer in male Chinese (adjusted OR = 0.78, 0.73, and 0.76, P = 0.016, 0.038, and 0.007, respectively, while rs1564483A allele has a inverse dose-response relationship with lung cancer risk (P trend = 0.010. These effects were more evident in the elders, smokers, and subjects without family history of cancer (P trend = 0.017, 0.043 and 0.005, respectively. Furthermore, advanced NSCLC males carrying BCL2 rs1564483 GA+AA genotypes had significantly longer median survival time (Long-rank P = 0.036 and decreased death risk (adjusted HR = 0.69, P = 0.027 than patients with rs1564483GG genotype. These effects were more obvious in patients with smoking, stage IIIA, and in patients without surgery but underwent chemotherapy or radiotherapy (adjusted HR = 0.68, 0.49, 0.67, 0.69, 0.50, respectively, all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The BCL2 3'UTR rs1564483A allele was associated with a decreased lung cancer risk and better survival for advanced NSCLC in male Chinese, which may offer a novel biomarker for identifying high-risk population and predicting clinical outcomes.

  10. 76 FR 65518 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of a Companion Diagnostic Kit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... effect of an anti- cancer agent in the treatment of kidney, lung, and breast cancers that includes at... a Companion Diagnostic Kit for Predicting Therapeutic Efficacy of Anti- Cancer Agents AGENCY...: This invention concerns methods for the prognosis for a subject with cancer and to evaluate...

  11. Overexpression of Snail is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Na Ri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a significant role in tumor progression and invasion. Snail is a known regulator of EMT in various malignant tumors. This study investigated the role of Snail in gastric cancer. Methods We examined the effects of silenced or overexpressed Snail using lenti-viral constructs in gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays from 314 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GC was used to determine Snail’s clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Differential gene expression in 45 GC specimens with Snail overexpression was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis. Results Silencing of Snail by shRNA decreased invasion and migration in GC cell lines. Conversely, Snail overexpression increased invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells, in line with increased VEGF and MMP11. Snail overexpression (≥75% positive nuclear staining was also significantly associated with tumor progression (P P = 0.002, lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.002, and perineural invasion (P = 0.002 in the 314 GC patients, and with shorter survival (P = 0.023. cDNA microarray analysis revealed 213 differentially expressed genes in GC tissues with Snail overexpression, including genes related to metastasis and invasion. Conclusion Snail significantly affects invasiveness/migratory ability of GCs, and may also be used as a predictive biomarker for prognosis or aggressiveness of GCs.

  12. Overexpression of Snail is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in tumor progression and invasion. Snail is a known regulator of EMT in various malignant tumors. This study investigated the role of Snail in gastric cancer. We examined the effects of silenced or overexpressed Snail using lenti-viral constructs in gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays from 314 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) was used to determine Snail’s clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Differential gene expression in 45 GC specimens with Snail overexpression was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis. Silencing of Snail by shRNA decreased invasion and migration in GC cell lines. Conversely, Snail overexpression increased invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells, in line with increased VEGF and MMP11. Snail overexpression (≥75% positive nuclear staining) was also significantly associated with tumor progression (P < 0.001), lymph node metastases (P = 0.002), lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.002), and perineural invasion (P = 0.002) in the 314 GC patients, and with shorter survival (P = 0.023). cDNA microarray analysis revealed 213 differentially expressed genes in GC tissues with Snail overexpression, including genes related to metastasis and invasion. Snail significantly affects invasiveness/migratory ability of GCs, and may also be used as a predictive biomarker for prognosis or aggressiveness of GCs

  13. Acid ceramidase (AC)--a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism--correlates with better prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanker, Lars Christian; Karn, Thomas; Holtrich, Uwe; Gätje, Regine; Rody, Achim; Heinrich, Tomas; Ruckhäberle, Eugen; Engels, Knut

    2013-05-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC), a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism, seems to play an important role in cancer progression. The objective of this study was to explore the expression of AC in ovarian cancer and its impact on prognosis. Expression analysis of AC in n=112 ovarian cancer patients was performed by immunohistochemical analysis of primary paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The results were scored on the basis of the staining intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells, resulting in an immunoreactive score from 0 to 12. These results were correlated to clinical and pathologic characteristics and survival. AC expression correlated significantly only with FIGO stage (0.047). In serous carcinoma, low level of AC was independently associated with reduced progression-free survival and overall survival of 12.0 mo [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.78-18.23] versus 18.1 mo (95% CI, 11.61-24.59; P=0.008) and 35.7 mo (95% CI, 22.24-47.16) versus 58.7 mo (95% CI, 36.48-80.91; P=0.032), respectively. In multivariate analysis, AC presents as an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival (hazard ratio 1.88; 95% CI, 1.13-3.11; P=0.015). AC is a prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian cancer. Low AC expression can be associated with tumor progression in carcinoma of the ovaries. These results are in contrast to the concept of AC as a promoter for cancer progression. Nevertheless, they are supported by the lately discovered tumor-suppressing function of sphingosine, the enzymatic product of AC.

  14. Overexpression of RBBP6, alone or combined with mutant TP53, is predictive of poor prognosis in colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6 plays an important role in chaperone-mediated ubiquitination and interacts with TP53 in carcinogenesis. However, the clinicopathologic significance of RBBP6 expression in colon cancer is unknown; in particular, the prognostic value of RBBP6 combined with TP53 expression has not been explored. Therefore, quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses were performed to detect RBBP6 expression in colon cancer tissues. RBBP6 and TP53 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray format, in which the primary colon cancer tissue was paired with noncancerous tissue. Tissue specimens were obtained from 203 patients. We found that RBBP6 was overexpressed in colon tumorous tissues and was significantly associated with clinical stage, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis (LNM, distant metastasis, and histologic grade. Further studies revealed that a corresponding correlation between RBBP6 overexpression and mutant TP53 was evident in colon cancer (r = 0.450; P<0.001. RBBP6 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS. Interestingly, patients with tumors that had both RBBP6 overexpression and mutant TP53 protein accumulation relapsed and died within a significantly short period after surgery (P<0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with LNM and patients with both RBBP6- and TP53-positive tumors had extremely poor OS (HR 6.75; 95% CI 2.63-17.35; P<0.001 and DFS (HR 8.08; 95% CI 2.80-23.30; P<0.001. These clinical findings indicate that the assessment of both RBBP6 and mutant TP53 expression will be helpful in predicting colon cancer prognosis.

  15. IGF-1 receptor and IGF binding protein-3 might predict prognosis of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathologic role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) in patients with pancreatic cancer. The function of IGFBP3 is controversial, because both inhibition and facilitation of the action of IGF as well as IGF-independent effects have been reported. In this study, IGF1R and IGFBP3 expression was examined, and their potential roles as prognostic markers in patients with pancreatic cancer were evaluated. Clinicopathological features of 122 patients with curatively resected pancreatic cancer were retrospectively reviewed, and expression of IGF1R and IGFBP3 was immunohistochemically analyzed. Expression of IGF1R and IGFBP3 was observed in 50 (41.0%) and 37 (30.3%) patients, respectively. IGF1R expression was significantly associated with histological grade (p = 0.037). IGFBP3 expression had a significant association with tumor location (p = 0.023), and a significant inverse association with venous invasion (p = 0.037). Tumors with IGF1R-positive and IGFBP3-negative expression (n = 32) were significantly frequently Stage II and III (p = 0.011). The prognosis for IGF1R positive patients was significantly poorer than that for IGF1R negative patients (p = 0.0181). IGFBP3 protein expression did not correlate significantly with patient survival. The subset of patients with both positive IGF1R and negative IGFBP3 had worse overall survival (8.8 months versus 12.6 months, respectively, p < 0.001). IGF1R signaling might be associated with tumor aggressiveness, and IGFBP3 might show antiproliferative effects in pancreatic cancer. Both high IGF1R expression and low IGFBP3 expression represent useful prognostic markers for patients with curatively resected pancreatic cancer

  16. Decreased FOXP3+ and GARP+ Tregs to neoadjuvant chemotherapy associated with favorable prognosis in advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kai Li,1 Fuchao Chen,2 Huijuan Xie3 1Department of Pathology, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 3Department of Hyperbaric Oxygen, Dongfeng Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT has been an increasingly used therapeutic strategy to improve the outcome of advanced gastric cancer (GC over the past few decades. Lymphocytic infiltration has been reported to be associated with response to NACT, but the immune cell subpopulation and its prognosis contributing to response in GC have not been clarified yet. In the current study, the tumor infiltration of FOXP3+ and GARP+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs, marked by FOXP3 and GARP response to NACT in advanced GC and their correlation with prognosis were evaluated. The infiltration of FOXP3+ and GARP+ Tregs in 102 patients with advanced GC who were treated with or without NACT was measured using immunohistochemical method. The infiltration of FOXP3+ and GARP+ Tregs was significantly decreased in the NACT group than in the non-NACT group (P=0.023 and P=0.012, respectively and significantly associated with tumor, node, metastasis stage (P=0.019 and P=0.011, respectively. There was no significant difference in patient’s overall survival between the NACT and non-NACT groups (P=0.166; however, patients in the NACT group with decreased infiltration of FOXP3+ and GARP+ Tregs had longer overall survival (P=0.002 and P<0.001, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that the infiltration of GARP+ Tregs and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors (P=0.038 and P=0.013, respectively. The results demonstrated that NACT could decrease the infiltration of FOXP3+ and GARP+ Tregs, and that the infiltration of GARP+ Tregs may serve as a new prognostic factor of human GC response to NACT. Keywords: neoadjuvant chemotherapy, gastric cancer, Tregs, FOXP3, GARP

  17. Low claudin-6 expression correlates with poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qiang Wang,1 Yan Zhang,1 Tao Zhang,2 Zhi-Gang Han,1 Li Shan1 1Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang Province, 2Department of Oncology, First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: Claudins are found in junctional complexes mediating cell adhesion and are involved in the attachment of tight junctions to the underlying cytoskeleton. Abnormal claudin-6 expression has been observed for a variety of malignant solid tumors, but the expression of claudin-6 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has not yet been characterized.Methods: Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and western blot analysis were used to quantify claudin-6 expression in 123 cases of NSCLC and non-cancerous adjacent tissue. We analyzed the relationship between claudin-6 expression and clinicopathological features of NSCLC. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to analyze postoperative survival rates, and the log-rank test was used to assess differences in survival rates. The Cox regression model was used to perform multivariate analysis.Results: Claudin-6 expression was low for 61 of 123 (49.6% NSCLC tissue samples and for 33 of 123 (26.8% normal adjacent tissue samples. RT-PCR and western blot analyses confirmed the immunohistochemistry results. Claudin-6 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P<0.001 and TNM stage (P=0.007. Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that patients with low claudin-6 expression had significantly lower survival rates than those with high claudin-6 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that low claudin-6 expression was an independent indicator of prognosis in NSCLC patients.Conclusion: Low claudin-6 expression is an independent prognostic biomarker that indicates a worse prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Keywords: NSCLC, claudin-6, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, western

  18. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruirui; Zeng, Ying; Xu, Haifan; Chen, Zhuo; Xiang, Mengqin; Fu, Yun; Yin, Yufang; Zhong, Jing; Zeng, Min; Wang, Peihua; You, Qin; Zeng, Xi

    2016-08-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is one of the major pre-mRNA-binding proteins, that is involved in translational modifications. In our previous studies, we found that hnRNP K is associated with human gastric cancer. The protein levels of hnRNP K were detected in cell lines and tissue microarrays. The correlation between hnRNP K expression and patient survival rate was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. In addition, we also detected hnRNP K expression in preoperative and postoperative serum samples from patients with gastric cancer, and serum samples from healthy volunteers. We found that hnRNP K was overexpressed in the gastric cancer cell lines. The levels of hnRNP K were significantly elevated in the gastric cancer tissues compared with that noted in the tumor-adjacent gastric mucosal and normal gastric mucosal sampes, and hnRNP K expression was found to correlate with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. However, the level of serum hnRNP K did not differ significantly between gastric cancer patients and healthy volunteers. We also found that patients whose tumors showed elevated expression of hnRNP K had poor survival. The present study suggests that hnRNP K is a promising tissue biomarker for diagnosing gastric cancer and is a prognostic indicator for patients with gastric cancer.

  19. Wif1 Hypermethylation as Unfavorable Prognosis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers with EGFR Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su Man; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Dong Sun

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality across the world and tobacco smoking is the major risk factor. The Wnt signaling pathway is known to be involved in smoke-induced tumorigenesis in the lung. Promoter hypermethylation of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) has become a common event in a number of human tumors. Using a methylation-specific PCR, hypermethylation of the Wif1 gene promoter was evaluated in 139 primary non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and its correlation wit...

  20. NDRG1 expression is related to the progression and prognosis of gastric cancer patients through modulating proliferation, invasion and cell cycle of gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaojing; Xu, Xiaoyang; Ma, Jinguo; Xue, Xiaoying; Li, Zhenhua; Deng, Peng; Zhang, Shuanglong; Zhi, Yu; Chen, Jing; Dai, Dongqiu

    2014-09-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor gene in many different types of tumors, but its potential function and corresponding mechanism are not yet fully elucidated. This study aims to detect the possible function of NDRG1 in gastric cancer progression. In this study, 112 paired gastric cancer tissues and corresponding nonmalignant gastric tissues were utilized to identify the differential protein expression of NDRG1 by immunohistochemistry and its clinical significance was analyzed. Furthermore, 49 of 112 paired gastric specimens were used to detect the differential mRNA expression by real-time PCR. The over expression of NDRG1 in human gastric cancer cell line AGS by PcDNA3.1-NDRG1 transfection was utilized to detect the role of NDRG1 in regulating the biological behavior of gastric cancer. NDRG1 expression was significantly decreased in primary gastric cancer tissues, compared with its corresponding nonmalignant gastric tissues (p < 0.05), and its decreased expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01), invasion depth (p < 0.01) and differentiation (p < 0.05). Additionally, the overall survival rate of gastric cancer patients with high expression of NDRG1 was higher than those with low expression during the follow-up period. NDRG1 overexpression suppressed cells proliferation, invasion and induced a G1 cell cycle arrest in gastric cancer. Furthermore, the down-regulation of NDRG1 in gastric cancer metastatic progression was correlated to E-cadherin and MMP-9. Our results verify that NDRG1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene and may play an important role in the metastasis progression and prognosis of gastric cancer.

  1. Transient Fourier holography with bacteriorhodopsin films for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Devulapalli; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekar; Wu, Pengfei; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    X-ray mammography is the current gold standard for breast cancer screening. Microcalcifications and other features which are helpful to the radiologist for early diagnostics are often buried in the noise generated by the surrounding dense tissue. So image processing techniques are required to enhance these important features to improve the sensitivity of detection. An innovative technique is demonstrated for recording a hologram of the mammogram. It is recorded on a thin polymer film of Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) as photo induced isomerization grating containing the interference pattern between the object beam containing the Fourier spatial frequency components of the mammogram and a reference beam. The hologram contains all the enhanced features of the mammogram. A significant innovation of the technique is that the enhanced components in the processed image can be viewed by the radiologist in time scale. A technician can record the movie and when the radiologist looks at the movie at his convenience, freezing the frame as and when desired, he would see the microcalcifications as the brightest and last long in time. He would also observe lesions with intensity decreasing as their size increases. The same bR film can be used repeatedly for recording holograms with different mammograms. The technique is versatile and a different frequency band can be chosen to be optimized by changing the reference beam intensity. The experimental arrangement can be used for mammograms in screen film or digital format.

  2. Nuclear physics applications in diagnostics and cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2005-01-01

    Only 1% of the 18,000 world accelerators are devoted to the production of radioisotopes for medical diagnostics. In fact at present about 85% of all the medical examinations use /sup 99m/Tc produced in nuclear reactors. But the development of Positron Emission Tomography and of its combination with Computer Tomography will boost the hospital use of cyclotrons. Much more general is the use of electron linacs in cancer therapy about 40% of the world accelerators are used for this so called "conventional" radiotherapy. In the developed countries every 10 million inhabitants about 20,000 oncological patients are irradiated every year with high-energy photons (called X-rays by radiotherapists) produced by electron linacs. Much less used is "hadrontherapy", the radiotherapy technique that employs protons, neutrons or carbon ions. Protons and ions are 'heavy' charged particles: they assure a more 'conformal' treatment than X-rays and thus spare better the surrounding healthy tissues allowing a larger dose and thus a...

  3. Expression of FOXO6 is Associated With Oxidative Stress Level and Predicts the Prognosis in Hepatocellular Cancer: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Yong; Chen, Yao-Min; Wu, Jian; Yang, Fu-Chun; Lv, Zhen; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of Forkhead box O6 (FOXO6) expression with oxidative stress level and prognosis of hepatocellular cancer (HCC).The case group included tissues of HCC from 128 patients who were hospitalized in Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery of First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The control group included normal liver tissues from 74 patients. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to test expressions of FOXO6, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Dihydroethidium (DHE) was dyed to observe reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Immunohistochemistry was used to test FOXO6 expression. FOXO6 was silenced in HepG2 cells to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expressions of ROS, HO-1, GPx, SOD, CAT, p27, and cyclin D1 were also detected to further explore the possible mechanism.The expressions of FOXO6, HO-1, GPx, SOD, and CAT in HCC tissue was significantly higher than those in normal and adjacent HCC tissues (P AFP) level, the presence or absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), and differentiation degree were related to FOXO6 expression level (all P AFP, and low degree of differentiation were all risk factors for prognosis in HCC (P <0.05). Compared with the blank group (C group, without transfection) and the negative control (NC) group, the mRNA expressions of ROS, FOXO6, HO-1, SOD, GPx, and CAT were decreased (P <0.05). si-RNA group had significantly decreased proliferation speed during 24 to 72 hours (P <0.05), whereas si-FOXO6 group had remarkably increased G0/G1 staged cells and decreased S-staged cells (P <0.05). The si-FOXO6 group showed notably increased apoptosis rate (P <0.05) and p27 expressions as well as decreased cyclin D1 expressions (P <0.05).FOXO6 was highly expressed in HCC tissue and was related to oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, FOXO6 expression

  4. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the patients with cancer of unknown primary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective :The prognosis of the patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is poor. Detection of the primary tumor could determine the treatment strategy, improve the prognosis and the survival rate. The study was to assess the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the patients with CUP. Methods:Seventy patients with CUP underwent a whole-body PET/CT imaging study. All the images were blindly interpreted by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. The final diagnosis was based on pathology and follow-up for more than 3 months. Results :The primary tumor site was correctly identified by PET/CT in 35 patients (35/70, 50%), 1 false negative and 1 false positive cases were encountered. In 33 patients (33/70, 47.1%), the primary tumor site was not localized. In addition, PET/CT scan identified further unexpected metastases in 36 patients, patient management was changed in 39 patients (39/70, 55.7%). Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool in the assessment and initial stages of the management process. (authors)

  5. Prognosis and segment-specific nodal spread of primary lung cancer in the right lower lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Tomizawa, Kenji; Suda, Kenichi; Takemoto, Toshiki; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakakura, Noriaki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Sakao, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    Background Although lobe-specific nodal spread of primary lung cancer has been recently described, segment-specific nodal spread remains unclear. We investigated the frequency of hailer and mediastinal lymph node involvement and survival in patients with tumors located in the superior segment (SS) and basal segment (BS) in the right lower lobe. Methods Two hundred and sixty-three patients with primary lung cancer originating in the right lower lobe underwent lobectomy with systematic mediasti...

  6. Role of EGFR mutations in lung cancers: prognosis and tumor chemosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Kenichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Lung cancers with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation account for ~40 % of adenocarcinomas in East Asians and ~15 % of those in Caucasians and African Americans, which makes them one of the most common molecularly defined lung cancer subsets. The discriminative clinical and pathological features of lung cancers with EGFR mutations have been intensively studied, and the predictive role of an EGFR mutation for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is well established. However, controversial issues remain regarding the clinical and therapeutic implications of EGFR mutations in lung cancers. These include the prognostic impact of the EGFR mutation, its predictive implication for successful treatment with anticancer agents other than EGFR-TKIs, appropriate cytotoxic agents for lung cancers with this mutation, and the chemosensitivity of EGFR-mutation-positive lung cancers after acquisition of resistance to EGFR-TKIs. In this review, we discuss these unanswered but important questions, referring to in vitro studies, basic research, retrospective analyses, and the results of phase III clinical trials. PMID:25983263

  7. TFIIB-Related Factor 2 Over Expression Is a Prognosis Marker for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Correlated with Tumor Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lu; Hui Tian; Weiming Yue; Lin Li; Shuhai Li; Lei Qi; Wensi Hu; Cun Gao; Libo Si

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine BRF2 expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explore the relationship of BRF2 protein with clinicopathologic factors, tumor angiogenesis and prognosis. METHODS: Both BRF2 protein and intratumoral microvessels were examined by immunohistochemical staining in 107 non-small cell lung cancer patients. Intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) was measured by counting CD-34 positive immunostained endothelial cells. Western bl...

  8. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2000-01-01

    = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative......BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n...

  9. The proteomics of colorectal cancer: identification of a protein signature associated with prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna O'Dwyer

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the commonest types of cancer and there is requirement for the identification of prognostic biomarkers. In this study protein expression profiles have been established for colorectal cancer and normal colonic mucosa by proteomics using a combination of two dimensional gel electrophoresis with fresh frozen sections of paired Dukes B colorectal cancer and normal colorectal mucosa (n = 28, gel image analysis and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal components analysis showed that the protein expression profiles of colorectal cancer and normal colonic mucosa clustered into distinct patterns of protein expression. Forty-five proteins were identified as showing at least 1.5 times increased expression in colorectal cancer and the identity of these proteins was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Fifteen proteins that showed increased expression were validated by immunohistochemistry using a well characterised colorectal cancer tissue microarray containing 515 primary colorectal cancer, 224 lymph node metastasis and 50 normal colonic mucosal samples. The proteins that showed the greatest degree of overexpression in primary colorectal cancer compared with normal colonic mucosa were heat shock protein 60 (p<0.001, S100A9 (p<0.001 and translationally controlled tumour protein (p<0.001. Analysis of proteins individually identified 14-3-3β as a prognostic biomarker (χ² = 6.218, p = 0.013, HR = 0.639, 95%CI 0.448-0.913. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified distinct phenotypes associated with survival and a two-protein signature consisting of 14-3-3β and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was identified as showing prognostic significance (χ² = 7.306, p = 0.007, HR = 0.504, 95%CI 0.303-0.838 and that remained independently prognostic (p = 0.01, HR = 0.416, 95%CI 0.208-0.829 in a multivariate model.

  10. Pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard;

    2013-01-01

    The association between pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and breast cancer specific mortality was investigated in 1,052 women diagnosed with early breast cancer in a prospective cohort of 29,875 women. Known clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic risk factors were...... evaluated and adjusted for in multivariate analysis. We found a modest but significant association between pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence with a median follow-up of six years after date of diagnosis, both when using baseline measures of alcohol intake (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1...

  11. Characteristics and prognosis of interval cancers after biennial screen-film or full-field digital screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roy J P; van Bommel, Rob M G; Louwman, Marieke W; Nederend, Joost; Voogd, Adri C; Jansen, Frits H; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Duijm, Lucien E M

    2016-08-01

    We determined the characteristics and prognosis of interval breast cancers (IC) at screen-film (SFM) and full-field digital (FFDM) screening mammography. The study population consisted of 417,746 consecutive screening mammograms (302,699 SFM screens and 115,047 FFDM screens), obtained between 2000 and 2011. During 2-year follow-up, we collected breast imaging reports, surgical reports, and pathology results. A total of 800 ICs had been diagnosed in the screened population, of which 288 detected in the first year (early ICs) and 512 in the second year (late ICs) after a negative screen. 31.3 % of early IC's and 19.1 % of late IC's, respectively, were visible in retrospect on the latest previous screens, but had been missed during screening (P < 0.001). Missed invasive ICs were larger (28.5 mm vs. 23.9 mm, P = 0.003) and showed a higher fraction of T3+cancers (16.9 vs. 8.5 %, P = 0.02) than true ICs (i.e., not visible at the latest screen). A higher portion of missed than true ICs underwent mastectomy (44.7 vs. 30.8 %, P = 0.002). We found no differences in mammographic and tumor characteristics for early ICs, detected either after SFM or FFDM. Late ICs following FFDM were more often true ICs than missed ICs (69.0 vs. 57.6 %, P = 0.03) and more often receptor triple negative (P = 0.02), compared to late ICs at SFM. Interval cancer subgroups showed comparable overall survival. Interval cancer subgroups show distinctive mammographic and tumor characteristics but a comparable overall survival. PMID:27393617

  12. A pooled analysis of post-diagnosis lifestyle factors in association with late estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechuta, Sarah; Chen, Wendy Y; Cai, Hui; Poole, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Flatt, Shirley W; Patterson, Ruth E; Pierce, John P; Caan, Bette J; Ou Shu, Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Lifestyle factors have been well studied in relation to breast cancer prognosis overall; however, associations of lifestyle and late outcomes (>5 years after diagnosis) have been much less studied, and no studies have focused on estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer survivors, who may have high risk of late recurrence and mortality. We utilized a large prospective pooling study to evaluate the associations of lifestyle factors with late recurrence and all-cause mortality among 6,295 5-year ER+ Stage I-III breast cancer survivors. Pooled and harmonized data were available on clinical factors and lifestyle factors (pre- to post-diagnosis weight change, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)), recreational physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking history), measured on average 2.1 years after diagnosis. Updated information for weight only was available. Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q-statistic. Multivariable Cox regression models were stratified by study. Adjusting for clinical factors and potential confounders, ≥ 10% weight gain and obesity (BMI, 30-34.99 and ≥ 35) were associated with increased risk of late recurrence (hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.24 (1.00-1.53), 1.40 (1.05-1.86) and 1.41 (1.02-1.93), respectively). Daily alcohol intake was associated with late recurrence, 1.28 (1.01-1.62). Physical activity was inversely associated with late all-cause mortality (0.81 (0.71-0.93) and 0.71 (0.61-0.82) for 4.9 to factors were associated with late outcomes among long-term ER+ breast cancer survivors.

  13. A lactate shuttle system between tumour and stromal cells is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a malignant tumour, cancer cells are embedded in stromal cells, namely cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). These CAFs are now accepted as important players in cancer dynamics, being involved in tumour growth and progression. Although there are various reports on the interaction between tumour and stromal cells, the clinico-pathological significance of this cross-talk is still largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to characterise the expression of key metabolic proteins involved in glucose transport, pyruvate/lactate shuttle system, glycolytic metabolism and fatty acid oxidation in CAFs and tumour cells in different stages of malignant transformation. We further aimed to contextualise the clinico-pathological significance of these protein expression profiles with reference to known prognostic indicators, including biochemical recurrence in pT stage. Prostate tissues were obtained from 480 patients with a median age of 64 years following radical prostatectomy with no previous hormonal therapy. Tissues were analysed for the expression of several key metabolism-related proteins in glands and surrounding fibroblasts by immunohistochemistry. Reliable markers of prognosis such as pT stage and biochemical recurrence were assessed for each case. We observed that prostate cancer cells did not rely mainly on glycolytic metabolism, while there was a high expression of MCT4 and CAIX - in CAFs. This corroborates the hypothesis of the “Reverse Warburg effect” in prostate cancer, in which fibroblasts are under oxidative stress and express CAIX, an established hypoxia marker. We found that alterations in the expression of metabolism-related proteins were already evident in the early stages of malignant transformation, suggesting the continuing alteration of CAFs from an early stage. Additionally, and for the first time, we show that cases showing high MCT4 expression in CAFs with concomitant strong MCT1 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) cells are associated with poor

  14. Rectal cancer staging: Multidetector-row computed tomography diagnostic accuracy in assessment of mesorectal fascia invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Ippolito, Davide; Drago, Silvia Girolama; Franzesi, Cammillo Talei; Fior, Davide; Sironi, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as compared with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in identifying mesorectal fascia (MRF) invasion in rectal cancer patients.

  15. Effect of obesity on prognosis after early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Gunnarsdóttir, Katrín Á;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was performed to characterize the impact of obesity on the risk of breast cancer recurrence and death as a result of breast cancer or other causes in relation to adjuvant treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS Information on body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis was available for 18......,967 (35%) of 53,816 women treated for early-stage breast cancer in Denmark between 1977 and 2006 with complete follow-up for first events (locoregional recurrences and distant metastases) up to 10 years and for death up to 30 years. Information was available on prognostic factors and adjuvant treatment...... for all patients. Univariate analyses were used to compare the associations of known prognostic factors and risks of recurrence or death according to BMI categories. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the influence of BMI after adjusting for other factors. Results Patients...

  16. Overexpression of CD151 Predicts Prognosis in Patients with Resected Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Zhong-wei; Liu, Qing-Meng; Sun, Yi-Feng; Yu, Ji-Ren; Xu, Wei-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The tetraspanin CD151 acts as a promoter of metastasis and invasion in several tumors. However, the role of CD151 in human gastric cancer (HGC) remains unclear. Methods Twenty HGC specimens and matched nontumor samples, human gastric epithelial cells (HGEC), and four gastric cancer cell lines were used to analyze CD151 expression. Short hairpin RNA-mediated downregulation of CD151 expression in HGC cells was performed to examine the role of CD151 in the proliferation and metastasis/in...

  17. An Approach with Support Vector Machine using Variable Features Selection on Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chaurasia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis and clinical outcome prediction are among the most important emerging applications of machine learning. In this paper we have used an approach by using support vector machine classifier to construct a model that is useful for the breast cancer survivability prediction. We have used both 5 cross and 10 cross validation of variable selection on input feature vectors and the performance measurement through bio-learning class performance while measuring AUC, specificity and sensitivity. The performance of the SVM is much better than the other machine learning classifier.

  18. Prognosis of cancer with branch duct type IPMN of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhito; Ikeuchi; Takao; Itoi; Atsushi; Sofuni; Fumihide; Itokawa; Takayoshi; Tsuchiya; Toshio; Kurihara; Kentaro; Ishii; Shujiro; Tsuji; Junko; Umeda; Fuminori; Moriyasu; Akihiko; Tsuchida; Kazuhiko; Kasuya

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To examine the coexistence of metachronous and synchronous cancer in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN).METHODS: We reviewed the records of 145 patients with branch duct IPMN between January 1991 and April 2008 and assessed the relationship between IPMN and intraor extra-pancreatic carcinoma and the outcome of IPMN.RESULTS: The mean observation period was 55.9 ± 45.3 mo. Among the 145 patients, the frequency of extra-pancreatic cancer was 29.0%. The frequency of ...

  19. bax, but not bcl-2, influences the prognosis of human pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Friess, H; Lu, Z; H. Graber; Zimmermann, A.; Adler, G.; Korc, M.; Schmid, R; Buchler, M

    1998-01-01

    Background—bcl-2 and bax belong to the bcl-2-related gene family, which marks a new class of genes that influence apoptosis. The bcl-2 oncogene acts as a broad antiapoptotic factor and extends both normal and tumour cell survival. In contrast, the bax gene is a promoter of apoptosis. 
Aims—To analyse the expression of bcl-2 and bax in pancreatic cancer and correlate the results with clinical parameters. 
Patients—Pancreatic cancer tissue samples were obtained fro...

  20. Duodenal surveillance improves the prognosis after duodenal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Højen, Helle;

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim: Duodenal adenomatosis in FAP results in a cancer risk that increases with age. Endoscopic surveillance has been recommended, but the effect has not yet been documented. The aim of this study is to present results of long-term duodenal surveillance and to evaluate the risk of...... (interquartile range 9-17). The cumulative lifetime risk of duodenal adenomatosis was 88% (95% CI 84-93), and of Spigelman stage IV 35% (95% CI 25-45). The Spigelman stage improved in 32 (12%), remained unchanged in 88 (34%) and worsened in 116 (44%). Twenty patients (7%) had duodenal cancer at a median age of...

  1. Duodenal surveillance improves the prognosis after duodenal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Højen, Helle;

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim:  Duodenal adenomatosis in FAP results in a cancer risk that increases with age. Endoscopic surveillance has been recommended, but the effect has not yet been documented. The aim of this study is to present results of long-term duodenal surveillance and to evaluate the risk of...... (interquartile range 9-17). The cumulative lifetime risk of duodenal adenomatosis was 88% (95% CI 84-93), and of Spigelman stage IV 35% (95% CI 25-45). The Spigelman stage improved in 32 (12%), remained unchanged in 88 (34%) and worsened in 116 (44%). Twenty patients (7%) had duodenal cancer at a median age of...

  2. Advances in circulating microRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers for ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zheng; Jia-Yu Liu; Feng-Ju Song; Ke-Xin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignant gynecological tumors. More than 70%of patients with ovarian cancer are diagnosed at advanced stage. The 5-year survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer is less than 30%because of the lack of effective biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and personalized treatment. MicroRNA (miR) is a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression primarily through post-transcriptional repression. Many studies on tissue miR in ovarian cancer have been carried out and show great potential in clinical practice. However, tissue samples are not easily available because sampling causes injury. Researchers have started to focus on plasma/serum miR, assuming that blood samples may replace tissue samples in miR research in the future. Plasma/serum miR research is still in its early stages. Studies on its function in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer have achieved some progress, but plasma/serum miR profiling for prognosis and personalized treatment of ovarian cancer remains unknown. A thorough understanding of the function of plasma/serum miR in ovarian cancer will facilitate early diagnosis and improve treatment for ovarian cancer.

  3. Diagnostic delay, quality of life and patient satisfaction among women diagnosed with endometrial or ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine M; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ottesen, Bent;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the association between diagnostic delay (total delay), quality of life (QoL) and patient satisfaction, and the associations between QoL and patient satisfaction scores and survival for women diagnosed with ovarian or endometrial cancer.......This study investigates the association between diagnostic delay (total delay), quality of life (QoL) and patient satisfaction, and the associations between QoL and patient satisfaction scores and survival for women diagnosed with ovarian or endometrial cancer....

  4. Expression of FOXO6 is Associated With Oxidative Stress Level and Predicts the Prognosis in Hepatocellular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Yong; Chen, Yao-Min; Wu, Jian; Yang, Fu-Chun; Lv, Zhen; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the association of Forkhead box O6 (FOXO6) expression with oxidative stress level and prognosis of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). The case group included tissues of HCC from 128 patients who were hospitalized in Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery of First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The control group included normal liver tissues from 74 patients. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to test expressions of FOXO6, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Dihydroethidium (DHE) was dyed to observe reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Immunohistochemistry was used to test FOXO6 expression. FOXO6 was silenced in HepG2 cells to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expressions of ROS, HO-1, GPx, SOD, CAT, p27, and cyclin D1 were also detected to further explore the possible mechanism. The expressions of FOXO6, HO-1, GPx, SOD, and CAT in HCC tissue was significantly higher than those in normal and adjacent HCC tissues (P cancer, which may provide a novel treatment target for HCC therapy. PMID:27227932

  5. Distress in suspected lung cancer patients following rapid and standard diagnostic programs: a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, P.; Heijden, E.H. van der; Oud, K.T.; Bootsma, G.; Groen, H.J.M.; Donders, A.R.T.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Prins, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Timeliness may influence emotional distress during the diagnostic phase of suspected lung cancer patients. We performed a prospective observational study to compare distress and quality of life (QoL) in two medical centres with a Rapid Outpatient Diagnostic Program (RODP) and two using co

  6. Effects of phenotype transformation of receptors of triple-negative breast cancer(TNBC on clinical prognosis of patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin ZHAO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and human epidermis growth-factor receptor 2(HER-2, to determine the phenotype transformation of these receptors before and after recurrence and/or metastasis, and to explore the effects of expression and phenotype transformation of receptors on the treatment efficacy and clinical prognosis of patients with breast cancer. Methods Based on the phenotype transformation of ER, PR, and HER-2 receptor, 211 breast cancer patients were assigned to 3 groups. Twenty patients of Group A were with primary triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, defined as lacking expression of ER, PR and HER2 which transformed into non-TNBC after recurrence and/ or metastasis, 73 of Group B were with primary non-TNBC which transformed into TNBC after recurrence and/or metastasis, and 118 of Group C were with primary TNBC which was still TNBC after recurrence and/or metastasis. The phenotype transformation of receptors, recurrence/metastasis, and efficacy and clinical prognosis were analyzed following collection of general information of the patients. Results The median age of 211 recurrent patients was 52 years (range, 22 to 78 years. Most of the patients exhibited solitary metastasis. The most common locations of the initial metastasis were lymph node, bone and skin. The median disease-free survival for Groups A, B, and C was 34.0, 25.0, and 20.0 months, respectively. The clinical effect of Groups B and C was better than that of Group A for first-line, second-line, and third-line rescuing therapy (P=0.030, 0.003, 0.001. However, the clinical benefit rate of Group A was higher than those of Groups B and C for rescuing endocrine therapy. The median follow-up time of the 211 patients was 68 months (range, 20 to 127 months, and the median survival after recurrence for Groups A, B, and C was 63.1, 33.7, and 25.8 months respectively (P=0.000. The median overall survival for Groups A, B

  7. RELATIONSHIP AMONG PS2 PROTEIN EXPRESSION, ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR STATUS, AND PROGNOSIS OF BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingxian; LI Jiyou; HE Luowen; ZHAO Yajuan

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the expression of PS2 protein and Estrogen (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) status and their prognotic value in breast cancer. Methods: Using the immunohistochemical method, PS2 protein expressions were detected in 105 cases with breast cancer. Results:The positive rate of PS2 protein was 50.48% (53/105) in 105 cases. The positive rate of PS2 in the patients who survived five years or more was 56.96% (45/79), which was higher than that of those who lived less than five years (30.77%, 8/26). In the ER, PR (+) patients, the positive rate of PS2 was higher (76.74%, 33/34), than that of those with ER, PR (-) (22.5%, 9/40). Conclusions:Our results suggest that the expression of PS2 protein was positively correlated with the S-year-survival and that of ER and PR in breast cancer. It is considered that PS2 may be as a prognostic predictor, and detection of PS2 protein expression was useful for a guiding treatment of breast cancer.

  8. Annexin A1 expression in a pooled breast cancer series : Association with tumor subtypes and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobral-Leite, Marcelo; Wesseling, Jelle; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Nevanlinna, Heli; van Miltenburg, Martine H.; Sanders, Joyce; Hofland, Ingrid; Blows, Fiona M.; Coulson, Penny; Patrycja, Gazinska; Schellens, Jan H M; Fagerholm, Rainer; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Provenzano, Elena; Ali, Hamid Raza; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Phillips, Kelly Anne; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Visscher, Daniel; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Arndt, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W M; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; van de Water, Bob; Broeks, Annegien; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Pharoah, Paul D P; García-Closas, Montserrat; de Graauw, Marjo; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Aghmesheh, Morteza; Amor, David; Andrews, Lesley; Antill, Yoland; Armitage, Shane; Arnold, Leanne; Balleine, Rosemary; Bankier, Agnes; Bastick, Patti; Beesley, Jonathan; Beilby, John; Bennett, Barbara; Bennett, Ian; Berry, Geoffrey; Blackburn, Anneke; Bogwitz, Michael; Brennan, Meagan; Brown, Melissa; Buckley, Michael; Burgess, Matthew; Burke, Jo; Butow, Phyllis; Byron, Keith; Callen, David; Campbell, Ian; Chauhan, Deepa; Chauhan, Manisha; Christian, Alice; Clarke, Christine; Colley, Alison; Cotton, Dick; Crook, Ashley; Cui, James; Culling, Bronwyn; Cummings, Margaret; Dawson, Sarah Jane; deFazio, Anna; Delatycki, Martin; Dickson, Rebecca; Dixon, Joanne; Dobrovic, Alexander; Dudding, Tracy; Edkins, Ted; Edwards, Stacey; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Farshid, Gelareh; Fawcett, Susan; Fellows, Andrew; Fenton, Georgina; Field, Michael; Firgaira, Frank; Flanagan, James; Fleming, Jean; Fong, Peter; Forbes, John; Fox, Stephen; French, Juliet; Friedlander, Michael; Gaff, Clara; Gardner, Mac; Gattas, Mike; George, Peter; Giles, Graham; Gill, Grantley; Goldblatt, Jack; Greening, Sian; Grist, Scott; Haan, Eric; Hardie, Kate; Harris, Marion; Hart, Stewart; Hayward, Nick; Healey, Sue; Heiniger, Louise; Hopper, John; Humphrey, Evelyn; Hunt, Clare; James, Paul; Jenkins, Mark; Jones, Alison; Kefford, Rick; Kidd, Alexa; Kiely, Belinda; Kirk, Judy; Koehler, Jessica; Kollias, James; Kovalenko, Serguei; Lakhani, Sunil; Leaming, Amanda; Leary, Jennifer; Lim, Jacqueline; Lindeman, Geoff; Lipton, Lara; Lobb, Liz; Mann, Graham; Marsh, Deborah; McLachlan, Sue Anne; Meiser, Bettina; Meldrum, Cliff; Milne, Roger; Mitchell, Gillian; Newman, Beth; Niedermayr, Eveline; Nightingale, Sophie; O'Connell, Shona; O'Loughlin, Imelda; Osborne, Richard; Pachter, Nick; Patterson, Briony; Peters, Lester; Phillips, Kelly; Price, Melanie; Purser, Lynne; Reeve, Tony; Reeve, Jeanne; Richards, Robert; Rickard, Edwina; Robinson, Bridget; Rudzki, Barney; Saleh, Mona; Salisbury, Elizabeth; Sambrook, Joe; Saunders, Christobel; Saunus, Jodi; Sayer, Robyn; Scott, Elizabeth; Scott, Rodney; Scott, Clare; Seshadri, Ram; Sexton, Adrienne; Sharma, Raghwa; Shelling, Andrew; Simpson, Peter; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda; Suthers, Graeme; Sykes, Pamela; Tassell, Margaret; Taylor, Donna; Taylor, Jessica; Thierry, Benjamin; Thomas, Susan; Thompson, Ella; Thorne, Heather; Townshend, Sharron; Trainer, Alison; Tran, Lan; Tucker, Kathy; Tyler, Janet; Visvader, Jane; Walker, Logan; Walpole, Ian; Ward, Robin; Waring, Paul; Warner, Bev; Warren, Graham; Williams, Rachael; Wilson, Judy; Winship, Ingrid; Wu, Kathy; Young, Mary Ann; Bowtell, D.; Green, A.; Webb, P.; de Fazio, A.; Gertig, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. However, little is known about the prognostic value of ANXA1 in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between ANXA1 expression, BRCA1/2 germl

  9. Recurrent venous thromboembolism in anticoagulated patients with cancer : management and short-term prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulman, S.; Zondag, M.; Linkins, L.; Pasca, S.; Cheung, Y. W.; De Sancho, M.; Gallus, A.; Lecumberri, R.; Molnar, S.; Ageno, W.; Le Gal, G.; Falanga, A.; Hulegardh, E.; Ranta, S.; Kamphuisen, P.; Debourdeau, P.; Rigamonti, V.; Ortel, T. L.; Lee, A.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundRecommendations for management of cancer-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients already receiving anticoagulant therapy are based on low-quality evidence. This international registry sought to provide more information on outcomes after a breakthrough VTE in relation to anticoagul

  10. Molecular markers for urothelial bladder cancer prognosis: Toward implementation in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, B.W. van; Catto, J.W.; Goebell, P.J.; Knuchel, R.; Shariat, S.F.; Poel, H.G. van der; Sanchez-Carbayo, M.; Thalmann, G.N.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To summarize the current status of clinicopathological and molecular markers for the prediction of recurrence or progression or both in non-muscle-invasive and survival in muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer, to address the reproducibility of pathology and molecular markers, and to

  11. The Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Prognosis of Early Breast Cancer in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Wu; Shao, Yu-Yun; Shau, Wen-Yi; Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Lu, Yen-Shen; Chen, Ho-Min; Kuo, Raymond N.C.; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Using nationwide databases in Taiwan, the individual effect of diabetes mellitus on both the breast cancer–specific and overall survival rates in Asian patients with early-stage breast cancer was evaluated while taking into account other comorbidities. Diabetes mellitus was found to be an independent predictor of both the breast cancer–specific and overall survival rates.

  12. MLF1IP is correlated with progression and prognosis in luminal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Du-Ping; Luo, Rong-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Myeloid leukemia factor 1-interacting protein (MLF1IP) has been found to be involved in the progression of several malignancies. The potential correlation between MLF1IP and clinical outcome in patients with luminal breast cancer, however, remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that MLF1IP was significantly upregulated in luminal breast cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue both in validated cohort and TCGA cohort. Upregulated expression of MLF1IP was correlated with more often lymph node metastasis and negative progesterone receptor expression in TCGA cohorts. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high MLF1IP expression had significantly lower overall survival. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that high MLF1IP expression was independent high risk factor as well as old age (>60) and distant metastasis. This study provides new insights and evidences that MLF1IP over-expression plays important roles in progression of luminal breast cancer. However, the precise cellular mechanisms for MLF1IP in luminal breast cancer need to be further explored. PMID:27378428

  13. Loss of CSMD1 or 2 may contribute to the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Song, Chun

    2014-05-01

    CUB and sushi multiple domain protein 1 (CSMD1) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. The three members of CSMD family have very similar structures, each consisting of 14 CUB domains separated from one another by a sushi domain, an additional uninterrupted array of sushi domains, a single transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. In this work, we aimed to study the protein and mRNA levels of the CSMD1, CSMD2, and CSMD3 and evaluate their prognostic importance in colorectal cancer. Reduced expressions of these three proteins were detected in colorectal cancer tissues by comparing matched normal tissues. Low CSMD2 expression was significantly associated with differentiation, lymphatic invasion, and tumor size. CSMD3 was associated with differentiation and lymphatic invasion. CSMD1 and CSMD2 expressions were associated with overall survival. This study offers convincing evidence for the first time that the three genes of CSMD family were downregulated in the patients with colorectal cancer and may be used as predictors of colorectal cancer. PMID:24408017

  14. Impact of Triple-Negative Phenotype on Prognosis of Patients With Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhiyuan [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Schlesinger, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Toulmin, Sushila [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Rich, Tyvin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Sheehan, Jason, E-mail: jps2f@virginia.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To elucidate survival times and identify potential prognostic factors in patients with triple-negative (TN) phenotype who harbored brain metastases arising from breast cancer and who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: A total of 103 breast cancer patients with brain metastases were treated with SRS and then studied retrospectively. Twenty-four patients (23.3%) were TN. Survival times were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with a log-rank test computing the survival time difference between groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses to predict potential prognostic factors were performed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: The presence of TN phenotype was associated with worse survival times, including overall survival after the diagnosis of primary breast cancer (43 months vs. 82 months), neurologic survival after the diagnosis of intracranial metastases, and radiosurgical survival after SRS, with median survival times being 13 months vs. 25 months and 6 months vs. 16 months, respectively (p < 0.002 in all three comparisons). On multivariate analysis, radiosurgical survival benefit was associated with non-TN status and lower recursive partitioning analysis class at the initial SRS. Conclusion: The TN phenotype represents a significant adverse prognostic factor with respect to overall survival, neurologic survival, and radiosurgical survival in breast cancer patients with intracranial metastasis. Recursive partitioning analysis class also served as an important and independent prognostic factor.

  15. Is overexpression of HER-2 a predictor of prognosis in colorectal cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennani Fadel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of novel chemotherapeutic agents in colorectal cancer has improved survival. Following initial response to chemotherapeutic strategies many patients develop refractory disease. This poses a significant challenge common to many cancer subtypes. Newer agents such as Bevacizumab have successfully targeted the tyrosine kinase receptor epidermal growth factor receptor in metastatic colorectal cancer. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 is another member of the tyrosine kinase receptor family which has been successfully targeted in breast cancer. This may play a role in colorectal cancer. We conducted a clinicopathological study to determine if overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 is a predictor of outcome in a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. Methods Clinicopathological data and paraffin-embedded specimens were collected on 132 consecutive patients who underwent colorectal resections over a 24-month period at Mayo General Hospital. Twenty-six contained non-malignant disease. Her-2/neu protein overexpression was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC. The HER-2 4B5 Ventana monoclonal antibody was used. Fluorescent insitu hybridisation (FISH was performed using INFORM HER-2/Neu Plus. Results were correlated with established clinical and pathological predictors of outcome including TNM stage. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.5. Results 114 were HER-2/Neu negative using IHC, 7 showed barely perceptible positivity (1+, 9 showed moderate staining (2+ and 2 were strongly positive (3+. There was no correlation with gender, age, grade, Dukes' stage, TNM stage, time to recurrence and 5-year survival (p > 0.05. FISH was applied to all 2+ and 3+ cases as well as some negative cases selected at random. Three were amplified (2 were 3+ and 1 was 2+. Similarly, HER-2 gene overexpression did not correlate with established prognostic indicators. Conclusion HER-2 protein

  16. Is overexpression of HER-2 a predictor of prognosis in colorectal cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The development of novel chemotherapeutic agents in colorectal cancer has improved survival. Following initial response to chemotherapeutic strategies many patients develop refractory disease. This poses a significant challenge common to many cancer subtypes. Newer agents such as Bevacizumab have successfully targeted the tyrosine kinase receptor epidermal growth factor receptor in metastatic colorectal cancer. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 is another member of the tyrosine kinase receptor family which has been successfully targeted in breast cancer. This may play a role in colorectal cancer. We conducted a clinicopathological study to determine if overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 is a predictor of outcome in a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Clinicopathological data and paraffin-embedded specimens were collected on 132 consecutive patients who underwent colorectal resections over a 24-month period at Mayo General Hospital. Twenty-six contained non-malignant disease. Her-2\\/neu protein overexpression was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The HER-2 4B5 Ventana monoclonal antibody was used. Fluorescent insitu hybridisation (FISH) was performed using INFORM HER-2\\/Neu Plus. Results were correlated with established clinical and pathological predictors of outcome including TNM stage. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.5. RESULTS: 114 were HER-2\\/Neu negative using IHC, 7 showed barely perceptible positivity (1+), 9 showed moderate staining (2+) and 2 were strongly positive (3+). There was no correlation with gender, age, grade, Dukes\\' stage, TNM stage, time to recurrence and 5-year survival (p > 0.05). FISH was applied to all 2+ and 3+ cases as well as some negative cases selected at random. Three were amplified (2 were 3+ and 1 was 2+). Similarly, HER-2 gene overexpression did not correlate with established prognostic indicators. CONCLUSION: HER-2 protein is over

  17. Recurrent endometrial cancer: patterns of recurrent disease and assessment of prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohaib, S.A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Houghton, S.L. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Meroni, R. [Department of Academic Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Rockall, A.G. [Department of Academic Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Blake, P. [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Department of Academic Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate patterns of disease and identify factors predicting outcome in patients presenting with recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma following primary surgery. Materials and methods: A retrospective review was performed of the imaging and clinical data in 86 patients (median age 66 years, range 42-88 years) presenting with recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma following primary surgery. Results: Following primary surgery recurrent disease occurred within 2 years in 64% and within 3 years in 87%. Relapse was seen within lymph nodes in 41 (46%), the vagina in 36 (42%) the peritoneum in 24 (28%) and the lung in 21 (24%). Unusual sites of disease included spleen, pancreas, rectum, muscle and brain. Univariate survival analysis showed the factors significant for poor outcome were: multiple sites of disease, liver and splenic disease, haematogenous, peritoneal and nodal spread, poorly differentiated tumour, and early relapse. The presence of disease within the vagina, bladder or lung was not associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis identified multiple sites of disease, liver and splenic metastases to be independent predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion: The most frequently observed sites of relapse are: lymph nodes, vagina, peritoneum and lung. Significant predictors of poor outcome in recurrent disease are multiple sites of disease and liver and splenic metastases.

  18. Recurrent endometrial cancer: patterns of recurrent disease and assessment of prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate patterns of disease and identify factors predicting outcome in patients presenting with recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma following primary surgery. Materials and methods: A retrospective review was performed of the imaging and clinical data in 86 patients (median age 66 years, range 42-88 years) presenting with recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma following primary surgery. Results: Following primary surgery recurrent disease occurred within 2 years in 64% and within 3 years in 87%. Relapse was seen within lymph nodes in 41 (46%), the vagina in 36 (42%) the peritoneum in 24 (28%) and the lung in 21 (24%). Unusual sites of disease included spleen, pancreas, rectum, muscle and brain. Univariate survival analysis showed the factors significant for poor outcome were: multiple sites of disease, liver and splenic disease, haematogenous, peritoneal and nodal spread, poorly differentiated tumour, and early relapse. The presence of disease within the vagina, bladder or lung was not associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis identified multiple sites of disease, liver and splenic metastases to be independent predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion: The most frequently observed sites of relapse are: lymph nodes, vagina, peritoneum and lung. Significant predictors of poor outcome in recurrent disease are multiple sites of disease and liver and splenic metastases

  19. Results of brachytherapy for cancer of the tongue with special emphasis on local prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, J.; Okuyama, T.; Shibuya, H.; Takeda, M.

    1982-05-01

    One hundred and sixty-six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated with radiation. Treatment modalities were mainly interstitial implant with or without external beam irradiation, except for early lesions, which were treated with intraoral electron beam therapy. Analysis was made on the local prognosis of the lesion to clarify the indications for interstitial therapy, especially the combined program with external beam therapy, and the time-dose relationship of the brachytherapy. Local recurrence-free rates (two years) were 94% in T1, 77% in T2 and 32% in T3 lesions, respectively. For T1 and surperficial or exophytic T2 lesions, the local recurrence-free rate was excellent with the interstitial therapy alone using either permanent implants of gold grain or radium implants. Therefore, prior external beam therapy seemed to be unnecessary for these lesions. When the treated area was less than 10 cm/sup 2/, subsequent complications were not likely even if the TDF (time-dose factor) value was high. Most of the patients who received combined external beam and interstitial therapy showed infiltrative T2 and a majority of the T3 lesions. In these patients, it was apparent that most of the total dose should be given from the interstitial implant after a small prior dose with external irradiation, because these lesions could not be cured even if the external dose was increased.

  20. Predicting prognosis of rectal cancer patients with total mesorectal excision using molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Jie Peng; San-Jun Cai; Hong-Feng Lu; Guo-Xiang Cai; Peng Lian; Zu-Qing Guan; Ming-He Wang; Ye Xu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To explore the prognostic variables in rectal cancer patients undergoing curative total mesorectal excision and the effect of postoperative chemotherapy in advanced rectal cancer.METHODS: A total of 259 consecutive rectal cancer patients treated with curative total mesorectal excision between 1999 and 2004 were collected, p53, p21, PCNA,and CD44v6 were examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The correlation between clinicopathological or molecular variables and clinical outcomes, including local recurrence, metastasis, disease-free survival and overall survival, was analyzed.RESULTS: The median follow-up was 44 mo. Fiveyear survival rates and 5-year disease free survival rates were 75.43% and 70.32%, respectively. Multi-analysis revealed TNM staging, preoperative CEA, and CD44v6 level were independent risk factors predicting overall survival or disease free survival. The hazard ratio of peroperative CEA was 2.65 (95% CI 1.4-5) and 3.10 (95% CI 1.37-6.54) for disease free survival and overall survival, respectively. The hazard ratio of CD44v6 was 1.93 (95% CI 1.04-3.61) and 2.21 (95% CI 1.01-4.88)for disease free survival and overall survival, respectively.TNM staging was the only risk factor predicting local recurrence. Postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy did not improve patients' outcome.CONCLUSION: TNM staging, preoperative CEA and CD44v6 were independent prognostic factors for rectal cancer patients with total mesorectal excision.Postoperative chemotherapy may be only used together with radiotherapy for rectal cancer patients.

  1. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rexhepaj, Elton

    2010-11-23

    validated survivin CNR as a marker of good prognosis in breast cancer in a large independent cohort. These findings provide robust evidence of the importance of survivin CNR as a breast cancer biomarker, and its potential to predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients.

  2. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Michael J

    2010-11-01

    validated survivin CNR as a marker of good prognosis in breast cancer in a large independent cohort. These findings provide robust evidence of the importance of survivin CNR as a breast cancer biomarker, and its potential to predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients.

  3. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic and predictive impact of survivin (BIRC5) in breast cancer. We previously reported survivin cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) as an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. Here, we validate survivin CNR in a separate and extended cohort. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that a low CNR may predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients. Survin expression was assessed using immunhistochemistry on a breast cancer tissue microarray (TMA) containing 512 tumours. Whole slide digital images were captured using an Aperio XT scanner. Automated image analysis was used to identify tumour from stroma and then to quantify tumour-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin. A decision tree model selected using a 10-fold cross-validation approach was used to identify prognostic subgroups based on nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression. Following optimisation of the staining procedure, it was possible to evaluate survivin protein expression in 70.1% (n = 359) of the 512 tumours represented on the TMA. Decision tree analysis predicted that nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, survivin was the most important determinant of overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). The decision tree model confirmed CNR of 5 as the optimum threshold for survival analysis. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between a high CNR (>5) and a prolonged BCSS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed a high CNR (>5) was an independent predictor of BCSS (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008). An increased CNR was associated with ER positive (p = 0.045), low grade (p = 0.007), Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and Her2 (p = 0.026) negative tumours. Finally, a high CNR was an independent predictor of OS in tamoxifen-treated ER-positive patients (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.87, p = 0.018). Using the same threshold as our previous study, we have validated survivin CNR as a marker of good prognosis in

  4. Research on the Relationship between Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Neuroendocrine Differentiation and the Biological Characteristics and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun ZHANG

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Recently it has been proven that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC also had the feature of neuroendocrine (NE differentiation. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between NE differentiation of NSCLC and its biological behaviors, together with prognosis. Methods All NSCLC paraffin-embedded specimens and cases, followed up over than 3 years, were randomly obtained from 206 patients from January 2005 to December 2007, who underwent surgical resection and confirmed pathologically. All of them were not underwent radiation and chemotherapy before operation. Immunohistochemical Envision two-step method was used to detect the expressions of NSE, CgA and Syn. And all data were analyzed using SPSS statistics software and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed, and Logrank test was also conducted. Results Of the 206 patients, 84 cases with NE differentiation (39.8% and CgA, NSE and Syn positive rates were 53 (25.7%, 104 (50.5%, 91 (44.2% respectively; a statistically significant difference between NSCLC with NE differentitation were showed. The positive expression of Syn was closely correlated with histological differentiation, lymph node metastasis. The survival of single-factor analysis by the Log-rank test showed that Syn had relation to the postoperative survival rate of patients (χ2=4.164, P=0.041, while the relevance between patients with NE and survival had no significant difference (P>0.05. Conclusion NE differentiation is an important indicator of biological behavior of NSCLC; and the detection of Syn markers of neuroendocrine differentiation may be recommended to detect NE differentiation of NSCLC, and the positive expression of Syn suggests poor prognosis.

  5. Vitamin D supplementation review and recommendations for women diagnosed with breast or ovary cancer in the context of bone health and cancer prognosis/risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Herranz, Ana; Salinas-Hernández, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D review and supplementation recommendations for women diagnosed with breast or ovary cancer have been defined in the context of bone health and cancer prognosis/risk taking as reference wider cancer patients and postmenopausal women. This specific group has been selected due to its higher osteoporosis risk versus postmenopausal women. Early vitamin D supplementation could help maintain bone health, as well as potentially enhance cancer survival rate. Factors considered for supplementation include daily dose, periodicity, chemical form, administration, and serum levels. Sufficient vitamin D serum levels are recommended to be above 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l). Maintenance oral supplementation equivalent to a minimum daily dosage of 800-1000 IU (20-25 μg) cholecalciferol provided in a daily to monthly bases is preferred, also advised to start with higher dosages when vitamin D serum levels are ng/ml (25 nmol/l). Calcidiol supplementation is more effective, making it advantageous for cases with very low or difficult to raise vitamin D serum levels. PMID:26068240

  6. UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR, ITS RECEPTOR AND INHIBITOR EXPRESSION IN HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA RELATION TO CANCER INVASIVENESS AND PROGNOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Qi; Tang Zhaoyou; Wu Zhiquan; Shi Daren; Tang Huibin; Zhu Yunsong; Song Houyan

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To study the relevance of uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods:The expression at protein level of uPA, uPAR and PAI-1was determined in 48 cases of HCC and 12 cases of benign tumors of liver (as control) by immunohistochemistry.Results: When compared to cancer-adjacent liver tissue and the control, positive rate of immune staining for uPA,uPAR and PAI-1 on cell membrane were significantly higher in HCC cells (P<0.05). Positive staining of uPA and uPAR was seen in 16 of 22 and 19 of 22 cases of HCC with invasion, respectively (P<0.01 and P<0.001). In 8 of 8cases with cancer embolus, and in 6 of 6 cases with lymph node metastasis was the expression of positive uPAR.Compared with 2 of 17 cases without recurrence, uPAR was positive in 15 of 17 recurrent cases (P<0.01). In 36cases who survived, 17 was positive uPAR and 15 positive PAI-1, while in 12 cases who died 2 years after surgery, 12were positive for uPAR and 9 positive PAI-1, respectively (P<0.01 and P<0.05). In 15 positive cases for all three parameters, 11 had cancer invasion and 7 died within 2 years, while in negative cases, 2 had invasion and none died within 2 years (P<0.05). Conclusion: Expression of.uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 is increased in HCC, uPA and uPAR may contribute significantly to HCC invasion and metastasis. uPAR and PAI-1 are associated with poor prognosis of HCC.

  7. Recurrence Incidence in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers and the Importance of Diagnostic Iodine-131 Scintigraphy in Clinical Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Hatipoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC are tumors with good prognosis. However, local recurrence or distant metastasis can be observed. In our study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of recurrence and the importance of diagnostic iodine-131 whole body scan (WBS in clinical follow-up in patients with DTC. Methods: The clinical data of 217 patients with DTC who were followed-up more than 3 years were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of recurrence was investigated in a group of patients who had radioactive iodine (RAI treatment and showed no sign of residual thyroid tissue or metastasis with diagnostic WBS that was performed at 6-12 months after therapy and had a thyroglobulin (Tg level lower than 2 ng/dl. Results: At the time of diagnosis, ten cases had thyroid capsule invasion, 25 cases had extra-thyroid soft tissue invasion, 11 patients showed lymph node metastasis and four patients had distant organ metastasis. One hundred forty-five patients had RAI treatment at ablation dose (75-100 mCi, whereas 35 patients had RAI treatment at metastasis dose (150-200 mCi. Thirty-seven patients with papillary microcarcinoma did not receive RAI treatment. In 12 (%7.5 of the 160 patients who were considered as “successful ablation”, a recurrence was identified. Recurrence was detected by diagnostic WBS in all cases and stimulated Tg level was <2 ng/dL with the exception of the two cases who had distant metastasis. Conclusion: Identification of pathological findings with WBS in patients who developed local recurrence in the absence of elevated Tg highlights the importance of diagnostic WBS in clinical follow-up.

  8. Occurrence and Prognosis of Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Colorectal Cancer Surgery Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Keun-Myoung; Won, Yong Sung; Kim, Jang Yong; Lee, Jin Kwon; Kim, Jun Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Jung, Sang Seol; Kang, Won Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high risk for postoperative thromboembolic complications such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to other surgical diseases, but the relationship between VTE and CRC in Asian patients remains poorly understood. The present study examined the incidence of symptomatic VTE in Korean patients who underwent surgery for CRC. We also identified risk factors, incidence and survival rate for VTE in these patients Materials and Methods: The patients were ide...

  9. The prognosis of incurable cachectic cancer patients on home parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzetti, F; Santarpia, L; Pironi, L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in incurable cachectic cancer patients unable to eat is extremely controversial. The aim of this study is to analyse which factors can influence the outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied prospectively 414 incurable cachectic (sub)obstruc...... survival (possibly longer than that allowed in starvation). The indications for HPN can be modulated on these clinical/biochemical indices....

  10. Prognosis value of MGMT promoter methylation for patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chao; Hua, Haiqing; Han, Chenglong; Cheng, Yuan; Cheng, Yin; Wang, Zhen; Bao, Jutao

    2015-01-01

    The role of MGMT promoter methylation in lung cancer (LC) remains controversial. To clarify the association of MGMT promoter methylation with survival in LC, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature with meta-analysis. Trials were selected for further analysis if they provided an independent assessment of MGMT promoter methylation in LC and reported the survival data in the context of MGMT promoter methylation status. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to the study characteristi...

  11. Composite Biomarkers For Non-invasive Screening, Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Colorectal Cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-09-11

    The present invention concerns particular biomarkers for diagnosing and/or prognosticating colorectal cancer, in particular in a non-invasive manner. The methods and compositions concern analysis of methylation patterns of one or more genes from a set of 29 genes identified as described herein. In certain embodiments, the gene set includes at least P15.INK4b, SST, GAS7, CNRIP1, and PIK3CG.

  12. The Inflammatory-Nutritional Index: assessing nutritional status and prognosis in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Alberici Pastore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the Inflammatory-Nutritional Index (INI in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients. Methods: Longitudinal study, including patients from a chemotherapy service in Brazil, between July 2008 and May 2010. INI (Albumin/CRP and nutritional status (by Subjective Global Assessment - SGA were evaluated. Risk INI was defined as lower than 0.35. The mean follow-up of survival was 1.6 year. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 11.1™. Results: 74 patients participated in the study, mean age 63.4, most of them male (58% and presenting gastrointestinal cancer (71%. Malnutrition was identified in 87% of the patients (22% severely malnourished. The mean INI was 2.67 and 54% of the patients had INI levels considered as risk. During the follow-up there were 49 deaths (66%. The median survival time for INI risk patients was significantly shorter than for normal INI ones (p = 0,002. It took 0.78 year for the INI risk subsample to decline 50%, while it took 2.78 year for the normal INI subsample. INI risk and severe malnutrition were independent predictors for poor survival. Conclusion: The INI showed prognostic capacity in this sample and may be a useful tool, based on routinely available blood tests, to assess cancer patients.

  13. External validation of Adjuvant! Online breast cancer prognosis tool. Prioritising recommendations for improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hajage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjuvant! Online is a web-based application designed to provide 10 years survival probability of patients with breast cancer. Several predictors have not been assessed in the original Adjuvant! Online study. We provide the validation of Adjuvant! Online algorithm on two breast cancer datasets, and we determined whether the accuracy of Adjuvant! Online is improved with other well-known prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The French data set is composed of 456 women with early breast cancer. The Dutch data set is composed of 295 women less than 52 years of age. Agreement between observation and Adjuvant! Online prediction was checked, and logistic models were performed to estimate the prognostic information added by risk factors to Adjuvant! Online prediction. RESULTS: Adjuvant! Online prediction was overall well-calibrated in the French data set but failed in some subgroups of such high grade and HER2 positive patients. HER2 status, Mitotic Index and Ki67 added significant information to Adjuvant! Online prediction. In the Dutch data set, the overall 10-year survival was overestimated by Adjuvant! Online, particularly in patients less than 40 years old. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant! Online needs to be updated to adjust overoptimistic results in young and high grade patients, and should consider new predictors such as Ki67, HER2 and Mitotic Index.

  14. Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon Expression Predicts Poorer Prognosis in Low T-Stage Oral Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Casein kinase 1 is a group of ubiquitous serine/threonine kinases that are involved in normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions, such as DNA repair, cell cycle progression, cytokinesis, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recent studies have indicated that casein kinase 1-epsilon (CK1ε and casein kinase 1-delta (CK1δ expression has a role in human cancers. We investigated the associations between CK1ε and CK1δ expression and the clinical parameters of oral cancer using immunohistochemical study methods on oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens. The results of our immunohistochemical analysis showed that the loss of CK1ε expression was greatly associated with a poor four-year survival rate in oral cancer patients (p = 0.002. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients who had a loss of CK1ε expression had a considerably poorer overall survival rate than patients who had positive CK1ε expressions (p = 0.022. A univariate analysis revealed that patients who had a loss of CK1ε expression had considerably poorer overall survival (OS than patients who had positive expression (p = 0.024, hazard ratio (HR = 1.7. In conclusion, our data indicated that the loss of cytoplasmic CK1ε expression is greatly associated with poor survival and might be an adverse survival factor.

  15. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.;

    2007-01-01

    on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R...

  16. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b improves the prognosis of RANK positive breast cancer patients by inhibiting RANKL-induced cell migration and metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lingyun; Teng, Yuee; Fan, Yibo; Wang, Yan; Li, Wei; Shi, Jing; MA, YANJU; Li, CE; Shi, Xiaonan; Qu, Xiujuan; Liu, Yunpeng

    2015-01-01

    The receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK pathway plays an important role in breast cancer progression. Despite the known role of Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl)-b as an essential regulator of the RANKL/RANK pathway, its effect on RANK pathway in breast cancer remains unclear. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of Cbl-b on the prognosis of RANK-expressing breast cancer patients, as well as on RANKL/RANK pathway. The results showed that RANK and Cbl-b expre...

  17. The diagnostic process of cervical cancer; areas of good practice, and windows of opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.; de Wilde, Marlieke; Duk, M.J.; Graziosi, G.C.M.; van Haaften, Maarten; von Mensdorff-Pouilly, S.; van Diest, Paul J.; Zweemer, RP; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Verheijen, RHM

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite an extensive screening programme in The Netherlands, some cases of cervical cancer are still diagnosed in late stages of disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate which elements in the diagnostic process of cervical cancer may be improved. Methods This is a retrospec

  18. Recent advances in salivary cancer diagnostics enabled by biosensors and bioelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saswat; Saadat, Darius; Kwon, Ohjin; Lee, Yongkuk; Choi, Woon-Seop; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2016-07-15

    There is a high demand for a non-invasive, rapid, and highly accurate tool for disease diagnostics. Recently, saliva based diagnostics for the detection of specific biomarkers has drawn significant attention since the sample extraction is simple, cost-effective, and precise. Compared to blood, saliva contains a similar variety of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota that can be compiled into a multiplex of cancer detection markers. The salivary diagnostic method holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics without any complicated and expensive procedures. Here, we review various cancer biomarkers in saliva and compare the biomarkers efficacy with traditional diagnostics and state-of-the-art bioelectronics. We summarize biomarkers in four major groups: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics/microbiota. Representative bioelectronic systems for each group are summarized based on various stages of a cancer. Systematic study of oxidative stress establishes the relationship between macromolecules and cancer biomarkers in saliva. We also introduce the most recent examples of salivary diagnostic electronics based on nanotechnologies that can offer rapid, yet highly accurate detection of biomarkers. A concluding section highlights areas of opportunity in the further development and applications of these technologies. PMID:26946257

  19. Molecular Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer: Novel Potential Indicators of Prognosis and Treatment Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Masayoshi Nagata; Satoru Muto; Shigeo Horie

    2016-01-01

    Although many clinical and molecular markers for predicting outcomes in bladder cancer (BC) have been reported, their application in clinical practice remains unclear. Bladder carcinogenesis has two distinct molecular pathways that direct the development of BC. FGFR3 mutations are common in low-grade BC, while TP53 mutation or loss of RB1 is associated with muscle-invasive BC. However, no tissue-based gene markers confirmed by prospective large-scale trials in BC have been used in clinical pr...

  20. Peculiarities of carcinomatous pleurisies in breast cancer (cytological diagnostic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Grigoruk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific features of carcinomatous pleurisies were studied in 119 patients with breast cancer (BC. The most characteristic properties of the structure of cells and the composition of pleural fluid were noted in infiltrating ductal and lobular BC. A differential diagnosis was made between mesothelioma (17% and ovarian cancer (25%; it was difficult to perform it in lobular cancer.

  1. Applying a radiomics approach to predict prognosis of lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaminejad, Nastaran; Yan, Shiju; Wang, Yunzhi; Qian, Wei; Guan, Yubao; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Radiomics is an emerging technology to decode tumor phenotype based on quantitative analysis of image features computed from radiographic images. In this study, we applied Radiomics concept to investigate the association among the CT image features of lung tumors, which are either quantitatively computed or subjectively rated by radiologists, and two genomic biomarkers namely, protein expression of the excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) genes and a regulatory subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM1), in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) of lung cancer patients after surgery. An image dataset involving 94 patients was used. Among them, 20 had cancer recurrence within 3 years, while 74 patients remained DFS. After tumor segmentation, 35 image features were computed from CT images. Using the Weka data mining software package, we selected 10 non-redundant image features. Applying a SMOTE algorithm to generate synthetic data to balance case numbers in two DFS ("yes" and "no") groups and a leave-one-case-out training/testing method, we optimized and compared a number of machine learning classifiers using (1) quantitative image (QI) features, (2) subjective rated (SR) features, and (3) genomic biomarkers (GB). Data analyses showed relatively lower correlation among the QI, SR and GB prediction results (with Pearson correlation coefficients 0.5). Among them, using QI yielded the highest performance.

  2. A Pilot Study on the Potential of RNA-Associated to Urinary Vesicles as a Suitable Non-Invasive Source for Diagnostic Purposes in Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Amparo; Loizaga, Ana; Arceo, Raquel; Lacasa, Isabel; Rabade, Ainara [Urology Service, Basurto University Hospital, Bilbao 48013, Bizkaia (Spain); Zorroza, Kerman [Basque Foundation for Health Innovation and Research (BIOEF), DNA Laboratory, Basurto Hospital, Bilbao 48013, Bizkaia (Spain); Mosen-Ansorena, David [Genome Analysis Platform, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, Bizkaia Technology Park, Derio 48160, Bizkaia (Spain); Gonzalez, Esperanza [Metabolomics Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, Bizkaia Technology Park, Derio 48160, Bizkaia (Spain); Aransay, Ana M. [Genome Analysis Platform, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, Bizkaia Technology Park, Derio 48160, Bizkaia (Spain); Falcon-Perez, Juan M. [Metabolomics Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, Bizkaia Technology Park, Derio 48160, Bizkaia (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao 48011, Bizkaia (Spain); Unda-Urzaiz, Miguel [Urology Service, Basurto University Hospital, Bilbao 48013, Bizkaia (Spain); Royo, Felix, E-mail: froyo.ciberehd@cicbiogune.es [Metabolomics Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, Bizkaia Technology Park, Derio 48160, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2014-01-22

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers and, together with prostate carcinoma, accounts for the majority of the malignancies of the genitourinary tract. Since prognosis ameliorates with early detection, it will be beneficial to have a repertoire of diagnostic markers that could complement the current diagnosis protocols. Recently, cell-secreted extracellular vesicles have received great interest as a source of low invasive disease biomarkers because they are found in many body fluids, including urine. The current work describes a pilot study to generate an array-based catalogue of mRNA associated to urinary vesicles, and also a comparison with samples obtained from bladder cancer patients. After an analysis of presence/absence of transcripts in bladder cancer EVs, a list of genes was selected for further validation using PCR technique. We found four genes differentially expressed in cancer samples. LASS2 and GALNT1 were present in cancer patients, while ARHGEF39 and FOXO3 were found only in non-cancer urinary vesicles. Previous studies have pointed to the involvement of those genes in tumour progression and metastasis.

  3. Intra-tumour IgA1 is common in cancer and is correlated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welinder, Charlotte; Jirström, Karin; Lehn, Sophie; Nodin, Björn; Marko-Varga, György; Blixt, Ola; Danielsson, Lena; Jansson, Bo

    2016-08-01

    A high frequency of IgA1-positive tumour cells was found in tissue micro-arrays of oesophagus, colon, testis, lung, breast, bladder and ovarian cancer. IgA1 was observed in the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. A correlation was found between intra-tumour IgA1 and poor overall survival in a large cohort of bladder cancer patients (n = 99, p = 0.011, log-rank test). The number of IgA1-positive tumour cells was also found to be higher in female than male bladder cancer patients. The presence of IgA1 was confirmed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ovarian carcinoma samples using LC-MS/MS analysis. Uptake of IgA1 was also observed in breast cancer and melanoma cell lines when cultivated in the presence of serum from healthy individuals, indicating a possible origin of the IgA1 antibodies in cancer cells. PMID:27579449

  4. Diagnostic and treatment pathways for men with prostate cancer in Queensland: investigating spatial and demographic inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Baade Peter D; Aitken Joanne F; Ferguson Megan; Gardiner Robert A; Chambers Suzanne K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Patterns of diagnosis and management for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Queensland, Australia, have not yet been systematically documented and so assumptions of equity are untested. This longitudinal study investigates the association between prostate cancer diagnostic and treatment outcomes and key area-level characteristics and individual-level demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods/Design A total of 1064 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between...

  5. Salivary apoptotic cells in oral (pre-) cancer as a potential diagnostic means

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Jasdeep; Politis, Constantinus; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is a genetically programmed form of cell death which is indispensable for development and homeostasis of multi-cellular organism. Objectives The aim of this study was to find out the salivary apoptotic cells in oral precancerous and cancerous patients and furthermore to observe the potential diagnostic value of salivary apoptotic cells in detection of oral pre-cancer and cancer. Material and Methods Unsimulated saliva was collected from a group of 103 subjects diagnosed w...

  6. Time trends in incidence and prognosis of primary liver cancer and liver metastases of unknown origin in a Danish region, 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Jepsen, Peter; Jacobsen, Jacob;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Changes, over the last 20 years, in the diagnostic procedures and treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC) and liver metastases of unknown origin (LMUO) may have affected the clinical course of both cancers. Few longitudinal studies examined this issue. In a population-based setting, we...

  7. A CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ma

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous disease with no definitive prognostic markers. As a major component of tight junctions, claudins (CLDNs presumably play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between the expression of CLDNs and the clinical outcomes of TNBCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical specimens of primary breast tumors from a consecutive cohort of 173 TNBC patients were retrospectively collected. The membranous expression of CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. Then, the associations between CLDN expression, clinicopathological features, and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Positive CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 membrane expression was detected in 44.5%, 54.9%, 76.9%, and 73.4% of the cohort specimens, respectively. A lack of CLDN1 expression was related to only lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014. The rate of CLDN4-positive tumors was significantly increased in tumors of a higher grade (P = 0.003. Importantly, negative CLDN1 expression was associated with worse relapse-free survival (RFS in both lymph node positive (LN+ and negative (LN- cases (both P<0.001. Similarly it was also associated with shorter overall survival (OS(P = 0.003 in LN+ cases; P = 0.018 in LN- cases. In the LN+ subgroup, CLDN2-negative cases had a significantly higher risk of recurrence (P = 0.008. Multivariate analysis revealed that negative CLDN1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for high risk of both recurrence and death (HR 5.529, 95% CI 2.664-11.475, P<0.001; HR 3.459, 95% CI 1.555-7.696, P = 0.002. However, neither CLDN4 nor CLDN7 expression was associated with survival. CONCLUSION: In TNBC, the CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts a high risk of recurrence and death. The absence of CLDN1 expression is strongly suggested to be an independent adverse prognostic factor

  8. Routine radiography does not have a role in the diagnostic evaluation of ambulatory adult febrile neutropenic cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, CSMO; Gietema, JA; Vellenga, E; Daenen, SMGJ; De Bont, ESJM; Kamps, WA; Groen, HJM; van der Jagt, EJ; van der Graaf, WTA

    2003-01-01

    Cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are susceptible to bacterial infections. When an adult patient presents with febrile neutropenia. standard diagnostic care includes physical examination, laboratory diagnostics, chest X-ray (CXR) and sinus radiography. However, the yield of routine radiograp

  9. The influence of goal-directed fluid therapy on the prognosis of elderly patients with hypertension and gastric cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zeng,* Yanzhen Li,* Min Liang, Youguang Gao, Hongda Cai, Caizhu LinDepartment of Anesthesia, the First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: We aimed to investigate the influence of perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT on the prognosis of elderly patients with gastric cancer and hypertension. Methods: Sixty elderly patients (>60 years old with primary hypertension who received gastric cancer radical surgery and who were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class II or III were enrolled in the current study. Selected patients were divided randomly into two arms, comprising a conventional intraoperative fluid management arm (arm C, n=30 and a GDFT arm (arm G, n=30. Patients in arm C were infused with crystalloids or colloids according to the methods of Miller’s Anesthesia (6th edition, while those in arm G were infused with 200 mL hydroxyethyl starch over 15 minutes under the FloTrac/Vigileo monitoring system, with stroke volume variation between 8% and 13%. Hemodynamics and tissue perfusion laboratory indicators in patients were recorded continuously from 30 minutes before the operation to 24 hours after the operation. Results: Compared with arm C, the average intraoperative intravenous infusion quantity in arm G was significantly reduced (2,732±488 mL versus 3,135±346 mL, P<0.05, whereas average colloid fluid volume was significantly increased (1,235±360 mL versus 760±280 mL, P<0.05. In addition, there were more patients exhibiting intraoperatively and postoperatively stable hemodynamics and less patients with low blood pressure in arm G. Postoperative complications were less frequent, and the time of postoperative hospital stay shorter, in arm G. No significant differences were observed in mortality between the two arms.Conclusion: Our research showed that GDFT stabilized perioperative hemodynamics and reduced the

  10. ISG15 predicts poor prognosis and promotes cancer stem cell phenotype in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ping; Wang, Hong-Bo; Liang, Fa-Ya; Feng, Guo-Kai; Zhou, Ai-Jun; Cai, Mu-Yan; Zhong, Qian; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Huang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), the first identified ubiquitin-like protein, is known for its anti-viral capacity. However, its role in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, using RNA-seq profiling analysis, we identified ISG15 as a differentially expressed gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and validated its overexpression in NPC samples and cells. High ISG15 levels in NPC tissues were correlated with more frequent local recurrence and shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. ISG15 overexpression promoted a cancer stem cell phenotype in NPC cells, including increased colony and tumorsphere formation abilities, pluripotency-associated genes expression, and in vivo tumorigenicity. By contrast, knockdown of ISG15 attenuated stemness characteristics in NPC cells. Furthermore, overexpression of ISG15 increased NPC cell resistance to radiation and cisplatin (DDP) treatment. Our study demonstrates a protumor role of ISG15, and suggests that ISG15 is a prognostic predictor and a potential therapeutic target for NPC. PMID:26919245

  11. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer with Extrathyroidal Extension: Prognosis and the Role of External Beam Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Sia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed to identify variables that affected cause-specific survival (CSS and local relapse-free rate (LRFR in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC and extrathyroid extension (ETE and to examine the role of external beam radiotherapy (XRT. Prognostic factors were similar to those found in studies of all patients with DTC. In patients with postoperative gross residual disease treated with radiotherapy, 10-year CSS and LRFR were 48% and 90%. For patients with no residual or microscopic disease, 10-year CSS and LRFR were 92% and 93%. In patients older than 60 years with T3 ETE but no gross residual disease postoperatively there was an improved LRFR at 5 years of 96%, compared to 87.5% without XRT (P=.02. Patients with gross ETE benefit from XRT and there may be a potential benefit in reducing locoregional failure in patients over 60 years with minimal extrathyroidal extension (T3.

  12. Prognosis for Mammographically Occult, Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conservation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare mammographically occult (MamOcc) and mammographically positive (MamPos) early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT), to analyze differences between the two cohorts. Methods and Materials: Our two cohorts consisted of 214 MamOcc and 2168 MamPos patients treated with BCT. Chart reviews were conducted to assess mammogram reports and method of detection. All clinical-pathologic and outcome parameters were analyzed to detect differences between the two cohorts. Results: Median follow-up was 7 years. There were no differences in final margins, T stage, nodal status, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, or 'triple-negative' status. Significant differences included younger age at diagnosis (p o histology (p < 0.0001). At 10 years, the differences in overall survival, cause-specific survival, and distant relapse between the two groups did not differ significantly. The MamOcc cohort had more breast relapses (15% vs. 8%; p = 0.0357), but on multivariate analysis this difference was not significant (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.993-1.007, p = 0.9296). Breast relapses were mammographically occult in 32% of the MamOcc and 12% of the MamPos cohorts (p = 0.0136). Conclusions: Although our study suggests that there are clinical-pathologic variations for the MamOcc cohort vs. MamPos patients that may ultimately affect management, breast relapse after BCT was not significantly different. Breast recurrences were more often mammographically occult in the MamOcc cohort; consideration should be given to closer follow-up and alternative imaging strategies (ultrasound, breast MRI) for routine posttreatment examination. To our knowledge, this represents the largest series addressing the prognostic significance of MamOcc cancers treated with BCT.

  13. Patterns and prognosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer following multidisciplinary treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhao; Chang-Zheng Du; Ying-Shi Sun; Jin Gu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the patterns and decisive prognostic factors for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with a multidisciplinary team (MDT) modality.METHODS:Ninety patients with local recurrence were studied,out of 1079 consecutive rectal cancer patients who underwent curative surgery from 1999 to 2007.For each patient,the recurrence pattern was assessed by specialist radiologists from the MDT using imaging,and the treatment strategy was decided after discussion by the MDT.The associations between clinicopathological factors and long-term outcomes were evaluated using both univariate and multivariate analysis.RESULTS:The recurrence pattern was classified as follows:Twenty-seven (30%) recurrent tumors were evaluated as axial type,21 (23.3%) were anterior type,8 (8.9%) were posterior type,and 13 (25.6%) were lateral type.Forty-one patients had tumors that were evaluated as resectable by the MDT and ultimately received surgery,and R0 resection was achieved in 36 (87.8%) of these patients.The recurrence pattern was closely associated with resectability and R0 resection rate (P < 0.001).The recurrence pattern,interval to recurrence,and RO resection were significantly associated with 5-year survival rate in univariate analysis.Multivariate analysis showed that the R0 resection was the unique independent factor affecting long-term survival.CONCLUSION:The MDT modality improves patient selection for surgery by enabling accurate classification of the recurrence pattern; RO resection is the most significant factor affecting long-term survival.

  14. Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV activity is correlated with colorectal cancer prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Larrinaga

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (EC 3.4.14.5 (DPPIV is a serine peptidase involved in cell differentiation, adhesion, immune modulation and apoptosis, functions that control neoplastic transformation. Previous studies have demonstrated altered expression and activity of tissue and circulating DPPIV in several cancers and proposed its potential usefulness for early diagnosis in colorectal cancer (CRC.The activity and mRNA and protein expression of DPPIV was prospectively analyzed in adenocarcinomas, adenomas, uninvolved colorectal mucosa and plasma from 116 CRC patients by fluorimetric, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods. Results were correlated with the most important classic pathological data related to aggressiveness and with 5-year survival rates. Results showed that: 1 mRNA levels and activity of DPPIV increased in colorectal neoplasms (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.01; 2 Both adenomas and CRCs displayed positive cytoplasmic immunostaining with luminal membrane reinforcement; 3 Plasmatic DPPIV activity was lower in CRC patients than in healthy subjects (Mann-U test, p<0.01; 4 Plasmatic DPPIV activity was associated with worse overall and disease-free survivals (log-rank p<0.01, Cox analysis p<0.01.1 Up-regulation of DPPIV in colorectal tumors suggests a role for this enzyme in the neoplastic transformation of colorectal tissues. This finding opens the possibility for new therapeutic targets in these patients. 2 Plasmatic DPPIV is an independent prognostic factor in survival of CRC patients. The determination of DPPIV activity levels in the plasma may be a safe, minimally invasive and inexpensive way to define the aggressiveness of CRC in daily practice.

  15. Plasmacytoid variant of bladder cancer defines patients with poor prognosis if treated with cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keck Bastian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the definition of different histologic subtypes of urothelial carcinomas by the World Health Organization (WHO 2004 classification, description of molecular features and clinical behavior of these variants has gained more attention. Methods We reviewed 205 tumor samples of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer mainly treated within the randomized AUO-AB05/95 trial with radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy for histologic subtypes. 178 UC, 18 plasmacytoid (PUC and 9 micropapillary (MPC carcinomas of the bladder were identified. Kaplan Meier analysis and backward multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to compare overall survival between the three histologic subtypes. Results Patients suffering from PUC have the worst clinical outcome regarding overall survival compared to conventional UC and MPC of the bladder that in turn seem have to best clinical outcome (27.4 months, 62.6 months, and 64.2 months, respectively; p=0.013 by Kaplan Meier analysis. Backward multivariate Cox´s proportional hazards regression analysis (adjusted to relevant clinicopathological parameters showed a hazard ratio of 3.2 (p=0.045 for PUC in contrast to patients suffering from MPC. Conclusions Histopathological diagnosis of rare variants of urothelial carcinoma can identify patients with poor prognosis.

  16. Polymorphisms in the RANK/RANKL Genes and Their Effect on Bone Specific Prognosis in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK pathway is involved in bone health as well as breast cancer (BC pathogenesis and progression. Whereas the therapeutic implication of this pathway is established for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone metastases, the application in adjuvant BC is currently investigated. As genetic variants in this pathway have been described to influence bone health, aim of this study was the prognostic relevance of genetic variants in RANK and RANKL. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in RANK(L (rs1054016/rs1805034/rs35211496 were genotyped and analyzed with regard to bone metastasis-free survival (BMFS, disease-free survival, and overall survival for a retrospective cohort of 1251 patients. Cox proportional hazard models were built to examine the prognostic influence in addition to commonly established prognostic factors. The SNP rs1054016 seems to influence BMFS. Patients with two minor alleles had a more favorable prognosis than patients with at least one common allele (HR 0.37 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.84, whereas other outcome parameters remained unaffected. rs1805034 and rs35211496 had no prognostic relevance. The effect of rs1054016(RANKL adds to the evidence that the RANK pathway plays a role in BC pathogenesis and progression with respect to BMFS, emphasizing the connection between BC and bone health.

  17. Plasmacytoid variant of bladder cancer defines patients with poor prognosis if treated with cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the definition of different histologic subtypes of urothelial carcinomas by the World Health Organization (WHO) 2004 classification, description of molecular features and clinical behavior of these variants has gained more attention. We reviewed 205 tumor samples of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer mainly treated within the randomized AUO-AB05/95 trial with radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy for histologic subtypes. 178 UC, 18 plasmacytoid (PUC) and 9 micropapillary (MPC) carcinomas of the bladder were identified. Kaplan Meier analysis and backward multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to compare overall survival between the three histologic subtypes. Patients suffering from PUC have the worst clinical outcome regarding overall survival compared to conventional UC and MPC of the bladder that in turn seem have to best clinical outcome (27.4 months, 62.6 months, and 64.2 months, respectively; p=0.013 by Kaplan Meier analysis). Backward multivariate Cox´s proportional hazards regression analysis (adjusted to relevant clinicopathological parameters) showed a hazard ratio of 3.2 (p=0.045) for PUC in contrast to patients suffering from MPC. Histopathological diagnosis of rare variants of urothelial carcinoma can identify patients with poor prognosis

  18. Reduced Expression of TFF1 and Increased Expression of TFF3 in Gastric Cancer: Correlation with Clinicopathological Parameters and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Im, Changyoung Yoo, Ji-Han Jung, Hyun Joo Choi, Jinyoung Yoo, Chang Suk Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The trefoil factor family (TFF is composed of three thermostable, and protease-resistant proteins, named TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3, and plays a role in gastrointestinal mucosal defence and repair. Recently, TFFs have been found to be related to the development of various types of cancer. This study assessed the relationship between the expression of TFF1 and TFF3 and the clinicopathological parameters in gastric carcinoma (GC. Materials and Methods: The expression of TFF1 and TFF3 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 292 GCs and 20 normal gastric tissues. Results: All normal gastric tissues expressed TFF1, but 53.8% of GCs showed reduced TFF1 expression. However, TFF3 was not detected in normal gastric tissues and 44.2% of GCs showed a high level of expression. Highly expressed TFF3 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, vein invasion, and advanced stage. The overall survival was shorter in patients with high expression of TFF3 than in those with low expression of TFF3 in 292 GCs and in 125 early GCs (EGCs. Moreover, in patients with EGCs, high expression of TFF3, associated with reduced expression of TFF1, was determined as an independent poor prognostic marker. Conclusions: Reduced expression of TFF1 and increased expression of TFF3 may play a role in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. Furthermore, high expression of TFF3 with reduced expression of TFF1 may be a marker of poor prognosis for patients with EGC.

  19. The Significance of Molecular Classification in Breast Cancer for Prognosis%乳腺癌分子分型对乳腺癌预后的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会东

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular classification and prognosis of breast cancer and the relationship between . Methods Retrospective analysis of 316 cases of female primary breast cancer patients with the clinical pathological ,average age 54.5 years.According to estrogen receptor (ER),pregnancy hormone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2) immu-nohistochemical findings,breast cancer types as type Luminal A ,type Luminal B,triple-negative and HER2 positive type,differences in mo-lecular classification of breast cancer prognosis were observed ,various types of patients with postoperative disease -free survival were com-pared.Results The patients were followed up for 5~124 months,a median follow-up time of 58 months,32 patients had recurrence of metas-tasis or death,the single factor analysis showed that the breast cancer disease free survival and molecular types had relation .Conclusion The molecular classification of breast cancer accurately reflects the prognosis of breast cancer .Type Luminal has the best prognosis ,while triple-negative has the worst prognosis .%  目的 探讨乳腺癌分子分型与预后之间的关系。方法 回顾性分析316例原发性乳腺癌患者的临床病理资料,患者均为女性,平均年龄54.5岁。根据雌激素受体(ER)、孕激素受体(PR)及人类表皮生长因子受体2(HER2)的免疫组织化学结果,乳腺癌分型为Luminal A型、Luminal B型、三阴型及 HER2阳性型,观察不同分子分型乳腺癌的预后,比较各型患者术后的无病生存期。结果 随访5~124个月,中位随访时间58个月,32例患者复发转移或死亡,单因素分析示乳腺癌无病生存期与分子分型有关。结论 乳腺癌的分子分型能够准确反映乳腺癌的预后,Luminal型预后最好,而三阴型预后最差。

  20. Existential Anxiety in Diagnostic Process of Genital Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Hallac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning to have a cancer diagnosis is a concrete threat and a stressful life experience for individuals. Cancer is interpreted as fatal, painful, frightening and scary disease by the patients and makes them realize the presence of death and their own mortality. Facing the reality of death brings an existential questioning of self. This questioning is directly related to the interpretation and biopsychosocial characteristics of the individual and clearly influenced by the patients’ previous experiences and type of cancer involved. The occurrence of a genital organ cancer would lead patient to evaluate the meaning of being human and review his life, his values and his routine habits. This process has significant effect upon the patient’s response and coping mechanisms with cancer. Nurses have a unique position among medical team members for helping such patients to find a meaning in their life by providing necessary support at every stage of the cancer.

  1. Tumor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in hormone-independent breast cancer might originate in stromal cells, and improves stratification of prognosis together with nodal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvaja, P; Hulkkonen, S; Pasanen, I; Soini, Y; Lehtonen, S; Talvensaari-Mattila, A; Pääkkö, P; Kaakinen, M; Autio-Harmainen, H; Hurskainen, T; Lehenkari, P; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, T

    2012-06-10

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is shown to be a potential marker for poor prognosis in breast cancer, but the biology of TIMP-1 is only partially understood. In this study, TIMP-1 production was studied in a co-culture model of hormone-independent breast cancer cell lines and mesenchymal stem cells mimicking the stromal components of the tumor. In addition, the prognostic value of TIMP-1 was histologically evaluated in a clinical material of 168 patients with hormone-independent breast tumors. The hormone-independent breast cancer (BC) cell lines MDA-MB-231, M4A4 and NM2C5 did not produce TIMP-1 protein in measureable quantities. Six tested primary mesenchymal stem cell lines all produced TIMP-1. Co-culturing of mesenchymal stem cells and breast cancer cells resulted in positive immunocytochemical diffuse staining for TIMP-1 for both cell types. Culturing breast cancer cells with MSC-conditioned media resulted in a positive cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TIMP-1, and TIMP-1 protein concentration in cell lysates increased 2.7-fold (range 1.1-4.7). The TIMP-1 mRNA levels remained unaffected in BC cells. This might suggest that breast cancer cells can take up TIMP-1 produced by stromal cells and are thus displaying cellular immunoreactivity. In addition, TIMP-1 was shown to improve stratification of prognosis in clinical material. PMID:22465225

  2. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers MB

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meagan B Myers Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer. Keywords: HER2, precision medicine, in vitro diagnostics, estrogen receptor, multigene assay

  3. Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sachiko; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Otani, Chiko; Miyoshi, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz spectroscopic images of paraffin-embedded cancer tissues have been measured by a terahertz time domain spectrometer. For the systematic identification of cancer tumors, the principal component analysis and the clustering analysis were applied. In three of the four samples, the cancer tissue was recognized as an aggregate of the data points in the principal component plots. By the agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the data points were well categorized into cancer and the other tissues. This method can be also applied to various kinds of automatic discrimination of plural components by terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

  4. Immunohistochemical profile in estimation of biological properties and prognosis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shponka I.S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic value of markers of biological properties of breast cancer (BC, their age-dependent and mutual correlations are finally not determined. The purpose of our study was to determine the dependence of expression of prognostic markers (ER, PgR, HER-2/neu, pS2, р53, VEGF, Кі-67, bcl-2 on age and presence of metastases at BC in women, to find the cross-correlations in groups with and without metastases. From data of statistical analysis (criterion of χ2, all of markers are thought to be used as prognostic of metastasis risk with the high level of reliability at patients of different age. The exceptions were ER and PgR in group before 35 years, ER - in group 35-50 years. Only for the ER and PgR an increase of expression with age was observed: for expression of ER a difference was reliable in groups 35-50 and above 50 years, in groups before 35 years and after 50 years; for PgR - between groups 35-50 years and above 50 years. The expression of markers of р53 and Кі-67 showed the reliable difference in groups with the presence of metastases, regardless of age. The last are most reliable as prognostic for the group before 35 years. Cross-correlations between expression of markers which depended on age and/or metastasis were determined.

  5. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b improves the prognosis of RANK positive breast cancer patients by inhibiting RANKL-induced cell migration and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyun; Teng, Yuee; Fan, Yibo; Wang, Yan; Li, Wei; Shi, Jing; Ma, Yanju; Li, Ce; Shi, Xiaonan; Qu, Xiujuan; Liu, Yunpeng

    2015-09-01

    The receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK pathway plays an important role in breast cancer progression. Despite the known role of Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl)-b as an essential regulator of the RANKL/RANK pathway, its effect on RANK pathway in breast cancer remains unclear. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of Cbl-b on the prognosis of RANK-expressing breast cancer patients, as well as on RANKL/RANK pathway. The results showed that RANK and Cbl-b expression was separately detected in 154 (154/300, 51.3%) and 165 (165/300, 55.0%) breast cancer tissue samples. In RANK-expressing breast cancer patients, Cbl-b expression was correlated with low metastasis rate (p = 0.004), better disease-free survival (DFS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) (p = 0.004 and p = 0.036, respectively). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that Cbl-b expression was an independent predictor of DFS (p = 0.038). Animal experiment results demonstrated that silencing Cbl-b expression in breast cancer cells increased the incidence of lung metastasis in nude mice. Further mechanism investigation revealed that Cbl-b down-regulated RANK protein expression and inhibited RANKL-induced breast cancer cell migration by negatively regulating the Src-Akt/ERK pathway. Our results suggest that Cbl-b improves the prognosis of RANK-expressing breast cancer patients by inhibiting RANKL-induced breast cancer cell migration and metastasis. PMID:26087197

  6. Decreased intratumoral Foxp3 Tregs and increased dendritic cell density by neoadjuvant chemotherapy associated with favorable prognosis in advanced gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Min; Li, Kai; Maskey, Ninu; Xu, Zhigao; Peng, Chunwei; Wang, Bicheng; Li, Yan; Yang, Guifang

    2014-01-01

    Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has been increasingly used to improve the outcome of advanced gastric cancer (GC) for decades, its precise efficacy has been difficult to evaluate yet. Abundant studies have investigated the predictive factors that represent the effect of NACT on advanced GC. In the present study, the intratumoral infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and dendritic cells (DCs) response to NACT in advanced GC and their correlation with prognosis were evaluated. Inf...

  7. Variations in Serum CEA and CYFRA21-1 Levels Before and After Surgery Facilitate Prognosis of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Xinchun DUAN; Cui, Yong; Gong, Min; Tian, Feng; Guan SHI; Wu, Bingqun; Liu, Mingliang; Jiayun GUO; Kong, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and the soluble fragment of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1) are important tumor markers (TMs) in the preoperative examination of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic role of these markers in NSCLC patients remains controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical significance of serum CEA variances and CYFRA21-1 levels for the prognosis of NSCLC patients following surgery. Methods T...

  8. Increased serum levels of tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor independently predict a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an insufficient number of reliable prognostic and response predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer (CRC) management. In a previous study, we found that high tumour tissue expression of tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) correlated with liver metastasis and an impaired prognosis in CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic validity of serum TATI (s-TATI) in CRC. We further assessed the prognostic value of carcino-embryonic antigen in serum (s-CEA) and the interrelationship between s-TATI and TATI in tissue (t-TATI). Using an immunofluorometric assay, s-TATI levels were analysed in 334 preoperatively collected serum samples from patients with CRC. Spearman's Rho and Chi-square test were used for analysis of correlations between s-TATI and clinicopathological parameters, s-CEA and t-TATI. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox uni- and multivariate regression analysis were used to estimate disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) according to quartiles of s-TATI and cut-offs derived from ROC-analysis of s-TATI and s-CEA. Increased levels of s-TATI were associated with a reduced DFS (HR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.40-2.84, P < 0.001) and OS (HR = 2.40; 95% CI 1.74-3.33, P < 0.001). (HR = 2.89; 95% CI 1.96-4.25). This association remained significant in multivariate analysis. The association for OS remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.03-2.22, P = 0.034 for DFS and HR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.25-2.53, P = 0.001 for OS). There was no significant association between s-TATI and t-TATI. The prognostic value of s-CEA was also evident, but somewhat weaker than for s-TATI. High preoperative s-TATI levels predict a poor prognosis in patients with CRC, and the prognostic value is independent of established prognostic parameters and t-TATI expression. These data suggest that s-TATI might be a useful marker for prognostic stratification in CRC

  9. Prognosis of R1-resection at the bronchial stump in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lyu Jima; Hao Xuezhi; Hui Zhouguang; Liang Jun; Zhou Zongmei; Feng Qinfu; Xiao Zefen

    2014-01-01

    Background The prognosis of R1-resection at the bronchial stump in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear.This study intends to identify the prognostic factors and to optimize treatments for these patients under update conditions.Methods The data of 124 NSCLC patients who underwent R1-resection at the bronchial stump was reviewed.There were 41 patients in the surgery group (S),21 in the postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) group (S+R),30 in the postoperative chemotherapy (POCT) group (S+C),and 32 in the PORT plus POCT group (S+R+C).The constitute proportion in different groups was tested using the X2 method,univariate analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank method,and multivariate analysis was done using the Cox hazard regression with entry factors including age,sex,pathological type and stage,classification of the residual disease,and treatment procedure.The process was performed stepwise backward with a maximum iteration of 20 and an entry possibility of 0.05 as well as an excluded possibility of 0.10 at each step.Results In univariate analysis,survival was more favorable for patients with squamous cell carcinoma,early pathological T or N stage,and chemotherapy or radiotherapy.There was no significant difference in the survival for patients with different types of the residual disease,except for the difference between patients with carcinoma in situ and lymphangiosis carcinomatosa (P=0.030).The survival for patients receiving chemoradiotherapy was superior to that for those undergoing surgery alone (P=0.016).In multivariate analysis,the pathological type (HR 2.51,95% CI 1.59 to 3.96,P=0.000),pathological T (HR 1.29,95% CI 1.04 to 1.60,P=-0.021) or N stage (HR 2.04,95% CI 1.40 to 2.98,P=0.000),and chemotherapy (HR 0.24,95% CI 0.13 to 0.43,P=0.000) were independent prognostic factors.Conclusion Patients with squamous cell carcinoma,early pathological T or N stage,or receiving chemotherapy had a more favorable

  10. A decision-analytic approach to define poor prognosis patients: a case study for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyerberg Ewout W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification systems may be useful to direct more aggressive treatment to cancer patients with a relatively poor prognosis. The definition of 'poor prognosis' often lacks a formal basis. We propose a decision analytic approach to weigh benefits and harms explicitly to define the treatment threshold for more aggressive treatment. This approach is illustrated by a case study in advanced testicular cancer, where patients with a high risk of mortality under standard treatment may be eligible for high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support, which is currently defined by the IGCC classification. Methods We used published literature to estimate the benefit and harm of high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT versus standard-dose chemotherapy (SD-CT for patients with advanced non-seminomatous germ cell cancer. Benefit and harm were defined as the reduction and increase in absolute risk of mortality due to HD-CT respectively. Harm included early and late treatment related death, and treatment related morbidity (weighted by 'utility'. Results We considered a conservative and an optimistic benefit of 30 and 40% risk reduction respectively. We estimated the excess treatment related mortality at 2%. When treatment related morbidity was taken into account, the harm of HD-CT increased to 5%. With a relative benefit of 30% and harm of 2 or 5%, HD-CT might be beneficial for patients with over 7 or 17% risk of cancer specific mortality with SD chemotherapy, while with a relative benefit of 40% HD-CT was beneficial over 5 and 12.5% risk respectively. Compared to the IGCC classification 14% of the patients would receive more aggressive treatment, and 2% less intensive treatment. Conclusion Benefit and harm can be used to define 'poor prognosis' explicitly for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients who are considered for high-dose chemotherapy. This approach can readily be adapted to new results and extended to other cancers to define candidates for

  11. Alcohol consumption and colon cancer prognosis among participants in north central cancer treatment group phase III trial N0147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Limburg, Paul J; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Sinicrope, Frank A; Chan, Emily; Gill, Sharlene; Goldberg, Richard M; Kahlenberg, Morton; Nair, Suresh; Shields, Anthony F; Newcomb, Polly A; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a modest increased risk of colon cancer, but its relationship with colon cancer survival has not been elucidated. Using data from a phase III randomized adjuvant trial, we assessed the association of alcohol consumption with colon cancer outcomes. Patients completed a risk factor questionnaire before randomization to FOLFOX or FOLFOX + cetuximab (N = 1984). Information was collected on lifestyle factors, including smoking, physical activity and consumption of different types of alcohol. Cox models assessed the association between alcohol consumption and outcomes of disease-free survival (DFS), time-to-recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), adjusting for age, sex, study arm, body mass, smoking, physical activity and performance status. No statistically significant difference in outcomes between ever and never drinkers were noted [hazard ratio (HR)DFS  = 0.86, HRTTR  = 0.87, HROS  = 0.86, p-values = 0.11-0.17]. However, when considering alcohol type, ever consumers of red wine (n = 628) had significantly better outcomes than never consumers (HRDFS  = 0.80, HRTTR  = 0.81, HROS  = 0.78, p-values = 0.01-0.02). Favorable outcomes were confirmed in patients who consumed 1-30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 601, HR = 0.80-0.83, p-values = 0.03-0.049); there was a suggestion of more favorable outcomes in patients who consumed >30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 27, HR = 0.33-0.38, p-values = 0.05-0.06). Beer and liquor consumption were not associated with outcomes. Although alcohol consumption was not associated with colon cancer outcomes overall, mild to moderate red wine consumption was suggestively associated with longer OS, DFS and TTR in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:27060850

  12. Conditional cancer-specific mortality in T4, N1, or M1 prostate cancer: implications for long-term prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) following a diagnosis of prostate cancer may improve after patients have survived a number of years after diagnosis. We sought to determine long-term conditional PCSM for patients with stage T4, N1, or M1 prostate cancer. We identified 66,817 patients diagnosed with stage IV (T4N0M0, N1M0, or M1) prostate cancer between 1973 and 2011 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Conditional five-year PCSM was evaluated for each group of patients at 5, 10, and 15 years of survival according to the Fine & Gray model for competing risks after adjusting for tumor grade, age, income level, and marital status. Race-stratified analyses were also performed. There were 13,345 patients with T4 disease, 12,450 patients with N1 disease, and 41,022 patients with M1 disease. Median follow-up among survivors in the three groups was 123 months (range: 0–382 months), 61 months (range: 0–410 months), and 30 months (range: 0–370 months), respectively. Conditional PCSM improved in all three groups over time. Among patients with T4 disease, 5-year PCSM improved from 13.9 % at diagnosis to 11.2, 8.1, and 6.5 % conditioned on 5, 10, or 15 years of survival, respectively (p < 0.001 in all cases). In patients with N1 disease, 5-year PCSM increased within the first five years and decreased thereafter, from 18.9 % at diagnosis to 21.4 % (p < 0.001), 17.6 % (p = 0.055), and 13.8 % (p < 0.001), respectively. In patients with metastatic disease, 5-year PCSM improved from 57.2 % at diagnosis to 41.1, 28.8, and 20.8 %, respectively (p < 0.001). White race was associated with a greater increase in conditional survival compared to non-white race among those with T4 or N1 disease. While patients with T4, N1, or M1 prostate cancer are never “cured,” their odds of cancer-specific survival increase substantially after they have survived for 5 or more years. Physicians who take care of patients with prostate cancer

  13. Expression of Survivin, CyclinD1, p21WAF1, Caspase-3 in Cervical Cancer and Its Relation with Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shi; ZHANG Baohua; WANG Zehua

    2005-01-01

    The implications of Survivin, CyclinD1, p21WAF1, Caspase-3 in the development, progression and prognosis in cervical cancer were investigated. By using immunohistochemical SP method, the expression of Survivin, CyclinD1, p21WAF1 , Caspase-3 was detected in 41 cases of cervical cancer, 17 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 10 cases of normal tissues, and their relation with pathological grade, clinical stage, metastasis and survival time was analyzed.The results showed that the positive expression rate of Survivin, CyclinD1 in cervical cancer was significantly higher than in CIN group and normal control group (P<0.05). The median survival time in the patients with cervical cancer positive for Survivin and CyclinD1 was significantly shorter than in those with negative expression (P<0.05). The expression of both Survivin and CyclinD1 was not related with tumor grade, clinical stage and metastasis (P>0. 05). The positive expression rate of p21WAF1 , Caspase-3 in cervical ca rcer was significantly lower than in CIN group and normal control group (P<0.05), and had a close relation with tumor grade (P<0.05). The expression of Survivin in cervical cancer in cervical cancer was negatively associated with that of Caspase-3 (P<0.01), but positively with that of CyclinD1 (P<0.01). Cox Multivariate analysis revealed that Survivin was the independent prognostic indicator influencing the survival time of the patients with cervical cancer (P<0.05). It was suggested that the high expression of Survivin or CyclinD1, and low expression of p21WAF1 or Caspase-3 was closely correlated with the development of cervical cancer. Survivin and CyclinD1 could be used as a useful indicator to predict the prognosis of cervical cancer.

  14. An oligonucleotide-tagged microarray for routine diagnostics of colon cancer by genotyping KRAS mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuliang; Guðnason, Haukur; Li, Yiping;

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent types of cancer, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. CRC is curable if diagnosed at an early stage. Mutations in the oncogene KRAS play a critical role in early development of CRC. Detection of activated KRAS is of diagnostic...... mutations at codon 12 of KRAS derived from cancer cells and clinical samples could be unambiguously detected. KRAS mutations were accurately detected when the mutant DNA was present only in 10% of the starting mixed materials including wild-type genomic DNA, which was isolated from either cancer cells...

  15. Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging (DWIBS in bladder cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponukalin A.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to identify the most characteristic and significant changes in indicators in patients with bladder cancer during diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging (DWIBS. Materials: From September 2009 till 2011 98 patients have been examined (61 (62,24% with morphologically verified bladder cancer and 37 (37,76% with cystitis. Results: The study has revealed that the sensitivity of DWIBS-study in detecting bladder cancer is 98,36%, specificity of 10,81 %, the efficacy of 65,38%. Conclusions: DWIBS is an informative noninvasive method for screening diagnostics of bladder cancer, to identify suspicious areas on regional, and distant metastases

  16. D-Dimer predicts prognosis and non-resectability in patients with pancreatic cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Mogens T; Larsen, Anders C; Sall, Mogens; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole

    2016-07-01

    To examine the impact of plasma D-dimer levels in predicting 3-year survival and nonresectability in pancreatic cancer patients. Ninety-five patients were divided into three groups according to plasma D-dimer levels. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and hazard ratios were computed, and diagnostic indices of D-dimer in the prediction of resectability were assessed. The median survival among patients with low, medium and high D-dimer levels was 13.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.2-19.6], 6.2 (95% CI: 2.0-15.1) and 2.4 months (95% CI: 1.4-3.3), respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio of death in the group of patients with high D-dimer levels was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.2). The positive and negative predictive values of D-dimer in the prediction of nonresectability were 89% (95% CI: 77-96%) and 48% (95% CI: 33- 63%), respectively. An elevated D-dimer level is associated with reduced survival in pancreatic cancer and predicts nonresectability. PMID:27182687

  17. Low Expression of Slit2 and Robo1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Brain-specific Metastasis of Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fengxia; Zhang, Huikun; Ma, Li; Liu, Xiaoli; Dai, Kun; Li, Wenliang; Gu, Feng; Fu, Li; Ma, Yongjie

    2015-09-24

    Brain metastasis is a significant unmet clinical problem in breast cancer treatment. It is always associated with poor prognosis and high morbidity. Recently, Slit2/Robo1 pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in the progression of breast carcinoma. However, until present, there are no convincing reports that suggest whether the Slit2/Robo1 axis has any role in brain metastasis of breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the correlation between Slit2/Robo1 signaling and breast cancer brain metastasis for the first time. Our results demonstrated that (1) Invasive ductal carcinoma patients with low expression of Slit2 or Robo1 exhibited worse prognosis and brain-specific metastasis, but not liver, bone or lung. (2) Lower expression of Slit2 and Robo1 were observed in patients with brain metastasis, especially in their brain metastasis tumors, compared with patients without brain metastasis. (3) The interval from diagnosis of breast cancer to brain metastasis and brain metastasis to death were both much shorter in patients with low expression of Slit2 or Robo1 compared with the high expression group. Overall, our findings indicated that Slit2/Robo1 axis possibly be regarded as a significant clinical parameter for predicting brain metastasis in breast cancer patients.

  18. Net platelet angiogenic activity (NPAA) correlates with progression and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lijuan; Dong, Hang; Luo, Yiqin; Du, Jianping; Hu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Circulating platelets are abundant sources of angiogensis molecules for the tumor vasculature affecting tumor growth and metastasis. The relationship between non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and intra-platelet levels of VEGF, TSP-1 and net platelet angiogenic activity (NPAA) is unclear. The aim of this study was to better understand the role of these factors in the progression of NSCLC cancer and to assess its clinical significance. Platelet VEGF and TSP-1 and NPAA were measured preoperatively in 68 patients with NSCLC by ELISA or Capillary tube formation assay. VEGF, TSP-1 and NPAA distributions in cancer patients and healthy volunteers were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Kaplan-Meier method, univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between these factors and clinicopathological features, overall survival and disease-free survival. Mean intra-platelet TSP-1 level was slightly higher in patients than in healthy subjects (p = 0.092). Intra-platelet TSP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with involvement greater than T2 or stage III, compared to other patients. Mean intra-platelet VEGF level was 40.8 pg/10⁶ in patients compared to 21.9 ng/10⁶ in healthy subjects (p = 0.041). Median value of NPAA in patients was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (pplatelet-derived VEGF. The areas under receiver operating curve (AUROC) of NPAA were higher than that of platelet derived VEGF in different groups. A multivariate analysis showed that NPAA are independent prognostic factors. These results indicated that NPAA may be a clinically useful indicator for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation in NSCLC patients. PMID:24788022

  19. Prognosis and treatment after relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: 1985. A report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleyer, W.A.; Sather, H.; Hammond, G.D.

    1986-07-15

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma constitute 42% to 45% of the cancers in infants, children, and adolescents: In 1985, an estimated 2025 children were newly diagnosed with these two cancers and 900 (43%) of the pediatric cancer deaths in the United States have been projected to be due to these diseases. The single most important obstacle to preventing these deaths is relapse, and prevention of relapse or salvage of the patient who has had a relapse continues to be a major therapeutic challenge. The most important initial step in the treatment of the child whose disease has relapsed is to determine, to the extent possible, the prognosis. In a child with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a relapse confers an extremely poor prognosis, regardless of site of relapse, tumor histology, or other original prognostic factors, prior therapy, or time to relapse. In the child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in relapse, the prognosis depends on multiple factors. The primary therapy is chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy with marrow grafting. Other options exist, including no therapy, or investigational therapy. The therapy selected should be predicated on the prognosis. In the child with an isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse off therapy, minimum therapy should be administered, particularly if the relapse occurred without prior cranial irradiation. In the child whose relapse is more than 6 months off therapy, conventional therapy should be considered. Also, a patient with an isolated CNS relapse on therapy after prior cranial irradiation should be given moderate therapy. Bone marrow transplantation or high-dose chemoradiotherapy with autologous marrow rescue should be reserved in children with a second or subsequent extramedullary relapse, and possibly for those with a first isolated overt testicular relapse on therapy.

  20. Prognosis and treatment after relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: 1985. A report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma constitute 42% to 45% of the cancers in infants, children, and adolescents: In 1985, an estimated 2025 children were newly diagnosed with these two cancers and 900 (43%) of the pediatric cancer deaths in the United States have been projected to be due to these diseases. The single most important obstacle to preventing these deaths is relapse, and prevention of relapse or salvage of the patient who has had a relapse continues to be a major therapeutic challenge. The most important initial step in the treatment of the child whose disease has relapsed is to determine, to the extent possible, the prognosis. In a child with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a relapse confers an extremely poor prognosis, regardless of site of relapse, tumor histology, or other original prognostic factors, prior therapy, or time to relapse. In the child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in relapse, the prognosis depends on multiple factors. The primary therapy is chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy with marrow grafting. Other options exist, including no therapy, or investigational therapy. The therapy selected should be predicated on the prognosis. In the child with an isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse off therapy, minimum therapy should be administered, particularly if the relapse occurred without prior cranial irradiation. In the child whose relapse is more than 6 months off therapy, conventional therapy should be considered. Also, a patient with an isolated CNS relapse on therapy after prior cranial irradiation should be given moderate therapy. Bone marrow transplantation or high-dose chemoradiotherapy with autologous marrow rescue should be reserved in children with a second or subsequent extramedullary relapse, and possibly for those with a first isolated overt testicular relapse on therapy