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Sample records for cancer diagnosis preclinical

  1. Theranostic liposomes for cancer diagnosis and treatment: current development and pre-clinical success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Madaswamy S; Feng, Si-Shen

    2013-02-01

    Liposomes are one of the effective drug delivery systems that are developed based on the nanotechnology concept. Liposomal formulation is the first nanomedicine approved by the US FDA for clinical application. Recently, the marketed liposomes and stealth liposomes have made impact for cancer therapy. In addition, a few receptor-targeted liposome products have been in different phases of clinical trials, which are yet to be marketed. In the present editorial, the advantages of vitamin E TPGS-coated liposomes over the currently available PEG-coated liposomes will be described and their great potentials for nanotheranostics for cancer imaging and therapy will be covered.

  2. Preclinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Prevention or prediction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Nitrini

    Full Text Available Abstract The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD for cases with dementia may be too late to allow effective treatment. Criteria for diagnosis of preclinical AD suggested by the Alzheimer's Association include the use of molecular and structural biomarkers. Preclinical diagnosis will enable testing of new drugs and forms of treatment toward achieving successful preventive treatment. But what are the advantages for the individual? To know that someone who is cognitively normal is probably going to develop AD's dementia when there is no effective preventive treatment is definitely not good news. A research method whereby volunteers are assigned to receive treatment or placebo without knowing whether they are in the control or at-risk arm of a trial would overcome this potential problem. If these new criteria are used wisely they may represent a relevant milestone in the search for a definitive treatment for AD.

  3. Preclinical fluorescent mouse models of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2007-02-01

    Here we describe our cumulative experience with the development and preclinical application of several highly fluorescent, clinically-relevant, metastatic orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer. These models utilize the human pancreatic cancer cell lines which have been genetically engineered to selectively express high levels of the bioluminescent green fluorescent (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP). Fluorescent tumors are established subcutaneously in nude mice, and tumor fragments are then surgically transplanted onto the pancreas. Locoregional tumor growth and distant metastasis of these orthotopic implants occurs spontaneously and rapidly throughout the abdomen in a manner consistent with clinical human disease. Highly specific, high-resolution, real-time visualization of tumor growth and metastasis may be achieved in vivo without the need for contrast agents, invasive techniques, or expensive imaging equipment. We have shown a high correlation between florescent optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging in these models. Alternatively, transplantation of RFP-expressing tumor fragments onto the pancreas of GFP-expressing transgenic mice may be used to facilitate visualization of tumor-host interaction between the pancreatic tumor fragments and host-derived stroma and vasculature. Such in vivo models have enabled us to serially visualize and acquire images of the progression of pancreatic cancer in the live animal, and to demonstrate the real-time antitumor and antimetastatic effects of several novel therapeutic strategies on pancreatic malignancy. These fluorescent models are therefore powerful and reliable tools with which to investigate human pancreatic cancer and therapeutic strategies directed against it.

  4. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  5. GEMMs as preclinical models for testing pancreatic cancer therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarthi Gopinathan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common form of pancreatic tumour, with a very limited survival rate and currently no available disease-modifying treatments. Despite recent advances in the production of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs, the development of new therapies for pancreatic cancer is still hampered by a lack of reliable and predictive preclinical animal models for this disease. Preclinical models are vitally important for assessing therapies in the first stages of the drug development pipeline, prior to their transition to the clinical arena. GEMMs carry mutations in genes that are associated with specific human diseases and they can thus accurately mimic the genetic, phenotypic and physiological aspects of human pathologies. Here, we discuss different GEMMs of human pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the Lox-Stop-Lox (LSL-KrasG12D; LSL-Trp53R172H; Pdx1-cre (KPC model, one of the most widely used preclinical models for this disease. We describe its application in preclinical research, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages, its potential for predicting clinical outcomes in humans and the factors that can affect such outcomes, and, finally, future developments that could advance the discovery of new therapies for pancreatic cancer.

  6. Pre-clinical Orthotopic Murine Model of Human Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryari, Varahram; Nip, Hannah; Saini, Sharanjot; Dar, Altaf A; Yamamura, Soichiro; Mitsui, Yozo; Colden, Melissa; Bucay, Nathan; Tabatabai, Laura Z; Greene, Kirsten; Deng, Guoren; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Dahiya, Rajvir; Majid, Shahana

    2016-08-29

    To study the multifaceted biology of prostate cancer, pre-clinical in vivo models offer a range of options to uncover critical biological information about this disease. The human orthotopic prostate cancer xenograft mouse model provides a useful alternative approach for understanding the specific interactions between genetically and molecularly altered tumor cells, their organ microenvironment, and for evaluation of efficacy of therapeutic regimens. This is a well characterized model designed to study the molecular events of primary tumor development and it recapitulates the early events in the metastatic cascade prior to embolism and entry of tumor cells into the circulation. Thus it allows elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the initial phase of metastatic disease. In addition, this model can annotate drug targets of clinical relevance and is a valuable tool to study prostate cancer progression. In this manuscript we describe a detailed procedure to establish a human orthotopic prostate cancer xenograft mouse model.

  7. Advances in the preclinical testing of cancer therapeutic hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponigro, Giordano; Sellers, William R

    2011-03-01

    The genetic and epigenetic underpinnings of cancer are becoming increasingly clear owing to impressive and well-coordinated ventures occurring worldwide. As our understanding of the molecular alterations driving human cancer increases, there is an opportunity to direct the clinical application of cancer therapeutics with improved accuracy. The often empirical treatment of cancer--which was initially based on inhibiting DNA synthesis and cellular division--while having led to a number of remarkable successes, remains prone to a high rate of clinical failure that results partly from a lack of understanding of how best to implement drugs in the clinic. Consequently, it is vital that robust translational strategies be developed preclinically to both reduce failure rates in the clinic and shorten the time required to identify patient populations most likely to benefit from a given therapeutic. Here, we review both historical and current uses of preclinical model systems, being mindful that a combination of approaches will be needed to address all meritorious therapeutic hypotheses.

  8. Urine Diagnosis for Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ The key to saving the life of a person suffering from a malignant tumor lies in early diagnosis and surgery. Chinese scientists have developed a new method of diagnosing cancer by analyzing a person's urine. This feat was acclaimed by a panel of experts at a meeting under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in July 30 in Dalian, in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  9. Preclinical and clinical development of DNA vaccines for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colluru, V T; Johnson, Laura E; Olson, Brian M; McNeel, Douglas G

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. It is also the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men, making it one of the largest public health concerns today. Prostate cancer is an ideal disease for immunotherapies because of the generally slow progression, the dispensability of the target organ in the patient population, and the availability of several tissue-specific antigens. As such, several therapeutic vaccines have entered clinical trials, with one autologous cellular vaccine (sipuleucel-T) recently gaining Food and Drug Administration approval after demonstrating overall survival benefit in randomized phase III clinical trials. DNA-based vaccines are safe, economical, alternative "off-the-shelf" approaches that have undergone extensive evaluation in preclinical models. In fact, the first vaccine approved in the United States for the treatment of cancer was a DNA vaccine for canine melanoma. Several prostate cancer-specific DNA vaccines have been developed in the last decade and have shown promising results in early phase clinical trials. This review summarizes anticancer human DNA vaccine trials, with a focus on those conducted for prostate cancer. We conclude with an outline of special considerations important for the development and successful translation of DNA vaccines from the laboratory to the clinic.

  10. Integrating Preclinical and Clinical Oral Diagnosis and Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodus, Nelson L.; Brand, John W.

    1988-01-01

    A program providing second-year dental students with early experience in direct patient contact in an oral diagnosis/oral radiology clinic was well received by both students and faculty and was found to develop desirable skills and qualities in the students participating. (MSE)

  11. Integrating Preclinical and Clinical Oral Diagnosis and Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodus, Nelson L.; Brand, John W.

    1988-01-01

    A program providing second-year dental students with early experience in direct patient contact in an oral diagnosis/oral radiology clinic was well received by both students and faculty and was found to develop desirable skills and qualities in the students participating. (MSE)

  12. Artificial Neural Network Analysis in Preclinical Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Motalleb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, artificial neural network (ANN analysis of virotherapy in preclinical breast cancer was investigated.Materials and Methods: In this research article, a multilayer feed-forward neural network trained with an error back-propagation algorithm was incorporated in order to develop a predictive model. The input parameters of the model were virus dose, week and tamoxifen citrate, while tumor weight was included in the output parameter. Two different training algorithms, namely quick propagation (QP and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM, were used to train ANN.Results: The results showed that the LM algorithm, with 3-9-1 arrangement is more efficient compared to QP. Using LM algorithm, the coefficient of determination (R2 between the actual and predicted values was determined as 0.897118 for all data.Conclusion: It can be concluded that this ANN model may provide good ability to predict the biometry information of tumor in preclinical breast cancer virotherapy. The results showed that the LM algorithm employed by Neural Power software gave the better performance compared with the QP and virus dose, and it is more important factor compared to tamoxifen and time (week.

  13. Rotating-crystal Malaria Diagnosis: Pre-clinical validation

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Agnes; Prohle, Zsofia; Fulop, Gergely; Zelles, Tivadar; Forsyth, Wasan; Hill, Danika; Schofield, Louis; Mueller, Ivo; Karl, Stephan; Kezsmarki, Istvan

    2013-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of malaria diagnosis is one of the main goals of current malaria research. We have recently developed a magneto-optical (MO) method which allows high-sensitivity detection of malaria pigment (hemozoin) crystals via their magnetically induced rotation in blood. Here, we validate this technique on laboratory derived blood samples infected with \\textit{Plasmodium falciparum}. Using two parasite cultures, the first containing mostly ring stages and the second corresponding to the end of the parasite life cycle, we demonstrate that our novel method can detect parasite densities as low as $\\sim$40 and $\\sim$10\\,parasites per microliter of blood for ring and schizont stage parasites, respectively. This detection limit exceeds the performance of rapid diagnostic tests and competes with the threshold achievable by light microscopic observation of blood smears. Our method can be performed with as little as 50\\,microliter of capillary blood and is sensitive to the presence of hemozoin micro-crys...

  14. Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms Check with your healthcare provider if you have ...

  15. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  16. Preclinical and Clinical Investigation of the Impact of Obesity on Ovarian Cancer Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0426 TITLE: Preclinical and Clinical Investigation of the Impact of Obesity on Ovarian Cancer Pathogenesis PRINCIPAL...ANNUAL 25 Sep 2013 - 24 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Pre-clinical and Clinical Investigation of the Impact of Obesity on Ovarian...metabolic consequences of obesity may be critical in the development of ovarian cancer (OC), resulting in biologically different cancers than those that

  17. Novel epigenetic target therapy for prostate cancer: a preclinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Naldi

    Full Text Available Epigenetic events are critical contributors to the pathogenesis of cancer, and targeting epigenetic mechanisms represents a novel strategy in anticancer therapy. Classic demethylating agents, such as 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Decitabine, hold the potential for reprograming somatic cancer cells demonstrating high therapeutic efficacy in haematological malignancies. On the other hand, epigenetic treatment of solid tumours often gives rise to undesired cytotoxic side effects. Appropriate delivery systems able to enrich Decitabine at the site of action and improve its bioavailability would reduce the incidence of toxicity on healthy tissues. In this work we provide preclinical evidences of a safe, versatile and efficient targeted epigenetic therapy to treat hormone sensitive (LNCap and hormone refractory (DU145 prostate cancers. A novel Decitabine formulation, based on the use of engineered erythrocyte (Erythro-Magneto-Hemagglutinin Virosomes, EMHVs drug delivery system (DDS carrying this drug, has been refined. Inside the EMHVs, the drug was shielded from the environment and phosphorylated in its active form. The novel magnetic EMHV DDS, endowed with fusogenic protein, improved the stability of the carried drug and exhibited a high efficiency in confining its delivery at the site of action in vivo by applying an external static magnetic field. Here we show that Decitabine loaded into EMHVs induces a significant tumour mass reduction in prostate cancer xenograft models at a concentration, which is seven hundred times lower than the therapeutic dose, suggesting an improved pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of drug. These results are relevant for and discussed in light of developing personalised autologous therapies and innovative clinical approach for the treatment of solid tumours.

  18. Ovarian cancer: the neglected diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Barrette, Brigitte A; Wollan, Peter C

    2004-10-01

    To investigate presenting signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer and stage of tumor in a community cohort of women with the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of all women who sought primary and specialty care in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1997, to evaluate presenting symptoms, time from first symptom to diagnosis of ovarian cancer, and stage of tumor at diagnosis. Of 107 women with a diagnosis of ovarian cancer, the most commonly documented presenting symptom was crampy abdominal pain. Urinary symptoms and abdominal pain were the most commonly documented presenting symptom in patients with stage I and II ovarian cancers, whereas abdominal pain and increased abdominal girth were the most commonly documented symptoms in patients with stage III and IV cancer. Approximately 15% of tumors (n = 15) were found during routine evaluations or during a procedure for another problem. Less than 25% of presenting symptoms (n = 24 women) related directly to the pelvis or were more traditional gynecologic symptoms. Delays in women seeking medical care, health care system issues, competing medical conditions, physicians' failure to follow up, and women not returning for follow-up were associated with longer time to diagnosis. Both stage I and II cancer are associated with symptoms, but few symptoms are directly related to the reproductive pelvic organs or unique to ovarian cancer. A longer interval from first sign or symptom to diagnosis of ovarian cancer is associated with both patient and health care system factors.

  19. Preclinical dosimetry of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea; Etienne, Wiguins; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-02-01

    Background Despite positive efficacy, thermotherapy is not widely used in clinical oncology. Difficulties associated with field penetration and controlling power deposition patterns in heterogeneous tissue have limited its use for heating deep in the body. Heat generation using iron-oxide super-paramagnetic nanoparticles excited with magnetic fields has been demonstrated to overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of treating bladder cancer with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Methods The bladders of 25 female rats were injected with 0.4 ml of Actium Biosystems magnetite-based nanoparticles (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) via catheters inserted in the urethra. To assess the distribution of nanoparticles in the rat after injection we used the 7 T small animal MRI system (Bruker ClinScan, Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Heat treatments were performed with a small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) with a goal of raising bladder temperature to 42°C in 1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a MFH system provides well-localized heating of rat bladder with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues.

  20. New cast for a new era: preclinical cancer drug development revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter-Sprie, Grit S.; Kung, Andrew L.; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2013-01-01

    Molecularly targeted agents promise to revolutionize therapeutics by reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. However, despite an urgent need for more effective anticancer compounds, current preclinical drug evaluations largely fail to satisfy the demand. New preclinical strategies, including the improvement of sophisticated mouse models and co-clinical study designs, are being used to augment the predictive value of animal-based translational cancer research. Here, we review the development of successful preclinical antineoplastic agents, their associated limitations, and alternative methods to predict clinical outcomes. PMID:23999436

  1. Dealing with Diagnosis of Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When Your Child Has Cancer Children Diagnosed With Cancer: Dealing With Diagnosis When a child or teen is diagnosed with ... How do parents usually react to a child’s cancer diagnosis? Ways to improve coping How can parents be ...

  2. Cancer Diagnosis: 11 Tips for Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cancer is a difficult experience. After your cancer diagnosis, you may feel anxious, afraid or overwhelmed and ... Here are 11 suggestions for coping with a cancer diagnosis. Try to obtain as much basic, useful information ...

  3. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000844.htm Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis To use the sharing features on this page, ... games. References American Cancer Society. Children Diagnosed With Cancer: Dealing With Diagnosis (Ways to improve coping). Updated October 9, 2014. ...

  4. At cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Lillelund, Hans Christian Düring; Andersen, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Challenges exist in identifying, recruiting and motivating sedentary patients with cancer to initiate physical activity towards recommended levels. We hypothesise that the onset period of adjuvant chemotherapy can be 'the open window of opportunity' to identify and motivate sedentary patients...... with breast and colon cancers, at risk for developing coronary heart disease, to initiate and sustain lifestyle changes....

  5. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  6. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John;

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  7. Suicide Risk Quadruples After Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165864.html Suicide Risk Quadruples After Lung Cancer Diagnosis Doctors, loved ... have a strikingly higher-than-normal risk of suicide, a new study finds. While a cancer diagnosis ...

  8. Preclinical photoacoustic models: application for ultrasensitive single cell malaria diagnosis in large vein and artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyaev, Yulian A.; Carey, Kai A.; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Stumhofer, Jason S.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) has demonstrated potential for early diagnosis of deadly diseases through detection of rare circulating tumor cells, pathogens, and clots in nearly the entire blood volume. Before clinical application, this promising diagnostic platform requires verification and optimization using adequate preclinical models. We show here that this can be addressed by examination of large mouse blood vessels which are similar in size, depth and flow velocity to human vessels used in PAFC. Using this model, we verified the capability of PAFC for ultrasensitive, noninvasive, label-free, rapid malaria diagnosis. The time-resolved detection of delayed PA signals from deep vessels provided complete elimination of background from strongly pigmented skin. We discovered that PAFC’s sensitivity is higher during examination of infected cells in arteries compared to veins at similar flow rate. Our advanced PAFC platform integrating a 1060 nm laser with tunable pulse rate and width, a wearable probe with a focused transducer, and linear and nonlinear nanobubble-amplified signal processing demonstrated detection of parasitemia at the unprecedented level of 0.00000001% within 20 seconds and the potential to further improve the sensitivity 100-fold in humans, that is approximately 106 times better than in existing malaria tests. PMID:27699126

  9. Preclinical study of using multiphoton microscopy to diagnose liver cancer and differentiate benign and malignant liver lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Gang; Wu, Xiufeng; Zhou, Dong; Xie, Shusen; Jiang, Jiahao; Ying, Mingang; Jia, Fan; Chen, Jianxin; Zhou, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Recently, the miniaturized multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and multiphoton probe allow the clinical use of multiphoton endoscopy for diagnosing cancer via ``optical biopsy''. The purpose of this study was to establish MPM optical diagnostic features for liver cancer and evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPM optical diagnosis. Firstly, we performed a pilot study to establish the MPM diagnostic features by investigating 60 surgical specimens, and found that high-resolution MPM images clearly demonstrated apparent differences between benign and malignant liver lesions in terms of their tissue architecture and cell morphology. Cancer cells, characterized by irregular size and shape, enlarged nuclei, and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, were identified by MPM images, which were comparable to hematoxylin-eosin staining images. Secondly, we performed a blinded study to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPM optical diagnosis by investigating another 164 specimens, and found that the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPM diagnosis was 96.32%, 96.43%, and 96.34%, respectively. In conclusion, it is feasible to use MPM to diagnose liver cancer and differentiate benign and malignant liver lesions. This preclinical study provides the groundwork for further using multiphoton endoscopy to perform real-time noninvasive ``optical biopsy'' for liver lesions in the near future.

  10. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening ... Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer Basics and ... and Diagnosis / Staging and Treatment / Selected National Cancer Institute Breast ...

  11. Medicine: The final frontier in cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leachman, Sancy A.; Merlino, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    A computer, trained to classify skin cancers using image analysis alone, can now identify certain cancers as successfully as can skin-cancer doctors. What are the implications for the future of medical diagnosis? See Letter p.115

  12. Algorithms Could Automate Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baky, A. A.; Winkler, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Five new algorithms are a complete statistical procedure for quantifying cell abnormalities from digitized images. Procedure could be basis for automated detection and diagnosis of cancer. Objective of procedure is to assign each cell an atypia status index (ASI), which quantifies level of abnormality. It is possible that ASI values will be accurate and economical enough to allow diagnoses to be made quickly and accurately by computer processing of laboratory specimens extracted from patients.

  13. Combination of chemotherapy and cancer stem cell targeting agents: Preclinical and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Atkinson, Katharine; Zhang, Tao

    2017-06-28

    The cancer stem cell model claims that the initiation, maintenance, and growth of a tumor are driven by a small population of cancer cells termed cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells possess a variety of phenotypes associated with therapeutic resistance and often cause recurrence of the diseases. Several strategies have been investigated to target cancer stem cells in a variety of cancers, such as blocking one or more self-renewal signaling pathways, reducing the expression of drug efflux and ATP-binding cassette efflux transporters, modulating epigenetic aberrations, and promoting cancer stem cell differentiation. A number of cell and animal studies strongly support the potential benefits of combining chemotherapeutic drugs with cancer stem cell targeting agents. Clinical trials are still underway to address the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of combination treatment. This mini-review provides an updated discussion of these preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Meaningful prevention of breast cancer metastasis: candidate therapeutics, preclinical validation, and clinical trial concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alexandra S; Steeg, Patricia S

    2015-01-01

    The development of drugs to treat breast and other cancers proceeds through phase I dose finding, phase II efficacy, and phase III comparative studies in the metastatic setting, only then asking if metastasis can be prevented in adjuvant trials. Compounds without overt cytotoxic activity, such as those developed to inhibit metastatic colonization, will likely fail to shrink established lesions in the metastatic setting and never be tested in a metastasis prevention scenario where they were preclinically validated. We and others have proposed phase II primary and secondary metastasis prevention studies to address this need. Herein, we have asked whether preclinical metastasis prevention data agrees with the positive adjuvant setting trials. The data are limited but complimentary. We also review fundamental pathways involved in metastasis, including Src, integrins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and fibrosis, for their clinical progress to date and potential for metastasis prevention. Issues of inadequate preclinical validation and clinical toxicity profiles are discussed.

  15. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Agbarya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, such as cancer with agents targeting a single target, might provide partial treatment and, in many cases, disappointing cure rates. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Since ancient times, plants, herbs, and other natural products have been used as healing agents. Moreover, the majority of the medicinal substances available today have their origin in natural compounds. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are used to cure diseases, and nutrition and herbs are used to prevent disease and to provide an optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients needed for good health. We explored the combination of natural products, dietary nutrition, and cancer chemotherapeutics for improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutics and negating side effects.

  16. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbarya, Abed; Ruimi, Nili; Epelbaum, Ron; Ben-Arye, Eran; Mahajna, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, such as cancer with agents targeting a single target, might provide partial treatment and, in many cases, disappointing cure rates. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Since ancient times, plants, herbs, and other natural products have been used as healing agents. Moreover, the majority of the medicinal substances available today have their origin in natural compounds. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are used to cure diseases, and nutrition and herbs are used to prevent disease and to provide an optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients needed for good health. We explored the combination of natural products, dietary nutrition, and cancer chemotherapeutics for improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutics and negating side effects.

  17. Novel target for high-risk neuroblastoma identified in pre-clinical research | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-clinical research by investigators at the Center for Cancer Research and their colleagues have identified a number of novel epigenetic targets for high-risk neuroblastoma and validated a promising new targeted inhibitor in pre-clinical models.  Read more...

  18. Value of Entheseal Ultrasonography and Serum Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein in the Preclinical Diagnosis of Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Mohammed Samy Elbeblawy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the utility of entheseal ultrasonography and serum COMP in the preclinical diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. Methods: 60 psoriatic patients were divided into: 30 patients with psoriasis (group I and 30 patients with psoriatic arthritis as control (group II. They underwent independent clinical and ultrasonographic examination of both lower limbs at the calcaneal insertions of Achilles tendons. Psoriatic arthritis disease activity and severity was assessed by modified DAS28 and Steinbrockers scores. Serum levels of COMP were measured for all patients by ELISA. Results: On clinical examination, no entheseal abnormalities were detected in group I while they were present in 23.3% of group II with statistically significant difference between them (P 0.05. Serum COMP were significantly elevated in group I and II with no statistically significant difference between them (mean ± SD 5.9 ± 3 and 6.8 ± 12 respectively, P > 0.05. Entheseal ultrasound was more specific (67% while serum COMP was more sensitive (87% in the preclinical diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. Serum COMP levels were significantly correlated with CRP in both groups and with DAS28 and Steinbrockers scores in group II (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Entheseal ultrasonography and serum COMP levels may be used complementary to each other for preclinical diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. Serum COMP seems to be promising prognostic marker for psoriatic arthritis patients.

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer: preclinical and clinical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, S.E.D.C.; Kobayashi, S.S.; Costa, D.B. [Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-09-05

    Lung cancer leads cancer-related mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most prevalent subtype of this recalcitrant cancer, is usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and available systemic therapies are mostly palliative. The probing of the NSCLC kinome has identified numerous nonoverlapping driver genomic events, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations. This review provides a synopsis of preclinical and clinical data on EGFR mutated NSCLC and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Classic somatic EGFR kinase domain mutations (such as L858R and exon 19 deletions) make tumors addicted to their signaling cascades and generate a therapeutic window for the use of ATP-mimetic EGFR TKIs. The latter inhibit these kinases and their downstream effectors, and induce apoptosis in preclinical models. The aforementioned EGFR mutations are stout predictors of response and augmentation of progression-free survival when gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are used for patients with advanced NSCLC. The benefits associated with these EGFR TKIs are limited by the mechanisms of tumor resistance, such as the gatekeeper EGFR-T790M mutation, and bypass activation of signaling cascades. Ongoing preclinical efforts for treating resistance have started to translate into patient care (including clinical trials of the covalent EGFR-T790M TKIs AZD9291 and CO-1686) and hold promise to further boost the median survival of patients with EGFR mutated NSCLC.

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations in lung cancer: preclinical and clinical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E.D.C. Jorge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer leads cancer-related mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, the most prevalent subtype of this recalcitrant cancer, is usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and available systemic therapies are mostly palliative. The probing of the NSCLC kinome has identified numerous nonoverlapping driver genomic events, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations. This review provides a synopsis of preclinical and clinical data on EGFR mutated NSCLC and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. Classic somatic EGFR kinase domain mutations (such as L858R and exon 19 deletions make tumors addicted to their signaling cascades and generate a therapeutic window for the use of ATP-mimetic EGFR TKIs. The latter inhibit these kinases and their downstream effectors, and induce apoptosis in preclinical models. The aforementioned EGFR mutations are stout predictors of response and augmentation of progression-free survival when gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are used for patients with advanced NSCLC. The benefits associated with these EGFR TKIs are limited by the mechanisms of tumor resistance, such as the gatekeeper EGFR-T790M mutation, and bypass activation of signaling cascades. Ongoing preclinical efforts for treating resistance have started to translate into patient care (including clinical trials of the covalent EGFR-T790M TKIs AZD9291 and CO-1686 and hold promise to further boost the median survival of patients with EGFR mutated NSCLC.

  1. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianhui Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs, as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted.

  2. Thymoquinone as a Potential Adjuvant Therapy for Cancer Treatment: Evidence from Preclinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.M. Mostofa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (TQ, the main bioactive component of Nigella sativa, has been found to exhibit anticancer effects in numerous preclinical studies. Due to its multitargeting nature, TQ interferes in a wide range of tumorigenic processes and counteracts carcinogenesis, malignant growth, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. Moreover, TQ can specifically sensitize tumor cells toward conventional cancer treatments (e.g., radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy and simultaneously minimize therapy-associated toxic effects in normal cells. In this review, we summarized the adjuvant potential of TQ as observed in various in vitro and in vivo animal models and discussed the pharmacological properties of TQ to rationalize its supplementary role in potentiating the efficacy of standard therapeutic modalities namely surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Altogether, we suggest further comprehensive evaluation of TQ in preclinical and clinical levels to delineate its implied utility as a novel complementary adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment.

  3. Immunotherapeutic Strategies in Breast Cancer: Preclinical and Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Anna Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2001;41:661 -90. angiogenic switch in cyclooxygenase 2-induced breast cancer progression. Proc 61. Jadeski LC, Lala PK...specific T lymphocytes. (1996) Nat Med. 2:55 1- 5. 51. Mailliard, R.B., S. Egawa, Q. Cai, A. Kalinska, S.N. Bykovskaya , M.T. Lotze, M.L. Kapsenberg, W.J...modified virus-specific T lymphocytes. (1996) Nat Med. 2:551-5. 51. Mailliard, R.B., S. Egawa, Q. Cai, A. Kalinska, S.N. Bykovskaya , M.T. Lotze, M.L

  4. [Practice guideline 'Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijke, T.M. de; Battermann, J.J.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Jong, IJ de; Visser, A.P.; Burgers, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    --A national, multidisciplinary practice guideline was developed concerning diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Because of the lack of sufficient scientific evidence at this moment no practice guideline on screening is included. --The diagnosis of prostate cancer is made by tra

  5. Childhood injury after a parental cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chen (Ruoqing); A.R. Wallin (Amanda Regodón); A. Sjölander (Arvid); U. Valdimarsdóttir (Unnur); W. Ye (Weimin); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); K. Fall (Katja); C. Almqvist (Catarina); K. Czene (Kamila); F. Fang (Fang)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA parental cancer diagnosis is psychologically straining for the whole family. We investigated whether a parental cancer diagnosis is associated with a higher-than-expected risk of injury among children by using a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. Compared to children witho

  6. Preclinical evidences toward the use of triterpenoid CDDO-Me for solid cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yang; Zhe, Hong; Zhao, Ren

    2014-02-20

    Solid cancer remains a major cause of death in the world. As limited treatment options are currently available to patients with solid cancer, novel preventive control and effective therapeutic approaches are considered to be reasonable and decisive measures to combat this disease. The plant-derived triterpenoids, commonly used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries, poses various pharmacological properties. A large number of triterpenoids exhibit cytotoxicity against a variety of cancer cells, and cancer preventive, as well as anticancer efficacy in preclinical animal models. To improve antitumor activity, some synthetic triterpenoid derivatives have been synthesized, including cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)- dien-28-oic (CDDO), its methyl ester (CDDO-Me), and imidazolide (CDDO-Im) derivatives. In this review, we will critically examine the current preclinical evidences of cancer preventive and therapeutic activity about one of the synthetic triterpenoids, CDDO-Me. Both in vitro and in vivo effects of this agent and related molecular mechanisms are presented.

  7. Cranberries and Cancer: An Update of Preclinical Studies Evaluating the Cancer Inhibitory Potential of Cranberry and Cranberry Derived Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Weh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents reported to influence a variety of health benefits, ranging from improved immune function and decreased infections to reduced cardiovascular disease and more recently cancer inhibition. A review of cranberry research targeting cancer revealed positive effects of cranberries or cranberry derived constituents against 17 different cancers utilizing a variety of in vitro techniques, whereas in vivo studies supported the inhibitory action of cranberries toward cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, bladder, prostate, glioblastoma and lymphoma. Mechanisms of cranberry-linked cancer inhibition include cellular death induction via apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy; reduction of cellular proliferation; alterations in reactive oxygen species; and modification of cytokine and signal transduction pathways. Given the emerging positive preclinical effects of cranberries, future clinical directions targeting cancer or premalignancy in high risk cohorts should be considered.

  8. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer.

  9. Cancer Diagnosis? Advice for Dealing with What Comes Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer specialist explains what to expect after your cancer diagnosis. By Mayo Clinic Staff About half of all ... women in the United States will receive a cancer diagnosis at some time in their lives. A cancer ...

  10. Photodynamic therapy in colorectal cancer treatment--The state of the art in preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Bugaj, Andrzej M; Latos, Wojciech; Zaremba, Katarzyna; Wawrzyniec, Katarzyna; Kucharzewski, Marek; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used in many different oncologic fields. Also in gastroenterology, where have been a few attempts to treat both the premalignant lesion and advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). This review aims to give a general overview of preclinical photodynamic studies related to CRC cells and animal studies of photodynamic effects related to CRC treatment to emphasize their potential in study of PDT mechanism, safety and efficiency to translate these results into clinical benefit in CRC treatment. Literature on in vitro preclinical photodynamic studies related to CRC cells and animal studies of photodynamic effects related to CRC treatment with the fallowing medical subject headings search terms: colorectal cancer, photodynamic therapy, photosensitizer(s), in vitro, cell culture(s), in vivo, animal experiment(s). The articles were selected by their relevance to the topic. The majority of preclinical studies concerning possibility of PDT application in colon and rectal cancer is focused on phototoxic action of photosensitizers toward cultured colorectal tumor cells in vitro. The purposes of animal experiments are usually elucidation of mechanisms of observed photodynamic effects in scale of organism, estimation of PDT safety and efficiency and translation of these results into clinical benefit. In vitro photodynamic studies and animal experiments can be useful for studies of mechanisms and efficiency of photodynamic method as a start point on PDT clinical research. The primary disadvantage of in vitro experiments is a risk of over-interpretation of their results during extrapolation to the entire CRC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High efficacy of intravesical treatment of metformin on bladder cancer in preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mei; Su, Qiongli; Zeng, Qing; Li, Le; Liu, Zhihong; Xue, Lei; Cheng, Yan; Huang, Yanjun; Tao, Ting; Lv, Hongwei; Li, Xiaohui; Tao, Xiaojun; Guo, Peng; Chen, Alex F; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-02-23

    Anticancer potential of metformin has been extensively studied. However, its anticancer clinical use remains yet to be approved since sufficient concentration on target organs could not be achieved via conventional administration. To overcome this drawback, we aim to examine the efficiency of novel intravesical treatment of metformin on syngeneic orthotopic preclinical model. Three human and one murine bladder cancer cell lines were tested in vitro for inhibitory sensitivity by MTT and cologenic assays. AMPK pathway including AKT, Erk and S6K was examined by western blot and further explored by regulating activated levels using specific inhibitors. In vivo efficacy was determined by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and measurements of body and bladder weights plus tumor biomarkers. Lactic acid and metformin levels of plasma were measured by standard procedures. The results demonstrated that metformin activated AMPK and decreased phosphorylation of Akt and Erk. Furthermore, combinations of metformin with either Akt or Erk inhibitors synergistically diminished cancer proliferation, suggesting the involvement of Akt- and Erk- related pathways. Intravesical metformin 26 and 104 mg/kg, twice per week demonstrated a rapid elimination of the implanted tumor without any evidence of toxicity. In contrast, oral treatment at a dose of 800mg/kg/d exhibited little efficacy whereas severe toxicity existed if the dosage is higher. Collectively, intravesical metformin displays potent inhibition on bladder cancer in vitro and this preclinical study reveals the profound therapeutic application of metformin with durable tolerance via intravesical administration route.

  12. Childhood injury after a parental cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoqing; Regodón Wallin, Amanda; Sjölander, Arvid; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Ye, Weimin; Tiemeier, Henning; Fall, Katja; Almqvist, Catarina; Czene, Kamila; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-31

    A parental cancer diagnosis is psychologically straining for the whole family. We investigated whether a parental cancer diagnosis is associated with a higher-than-expected risk of injury among children by using a Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. Compared to children without parental cancer, children with parental cancer had a higher rate of hospital contact for injury during the first year after parental cancer diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.33), especially when the parent had a comorbid psychiatric disorder after cancer diagnosis (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.08-1.85). The rate increment declined during the second and third year after parental cancer diagnosis (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.14) and became null afterwards (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.99-1.03). Children with parental cancer also had a higher rate of repeated injuries than the other children (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.12-1.15). Given the high rate of injury among children in the general population, our findings may have important public health implications.

  13. New Breed of Mice May Improve Accuracy for Preclinical Testing of Cancer Drugs | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new breed of lab animals, dubbed “glowing head mice,” may do a better job than conventional mice in predicting the success of experimental cancer drugs—while also helping to meet an urgent need for more realistic preclinical animal models. The mice were developed to tolerate often-used light-emitting molecules, such as luciferase from fireflies and green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish. These “optical reporters” are useful for monitoring the effect of experimental therapies in live animals over time because they emit an immediate and easily detected light signal showing whether a tumor inside the animal’s body is shrinking as desired.

  14. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  15. Silicon nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fei; Cao, Zhaohui; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Chu, Binbin; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology suggests new and exciting opportunities for early diagnosis and therapy of cancer. During the recent years, silicon-based nanomaterials featuring unique properties have received great attention, showing high promise for myriad biological and biomedical applications. In this review, we will particularly summarize latest representative achievements on the development of silicon nanostructures as a powerful platform for cancer early diagnosis and therapy. First, we introduce the silicon nanomaterial-based biosensors for detecting cancer markers (e.g., proteins, tumor-suppressor genes and telomerase activity, among others) with high sensitivity and selectivity under molecular level. Then, we summarize in vitro and in vivo applications of silicon nanostructures as efficient nanoagents for cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the future perspective of silicon nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  17. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  18. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji [Cytopatholgy Division, Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), 5-1-2 Minami-uzura, Gifu 500-8285 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

    2012-07-16

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described.

  19. Ancillary Testing in Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dubinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathologic diagnosis of lung cancer historically has relied primarily on morphologic features of tumors in histologic sections. With the emergence of new targeted therapies, the pathologist is called upon increasingly to provide not only accurate typing of lung cancers, but also to provide prognostic and predictive information, based on a growing number of ancillary tests, that may have significant impact on patient management. This review provides an overview of ancillary tests currently used in the pathologic diagnosis of lung cancer, with a focus on immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnostics.

  20. Circulating miRNA and cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    miRNAs are a class of small RNA molecules with regulatory function, and play an important role in tumor development and progression. It has been demonstrated that tumor-derived miRNAs exist in the circulating nucleic acids of cancer patients. This phenomenon implies that detection of the circulating miRNA may be an effective method for non-invasive diagnosis of cancer. In this review, we summarize the applications of the circulating miRNA as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis, as well as the latest research progress in this area.

  1. Label-free nanoplasmonic sensing of tumor-associate autoantibodies for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maria; Estevez, M-Carmen; Villar-Vazquez, Roi; Casal, J Ignacio; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-08-03

    Colorectal cancer is treatable and curable when detected at early stages. However there is a lack of less invasive and more specific screening and diagnosis methods which would facilitate its prompt identification. Blood circulating autoantibodies which are immediately produced by the immune system at tumor appearance have become valuable biomarkers for preclinical diagnosis of cancer. In this work, we present the rapid and label-free detection of colorectal cancer autoantibodies directly in blood serum or plasma using a recently developed nanoplasmonic biosensor. Our nanoplasmonic device offers sensitive and real-time quantification of autoantibodies with excellent selectivity and reproducibility, achieving limits of detection around 1 nM (150-160 ng mL(-1)). A preliminary evaluation of clinical samples of colorectal cancer patients has shown good correlation with ELISA. These results demonstrate the reliability of the nanobiosensor strategy and pave the way towards the achievement of a sensitive diagnostic tool for early detection of colorectal cancer.

  2. Targeting NK cells for anti-cancer immunotherapy: clinical and pre-clinical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eCarotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of checkpoint blockade has highlighted the potential of immunotherapy approaches for cancer treatment. While the majority of approved immunotherapy drugs target T cell subsets, it is appreciated that other components of the immune system have important roles in tumor immune-surveillance as well and thus represent promising additional targets for immunotherapy. Natural killer cells are the body’s first line of defense against infected or transformed cells as they kill target cells in an antigen-independent manner. Although several studies have clearly demonstrated the active role of NK cells in cancer-immune surveillance, only few clinically approved therapies currently exist that harness their potential. Our increased understanding of NK cell biology over the past few years has renewed the interest in NK cell based anti-cancer therapies, which has lead to a steady increase of NK cell based clinical and pre-clinical trials. Here, the role of NK cells in cancer immunesurveillance is summarized and several novel approaches to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity against cancer are discussed.

  3. Preclinical and Clinical Assessment of Cannabinoids as Anti-Cancer Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Daniel A.; Soliman, Eman; Griffin, LaToya; Van Dross, Rukiyah

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States with 1.7 million new cases estimated to be diagnosed in 2016. This disease remains a formidable clinical challenge and represents a substantial financial burden to the US health care system. Therefore, research and development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of cancer is of high priority. Cannabinoids and their derivatives have been utilized for their medicinal and therapeutic properties throughout history. Cannabinoid activity is regulated by the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is comprised of cannabinoid receptors, transporters, and enzymes involved in cannabinoid synthesis and breakdown. More recently, cannabinoids have gained special attention for their role in cancer cell proliferation and death. However, many studies investigated these effects using in vitro models which may not adequately mimic tumor growth and metastasis. As such, this article aims to review study results which evaluated effects of cannabinoids from plant, synthetic and endogenous origins on cancer development in preclinical animal models and to examine the current standing of cannabinoids that are being tested in human cancer patients.

  4. Preclinical and Clinical Assessment of Cannabinoids as Anti-Cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Ladin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States with 1.7 million new cases estimated to be diagnosed in 2016. This disease remains a formidable clinical challenge and represents a substantial financial burden to the US health care system. Therefore, research and development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of cancer is of high priority. Cannabinoids and their derivatives have been utilized for their medicinal and therapeutic properties throughout history. Cannabinoid activity is regulated through the endocannabinoid system, which is comprised of cannabinoid receptors, transporters, and enzymes involved in cannabinoid synthesis and breakdown. More recently, cannabinoids have gained special attention for their role in cancer development and reduction. However, many studies investigated these roles using in vitro models which may not adequately mimic tumor growth and metastasis. As such, this article aims to review study results which evaluated effects of cannabinoids from plant, synthetic and endogenous origins on cancer development in preclinical models and to examine the current standing of cannabinoids currently being tested in human cancer patients.

  5. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline.

  6. Annular phased array transducer for preclinical testing of anti-cancer drug efficacy on small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Tamara; Secomski, Wojciech; Byra, Michał; Postema, Michiel; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    A technique using pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to destroy deep-seated solid tumors is a promising noninvasive therapeutic approach. A main purpose of this study was to design and test a HIFU transducer suitable for preclinical studies of efficacy of tested, anti-cancer drugs, activated by HIFU beams, in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors implanted to various organs of small animals at the depth of the order of 1-2cm under the skin. To allow focusing of the beam, generated by such transducer, within treated tissue at different depths, a spherical, 2-MHz, 29-mm diameter annular phased array transducer was designed and built. To prove its potential for preclinical studies on small animals, multiple thermal lesions were induced in a pork loin ex vivo by heating beams of the same: 6W, or 12W, or 18W acoustic power and 25mm, 30mm, and 35mm focal lengths. Time delay for each annulus was controlled electronically to provide beam focusing within tissue at the depths of 10mm, 15mm, and 20mm. The exposure time required to induce local necrosis was determined at different depths using thermocouples. Location and extent of thermal lesions determined from numerical simulations were compared with those measured using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques and verified by a digital caliper after cutting the tested tissue samples. Quantitative analysis of the results showed that the location and extent of necrotic lesions on the magnetic resonance images are consistent with those predicted numerically and measured by caliper. The edges of lesions were clearly outlined although on ultrasound images they were fuzzy. This allows to conclude that the use of the transducer designed offers an effective noninvasive tool not only to induce local necrotic lesions within treated tissue without damaging the surrounding tissue structures but also to test various chemotherapeutics activated by the HIFU beams in preclinical studies on small animals.

  7. The number of elevated cytokines and chemokines in preclinical seropositive rheumatoid arthritis predicts time to diagnosis in an age-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Kevin D; O'Donnell, Colin I; Hueber, Wolfgang; Majka, Darcy S; Lazar, Ann A; Derber, Lezlie A; Gilliland, William R; Edison, Jess D; Norris, Jill M; Robinson, William H; Holers, V Michael

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate levels of biomarkers in preclinical rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to use elevated biomarkers to develop a model for the prediction of time to future diagnosis of seropositive RA. Stored samples obtained from 73 military cases with seropositive RA prior to RA diagnosis and from controls (mean 2.9 samples per case; samples collected a mean of 6.6 years prior to diagnosis) were tested for rheumatoid factor (RF) isotypes, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, 14 cytokines and chemokines (by bead-based assay), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Preclinical positivity for anti-CCP and/or ≥2 RF isotypes was >96% specific for future RA. In preclinical RA, levels of the following were positive in a significantly greater proportion of RA cases versus controls: interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, fibroblast growth factor 2, flt-3 ligand, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ-inducible 10-kd protein, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and CRP. Also, increasing numbers of elevated cytokines/chemokines were present in cases nearer to the time of diagnosis. RA patients who were ≥40 years old at diagnosis had a higher proportion of samples positive for cytokines/chemokines 5-10 years prior to diagnosis than did patients who were elevated in the preclinical period of RA development. In preclinical autoantibody-positive cases, the number of elevated cytokines/chemokines is predictive of the time of diagnosis of future RA in an age-dependent manner. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Multitargeting strategy using lenvatinib and golvatinib: maximizing anti-angiogenesis activity in a preclinical cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Youya; Kawano, Satoshi; Matsui, Junji; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Tohyama, Osamu; Muto, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Matsushima, Tomohiro

    2015-02-01

    Almost all cancers show intrinsic and/or evasive resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors by multiple mechanisms. Serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) level has been proposed as a potential biomarker of VEGF inhibitor response in several cancers. From these clinical observations, the Ang2 and Tie2 (its receptor) axis has been focused on as a promising target. Here, we show a novel strategy to circumvent the resistance by combining multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors lenvatinib (VEGF receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor, and RET inhibitor) and golvatinib (E7050; c-Met, Tie2, and EphB4 inhibitor). Tie2 identifies a highly pro-angiogenic macrophage subset, Tie2-expressing macrophages (TEM). Angi-Tie2 and EphB4-EphrinB2 signaling plays critical roles in pericyte-mediated vessel stabilization. In vitro analyses suggested that golvatinib combined with lenvatinib inhibited pericyte-mediated vessel stabilization and TEM differentiation. In thyroid and endometrial cancer models, golvatinib and lenvatinib inhibited pericyte network development and TEM infiltration, resulting in severe perfusion disorder and massive apoptosis. Body weight loss was tolerable, and no macroscopic change was observed. These preclinical studies suggest that modulation of the tumor microenvironment by a strategic and well-tolerated combination of multi-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors may sensitize cancer to VEGF inhibitors.

  9. Imaging-guided preclinical trials of vascular targeting in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmuk, James

    Purpose: Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy in American men and is characterized by dependence on androgens (Testosterone/Dihydrotestosterone) for growth and survival. Although reduction of serum testosterone levels by surgical or chemical castration transiently inhibits neoplastic growth, tumor adaptation to castrate levels of androgens results in the generation of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Progression to CRPC following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with changes in vascular morphology and increased angiogenesis. Based on this knowledge, we hypothesized that targeting tumor vasculature in combination with ADT would result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy against prostate cancer. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we examined the therapeutic activity of a tumor-vascular disrupting agent (tumor-VDA), EPC2407 (Crolibulin(TM)), alone and in combination with ADT in a murine model of prostate cancer (Myc-CaP). A non-invasive multimodality imaging approach based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and ultrasound (US) was utilized to characterize tumor response to therapy and to guide preclinical trial design. Imaging results were correlated with histopathologic (H&E) and immunohistochemical (CD31) assessment as well as tumor growth inhibition and survival analyses. Results: Our imaging techniques were able to capture an acute reduction (within 24 hours) in tumor perfusion following castration and VDA monotherapy. BLI revealed onset of recurrent disease 5-7 days post castration prior to visible tumor regrowth suggestive of vascular recovery. Administration of VDA beginning 1 week post castration for 3 weeks resulted in sustained vascular suppression, inhibition of tumor regrowth, and conferred a more pronounced survival benefit compared to either monotherapy. Conclusion: The high mortality rate associated with CRPC underscores the need for investigating novel treatment

  10. [Rectal cancer: diagnosis, screening and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decanini-Terán, César Oscar; González-Acosta, Jorge; Obregón-Méndez, Jorge; Vega-de Jesús, Martín

    2011-01-01

    Rectal cancer is one of the primary malignant neoplasms occurring in Mexican patients of reproductive age. Unfortunately, randomized studies in rectal cancer do not exist as they do with well-recognized colon cancer. We must individualize the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic approach, staging and treatment because management is different in rectal cancers affecting the mid- and lower third of the rectum than in the upper third and in colon cancers. Histological staging is the primary prognostic factor. TNM staging (tumor, node, and metastasis) is used internationally by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Staging is done with the assistance of endorectal ultrasound, which is best used in early-stage cancer; however, there are certain disadvantages in detecting node involvement. Magnetic resonance, on the other hand, allows for the evaluation of stenotic tumors and node involvement. Once the correct diagnosis and staging have been made, the next step is correct treatment. Neoadjuvant treatment has demonstrated to be better than adjuvant treatment. Abdominoperineal resection is rarely practiced currently, with sphincter preservation being the preferred procedure. Laparoscopic approach has conferred the advantages of the approach itself when performed by experts in the procedure but there is insufficient evidence to make it the "gold standard." Rectal cancer is a complex pathology that must be considered totally different from colon cancer for diagnosis and treatment. The patient must be staged completely and appropriately for individualizing correct treatment. More long-term studies are needed for optimizing treatment modalities.

  11. Biosensors: the new wave in cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Bohunicky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brian Bohunicky1, Shaker A Mousa1,21The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Rensselaer, NY, USA; 2College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: The earlier cancer can be detected, the better the chance of a cure. Currently, many cancers are diagnosed only after they have metastasized throughout the body. Effective, accurate methods of cancer detection and clinical diagnosis are urgently needed. Biosensors are devices that are designed to detect a specific biological analyte by essentially converting a biological entity (ie, protein, DNA, RNA into an electrical signal that can be detected and analyzed. The use of biosensors in cancer detection and monitoring holds vast potential. Biosensors can be designed to detect emerging cancer biomarkers and to determine drug effectiveness at various target sites. Biosensor technology has the potential to provide fast and accurate detection, reliable imaging of cancer cells, and monitoring of angiogenesis and cancer metastasis, and the ability to determine the effectiveness of anticancer chemotherapy agents. This review will briefly summarize the current obstacles to early detection of cancer and the expanding use of biosensors as a diagnostic tool, as well as some future applications of biosensor technology.Keywords: biosensor, oncogene, nanotechnology, biotechnology, cancer detection, diagnosis, point-of-care

  12. [Differential diagnosis of pancreatic head cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubyshkin, V A; Vishnevskiĭ, V A; Aĭrapetian, A T; Karmazanovskiĭ, G G; Kuntsevich, G I; Starkov, Iu G

    2000-01-01

    The results of clinical, instrumental and laboratory examinations were analyzed for 99 patients. 59 of them had pancreatic head cancer, 40--chronic pseudotumorous pancreatitis. The importance of complex ultrasonic diagnosis in detection of pancreatic diseases (98%), in true diagnosis of unresectable tumors (96.7%), and also in determination of bile ducts lesion level in obstructive jaundice is shown. It was revealed that spiral computed tomography (SCT) had an advantage over computed tomography in diagnosis of pancreatic tumors and in assessment of their resectability. Sensitivity of combined use of US, SCT and tumor marker CA 19-9 in pancreatic cancer diagnosis increases to 95.2%. High diagnostic value of laparoscopy with laparoscopic ultrasonic examination as a method of final assessment of tumor resectability is shown.

  13. New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The NSFC funded Key Program project"A real-time analysis of the early diagnosis of cancer mark-ers",undertaken by Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),re-cently received recognition from an expert team for assessment.Experts pointed out that the research was of great value for the fast ascertain of cancer markers and the early warning and diagnosis.The research team was headed by Academician Wang Erkang,CAS and Prof.Kong Jilie,Fudan University.

  14. Curcumin nanoformulations : A review of pharmaceutical properties and preclinical studies and clinical data related to cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naksuriya, Ornchuma; Okonogi, Siriporn; Schiffelers, Raymond M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/212909509; Hennink, Wim E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070880409

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural yellow phenolic compound, is present in many kinds of herbs, particularly in Curcuma longa Linn. (turmeric). It is a natural antioxidant and has shown many pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and anti-Alzheimer in both preclinical

  15. Curcumin nanoformulations : A review of pharmaceutical properties and preclinical studies and clinical data related to cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naksuriya, Ornchuma; Okonogi, Siriporn; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Hennink, Wim E.

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural yellow phenolic compound, is present in many kinds of herbs, particularly in Curcuma longa Linn. (turmeric). It is a natural antioxidant and has shown many pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and anti-Alzheimer in both preclinical an

  16. Survivin: Potential role in diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Ting Wang; Xiao-Ping Qian; Bao-Rui Liu

    2007-01-01

    Survivin is a protein that is highly expressed in a vast number of malignancies, but is minimally expressed in normal tissues. It plays a role as an inhibitor of cell death in cancer cells, thus facilitating the growth of these cells.Tn the case of gastric cancer, survivin is over-expressed in tumor cells and plays a role in the carcinogenesis process. Several studies on gastric cancer have indicated that there is a relationship between survivin expression and the ultimate behavior of the carcinoma. Since the expression pattern of survivin is selective to cancer cells,it has been described as an "ideal target" for cancer therapy. Currently, several pre-clinical and clinical trials are on-going to investigate the effects of interfering with survivin function in cancer cells as a biologic therapy. Survivin is a potentially significant protein in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of gastric tumors.

  17. Lung cancer: current diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Stefan; Wirtz, Hubert

    2009-12-01

    Much progress has been made in the treatment of lung cancer in the last ten years (adjuvant chemotherapy, targeted therapy, individualized therapy). Nonetheless, lung cancer is still the leading cause of death due to cancer and thus remains a major medical, scientific, and social problem. This review is based on national and international recommendations and selected articles from the literature. Cigarette smoking is the major pathogenic factor for lung cancer. Lung cancer can be divided into two major types that differ in their biological behavior, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Whenever possible, the diagnosis should be confirmed by biopsy, the extent of disease should be documented in detail (international TNM classification/staging), and the patient's functional level should be assessed with a view toward treatment planning. Surgery for non-small cell lung cancer with curative intent is possible up to stage IIIA, while stage IIIB is the domain of radiotherapy. Surgery for small cell lung cancer with curative intent is possible for rare cases in early stages (T1N0 and T2N0, i.e., stage IA and IB). As long as small cell lung cancer is restricted to one side of the chest, simultaneous radiation therapy and chemotherapy are indicated. If a malignant pleural effusion or distant metastases are present, both lung cancers are treated palliatively with platinum-based chemotherapy.

  18. Cancer diagnosis by infrared spectroscopy: methodological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael; Kim, Keith; Tetteh, John; Mansfield, James R.; Dolenko, Brion; Somorjai, Raymond L.; Orr, F. W.; Watson, Peter H.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1998-04-01

    IR spectroscopy is proving to be a powerful tool for the study and diagnosis of cancer. The application of IR spectroscopy to the analysis of cultured tumor cells and grading of breast cancer sections is outlined. Potential sources of error in spectral interpretation due to variations in sample histology and artifacts associated with sample storage and preparation are discussed. The application of statistical techniques to assess differences between spectra and to non-subjectively classify spectra is demonstrated.

  19. Predicting the ability of preclinical diagnosis to improve control of farm-to-farm foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Noel; Paton, David J.; Gubbins, Simon; Colenutt, Claire; Brown, Emma; Hodgson, Sophia; Gonzales Rojas, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can cause large disruptive epidemics in livestock. Current eradication measures rely on the rapid clinical detection and removal of infected herds. Here, we evaluated the potential for preclinical diagnosis during reactive surveillance to reduce the risk of

  20. PET/CT in cancer research: from preclinical to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, S; Zannetti, A; Fonti, R; Iommelli, F; Pizzuti, L M; Lettieri, A; Salvatore, M

    2010-01-01

    The identification of genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying tumor growth and progression along with the unraveling of human genoma provided a plethora of new targets for cancer detection, treatment and monitoring. Simultaneously, the extraordinary development of a number of imaging technologies, including hybrid systems, allowed the visualization of biochemical, molecular and physiological aberrations linked to underlying mutations in a given tumor. In vivo evaluation of complex biological processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, gene expression, receptor-ligand interactions, transport of substrates and metabolism of nutrients in human cancers is feasible using PET/CT and radiolabeled molecular probes. Some of these compounds are in preclinical phases of evaluation whereas others have been already applied in clinical settings. Here we provide prominent examples on how some biological processes and target expression can be visualized by PET/CT in animal tumor models and cancer patients for the noninvasive detection of well-known markers of tumor aggressiveness, invasiveness and resistance to treatment and for the evaluation of tumor response to therapy.

  1. Preclinical models for interrogating drug action in human cancers using Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew N.; Higashi, Richard M.; Fan, Teresa W-M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In this review we compare the advantages and disadvantages of different model biological systems for determining the metabolic functions of cells in complex environments, how they may change in different disease states, and respond to therapeutic interventions. Background All preclinical drug-testing models have advantages and drawbacks. We compare and contrast established cell, organoid and animal models with ex vivo organ or tissue culture and in vivo human experiments in the context of metabolic readout of drug efficacy. As metabolism reports directly on the biochemical state of cells and tissues, it can be very sensitive to drugs and/or other environmental changes. This is especially so when metabolic activities are probed by stable isotope tracing methods, which can also provide detailed mechanistic information on drug action. We have developed and been applying Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM) to examine metabolic reprogramming of human lung cancer cells in monoculture, in mouse xenograft/explant models, and in lung cancer patients in situ (Lane et al. 2011; T. W. Fan et al. 2011; T. W-M. Fan et al. 2012; T. W. Fan et al. 2012; Xie et al. 2014b; Ren et al. 2014a; Sellers et al. 2015b). We are able to determine the influence of the tumor microenvironment using these models. We have now extended the range of models to fresh human tissue slices, similar to those originally described by O. Warburg (Warburg 1923), which retain the native tissue architecture and heterogeneity with a paired benign versus cancer design under defined cell culture conditions. This platform offers an unprecedented human tissue model for preclinical studies on metabolic reprogramming of human cancer cells in their tissue context, and response to drug treatment (Xie et al. 2014a). As the microenvironment of the target human tissue is retained and individual patient's response to drugs is obtained, this platform promises to transcend current limitations of drug selection

  2. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J.; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part...

  3. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  4. Oral cancer: molecular technologies for risk assessment and diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Tao Chen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Purpose: The effective biomarkers related to diagnosis, metastasis, drug resistance and irradiation sensitivity of oral cancers will help the pathologist and oncologist to determine the molecular taxonomy diagnosis and design the individualization treatment for the patients with oral cancers.

  5. Delta(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as potential curative agents for cancer: A critical examination of the preclinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, C J

    2015-06-01

    An Internet search with search words "cannabis cures cancer" produce a wealth of sites claiming that cannabis has this effect. These sites are freely accessible to the general public and thus contribute to public opinion. But do delta(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) cure cancer? In the absence of clinical data other than a safety study and case reports, preclinical data should be evaluated in terms of its predictive value. Using a strict approach where only concentrations and/or models relevant to the clinical situation are considered, the current preclinical data do not yet provide robust evidence that systemically administered Δ(9) -THC will be useful for the curative treatment of cancer. There is more support for an intratumoral route of administration of higher doses of Δ(9) -THC. CBD produces effects in relevant concentrations and models, although more data are needed concerning its use in conjunction with other treatment strategies.

  6. Epigenetics in diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aga Syed Sameer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a third most common epithelial carcinoma. CRC is known to develop from the early precancerous lesion to full blown malignancy via definite phases due to cumulative mutations and aberrant methylation of number of genes. The use of serum biomarkers that is non-invasive to discriminate cancer patients from healthy persons will prove to be an important tool to improve the early diagnosis of CRC. This will serve as the boon to the clinical management of the disease.

  7. Breast cancer. Present perspective of early diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Third International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer afforded a further opportunity for scientists from all over the world to come together and present important papers concerning breast cancer and early diagnosis procedures. The symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultra-sonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and significant contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist.

  8. Molecular Imaging Probes for Diagnosis and Therapy Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women where early detection and accurate assessment of therapy response can improve clinical outcomes. Molecular imaging, which includes PET, SPECT, MRI, and optical modalities, provides noninvasive means of detecting biological processes and molecular events in vivo. Molecular imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology and effects of drug action during both preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. This has led to the identification of many molecular imaging probes for key processes in breast cancer. Hormone receptors, growth factor receptor, and angiogenic factors, such as ER, PR, HER2, and VEGFR, have been adopted as imaging targets to detect and stage the breast cancer and to monitor the treatment efficacy. Receptor imaging probes are usually composed of targeting moiety attached to a signaling component such as a radionuclide that can be detected using dedicated instruments. Current molecular imaging probes involved in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy evaluation are reviewed, and future of molecular imaging for the preclinical and clinical is explained.

  9. The preclinical new drug research program of the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discovery and development of anticancer drugs with clinical potential are the responsibility of the Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP), Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute (NCI). Approximately 10,000 compounds/year are selectively acquired and screened against murine tumor models in order to discover new, active materials. The program required to accomplish this objective, as well as the subsequent tasks of formulation development and toxicology testing, is described. Since its inception in 1955, the preclinical new drug research program of the NCI has played a major role in the discovery and development of new agents which have been entered into clinical trial. The NCI has been responsible for the discovery of eight of the 16 commercially available drugs discovered since 1955. In addition, the NCI has played an important role in the clinical evaluation of all 16 of these New Drug Application (NDA)-approved drugs. During 1977-1982, the NCI filed Investigational New Drug Applications (INDA) for 33 cytotoxic agents. It was responsible for the discovery of the antitumor activity of 73% of these compounds. Most of the INDA compounds were acquired directly through NCI efforts. The DTP active acquisition program was responsible for obtaining 69% of these materials, with an additional 12% coming from the DTP intramural research program. Only 19% were received as voluntary submissions. The DTP active acquisition and screening effort is shown to have played even a larger role in identifying and obtaining those compounds which are currently in earlier stages of the NCI drug discovery and development process.

  10. Validation and reproducibility assessment of modality independent elastography in a pre-clinical model of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Jared A.; Kim, Dong K.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    Clinical observations have long suggested that cancer progression is accompanied by extracellular matrix remodeling and concomitant increases in mechanical stiffness. Due to the strong association of mechanics and tumor progression, there has been considerable interest in incorporating methodologies to diagnose cancer through the use of mechanical stiffness imaging biomarkers, resulting in commercially available US and MR elastography products. Extension of this approach towards monitoring longitudinal changes in mechanical properties along a course of cancer therapy may provide means for assessing early response to therapy; therefore a systematic study of the elasticity biomarker in characterizing cancer for therapeutic monitoring is needed. The elastography method we employ, modality independent elastography (MIE), can be described as a model-based inverse image-analysis method that reconstructs elasticity images using two acquired image volumes in a pre/post state of compression. In this work, we present preliminary data towards validation and reproducibility assessment of our elasticity biomarker in a pre-clinical model of breast cancer. The goal of this study is to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of MIE and therefore the magnitude of changes required to determine statistical differences during therapy. Our preliminary results suggest that the MIE method can accurately and robustly assess mechanical properties in a pre-clinical system and provide considerable enthusiasm for the extension of this technique towards monitoring therapy-induced changes to breast cancer tissue architecture.

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of tubulin inhibitors with non-small cell lung cancer pre-clinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lama R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic small molecule tubulin inhibitors have many advantages as novel anti-cancer agents compared to the current tubulin inhibitors generated from natural products. Our previous studies led to the design and synthesis of a series of novel tubulin inhibitors. Some of these compounds also inhibited heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27, and showed promising in vitro anti-cancer activities in several breast cancer cell lines at sub nano-molar concentrations. However, whether these compounds could suppress tumor growth in animals was not investigated yet. In the current study, to identify the best drug candidates, therapeutic efficacy of the representative compounds from previous analyses was evaluated using non-small cell lung cancer preclinical models. These agents dose-dependently inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells in both monolayer cultures and three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. Several compounds also showed promising tumor growth suppressive activity in nude mice xenograft model

  12. Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J Quincy; Vishwanath, Karthik; Palmer, Gregory M; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2009-02-01

    Methods of optical spectroscopy that provide quantitative, physically or physiologically meaningful measures of tissue properties are an attractive tool for the study, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of various cancers. Recent development of methodologies to convert measured reflectance and fluorescence spectra from tissue to cancer-relevant parameters such as vascular volume, oxygenation, extracellular matrix extent, metabolic redox states, and cellular proliferation have significantly advanced the field of tissue optical spectroscopy. The number of publications reporting quantitative tissue spectroscopy results in the UV-visible wavelength range has increased sharply in the past three years, and includes new and emerging studies that correlate optically measured parameters with independent measures such as immunohistochemistry, which should aid in increased clinical acceptance of these technologies.

  13. PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PREVENT program provides a structure for the introduction of new agents, drugs and vaccines to inhibit, retard or reverse the cancer process. The program was designed to optimize translational opportunities from discovery to the clinic, and provide a mechanism to identify and study efficacy and pharmacodynamics biomarkers that will help in phase II trials to evaluate drug effects.  | Research pipeline for new prevention interventions and biomarkers headed toward clinical trials.

  14. Breast Cancer Diagnosis Using Machine Learning Algorithms - A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.Gayathri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has become a common factor now-a-days. Despite the fact, not all general hospitalshave the facilities to diagnose breast cancer through mammograms. Waiting for diagnosing a breastcancer for a long time may increase the possibility of the cancer spreading. Therefore a computerizedbreast cancer diagnosis has been developed to reduce the time taken to diagnose the breast cancer andreduce the death rate. This paper summarizes the survey on breast cancer diagnosis using various machinelearning algorithms and methods, which are used to improve the accuracy of predicting cancer. This surveycan also help us to know about number of papers that are implemented to diagnose the breast cancer.

  15. Effects of spatial and spectral frequencies on wide-field functional imaging (wifi) characterization of preclinical breast cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Eva Y. H. P.; Choi, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    A common strategy to study breast cancer is the use of the preclinical model. These models provide a physiologically relevant and controlled environment in which to study both response to novel treatments and the biology of the cancer. Preclinical models, including the spontaneous tumor model and mammary window chamber model, are very amenable to optical imaging and to this end, we have developed a wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) instrument that is perfectly suited to studying tumor metabolism in preclinical models. WiFI combines two optical imaging modalities, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI). Our current WiFI imaging protocol consists of multispectral imaging in the near infrared (650-980 nm) spectrum, over a wide (7 cm x 5 cm) field of view. Using SFDI, the spatially-resolved reflectance of sinusoidal patterns projected onto the tissue is assessed, and optical properties of the tissue are determined, which are then used to extract tissue chromophore concentrations in the form of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, and percentage of lipid and water. In the current study, we employ Monte Carlo simulations of SFDI light propagation in order to characterize the penetration depth of light in both the spontaneous tumor model and mammary window chamber model. Preliminary results suggest that different spatial frequency and wavelength combinations have different penetration depths, suggesting the potential depth sectioning capability of the SFDI component of WiFI.

  16. Preclinical Activity of the Vascular Disrupting Agent OXi4503 against Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn D. Bothwell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs represent a relatively distinct class of agents that target established blood vessels in tumors. In this study, we examined the preclinical activity of the second-generation VDA OXi4503 against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Studies were performed in subcutaneous and orthotopic FaDu-luc HNSCC xenografts established in immunodeficient mice. In the subcutaneous model, bioluminescence imaging (BLI along with tumor growth measurements was performed to assess tumor response to therapy. In mice bearing orthotopic tumors, a dual modality imaging approach based on BLI and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was utilized. Correlative histologic assessment of tumors was performed to validate imaging data. Dynamic BLI revealed a marked reduction in radiance within a few hours of OXi4503 administration compared to baseline levels. However, this reduction was transient with vascular recovery observed at 24 h post treatment. A single injection of OXi4503 (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant (p < 0.01 tumor growth inhibition of subcutaneous FaDu-luc xenografts. MRI revealed a significant reduction (p < 0.05 in volume of orthotopic tumors at 10 days post two doses of OXi4503 treatment. Corresponding histologic (H&E sections of Oxi4503 treated tumors showed extensive areas of necrosis and hemorrhaging compared to untreated controls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, on the activity of Oxi4503 against HNSCC. These results demonstrate the potential of tumor-VDAs in head and neck cancer. Further examination of the antivascular and antitumor activity of Oxi4503 against HNSCC alone and in combination with chemotherapy and radiation is warranted.

  17. Use of a genetically engineered mouse model as a preclinical tool for HER2 breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Creedon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-targeted therapies presents a major clinical problem. Although preclinical studies have identified a number of possible mechanisms, clinical validation has been difficult. This is most likely to reflect the reliance on cell-line models that do not recapitulate the complexity and heterogeneity seen in human tumours. Here, we show the utility of a genetically engineered mouse model of HER2-driven breast cancer (MMTV-NIC to define mechanisms of resistance to the pan-HER family inhibitor AZD8931. Genetic manipulation of MMTV-NIC mice demonstrated that loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN conferred de novo resistance to AZD8931, and a tumour fragment transplantation model was established to assess mechanisms of acquired resistance. Using this approach, 50% of tumours developed resistance to AZD8931. Analysis of the resistant tumours showed two distinct patterns of resistance: tumours in which reduced membranous HER2 expression was associated with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and resistant tumours that retained HER2 expression and an epithelial morphology. The plasticity of the EMT phenotype was demonstrated upon re-implantation of resistant tumours that then showed a mixed epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype. Further AZD8931 treatment resulted in the generation of secondary resistant tumours that again had either undergone EMT or retained their original epithelial morphology. The data provide a strong rationale for basing therapeutic decisions on the biology of the individual resistant tumour, which can be very different from that of the primary tumour and will be specific to individual patients.

  18. The early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, T L

    2001-06-01

    Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy in both men and women, both in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Today, lung cancer is most often diagnosed on the basis of symptoms of advanced disease or when chest x-rays are taken for a variety of purposes unrelated to lung cancer detection. Unfortunately, in the United States no society or governmental agency recommends screening, even for patients with high risks, such as smokers with airflow obstruction or people with occupational exposures, including asbestos. The origins of this negative attitude toward lung cancer screening are found in 3 studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in the mid-1970s and conducted at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the Mayo Clinic, and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center. These studies concluded that early identification of lung cancer through chest x-rays and cytologic diagnosis of sputum did not alter disease-specific mortality. However, patients with earlier stage disease were found through screening, which resulted in a higher resectability rate and improved survival in the screening group compared with a control group of patients receiving ordinary care. Patients in the control group often received annual chest x-rays during the course of this study, which was the standard of care at the time. Thus no true nonscreening control group resulted. The patients at highest risk were not enrolled in this study. No specific amount of pack-years of smoking intensity was required. Only men were screened. The studies were inadequately powered to show an improvement in mortality rate of less than 50%. Ninety percent of lung cancer occurs in smokers. The prevalence of lung cancer is 4 to 6 times greater when smokers have airflow obstruction than with normal airflow, when all other background factors, including smoking history, occupational risk, and family history, are the same. Screening heavy smokers (ie, > or = 30 pack-years) with airflow obstruction

  19. Preclinical imaging and translational animal models of cancer for accelerated clinical implementation of nanotechnologies and macromolecular agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Raquel; Spence, Tara; Huang, Huang; Allen, Christine

    2015-12-10

    The majority of animal models of cancer have performed poorly in terms of predicting clinical performance of new therapeutics, which are most often first evaluated in patients with advanced, metastatic disease. The development and use of metastatic models of cancer may enhance clinical translatability of preclinical studies focused on the development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and macromolecular therapeutics, potentially accelerating their clinical implementation. It is recognized that the development and use of such models are not without challenge. Preclinical imaging tools offer a solution by allowing temporal and spatial characterization of metastatic lesions. This paper provides a review of imaging methods applicable for evaluation of novel therapeutics in clinically relevant models of advanced cancer. An overview of currently utilized models of oncology in small animals is followed by image-based development and characterization of visceral metastatic cancer models. Examples of imaging tools employed for metastatic lesion detection, evaluation of anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential and biodistribution of novel therapies, as well as the co-development and/or use of imageable surrogates of response, are also discussed. While the focus is on development of macromolecular and nanotechnology-based therapeutics, examples with small molecules are included in some cases to illustrate concepts and approaches that can be applied in the assessment of nanotechnologies or macromolecules.

  20. Colorectal cancer diagnosis: Pitfalls and opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo; Vega; Fátima; Valentín; Joaquín; Cubiella

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer(CRC) is a major health problem in the Western world. The diagnostic process is a challenge in all health systems for many reasons: There are often no specific symptoms; lower abdominal symptoms are very common and mostly related to nonneoplastic diseases, not CRC; diagnosis of CRC is mainlybased on colonoscopy, an invasive procedure; and the resource for diagnosis is usually scarce. Furthermore, the available predictive models for CRC are based on the evaluation of symptoms, and their diagnostic accuracy is limited. Moreover, diagnosis is a complex process involving a sequence of events related to the patient, the initial consulting physician and the health system. Understanding this process is the first step in identifying avoidable factors and reducing the effects of diagnostic delay on the prognosis of CRC. In this article, we describe the predictive value of symptoms for CRC detection. We summarize the available evidence concerning the diagnostic process, as well as the factors implicated in its delay and the methods proposed to reduce it. We describe the different prioritization criteria and predictive models for CRC detection, specifically addressing the two-week wait referral guideline from the National Institute of Clinical Excellence in terms of efficacy, efficiency and diagnostic accuracy. Finally, we collected information on the usefulness of biomarkers, specifically the faecal immunochemical test, as non-invasive diagnostic tests for CRC detection in symptomatic patients.

  1. Use of proteomics for the early diagnosis fo breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, A.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality rates in The Netherlands are among the highest in Europe. To improve breast cancer survival, early detection is of vital importance. The introduction of the national breast cancer screening program has led to an improvement in stage distribution at diagnosis of breast cancer.

  2. New use of prescription drugs prior to a cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    as for nine pre-specified individual drug classes, representing drug treatment likely to be prescribed for symptoms of the given cancers. RESULTS: The incidence rate for new drug treatment among cancer cases was stable around 130 per 1000 persons per month until 6 months prior to cancer diagnosis where......PURPOSE: Cancers often have considerable induction periods. This confers a risk of reverse causation bias in studies of cancer risk associated with drug use, as early symptoms of a yet undiagnosed cancer might lead to drug treatment in the period leading up to the diagnosis. This bias can...... drugs was assessed prior to their cancer diagnosis as well as among population controls (n = 1 402 400). Analyses were conducted for all cancers and for breast, lung, colon and prostate cancer individually. Further, analyses were performed for a composite measure of all incident drug use as well...

  3. New use of prescription drugs prior to a cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancers often have considerable induction periods. This confers a risk of reverse causation bias in studies of cancer risk associated with drug use, as early symptoms of a yet undiagnosed cancer might lead to drug treatment in the period leading up to the diagnosis. This bias can...... drugs was assessed prior to their cancer diagnosis as well as among population controls (n = 1 402 400). Analyses were conducted for all cancers and for breast, lung, colon and prostate cancer individually. Further, analyses were performed for a composite measure of all incident drug use as well...... as for nine pre-specified individual drug classes, representing drug treatment likely to be prescribed for symptoms of the given cancers. RESULTS: The incidence rate for new drug treatment among cancer cases was stable around 130 per 1000 persons per month until 6 months prior to cancer diagnosis where...

  4. Postpartum diagnosis demonstrates a high risk for metastasis and merits an expanded definition of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callihan, Eryn B; Gao, Dexiang; Jindal, Sonali; Lyons, Traci R; Manthey, Elizabeth; Edgerton, Susan; Urquhart, Alexander; Schedin, Pepper; Borges, Virginia F

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies report conflicting data on outcomes of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC). Our aim was to examine the effect of a postpartum diagnosis on maternal prognosis in a young women's breast cancer cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women age ≤45 years, diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 619) during 1981-2011 at the University of Colorado Hospital and The Shaw Cancer Center in Edwards, CO. Breast cancer cases were grouped according to time between giving birth and diagnosis: nulliparous (n = 125), pregnant (n = 24), 5-cancer during the first five-years postpartum confers poorer maternal prognoses after adjustment for biologic subtype, stage, and year of diagnosis. We propose that the definition of PABC should include cases diagnosed up to at least five-years postpartum to better delineate the increased risk imparted by a postpartum diagnosis. Based on emerging preclinical and epidemiologic data, we propose that pregnant and postpartum cases be researched as distinct subsets of PABC to clarify the risk imparted by pregnancy and the events subsequent to pregnancy, such as breast involution, on breast cancer. Further, we highlight the importance of postpartum breast cancer as an area for further research to reduce the increased metastatic potential and mortality of PABC.

  5. Progress in diagnosis of breast cancer: Advances in radiology technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mari Beth Linder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females between the ages of 15 and 54, and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Diagnosis begins with detection by breast examination (clinical breast exam or breast self-exam or by radiologic studies, like mammography. Many advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer have taken place in recent years. This article will review the history of radiologic advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Use of technological advancements in digital breast tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound in breast cancer diagnosis will be presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic interventions when compared to older, traditional X-ray films will be discussed. It is important for all nurses, including radiology and oncology nurses, to be well informed about these varied diagnostic modalities, and appreciate the fact that advances in radiologic imaging technologies can yield improved outcomes for breast cancer patients.

  6. Clinical and Preclinical Treatment Aspects of Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Meulenbeld (Hielke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the Western countries prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer, except for skin cancer, and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. Prostate cancer tends to develop in men over the age of fifty and although it is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in men,

  7. Your cancer diagnosis: Do you need a second opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000930.htm Your cancer diagnosis: Do you need a second opinion? To use ... unclear for the type and location of your cancer. You are not comfortable with your diagnosis or treatment plan. Your doctor says there is ...

  8. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  9. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash C Chadha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP. However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective: The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods: Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1 were obtained from four groups of men: (1 Controls (2 with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx (3 with clinically localized CaP and (4 with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results: TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93 and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97 were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP. The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997. The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992 and PSA (AUC = 0.963 levels. Conclusions: The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted.

  10. Real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Zhao, Jianhua; Short, Michael; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy has becoming a practical tool for rapid in vivo tissue diagnosis. This paper provides an overview on the latest development of real-time in vivo Raman systems for cancer detection. Instrumentation, data handling, as well as oncology applications of Raman techniques were covered. Optic fiber probes designs for Raman spectroscopy were discussed. Spectral data pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification between normal/benign and malignant tissues were surveyed. Applications of Raman techniques for clinical diagnosis for different types of cancers, including skin cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, oesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer, were summarized. Schematic of a real-time Raman spectrometer for skin cancer detection. Without correction, the image captured on CCD camera for a straight entrance slit has a curvature. By arranging the optic fiber array in reverse orientation, the curvature could be effectively corrected. © 2014 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. MicroRNAs in Testicular Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hui; Krassnig, Lisa; Bullock, Marc D; Pichler, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer processes a unique and clear miRNA expression signature. This differentiates testicular cancer from most other cancer types, which are usually more ambiguous when assigning miRNA patterns. As such, testicular cancer may represent a unique cancer type in which miRNAs find their use as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, with a potential to surpass the current available markers usually with low sensitivity. In this review, we present literature findings on miRNAs associated with testicular cancer, and discuss their potential diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as their potential as indicators of drug response in patients with testicular cancer.

  12. Fullerenols in therapy and diagnosis of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lichota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors are one of the main causes of death in Poland. One of the objectives of contemporary biomedical research is to maximize the effects of therapeutic strategies. The actions undertaken to improve therapeutic agents are aimed at reducing the side effects of cancer treatments. Another direction of investigations is the search for protective substances that reduce the toxicity of the drug to normal cells. Carbon-based nanomaterials (fullerenes and their derivatives, graphene, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds are a broad class of nanoparticles that have potential biomedical applications in both therapy and diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to review biological properties of fullerenols in the context of their use in various strategies of cancer treatments. The authors also discuss the possibility of simultaneous use of nanoparticles in therapy and diagnosis, that is, in theranostics. Current knowledge indicates that fullerenes and their hydrophilic derivatives, especially fullerenols, show low or no toxicity. They may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth and protection of normal cells through their antioxidant properties, as well as to the regulation of expression of genes involved in apoptosis and angiogenesis, and stimulation of the immune response. Gadoliniumcontaining endohedral fullerenes are less toxic as a contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, and they may also inhibit tumor growth, which is a promising result for theranostics. Med Pr 2016;67(6:817–831

  13. Prostate cancer:diagnosis and staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nigel Borley; Mark R.Feneley

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents an increasing health burden.The past 20 years,with the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA),has seen prostate cancer move increasingly from a condition that presented with locally advanced disease or metastases to one that is found upon screening.More is also known about the pathology of pre-malignant lesions.Diagnosis relies on trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) to obtain biopsies from throughout the prostate,but TRUS is not useful for staging.Imaging for staging,such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography,still has a low accuracy compared with pathological specimens.Current techniques are also inaccurate in identifying lymph node and bony metastases.Nomograms have been developed from the PSA,Gleason score and clinical grading to help quantify the risk of extra-capsular extension in radical prostatectomy specimens.Improved clinical staging modalities are required for more reliable prediction of pathological stage and for monitoring of response to treatments.

  14. Predicting Drug Response in Human Prostate Cancer from Preclinical Analysis of In Vivo Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Mitrofanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although genetically engineered mouse (GEM models are often used to evaluate cancer therapies, extrapolation of such preclinical data to human cancer can be challenging. Here, we introduce an approach that uses drug perturbation data from GEM models to predict drug efficacy in human cancer. Network-based analysis of expression profiles from in vivo treatment of GEM models identified drugs and drug combinations that inhibit the activity of FOXM1 and CENPF, which are master regulators of prostate cancer malignancy. Validation of mouse and human prostate cancer models confirmed the specificity and synergy of a predicted drug combination to abrogate FOXM1/CENPF activity and inhibit tumorigenicity. Network-based analysis of treatment signatures from GEM models identified treatment-responsive genes in human prostate cancer that are potential biomarkers of patient response. More generally, this approach allows systematic identification of drugs that inhibit tumor dependencies, thereby improving the utility of GEM models for prioritizing drugs for clinical evaluation.

  15. Preclinical safety assessment of Ad[I/PPT-E1A], a novel oncolytic adenovirus for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ellen; Essand, Magnus; Kraaij, Robert; Adamson, Rachel; Maitland, Norman J; Bangma, Chris H

    2014-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in the Western world. Patients can be cured only when the tumor has not metastasized outside the prostate. However, treatment with curative intent fails in a significant number of men, often resulting in untreatable progressive disease with a fatal outcome. Oncolytic adenovirus therapy may be a promising adjuvant treatment to reduce local failure or the outgrowth of micrometastatic disease. Within the European gene therapy consortium GIANT, we have developed a novel prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus: Ad[I/PPT-E1A]. This adenovirus specifically kills prostate cells via prostate-specific replication. This article describes the clinical development of Ad[I/PPT-E1A] with particular reference to the preclinical safety assessment of this novel virus. The preclinical safety assessment involved an efficacy study in a human orthotopic xenograft mouse model, a specificity study in human primary cells, and a toxicity study in normal mice. These studies confirmed that Ad[I/PPT-E1A] efficiently kills prostate tumor cells in vivo, is not harmful to other organs, and is well tolerated in mice after systemic delivery. The safety, as well as the immunological effects of Ad[I/PPT-E1A] as a local adjuvant therapy, will now be studied in a phase I dose-escalating trial in patients with localized prostate cancer who are scheduled for curative radical prostatectomy and can be used as an updated paradigm for similar therapeutic viruses.

  16. Pre-clinical safety assessment of Ad[I/PPT-E1A], a novel oncolytic adenovirus for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ellen; Essand, Magnus; Kraaij, Robert; Adamson, Rachel; Maitland, Norman; Bangma, Chris H

    2014-02-18

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in the Western world. Patients can only be cured when the tumour has not metastasised outside the prostate. However, treatment with curative intent fails in a significant number of men, often resulting in untreatable progressive disease with a fatal outcome. Oncolytic adenovirus therapy may be a promising adjuvant treatment to reduce local failure or the outgrowth of micrometastatic disease. Within the European gene therapy consortium GIANT, we have developed a novel prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus: Ad[I/PPT-E1A] that specifically kills prostate cells via prostate-specific replication. This paper describes the clinical development of Ad[I/PPT-E1A] with particular reference to the pre-clinical safety assessment of this novel virus. The pre-clinical safety assessment involved an efficacy study in a human orthotopic xenograft mouse model, a specificity study in human primary cells and a toxicity study in normal mice. These studies confirmed that Ad[I/PPT-E1A] efficiently kills prostate tumour cells in vivo, is not harmful to other organs and is well-tolerated in mice after systemic delivery. The safety, as well as the immunological effects of Ad[I/PPT-E1A] as a local adjuvant therapy will now be studied in a phase I dose-escalating trial in patients with localised prostate cancer who are scheduled for curative radical prostatectomy and can be used as an updated paradigm for similar therapeutic viruses.

  17. VEGFR2-Targeted Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging Can Predict Responses to Antiangiogenic Therapy in Preclinical Models of Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianhua; Wang, Huaijun; Zhang, Huiping; Lutz, Amelie M; Tian, Lu; Hristov, Dimitre; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2016-07-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging capabilities to assess responses to anticancer therapies are needed to minimize sampling errors common to two-dimensional approaches as a result of spatial heterogeneity in tumors. Recently, the feasibility and reproducibility of 3D ultrasound molecular imaging (3D USMI) using contrast agents, which target molecular markers, have greatly improved, due to the development of clinical 3D matrix array transducers. Here we report preclinical proof-of-concept studies showing that 3D USMI of VEGFR2/KDR expression accurately gauges longitudinal treatment responses to antiangiogenesis therapy in responding versus nonresponding mouse models of colon cancer. Tumors in these models exhibited differential patterns of VEGFR2-targeted 3D USMI signals during the course of antiangiogenic treatment with bevacizumab. In responding tumors, the VEGFR2 signal decreased as soon as 24 hours after therapy was started, whereas in nonresponding tumors there was no change in signal at any time point. The early decrease in VEGFR2 signal was highly predictive of treatment outcome at the end of therapy. Our results offer preclinical proof that 3D USMI can predict responses to antiangiogenic therapy, warranting further investigation of its clinical translatability to predicting treatment outcomes in patients. Cancer Res; 76(14); 4081-9. ©2016 AACR.

  18. Feasibility of Primary Tumor Culture Models and Preclinical Prediction Assays for Head and Neck Cancer: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. C. Dohmen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary human tumor culture models allow for individualized drug sensitivity testing and are therefore a promising technique to achieve personalized treatment for cancer patients. This would especially be of interest for patients with advanced stage head and neck cancer. They are extensively treated with surgery, usually in combination with high-dose cisplatin chemoradiation. However, adding cisplatin to radiotherapy is associated with an increase in severe acute toxicity, while conferring only a minor overall survival benefit. Hence, there is a strong need for a preclinical model to identify patients that will respond to the intended treatment regimen and to test novel drugs. One of such models is the technique of culturing primary human tumor tissue. This review discusses the feasibility and success rate of existing primary head and neck tumor culturing techniques and their corresponding chemo- and radiosensitivity assays. A comprehensive literature search was performed and success factors for culturing in vitro are debated, together with the actual value of these models as preclinical prediction assay for individual patients. With this review, we aim to fill a gap in the understanding of primary culture models from head and neck tumors, with potential importance for other tumor types as well.

  19. Feasibility of Primary Tumor Culture Models and Preclinical Prediction Assays for Head and Neck Cancer: A Narrative Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohmen, Amy J. C., E-mail: a.dohmen@nki.nl [Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Swartz, Justin E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands); Van Den Brekel, Michiel W. M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Willems, Stefan M. [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands); Spijker, René [Medical library, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 1100 DE (Netherlands); Dutch Cochrane Centre, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands); Neefjes, Jacques [Department of Cell Biology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Zuur, Charlotte L. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands)

    2015-08-28

    Primary human tumor culture models allow for individualized drug sensitivity testing and are therefore a promising technique to achieve personalized treatment for cancer patients. This would especially be of interest for patients with advanced stage head and neck cancer. They are extensively treated with surgery, usually in combination with high-dose cisplatin chemoradiation. However, adding cisplatin to radiotherapy is associated with an increase in severe acute toxicity, while conferring only a minor overall survival benefit. Hence, there is a strong need for a preclinical model to identify patients that will respond to the intended treatment regimen and to test novel drugs. One of such models is the technique of culturing primary human tumor tissue. This review discusses the feasibility and success rate of existing primary head and neck tumor culturing techniques and their corresponding chemo- and radiosensitivity assays. A comprehensive literature search was performed and success factors for culturing in vitro are debated, together with the actual value of these models as preclinical prediction assay for individual patients. With this review, we aim to fill a gap in the understanding of primary culture models from head and neck tumors, with potential importance for other tumor types as well.

  20. Psychosocial impact of a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Paige

    2013-10-01

    Although a rare occurrence, cancer is sometimes diagnosed during or shortly after pregnancy. This article reviews two recent studies that specifically examine the psychosocial impact of a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy. Researchers have identified risk factors that may exacerbate women's anxiety, stress or distress during these co-occurring events. Nurses are in a unique position to support women dealing with a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy.

  1. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a glycoprotein expressed by epithelial cells of several normal tissue types and overexpressed by several epithelial cancers. Serum CA125 levels are mostly used as an aid in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, to monitor response to treatment and detect...

  2. Survival rate after emergency diagnosis of cancer is 'shocking'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ONE QUARTER of patients diagnosed with cancer after attending a London emergency department will die within two months, latest research suggests. Study author Kathy Pritchard-Jones, chief medical officer for London Cancer, said the 'shocking figures' confirm that early diagnosis makes a huge difference to the chances of surviving cancer.

  3. Rapid, Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis of Selective V600EBRAF Inhibitors for Preclinical Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Jason R.; Saleh, Sam; Uddin, Md. Imam; Manning, H. Charles

    2012-01-01

    We report a dramatically improved total synthesis of two highly selective V600EBRAF inhibitors, PLX4720 and PLX4032, that leverages microwave-assisted organic synthesis (MAOS). Compared with previously reported approaches, our novel MAOS method significantly reduces overall reaction time without compromising yield. In addition to providing a gram-scale route to these compounds for preclinical oncology research, we anticipate this approach could accelerate the synthesis of azaindoles in high-throughput, library-based formats. PMID:23180892

  4. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer.org Handling treatment The goal of any breast cancer treatment is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even the best treatments have side effects. ...

  5. Religiosity After a Diagnosis of Cancer Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Lee; Sawyer, Patricia; Holt, Cheryl; Brown, Cynthia J

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of religiosity are important to health and quality of life of cancer patients. This analysis examined changes in religiosity among community-dwelling cancer survivors. Previously diagnosed and newly diagnosed cancer survivors age 65+ were interviewed at baseline and four years later to understand how components of religiosity may change. Religiosity was assessed as organizational, non-organizational, and intrinsic using the Duke Religiosity Scale. At four years, 45 persons had a new diagnosis of non-skin cancer in addition to the 94 diagnosed at baseline. In comparison to persons without a cancer diagnosis and participants with a baseline diagnosis, newly diagnosed participants were more likely to decrease church attendance. Although not statistically significant, a larger proportion of recently diagnosed persons increased non-organizational religiosity behaviors and intrinsic religiosity compared to those with cancer at baseline and those without cancer. African Americans were more likely than Caucasians to show increased non-organizational religiosity. Caucasians with a cancer diagnosis showed increased intrinsic religiosity, perhaps because of a ceiling effect among African Americans. Although all groups showed declines and increases in the measures, baseline religiosity was the strongest predictor of religiosity at 48 months, indicating stability in religiosity over time, even in the context of a cancer diagnosis.

  6. Clinical Advances in Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Philip, Philip A.; Seema Sethi; Shadan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis is currently undergoing a paradigm shift with the incorporation of molecular biomarkers as part of routine diagnostic panel. The molecular alteration ranges from those involving the DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding endogenous single-stranded RNAs that critically regulates the development, invasion and metastasis of cancers. They are altered in cancers and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers for cancer...

  7. Gene Expression Correlation for Cancer Diagnosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbing Ling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor prognosis for late-stage, high-grade, and recurrent cancers has been motivating cancer researchers to search for more efficient biomarkers to identify the onset of cancer. Recent advances in constructing and dynamically analyzing biomolecular networks for different types of cancer have provided a promising novel strategy to detect tumorigenesis and metastasis. The observation of different biomolecular networks associated with normal and cancerous states led us to hypothesize that correlations for gene expressions could serve as valid indicators of early cancer development. In this pilot study, we tested our hypothesis by examining whether the mRNA expressions of three randomly selected cancer-related genes PIK3C3, PIM3, and PTEN were correlated during cancer progression and the correlation coefficients could be used for cancer diagnosis. Strong correlations (0.68≤r≤1.0 were observed between PIK3C3 and PIM3 in breast cancer, between PIK3C3 and PTEN in breast and ovary cancers, and between PIM3 and PTEN in breast, kidney, liver, and thyroid cancers during disease progression, implicating that the correlations for cancer network gene expressions could serve as a supplement to current clinical biomarkers, such as cancer antigens, for early cancer diagnosis.

  8. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  9. Synchronous gynecologic cancer and the use of imaging for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Camila Silva; Galvão, José Lucas Scarpinetti; Soares, Giovanna Milanes Bego; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Chojniak, Rubens; Bringel, Shenia Lauanna Rezende; Brot, Louise De

    2016-04-01

    Endometrial and cervical cancers are the most prevalent gynecologic neoplasms. While endometrial cancer occurs in older women, cervical cancer is more prevalente in young subjects. The most common clinical manifestation in these two gynecological cancers is vaginal bleeding. In the first case, diagnosis is made based on histological and imaging evaluation of the endometrium, while cervical cancers are diagnosed clinically, according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). The authors present a case of synchronous gynecological cancer of the endometrium and cervix diagnosed during staging on MRI and confirmed by histological analysis of the surgical specimen.

  10. Coping with a breast cancer diagnosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, A L; Snider, P R

    1993-01-01

    Employing the stress and coping theory of Lazarus and Folkman, this study followed 117 women age 40 or over regarding personality, cognitive appraisal, coping, and mood variables before breast biopsy, after diagnosis, and, for those who had cancer, after surgery. Upon biopsy, 36 received a cancer diagnosis, and 81 received a benign diagnosis. The 2 groups did not differ on appraisals, coping, or affect before diagnosis. With prebiopsy affect controlled, cancer patients reported more negative affect postbiopsy than did benign patients. Postsurgery, cancer patients expressed less vigor and more fatigue than benign patients, but the groups did not differ on other negative emotions. Prebiopsy, psychosocial predictors accounted for 54% and 29% of the variance in negative and positive emotion, respectively. Prebiopsy variables also predicted postbiopsy and postsurgery mood; cognitive avoidance coping was a particularly important predictor of high distress and low vigor.

  11. Nanomedicines for cancer therapy: state-of-the-art and limitations to pre-clinical studies that hinder future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidczyk, Charlene; Russell, Luisa; Searson, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The ability to efficiently deliver a drug or gene to a tumor site is dependent on a wide range of factors including circulation time, interactions with the mononuclear phagocyte system, extravasation from circulation at the tumor site, targeting strategy, release from the delivery vehicle, and uptake in cancer cells. Nanotechnology provides the possibility of creating delivery systems where the design constraints are decoupled, allowing new approaches for reducing the unwanted side effects of systemic delivery, increasing tumor accumulation, and improving efficacy. The physico-chemical properties of nanoparticle-based delivery platforms introduce additional complexity associated with pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation. To assess the impact of nanoparticle-based delivery systems, we first review the design strategies and pharmacokinetics of FDA-approved nanomedicines. Next we review nanomedicines under development, summarizing the range of nanoparticle platforms, strategies for targeting, and pharmacokinetics. We show how the lack of uniformity in preclinical trials prevents systematic comparison and hence limits advances in the field.

  12. Nanomedicines for cancer therapy: state-of-the-art and limitations to pre-clinical studies that hinder future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidczyk, Charlene M; Russell, Luisa M; Searson, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    The ability to efficiently deliver a drug or gene to a tumor site is dependent on a wide range of factors including circulation time, interactions with the mononuclear phagocyte system, extravasation from circulation at the tumor site, targeting strategy, release from the delivery vehicle, and uptake in cancer cells. Nanotechnology provides the possibility of creating delivery systems where the design constraints are decoupled, allowing new approaches for reducing the unwanted side effects of systemic delivery, increasing tumor accumulation, and improving efficacy. The physico-chemical properties of nanoparticle-based delivery platforms introduce additional complexity associated with pharmacokinetics, tumor accumulation, and biodistribution. To assess the impact of nanoparticle-based delivery systems, we first review the design strategies and pharmacokinetics of FDA-approved nanomedicines. Next we review nanomedicines under development, summarizing the range of nanoparticle platforms, strategies for targeting, and pharmacokinetics. We show how the lack of uniformity in preclinical trials prevents systematic comparison and hence limits advances in the field.

  13. Systemic Administration of Polymeric Nanoparticle-Encapsulated Curcumin (NanoCurc) Blocks Tumor Growth and Metastases in Preclinical Models of Pancreatic Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisht, Savita; Mizuma, Masamichi; Feldmann, Georg; Ottenhof, Niki A.; Hong, Seung-Mo; Pramanik, Dipankar; Chenna, Venugopal; Karikari, Collins; Sharma, Rajni; Goggins, Michael G.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Ravi, Rajani; Maitra, Amarnath; Maitra, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin or diferuloylmethane is a yellow polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa). A large volume (several hundreds) of published reports has established the anticancer and chemopreventative properties of curcumin in preclinical models of every known major cancer type. Neve

  14. Age at Diagnosis and Breast Cancer Survival in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asadzadeh Vostakolaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tumour characteristics are the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. Patient-related factors such as young age at diagnosis, obesity, and smoking behaviour may also modify disease outcome. Due to the absence of a unique definition for “young age breast cancer” and the resulting variation in disease management, findings on the association between young age and prognosis of breast cancer are controversial. Methods. This study included 1500 patients with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer in six Iranian hospitals from 5 provinces. We modelled the relative excess risk (RER of breast cancer death to age at diagnosis and tumour characteristics. Results. Excess risks of death were observed for stage IV disease and poorly differentiated tumours: RER of 4.3 (95% CI: 1.05–17.65 and 3.4 (95% CI: 1.17–9.87, respectively. “Older” patients, particularly those aged 50 and over, presented more often with advanced and poorly differentiated tumours (P=0.001. After adjustment for stage, histological grade, Her-2 expression, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and place of residency, breast cancer mortality was not significantly different across age groups. Conclusion. We conclude that there is no prognostic effect of age at diagnosis of breast cancer among breast cancer patients treated at cancer centres in different parts of Iran; young and relatively old women have similar risks of dying from breast cancer.

  15. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Prostate cancer has no symptoms in its early ...

  16. Use of indocyanine green for detecting the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients: from preclinical evaluation to clinical validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei Chi

    Full Text Available Assessment of the sentinel lymph node (SLN in patients with early stage breast cancer is vital in selecting the appropriate surgical approach. However, the existing methods, including methylene blue and nuclides, possess low efficiency and effectiveness in mapping SLNs, and to a certain extent exert side effects during application. Indocyanine green (ICG, as a fluorescent dye, has been proved reliable usage in SLN detection by several other groups. In this paper, we introduce a novel surgical navigation system to detect SLN with ICG. This system contains two charge-coupled devices (CCD to simultaneously capture real-time color and fluorescent video images through two different bands. During surgery, surgeons only need to follow the fluorescence display. In addition, the system saves data automatically during surgery enabling surgeons to find the registration point easily according to image recognition algorithms. To test our system, 5 mice and 10 rabbits were used for the preclinical setting and 22 breast cancer patients were utilized for the clinical evaluation in our experiments. The detection rate was 100% and an average of 2.7 SLNs was found in 22 patients. Our results show that the usage of our surgical navigation system with ICG to detect SLNs in breast cancer patients is technically feasible.

  17. Role of symptoms in diagnosis and outcome of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Apart from Japan, where screening programmes have resulted in early diagnosis in asymptomatic patients, in most countries the diagnosis of gastric cancers is invariably made on account on dyspeptic and alarm symptoms, which may also be of prognostic significance when reported by the patient at diagnosis. However, their use as selection criteria for endoscopy seems to be inconsistent since alarm symptoms are not sufficiently sensitive to detect malignancies. In fact, the overall prevalence of these symptoms in dyspeptic patients is high, while the prevalence of gastro-intestinal cancer is very low. Moreover, symptoms of early stage cancer may be indistinguishable from those of benign dyspepsia, while the presence of alarm symptoms may imply an advanced and often inoperable disease. The features of dyspeptic and alarm symptoms may reflect the pathology of the tumour and be of prognostic value in suggesting site, stage and aggressiveness of cancer. Alarm symptoms in gastric cancer are independently related to survival and an increased number, as well as specific alarm symptoms, are closely correlated to the risk of death. Dysphagia, weight loss and a palpable abdominal mass appear to be major independent prognostic factors in gastric cancer, while gastro-intestinal bleeding, vomiting and also duration of symptoms, do not seem to have a relevant prognostic impact on survival in gastric cancer.

  18. Age at diagnosis and breast cancer survival in iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vostakolaei, F.A.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Rostami, N.; Dijck, J.A. van; Feuth, T.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tumour characteristics are the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. Patient-related factors such as young age at diagnosis, obesity, and smoking behaviour may also modify disease outcome. Due to the absence of a unique definition for "young age breast cancer" and the

  19. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Testis Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott M; Lowrance, William T

    2015-08-01

    Testis cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in young men. Most cases represent sporadic occurrences. Most commonly it presents at an early stage (clinical stage I) and is highly curable with radical orchiectomy. Even more advanced stages of testicular cancer are curable with a multimodality treatment approach. There are no widely accepted screening strategies for germ cell tumors. This article discusses the known risk factors and epidemiology of testis cancer, the presentation, and work up for new patients, and the prognosis and cure rates based on the staging and current treatment modalities for testis cancer patients.

  20. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  1. Communication of the cancer diagnosis to an elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Terra Jonas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to collect evidence on matters which involve cancer diagnosis disclosure to an elderly patient. Methods: integrative revision made in five important data bases in the area of health with seven selected articles. Results: it was noticeable that there are conflicts between family members and health professionals concerning cancer diagnosis disclosure to an elderly patient and that the preferences of those people on the disclosure of the diagnosis are similar to other patients. Conclusion: health professionals, especially the nurses, need training in order to have a secure and clarifying communication, matching the information to the specific needs of each patient, considering their reality and type of confrontation..

  2. Image diagnosis of liver cancer by nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, Shoji (National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan))

    1984-01-01

    Scintigraphies with sup(99m)Tc-phytate and /sup 67/Ga-citrate are valuable in the diagnosis of liver cancer, and subtraction scintigraphy is useful in a higher degree of diagnostic accuracy and preliminary diagnosis of the liver. In determining therapeutic procedures, it is necessary to study findings in the normal lobe of the liver according to the location of tumors. Serological screening of ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein and thyroxine-binding globulin is considered useful in the early diagnosis of liver cancer.

  3. The preclinical development of novel treatment options for advanced prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major societal problem with 11.000 new cases every year in the Netherlands. The advanced stage of the disease, castration-resistant prostate cancer, is especially deadly and is often accompanied with (bone) metastases. In this PhD-thesis, we have explored several strategies to i

  4. Radiologic diagnosis of abestos-ralated lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeung Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Asbestos was previously widely used due to its many favorable characteristics, such as durability, flexibility, and inexpensiveness. Asbestos has been prohibited in Korea since 2009, however, asbestos-related diseases remain an important public health issue because of its long latency time. Lung cancer is one of the most harmful asbestos-related diseases and patients with asbestos-related lung cancer receive compensation by law. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases is based on a detailed interview regarding the asbestos exposure, in addition to clinical, radiological, pathological, and laboratory data. This review provides a radiologic diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer.

  5. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  6. Microchimerism and survival after breast and colon cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported microchimerism to be oppositely associated with maternal breast and colon cancer. In women with a blood test positive for male microchimerism the risk of breast cancer development was reduced to one third, whereas the risk of colon cancer was elevated 4-fold. In this article...... addendum, I report the survival of cases in the original study after being diagnosed with cancer. Despite small numbers, the analysis suggests that microchimerism may be positively associated with survival after breast and maybe colon cancer diagnosis. Despite the findings on colon cancer in our original...... report, I speculate whether microchimerism could have a general beneficial role in cancer, which in some sites may not be evident because an allogeneic maternal immune reaction hastens cancer development....

  7. Tumor exosomes: cellular postmen of cancer diagnosis and personalized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aman; Khatun, Zamila; Shiras, Anjali

    2016-02-01

    Nanosized (30-150 nm) extracellular vesicles 'exosomes' are secreted by cells for intercellular communication during normal and pathological conditions. Exosomes carry biomacromolecules from cell-of-origin and, therefore, represent molecular bioprint of the cell. Tumor-derived exosomes or TDEx modulate tumor microenvironment by transfer of macromolecules locally as well as at distant metastatic sites. Due to their biological stability, TDEx are rich source of biomarkers in cancer patients. TDEx focused cancer diagnosis allows liquid biopsy-based tumor typing and may facilitate therapy response monitoring by developing novel exosomes diagnostics. Therefore, efficient and specific capturing of exosomes for subsequent amplification of the biomessages; for example, DNA, RNA, miRNA can reinvent cancer diagnosis. Here, in this review, we discuss advancements in exosomes isolation strategies, presence of exosomes biomarkers and importance of TDEx in gauging tumor heterogeneity for their potential use in cancer diagnosis, therapy.

  8. Conditions for NIR fluorescence-guided tumor resectioning in preclinical lung cancer model (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Quan, Yuhua; Choi, Byeong Hyun; Choi, Yeonho; Kim, Hyun Koo; Kim, Beop-Min

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary nodule could be identified by intraoperative fluorescence imaging system from systemic injection of indocyanine green (ICG) which achieves enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects. This study was performed to evaluate optimal injection time of ICG for detecting cancer during surgery in rabbit lung cancer model. VX2 carcinoma cell was injected in rabbit lung under fluoroscopic computed tomography-guidance. Solitary lung cancer was confirmed on positron emitting tomography with CT (PET/CT) 2 weeks after inoculation. ICG was administered intravenously and fluorescent intensity of lung tumor was measured using the custom-built intraoperative color and fluorescence merged imaging system (ICFIS) for 15 hours. Solitary lung cancer was resected through thoracoscopic version of ICFIS. ICG was observed in all animals. Because Lung has fast blood pulmonary circulation, Fluorescent signal showed maximum intensity earlier than previous studies in other organs. Fluorescent intensity showed maximum intensity within 6-9 hours in rabbit lung cancer. Overall, Fluorescent intensity decreased with increasing time, however, all tumors were detectable using fluorescent images until 12 hours. In conclusion, while there had been studies in other organs showed that optimal injection time was at least 24 hours before operation, this study showed shorter optimal injection time at lung cancer. Since fluorescent signal showed the maximum intensity within 6-9 hours, cancer resection could be performed during this time. This data informed us that optimal injection time of ICG should be evaluated in each different solid organ tumor for fluorescent image guided surgery.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoxing Niu; Guohua Ren; Shuping Song

    2008-01-01

    The morbility of prostate cancer has risen in China in recent years, it is important to diagnose and treat prostate cancer standardly and systemically.This review analyzed the status and advances of PSA examination, digital rectal examination, prostate biopsy in prostate cancer, and it gave a detailed description of radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, etc.The advances of targeted therapy and tumor vaccine is also discussed.

  10. Male breast cancer: clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotko, Y S

    2013-12-01

    Despite male breast cancer is rare in occurrence, it is a serious problem. In 2012, 130 men in Ukraine got breast cancer that constituted 0.74% from all patients with mentioned pathology detected in the course of year. Every year in Ukraine approximately 100 men die from breast cancer. Still many aspects of male breast cancer remain unstudied. It occurs since information about mentioned disease is mainly based on retrospective analysis of small groups. Treatment of men, who got breast cancer, is based on knowledge, which has been obtained in treatment of women with this pathology. This article is based on the results of analysis of 168 cases of breast cancer in men, who have been examined and treated in the period from 1956 to 2012. In paper the peculiarities of clinical manifestations of male breast cancer have been determined, the optimal volume of diagnostic procedures in men with suspicion of breast cancer has been established, the mammographic signs have been detected and the possible histological variants of disease have been determined, clinical course peculiarities of male breast cancer have been defined, the most essential factors of prognosis of the disease have been fixed. Furthermore, in article optimal volume of surgical treatment of male breast cancer has been substantiated, the role and place of radiotherapy in treatment of this pathology has been determined. It has been proved that adjuvant polychemotherapy should be applied to the patients with male breast cancer independently from stage of process. Also optimal schemes of this kind of treatment have been determined. The efficacy of hormonal therapy with antiestrogen in patients with positive receptors of steroid hormones and at presence of unfavorable prognostic factors of disease has been demonstrated. The inefficiency of orchiectomy as one of the widespread kinds of hormonal therapy of male breast cancer has been defined.

  11. The pig as a large preclinical model for therapeutic human anti-cancer vaccine development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Welner, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Development of therapeutic cancer vaccines has largely been based on rodent models and the majority failed to establish therapeutic responses in clinical trials. We therefore used pigs as a large animal model for human cancer vaccine development due to the large similarity between the porcine...... and human immunome. We administered peptides derived from porcine IDO, a cancer antigen important in human disease, formulated in Th1-inducing adjuvants to outbred pigs. By in silico prediction 136 candidate IDO-derived peptides were identified and peptide-SLA class I complex stability measurements revealed...

  12. Preclinical Studies of Signaling Pathways in a Mutant Mouse Model of Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Boormans JL, Hermans KG, van Leenders GJ, Trapman J, Verhagen PC. 2008. An activating mutation in AKT1 in human prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 123...p110b in cell growth, metabolism and tumorigenesis. Nature 454: 776–779. Jia L, Landan G, Pomerantz M, Jaschek R, Herman P, Reich D, Yan C, Khalid O...stable blood-based markers for cancer detection. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105: 10513–10518. Montgomery RB, Mostaghel EA, Vessella R, Hess DL, Kalhorn TF, Higano

  13. Preclinical safety pharmacology study of a novel protein-based cancer vaccine CHP-NY-ESO-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naozumi; Hoshiai, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Yoshiyasu; Sakaguchi, Yasue; Kuno, Takayoshi; Hishida, Tadashi; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2008-05-23

    CHP-NY-ESO-1 is a novel therapeutic cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant protein of cancer antigen NY-ESO-1 and a polysaccharide-based delivery system, cholesteryl pullulan. A pilot clinical study of CHP-NY-ESO-1 in cancer patients was previously conducted, and the adverse events related to this drug were observed to be limited to skin reactions at injection sites. To further establish the safety of CHP-NY-ESO-1, we studied the effects of its subcutaneous injection on vital functions such as the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and respiratory system using preclinical animal models. The effects of CHP-NY-ESO-1 on the cardiovascular system were investigated in dogs using a telemetry system for blood pressure and heart rate and the Holter monitoring for ambulatory electrocardiograms. No drug-related changes were observed in these parameters. The effect of CHP-NY-ESO-1 on the hERG-dependent potassium currents was also examined using in vitro cultured cell system, and no inhibition of hERG currents was observed. The effects of CHP-NY-ESO-1 on the central nervous system were examined in rats using functional observational battery method, and no drug-related changes were observed in home cage observations, open field observations, hand held observations, and perception and motor function observations. The effect of CHP-NY-ESO-1 on the respiratory system was investigated in rats by measuring tidal volume, minute volume and respiratory rate using whole-body plethysmograph method, and no significant changes were found in these parameters. These results indicate that CHP-NY-ESO-1 would not have any pharmacological effects on vital functions and support the safety of this cancer vaccine for clinical use.

  14. MEK-ERK inhibition potentiates WAY-600-induced anti-cancer efficiency in preclinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kaifeng, E-mail: kaifeng_wangdr@sina.com [Cancer center, the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou (China); Fan, Yaohua [Oncology Department, No. 1 Hospital of Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, Jiaxing (China); Chen, Gongying [Oncology Department, The Affiliated Hospital Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Zhengrong [Taizhou Hospital, Zhejiang Province, Taizhou (China); Kong, Dexin; Zhang, Peng [Oncology Department, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Medical School, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2016-05-27

    The search for novel anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agents is important. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) hyper-activation plays a pivotal role in promoting HCC tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. The current preclinical study evaluated the potential anti-HCC activity by a potent mTOR kinase inhibitor, WAY-600. We showed that WAY-600 inhibited survival and proliferation of HCC cell lines (HepG2 and Huh7) and primary human HCC cells. Caspase-dependent apoptosis was activated by WAY-600 in above HCC cells. Reversely, caspase inhibitors largely attenuated WAY-600's lethality against HCC cells. At the signaling level, WAY-600 blocked mTOR complex 1/2 (mTORC1/2) assemble and activation, yet activated MEK-ERK pathway in HCC cells. MEK-ERK inhibitors, PD-98059 and MEK-162, or MEK1/2 shRNA significantly potentiated WAY-600's cytotoxicity in HCC cells. Further studies showed that WAY-600 intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in nude mice inhibited p-AKT Ser-473 and displayed significant anti-cancer activity against HepG2 xenografts. Remarkably, co-administration of MEK-162 further potentiated WAY-600's anti-HCC activity in vivo. These preclinical results demonstrate the potent anti-HCC activity by WAY-600, either alone or with MEK-ERK inhibitors. -- Highlights: •WAY-600 inhibits HCC cell survival and proliferation in vitro. •WAY-600 activates caspase-dependent apoptosis in HCC cells. •WAY-600 blocks mTORC1/2 activation, but activates MEK-ERK in HCC cells. •MEK-ERK inhibitors or MEK1/2 shRNA enhances WAY-600's cytotoxicity against HCC cells. •MEK-162 co-administration potentiates WAY-600-induced the anti-HepG2 tumor efficacy.

  15. Preclinical evaluation of gene delivery methods for the treatment of loco-regional disease in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2012-01-31

    Preclinical results with various gene therapy strategies indicate significant potential for new cancer treatments. However, many therapeutics fail at clinical trial, often due to differences in tissue physiology between animal models and humans, and tumor phenotype variation. Clinical data relevant to treatment strategies may be generated prior to clinical trial through experimentation using intact patient tissue ex vivo. We developed a novel tumor slice model culture system that is universally applicable to gene delivery methods, using a realtime luminescence detection method to assess gene delivery. Methods investigated include viruses (adenovirus [Ad] and adeno-associated virus), lipofection, ultrasound (US), electroporation and naked DNA. Viability and tumor populations within the slices were well maintained for seven days, and gene delivery was qualitatively and quantitatively examinable for all vectors. Ad was the most efficient gene delivery vector with transduction efficiency >50%. US proved the optimal non-viral gene delivery method in human tumor slices. The nature of the ex vivo culture system permitted examination of specific elements. Parameters shown to diminish Ad gene delivery included blood, regions of low viability and secondary disease. US gene delivery was significantly reduced by blood and skin, while tissue hyperthermia improved gene delivery. US achieved improved efficacy for secondary disease. The ex vivo model was also suitable for examination of tissue-specific effects on vector expression, with Ad expression mediated by the CXCR4 promoter shown to provide a tumor selective advantage over the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, this is the first study incorporating patient tissue models in comparing gene delivery from various vectors, providing knowledge on cell-type specificity and examining the crucial biological factors determining successful gene delivery. The results highlight the importance of in

  16. Preclinical evaluation of gene delivery methods for the treatment of loco-regional disease in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2011-04-01

    Preclinical results with various gene therapy strategies indicate significant potential for new cancer treatments. However, many therapeutics fail at clinical trial, often due to differences in tissue physiology between animal models and humans, and tumor phenotype variation. Clinical data relevant to treatment strategies may be generated prior to clinical trial through experimentation using intact patient tissue ex vivo. We developed a novel tumor slice model culture system that is universally applicable to gene delivery methods, using a realtime luminescence detection method to assess gene delivery. Methods investigated include viruses (adenovirus [Ad] and adeno-associated virus), lipofection, ultrasound (US), electroporation and naked DNA. Viability and tumor populations within the slices were well maintained for seven days, and gene delivery was qualitatively and quantitatively examinable for all vectors. Ad was the most efficient gene delivery vector with transduction efficiency >50%. US proved the optimal non-viral gene delivery method in human tumor slices. The nature of the ex vivo culture system permitted examination of specific elements. Parameters shown to diminish Ad gene delivery included blood, regions of low viability and secondary disease. US gene delivery was significantly reduced by blood and skin, while tissue hyperthermia improved gene delivery. US achieved improved efficacy for secondary disease. The ex vivo model was also suitable for examination of tissue-specific effects on vector expression, with Ad expression mediated by the CXCR4 promoter shown to provide a tumor selective advantage over the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, this is the first study incorporating patient tissue models in comparing gene delivery from various vectors, providing knowledge on cell-type specificity and examining the crucial biological factors determining successful gene delivery. The results highlight the importance of in

  17. Development and Preclinical Application of an Immunocompetent Transplant Model of Basal Breast Cancer with Lung, Liver and Brain Metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aprelikova

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is associated with a poor prognosis and for which no targeted therapies currently exist. In order to improve preclinical testing for TNBC that relies primarily on using human xenografts in immunodeficient mice, we have developed a novel immunocompetent syngeneic murine tumor transplant model for basal-like triple-negative breast cancer. The C3(1/SV40-T/t-antigen (C3(1/Tag mouse mammary tumor model in the FVB/N background shares important similarities with human basal-like TNBC. However, these tumors or derived cell lines are rejected when transplanted into wt FVB/N mice, likely due to the expression of SV40 T-antigen. We have developed a sub-line of mice (designated REAR mice that carry only one copy of the C3(1/Tag-antigen transgene resulting from a spontaneous transgene rearrangement in the original founder line. Unlike the original C3(1/Tag mice, REAR mice do not develop mammary tumors or other phenotypes observed in the original C3(1/Tag transgenic mice. REAR mice are more immunologically tolerant to SV40 T-antigen driven tumors and cell lines in an FVB/N background (including prostate tumors from TRAMP mice, but are otherwise immunologically intact. This transplant model system offers the ability to synchronously implant the C3(1/Tag tumor-derived M6 cell line or individual C3(1/Tag tumors from various stages of tumor development into the mammary fat pads or tail veins of REAR mice. C3(1/Tag tumors or M6 cells implanted into the mammary fat pads spontaneously metastasize at a high frequency to the lung and liver. M6 cells injected by tail vein can form brain metastases. We demonstrate that irradiated M6 tumor cells or the same cells expressing GM-CSF can act as a vaccine to retard tumor growth of implanted tumor cells in the REAR model. Preclinical studies performed in animals with an intact immune system should more authentically replicate treatment

  18. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Benedict J; Jeun, Minhong; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Song, Sang Hoon; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo; Searson, Peter C; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.

  19. Efficacy of EGFR inhibition is modulated by model, sex, genetic background and diet: implications for preclinical cancer prevention and therapy trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S Rinella

    Full Text Available Molecule-targeted therapies are being widely developed and deployed, but they are frequently less effective in clinical trials than predicted based upon preclinical studies. Frequently, only a single model or genetic background is utilized using diets that are not relevant to that consumed by most cancer patients, which may contribute to the lack of predictability of many preclinical therapeutic studies. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in colorectal cancer was used to investigate potential causes for low predictive values of many preclinical studies. The efficacy of the small molecule EGFR inhibitor AG1478 was evaluated using two mouse models, Apc(Min/+ and azoxymethane (AOM, both sexes on three genetic backgrounds, C57BL/6J (B6 and A/J (A inbred strains and AB6F1 hybrids, and two diets, standard chow (STD or Western-style diet (WD. AG1478 has significant anti-tumor activity in the B6-Apc(Min/+ model with STD but only moderately on the WD and in the AOM model on an A background with a WD but not STD. On the F1 hybrid background AG1478 is effective in the Apc(Min/+ model with either STD or WD, but has only moderate efficacy in the AOM model with either diet. Sex differences were also observed. Unexpectedly, the level of liver EGFR phosphorylation inhibition by AG1478 was not positively correlated with inhibition of tumor growth in the AOM model. Model-dependent interactions between genetic background and diet can dramatically impact preclinical results, and indicate that low predictive values of preclinical studies can be attributed to study designs that do not account for the heterogeneous patient population or the diets they consume. Better-designed preclinical studies should lead to more accurate predictions of therapeutic response in the clinic.

  20. Anticancer properties of novel aminoacetonitrile derivative monepantel (ADD 1566) in pre-clinical models of human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Farnaz; Morris, David L; Rufener, Lucien; Pourgholami, Mohammad H

    2014-01-01

    Monepantel (MPL) is a new anthelmintic agent approved for the treatment of nematode infections in farm animals. As a nematicide, it acts through a nematode-specific nicotinic receptor subtype which explains its exceptional safety in rodents and mammals. In the present study, we evaluated its potential as an anticancer agent. In vitro treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer cells with MPL resulted in reduced cell viability, inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression of colony formation. Proliferation of human ovarian surface epithelial cells and other non-malignant cells were however minimally affected. MPL-induced inhibition was found to be independent of the acetylcholine nicotinic receptor (nAChR) indicating that, its target in cancer cells is probably different from that in nematodes. Analysis of MPL treated cells by flow cytometry revealed G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Accordingly, MPL treated cells expressed reduced levels of cyclins D1 and A whereas cyclin E2 expression was enhanced. Consistent with a G1 phase arrest, cellular levels of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) 2 and 4 were lower, whereas expression of CDK inhibitor p27(kip) was increased. In cells expressing the wild-type p53, MPL treatment led to increased p53 expression. In line with these results, MPL suppressed cellular thymidine incorporation thus impairing DNA synthesis and inducing cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). Combined these pre-clinical findings reveal for the first time the anticancer potential of monepantel.

  1. Preclinical and clinical studies on afatinib in monotherapy and in combination regimens: Potential impact in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, I; Wouters, A; Van den Bossche, J; Peeters, M; Pauwels, P; Deschoolmeester, V; Vermorken, J B; Lardon, F

    2016-10-01

    Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has been an interesting therapeutic strategy because aberrant activation of this receptor plays an important role in the tumorgenesis of many cancer types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). After the initial promising results of EGFR-targeted therapies, therapeutic resistance is a major clinical problem. In order to overcome resistance to these EGFR-targeted therapies, new treatment options are necessary. In contrast to first generation EGFR inhibitors, afatinib (BIBW2992) is a second-generation irreversible ErbB family blocker that inhibits EGFR as well as HER2 and HER4. Consequently, treatment with afatinib may result in a distinct and more pronounced therapeutic benefit. Preclinical studies have reported promising results for afatinib in monotherapy as well as in combination with other drugs in CRC model systems. Furthermore, clinical studies examining afatinib as single agent and in combination therapy demonstrated manageable safety profile. Nevertheless, only limited antitumor activity has been observed in CRC patients. Although several combination treatments with afatinib have already been investigated, no optimal combination has been identified for CRC patients yet. As molecular tumor characteristics have gained increased importance in the choice of treatment, additional studies with biomarker-driven patient recruitment are required to further explore afatinib efficacy in CRC.

  2. Epigenetic potential of resveratrol and analogs in preclinical models of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is affected by lifestyle, particularly diet. Dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol possess anticancer properties and, therefore, chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials. Resveratrol has pleiotropic effect exerting its biological activity through multiple pathways and targets ass...

  3. Treatment of breast cancer with different antiprogestins: Preclinical and clinical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Gerard; Setyono-Han, Buddy; Portengen, Henk; Jong, Frank de; Foekens, John; Klijn, Jan

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Treatment with antiprogestins in a new treatment modality for breast cancer. Previously, in rats with DMBA-induced mammary tumors we observed significant growth inhibitory effects of chronic treatment with the antiprogestin mifepristone (RU486). In addition, in 11 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, we observed one objective response, six instances of short-term stable disease, and four instances of progressive disease. Side-effects appeared mainly due to antigluco...

  4. Preclinical therapeutic potential of a nitrosylating agent in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Giri

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of s-nitrosylation in the growth of ovarian cancer using cell culture based and in vivo approaches. Using the nitrosylating agent, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a physiological nitric oxide molecule, we show that GSNO treatment inhibited proliferation of chemoresponsive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, C200, SKVO3, ID8, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5, OVCAR7, OVCAR8, OVCAR10, PE01 and PE04 in a dose dependent manner. GSNO treatment abrogated growth factor (HB-EGF induced signal transduction including phosphorylation of Akt, p42/44 and STAT3, which are known to play critical roles in ovarian cancer growth and progression. To examine the therapeutic potential of GSNO in vivo, nude mice bearing intra-peritoneal xenografts of human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell line (2 × 10(6 were orally administered GSNO at the dose of 1 mg/kg body weight. Daily oral administration of GSNO significantly attenuated tumor mass (p<0.001 in the peritoneal cavity compared to vehicle (phosphate buffered saline treated group at 4 weeks. GSNO also potentiated cisplatin mediated tumor toxicity in an A2780 ovarian carcinoma nude mouse model. GSNO's nitrosylating ability was reflected in the induced nitrosylation of various known proteins including NFκB p65, Akt and EGFR. As a novel finding, we observed that GSNO also induced nitrosylation with inverse relationship at tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of STAT3, an established player in chemoresistance and cell proliferation in ovarian cancer and in cancer in general. Overall, our study underlines the significance of S-nitrosylation of key cancer promoting proteins in modulating ovarian cancer and proposes the therapeutic potential of nitrosylating agents (like GSNO for the treatment of ovarian cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  5. [CBO guideline 'Breast cancer: screening and diagnosis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, E.; Tuut, M.K.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    New developments in the diagnostic procedures for women with an increased risk for, or symptoms related to breast cancer led to development of new guidelines by a working group under the auspices of the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement, the Organisation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres and

  6. Smart Multifunctional Theranostics: Simultaneous Diagnosis and Therapy of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Omidi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinical applications of advanced nanomedicines such as PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin and paclitaxel-albumin bioconjugates have significantly improved the cancer treatment strategies. However, these pharmaceuticals lack early detection and single cell tracking capabilities. Thus, engineering of smart multifunctional theranostics appear to be our next stepfor simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Clinical translation of multifunctional theranostics appears to be dependent upon specificity of cancer biomarkers, biocompatibility of components used for formulation, and advancement of bioconjugation techniques. While many cancer biomarker candidates often fail to be used for clinical diagnosis/therapy because of their nonspecific functional expression in normal tissues, biocompatibility of materials used for bioconjugationalso needs to be approved. All these issues need to be fully addressed prior to the translation of smart multifunctional cancer theranostics.

  7. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  8. Pre-clinical studies of Notch signaling inhibitor RO4929097 in inflammatory breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeb, Bisrat G; Cohen, Evan N; Boley, Kimberly; Freiter, Erik M; Li, Li; Robertson, Fredika M; Reuben, James M; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Buchholz, Thomas A; Woodward, Wendy A

    2012-07-01

    Basal breast cancer, common among patients presenting with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), has been shown to be resistant to radiation and enriched in cancer stem cells. The Notch pathway plays an important role in self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells and contributes to inflammatory signaling which promotes the breast cancer stem cell phenotype. Herein, we inhibited Notch signaling using a gamma secretase inhibitor, RO4929097, in an in vitro model that enriches for cancer initiating cells (3D clonogenic assay) and conventional 2D clonogenic assay to compare the effect on radiosensitization of the SUM149 and SUM190 IBC cell lines. RO4929097 downregulated the Notch target genes Hes1, Hey1, and HeyL, and showed a significant reduction in anchorage independent growth in SUM190 and SUM149. However, the putative self-renewal assay mammosphere formation efficiency was increased with the drug. To assess radiosensitization of putative cancer stem cells, cells were exposed to increasing doses of radiation with or without 1 μM RO4929097 in their standard (2D) and self-renewal enriching (3D) culture conditions. In the conventional 2D clonogenic assay, RO4929097 significantly sensitized SUM190 cells to ionizing radiation and has a modest radiosensitization effect in SUM149 cells. In the 3D clonogenic assays, however, a radioprotective effect was seen in both SUM149 and SUM190 cells at higher doses. Both cell lines express IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines known to mediate the efficacy of Notch inhibition and to promote self-renewal of stem cells. We further showed that RO429097 inhibits normal T-cell synthesis of some inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, a potential mediator of IL-6 and IL-8 production in the microenvironment. These data suggest that additional targeting agents may be required to selectively target IBC stem cells through Notch inhibition, and that evaluation of microenvironmental influences may shed further light on the potential effects of this inhibitor.

  9. Fluorescence anisotropy characterization of urine in the diagnosis of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Ramu; Brindha, Elumalai; Sivabalan, Shanmugam; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is considered as the second most commonly occurring malignancy among women, next to breast cancer. It is well known that most of the cancer patients diagnosed with advanced stages and there is a pressing need for improved methods to detect cancer at its initial stages. Many techniques have been adopted for the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Among these, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy is a complementary technique of fluorescence spectroscopy which helps us to elucidate the spectral characteristics which highly depend on pH, viscosity and local environment. Since urine has many metabolites and the measurement of native fluorescence of urine, in principle, able to provide an indication of a number of health conditions, attempts were made to study fluorescence anisotropic characterization of the human urine of cervical cancer patients and normal subjects. Significant differences were observed between the anisotropic and polarization values of cancer subjects and normal subjects.

  10. Mechanism and preclinical prevention of increased breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Dong, Jie; Hein, Sarah; Reddy, Jay P; Du, Zhijun; Toneff, Michael; Holloway, Kimberly; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Huang, Shixia; Atkinson, Rachel; Woodward, Wendy; Jindal, Sonali; Borges, Virginia F; Gutierrez, Carolina; Zhang, Hong; Schedin, Pepper J; Osborne, C Kent; Tweardy, David J; Li, Yi

    2013-12-31

    While a first pregnancy before age 22 lowers breast cancer risk, a pregnancy after age 35 significantly increases life-long breast cancer risk. Pregnancy causes several changes to the normal breast that raise barriers to transformation, but how pregnancy can also increase cancer risk remains unclear. We show in mice that pregnancy has different effects on the few early lesions that have already developed in the otherwise normal breast-it causes apoptosis evasion and accelerated progression to cancer. The apoptosis evasion is due to the normally tightly controlled STAT5 signaling going astray-these precancerous cells activate STAT5 in response to pregnancy/lactation hormones and maintain STAT5 activation even during involution, thus preventing the apoptosis normally initiated by oncoprotein and involution. Short-term anti-STAT5 treatment of lactation-completed mice bearing early lesions eliminates the increased risk after a pregnancy. This chemoprevention strategy has important implications for preventing increased human breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00996.001.

  11. Concerns on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shen-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Breast cancer is one of the neoplasms that have greatest negative psychological impact on the sufferers. Although China is among the low morbidity country of breast cancer, its yearly increasing rate in China is 1%-2% higher than the average rate of the word.1 Due to its largest population in the word, China tops the world in its breast cancer cases but general medical care for the patients still lags behind the developed countries. These issues are related to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in China.

  12. Cancer Mortality in People Treated with Antidepressants before Cancer Diagnosis: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelian Sun

    Full Text Available Depression is common after a cancer diagnosis and is associated with an increased mortality, but it is unclear whether depression occurring before the cancer diagnosis affects cancer mortality. We aimed to study cancer mortality of people treated with antidepressants before cancer diagnosis.We conducted a population based cohort study of all adults diagnosed with cancer between January 2003 and December 2010 in Denmark (N = 201,662. We obtained information on cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry, on the day of death from the Danish Civil Registry, and on redeemed antidepressants from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Current users of antidepressants were defined as those who redeemed the latest prescription of antidepressant 0-4 months before cancer diagnosis (irrespective of earlier prescriptions, and former users as those who redeemed the latest prescription five or more months before cancer diagnosis. We estimated an all-cause one-year mortality rate ratio (MRR and a conditional five-year MRR for patients who survived the first year after cancer diagnosis and confidence interval (CI using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Overall, 33,111 (16.4% patients redeemed at least one antidepressant prescription in the three years before cancer diagnosis of whom 21,851 (10.8% were current users at the time of cancer diagnosis. Current antidepressant users had a 32% higher one-year mortality (MRR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.29-1.35 and a 22% higher conditional five-year mortality (MRR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.17-1.26 if patients survived the first year after the cancer diagnosis than patients not redeeming antidepressants. The one-year mortality was particularly high for patients who initiated antidepressant treatment within four months before cancer diagnosis (MRR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.47-1.61. Former users had no increased cancer mortality.Initiation of antidepressive treatment prior to cancer diagnosis is common and is associated with an increased

  13. Hormono-biological therapy in metastatic breast cancer: preclinical evidence, clinical studies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Giuseppe; Schiavon, Gaia; Fratto, Maria Elisabetta; Vincenzi, Bruno; Santini, Daniele

    2008-02-01

    Breast cancer growth is regulated by coordinated actions of the estrogen receptor (ER) and various growth factor receptor signalling pathways. This complex interactive signalling potentially explains some of the reasons behind endocrine therapy action and resistance. Recent research into the molecular biology of ER signalling has revealed new molecular targets which, if present in cancer cells, might be additionally targeted using various signal transduction inhibitors to overcome or prevent resistance to endocrine therapy. The dynamic inverse relationship between the expression of ER and growth factor receptors brings more excitement to the potential of restoring ER expression in apparently ER-negative cells by inhibition of growth factor signalling. The multiple pathways involved in activating ERs also provide a rationale for combining endocrine and non-endocrine therapies that block different signalling pathways. Ongoing clinical trials promise to further improve the present care for breast cancer patients.

  14. Preclinical Remodeling of Human Prostate Cancer through the PTEN/AKT Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. De Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge gained from the identification of genetic and epigenetic alterations that contribute to the progression of prostate cancer in humans is now being implemented in the development of functionally relevant translational models. GEM (genetically modified mouse models are being developed to incorporate the same molecular defects associated with human prostate cancer. Haploinsufficiency is common in prostate cancer and homozygous loss of PTEN is strongly correlated with advanced disease. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of the PTEN knockout mouse and the cooperation between PTEN and other genetic alterations in tumor development and progression. Additionally, we will outline key points that make these models key players in the development of personalized medicine, as potential tools for target and biomarker development and validation as well as models for drug discovery.

  15. Viscum album L. extracts in breast and gynaecological cancers: a systematic review of clinical and preclinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kienle Gunver S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viscum album L. extracts (VAE, European mistletoe are a widely used medicinal plant extract in gynaecological and breast-cancer treatment. Methods Systematic review to evaluate clinical studies and preclinical research on the therapeutic effectiveness and biological effects of VAE on gynaecological and breast cancer. Search of databases, reference lists and expert consultations. Criteria-based assessment of methodological study quality. Results 19 randomized (RCT, 16 non-randomized (non-RCT controlled studies, and 11 single-arm cohort studies were identified that investigated VAE treatment of breast or gynaecological cancer. They included 2420, 6399 and 1130 patients respectively. 8 RCTs and 8 non-RCTs were embedded in the same large epidemiological cohort study. 9 RCTs and 13 non-RCTs assessed survival; 12 reported a statistically significant benefit, the others either a trend or no difference. 3 RCTs and 6 non-RCTs assessed tumour behaviour (remission or time to relapse; 3 reported statistically significant benefit, the others either a trend, no difference or mixed results. Quality of life (QoL and tolerability of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery was assessed in 15 RCTs and 9 non-RCTs. 21 reported a statistically significant positive result, the others either a trend, no difference, or mixed results. Methodological quality of the studies differed substantially; some had major limitations, especially RCTs on survival and tumour behaviour had very small sample sizes. Some recent studies, however, especially on QoL were reasonably well conducted. Single-arm cohort studies investigated tumour behaviour, QoL, pharmacokinetics and safety of VAE. Tumour remission was observed after high dosage and local application. VAE application was well tolerated. 34 animal experiments investigated VAE and isolated or recombinant compounds in various breast and gynaecological cancer models in mice and rats. VAE showed increase of survival

  16. Preclinical evaluation of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl Ak; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the (111)In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X ((111)In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the (111)In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer.

  17. Preclinical evaluation of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl AK; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the 111In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X (111In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the 111In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the 111In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer. PMID:24982817

  18. Computer vision techniques for the diagnosis of skin cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of computer vision techniques in the diagnosis of skin cancer. Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in the world. Early diagnosis is particularly important since melanoma can be cured with a simple excision if detected early. In recent years, dermoscopy has proved valuable in visualizing the morphological structures in pigmented lesions. However, it has also been shown that dermoscopy is difficult to learn and subjective. Newer technologies such as infrared imaging, multispectral imaging, and confocal microscopy, have recently come to the forefront in providing greater diagnostic accuracy. These imaging technologies presented in this book can serve as an adjunct to physicians and  provide automated skin cancer screening. Although computerized techniques cannot as yet provide a definitive diagnosis, they can be used to improve biopsy decision-making as well as early melanoma detection, especially for pa...

  19. Aptamers: active targeting ligands for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Chen, Jiao; Wu, Min; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers, including DNA, RNA and peptide aptamers, are a group of promising recognition units that can specifically bind to target molecules and cells. Due to their excellent specificity and high affinity to targets, aptamers have attracted great attention in various fields in which selective recognition units are required. They have been used in biosensing, drug delivery, disease diagnosis and therapy (especially for cancer treatment). In this review, we summarized recent applications of DNA and RNA aptamers in cancer theranostics. The specific binding ability of aptamers to cancer-related markers and cancer cells ensured their high performance for early diagnosis of cancer. Meanwhile, the efficient targeting ability of aptamers to cancer cells and tissues provided a promising way to deliver imaging agents and drugs for cancer imaging and therapy. Furthermore, with the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, the conjugation of aptamers with functional nanomaterials paved an exciting way for the fabrication of theranostic agents for different types of cancers, which might be a powerful tool for cancer treatment.

  20. Gallbladder tuberculosis: False-positive PET diagnosis of gallbladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JM Ramia; K Muffak; A Fernández; J Villar; D Garrote; JA Ferron

    2006-01-01

    Gallbladder tuberculosis (GT) is an extremely rare disease, and very few cases have been reported in the literature. The first case of GT was described in 1870 by Gaucher. A correct preoperative diagnosis of GT is unusual, and it is frequently confused with various gallbladder diseases. We present a new case of a patient who underwent surgery with the preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder cancer after a false positive positron emission tomography scan in the diagnostic work-up.

  1. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  2. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. A. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage.

  3. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sandra M. A.; Girão, André F.; Gonçalves, Gil; Marques, Paula A. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage. PMID:26805845

  4. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sandra M A; Girão, André F; Gonçalves, Gil; Marques, Paula A A P

    2016-01-21

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage.

  5. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Grace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bladder cancer is the commonest malignancy of the urinary tract. In this review, we look at the latest developments in the diagnosis and management of this condition. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the most important tools in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer. Various alternatives have been investigated, either to reduce the frequency of cystoscopy, or improve its sensitivity for detection of tumors. These include urine-based markers and point-of-care tests. Narrow-band imaging and photodynamic diagnosis/blue-light cystoscopy have shown promise in improving detection and reducing recurrence of bladder tumors, by improving the completion of bladder resection when compared with standard resection in white light. The majority of patients with a new diagnosis of bladder cancer have non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, which requires adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Recent developments in post-resection intravesical regimens are discussed. For patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, both laparoscopic radical cystectomy and robot-assisted radical cystectomy have been shown to reduce peri-operative morbidity, while being oncologically equivalent to open radical cystectomy in the medium term. Bladder-preserving strategies entail resection and chemoradiation, and in selected patients give equivalent results to surgery. The development, advantages, and disadvantages of these newer approaches are also discussed.

  6. [Quality of diagnosis information given to terminal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ritort, Sergi; Martos-Gutiérrez, José Antonio; Montoro-Lorite, Mercedes; Mundet-Pons, Lluís

    To determine the information that terminal cancer patients have about their diagnosis, identifying key words used, and quantifying the conspiracy of silence. A cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted by reviewing the hospice support team data base which contains the medical history and a semi-structured interview with terminal cancer patients in the first visit to the hospice. Demographic and socioeconomic data was collected, as well as relevant clinical information (diagnosis, prevalent symptoms, number of symptoms, patient functionality, QoL, information given, and words used). Out of total of sample of 723 records, 77.87% (95% CI: 74.70-80.74) of the patients were properly informed about their diagnosis. The most used words were cancer in 26% of the patients, tumour in 51.59%, and for the remaining 10.65%, the word inflammation was used. Statistically significant differences of information were found between sexes, age, types of cancer, and hospital ward. Terminal cancer patients have knowledge on their diagnosis, suggesting that the conspiracy of silence is present to a lesser extent. This knowledge is transmitted using different words and with euphemisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo preclinical cancer and tissue engineering applications of absolute oxygen imaging using pulse EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Halpern, Howard J.

    2017-07-01

    The value of any measurement and a fortiori any measurement technology is defined by the reproducibility and the accuracy of the measurements. This implies a relative freedom of the measurement from factors confounding its accuracy. In the past, one of the reasons for the loss of focus on the importance of imaging oxygen in vivo was the difficulty in obtaining reproducible oxygen or pO2 images free from confounding variation. This review will briefly consider principles of electron paramagnetic oxygen imaging and describe how it achieves absolute oxygen measurements. We will provide a summary review of the progress in biomedical EPR imaging, predominantly in cancer biology research, discuss EPR oxygen imaging for cancer treatment and tissue graft assessment for regenerative medicine applications.

  8. Harnessing Preclinical Molecular Imaging to Inform Advances in Personalized Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter M; Ebiana, Victoria A; Gosa, Laura; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Nathanson, David A

    2017-05-01

    Comprehensive molecular analysis of individual tumors provides great potential for personalized cancer therapy. However, the presence of a particular genetic alteration is often insufficient to predict therapeutic efficacy. Drugs with distinct mechanisms of action can affect the biology of tumors in specific and unique ways. Therefore, assays that can measure drug-induced perturbations of defined functional tumor properties can be highly complementary to genomic analysis. PET provides the capacity to noninvasively measure the dynamics of various tumor biologic processes in vivo. Here, we review the underlying biochemical and biologic basis for a variety of PET tracers and how they may be used to better optimize cancer therapy. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  9. Anticancer activity of liposomal cisplatin in preclinical models of cervical and ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande, Naike

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy improves survival in cervical and ovarian cancer; however, treatment is associated with tumor resistance and significant toxicity. Lipoplatin (Regulon Inc., Mountain View, California) is a liposomal encapsulated form of cisplatin, developed in an effort to reduce cisplatin‟s systemic toxicity, while simultaneously improving the targeting of drugs to primary tumor and metastasis. Lipoplatin has been successfully administered in several randomized Phase II and II...

  10. A Preclinical Evaluation of Antimycin A as a Potential Antilung Cancer Stem Cell Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tai Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance and tumor recurrence are major obstacles in treating lung cancer patients. Accumulating evidence considers lung cancer stem cells (CSCs as the major contributor to these clinical challenges. Agents that can target lung CSCs could potentially provide a more effective treatment than traditional chemotherapy. Here, we utilized the side-population (SP method to isolate lung CSCs from A549 and PC-9 cell lines. Subsequently, a high throughput platform, connectivity maps (CMAPs, was used to identify potential anti-CSC agents. An antibiotic, antimycin A (AMA, was identified as a top candidate. SP A549 cells exhibited an elevated stemness profile, including Nanog, β-catenin, Sox2, and CD133, and increased self-renewal ability. AMA treatment was found to suppress β-catenin signaling components and tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, AMA treatment decreased the proliferation of gefitinib-resistant PC-9/GR cells and percentage of SP population. AMA demonstrated synergistic suppression of PC-9/GR cell viability when combined with gefitinib. Finally, AMA treatment suppressed tumorigenesis in mice inoculated with A549 SP cells. Collectively, we have identified AMA using CMAP as a novel antilung CSC agent, which acts to downregulate β-catenin signaling. The combination of AMA and targeted therapeutic agents could be considered for overcoming drug resistance and relapse in lung cancer patients.

  11. The role of MRI in prostate cancer diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhiratta, Neil; Taneja, Samir S; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2016-11-01

    Multiparametric MRI of the prostate demonstrates strong potential to address many limitations of traditional prostate cancer diagnosis and management strategies. Recent evidence supports roles for prostate MRI in prebiopsy risk stratification, guidance of targeted biopsy and preoperative disease staging. Prostate MRI may also assist the planning and follow-up of investigational partial gland ablative therapies. This article reviews the impact of prostate MRI on such diagnostic and therapeutic paradigms in contemporary prostate cancer management.

  12. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: Topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Knyazev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer and the fifth highest malignancy mortality rate in men worldwide. Although PC is detectable in 15-20% of men during life, its death risk is only about 3%. This means that not all PC cases require the same management tactics. The given review analyzes the current investigations searching for molecular biological markers to predict the course of PC and to choose its treatment policy, including that in the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy.

  13. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  14. Nanomedicines for cancer therapy: state-of-the-art and limitations to pre-clinical studies that hinder future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene eDawidczyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to efficiently deliver a drug or gene to a tumor site is dependent on a wide range of factors including circulation time, interactions with the mononuclear phagocyte system, extravasation from circulation at the tumor site, targeting strategy, release from the delivery vehicle, and uptake in cancer cells. Nanotechnology provides the possibility of creating delivery systems where the design constraints are decoupled, allowing new approaches for reducing the unwanted side effects of systemic delivery, increasing tumor accumulation, and improving efficacy. The physico-chemical properties of nanoparticle-based delivery platforms introduce additional complexity associated with pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation. To assess the impact of nanoparticle-based delivery systems, we first review the design strategies and pharmacokinetics of FDA-approved nanomedicines. Next we review nanomedicines under development, summarizing the range of nanoparticle platforms, strategies for targeting, and pharmacokinetics. We show how the lack of uniformity in preclinical trials prevents systematic comparison and hence limits advances in the field.

  15. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening ...

  16. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  17. Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The standard practice in histopathology of breast cancers is to examine a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue biopsy under a microscope to diagnose whether a lesion is benign or malignant. This determination is made based on a manual, qualitative inspection, making it subject to investigator bias and resulting in low throughput. Hence, a quantitative, label-free, and high-throughput diagnosis method is highly desirable. We present here preliminary results showing the potential of quantitative phase imaging for breast cancer screening and help with differential diagnosis. We generated phase maps of unstained breast tissue biopsies using spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). As a first step toward quantitative diagnosis based on SLIM, we carried out a qualitative evaluation of our label-free images. These images were shown to two pathologists who classified each case as either benign or malignant. This diagnosis was then compared against the diagnosis of the two pathologists on corresponding H&E stained tissue images and the number of agreements were counted. The agreement between SLIM and H&E based diagnosis was 88% for the first pathologist and 87% for the second. Our results demonstrate the potential and promise of SLIM for quantitative, label-free, and high-throughput diagnosis.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CYTOLOGIC AND COLPOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PRECLINICAL CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penagaluru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The cytologic diagnosis of cervical smears has become a very important screening test for the detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical epithelial abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective study conducted for a period of 1 year in 100 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Colposcopy, PAP smear and biopsy were done. RESULTS Majority 70.5% i.e., (12/17 of CIN occurred in the age group of 30-49 years. Among the 9 women who took OCP, 12% (2/17 had CIN. Incidence of CIN in the permanently sterilized group was 59% (10/17 and among IUCD user was 5.9% (1/17. Among women who were diagnosed to have CIN, 70.5% (12/17 complained of excessive vaginal discharge 11.7% (2/17 of women had post-coital bleeding. PAP smear had a sensitivity of 29% and a specificity of 88% which was attributed to the high number of false, negative smears. Colposcopy showed a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 81%. Sensitivity was more than pap smear but specificity was less than pap smear. Accuracy of Colposcopy was found to be 82% which was comparatively more accurate than pap smear (78%. CONCLUSIONS COLPOSCOPY offers an excellent tool in evaluating cervical lesions. It is an easy and perspective method and its importance lies in teaching, diagnosis and management of cervical lesions, both neoplastic and non-neoplastic.

  19. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  20. Exercise Rates Often Decline After Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There need to be more exercise programs within health centers and in gyms to provide cancer patients with guidance to help ... their loved ones by joining them at the gym, on walks or in fitness classes," she ... mood and improve sleep," Heller said. The study included about 660 ...

  1. Microfluidics:Rapid Diagnosis for Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satvinder Panesar; Suresh Neethirajan

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer affected 1.7 million people worldwide in 2012 and accounts for approximately 23.3% of all cancers diagnosed in women. The disease is characterized by a genetic mutation, either inherited or resulting from envi-ronmental factors, that causes uncontrollable cellular growth of breast tissue or adjacent tissues. Current means of diag-nosing this disease depend on the individual analyzing the results from bulky, highly technical, and expensive equipment that is not globally accessible. As a result, patients can go undiagnosed due to a lack of available equipment or be over-diagnosed due to human error. This review attempts to highlight current means of diagnosing breast cancer and critically analyze their effectiveness and usefulness in terms of patient survival. An alternative means based on microfluidics biomarker detection is then presented. This method can be considered as a primary screening tool for diagnosing breast cancer based on its robustness, high throughput, low energy requirements, and accessibility to the general public.

  2. Earnings Fall After a Child's Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with cancer were also less likely to continue working compared to mothers of healthy children, and the researchers found signs ... This could include providing extended support from social work teams at the ... for young parents, mothers with a lower education, and mothers who were ...

  3. P-glycoprotein Mediated Efflux Limits Substrate and Drug Uptake in a Preclinical Brain Metastases of Breast Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris E Adkins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a specialized vascular interface that restricts the entry of many compounds into brain. This is accomplished through the sealing of vascular endothelial cells together with tight junction proteins to prevent paracellular diffusion. In addition, the BBB has a high degree of expression of numerous efflux transporters which actively extrude compounds back into blood. However, when a metastatic lesion develops in brain the vasculature is typically compromised with increases in passive permeability (blood-tumor barrier; BTB. What is not well documented is to what degree active efflux retains function at the BTB despite the changes observed in passive permeability. In addition, there have been previous reports documenting both increased and decreased expression of P-gp in lesion vasculature. Herein, we simultaneously administer a passive diffusion marker (14C-AIB and a tracer subject to P-gp efflux (rhodamine 123 into a murine preclinical model of brain metastases of breast cancer. We observed that the metastatic lesions had similar expression (p>0.05; n=756-1214 vessels evaluated at the BBB and the BTB. Moreover, tissue distribution of R123 was not significantly (p>0.05 different between normal brain and the metastatic lesion. It is possible that the similar expression of P-gp on the BBB and the BTB contribute to this phenomenon. Additionally we observed P-gp expression at the metastatic cancer cells adjacent to the vasculature which may also contribute to reduced R123 uptake into the lesion. The data suggest that despite the disrupted integrity of the BTB, efflux mechanisms appear to be intact, and may be functionally comparable to the normal BBB. The BTB is a significant hurdle to delivering drugs to brain metastasis.

  4. {sup 177}Lu labeling of Herceptin and preclinical validation as a new radiopharmaceutical for radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasaneh, Samira [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-331, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, Hossein, E-mail: hrajabi@modares.ac.i [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-331, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaei, Mohammad Hossein; Daha, Fariba Johari [Department of Radioisotope, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, 14115-331 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: In the present study, Herceptin was labeled with lutetium-177 via DOTA, and the necessary preclinical quality control tests (in vitro and in vivo) were performed to evaluate its use as a radioimmunotherapy agent. Material and Methods: Herceptin was conjugated to DOTA as a chelator in three different conjugation buffers (ammonium acetate, carbonate and HEPES buffer); each of the resulting conjugates was compared with respect to in vitro characteristics such as number of chelates per antibody, incorporated activity, immunoreactivity and in vitro stability in PBS buffer and blood serum. The biodistribution study and gamma camera imaging were performed in mice bearing breast tumors. To assess the therapeutic effects of {sup 177}Lu-Herceptin, cytotoxicity was investigated for 7 days in a SKBr3 breast cancer cell line. Results: Carbonate buffer was the best conjugation buffer (number of chelates per antibody: 6; incorporated activity: 81%; immunoreactivity: 87%; buffer stability: 86%; serum stability: 81%, after 4 days). The efficient tumor uptake observed in the biodistribution studies was consistent with the gamma camera image results. At a concentration of 4 {mu}g ml{sup -1}, {sup 177}Lu-Herceptin (surviving cells: 5{+-}0.6% of the total cells) of the total cells corresponded to an approximately eightfold increase in cytotoxicity in comparison to unmodified Herceptin (surviving cells: 43{+-}3.9%). Conclusion: The new complex described herein could be considered for further evaluation in animals and potentially in humans as a radiopharmaceutical for use in the radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer. These results may be important for patients who cannot tolerate the therapeutic dosage of Herceptin currently used because of heart problems.

  5. PRE-CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS FROM BETEL-LIKE SCENT PIPER SPECIES IDENTIFIED POTENTIAL CANCER TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanubol, Arisa; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sudmoon, Runglawan

    2017-01-01

    Nine Piper species with betel-like scents are sources of industrial and medicinal aromatic chemicals, but there is lack of information on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity for human safety, including how these plants impact human cervical cancer cell line. Plant leaves were extracted with hexane and hydro-distilled for essential oils. The extracts and oils were pre-clinically studied based on cyto - and genotoxicity using microculture tetrazolium (MTT) and comet assays. The crude extracts showed an IC50 in leukocytes and HeLa cells of 58.59-97.31 mg/ml and 34.91-101.79 mg/ml, the LD50 is higher than 5000 mg/kg. With lower values than the crude extracts, the essential oils showed an IC50 in leukocytes and HeLa cells of 0.023-0.059 μg/ml and 0.025-0.043 μg/ml the LD50 is less than 50 mg/kg. IC50 values showed that the essential oils were highly toxic than the crude extracts. At the level of human genetic materials, the crude extracts of two species, including P. betloides and P. crocatum, showed a significant toxicity (p essential oils of all studied Piper species showed insignificant toxicity in leukocytes. For HeLa cells, the eight-studied species showed significant toxicity in HeLa cells, whereas only P. submultinerve showed insignificant toxicity. The crude extracts and essential oils should be tested as putative cervical cancer treatments due to less toxicity in human normal cells.

  6. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis: is travel time important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Sherman, Recinda; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have produced inconsistent results in their examination of the potential association between proximity to healthcare or mammography facilities and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Using a multistate dataset, we re-examine this issue by investigating whether travel time to a patient's diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility impacts breast cancer stage at diagnosis. We studied 161,619 women 40 years and older diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from ten state population based cancer registries in the United States. For each woman, we calculated travel time to their diagnosing facility and nearest mammography facility. Logistic multilevel models of late versus early stage were fitted, and odds ratios were calculated for travel times, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, rural/urban residence, health insurance, and state random effects. Seventy-six percent of women in the study lived less than 20 min from their diagnosing facility, and 93 percent lived less than 20 min from the nearest mammography facility. Late stage at diagnosis was not associated with increasing travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility. Diagnosis age under 50, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, high census tract poverty, and no health insurance were all significantly associated with late stage at diagnosis. Travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility was not a determinant of late stage of breast cancer at diagnosis, and better geographic proximity did not assure more favorable stage distributions. Other factors beyond geographic proximity that can affect access should be evaluated more closely, including facility capacity, insurance acceptance, public transportation, and travel costs.

  7. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach.

  8. Preclinical evaluation of 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate on liver cancer and cancer stem cells with different p53 status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lamy

    Full Text Available Isothiocyanates from plants of the order Brassicales are considered promising cancer chemotherapeutic phytochemicals. However, their selective cytotoxicity on liver cancer has been barely researched. Therefore, in the present study, we systematically studied the chemotherapeutic potency of 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC. Selective toxicity was investigated by comparing its effect on liver cancer cells and their chemoresistant subpopulations to normal primary hepatocytes and liver tissue slices. Additionally, in a first assessment, the in vivo tolerability of MTBITC was investigated in mice. Growth arrest at G2/M and apoptosis induction was evident in all in vitro cancer models treated with MTBITC, including populations with cancer initiating characteristics. This was found independent from TP53; however cell death was delayed in p53 compromised cells as compared to wt-p53 cells which was probably due to differential BH3 only gene regulation i. e. Noxa and its antagonist A1. In normal hepatocytes, no apoptosis or necrosis could be detected after repeated administration of up to 50 µM MTBITC. In mice, orally applied MTBITC was well tolerated over 18 days of treatment for up to 50 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, we could show here that the killing effect of MTBITC has a definite selectivity for cancer cells over normal liver cells and its cytotoxicity even applies for chemoresistant cancer initiating cells. Our study could serve for a better understanding of the chemotherapeutic properties of isothiocyanates on human liver-derived cancer cells.

  9. Preclinical evaluation of sunitinib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a radiosensitizer for human prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Colin

    2012-09-01

    . The fact that tumor growth delay was enhanced when sunitinib was given after radiotherapy was completed suggests that sunitinib may be acting on the irradiated tumor stroma and suppressing its ability to sustain regrowth of the irradiated tumor. Based on these preclinical findings, we suggest that the combination of sunitinib and radiation for the treatment of prostate cancer deserves further development.

  10. The right time, the right place: will targeting human cancer-associated mutations to the mouse provide the perfect preclinical model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Karen; Morton, Jennifer P; Sansom, Owen J

    2012-02-01

    Over the past 10 years the realisation that genetic mouse models of cancer may play a key role in preclinical drug development has gained strong momentum. Moreover sequencing studies of human tumours have provided key insights into the mutational complexity of epithelial cancer, unleashing important clues for researchers to generate accurate genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of cancer. Thus by targeting multiple cancer associated human mutations to the appropriate murine epithelia, mice develop tumours that more closely recapitulate the human disease. As a number of excellent models now exist, the next 5-10 years will ascertain whether these models will predict response of human cancer to intervention. If so they might become the 'gold standard' where all drugs are required to be tested in mouse models of disease before proceeding into the patient. However, although this principle is very attractive, it is relatively untested and here, using examples of prevalent human cancers, we will review the latest data on preclinical GEM studies and comment on what challenges are left to overcome.

  11. Preclinical studies of vascular acting photosensitizer bacteriopheophorbide for the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Huang, Zheng

    2004-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with vascular acting photosensitizer pd-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad), is investigated as an alternative modality for the total ablation of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate is used as the animal model. Interstitial PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the IV infused photosensitizer drug. The prostate and its adjacent tissues were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. At one-week post PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. Prostate lesions could be detected by MRI scan as early as 48 h post PDT. Maximum lesion size of 1.5 cm3 and 2.9 cm3 could be achieved at 50 J/cm and 100 J/cm, respectively, with interstitial treatment using a single 1-cm diffuser fiber, suggesting the Tookad-PDT is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. Pharmacokinetic studies show that the photosensitizer is cleared rapidly from the circulation. In conclusion, the novel photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat localized prostate cancer.

  12. Epigenetics application in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb-de la Rosa, Alfredo; Acker, Matthew; Kumar, Raj A; Manoharan, Murugesan

    2015-10-01

    Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the Western world. Patients with bladder cancer require close monitoring, which may include frequent cystoscopy and urine cytology. Such monitoring results in significant health care cost. The application of epigenetics may allow for a risk adapted approach and more cost-effective method of monitoring. A number of epigenetic changes have been described for many cancer sites, including the urinary bladder. In this review, we discuss the use of epigenetics in bladder cancer and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A comprehensive search of the English medical literature was conducted in PubMed using the terms microRNA regulation, DNA methylation, histone modification and bladder cancer. The most important epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. Both DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation have been associated with higher rate of cancer. The association of epigenetic changes with bladder cancer has led to the research of its diagnostic and prognostic implications as well as to the development of novel drugs to target these changes with the aim of achieving a survival benefit. Recently, epigenetics has been shown to play a much greater role than previously anticipated in the initiation and propagation of many tumors. The use of epigenetics for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is an evolving and promising field. The possibility of reversing epigenetic changes may facilitate additional cancer treatment options in the future.

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colella, Sara; Vilmann, Peter; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the role of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and esophageal ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in the pretherapeutic assessment of patients with proven or suspected lung cancer. EUS-FNA and EBUS-TBNA have been shown to have...... a good diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. In the future, these techniques in combination with positron emission tomography/computed tomographic may replace surgical staging in patients with suspected and proven lung cancer, but until then surgical staging remains the gold...

  14. Recurrent breast cancer: presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardines, L; Callans, L S; Torosian, M H

    1993-10-01

    Patients must be followed up closely after primary therapy for invasive breast cancer so that locoregional recurrences can be detected early. Once a recurrence has been detected, a thorough evaluation is indicated to exclude distant metastatic disease. If none is found, the patient may be a candidate for aggressive surgical intervention to render the patient disease-free. If distant disease is found, certain sites, such as the CNS or long bones, may warrant aggressive therapy because failure to treat these sites may lead to excessive morbidity. In most situations, patients with distant disease are treated with palliative measures. In selected instances, however, patients with metastatic breast cancer are candidates for aggressive intervention, including pulmonary or liver resection or high-dose chemotherapy in combination with autologous bone marrow transplantation, to rid the patient of the disease.

  15. Postmortem diagnosis of preclinical and clinical scrapie in sheep by the detection of disease-associated PrP in their rectal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, L; Dagleish, M P; Bellworthy, S J; Sisó, S; Stack, M J; Chaplin, M J; Davis, L A; Hawkins, S A C; Hughes, J; Jeffrey, M

    2006-03-11

    Samples of tissue from the central nervous system (cns), the lymphoreticular system (lrs) and the rectal mucosa of a large number of scrapie-exposed sheep, with and without signs of clinical disease, were examined immunohistochemically for evidence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)). The rectal mucosa has received almost no attention so far in scrapie diagnosis, despite its abundant rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and its accessibility. The scrapie-confirmed cases included 244 with clinical disease, of which 237 (97.1 per cent) were positive in the rectal mucosa, and 121 apparently healthy sheep, of which 104 (86 per cent) were positive in the rectal mucosa. PrP(d) was detected in 86.4 to 91.5 per cent of the other lrs tissues of the healthy sheep examined and in 77.7 per cent of their cns tissues. The stage of infection, therefore, affected the probability of a positive result in the rectal mucosa, whereas the breed, PrP genotype, age and sex had little or no independent effect. Accumulations of PrP(d) were observed in the rectal mucosa and other lrs tissues of vrq/arr sheep with preclinical and clinical scrapie, albeit with a lower frequency and magnitude than in sheep of other PrP genotypes. Western immunoblotting analyses of samples of rectal mucosa gave the characteristic PrP glycoprofile, with a sensitivity similar to that of immunohistochemistry.

  16. Limitation of CT in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Hiroshi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Kusumoto, Shizuo; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi (and others)

    The differentiation of pancreatic abnormalities remains a problem. We analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease, using six radiologists who had less than six months' training in CT (resident level: inexperienced) and six who had more than 12 months' training (staff level: experienced) in order to clarify the difficulty with CT in the qualitative diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. We reviewed retrospectively 100 cases: 28 cases of pancreatic cancer, 15 of chronic pancreatitis, three of acute pancreatitis, 12 of neoplastic disease that involved the pancreas, and 42 normal subjects. The average sensitivity and specificity of CT in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease were 81.3% and 84.4%, respectively, for the experienced radiologists and 64.0% and 82.1%, respectively, for the inexperienced radiologists. The averages for pancreatic cancer were 65.3% and 87.8% for the experienced radiologists and 60.7% and 87.3% for the inexperienced radiologists. We conclude that the ability to detect pancreatic abnormalities improves with training and experience, but diagnosis of pancreatic cancer does not improve after a certain level of expertise. (author).

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Survival after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Alaa M G; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Bolla, Manjeet

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. METHODS: A MEDLINE...

  18. Biparametric versus multiparametric MRI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup, Karen Cecilie Duus; Logager, Vibeke; Baslev, Ingerd;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) of the prostate exceeds 30 min, minimizing the evaluation time of significant (Gleason scores > 6) prostate cancer (PCa) would be beneficial. A reduced protocol might be sufficient for the diagnosis. PURPOSE: To study whether...

  19. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading. T

  20. Future opportunities for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, R.W.; Schalken, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Despite recent advances, current diagnostic tests and treatment of prostate cancer have limitations. In the last few years, numerous biomolecules have been investigated with the aim of improving diagnosis, including kallikrein-like proteases, growth factors and neuroendocrine markers. Analysis of su

  1. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading.

  2. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading. T

  3. Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC): aspects in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoulidis, Ioannis; Skagias, Lazaros; Politi, Ekaterini

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of a clinical entity like pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is as demanding and challenging as its rarity. Increasing incidence and controversy that exists in the literature upon prognosis, tumor aggressiveness and underlying mechanisms, highlight the importance of optimizing the diagnostic strategy in women with PABC. Adjustment of standard approach for breast cancer by modifying management methods and options plays key role in decision making. Knowledge of diagnostic modalities and their limitations, in accordance with awareness of physiologic hormone-induced changes of pregnancy and lactation, is the fundamental method of diagnosis in PABC. Thorough triple assessment (history/clinical examination, imaging and cytology/histology) enforces healthcare providers with all essential tools to avoid detrimental delay in diagnosis and to confront with their own hesitation to take action due to limited experience of the disease.

  4. Verrucous Squamous Cell Cancer in the Esophagus: An Obscure Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Charlotte; Achiam, Michael P; Federspiel, Birgitte; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, slow-growing type of squamous cell cancer. Fewer than 50 patients with verrucous carcinoma in the esophagus have been described worldwide. In 2014, two male patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma in the distal part of the esophagus. The endoscopic examinations showed a similar wart-like, white, irregular mucosa in both cases. The diagnosis was difficult to make since all biopsies taken from the affected area showed no malignancy. This cancer type has a relatively good prognosis when the diagnosis is finally obtained. Both our patients presented with dysphagia, weight loss, and an endoscopically malignant tumor, but surgery was not performed until after 9 and 10 months, respectively, and then in order to get a diagnosis. At the last follow-up, both patients were without any recurrence of the disease.

  5. Applications of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Freitas, Márcio; García-García, Abel; Crespo-Abelleira, Antonio; Martins-Carneiro, José Luis; Gándara-Rey, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is a simple non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and that is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypias and especially squamous cell carcinoma. However, traditional exfoliative cytology methods show low sensitivity (i.e. a high proportion of false negatives) in the diagnosis of these pathologies. This low sensitivity is attributable to various factors, including inadequate sampling, procedural errors, and the need for subjective interpretation of the findings. More recently, the continuing development of automated cytomorphometric methods, DNA content determination, tumour marker detection, and diverse molecular-level analyses has contributed to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology procedures for the diagnosis of oral cancer. The present study briefly reviews developments in these areas.

  6. Study on 41Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang; Pang, Yijun; Yang, Xianlin; Ruan, Xiangdong; Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo

    2015-10-01

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30-40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of 41Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl2 solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi 41Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for 41Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of 41Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that 41Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  7. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Mehrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  8. Breast cancer. Present perspective of early diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, S.; Langfeldt, B. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This book contains outstanding papers presented at the 3rd International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer, 1985. The Symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultrasonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and very important contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist. With 59 figs., 43 tabs.

  9. Characterization of preclinical models of prostate cancer using PET-based molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloli, Sara; Moresco, Rosa M.; Picchio, Maria [Scientific Institute H San Raffaele, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); IBFM, CNR, Milan (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Jachetti, Elena [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Cancer Immunotherapy and Gene Therapy Program, Milan (Italy); University of Vita-Salute, San Raffaele Institute, Fellowship of the Doctorate School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Milan (Italy); Lecchi, Michela [University of Milan, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Valtorta, Silvia [Scientific Institute H San Raffaele, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Fellowship of the Doctorate School of Molecular Medicine, Milan (Italy); Freschi, Massimo [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Pathological Anatomy Unit, Milan (Italy); Michelini, Rodrigo Hess; Bellone, Matteo [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Cancer Immunotherapy and Gene Therapy Program, Milan (Italy); Fazio, Ferruccio [Scientific Institute H San Raffaele, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice spontaneously develop hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer (PC) that potentially resembles the human pathological condition. The aim of the study was to validate PET imaging as a reliable tool for in vivo assessment of disease biology and progression in TRAMP mice using radioligands routinely applied in clinical practice: [{sup 18}F]FDG and [{sup 11}C]choline. Six TRAMP mice were longitudinally evaluated starting at week 11 of age to visualize PC development and progression. The time frame and imaging pattern of PC lesions were subsequently confirmed on an additional group of five mice. PET and [{sup 18}F]FDG allowed detection of PC lesions starting from 23 weeks of age. [{sup 11}C]Choline was clearly taken up only by TRAMP mice carrying neuroendocrine lesions, as revealed by post-mortem histological evaluation. PET-based molecular imaging represents a state-of-the-art tool for the in vivo monitoring and metabolic characterization of PC development, progression and differentiation in the TRAMP model. (orig.)

  10. Preclinical evaluation of intraoperative low-energy photon radiotherapy using sphericalapplicators in locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François eBuge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy is standard care for locally advanced prostatecancer (stage pT3R1. Intraoperative low-energy photon radiotherapy offers several advantages overexternal beam radiotherapy, and several systems are now available for its delivery, using sphericalapplicators which require only limited shielding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibilityof this technique for the prostate bed.Materials & Methods: Applicators were assessed using MRI image data and cadavericdissection. In cadavers, targeted tissues, defined as a urethral section, both neurovascular bundlesections, the bladder neck and the beds of the seminal vesicles, were marked with metallic surgicalclips. Distances between clips and applicator were measured using CT. A dosimetric study of theapplication of 12 Gy at 5mm depth was performed using CT images of prostatectomized cadavers.Results: Using MRI images from 34 prostate cancer patients, we showed that the ideal applicatordiameter ranges from 45 to 70 mm. Using applicators of different sizes to encompass the prostate bedin nine cadavers, we showed that the distance between target tissues and applicator was less than 2mm for all target tissues except the upper extremity of the seminal vesicles (19 mm. Dosimetric studyshowed a good dose distribution in all target tissues in contact with the applicator, with a lowprobability of rectum and bladder complication.Conclusions: Intraoperative radiotherapy of the prostate bed is feasible, with good coverage oftargeted tissues. Clinical study of safety and efficacy is now required.

  11. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases.

  12. Using data mining techniques for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer disease

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers for women in developed countries including India. It is the second most common cause of cancer death in women. The high incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in the last years. In this paper we have discussed various data mining approaches that have been utilized for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Breast Cancer Diagnosis is distinguishing of benign from malignant breast lumps and Breast Cancer Prognosis predicts whe...

  13. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist use in men without a cancer registry diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Yong-fang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists has become popular for virtually all stages of prostate cancer. We hypothesized that some men receive these agents after only a limited work-up for their cancer. Such cases may be missed by tumor registries, leading to underestimates of the total extent of GnRH agonist use. Methods We used linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER-Medicare data from 1993 through 2001 to identify GnRH agonist use in men with either a diagnosis of prostate cancer registered in SEER, or with a diagnosis of prostate cancer based only on Medicare claims (from the 5% control sample of Medicare beneficiaries residing in SEER areas without a registered diagnosis of cancer. The proportion of incident GnRH agonist users without a registry diagnosis of prostate cancer was calculated. Factors associated with lack of a registry diagnosis were examined in multivariable analyses. Results Of incident GnRH agonist users, 8.9% had no diagnosis of prostate cancer registered in SEER. In a multivariable logistic regression model, lack of a registry diagnosis of prostate cancer in GnRH agonist users was significantly more likely with increasing comorbidity, whereas it was less likely in men who had undergone either inpatient admission or procedures such as radical prostatectomy, prostate biopsy, or transurethral resection of the prostate. Conclusion Reliance solely on tumor registry data may underestimate the rate of GnRH agonist use in men with prostate cancer.

  14. Diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis aiding the diagnosis of small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yasuki; Tsukino, Mitsuhiro; Shigemori, Wataru; Hayashi, Eiichi; Watanabe, Isao; Nakayama, Takahisa; Yamada, Eiji; Moro, Kunihiro

    2012-11-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare complication in immunocompromised patients. Antemortem diagnosis of mucormycosis is difficult and often incorrect. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis caused by Cunninghamella bertholletiae in an elderly man with interstitial pneumonia. The diagnosis of mucormycosis was established by bronchoalveolar lavage. A coexisting immune deficiency condition was considered. Lung cancer was suspected because of an elevated progastrin-releasing peptide level and bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy; it was diagnosed after performing endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Treatment by intravenous liposomal amphotericin B was effective, but relapse occurred because of bone marrow suppression caused by chemotherapy for lung cancer. Treatment for mucormycosis was resumed, but the patient died of carcinomatous lymphangiosis. Autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis and revealed refractory anaemia with small cell lung cancer. Mucormycosis often occurs in immunocompromised patients, but this case is rare because the mucormycosis was diagnosed before the diagnosis of malignancy. Because prognosis is often poor, the possibility of coexisting malignancies should always be investigated in patients with mucormycosis infections.

  15. Preclinical Assessment of Vernonia amygdalina Leaf Extracts as DNA Damaging Anti-cancer Agent in the Management of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Izevbigie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women between 40 and 55 years of age and is the second overall cause of death among women. Fortunately, the mortality rate from breast cancer has decreased in recent years due to an increased emphasis on early detection and more effective treatments. Despite early detection, conventional and chemotherapeutic methods of treatment, about 7% of women still died every year. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina (VA leaf extracts as anti-cancer agent against human breast cancer in vitro using the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assays, respectively. In this experiment, human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 cells were treated with different doses of VA leaf extracts for 48 hours. Data obtained from the MTT assay showed that VA significantly ((P < 0.05 reduced the viability of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner upon 48 hours of exposure. Data generated from the comet assay also indicated a slight dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in MCF-7 cells associated with VA treatment. We observed a slight increase in comet tail-length, tail arm and tail moment, as well as in percentages of DNA cleavage at all doses tested, showing an evidence that VA-induced minimal genotoxic damage in MCF-7 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that VA treatment moderately (P < 0.05 reduces cellular viability and induces minimal DNA damage in MCF-7 cells. These findings provide evidence that VA extracts represent a DNA-damaging anti-cancer agent against breast cancer and its mechanisms of action functions, at least in part, through minimal DNA damage and moderate toxicity in tumors cells.

  16. Urine Telomerase for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lamarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has increased incidence during last decades. For those patients with nonmuscle involved tumors, noninvasive diagnosis test and surveillance methods must be designed to avoid current cystoscopies that nowadays are done regularly in a lot of patients. Novel urine biomarkers have been developed during last years. Telomerase is important in cancer biology, improving the division capacity of cancer cells. Even urinary telomerase could be a potentially useful urinary tumor marker; its use for diagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients or its impact during surveillance is still unknown. Moreover, there will need to be uniformity and standardization in the assays before it can become useful in clinical practice. It does not seem to exist a real difference between the most classical assays for the detection of urine telomerase (TRAP and hTERT. However, the new detection methods with modified TeloTAGGG telomerase or with gold nanoparticles must also be taken into consideration for the correct development of this diagnosis method. Maybe the target population would be the high-risk groups within screening programs. To date there is no enough evidence to use it alone and to eliminate cystoscopies from the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. The combination with cytology or FISH is still preferred.

  17. Diagnosis of skin cancer using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Coronel-Beltrán, Ángel

    2014-10-01

    In this papera methodology for classifying skin cancerin images of dermatologie spots based on spectral analysis using the K-law Fourier non-lineartechnique is presented. The image is segmented and binarized to build the function that contains the interest area. The image is divided into their respective RGB channels to obtain the spectral properties of each channel. The green channel contains more information and therefore this channel is always chosen. This information is point to point multiplied by a binary mask and to this result a Fourier transform is applied written in nonlinear form. If the real part of this spectrum is positive, the spectral density takeunit values, otherwise are zero. Finally the ratio of the sum of the unit values of the spectral density with the sum of values of the binary mask are calculated. This ratio is called spectral index. When the value calculated is in the spectral index range three types of cancer can be detected. Values found out of this range are benign injure.

  18. The Relation between Awareness of Cancer Diagnosis and Spiritual Health among Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sadat Aghahosseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disclosure of cancer diagnosis is one the main challenges in caring of patients with cancer since it may have negative effects on the spiritual health of patients. No study has ever been performed in Iran to investigate the relationship between awareness of cancer diagnosis and spiritual health in cancer patients. Therefore, the present study aimed to review the effects of awareness of cancer on spiritual health in patients with cancer. Methods: This was a descriptive-comparative study conducted in Shahid Ghazi Tabatabaei University Hospital in 2009. The subjects included 150 patients aware of their cancer diagnosis and 150 unaware patients. The patients were selected through convenient sampling method. Using a questionnaire, the patient's spiritual health was assessed. Data analysis was conducted in SPSS17 using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Results showed the mean (SD of spiritual health among aware and unaware patients to be 75.1 (3.8 and 75.4 (3.9, respectively. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the spiritual health of the two groups (p = 0.96. Conclusion: These findings showed that awareness of cancer diagnosis had no effects on spiritual health of patients. It is not surprising considering Iranian culture. However, confirmation of this finding requires further studies.

  19. Biomarkers for preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen-Chen; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is a pressing need to shift the focus to accurate detection of the earliest phase of increasingly preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Meanwhile, the growing recognition that the pathophysiological process of AD begins many years prior to clinically obvious symptoms and the concept of a presymptomatic or preclinical stage of AD are becoming more widely accepted. Advances in clinical identification of new measurements will be critical not only in the discovery of sensitive, specific, and reliable biomarkers of preclinical AD but also in the development of tests that will aid in the early detection and differential diagnosis of dementia and in monitoring disease progression. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of biomarkers for preclinical AD, with emphasis on neuroimaging and neurochemical biomarkers. We conclude with a discussion of emergent directions for AD biomarker research.

  20. Spectral biopsy for skin cancer diagnosis: initial clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin J.; Feng, Xu; Nguyen, Hieu T. M.; Zhang, Yao; Sebastian, Katherine R.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-02-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is a recognized public health issue. Diagnosis of skin cancer involves biopsy of the suspicious lesion followed by histopathology. Biopsies, which involve excision of the lesion, are invasive, at times unnecessary, and are costly procedures ( $2.8B/year in the US). An unmet critical need exists to develop a non-invasive and inexpensive screening method that can eliminate the need for unnecessary biopsies. To address this need, our group has reported on the continued development of a noninvasive method that utilizes multimodal spectroscopy towards the goal of a "spectral biopsy" of skin. Our approach combines Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to collect comprehensive optical property information from suspicious skin lesions. We previously described an updated spectral biopsy system that allows acquisition of all three forms of spectroscopy through a single fiber optic probe and is composed of off-the-shelf OEM components that are smaller, cheaper, and enable a more clinic-friendly system. We present initial patient data acquired with the spectral biopsy system, the first from an extensive clinical study (n = 250) to characterize its performance in identifying skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma). We also present our first attempts at analyzing this initial set of clinical data using statistical-based models, and with models currently being developed to extract biophysical information from the collected spectra, all towards the goal of noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis.

  1. Metabolomics in diagnosis and biomarker discovery of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guangli; Wang, Ping; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), a major public health concern, is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. There is a need for better preventive strategies to improve the patient outcome that is substantially influenced by cancer stage at the time of diagnosis. Patients with early stage colorectal have a significant higher 5-year survival rates compared to patients diagnosed at late stage. Although traditional colonoscopy remains the effective means to diagnose CRC, this approach generally suffers from poor patient compliance. Thus, it is important to develop more effective methods for early diagnosis of this disease process, also there is an urgent need for biomarkers to diagnose CRC, assess disease severity, and prognosticate course. Increasing availability of high-throughput methodologies open up new possibilities for screening new potential candidates for identifying biomarkers. Fortunately, metabolomics, the study of all metabolites produced in the body, considered most closely related to a patient's phenotype, can provide clinically useful biomarkers applied in CRC, and may now open new avenues for diagnostics. It has a largely untapped potential in the field of oncology, through the analysis of the cancer metabolome to identify marker metabolites defined here as surrogate indicators of physiological or pathophysiological states. In this review we take a closer look at the metabolomics used within the field of colorectal cancer. Further, we highlight the most interesting metabolomics publications and discuss these in detail; additional studies are mentioned as a reference for the interested reader. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial-temperature high resolution map for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe V.; Hurduc, Anca; Ghimigean, Ana-Maria; Fumarel, Radu

    2009-02-01

    Heat is one of the most important parameters of living beings. Skin temperature is not the same on the entire body and so, a thermal signature can be got. Infrared map on serial imaging can constitute an early sign of an abnormality. Thermography detects changes in tissue that appear before and accompany many diseases including cancer. As this map has a better resolution an early cancer diagnosis can be done. The temperature of neoplasic tissue is different up to 1.5 °C than that of the healthy tissue as a result of the specific metabolic rate. The infrared camera images show very quickly the heat transferred by radiation. A lot of factors disturb the temperature conversion to pixel intensity. A sensitive temperature sensor with a 10 Mpixels video camera, showing its spatial position, and a computer fusion program were used for the map with high spatial-temperature resolution. A couple of minutes are necessary to get a high resolution map. The asymmetry and borders were the main parameters analyzed. The right cancer diagnosis was for about 78.4% of patients with thyroid cancer, and more than 89.6% from patients with breast cancer. In the near future, the medical prognosis will be improved by fractal analysis.

  3. Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2011-07-01

    Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

  4. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers.

  5. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  6. [Early diagnosis of gastric cancer, a utopian idea? (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, E

    1981-05-01

    In order to improve the prognosis of gastric cancer it is necessary to discover the lesions at an early stage of the disease. Early gastric cancer has an excellent prognosis with a postoperative survival rate of 77 to 99%. Since 1970 we have diagnosed 76 cases of early gastric cancer and the percentage of early cancer out of all gastric cancers increased from 10 to 23%. This improvement is based on selected examinations of high-risk patients, on better diagnostic methods and on our better knowledge of macroscopic and histological appearance. In particular, the use of snare biopsy in protruding lesions and the implementation of continuous endoscopic-bioptic follow-up of all gastric ulcers until complete healing is achieved have improved the accuracy of histological verification. In 16 out of 76 cases of early gastric cancer a multicentric growth was observed. The diagnosis of gastric cancer at an early stage is not an utopian idea. It is reality when we pay attention to the aspects mentioned before.

  7. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / ... regular clinical breast exams and mammograms to find breast cancer early, when treatment is more likely to work ...

  8. Delayed diagnosis of coeliac disease increases cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Benedetto Rita

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between coeliac disease (CD and neoplasms has been long established, but few data are available about the risk factors. The aim of this paper is to estimate the risk of developing a neoplasm among non diagnosed coeliac patients and to evaluate if this risk correlates with the age of patients at diagnosis of coeliac disease. Methods The study population consists of patients (n = 1968 diagnosed with CD at 20 Italian gastroenterology referral Centers between 1st January 1982 and 31st March 2005. Results The SIR for all cancers resulted to be 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0–1.7 p Conclusion Coeliac patients have an increased risk of developing cancer in relation to the age of diagnosis of CD. This risk results higher for malignancies of the gastro-intestinal sites. An accurate screening for tumors should be performed in patients diagnosed with CD in adulthood and in advancing age.

  9. Volatile signature for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparri, Roberto; Santonico, Marco; Valentini, Claudia; Sedda, Giulia; Borri, Alessandro; Petrella, Francesco; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Pennazza, Giorgio; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Di Natale, Corrado; Paolesse, Roberto; Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2016-02-09

    Exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Several independent researchers point out that the breath of lung cancer patients shows a characteristic VOC-profile which can be considered as lung cancer signature and, thus, used for diagnosis. In this regard, the analysis of exhaled breath with gas sensor arrays is a potential non-invasive, relatively low-cost and easy technique for the early detection of lung cancer. This clinical study evaluated the gas sensor array response for the identification of the exhaled breath of lung cancer patients. This study involved 146 individuals: 70 with lung cancer confirmed by computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography-(PET) imaging techniques and histology (biopsy) or with clinical suspect of lung cancer and 76 healthy controls. Their exhaled breath was measured with a gas sensor array composed of a matrix of eight quartz microbalances (QMBs), each functionalized with a different metalloporphyrin. The instrument produces, for each analyzed sample, a vector of signals encoding the breath (breathprint). Breathprints were analyzed with multivariate analysis in order to correlate the sensor signals to the disease. Breathprints of the lung cancer patients were differentiated from those of the healthy controls with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 91%. Similar values were obtained in patients with and without metabolic comorbidities, such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia (sensitivity 85%, specificity 88% and sensitivity 76%, specificity 94%, respectively). The device showed a large sensitivity to lung cancer at stage I with respect to stage II/III/IV (92% and 58% respectively). The sensitivity for stage I did not change for patients with or without metabolic comorbidities (90%, 94%, respectively). Results show that this electronic nose can discriminate the exhaled breath of the lung cancer patients from those of the healthy controls. Moreover, the largest sensitivity is observed

  10. Breast cancer diagnosis in digital mammogram using multiscale curvelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoukhy, Mohamed Meselhy; Faye, Ibrahima; Samir, Brahim Belhaouari

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an approach for breast cancer diagnosis in digital mammogram using curvelet transform. After decomposing the mammogram images in curvelet basis, a special set of the biggest coefficients is extracted as feature vector. The Euclidean distance is then used to construct a supervised classifier. The experimental results gave a 98.59% classification accuracy rate, which indicate that curvelet transformation is a promising tool for analysis and classification of digital mammograms. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles: In vivo cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Tenório, Michele K; Pineda, Edgardo A Gómez; Ahmad, Nasir M; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2015-09-30

    Recently, significant research efforts have been devoted to the finding of efficient approaches in order to reduce the side effects of traditional cancer therapy and diagnosis. In this context, magnetic nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of their unique physical properties, magnetic susceptibility, biocompatibility, stability and many more relevant characteristics. Particularly, magnetic nanoparticles for in vivo biomedical applications need to fulfill special criteria with respect to size, size distribution, surface charge, biodegradability or bio-eliminability and optionally bear well selected ligands for specific targeting. In this context, many routes have been developed to synthesize these materials, and tune their functionalities through intriguing techniques including functionalization, coating and encapsulation strategies. In this review article, the use of magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy and diagnosis is evaluated addressing potential applications in MRI, drug delivery, hyperthermia, theranostics and several other domains. In view of potential biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles, the review focuses on the most recent progress made with respect to synthetic routes to produce magnetic nanoparticles and their salient accomplishments for in vivo cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  12. Automated prostate cancer diagnosis and Gleason grading of tissue microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Ali; Kumar, Vinay P.; Pang, Ho-Yuen; Verbel, David; Kotsianti, Angeliki; Teverovskiy, Mikhail; Saidi, Olivier

    2005-04-01

    We present the results on the development of an automated system for prostate cancer diagnosis and Gleason grading. Images of representative areas of the original Hematoxylin-and-Eosin (H&E)-stained tissue retrieved from each patient, either from a tissue microarray (TMA) core or whole section, were captured and analyzed. The image sets consisted of 367 and 268 color images for the diagnosis and Gleason grading problems, respectively. In diagnosis, the goal is to classify a tissue image into tumor versus non-tumor classes. In Gleason grading, which characterizes tumor aggressiveness, the objective is to classify a tissue image as being from either a low- or high-grade tumor. Several feature sets were computed from the image. The feature sets considered were: (i) color channel histograms, (ii) fractal dimension features, (iii) fractal code features, (iv) wavelet features, and (v) color, shape and texture features computed using Aureon Biosciences' MAGIC system. The linear and quadratic Gaussian classifiers together with a greedy search feature selection algorithm were used. For cancer diagnosis, a classification accuracy of 94.5% was obtained on an independent test set. For Gleason grading, the achieved accuracy of classification into low- and high-grade classes of an independent test set was 77.6%.

  13. Portable LED-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Yung-Jiun; Yang, Chin-Siang; Ou-Yang, Mang

    2017-04-01

    Oral cancer is a serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. To improve the cancer screening procedure, we developed a portable light-emitting-diode (LED)-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager that contains two wavelength LED excitation light sources and multiple filters to capture ex vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. Compared with conventional means of oral cancer diagnosis, the LIAF imager is a handier, faster, and more highly reliable solution. The compact design with a tiny probe allows clinicians to easily observe autofluorescence images of hidden areas located in concave deep oral cavities. The ex vivo trials conducted in Taiwan present the design and prototype of the portable LIAF imager used for analyzing 31 patients with 221 measurement points. Using the normalized factor of normal tissues under the excitation source with 365 nm of the central wavelength and without the bandpass filter, the results revealed that the sensitivity was larger than 84%, the specificity was not smaller than over 76%, the accuracy was about 80%, and the area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was achieved at about 87%, respectively. The fact shows the LIAF spectroscopy has the possibilities of ex vivo diagnosis and noninvasive examinations for oral cancer.

  14. Disclosure of true diagnosis in Japanese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, T; Awazu, H; Fukunishi, I; Okuyama, T; Wogan, J

    1999-01-01

    Full disclosure of medical diagnosis to cancer patients in Japan remains controversial. Some physicians in Japan believe that full disclosure may affect the outcome of treatment, create stress and psychiatric problems, or lead to suicide. Although the trend toward full disclosure is increasing in Japan, approximately 70% of current cancer patients are still not fully informed of their condition. In this study, the authors examined the psychiatric status and effects of full disclosure among 100 otolaryngology patients at Tokai University Hospital (50 with benign diseases, 50 with malignancy) using major depression and adjustment disorders criteria of the DSM-III-R Structured Clinical Interview (SCID). This demonstrated that 15 of 50 (30%) patients with benign diseases and 23 of 50 (46%) patients with malignant diseases met the criteria for depression and adjustment disorder; 29 of the 50 patients (58%) with malignant cancer were not informed of their true condition, according to the wishes of their families (21 were fully informed). The prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders was 42.9% among the informed group and 48.3% among the uninformed group. These findings suggest that concealing the true diagnosis was not related to the presence of psychiatric disorders in Japanese cancer patients.

  15. 2D nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xiong, Qirong; Xiao, Fei; Duan, Hongwei

    2017-03-15

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that early diagnosis holds the key towards effective treatment outcome. Cancer biomarkers are extensively used in oncology for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Electrochemical sensors play key roles in current laboratory and clinical analysis of diverse chemical and biological targets. Recent development of functional nanomaterials offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical sensors. In particular, 2D nanomaterials have stimulated intense research due to their unique array of structural and chemical properties. The 2D materials of interest cover broadly across graphene, graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), and graphene-like nanomaterials (i.e., 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides, graphite carbon nitride and boron nitride nanomaterials). In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins and some small molecules), and present a personal perspective on the future direction of this area.

  16. Using data mining techniques for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer disease

    CERN Document Server

    Kharya, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers for women in developed countries including India. It is the second most common cause of cancer death in women. The high incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in the last years. In this paper we have discussed various data mining approaches that have been utilized for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Breast Cancer Diagnosis is distinguishing of benign from malignant breast lumps and Breast Cancer Prognosis predicts when Breast Cancer is to recur in patients that have had their cancers excised. This study paper summarizes various review and technical articles on breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis also we focus on current research being carried out using the data mining techniques to enhance the breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

  17. Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing HOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC is an uncommon entity of the primary lung cancer. With the widespread use of early detection tools such as multislice spiral computed tomography (CT, positron emission tomography (PET, and the better survival results after resection of primary lung cancer, more and more MPLC have been detected. However, the current diagnostic and therapeutic methods cannot meet the needs of MPLC individualized demand of diagnosis and treatment. At present, diagnostic criteria of MPLC are based on histological types, genetic characteristics, image features, tumor locations and clinical manifestation. On the treatment of MPLC, Surgery-based multi-discipline comprehensive treatment is regarded as the treatment of choice. In this paper, we make a review through summarizing the latest literature progress on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic criteria, treatment options and prognosis of MPLC.

  18. RNA Systems Biology for Cancer: From Diagnosis to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhah, Raheleh; Farazmand, Ali; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Schmitz, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    It is due to the advances in high-throughput omics data generation that RNA species have re-entered the focus of biomedical research. International collaborate efforts, like the ENCODE and GENCODE projects, have spawned thousands of previously unknown functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with various but primarily regulatory roles. Many of these are linked to the emergence and progression of human diseases. In particular, interdisciplinary studies integrating bioinformatics, systems biology, and biotechnological approaches have successfully characterized the role of ncRNAs in different human cancers. These efforts led to the identification of a new tool-kit for cancer diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment, which is now starting to enter and impact on clinical practice. This chapter is to elaborate on the state of the art in RNA systems biology, including a review and perspective on clinical applications toward an integrative RNA systems medicine approach. The focus is on the role of ncRNAs in cancer.

  19. Frozen section diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers: correlation with permanent section diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onajin, Oluwakemi; Wetter, David A; Roenigk, Randall K; Gibson, Lawrence E; Weaver, Amy L; Comfere, Nneka I

    2015-07-01

    Frozen section pathology is routinely used for margin assessment of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Frozen section can also be used for the primary diagnosis of several skin lesions. Limited data exist on the accuracy of frozen section in the diagnosis of NMSC. We performed a retrospective chart review of 300 cases in which frozen section diagnoses were compared with permanent section diagnoses of NMSC. Frozen section and permanent section pathology were concordant 83.3% of the time, with the highest concordance rates noted for basal cell carcinoma (145/153, 95%). Our results show a high level of concordance between frozen section and corresponding permanent section pathology diagnosis for NMSC. The rapidity of frozen section tissue processing and pathology reporting makes this technique useful in dermatologic practice for immediate diagnosis and management of NMSC. Further studies should explore strategies to decrease or eliminate discrepancies between frozen and permanent section diagnosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. PSA Isoforms' Velocities for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate; Horninger, Wolfgang; Bektic, Jasmin

    2015-06-01

    Free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) and its molecular isoforms are suggested for enhancement of PSA testing in prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study we evaluated whether PSA isoforms' velocities might serve as a tool to improve early PCa diagnosis. Our study population included 381 men who had undergone at least one ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy whose pathologic examination yielded PCa or showed no evidence of prostatic malignancy. Serial PSA, fPSA, and proPSA measurements were performed on serum samples covering 7 years prior to biopsy using Beckmann Coulter Access immunoassays. Afterwards, velocities of PSA (PSAV), fPSA% (fPSA%V), proPSA% (proPSA%V) and the ratio proPSA/PSA/V were calculated and their ability to discriminate cancer from benign disease was evaluated. Among 381 men included in the study, 202 (53%) were diagnosed with PCa and underwent radical prostatectomy at our Department. PSAV, fPSA%V, proPSA%V as well as proPSA/PSA/V were able to differentiate significantly between PCa and non-cancerous prostate. The highest discriminatory power between cancer and benign disease has been observed two and one year prior to diagnosis with all measured parameters. Among all measured parameters, fPSA%V showed the best cancer specificity of 45.3% with 90% of sensitivity. In summary, our results highlight the value of PSA isoforms' velocity for early detection of PCa. Especially fPSA%V should be used in the clinical setting to increase cancer detection specificity.

  1. Colorectal cancer in geriatric patients: Endoscopic diagnosis and surgical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Kirchgatterer; Pius Steiner; Dietmar Hubner; Eva Fritz; Gerhard Aschl; Josef Preisinger; Maximilian Hinterreiter; Bernhard Stadler; Peter Knoflach

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of colorectal cancer in geriatric patients undergoing endoscopy and to analyze their outcome.METHODS: All consecutive patients older than 80 years who underwent lower gastrointestinal endoscopy between January 1995 and December 2002 at our institution were included.Patients with endoscopic diagnosis of colorectal cancer were evaluated with respect to indication, localization and stage of cancer, therapeutic consequences, and survival.RESULTS: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 88 patients (6% of all endoscopies, 55 women and 33 men, mean age 85.2 years). Frequent indications were lower gastrointestinal bleeding (25%), anemia (24%) or sonographic suspicion of tumor (10%). Localization of cancer was predominantly the sigmoid colon (27%), the rectum (26%), and the ascending colon (20%). Stage Dukes A was rare (1%), but Dukes D was diagnosed in 22% of cases. Curative surgery was performed in 54 patients (61.4%), in the remaining 34 patients (38.6%)surgical treatment was not feasible due to malnutrition and asthenia or cardiopulmonary comorbidity (15 patients), distant metastases (11 patients) or refusal of operation (8 patients).Patients undergoing surgery had a very low in-hospital mortality rate (2%). Operated patients had a one-year and three-year survival rate of 88% and 49%, and the survival rates for nonoperated patients amounted to 46% and 13% respectively.CONCLUSION: Nearly two-thirds of 88 geriatric patients with endoscopic diagnosis of colorectal cancer underwent successful surgery at a very low perioperative mortality rate, resulting in significantly higher survival rates. Hence,the clinical relevance of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and oncologic surgery in geriatric patients is demonstrated.

  2. Antitumor Activity of Lenvatinib (E7080: An Angiogenesis Inhibitor That Targets Multiple Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Preclinical Human Thyroid Cancer Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Tohyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by blockading the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway is a promising therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer. Lenvatinib mesilate (lenvatinib is a potent inhibitor of VEGF receptors (VEGFR1–3 and other prooncogenic and prooncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, including fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR1–4, platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα, KIT, and RET. We examined the antitumor activity of lenvatinib against human thyroid cancer xenograft models in nude mice. Orally administered lenvatinib showed significant antitumor activity in 5 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5 anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC, and 1 medullary thyroid cancer (MTC xenograft models. Lenvatinib also showed antiangiogenesis activity against 5 DTC and 5 ATC xenografts, while lenvatinib showed in vitro antiproliferative activity against only 2 of 11 thyroid cancer cell lines: that is, RO82-W-1 and TT cells. Western blot analysis showed that cultured RO82-W-1 cells overexpressed FGFR1 and that lenvatinib inhibited the phosphorylation of FGFR1 and its downstream effector FRS2. Lenvatinib also inhibited the phosphorylation of RET with the activated mutation C634W in TT cells. These data demonstrate that lenvatinib provides antitumor activity mainly via angiogenesis inhibition but also inhibits FGFR and RET signaling pathway in preclinical human thyroid cancer models.

  3. Identification of a biomarker panel for colorectal cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Bilbao Amaia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignancies arising in the large bowel cause the second largest number of deaths from cancer in the Western World. Despite progresses made during the last decades, colorectal cancer remains one of the most frequent and deadly neoplasias in the western countries. Methods A genomic study of human colorectal cancer has been carried out on a total of 31 tumoral samples, corresponding to different stages of the disease, and 33 non-tumoral samples. The study was carried out by hybridisation of the tumour samples against a reference pool of non-tumoral samples using Agilent Human 1A 60-mer oligo microarrays. The results obtained were validated by qRT-PCR. In the subsequent bioinformatics analysis, gene networks by means of Bayesian classifiers, variable selection and bootstrap resampling were built. The consensus among all the induced models produced a hierarchy of dependences and, thus, of variables. Results After an exhaustive process of pre-processing to ensure data quality--lost values imputation, probes quality, data smoothing and intraclass variability filtering--the final dataset comprised a total of 8, 104 probes. Next, a supervised classification approach and data analysis was carried out to obtain the most relevant genes. Two of them are directly involved in cancer progression and in particular in colorectal cancer. Finally, a supervised classifier was induced to classify new unseen samples. Conclusions We have developed a tentative model for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer based on a biomarker panel. Our results indicate that the gene profile described herein can discriminate between non-cancerous and cancerous samples with 94.45% accuracy using different supervised classifiers (AUC values in the range of 0.997 and 0.955.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Elfriede

    2010-11-01

    The great challenge for sensor systems to be accepted as a relevant diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cancer detection is the ability to determine the presence of relevant biomarkers or biomarker patterns comparably to or even better than the traditional analytical systems. Biosensor and chemical sensor technologies are already used for several clinical applications such as blood glucose or blood gas measurements. However, up to now not many sensors have been developed for cancer-related tests because only a few of the biomarkers have shown clinical relevance and the performance of the sensor systems is not always satisfactory. New genomic and proteomic tools are used to detect new molecular signatures and identify which combinations of biomarkers may detect best the presence or risk of cancer or monitor cancer therapies. These molecular signatures include genetic and epigenetic signatures, changes in gene expressions, protein biomarker profiles and other metabolite profile changes. They provide new changes in using different sensor technologies for cancer detection especially when complex biomarker patterns have to be analyzed. To address requirements for this complex analysis, there have been recent efforts to develop sensor arrays and new solutions (e.g. lab on a chip) in which sampling, preparation, high-throughput analysis and reporting are integrated. The ability of parallelization, miniaturization and the degree of automation are the focus of new developments and will be supported by nanotechnology approaches. This review recaps some scientific considerations about cancer diagnosis and cancer-related biomarkers, relevant biosensor and chemical sensor technologies, their application as cancer sensors and consideration about future challenges.

  5. Availability of stage at diagnosis, cancer treatment delay and compliance with cancer guidelines as cancer registry indicators for cancer care in Europe: Results of EUROCHIP-3 survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Kwast, A.; Gavin, A.; Baili, P.; Otter, R.

    2013-01-01

    EUROCHIP (European Cancer Health Indicators Project) focuses on understanding inequalities in the cancer burden, care and survival by the indicators “stage at diagnosis,” “cancer treatment delay” and “compliance with cancer guidelines” as the most important indicators. Our study aims at providing

  6. Psychosocial Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis Among Omani Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Azri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore different psychosocial impacts on Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer.  Methods: Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 19 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer to describe the impact of the disease on their personal and social life. Women were recruited from wards and out-patient clinics at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat.  Results: Four main themes emerged. These were: a factors related to psychological distress of the disease and uncertainty (worry of death, interference with work and family responsibilities, searching for hope/cure, travelling overseas; b reactions of family members (shocked, saddened, unity, pressure to seek traditional treatments; c views of society (sympathy, isolation, reluctant to disclose information; and d worries and threats about the future (side effects of chemotherapy, spread of the disease, effect on offspring.  Conclusion: Breast cancer diagnosis has several devastating psychosocial impacts on women in Oman. Healthcare professionals working with women with breast cancer should be aware of the different psychosocial impacts of the disease on women’s lives. Appropriate measures must be taken by the decision makers whenever needed, including enforcing positive views and support of Oman’s society towards women with breast cancer.

  7. Fucosylation Is a Promising Target for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Shinzaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides, sequences of carbohydrates conjugated to proteins and lipids, are arguably the most abundant and structurally diverse class of molecules. Fucosylation is one of the most important oligosaccharide modifications involved in cancer and inflammation. Recent advances in glycomics have identified several types of glyco-biomarkers containing fucosylation that are linked to certain types of cancer. Fucosylated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is widely used in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma because it is more specific than alpha-fetoprotein. High levels of fucosylated haptoglobin have also been found in sera of patients with various carcinomas. We have recently established a simple lectin-antibody ELISA to measure fucosylated haptoglobin and to investigate its clinical use. Cellular fucosylation is dependent upon fucosyltransferase activity and the level of its donor substrate, guanosine diphosphate (GDP-fucose. GDP-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMDS is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of GDP-fucose. Mutations of GMDS found in colon cancer cells induced a malignant phenotype, leading to rapid growth in athymic mice resistant to natural killer cells. This review describes the role of fucosylated haptoglobin as a cancer biomarker, and discusses the possible biological role of fucosylation in cancer development.

  8. Advances in early diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Xu; Tai-Ping Zhang; Yu-Pei Zhao

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer remains a devastating disease with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Recent advances in diagnostic methods and therapeutic approaches have increased the possibility of improving the existing poor prognosis. DATA  SOURCES: English-language articles reporting early diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer were searched from the MEDLINE and PubMed databases, Chinese-language articleswerefromCHKD(ChinaHospitalKnowledgeDatabase). RESULT: The current literature about pancreatic cancer was reviewed from three aspects: statistics, screening and early detection, and therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and screening of pancreatic cancer currently should be limited to high risk patients. Surgical resection is the only curative approach available, with some recent improvement in outcomes. Gemcitabine has been a standard treatment during the last decade. Gemcitabine-based combination treatment, especially combined with newer molecular targeted agents, is promising. The rationale for radiotherapy is controversial, but with the recent development of modern radiation delivery techniques, radiotherapy should be intensified. Patients with borderline pancreatic cancer could benefit from neoadjuvant therapy but more evidence is needed and the best neoadjuvant regimen is still to be determined.

  9. [Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shaoqin; Mao, Hua

    2014-03-01

    To establish a method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. A rapid near-infrared Raman system was used to examine the tissue specimens of pathologically confirmed gastric cancer (33 cases), gastric precancerous lesions (27 cases), and normal gastric mucosa (45 cases). All the specimens were obtained from 105 patients undergoing gastrectomy or endoscopic biopsy of suspected gastric lesions. High-quality Raman spectra ranging from 700 to 1800 cm(-1) were acquired from the gastric tissues within 5 s. The distribution pattern of Raman spectra in gastric cancer differed significantly from those of gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the spectral ranges of 853 cm(-1), 936 cm(-1), 1003 cm(-1), 1032 cm(-1), 1174 cm(-1), 1208 cm(-1), 1323 cm(-1), 1335 cm(-1), 1450 cm(-1), and 1655 cm(-1), which contained signals related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. The diagnostic decision algorithm based on the Raman peak intensity ratios of I1003/ I1337, I1003/I1445, I1003/I1655, and I1156/I1655 yielded remarkable differences in gastric cancer from gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, and the ratios were significantly higher in normal gastric tissues (Pinfrared Raman spectroscopy using PCA-LDA algorithms associated with leave- one-out and cross-validation method showed diagnostic sensitivities of 81.5%, 85.3%, and 100%, and specificities of 86.4%, 100%, and 97.4% for normal gastric mucosa, precancerous lesions and gastric cancer, respectively. near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with intensity ratio algorithms shows the potential for noninvasive diagnosis and detection of gastric malignancy at the molecular level.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vitola Gonçalves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: One third of all cervical carcinomas occur during the reproductive period. Cervical carcinoma is the second greatest cause of death due to cancer during this phase. The estimated frequency of cervical cancer during pregnancy is one case for every 1,000 to 5,000 pregnancies. The aim here was to provide information about the difficulties in diagnosing and managing cervical neoplasia during pregnancy. MATERIALS: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken through the PubMed, Cochrane, Excerpta Medica (Embase, Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO databases, using the following words: pregnancy, cervical cancer, diagnosis and management. RESULTS: There was a consensus in the literature regarding diagnosis of cervical carcinoma and management of preneoplastic lesions during pregnancy. However, for management of invasive carcinoma, there was great divergence regarding the gestational age taken as the limit for observation rather than immediate treatment. CONCLUSION: All patients with cytological abnormalities should undergo colposcopy, which will indicate and guide biopsy. Conization is reserved for patients with suspected invasion. High-grade lesions should be monitored during pregnancy and reevaluated after delivery. In cases of invasive carcinoma detected up to the 12th week of pregnancy, patient treatment is prioritized. Regarding diagnoses made during the second trimester, fetal pulmonary maturity can be awaited, and the use of chemotherapy to stabilize the disease until the time of delivery appears to be viable.

  11. Molecular diagnosis of lung cancer: an overview of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to lung carcinogens calls for screening procedures which may not be fully justified, owing to current uncertainties about the outcome of early detection. Indeed, bias-free designs are difficult to set up, and the effects of lead time, length and screening biases can all result in an overestimation of the benefits of screenings, which certainly increase survival, but without any actual reduction of mortality. A major issue with modern imaging techniques is the very high incidence of discovery of lung nodules, usually false positive, but still calling for additional and sometimes painful examinations. Currently, the differential diagnosis is mainly based on additional imaging approaches, particularly positron emission tomography, which is very expensive and also shows limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, purely morphological criteria seem to be insufficient to distinguish lung cancer at early stages from benign nodules with sufficient confidence. A molecular approach to the diagnosis of lung cancer through biomarkers measured by non-invasive means could greatly improve the specificity of imaging procedures. Extremely sensitive mass spectrometric techniques and polymerase chain reaction-based methods are available to detect, in accessible media, molecular alterations which characterise lung cancer at an early stage, thereby reducing the rate of false positives. The lessons learnt from decades of screening programmes based on imaging and the future prospects possibly enhanced by using biomarkers are briefly discussed in this overview. (www.actabiomedica.it)

  12. Real-time sonoelastography in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiu, Călin R; Manea, Cristian; Crişan, Nicolae; Bungărdean, Cătălina; Coman, Ioan; Dudea, Sorin M

    2011-03-01

    Sonoelastography (SEG) is a noninvasive ultrasound (US) method able to differentiate tissues according to their stiffness. Our objective was to establish whether transrectal (TR) SEG may improve prostate cancer detection, alone or associated with other US methods. We analyzed the data of 65 patients, mean age 68 years (49 - 81 years), examined March 2009-September 2010. The patients had at least one of the following malignancy suspicion criteria: PSA > 4 ng /ml (minimum 2 determinations), nodule(s) at digital rectal examination (DRE +) or previous gray scale TRUS positive appearance. All patients underwent TRUS, Doppler-US and SEG in the same session, followed by systematic prostate biopsies (6-12 cores). Histopathology and imaging findings were correlated. Twenty-eight out of 65 patients (43%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Overall, SEG had a sensitivity of 67.85%, specificity 62.16%, positive predictive value 57.57% and negative predictive value 71.85%. However, SEG diagnostic reliability appeared to be higher for subgroups of patients having PSA >10 ng / ml, lower number of fragments collected by PBP (6 vs. 10-12 cores) and age > 70 years. SEG appears to be useful in the diagnosis of prostate cancer as it may increase the diagnosis accuracy in specific target groups.

  13. Fusion Imaging in the Diagnosis of Cancer; La imagen del fusion en el diagnostico del cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, A.; Gonzalez Alenda, J.

    2007-07-01

    Early diagnosis is one of the most important aids in the fight against cancer. Of the tests available in Medicine, anatomic imaging techniques such as Computed Tomography (CT)and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have been the ones used for many years. the emergence of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) more than a decade ago was a major breakthrough in the early diagnosis of malignant lesions, as it was based on tumor metabolism and not on anatomy. The merger of both techniques into one thanks to PET-CT cameras has made this technology the most important tool in the management of cancer patients. (Author)

  14. Multifeature prostate cancer diagnosis and Gleason grading of histological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Ali; Teverovskiy, Mikhail; Pang, Ho-Yuen; Kumar, Vinay P; Verbel, David; Kotsianti, Angeliki; Saidi, Olivier

    2007-10-01

    We present a study of image features for cancer diagnosis and Gleason grading of the histological images of prostate. In diagnosis, the tissue image is classified into the tumor and nontumor classes. In Gleason grading, which characterizes tumor aggressiveness, the image is classified as containing a low- or high-grade tumor. The image sets used in this paper consisted of 367 and 268 color images for the diagnosis and Gleason grading problems, respectively, and were captured from representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue retrieved from tissue microarray cores or whole sections. The primary contribution of this paper is to aggregate color, texture, and morphometric cues at the global and histological object levels for classification. Features representing different visual cues were combined in a supervised learning framework. We compared the performance of Gaussian, k-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers together with the sequential forward feature selection algorithm. On diagnosis, using a five-fold cross-validation estimate, an accuracy of 96.7% was obtained. On Gleason grading, the achieved accuracy of classification into low- and high-grade classes was 81.0%.

  15. An adaptive online learning framework for practical breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tianshu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Jiayu

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an adaptive online learning (OL) framework for supporting clinical breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. Unlike traditional data mining, which trains a particular model from a fixed set of medical data, our framework offers robust OL models that can be updated adaptively according to new data sequences and newly discovered features. As a result, our framework can naturally learn to perform BC diagnosis using experts' opinions on sequential patient cases with cumulative clinical measurements. The framework integrates both supervised learning (SL) models for BC risk assessment and reinforcement learning (RL) models for decision-making of clinical measurements. In other words, online SL and RL interact with one another, and under a doctor's supervision, push the patient's diagnosis further. Furthermore, our framework can quickly update relevant model parameters based on current diagnosis information during the training process. Additionally, it can build flexible fitted models by integrating different model structures and plugging in the corresponding parameters during the prediction (or decision-making) process. Even when the feature space is extended, it can initialize the corresponding parameters and extend the existing model structure without loss of the cumulative knowledge. We evaluate the OL framework on real datasets from BCSC and WBC, and demonstrate that our SL models achieve accurate BC risk assessment from sequential data and incremental features. We also verify that the well-trained RL models provide promising measurement suggestions.

  16. A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe for skin cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beule, P. A. A.; Dunsby, C.; Galletly, N. P.; Stamp, G. W.; Chu, A. C.; Anand, U.; Anand, P.; Benham, C. D.; Naylor, A.; French, P. M. W.

    2007-12-01

    The autofluorescence of biological tissue can be exploited for the detection and diagnosis of disease but, to date, its complex nature and relatively weak signal levels have impeded its widespread application in biology and medicine. We present here a portable instrument designed for the in situ simultaneous measurement of autofluorescence emission spectra and temporal decay profiles, permitting the analysis of complex fluorescence signals. This hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe utilizes two ultrafast lasers operating at 355 and 440nm that can excite autofluorescence from many different biomolecules present in skin tissue including keratin, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), and flavins. The instrument incorporates an optical fiber probe to provide sample illumination and fluorescence collection over a millimeter-sized area. We present a description of the system, including spectral and temporal characterizations, and report the preliminary application of this instrument to a study of recently resected (skin lesions, illustrating its potential for skin cancer detection and diagnosis.

  17. Medical imaging and computers in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-09-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and quantitative image analysis (QIA) methods (i.e., computerized methods of analyzing digital breast images: mammograms, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance images) can yield novel image-based tumor and parenchyma characteristics (i.e., signatures that may ultimately contribute to the design of patient-specific breast cancer management plans). The role of QIA/CAD has been expanding beyond screening programs towards applications in risk assessment, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy as well as in data mining to discover relationships of image-based lesion characteristics with genomics and other phenotypes; thus, as they apply to disease states. These various computer-based applications are demonstrated through research examples from the Giger Lab.

  18. PHOTODYNAMIC DIAGNOSIS AND FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY IN SUPERFICIAL BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Rusakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive fluorescence technique has been developed to study the urinary bladder mucosa in patients with superficial bladder cancer (BC, by using alasense, white light cystoscopy, fluorescence cytoscopy, and local fluorescence spectroscopy in vivo. Quantification of urothelium fluorescence in the red emission foci of 5-ALA-induced protophorphyrin, with the local autofluorescence intensity being borne in mind, has been shown to increase the specificity of photodynamic diagnosis of superficial BC from 70 to 85% (p ≤ 0.05 and the total accuracy of the technique from 80 to 86%.  

  19. Radiolabeled bombesin derivatives for preclinical oncological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Ferreira, Carolina; Fuscaldi, Leonardo Lima; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Rubello, Domenico; de Barros, André Luís Branco

    2017-01-01

    Despite efforts, cancer is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths each year, according to the World Health Organization. Among the strategies to reduce cancer progression and improving its management, implementing early detection technologies is crucial. Based on the fact that several types of cancer cells overexpress surface receptors, small molecule ligands, such as peptides, have been developed to allow tumor identification at earlier stages. Allied with imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT, radiolabeled peptides play a pivotal role in nuclear medicine. Bombesin, a peptide of 14 amino acids, is an amphibian homolog to the mammalian gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), that has been extensively studied as a targeting ligand for diagnosis and therapy of GRP positive tumors, such as breast, pancreas, lungs and prostate cancers. In this context, herein we provide a review of reported bombesin derivatives radiolabeled with a multitude of radioactive isotopes for diagnostic purposes in the preclinical setting. Moreover, since animal models are highly relevant for assessing the potential of clinical translation of this radiopeptides, a brief report of the currently used GRP-positive tumor-bearing animal models is described. PMID:28040598

  20. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  1. Current status of lectin-based cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohona S. Coulibaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. Due to their exceptional glycan recognition property, they have found many applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology and surface chemistry. This manuscript explores the current use of lectins for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Moreover, novel drug delivery strategies aiming at improving lectin’s stability, reducing their undesired toxicity and controlling their non-specific binding interactions are discussed. We also explore the nanotechnology application of lectins for cancer targeting and imaging. Although many investigations are being conducted in the field of lectinology, there is still a limited clinical translation of the major findings reported due to lectins stability and toxicity concerns. Therefore, new investigations of safe and effective drug delivery system strategies for lectins are warranted in order to take full advantage of these proteins.

  2. [Tumor markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, G; Paladini, S; D'Agata, A

    1999-01-01

    The difficulty in an early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is in the absence of early symptoms due to lower limit of detection of the actual imaging techniques. Clinical symptoms like weight loss, abdominal pain and jaundice indicate an advanced cancer stage. Today 50% of pancreatic tumors are diagnosed in advanced metastatic stage and only 20-30% show resectable cancer. Ultrasound and determination of a mucine like antigen as CA 19-9, CA 50 and CA 195 seem to allow an earlier diagnosis with a higher rate of resective surgery and a prolonged survival for these patients. The mucines are high molecular weight glycoproteins consistent of a backbone protein to which oligosaccarides are attached. The linkage of carbohydrate to the peptide is termed O-glycosidic and involves the hydroxylic groups of serine or threonine with N-acetylglucosamine. Only the backbone proteins are genetically determined (genes MUC). The gangliosides are the same or derivative of Lewis antigen. CA 19-9, CA 50 and CA 195 are assays directed to different epitopes probably present on the same mucinous antigen. These epitopes are not present in different mucines as CA 15-3, CA 125 and TAG 72. Recently other two mucines are emploied CA 242 and CAM 17.1 but they are not better than CA 19-9. The use of a "triplet" of tumor markers as CA 19-9, CA 125 and CEA is the best diagnostic tool for cancer of pancreas in an "integrated" use with ultrasonographic evaluation of the lesion. CA 19-9 permits differential diagnosis from neuroendocrine tumor or pancreatitis, the values of CA 125 and CEA are useful in the evaluation of the stage, resectability and prognosis of pancreatic cancer. The recent use of CA19-9 for the evaluation of radiochemotherapy in preoperative management of the patient is a mode of a well known application of tumor markers in a kinetic evaluation of the tumor for the radicality of therapy, follow-up, recurrence and the effectiveness of the palliative therapy.

  3. Relative expression analysis for molecular cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James A; Sung, Jaeyun; Geman, Donald; Price, Nathan D

    2010-04-01

    potential to significantly contribute to molecular cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

  4. Molecular Endoscopic Ultrasound for Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bournet, Barbara [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Center Rangueil, 1 avenue Jean Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Pointreau, Adeline; Delpu, Yannick; Selves, Janick; Torrisani, Jerome [INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Buscail, Louis, E-mail: buscail.l@chu-toulouse.fr [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Center Rangueil, 1 avenue Jean Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Cordelier, Pierre [INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-24

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy is a safe and effective technique in diagnosing and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. However its predictive negative value does not exceed 50% to 60%. Unfortunately, the majority of pancreatic cancer patients have a metastatic and/or a locally advanced disease (i.e., not eligible for curative resection) which explains the limited access to pancreatic tissue specimens. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy is the most widely used approach for cytological and histological material sampling in these situations used in up to two thirds of patients with pancreatic cancer. Based on this unique material, we and others developed strategies to improve the differential diagnosis between carcinoma and inflammatory pancreatic lesions by analysis of KRAS oncogene mutation, microRNA expression and methylation, as well as mRNA expression using both qRT-PCR and Low Density Array Taqman analysis. Indeed, differentiating pancreatic cancer from pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis remains very difficult in current clinical practice, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy analysis proved to be very helpful. In this review, we will compile the clinical and molecular advantages of using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy in managing pancreatic cancer.

  5. Preclinical Evaluation of Oncolytic Δγ134.5 Herpes Simplex Virus Expressing Interleukin-12 for Therapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Cody

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The metastasis of breast cancer to the brain and central nervous system (CNS is a problem of increasing importance. As improving treatments continue to extend patient survival, the incidence of CNS metastases from breast cancer is on the rise. New treatments are needed, as current treatments are limited by deleterious side effects and are generally palliative. We have previously described an oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV, designated M002, which lacks both copies of the γ134.5 neurovirulence gene and carries a murine interleukin 12 (IL-12 expression cassette, and have validated its antitumor efficacy in a variety of preclinical models of primary brain tumors. However, M002 has not been yet evaluated for use against metastatic brain tumors. Here, we demonstrate the following: both human breast cancer and murine mammary carcinoma cells support viral replication and IL-12 expression from M002; M002 replicates in and destroys breast cancer cells from a variety of histological subtypes, including “triple-negative” and HER2 overexpressing; M002 improves survival in an immunocompetent model more effectively than does a non-cytokine control virus. Thus, we conclude from this proof-of-principle study that a γ134.5-deleted IL-12 expressing oncolytic HSV may be a potential new therapy for breast cancer brain metastases.

  6. "Glowing head" mice: a genetic tool enabling reliable preclinical image-based evaluation of cancers in immunocompetent allografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ping Day

    Full Text Available Preclinical therapeutic assessment currently relies on the growth response of established human cell lines xenografted into immunocompromised mice, a strategy that is generally not predictive of clinical outcomes. Immunocompetent genetically engineered mouse (GEM-derived tumor allograft models offer highly tractable preclinical alternatives and facilitate analysis of clinically promising immunomodulatory agents. Imageable reporters are essential for accurately tracking tumor growth and response, particularly for metastases. Unfortunately, reporters such as luciferase and GFP are foreign antigens in immunocompetent mice, potentially hindering tumor growth and confounding therapeutic responses. Here we assessed the value of reporter-tolerized GEMs as allograft recipients by targeting minimal expression of a luciferase-GFP fusion reporter to the anterior pituitary gland (dubbed the "Glowing Head" or GH mouse. The luciferase-GFP reporter expressed in tumor cells induced adverse immune responses in wildtype mouse, but not in GH mouse, as transplantation hosts. The antigenicity of optical reporters resulted in a decrease in both the growth and metastatic potential of the labeled tumor in wildtype mice as compared to the GH mice. Moreover, reporter expression can also alter the tumor response to chemotherapy or targeted therapy in a context-dependent manner. Thus the GH mice and experimental approaches vetted herein provide concept validation and a strategy for effective, reproducible preclinical evaluation of growth and response kinetics for traceable tumors.

  7. Animal Models of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases. The difficulty of animal modeling of pancreatic cancer for preclinical evaluation of therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Craig D; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Ramachandran, Vijaya

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is relatively rare but extremely lethal. Standard cytotoxic therapeutics provide little benefit. To date, newer targeted therapeutics have also not been highly successful. Often novel therapeutics that have appeared to perform well in preclinical models have failed in the clinic. Many factors contribute to these failures, but the one most often attributed is the shortcomings of the preclinical models. A plethora of animal models now exist for PDAC, including cell line xenografts, patient-derived xenografts, a wide variety of genetic mouse models, and syngeneic xenografts. These models have generated a tremendous amount of information useful for the understanding of PDAC. Yet none seems to well predict clinical outcomes of new treatments. This review will discuss how genetic instability and cellular heterogeneity make this disease so difficult to model accurately. We will also discuss the strengths and weaknesses of many of the popular models. Ultimately we will argue that there is no perfect model and that the best approach to understanding clinical performance is the use of multiple preclinical models with an understanding of their salient features.

  8. [Genetic cancer syndromes and reproductive choice: dialogue between parents and politicians on preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermeijer, M.F.; Die-Smulders, C.E.M. de; Page-Christiaens, G.C.; Wert, G.M.W.R. de

    2008-01-01

    Genetic cancer syndromes have identical clinical severity, limited therapeutic options, reduced life expectancy, and risks of genetic transmission, as do other genetic or congenital diseases for which prenatal genetic diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is allowed in the

  9. [Genetic cancer syndromes and reproductive choice: dialogue between parents and politicians on preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermeijer, M.F.; Die-Smulders, C.E.M. de; Page-Christiaens, G.C.; Wert, G.M.W.R. de

    2008-01-01

    Genetic cancer syndromes have identical clinical severity, limited therapeutic options, reduced life expectancy, and risks of genetic transmission, as do other genetic or congenital diseases for which prenatal genetic diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is allowed in the Netherlands

  10. In vivo Raman spectroscopy for oral cancers diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is sixth among the major malignancies worldwide. Tobacco habits are known as major causative factor in tumor carcinogenesis in oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods, including Raman, are being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. In the present study we have recorded in vivo spectra from contralateral normal and diseased sites of 50 subjects with pathologically confirmed lesions of buccal mucosa using fiber-optic-probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectra were recorded on similar points as per teeth positions with an average acquisition time of 8 seconds. A total of 215 and 225 spectra from normal and tumor sites, respectively, were recorded. Finger print region (1200-1800 cm-1) was utilized for classification using LDA. Standard-model was developed using 125 normal and 139 tumor spectra from 27 subjects. Two separate clusters with an efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Cross-validation with leave-one-out yielded ~90% efficiency. Remaining 90 normal and 86 tumor spectra were used as test data and predication efficiency of model was evaluated. Findings of the study indicate that Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool can be used for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis.

  11. Diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma of Skin Cancer Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hassin Alasadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes. It can influence on the skin only, or it may expand to the bones and organs. It is less common, but more serious and aggressive than other types of skin cancer. Malignant Melanoma can happen anywhere on the skin, but it is widespread in certain locations such as the legs in women, the back and chest in men, the face, the neck, mouth, eyes, and genitals. In this paper, a proposed algorithm is designed for diagnosing malignant melanoma types by using digital image processing techniques. The algorithm consists of four steps: preprocessing, separation, features extraction, and diagnosis. A neural network (NN used to diagnosis malignant melanoma types. The total accuracy of the neural network was 100% for training and 93% for testing. The evaluation of the algorithm is done by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing malignant melanoma types was 95.6%, while the specificity was 92.2% and the accuracy was 93.9%. The experimental results are acceptable.

  12. Autofluorescence excitation-emission matrices for diagnosis of colonic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bu-Hong Li; Shu-Sen Xie

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the autofluorescence spectroscopic differences in normal and adenomatous colonic tissues and to determine the optimal excitation wavelengths for subsequent study and clinical application.METHODS: Normal and adenomatous colonic tissues were obtained from patients during surgery. A FL/FS920combined TCSPC spectrofluorimeter and a lifetime spectrometer system were used for fluorescence measurement.Fluorescence excitation wavelengths varying from 260 to 540 nm were used to induce the autofluorescence spectra,and the corresponding emission spectra were recorded from a range starting 20 nm above the excitation wavelength and extending to 800 nm. Emission spectra were assembled into a three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and an excitation-emission matrix (EEM) to exploit endogenous fluorophores and diagnostic information. Then emission spectra of normal and adenomatous colonic tissues at certain excitation wavelengths were compared to determine the optimal excitation wavelengths for diagnosis of colonic cancer.RESULTS: When compared to normal tissues, low NAD (P)H and FAD, but high amino acids and endogenous phorphyrins of protoporphyrin Ⅸ characterized the highgrade malignant colonic tissues. The optimal excitation wavelengths for diagnosis of colonic cancer were about 340, 380, 460, and 540 nm.CONCLUSION: Significant differences in autofluorescence peaks and its intensities can be observed in normal and adenomatous colonic tissues. Autofluorescence EEMs are able to identify colonic tissues.

  13. Computer aided lung cancer diagnosis with deep learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Deep learning is considered as a popular and powerful method in pattern recognition and classification. However, there are not many deep structured applications used in medical imaging diagnosis area, because large dataset is not always available for medical images. In this study we tested the feasibility of using deep learning algorithms for lung cancer diagnosis with the cases from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. The nodules on each computed tomography (CT) slice were segmented according to marks provided by the radiologists. After down sampling and rotating we acquired 174412 samples with 52 by 52 pixel each and the corresponding truth files. Three deep learning algorithms were designed and implemented, including Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBNs), Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SDAE). To compare the performance of deep learning algorithms with traditional computer aided diagnosis (CADx) system, we designed a scheme with 28 image features and support vector machine. The accuracies of CNN, DBNs, and SDAE are 0.7976, 0.8119, and 0.7929, respectively; the accuracy of our designed traditional CADx is 0.7940, which is slightly lower than CNN and DBNs. We also noticed that the mislabeled nodules using DBNs are 4% larger than using traditional CADx, this might be resulting from down sampling process lost some size information of the nodules.

  14. Communication networks of men facing a diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dot; Oetzel, John; Henderson, Alison

    2016-11-01

    This study seeks to identify the factors that shape the communication networks of men who face a potential diagnosis of prostate cancer, and how these factors relate to their disclosure about their changing health status. Men facing a potential diagnosis of prostate cancer are in a challenging situation; the support benefits of disclosing their changing health status to others in their communication networks is set against a backdrop of the potential stigma and uncertainty of the diagnosis. All men on a prostate biopsy waiting list were eligible for inclusion in an exploratory and interpretive study. Semi-structured interviews with 40 men explored their network structures and disclosure of health information. Thematic analysis highlighted the factors which contributed to their network structures and their disclosure about their health status. Four network factors shaped men's perspectives about disclosing their health status: (1) tie strength, comprising both strong and weak ties; (2) knowledgeable others, with a focus on medical professionals in the family; (3) homophily, which included other individuals with a similar medical condition; and (4) geographical proximity, with a preference for face-to-face communication. Communication networks influence men's disclosure of their health status and in particular weak ties with medical knowledge have an important role. Men who use the potential for support in their networks may experience improved psychosocial outcomes. Using these four network factors-tie strength, knowledgeable others, homophily or geographical proximity-to forecast men's willingness to disclose helps identify men who lack potential support and so are at risk of poor psychosocial health. Those with few strong ties or knowledgeable others in their networks may be in the at-risk cohort. The support provided in communication networks complements formal medical care from nurses and other health professionals, and encouraging patients to use their

  15. Estimating the change in life expectancy after a diagnosis of cancer among the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Baade, Peter D; Youlden, Danny R; Andersson, Therese M-L; Youl, Philippa H; Kimlin, Michael G.; Aitken, Joanne F; Biggar, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Communication of relevant prognostic information is critical in helping patients understand the implications of their cancer diagnosis. We describe measures of prognosis to help communicate relevant prognostic information to improve patients’ understanding of the implications of their cancer diagnosis. Setting Australia-wide population-based cancer registry cohort. Participants 870 878 patients aged 15–89 years diagnosed with invasive cancer between 1990 and 2007, with mortality fo...

  16. Photoacoustic-based nanomedicine for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Changbeom; Kim, Haemin; Moon, Hyungwon; Lee, Hohyeon; Chang, Jin Ho; Kim, Hyuncheol

    2015-04-10

    Photoacoustic imaging is the latest promising diagnostic modality that has various advantages such as high spatial resolution, deep penetration depth, and use of non-ionizing radiation. It also employs a non-invasive imaging technique and optically functionalized imaging. The goal of this study was to develop a nanomedicine for simultaneous cancer therapy and diagnosis based on photoacoustic imaging. Human serum albumin nanoparticles loaded with melanin and paclitaxel (HMP-NPs) were developed using the desolvation technique. The photoacoustic-based diagnostic and chemotherapeutic properties of HMP-NPs were evaluated through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The size and zeta potential of the HMP-NPs were found to be 192.8±21.11nm and -22.2±4.39mV, respectively. In in vitro experiments, HMP-NPs produced increased photoacoustic signal intensity because of the loaded melanin and decreased cellular viability because of the encapsulated paclitaxel, compared to the free human serum albumin nanoparticles (the control). In vivo experiments showed that the HMP-NPs efficiently accumulated inside the tumor, resulting in the enhanced photoacoustic signal intensity in the tumor site, compared to the normal tissues. The in vivo chemotherapy study demonstrated that HMP-NPs had the capability to treat cancer for an extended period. In conclusion, HMP-NPs were simultaneously capable of photoacoustic diagnostic and chemotherapy against cancer.

  17. Factors influencing the attitudes of Chinese cancer patients and their families toward the disclosure of a cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenwen; Wang, Zhehai; Fang, Shu; Li, Minmin

    2015-03-01

    The disclosure of a cancer diagnosis to patients has been a core topic in oncology departments. Previous studies have demonstrated that Chinese cancer patients and their families differ in their attitudes toward cancer diagnosis disclosure. However, the influencing factors regarding their different attitudes remain unknown. In the present study, a questionnaire was delivered to 266 cancer patients and 266 matched family members. The results showed that cancer patients were more likely to desire to be informed of their condition than family members (85 vs. 18%, P cancer, 16.5% expected to reduce the severity of their condition, and 4.9% expected to lengthen their lives. Therefore, physicians have a responsibility to appropriately provide knowledge regarding cancer to the patients' families if their educational level is lower and if they have no knowledge of recent treatments, which may improve their acceptability of a cancer diagnosis for patients.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  19. Disclosure of cancer diagnosis and quality of life in cancer patients: should it be the same everywhere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohagheghi Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that truth telling and honest disclosure of cancer diagnosis could lead to improved outcomes in cancer patients. To examine such findings in Iran, this trial aimed to study the various dimensions of quality of life in patients with gastrointestinal cancer and to compare these variables among those who knew their diagnosis and those who did not. Methods A consecutive sample of patients with gastrointestinal cancer being treated in Cancer Institute in Tehran, Iran was prospectively evaluated. A psychologist interviewed patients using the Iranian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30. Patients were categorized into two groups: those who knew their diagnosis and those who did not. Independent sample t-test was used for group comparisons. Results In all 142 patients were interviewed. A significant proportion (52% of patients did not know their cancer diagnosis and 48% of patients were aware that they had cancer. They were quite similar in most characteristics. The comparison of quality of life between two groups indicated that those knew their diagnosis showed a significant lower degree of physical (P = 0.001, emotional (P = 0.01 and social functioning (P Conclusion Contrary to expectation the findings indicated that patients who did not know their cancer diagnosis had a better physical, social and emotional quality of life. It seems that due to cultural differences between countries cancer disclosure guidelines perhaps should be differing.

  20. Assessment of diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer cases at two cancer centers in Egypt and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Catherine; Soliman, Amr S; Omar, Sherif; Khaled, Hussein; Eissa, Saad; Ayed, Farhat Ben; Khalafallah, Samir; Ayoub, Wided Ben; Kantor, Elizabeth D; Merajver, Sofia; Swain, Sandra M; Gail, Mitchell; Brown, Linda Morris

    2013-04-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is largely clinical and therefore inherently somewhat subjective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnosis of IBC at two centers in North Africa where a higher proportion of breast cancer is diagnosed as IBC than in the United States (U.S.). Physicians prospectively enrolled suspected IBC cases at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) - Cairo, Egypt, and the Institut Salah Azaiz (ISA), Tunisia, recorded extent and duration of signs/symptoms of IBC on standardized forms, and took digital photographs of the breast. After second-level review at study hospitals, photographs and clinical information for confirmed IBC cases were reviewed by two U.S. oncologists. We calculated percent agreement between study hospital and U.S. oncologist diagnoses. Among cases confirmed by at least one U.S. oncologist, we calculated median extent and duration of signs and Spearman correlations. At least one U.S. oncologist confirmed the IBC diagnosis for 69% (39/50) of cases with photographs at the NCI-Cairo and 88% (21/24) of cases at the ISA. All confirmed cases had at least one sign of IBC (erythema, edema, peau d'orange) that covered at least one-third of the breast. The median duration of signs ranged from 1 to 3 months; extent and duration of signs were not statistically significantly correlated. From the above-mentioned outcomes, it can be concluded that the diagnosis of a substantial proportion of IBC cases is unambiguous, but a subset is difficult to distinguish from other types of locally advanced breast cancer. Among confirmed cases, the extent of signs was not related to delay in diagnosis.

  1. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis, High Risk Individuals, and Individuals With No History of Cancer (Control)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  2. KCN1, a Novel Synthetic Sulfonamide Anticancer Agent: In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Activities and Preclinical Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, Elizabeth R.; Xu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhang, Xu; Nag, Subhasree Ashok; Wu, Xuming; Wang, Ming-Hai; Wang, Hui; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity and pharmacological properties of 3,4-dimethoxy-N-[(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]-N-phenylbenzenesulfonamide, KCN1. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activity of KCN1 on cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of pancreatic cancer cells, using the MTT and BrdUrd assays, and flow cytometry. The in vivo anti-cancer effects of KCN1 were evaluated in two distinct xenograft models of pancreatic cancer. We also developed an HPLC method for the quantitation of the compound, and examined its stability in mouse plasma, plasma protein binding, and degradation by mouse S9 microsomal enzymes. Furthermore, we examined the pharmacokinetics of KCN1 following intravenous or intraperitoneal injection in mice. Results showed that, in a dose-dependent manner, KCN1 inhibited cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, and showed in vivo anticancer efficacy in mice bearing Panc-1 or Mia Paca-2 tumor xenografts. The HPLC method provided linear detection of KCN1 in all of the matrices in the range from 0.1 to 100 µM, and had a lower limit of detection of 0.085 µM in mouse plasma. KCN1 was very stable in mouse plasma, extensively plasma bound, and metabolized by S9 microsomal enzymes. The pharmacokinetic studies indicated that KCN1 could be detected in all of the tissues examined, most for at least 24 h. In conclusion, our preclinical data indicate that KCN1 is a potential therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, providing a basis for its future development. PMID:23028659

  3. Quantum-dot-based suspension microarray for multiplex detection of lung cancer markers: preclinical validation and comparison with the Luminex xMAP® system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, Regina; Ametzazurra, Amagoia; Brazhnik, Kristina; Escorza, Sergio; Fernández, David; Uríbarri, María; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    2017-01-01

    A novel suspension multiplex immunoassay for the simultaneous specific detection of lung cancer markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) clinical samples based on fluorescent microspheres having different size and spectrally encoded with quantum dots (QDEM) was developed. The designed suspension immunoassay was validated for the quantitative detection of three lung cancer markers in BALF samples from 42 lung cancer patients and 10 control subjects. Tumor markers were detected through simultaneous formation of specific immune complexes consisting of a capture molecule, the target antigen, and biotinylated recognition molecule on the surface of the different QDEM in a mixture. The immune complexes were visualized by fluorescently labeled streptavidin and simultaneously analyzed using a flow cytometer. Preclinical validation of the immunoassay was performed and results were compared with those obtained using an alternative 3-plex immunoassay based on Luminex xMAP® technology, developed on classical organic fluorophores. The comparison showed that the QDEM and xMAP® assays yielded almost identical results, with clear discrimination between control and clinical samples. Thus, developed QDEM technology can become a good alternative to xMAP® assays permitting analysis of multiple protein biomarkers using conventional flow cytometers. PMID:28300171

  4. Quantum-dot-based suspension microarray for multiplex detection of lung cancer markers: preclinical validation and comparison with the Luminex xMAP® system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, Regina; Ametzazurra, Amagoia; Brazhnik, Kristina; Escorza, Sergio; Fernández, David; Uríbarri, María; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    2017-03-01

    A novel suspension multiplex immunoassay for the simultaneous specific detection of lung cancer markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) clinical samples based on fluorescent microspheres having different size and spectrally encoded with quantum dots (QDEM) was developed. The designed suspension immunoassay was validated for the quantitative detection of three lung cancer markers in BALF samples from 42 lung cancer patients and 10 control subjects. Tumor markers were detected through simultaneous formation of specific immune complexes consisting of a capture molecule, the target antigen, and biotinylated recognition molecule on the surface of the different QDEM in a mixture. The immune complexes were visualized by fluorescently labeled streptavidin and simultaneously analyzed using a flow cytometer. Preclinical validation of the immunoassay was performed and results were compared with those obtained using an alternative 3-plex immunoassay based on Luminex xMAP® technology, developed on classical organic fluorophores. The comparison showed that the QDEM and xMAP® assays yielded almost identical results, with clear discrimination between control and clinical samples. Thus, developed QDEM technology can become a good alternative to xMAP® assays permitting analysis of multiple protein biomarkers using conventional flow cytometers.

  5. A Preclinical Evaluation of Antrodia camphorata Alcohol Extracts in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Non-Invasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Feng Chiou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to provide a platform for the pre-clinical evaluation of anti-cancer properties of a unique CAM (complementary and alternative medicine agent, Antrodia camphorata alcohol extract (ACAE, in a mouse model with the advantageous non-invasive in vivo bioluminescence molecular imaging technology. In vitro analyses on the proliferation, migration/invasion, cell cycle and apoptosis were performed on ACAE-treated non-small cell lung cancer cells, H441GL and control CGL1 cells. In vivo, immune-deficient mice were inoculated subcutaneously with H441GL followed by oral gavages of ACAE. The effect of ACAE on tumor progression was monitored by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. The proliferation and migration/invasion of H441GL cells were inhibited by ACAE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ACAE induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis in H441GL cells as shown by flow cytometric analysis, Annexin-V immunoflourescence and DNA fragmentation. In vivo bioluminescence imaging revealed that tumorigenesis was significantly retarded by oral treatment of ACAE in a dose-dependent fashion. Based on our experimental data, ACAE contains anti-cancer properties and could be considered as a potential CAM agent in future clinical evaluation.

  6. HIV Infection, Immunosuppression, and Age at Diagnosis of Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Meredith S; Althoff, Keri N; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Achenbach, Chad J; Abraham, Alison G; Castilho, Jessica; Cescon, Angela; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Dubrow, Robert; Eron, Joseph J; Gebo, Kelly; John Gill, M; Goedert, James J; Grover, Surbhi; Hessol, Nancy A; Justice, Amy; Kitahata, Mari; Mayor, Angel; Moore, Richard D; Napravnik, Sonia; Novak, Richard M; Thorne, Jennifer E; Silverberg, Michael J; Engels, Eric A

    2017-02-15

    It is unclear whether immunosuppression leads to younger ages at cancer diagnosis among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). A previous study found that most cancers are not diagnosed at a younger age in people with AIDS, with the exception of anal and lung cancers. This study extends prior work to include all PLWH and examines associations between AIDS, CD4 count, and age at cancer diagnosis. We compared the median age at cancer diagnosis between PLWH in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design and the general population using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program. We used statistical weights to adjust for population differences. We also compared median age at cancer diagnosis by AIDS status and CD4 count. After adjusting for population differences, younger ages at diagnosis (P < .05) were observed for PLWH compared with the general population for lung (difference in medians = 4 years), anal (difference = 4), oral cavity/pharynx (difference = 2), and kidney cancers (difference = 2) and myeloma (difference = 4). Among PLWH, having an AIDS-defining event was associated with a younger age at myeloma diagnosis (difference = 4; P = .01), and CD4 count <200 cells/µL (vs ≥500) was associated with a younger age at lung cancer diagnosis (difference = 4; P = .006). Among PLWH, most cancers are not diagnosed at younger ages. However, this study strengthens evidence that lung cancer, anal cancer, and myeloma are diagnosed at modestly younger ages, and also shows younger ages at diagnosis of oral cavity/pharynx and kidney cancers, possibly reflecting accelerated cancer progression, etiologic heterogeneity, or risk factor exposure in PLWH.

  7. Adjustment to cancer in the 8 years following diagnosis : A longitudinal study comparing cancer survivors with healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya; Ranchor, A.V; Sanderman, R.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the long-term impact of a diagnosis of cancer on physical and psychological functioning, by comparing 8-year cancer survivors (n = 206) to a randomly selected sample of similar-aged references without cancer (n = 120) in the Netherlands. Comparisons were made at thre

  8. Adjustment to cancer in the 8 years following diagnosis : A longitudinal study comparing cancer survivors with healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya; Ranchor, A.V; Sanderman, R.

    This longitudinal study examined the long-term impact of a diagnosis of cancer on physical and psychological functioning, by comparing 8-year cancer survivors (n = 206) to a randomly selected sample of similar-aged references without cancer (n = 120) in the Netherlands. Comparisons were made at

  9. Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites: Emerging perspectives in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kattan, Ahmed; Girod-Fullana, Sophie; Charvillat, Cédric; Ternet-Fontebasso, Hélène; Dufour, Pascal; Dexpert-Ghys, Jeannette; Santran, Véronique; Bordère, Julie; Pipy, Bernard; Bernad, José; Drouet, Christophe

    2012-02-14

    Nanocrystalline calcium phosphate apatites constitute the mineral part of hard tissues, and the synthesis of biomimetic analogs is now well-mastered at the lab-scale. Recent advances in the fine physico-chemical characterization of these phases enable one to envision original applications in the medical field along with a better understanding of the underlying chemistry and related pharmacological features. In this contribution, we specifically focused on applications of biomimetic apatites in the field of cancer diagnosis or treatment. We first report on the production and first biological evaluations (cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory potential, internalization by ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells) of individualized luminescent nanoparticles based on Eu-doped apatites, eventually associated with folic acid, for medical imaging purposes. We then detail, in a first approach, the preparation of tridimensional constructs associating nanocrystalline apatite aqueous gels and drug-loaded pectin microspheres. Sustained releases of a fluorescein analog (erythrosin) used as model molecule were obtained over 7 days, in comparison with the ceramic or microsphere reference compounds. Such systems could constitute original bone-filling materials for in situ delivery of anticancer drugs.

  10. Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer Using Serum Proteomic Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeepa Bhattacharyya

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, mortality rates from pancreatic cancer (PCa have not changed significantly over the past 50 years. This is due, in part, to the lack of early detection methods for this particularly aggressive form of cancer. The objective of this study was to use highthroughput protein profiling technology to identify biomarkers in the serum proteome for the early detection of resectable PCa. Using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, protein profiles were generated from sera of 49 PCa patients and 54 unaffected individuals after fractionation on an anion exchange resin. The samples were randomly divided into a training set (69 samples and test set (34 samples, and two multivariate analysis procedures, classification and regression tree and logistic regression, were used to develop classification models from these spectral data that could distinguish PCa from control serum samples. In the test set, both models correctly classified all of the PCa patient serum samples (100% sensitivity. Using the decision tree algorithm, a specificity of 93.5% was obtained, whereas the logistic regression model produced a specificity of 100%. These results suggest that high-throughput proteomics profiling has the capacity to provide new biomarkers for the early detection and diagnosis of PCa.

  11. Molecular cytogenetics: an indispensable tool for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Thomas Sk; Ma, Edmond Sk

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetic aberrations may escape detection or recognition in traditional karyotyping. The past decade has seen an explosion of methodological advances in molecular cytogenetics technology. These cytogenetics techniques add color to the black and white world of conventional banding. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) study has emerged as an indispensable tool for both basic and clinical research, as well as diagnostics, in leukemia and cancers. FISH can be used to identify chromosomal abnormalities through fluorescent labeled DNA probes that target specific DNA sequences. Subsequently, FISH-based tests such as multicolor karyotyping, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and array CGH have been used in emerging clinical applications as they enable resolution of complex karyotypic aberrations and whole global scanning of genomic imbalances. More recently, crossspecies array CGH analysis has also been employed in cancer gene identification. The clinical impact of FISH is pivotal, especially in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment decisions for hematological diseases, all of which facilitate the practice of personalized medicine. This review summarizes the methodology and current utilization of these FISH techniques in unraveling chromosomal changes and highlights how the field is moving away from conventional methods towards molecular cytogenetics approaches. In addition, the potential of the more recently developed FISH tests in contributing information to genetic abnormalities is illustrated.

  12. Molecular dissection of colorectal cancer in pre-clinical models identifies biomarkers predicting sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Moritz; Risch, Thomas; Abdavi-Azar, Nilofar; Boehnke, Karsten; Schumacher, Dirk; Keil, Marlen; Yildiriman, Reha; Jandrasits, Christine; Borodina, Tatiana; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Worth, Catherine L.; Schweiger, Caroline; Liebs, Sandra; Lange, Martin; Warnatz, Hans- Jörg; Butcher, Lee M.; Barrett, James E.; Sultan, Marc; Wierling, Christoph; Golob-Schwarzl, Nicole; Lax, Sigurd; Uranitsch, Stefan; Becker, Michael; Welte, Yvonne; Regan, Joseph Lewis; Silvestrov, Maxine; Kehler, Inge; Fusi, Alberto; Kessler, Thomas; Herwig, Ralf; Landegren, Ulf; Wienke, Dirk; Nilsson, Mats; Velasco, Juan A.; Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Reinhard, Christoph; Beck, Stephan; Schäfer, Reinhold; Regenbrecht, Christian R. A.; Henderson, David; Lange, Bodo; Haybaeck, Johannes; Keilholz, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Jens; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma represents a heterogeneous entity, with only a fraction of the tumours responding to available therapies, requiring a better molecular understanding of the disease in precision oncology. To address this challenge, the OncoTrack consortium recruited 106 CRC patients (stages I–IV) and developed a pre-clinical platform generating a compendium of drug sensitivity data totalling >4,000 assays testing 16 clinical drugs on patient-derived in vivo and in vitro models. This large biobank of 106 tumours, 35 organoids and 59 xenografts, with extensive omics data comparing donor tumours and derived models provides a resource for advancing our understanding of CRC. Models recapitulate many of the genetic and transcriptomic features of the donors, but defined less complex molecular sub-groups because of the loss of human stroma. Linking molecular profiles with drug sensitivity patterns identifies novel biomarkers, including a signature outperforming RAS/RAF mutations in predicting sensitivity to the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab. PMID:28186126

  13. Mebendazole and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory combine to reduce tumor initiation in a colon cancer preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tara; Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Huso, David; Riggins, Gregory J

    2016-10-18

    Inheritance of a gene mutation leads to the initiation of 5 to 10% of most cancers, including colon cancer cases. We developed a chemoprevention strategy using a novel combination of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) sulindac plus the anthelminthic benzimidazole, mebendazole. This oral drug combination was effective in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). Treatment with 35 mg/kg daily mebendazole reduced the number of intestinal adenomas by 56% (P = 0.0002), 160 ppm sulindac by 74% (P cancer patients using mebendazole either alone or in combination. The findings have implications for populations with moderate and above risk for developing cancer.

  14. Study on {sup 41}Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pang, Yijun [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Yang, Xianlin [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Ruan, Xiangdong [College of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo [Guiin Medical University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30–40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of {sup 41}Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl{sub 2} solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi {sup 41}Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for {sup 41}Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of {sup 41}Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that {sup 41}Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  15. Thyroid cancer invading the airway: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenia, Nicola; Vannucci, Jacopo; Monacelli, Massimo; Lucchini, Roberta; Polistena, Andrea; Santoprete, Stefano; Potenza, Rossella; Andolfi, Marco; Puma, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Aim of this study is to analyze outcome and the decision making process to approach airway invasion by thyroid tumors. Retrospective study of 30 years experience in thyroid surgery for cancer invading airway. Clinical records, surgical and pathology reports have been analyzed to assess which principles and procedural details are significant to facilitate efficient diagnosis, staging and treatment. Medical therapy was not evaluated. Out of a consecutive series of 2165 thyroid cancer patients, T4a cancers are 303 (14%). Airway invasion was found in 141 (6.5%) cases. Well-differentiated pattern was determined in 110 (78%) while other histology was reported in 31 (22%). Airway-related symptoms have been recorded in 111 (78%) patients. Flexible bronchoscopy was performed in all patients. Rapidly evolving disease or non-resectable airway was found in 105 (74.5%) cases. Permanent tracheotomy was performed in 43 (30.5%) cases, airway lumen restoration with or without stenting in 39 (27.7%), laryngectomy in 8 (5.7%), segmental airway resection and reconstruction in 28 (19.9%). Perioperative mortality was recorded after palliative treatment only. In resected patients, completely radical surgery was not always achievable. All patients with positive margin after resection underwent adjuvant treatment and showed comparable survival to radical surgery patients after 5 years. Tumor relapse occurred in 8 (28.6%) cases (distant or locoregional). Patients with unresectable disease require treatment for symptoms relief but survival is poor. Although some patients are currently referred with a severely advanced disease, the indication for tracheotomy, salvage procedures or supportive care has decreased over time. Resection is feasible for differentiated tumors with an overall good outcome. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility of primary tumor culture models and preclinical prediction assays for head and neck cancer : A narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, Amy J C; Swartz, Justin E.; Van Den Brekel, Michiel W M; Willems, Stefan M.; Spijker, René; Neefjes, Jacques; Zuur, Charlotte L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary human tumor culture models allow for individualized drug sensitivity testing and are therefore a promising technique to achieve personalized treatment for cancer patients. This would especially be of interest for patients with advanced stage head and neck cancer. They are extensively treated

  17. Feasibility of primary tumor culture models and preclinical prediction assays for head and neck cancer : A narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, Amy J C; Swartz, Justin E.; Van Den Brekel, Michiel W M; Willems, Stefan M.; Spijker, René; Neefjes, Jacques; Zuur, Charlotte L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary human tumor culture models allow for individualized drug sensitivity testing and are therefore a promising technique to achieve personalized treatment for cancer patients. This would especially be of interest for patients with advanced stage head and neck cancer. They are extensively treated

  18. Cancer Therapy (Preclinical and Clinical): A Decimal Classification, (Categories 51.1, 51.2, and 51.3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, John H.

    This hierarchical decimal classification of information related to cancer therapy in humans and animals (preceeded by a few general categories) is a working draft of categories taken from an extensive classification of biomedical information. Because the classification identifies very small areas of cancer information, it can be used for precise…

  19. Breast cancer osteomimicry and its role in bone specific metastasis; an integrative, systematic review of preclinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awolaran, Olugbenga; Brooks, Susan A; Lavender, Verna

    2016-12-01

    Metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer and the preference of invasive breast cancer metastasising to bone has been widely reported. However, the biological basis of breast cancer osteotropism is not fully understood. This paper provides, for the first time, an integrative, systematic review of evidence of molecular factors that have functional roles in the homing of metastatic breast cancer to the bone. Pubmed, Web of Science and EBSCOhost were searched using keywords and synonyms for molecular, metastasis, breast cancer and bone to identify articles published between January 2004 and August 2016. 4491 potentially relevant citations were retrieved. 63 articles met the inclusion criteria, which were primary studies reporting evidence of molecular factors that have functional roles in predisposing breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. 12 of those 63 articles that additionally met quality criteria were included in the review. Extracted data were tabulated and key findings that indicated biological mechanisms involved in breast cancer metastasis to bone were synthesised. 15 proteins expressed by breast cancer cells were identified as factors that mediate breast cancer bone metastasis: ICAM-1, cadherin-11, osteoactivin, bone sialoprotein, CCN3, IL-11, CCL2, CITED2, CXCR4, CTGF, OPN, CX3CR1, TWIST1, adrenomedullin and Enpp1. Upregulation or overexpression of one or more of them by breast cancer cells resulted in increased breast cancer metastasis to bone in vivo, except for CCL2 where bone-metastatic cells showed a reduced expression of this factor. All factors identified, here expressed by breast cancer cells, are proteins that are normally expressed in the bone microenvironment and linked to physiologic bone functions. All have a functional role in one of more of the following: cell proliferation and differentiation, bone mineralization and remodelling, cell adhesion and/or chemokine signalling. Six of them (cadherin-11, ICAM-1, OPN, CX3CR1

  20. Breast cancer diagnosis: biographical disruption, emotional experiences and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Suwankhong, Dusanee

    2015-09-01

    In this article we draw on Bury's theory of biographical disruption to discuss the meanings of, and emotional experiences related to, being diagnosed with breast cancer among southern Thai women. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviewing and drawing methods, were used to collect data from 20 women with breast cancer. The women perceived breast cancer to be a rhok raai; an evil or dread disease. They believed that breast cancer would lead to death. The disruption in their biography occurred when they detected abnormalities indicating breast cancer. The women's narratives revealed their chaotic lives upon this diagnosis and the news precipitated in them shock, fear, anxiety and loss of hope. Although they experienced chaos and disruption, the women cultivated strategies that helped them cope with their experiences by accepting their fate and adhering to Buddhist beliefs and practices. Through their narratives of biographical disruption, the women in our study offer healthcare providers knowledge that could lead to an appreciation of their needs and concerns. This knowledge is crucial for health professionals who wish to provide emotional support to women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in Thailand and elsewhere. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  1. Chinese consensus on early diagnosis of primary lung cancer (2014 version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2015-09-01

    The incidence and mortality of lung cancer in China have rapidly increased. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in China, possibly because of the inadequate early diagnosis of lung cancer. Reaching a consensus on early diagnostic strategies for lung cancer in China is an unmet needed. Recently, much progress has been made in lung cancer diagnosis, such as screening in high-risk populations, the application of novel imaging technologies, and the use of minimally invasive techniques for diagnosis. However, systemic reviews of disease history, risk assessment, and patients' willingness to undergo invasive diagnostic procedures also need to be considered. A diagnostic strategy for lung cancer should be proposed and developed by a multidisciplinary group. A comprehensive evaluation of patient factors and clinical findings should be completed before treatment.

  2. Preclinical Evaluation of Genexol-PM, a Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel, as a Novel Radiosensitizer for the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Michael E.; Cummings, Natalie D.; Sethi, Manish; Wang, Edina C.; Sukumar, Rohit [Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Carolina Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Moore, Dominic T. [Division of Biostatistics and Data Management, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Andrew Z., E-mail: zawang@med.unc.edu [Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Carolina Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: A key research objective in radiation oncology is to identify agents that can improve chemoradiation therapy. Nanoparticle (NP) chemotherapeutics possess several properties, such as preferential accumulation in tumors, that are uniquely suited for chemoradiation therapy. To facilitate the clinical translation of NP chemotherapeutics in chemoradiation therapy, we conducted preclinical evaluation of Genexol-PM, the only clinically approved NP chemotherapeutic with a controlled drug release profile, as a radiosensitizer using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a model disease. Methods and Materials: The physical characteristics and drug release profile of Genexol-PM were characterized. Genexol-PM's efficacy as a radiosensitizer was evaluated in vitro using NSCLC cell lines and in vivo using mouse xenograft models of NSCLC. Paclitaxel dose to normal lung and liver after Genexol-PM administration were quantified and compared with that after Taxol administration. Results: Genexol-PM has a size of 23.91 ± 0.41 nm and surface charge of −8.1 ± 3.1 mV. It releases paclitaxel in a controlled release profile. In vitro evaluation of Genexol-PM as a radiosensitizer showed it is an effective radiosensitizer and is more effective than Taxol, its small molecule counterpart, at the half maximal inhibitory concentration. In vivo study of Genexol-PM as a radiosensitizer demonstrated that it is more effective as a radiosensitizer than Taxol. We also found that Genexol-PM leads to lower paclitaxel exposure to normal lung tissue than Taxol at 6 hours postadministration. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that Genexol-PM is more effective than Taxol as a radiosensitizer in the preclinical setting and holds high potential for clinical translation. Our data support the clinical evaluation of Genexol-PM in chemoradiation therapy for NSCLC.

  3. "Doctor, what do i have?" Knowledge of cancer diagnosis among immigrant/migrant minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gany, Francesca; Yogendran, Lalanthica; Massie, Dana; Ramirez, Julia; Lee, Trevor; Winkel, Gary; Diamond, Lisa; Leng, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    This study explores patient knowledge of cancer diagnosis among underserved immigrant/migrant minorities. Patients were recruited at a hospital-based cancer clinic in New York City. Demographic and self-reported diagnosis and treatment information were collected; charts were reviewed to ascertain cancer diagnosis. Four hundred thirty-four patients were included. Eighty-seven percent preferred to speak a language other than English in the health care setting. Sixteen percent had incorrect knowledge of their cancer diagnosis. Multivariate analysis indicated that both preference for a non-English language and diagnosis of a "below the belt" cancer were jointly predictive of incorrect knowledge (LR = 17.01; p = 0.0002). "Below the belt" cancers included bladder, colorectal, gynecological, penile, prostate, and testicular cancers. Among this cohort of immigrant/migrant cancer patients, a considerable proportion was unaware of their correct cancer diagnoses. This may have a significant impact on subsequent cancer education, treatment, and care. Limited-English-proficiency patients may be at particular risk.

  4. Missed Opportunities for the Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Siminoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine patient and medical characteristics which predict a missed diagnostic opportunity (MDO for colorectal cancer (CRC. Methods. The sample consisted of 252 patients diagnosed with Stages 1–4 CRC who were diagnosed in the prior six months, had experienced symptoms prior to diagnosis, and were not diagnosed through routine screening. Systematic review of all medical records prior to patients’ diagnosis was conducted. An MDO was defined as a clinical encounter where, even in the presence of presumptive CRC symptoms, the CRC diagnostic process is not started. Results. 92 patients (36.5% experienced an MDO. Almost 80% of alternate diagnoses were other GI-GU diseases, including hemorrhoids and diverticulitis. Stomach pain, anemia, and constipation were the most common symptoms experienced by the MDO group. These symptoms, and weight loss and vomiting, were more likely to be noted in the charts of the MDO patients (P<0.04. Independent risk factors for MDO included age (<50 [OR = 2.29 (1.14–4.60, P=0.02] and female sex [OR = 2.19 (1.16–4.16, P=0.03]. Each additional physician seen, more than doubled the MDO risk [OR = 2.05 (1.53–2.74, P<0.001]. Conclusions. Females, younger patients, and those consulting more physicians were all more likely to experience an MDO. Continued increased training of physicians to enhance knowledge of who is vulnerable to CRC is needed in addition to an increased focus to adherence to screening recommendations.

  5. Delay in Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Breast Cancer Patients in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Helalah, Ahmad Munir; Alshraideh, Ahmad Hussam; Al-Hanaqtah, Mo'tasem; Da'na, Moh'd; Al-Omari, Asim; Mubaidin, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and one of the leading causes of death for females in Jordan and many countries in the world. Studies have shown that delay in symptoms presentation, diagnosis or treatment would result in poor prognosis. There has been no published study from Jordan on delays in patient presentation, delays in diagnosis, or delays in treatment. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess these important quality indicators aiming to improve prognosis for breast cancer patients in Jordan. This project was a cross-sectional study on female breast cancer patients in Jordan. The total number of participants was 327. The proportion of patients with presentation delay, diagnosis delay, and treatment delay was 32.2%, 49.1%, or 32.4%, respectively. The main reported reasons for delay in presentation were ignorance of the nature of the problem (65.6%), limited/lack of knowledge that symptoms were suggestive of cancer diagnosis (16.7%), and misdiagnosis (16.7%). Predictors of delay and mean time for presentation, diagnosis, and treatment were identified. Our results reveal that breast cancer patients in Jordan are experiencing delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. This could justify the advanced stages at diagnosis and poor outcomes for breast cancer patients in Jordan. We recommend revising the current early detection and down-staging programs in Jordan.

  6. Pathways to the diagnosis of lung cancer in the UK: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Jacqueline

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in the UK. Patients generally present to their general practitioner, but the pathway of diagnosis from first symptom to diagnosis has not been mapped. We performed a cohort study of 246 patients with lung cancer in Exeter, Devon UK. All patients had their cancer symptoms, referrals and diagnoses identified and dated using their doctors' records. Results Three main routes to diagnosis emerged. The first was the expected route of outpatient referral; 150 (61% of the cohort of patients took this route, although only 110 (45% of the whole cohort, 73% of those referred to outpatients were referred to a respiratory department. 56 (23% were admitted as an emergency, having previously described a lung cancer symptom to their doctor. 26 patients (11% had no symptom of lung cancer reported before their diagnosis. The interval from first symptom to referral was similar across the different pathways. However, the referral to diagnosis interval was longer in patients misdirected to other outpatient departments (66 days, interquartile range 37,110 than those sent to respiratory clinics (29 days, 17,61 or admitted as an emergency (16 days 8,40; p Conclusion Only a minority of lung cancer patients follow the traditional route to diagnosis. Clinical and research efforts need to consider the alternative routes if they are to maximise their impact on speed of diagnosis.

  7. Targeting TORC1/2 Enhances Sensitivity to EGFR Inhibitors in Head and Neck Cancer Preclinical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Cassell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is characterized by overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR where treatments targeting EGFR have met with limited clinical success. Elucidation of the key downstream-pathways that remain activated in the setting of EGFR blockade may reveal new therapeutic targets. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR complex would enhance the effects of EGFR blockade in HNSCC preclinical models. Treatment of HNSCC cell lines with the newly developed TORC1/TORC2 inhibitor OSI-027/ASP4876 resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation with abrogation of phosphorylation of known downstream targets including phospho-AKT (Ser473, phospho-4E-BP1, phospho-p70s6K, and phospho-PRAS40. Furthermore, combined treatment with OSI-027 and erlotinib resulted in enhanced biochemical effects and synergistic growth inhibition in vitro. Treatment of mice bearing HNSCC xenografts with a combination of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved EGFR inhibitor cetuximab and OSI-027 demonstrated a significant reduction of tumor volumes compared with either treatment alone. These findings suggest that TORC1/TORC2 inhibition in conjunction with EGFR blockade represents a plausible therapeutic strategy for HNSCC.

  8. Development of a multiplexed urine assay for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vener, Tatiana; Derecho, Carlo; Baden, Jonathan; Wang, Haiying; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Skelton, Joanne; Mehrotra, Jyoti; Varde, Shobha; Chowdary, Dondapati; Stallings, Walt; Leibovich, Bradley; Robin, Howard; Pelzer, Alexandre; Schäfer, Georg; Auprich, Marco; Mannweiler, Sebastian; Amersdorfer, Peter; Mazumder, Abhijit

    2008-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the value of DNA methylation in urine-based assays for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, a multicenter validation with a clinical prototype has not been published. We developed a multiplexed, quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) assay consisting of 3 methylation markers, GSTP1, RARB, and APC, and an endogenous control, ACTB, in a closed-tube, homogeneous assay format. We tested this format with urine samples collected after digital rectal examination from 234 patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations > or =2.5 microg/L in 2 independent patient cohorts from 9 clinical sites. In the first cohort of 121 patients, we demonstrated 55% sensitivity and 80% specificity, with area under the curve (AUC) 0.69. In the second independent cohort of 113 patients, we found a comparable sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 76% (AUC 0.65). In the first cohort, as well as in a combined cohort, the MSP assay in conjunction with total PSA, digital rectal examination status, and age improved the AUC without MSP, although the difference was not statistically significant. Importantly, the GSTP1 cycle threshold value demonstrated a good correlation (R = 0.84) with the number of cores found to contain prostate cancer or premalignant lesions on biopsy. Moreover, samples that exhibited methylation for either GSTP1 or RARB typically contained higher tumor volumes at prostatectomy than those samples that did not exhibit methylation. These data confirm and extend previously reported studies and demonstrate the performance of a clinical prototype assay that should aid urologists in identifying men who should undergo biopsy.

  9. Post diagnosis diet quality and colorectal cancer survival in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa T Fung

    Full Text Available Dietary factors are known to influence colorectal cancer (CRC risk, however, their association with CRC survival is unclear. Therefore, we prospectively examined the association between diet quality scores, dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC survival.1201 women diagnosed with stage I-III CRC between 1986 and 2008, were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire administered at least 6 months after diagnosis. We computed the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score (DASH and derived two dietary patterns, Western (unhealthy and prudent (healthy, by principal component analysis for each woman.During follow-up, we documented 435 deaths, including 162 from CRC. After adjusting for potential confounders, only a higher AHEI-2010 score was significantly associated with lower overall mortality (HR comparing extreme quintiles = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.98, p trend = 0.01 as well as borderline significantly with lower risk of CRC mortality by the trend test (HR Q5 vs Q1 = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.43-1.21, p trend = 0.07. When AHEI-2010 components were examined separately, inverse associations for overall mortality were primarily accounted for by moderate alcohol intake (HR comparing abstainers vs 5-15 g/d = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.05-1.61 and lower intake of sugar sweetened beverages and fruit juices combined (HR for each additional serving = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23. No other diet quality score or dietary pattern was associated with overall or CRC-specific mortality.Higher AHEI-2010 score may be associated with lower overall mortality, moderate alcohol consumption and lower consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and juices combined appeared to account for most of the observed associations.

  10. Preventing delayed diagnosis of cancer: clinicians' views on main problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Lorainne Tudor; Papachristou, Nikolaos; Urch, Catherine; Majeed, Azeem; El-Khatib, Mona; Aylin, Paul; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip; Vincent, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Delayed diagnosis is a major contributing factor to the UK's lower cancer survival compared to many European countries. In the UK, there is a significant national variation in early cancer diagnosis. Healthcare providers can offer an insight into local priorities for timely cancer diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to identify the main problems and solutions relating to delay cancer diagnosis according to cancer care clinicians. We developed and implemented a new priority-setting approach called PRIORITIZE and invited North West London cancer care clinicians to identify and prioritize main causes for and solutions to delayed diagnosis of cancer care. Clinicians identified a number of concrete problems and solutions relating to delayed diagnosis of cancer. Raising public awareness, patient education as well as better access to specialist care and diagnostic testing were seen as the highest priorities. The identified suggestions focused mostly on the delays during referrals from primary to secondary care. Many identified priorities were feasible, affordable and converged around common themes such as public awareness, care continuity and length of consultation. As a timely, proactive and scalable priority-setting approach, PRIORITZE could be implemented as a routine preventative system for determining patient safety issues by frontline staff.

  11. Validity of cancer diagnosis in the National Health Insurance database compared with the linked National Cancer Registry in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Heng; Hong, Ji-Hong; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Huang-Ping; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chou, I-Jun; Chou, Wen-Chi; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Kuo, Chang-Fu

    2017-08-16

    We aimed to evaluate the validity of cancer diagnosis in the National Health Insurance (NHI) database, which has routinely collected the health information of almost the entire Taiwanese population since 1995, compared with the Taiwan National Cancer Registry (NCR). There were 26,542,445 active participants registered in the NHI database between 2001 and 2012. National Cancer Registry and NHI database records were compared for cancer diagnosis; date of cancer diagnosis; and 1, 2, and 5 year survival. In addition, the 10 leading causes of cancer deaths in Taiwan were analyzed. There were 908,986 cancer diagnoses in NCR and NHI database and 782,775 (86.1%) in both, with 53,192 (5.9%) in the NHI database only and 73,019 (8.0%) in the NCR only. The positive predictive value of the NHI database cancer diagnoses was 94% for all cancers; the positive predictive value of the 10 specific cancers ranged from 95% (lung cancer) to 82% (cervical cancer). The date of diagnosis in the NHI database was generally delayed by a median of 15 days (interquartile range 8-18) compared with the NCR. The 1, 2, and 5 year survival rates were 71.21%, 60.85%, and 47.44% using the NHI database and were 71.18%, 60.17%, and 46.09% using NCR data. Recording of cancer diagnoses and survival estimates based on these diagnosis codes in the NHI database are generally consistent with the NCR. Studies using NHI database data must pay careful attention to eligibility and record linkage; use of both sources is recommended. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Assessing disruptions in adherence to antidepressant treatments after breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yi-Ting; Winn, Aaron N; Rosenstein, Donald L; Dusetzina, Stacie B

    2017-06-01

    Long-term treatment with antidepressants can lessen the symptoms of depression, but health-related crises-such as a cancer diagnosis-may disrupt ongoing depression care. The study aims to estimate the effect of receiving a breast cancer diagnosis on antidepressant adherence among women with depression. Using SEER-Medicare administrative claims, we identified women aged 65+ with newly diagnosed breast cancer between 2008 and 2011, who were diagnosed with depression and used antidepressants during the year before pre-diagnosis year. We compared antidepressant adherence among women with breast cancer to similar women without cancer using generalized estimation equations. Antidepressant adherence was estimated using the proportion of days covered 1 year before and after the index date. We included 1142 women with breast cancer and pre-existing depression and 1142 matched non-cancer patients with pre-existing depression. Mean antidepressant adherence was similar for both groups in the year before and after the index date (all around 0.71); adherence decreased by approximately 0.01 following breast cancer diagnosis in cancer group, with similar reductions among non-cancer group (p = 0.19). However, substantial proportion of patients had inadequate adherence to antidepressants in the post-diagnosis period, and almost 40% of patients in each group discontinued antidepressants over the study period. Antidepressant adherence was not associated with receiving a breast cancer diagnosis beyond what would have been expected in a similar cohort of women without cancer; however, adherence was poor among both groups. Ensuring adequate ongoing depression care is important to improve cancer care and patient quality of life in the long term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Targeting breast cancer through its microenvironment: current status of preclinical and clinical research in finding relevant targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, H H; Gaykema, S B M; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Jalving, M; Brouwers, A H; Lub-de Hooge, M N; van der Vegt, B; Overmoyer, B; de Vries, E G E; Schröder, C P

    2015-03-01

    It is increasingly evident that not only breast cancer cells, but also the tissue embedding these cells: the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role in tumor progression, metastasis formation and treatment sensitivity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of processes by which the microenvironment affects breast cancer, including formation of the metastatic niche, metabolic stimulation, stimulation of tumor cell migration, immune modulation, angiogenesis and matrix remodeling. The number of drugs targeting key factors in these processes is expanding, and the available clinical data is increasing. Therefore current strategies for intervention and prediction of treatment response are outlined. At present, targeting the formation of the metastatic niche and metabolic stimulation by the breast cancer microenvironment, are already showing clinical efficacy. Intervening in the stimulation of tumor cell migration and immune modulation by the microenvironment upcoming fields of great research interest. In contrast, targeting microenvironmental angiogenesis or matrix remodeling appears to be of limited clinical relevance in breast cancer treatment so far. Further research is warranted to optimize intervention strategies and develop predictive tests for the relevance of targeting involved factors within the microenvironment in order to optimally personalize breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytologic and DNA-Cytometric Early Diagnosis of Oral Cancer

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    Torsten W. Remmerbach

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this prospective study was to report on the diagnostic accuracy of conventional oral exfoliative cytology taken from white‐spotted, ulcerated or other suspicious oral lesions in our clinic. In addition we checked DNA‐image cytometry as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. Our hypothesis is that DNA‐aneuploidy is a sensitive and specific marker for the early identification of tumor cells in oral brushings. Study design. 251 cytological diagnoses obtained from exfoliative smears of 181 patients from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral mucosa and from clinically seemingly benign oral lesions which were exisiced for establishing histological diagnoses were compared with histological and/or clinical follow‐ups of the respective patients. Additionally nuclear DNA‐contents were measured after Feulgen restaining using a TV image analysis system. Results. Sensitivity of our cytological diagnosis on oral smears for the detection of cancer cells was 94.6%, specificity 99.5%, positive predictive value 98.1% and negative predictive value 98.5%. DNA‐aneuploidy was assumed if abnormal DNA‐stemlines or cells with DNA‐content greater 9c were observed. On this basis the prevalence of DNA‐aneuploidy in smears of oral squamous cell carcinomas in situ or invasive carcinomas was 96.4%. Sensitivity of DNA‐aneuploidy in oral smears for the detection of cancer cells was 96.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative 99.0%. The combination of both techniques increased the sensivity to 98.2%, specificity to 100%, positive predictive value to 100% and negative to 99.5%. Conclusions. Brush cytology of all visible oral lesions, if they are clinically considered as suspicious for cancer, are an easily practicable, cheap, non‐invasive, painless, safe and accurate screening method for detection of oral precancerous lesions, carcinoma in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinoma in all stages. We conclude that

  15. Automated analysis of image mammogram for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah, Sampurno, Joko; Faryuni, Irfana Diah; Ivansyah, Okto

    2016-03-01

    Medical imaging help doctors in diagnosing and detecting diseases that attack the inside of the body without surgery. Mammogram image is a medical image of the inner breast imaging. Diagnosis of breast cancer needs to be done in detail and as soon as possible for determination of next medical treatment. The aim of this work is to increase the objectivity of clinical diagnostic by using fractal analysis. This study applies fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis to determine the density of normal and abnormal and applying the segmentation technique based on K-Means clustering algorithm to image abnormal for determine the boundary of the organ and calculate the area of organ segmentation results. The results show fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis can be used to distinguish between the normal and abnormal breast and segmentation techniques with K-Means Clustering algorithm is able to generate the boundaries of normal and abnormal tissue organs, so area of the abnormal tissue can be determined.

  16. Infrared Spectroscopy in Cancer Diagnosis and Chemotherapy Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.; Pekhnyo, V. I.; Kozachkova, A. N.; Tsarik, N. I.; Kutsenko, I. P.; Sharykina, N. I.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate that IR spectroscopic analysis can be used in diagnosis and chemotherapy monitoring for cancers of various organs at the molecular level. We used Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to study human breast and thyroid tumor tissues which were removed during surgery. The characteristic frequencies of C = O stretching vibrations in the IR spectra of tissues of pathological foci were compared with data from histological examination. In the IR spectra of healthy tissues or for benign tumors, the most intense absorption bands ν(C = O) are located in the interval 1675-1650 cm-1. When malignant neoplasms are present in the organs, the intensity of the bands in this range of the spectrum is reduced, while the intensities of the absorption bands in the 1710-1680 cm-1 interval increase. We also studied lung tissue for mice of the C57B1/6 line for healthy tissue and after implantation of B-16 melanoma tumor. The IR spectra of healthy mouse lung tissue and mouse lung tissue with B-16 melanoma metastases in the region of the C = O stretching vibrations display the same differences. We found that when lung malignancy was treated with the optimal dose of a synthesized drug based on palladium complexes of methylenediphosphonic acid, the spectroscopic signs of the presence of metastases in the lungs disappear, and the IR spectrum of the lung tissue after treatment practically coincides with the spectrum of healthy lung tissue.

  17. Histoscanning and shear wave ultrasound elastography for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Amosov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The shear wave ultrasound elastography is a recently developed ultrasound-based method in the clinical practice, which allows the qualitative visual and quantitative measurements of tissue stiffness. In the 2010 this technology of the shear wave was called Shear Wave Elastograhpy. Due to the front of the shear waves the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the tissue stiffness is possible.Objective is to examine the efficacy of the shear wave ultrasound elastography in the evaluation of the prevalence of the oncological disease in patients with the prostate cancer and to compare the obtained results with the routine method X-ray diagnostics.Materials and methods. From the april 2015 in the I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University Urology Clinic there were conducted 314 shear wave ultrasound elastography examinations of the prostate. The ultrasound system Aixplorer® by SuperSonic Imagine was used. This system provides information provided by B-mode and shear wave ultrasound elastography mode. The transrectal echograms were made in 6 dimensions, so called Q-boxes (3 demensions in the every lobe on the segments from the base to the apex, according to the biopsy zone. The unit of measurement was the mean value in the kilopaskals (kPa. All the patients were randomized into 3 groups. There were 146 men with the possible prostate cancer in the first group (prospective study, 120 men with the certain diagnosis of the prostate cancer in the second group (retrospective study and 48 healthy men in the third group (control study. In all the patients of the first and the second groups the routine complete examination, including the prostate specific antigen (PSA level examination, digital rectal examination (DRE, doppler transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS, histoscanning and ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE, was conducted. In the 229 patients of the first and the second groups the prostatectomy with the

  18. PET/CT may change diagnosis and treatment in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Mie Jung; Høilund-Carlsen, Mette

    2010-01-01

    diagnosis was mainly used in lung cancer and in cases with unknown primary tumour. In malignant lymphomas and colorectal cancer, the technique was mainly employed for response evaluation. Use of PET/CT for staging and recurrence was more evenly distributed across specialities. PET/CT changed the primary...... diagnosis in 16% and induced a change in staging and treatment plan in 28% to 32% of cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: FDG PET/CT was mainly used for diagnosis in lung cancer and in cases with an unknown primary tumour, and for response evaluation in lymphomas and colorectal cancer. PET/CT caused a change......INTRODUCTION: The national focus on cancer has propelled the use of PET/CT for cancer imaging in Denmark. We believe that first-year experiences from a large PET centre may be of interest to new users. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from all scans made in the period from February 28 2006 to March 1...

  19. New and chronic use of hypnotics after diagnosis with early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lærke Toftegård; Suppli, Nis Frederik Palm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine use and investigate factors associated with use of hypnotics the first year after a diagnosis with breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective registry based cohort study linking clinical data from the Danish Breast Cancer Group with the National Prescription Drug...... Database and other health and administrative registries. We included 26 082 women diagnosed with early breast cancer as first time primary cancer during 1996-2006. Use of hypnotics was measured as redeemed prescriptions in the first year after diagnosis of early breast cancer. Prior use of hypnotics.......21-1.42)] and use of antidepressants the year before breast cancer diagnosis [HR 1.97 (95% CI 1.85-2.10)]. CONCLUSION: This study detected a group of patients at great risk for initiating and increasing use of hypnotics and preventive and prophylactic mechanism should be investigated and initiated when this group...

  20. Is a cancer diagnosis associated with subsequent risk of transient global amnesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Zhu

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been associated with transient global amnesia (TGA. Whether a cancer diagnosis, a severely stressful life event, is associated with subsequent risk of TGA has not been studied.Based on the Swedish Cancer Register and Patient Register, we conducted a prospective cohort study including 5,365,608 Swedes at age 30 and above during 2001-2009 to examine the relative risk of TGA among cancer patients, as compared to cancer-free individuals. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs derived from Poisson regression were used as estimates of the association between cancer diagnosis and the risk of TGA.During the study 322,558 individuals (6.01% received a first diagnosis of cancer. We identified 210 cases of TGA among the cancer patients (incidence rate, 0.22 per 1000 person-years and 4,887 TGA cases among the cancer-free individuals (incidence rate, 0.12 per 1000 person-years. Overall, after adjustment for age, sex, calendar year, socioeconomic status, education and civil status, cancer patients had no increased risk of TGA than the cancer-free individuals (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86-1.13. The IRRs did not differ over time since cancer diagnosis or across individual cancer types. The null association was neither modified by sex, calendar period or age.Our study did not provide support for the hypothesis that patients with a new diagnosis of cancer display a higher risk of TGA than cancer-free individuals.

  1. Targeting breast cancer through its microenvironment : Current status of preclinical and clinical research in finding relevant targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, H. H.; Gaykema, S. B. M.; Timmer-Bosscha, H.; Jalving, M.; Brouwers, A. H.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Vegt, B.; Overmoyer, B.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Schroder, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that not only breast cancer cells, but also the tissue embedding these cells: the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role in tumor progression, metastasis formation and treatment sensitivity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of processes by which the mi

  2. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal verrucous squamous cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, S; Jacobs, N L; Wong Kee Song, L M

    2014-07-01

    Verrucous squamous cell cancer (VSCC) of the esophagus is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. This rare entity has been described in only a handful of case reports in the literature. We sought to evaluate the endoscopic features, treatment, and outcomes related to esophageal VSCC. The medical records of all patients with esophageal VSCC seen at our institution from January 1995 to December 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 11 patients (6 men; mean age 66 years [range 57-75 years]) were identified, with a mean follow up of 4 years (range 0.5-10 years) available in nine patients after diagnosis. About half the patients smoked or consumed alcohol on a regular basis. The median time interval from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of esophageal VSCC was 2.5 years (range 1-20 years), with dysphagia being present in all patients. The majority of tumors (8 of 11) exhibited a white, warty, plaque-like appearance with superimposed Candida at endoscopy, which led solely to a diagnosis of Candida esophagitis on initial presentation. The disease was either extensive (n = 5) throughout the esophagus or localized (n = 6) often by tumor nodules or projections, with the lower third of the esophagus being most commonly involved. Initial pinch biopsies were nondiagnostic in eight (73%) of the patients. Six patients underwent esophagectomy; neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy was provided in two. In patients treated solely with surgery and who had a preoperative endoscopic ultrasound, the latter tended to overestimate staging of the lesion relative to surgical pathologic staging. Two patients were deemed to be poor operative candidates and received only chemoradiation treatment. One patient with a T2N0 tumor by endoscopic ultrasound staging was managed symptomatically with intermittent endoscopic dilation because of significant comorbidities that precluded surgery and oncologic therapy. There has been no evidence for residual or recurrent neoplastic disease in the eight

  3. Use of shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A.; Rus, G.; Saffari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains as a major healthcare issue. Limitations in current diagnosis and treatment monitoring techniques imply that there is still a need for improvements. The efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis is still low, generating under and over diagnoses. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation is an emerging treatment modality, which enables the noninvasive ablation of pathogenic tissue. Clinical trials are being carried out to evaluate its longterm efficacy as a focal treatment for prostate cancer. Successful treatment of prostate cancer using non-invasive modalities is critically dependent on accurate diagnostic means and is greatly benefited by a real-time monitoring system. While magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for prostate imaging, its wider implementation for prostate cancer diagnosis remains prohibitively expensive. Conventional ultrasound is currently limited to guiding biopsy. Elastography techniques are emerging as a promising real-time imaging method, as cancer nodules are usually stiffer than adjacent healthy prostatic tissue. In this paper, a new transurethral approach is proposed, using shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer. A finite-difference time domain model is developed for studying the feasibility of the method, and an inverse problem technique based on genetic algorithms is proposed for reconstructing the location, size and stiffness parameters of the tumour. Preliminary results indicate that the use of shear waves for diagnosis and monitoring ablation of prostate cancer is feasible.

  4. Breast Image Analysis for Risk Assessment, Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, M.L.; Karssemeijer, N.; Schnabel, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of breast image analysis in radiologists' interpretation tasks in cancer risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment continues to expand. Breast image analysis methods include segmentation, feature extraction techniques, classifier design, biomechanical modeling, image registration

  5. 'You have a swelling': The language of cancer diagnosis and implications for cancer management in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githaiga, Jennifer Nyawira; Swartz, Leslie

    2017-05-01

    To examine the ramifications of language as a vehicle of communication in the Kenyan healthcare system. (1) A review of literature search on language access and health care in Kenya, using Scopus, Web of Science, Ebscohost, ProQuest and Google Scholar electronic databases. (2) Two illustrative case studies from a Nairobi based qualitative research project on family cancer caregivers' experiences. Evidence from the case studies shows that language barriers may hinder understanding of cancer diagnoses and consequently, the nature of interventions sought by family members as informal caregivers of cancer patients. Findings demonstrate the significance of language in understanding cancer diagnosis as a basis for treatment seeking behaviour and specifically in light of the critical role played by informal caregivers in under resourced health care contexts. (1) The assumption that English and Swahili are adequate in communication in Kenyan health care contexts ought to be reviewed. (2) Further research and assessment of language needs as a basis for training of language interpreters in the Kenyan health care system is a necessity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rurality and Other Determinants of Early Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis in Nebraska: A 6-Year Cancer Registry Study, 1998-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Sun, Junfeng; Qiu, Fang; Boilesen, Eugene; Thorson, Alan G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are no studies of rurality, and other determinants of colorectal cancer (CRC) stage at diagnosis with population-based data from the Midwest. Methods: This retrospective study identified, incident CRC patients, aged 19 years and older, from 1998-2003 Nebraska Cancer Registry (NCR) data. Using federal Office of Management and…

  7. Impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on outcomes after breast cancer diagnosis: the Setouchi Breast Cancer Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naruto; Akiyama, Ichiro; Ishihara, Setsuko; Ishibe, Youichi; Kawasaki, Kensuke; Saito, Makoto; Shien, Tadahiko; Nomura, Tsunehisa; Hara, Fumikata; Mizoo, Taeko; Mizota, Yuri; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohsumi, Shozo; Doihara, Hiroyoshi

    2015-06-01

    The primary purpose of this large cohort study is to investigate the effects on breast cancer outcomes of modifiable lifestyle factors after breast cancer diagnosis. These factors include physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and weight gain after diagnosis, alternative medicine and dietary factors. Women diagnosed with Stage 0 to III breast cancer are eligible for participation to this study. Lifestyle, use of alternative medicine, psychosocial factors, reproductive factors and health-related quality of life will be assessed using a questionnaire at the time of breast cancer diagnosis (baseline), and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years after diagnosis. Clinical information and breast cancer outcomes will be obtained from a breast cancer database. The primary endpoint will be disease-free survival. Secondary endpoints are overall survival, health-related quality of life, breast cancer-related symptoms and adverse events. Patient recruitment commenced in February 2013. Enrollment of 2000 breast cancer patients is planned during the 5-year recruitment period. The concept of the study is described in this article.

  8. Drug dispensings among elderly in the year before colon cancer diagnosis versus matched cancer-free controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erning, F N; Zanders, M M; Kuiper, J G; van Herk-Sukel, M P; Maas, H A; Vingerhoets, R W; Zimmerman, D D; de Feyter, E P; van de Poll, M E; Lemmens, V E

    2016-01-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The concomitant use of multiple drugs is common among the general population of elderly. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of which drugs are dispensed to elderly in the year before colon cancer diagnosis and to compare this with cancer-free controls. METH

  9. Synergistic effects of concurrent blockade of PI3K and MEK pathways in pancreatic cancer preclinical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhong

    Full Text Available Patients with pancreatic cancer have dismal prognoses, and novel therapies are urgently needed. Mutations of the KRAS oncogene occur frequently in pancreatic cancer and represent an attractive target. Direct targeting of the predominant KRAS pathways have been challenging and research into therapeutic strategies have been now refocused on pathways downstream of KRAS, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK [MEK]. We hypothesized that concurrent inhibition of the PI3K and MEK pathways would result in synergistic antitumor activity, as it would circumvent the compensatory feedback loop between the two pathways. We investigated the combined effect of the PI3K inhibitor, GDC0941, and the MEK inhibitor, AZD6244, on cell viability, apoptosis and cell signaling in a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines. An in vivo analysis was conducted on pancreatic cancer xenografts. While BxPC-3 (KRAS wild type and MIA PaCa-2 (KRAS mutated cell lines were sensitive to GDC0941 and AZD6244 as single agents, synergistic inhibition of tumor cell growth and induction of apoptosis were observed in both cell lines when the two drugs were combined. Interestingly, phosphorylation of the cap-dependent translational components, 4E-binding protein (p-4E-BP1 and S6 was found to be closely associated with sensitivity to GDC0941 and AZD6244. In BxPC-3 cell xenografts, survival differences were observed between the control and the AZD6244, GDC0941, and combination groups. Our study provides the rationale for concurrent targeting of the PI3K and MEK pathways, regardless of KRAS status, and suggests that phosphorylation of 4E-BP1and S6 can serve as a predictive biomarker for response to treatment.

  10. Targeted dual-color silica nanoparticles provide univocal identification of micrometastases in preclinical models of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soster M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Marco Soster,1,* Riccardo Juris,2,* Sara Bonacchi,2 Damiano Genovese,2 Marco Montalti,2 Enrico Rampazzo,2 Nelsi Zaccheroni,2 Paolo Garagnani,2 Federico Bussolino,3,4 Luca Prodi,2 Serena Marchiò1,4 1Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and University of Torino, Department of Oncological Sciences, Candiolo, 2University of Bologna, Department of Chemistry "G.Ciamician", Bologna, 3Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Laboratory of Vascular Oncology and University of Torino, Department of Oncological Sciences, Candiolo, 4APAvadis Biotechnologies, BioIndustry Park S Fumero, Colleretto Giacosa, Italy*These authors equally contributed to the workBackground and methods: Despite the recent introduction of targeted bio-drugs, the scarcity of successful therapeutic options for advanced colorectal cancer remains a limiting factor in patient management. The efficacy of curative surgical interventions can only be extended through earlier detection of metastatic foci, which is dependent on both the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tools.Results: We propose a high-performance imaging platform based on silica-poly(ethylene glycol nanoparticles doped with rhodamine B and cyanine 5. Simultaneous detection of these dyes is the basis for background subtraction and signal amplification, thus providing high-sensitivity imaging. The functionalization of poly(ethylene glycol tails on the external face of the nanoparticles with metastasis-specific peptides guarantees their homing to and accumulation at target tissues, resulting in specific visualization, even of submillimetric metastases.Conclusions: The results reported here demonstrate that our rationally designed modular nanosystems have the ability to produce a breakthrough in the detection of micrometastases for subsequent translation to clinics in the immediate future.Keywords: colorectal cancer, imaging platform, luminescent targeting

  11. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHrP) as a New Target for Metastatic Breast Cancer: Evaluation in Preclinical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    events. We are using a large tissue bank from triple-negative breast cancer patient tumors to investigate the relationship between triple-negative...ABSTRACT U Unclassified c. THIS PAGE U Unclassified UU Unclassified 28 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code ) ------ Standard Form 298...decrease or prevent metastases. To achieve practical anti-PTHrP therapy, we have developed anti-PTHrP blocking monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). SCOPE

  12. Novel Preclinical and Radiopharmaceutical Aspects of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC: A New PET Tracer for Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection of prostate cancer lesions by PET imaging of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA has gained highest clinical impact during the last years. 68Ga-labelled Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx-HBED-CC ([68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC represents a successful novel PSMA inhibitor radiotracer which has recently demonstrated its suitability in individual first-in-man studies. The radiometal chelator HBED-CC used in this molecule represents a rather rarely used acyclic complexing agent with chemical characteristics favourably influencing the biological functionality of the PSMA inhibitor. The simple replacement of HBED-CC by the prominent radiometal chelator DOTA was shown to dramatically reduce the in vivo imaging quality of the respective 68Ga-labelled PSMA-targeted tracer proving that HBED-CC contributes intrinsically to the PSMA binding of the Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx pharmacophore. Owing to the obvious growing clinical impact, this work aims to reflect the properties of HBED-CC as acyclic radiometal chelator and presents novel preclinical data and relevant aspects of the radiopharmaceutical production process of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC.

  13. Telomerase inhibitor imetelstat has preclinical activity across the spectrum of non-small cell lung cancer oncogenotypes in a telomere length dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Robin E; Peyton, Michael; Schiller, Joan H; Gazdar, Adi F; Shay, Jerry W; Minna, John D

    2016-05-31

    Telomerase was evaluated as a therapeutic oncotarget by studying the efficacy of the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to determine the range of response phenotypes and identify potential biomarkers of response. A panel of 63 NSCLC cell lines was studied for telomere length and imetelstat efficacy in inhibiting colony formation and no correlation was found with patient characteristics, tumor histology, and oncogenotypes. While there was no overall correlation between imetelstat efficacy with initial telomere length (ranging from 1.5 to 20 kb), the quartile of NSCLC lines with the shortest telomeres was more sensitive than the quartile with the longest telomeres. Continuous long-term treatment with imetelstat resulted in sustained telomerase inhibition, progressive telomere shortening and eventual growth inhibition in a telomere-length dependent manner. Cessation of imetelstat therapy before growth inhibition was followed by telomere regrowth. Likewise, in vivo imetelstat treatment caused tumor xenograft growth inhibition in a telomere-length dependent manner. We conclude from these preclinical studies of telomerase as an oncotarget tested by imetelstat response that imetelstat has efficacy across the entire oncogenotype spectrum of NSCLC, continuous therapy is necessary to prevent telomere regrowth, and short telomeres appears to be the best treatment biomarker.

  14. The association of statin use after cancer diagnosis with survival in pancreatic cancer patients: a SEER-medicare analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Y Jeon

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has poor prognosis and existing interventions provide a modest benefit. Statin has anti-cancer properties that might enhance survival in pancreatic cancer patients. We sought to determine whether statin treatment after cancer diagnosis is associated with longer survival in those with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC.We analyzed data on 7813 elderly patients with PDAC using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER - Medicare claims files. Information on the type, intensity and duration of statin use after cancer diagnosis was extracted from Medicare Part D. We treated statin as a time-dependent variable in a Cox regression model to determine the association with overall survival adjusting for follow-up, age, sex, race, neighborhood income, stage, grade, tumor size, pancreatectomy, chemotherapy, radiation, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Overall, statin use after cancer diagnosis was not significantly associated with survival when all PDAC patients were considered (HR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.89, 1.01. However, statin use after cancer diagnosis was associated with a 21% reduced hazard of death (Hazard ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.67, 0.93 in those with grade I or II PDAC and to a similar extent in those who had undergone a pancreatectomy, in those with chronic pancreatitis and in those who had not been treated with statin prior to cancer diagnosis.We found that statin treatment after cancer diagnosis is associated with enhanced survival in patients with low-grade, resectable PDAC.

  15. Fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy of skin cancer with alasens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Evstifeev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment in patients with skin cancer using the method of photodynamic therapy (PDT with alasens are represented in the article. The study enrolled 25 patients with stage 1 tumor including 23 patients with previously untreated tumors and 2 – with recurrent disease. Superficial tumor was diagnosed in 17 patients and 8 patients had nodal tumor. Alasens was used locally as application of 20% ointment on involved skin area with 6h exposure. The PDT session was performed on a single occasion immediately after the end of exposure (power density of laser irradiation of 50–100 mW/cm2, light dose – 150–200 J/cm2. All patients had fluorescence diagnosis (FD prior to application of the ointment and before PDT. The results of FD showed that intensity of porphyrin fluorescence in tumor prior to administration of alasens had near no difference from intensity of porphyrin fluorescence in normal skin (12.5±0.7 and 10.0±0.7 r.u., respectively. Six hours after application of the ointment with alasens the fluorescence intensity of protoporphyrin IX increased almost 5-fold (59.7±5.3 r.u., the fluorescence intensity in normal skin remained near baseline level during the follow-up period (maximally 11.6±1.0 r.u.. Two months after PDT the complete tumor regression was confirmed in 21 patients, partial – in 3 and stabilization of tumor growth in 1 patient. In addition, patients with superficial disease had complete regression in 94.1% of cases and partial regression in 5.9% while for patients with nodal tumor – 62.5% and 25%, respectively, stabilization – in 12.5%. 

  16. Infrared spectroscopy and microscopy in cancer research and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisola, Giuseppe; Sorio, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Since the middle of 20th century infrared (IR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR microspectroscopy) has been recognized as a non destructive, label free, highly sensitive and specific analytical method with many potential useful applications in different fields of biomedical research and in particular cancer research and diagnosis. Although many technological improvements have been made to facilitate biomedical applications of this powerful analytical technique, it has not yet properly come into the scientific background of many potential end users. Therefore, to achieve those fundamental objectives an interdisciplinary approach is needed with basic scientists, spectroscopists, biologists and clinicians who must effectively communicate and understand each other's requirements and challenges. In this review we aim at illustrating some principles of Fourier transform (FT) Infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy and microscopy (microFT-IR) as a useful method to interrogate molecules in specimen by mid-IR radiation. Penetrating into basics of molecular vibrations might help us to understand whether, when and how complementary information obtained by microFT-IR could become useful in our research and/or diagnostic activities. MicroFT-IR techniques allowing to acquire information about the molecular composition and structure of a sample within a micrometric scale in a matter of seconds will be illustrated as well as some limitations will be discussed. How biochemical, structural, and dynamical information about the systems can be obtained by bench top microFT-IR instrumentation will be also presented together with some methods to treat and interpret IR spectral data and applicative examples. The mid-IR absorbance spectrum is one of the most information-rich and concise way to represent the whole “… omics” of a cell and, as such, fits all the characteristics for the development of a clinically useful biomarker. PMID:22206042

  17. Waiting list paradox: Danish cancer patients diagnosed fast have higher mortality after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard

    on hospital discharge diagnoses for the 2004-2005 period, extracted from population-based healthcare databases in the former County of Aarhus, Denmark, and subsequently validated in the National Danish Cancer Registry. All patients with a first-time diagnosis of colon, rectal, lung, skin, breast, or prostate...... after diagnosis, and we used Cox regression to estimate mortality rate ratios as a function of diagnostic delay using restricted cubic splines, and adjusting for gender, age, and co-morbidity. We identified 1080 cancer patients. For all cancers, except breast cancer, mortality after diagnosis decreased...... with longer diagnostic interval until the reference point of 30 days. For colon, rectal, skin, and breast cancer mortality seemed to increase with diagnostic interval longer than 30 days. The waiting list paradox is manifest in Denmark. We speculate that medical professionals organise the diagnostic pathway...

  18. NCI's Dr. Barry Kramer on C-SPAN Over-Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Barnett Kramer on Over-Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer. Dr. Barnett Kramer talked about a study published in the Journal of American Medical Association on the changing the definition of cancer that could reduce unnecessary treatments for benign cancers. He also responded to telephone calls and electronic communications. For more information view the full article at: C-SPAN |

  19. The diagnosis of cancer in thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery, repeat biopsy or specimen consultation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek-Widera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA is the only diagnostic method that allows a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. An unequivocal diagnosis of a malignant change is achievable only in cases in which all cytological criteria of carcinoma are met. The aim of the study was to evaluate the necessity of repeat thyroid FNA in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma verified on consultative examination (CE. We analyzed cytology reports of thyroid FNA and CE that resulted in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Evaluation of the correlation of the cytological diagnosis with the histopathology report was based on data obtained after the surgery. Between 2010 and 2015 in the Institute of Oncology (IO there were 184 cancers diagnosed on CE or in thyroid FNA performed primarily in IO. Additionally, 74 patients were subjected to repeat biopsy after confirmation of cancer in CE. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer was obtained in 62 (100% cases that were doubly confirmed with cytological examination. The remaining 12 patients were operated on outside the institute. From 110 FNA primarily performed in the IO, histopathological verification was achievable in 92 cases, from which 92 (100% provided a confirmation of cancer, and the remaining 18 patients were operated on outside the institute. High (100% specificity of cancer diagnosis in FNA established primarily and verified on CE (second independent assessment indicates that repeat FNA in order to confirm the diagnosis is unnecessary.

  20. Quantifying cancer absolute risk and cancer mortality in the presence of competing events after a myotonic dystrophy diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahinaz M Gadalla

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM have an increased risk of specific malignancies, but estimates of absolute cancer risk accounting for competing events are lacking. Using the Swedish Patient Registry, we identified 1,081 patients with an inpatient and/or outpatient diagnosis of DM between 1987 and 2007. Date and cause of death and date of cancer diagnosis were extracted from the Swedish Cause of Death and Cancer Registries. We calculated non-parametric estimates of absolute cancer risk and cancer mortality accounting for the high non-cancer competing mortality associated with DM. Absolute cancer risk after DM diagnosis was 1.6% (95% CI=0.4-4%, 5% (95% CI=3-9% and 9% (95% CI=6-13% at ages 40, 50 and 60 years, respectively. Females had a higher absolute risk of all cancers combined than males: 9% (95% CI=4-14, and 13% (95% CI=9-20 vs. 2% (95%CI= 0.7-6 and 4% (95%CI=2-8 by ages 50 and 60 years, respectively and developed cancer at younger ages (median age =51 years, range=22-74 vs. 57, range=43-84, respectively, p=0.02. Cancer deaths accounted for 10% of all deaths, with an absolute cancer mortality risk of 2% (95%CI=1-4.5%, 4% (95%CI=2-6%, and 6% (95%CI=4-9% by ages 50, 60, and 70 years, respectively. No gender difference in cancer-specific mortality was observed (p=0.6. In conclusion, cancer significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in DM patients, even after accounting for high competing DM mortality from non-neoplastic causes. It is important to apply population-appropriate, validated cancer screening strategies in DM patients.

  1. Nanomedicine-nanoemulsion formulation improves safety and efficacy of the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel according to preclinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, King C; Maturo, Claudia; Rodriguez, Robert; Nguyen, Hoang-Lan; Shorr, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Paclitaxel is an important anticancer drug and is currently used to treat a variety of cancers, including ovarian carcinomas, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. The objectives of the studies were to assess and compare the safety and efficacy of EmPAC (a newly developed nanoemulsion formulation of paclitaxel) versus Taxol (the injectable formulation of paclitaxel involving the use of polyethylated or polyoxyl castor oil currently used in the clinic). The objectives were also to investigate the mechanism for the improved safety and efficacy of EmPAC over Taxol. These results showed that EmPAC had better anti-tumor efficacy than Taxol, according to in vitro cell culture studies and studies in animal tumor models. EmPAC had improved anti-tumor efficacy even in tumor cell lines that are known to be multi-drug resistant. Part of the mechanism of action for the improved efficacy may be related to EmPAC inducing greater cellular uptake of paclitaxel into tumor cells than Taxol did, according to the in vitro cell culture radioactive-labeled studies and in vitro cell culture antibody studies. It may also partly be because EmPAC delivered more paclitaxel to the tumor mass than Taxol, while the delivery of paclitaxel to other tissues (e.g., blood, muscle, liver, spleen, kidney and lung) were similar between the two formulations of paclitaxel, according to studies in animals with tumor xenograft. EmPAC also had better safety than Taxol according to toxicology studies in rabbits. This may be because EmPAC does not contain the toxic ingredients used in formulating Taxol (such as polyethylated or polyoxyl castor oil). These results support the clinical development of the nanoemulsion formulation of paclitaxel.

  2. Sambar, an Indian Dish Prevents the Development of Dimethyl Hydrazine–Induced Colon Cancer: A Preclinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vutturu Ganga; Reddy, Neetinkumar; Francis, Albi; Nayak, Pawan G.; Kishore, Anoop; Nandakumar, Krishnadas; Rao, Mallikarjuna C.; Shenoy, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colon cancer (CC) is the third commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of mortality in the US when compared to India where prevalence is less. Possible reason could be the vegetarian diet comprising spices used in curry powders. Researchers believe that 70% of the cases are associated with diet. Spices have inherited a rich tradition for their flavor and medicinal properties. Researchers have been oriented towards spices present in food items for their antitumorigenic properties. Objective: We investigated the effects of sambar as a preventive measure for 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced CC in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups (n = 6) namely control, DMH, and sambar. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were killed using anesthesia and the colons and livers were examined. Results: All the treatment groups exhibited a significant change in the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Sambar group showed a significant change in the colonic GSH when compared to both normal and DMH groups. A significant reduction in the liver GSH was noted in the sambar group. Only sambar group showed a significant change in the liver catalase levels when compared to DMH. There was a significant reduction in the colonic nitrite in the sambar-treated group; 2.94 ± 0.29 when compared to DMH control at 8.09 ± 1.32. On the contrary, a significant rise in the liver nitrite levels was observed in the sambar-treated rats. Conclusion: Sambar may prevent the risk of CC when consumed in dietary proportions. SUMMARY Consumption of sambar significantly reduced aberrant crypt foci in DMH-induced colon cancer modelSambar treatment prevented DMH-induced oxidative changes in the colonic tissue, indicating its antioxidant roleSambar comprises a variety of spices that exhibited both pro- and antioxidant properties in different tissues, leading to its overall beneficial effect in this model. Abbreviations used

  3. Sambar, an Indian Dish Prevents the Development of Dimethyl Hydrazine-Induced Colon Cancer: A Preclinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vutturu Ganga; Reddy, Neetinkumar; Francis, Albi; Nayak, Pawan G; Kishore, Anoop; Nandakumar, Krishnadas; Rao, Mallikarjuna C; Shenoy, Rekha

    2016-07-01

    Colon cancer (CC) is the third commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of mortality in the US when compared to India where prevalence is less. Possible reason could be the vegetarian diet comprising spices used in curry powders. Researchers believe that 70% of the cases are associated with diet. Spices have inherited a rich tradition for their flavor and medicinal properties. Researchers have been oriented towards spices present in food items for their antitumorigenic properties. We investigated the effects of sambar as a preventive measure for 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced CC in Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into three groups (n = 6) namely control, DMH, and sambar. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were killed using anesthesia and the colons and livers were examined. All the treatment groups exhibited a significant change in the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Sambar group showed a significant change in the colonic GSH when compared to both normal and DMH groups. A significant reduction in the liver GSH was noted in the sambar group. Only sambar group showed a significant change in the liver catalase levels when compared to DMH. There was a significant reduction in the colonic nitrite in the sambar-treated group; 2.94 ± 0.29 when compared to DMH control at 8.09 ± 1.32. On the contrary, a significant rise in the liver nitrite levels was observed in the sambar-treated rats. Sambar may prevent the risk of CC when consumed in dietary proportions. Consumption of sambar significantly reduced aberrant crypt foci in DMH-induced colon cancer modelSambar treatment prevented DMH-induced oxidative changes in the colonic tissue, indicating its antioxidant roleSambar comprises a variety of spices that exhibited both pro- and antioxidant properties in different tissues, leading to its overall beneficial effect in this model. Abbreviations used: ACF: aberrant crypt foci, CC: colon cancer, DMH: 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine

  4. Three cases of thyroid cancer following the diagnosis of testicular cancer: treatment-related complication or genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulou, Pavlina; Bowers, Sarah Pauline; Gibson, Sarah; White, Jeff; Reed, Nick

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of second primary thyroid cancer in subjects diagnosed and treated for testicular cancer is raised. This finding is strongly associated to treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and it is explained by their mutagenic effect. On the other hand, inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes inducing both testicular and thyroid cancers denote that these tumours might share common genomic aberrations. We herein present our experience with three cases of metachronous development of thyroid cancer after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer in our tertiary cancer centre. Our case report contributes to the limited available literature on such findings and aims to raise awareness of the cancer physicians treating these particular tumour types. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of BAY 1075553, a novel {sup 18}F-labelled inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen for PET imaging of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesche, Ralf; Kettschau, Georg; Gromov, Alexey V.; Boehnke, Niels; Borkowski, Sandra; Moenning, Ursula; Doehr, Olaf; Graham, Keith [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany, Berlin (Germany); Hegele-Hartung, Christa [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Wuppertal, Germany, Wuppertal (Germany); Dinkelborg, Ludger M. [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany, Berlin (Germany); Piramal Imaging GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in prostate cancer and is therefore being explored as a biomarker for diagnosing and staging of the disease. Here we report preclinical data on BAY 1075553 (a 9:1 mixture of (2S,4S)- and (2R,4S)-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-phosphonomethyl-pentanedioic acid), a novel {sup 18}F-labelled small molecule inhibitor of PSMA enzymatic activity, which can be efficiently synthesized from a direct radiolabelling precursor. The {sup 18}F-radiolabelled stereoisomers of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid were synthesized from their respective isomerically pure precursors dimethyl 2-{[bis(benzyloxy)phosphoryl ]methyl}-4-(tosyloxy)pentanedioate. In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies were conducted in mice bearing LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC-3 tumours. Pharmacokinetic parameters and dosimetry estimates were calculated based on biodistribution studies in rodents. For non-clinical safety assessment (safety pharmacology, toxicology) to support a single-dose human microdose study, off-target effects in vitro, effects on vital organ functions (cardiovascular in dogs, nervous system in rats), mutagenicity screens and an extended single-dose study in rats were conducted with the non-radioactive racemic analogue of BAY 1075553. BAY 1075553 showed high tumour accumulation specific to PSMA-positive tumour-bearing mice and was superior to other stereoisomers tested. Fast clearance of BAY 1075553 resulted overall in low background signals in other organs except for high uptake into kidney and bladder which was mainly caused by renal elimination of BAY 1075553. A modest uptake into bone was observed which decreased over time indicating organ-specific uptake as opposed to defluorination of BAY 1075553 in vivo. Biodistribution studies found highest organ doses for kidneys and the urinary bladder wall resulting in a projected effective dose (ED) in humans of 0.0219 m

  6. situational analysis for diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-02-02

    Feb 2, 2001 ... Results: The most basic equipment for cytology-based cervical cancer ... medical personnel including nurses were poorly or hardly utilised for cervical cancer ..... required to take an adequate smear, process, analyses the.

  7. Cancer testis antigen SPAG9 is a promising marker for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Biqiong; Wei, Xiaobin; Zou, Guoying; He, Junyu; Xu, Guofeng; Xu, Fei; Huang, Yiran; Zhu, Haowen; Li, Yong; Ma, Guoan; Yu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Cancer testis antigen sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) is highly expressed in many types of cancers. In the present study, to obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SPAG9 in cancer diagnosis and treatment, the expression of SPAG9 mRNA and protein in lung cancer specimens was evaluated by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to quantify the SPAG9 autoantibody in the peripheral blood of lung cancer patients. The results showed that the expression of SPAG9 mRNA and protein in the lung cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (Plung cancer patients was significantly higher than the level in the healthy controls (Plung cancer patients than these levels in the untreated patients (P=0.006, P=0.026, respectively), while no statistical difference was found between treated and untreated squamous cell carcinoma patients. Our results suggest that the SPAG9 antibody in serum is a promising marker for the diagnosis of lung cancer, and the level of the humoral immune response to this antigen appears to be related to the type of lung cancer.

  8. Early Diagnosis, Treatment, and Care of Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    encompasses two complimentary projects. The hypothesis that leukemia can be treated effectively by inhibition of putative cancer stem cells will be tested in...chemotherapy drugs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS leukemia , stem cell, cancer , parthenolide, oligodendrocyte, progenitor 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17... Cancer Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard Fisher, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Rochester Rochester, NY

  9. Role of Dental Profession in Oral Cancer Prevention and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Q A; Awan, K H

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of oral cancer is increasing worldwide. Malignant neoplasms of the mouth and pharynx have been rated as the 10th most common cancer in men and 7th in women, though geographical variations exist.(1)Generally, in a society, oral cancer is not properly understood. The sign and symptoms are frequently overlooked in the initial stages when it is responsive to treat.

  10. Health-related information exchange experiences of Jordanian women at breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Rana F; Lally, Robin M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Jordanian women's experiences of information exchange following diagnosis of early stage breast cancer. A purposive sample of 28 women who had surgery for early stage breast cancer within 6 months prior to the interview and had treatment at three hospitals in Central and Northern Jordan was recruited for the study. Data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews focused on women's communication experiences at diagnosis and during cancer treatment. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim in Arabic, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Three main themes associated with information exchange were revealed as follows: (1) knowledge about breast cancer and its treatment, (2) communication of cancer diagnosis and treatment, and (3) educating on treatment side effects. Misconceptions about breast cancer risk factors, consequences of breast cancer treatment, and breast cancer-related symptoms were common among participants. Women made important health-related decisions based on misconceptions. Physician's information giving, availability, and responses to women's questions varied by their level of education and the type and location of treatment facility. Informational exchange experiences vary among Jordanian women diagnosed with breast cancer and raise concern over opportunities offered these women to engage in informed decision making. Findings suggest a need for nurses to assess the information needs of Jordanian women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and provide education tailored to individual needs. There is also a need to develop Arabic educational materials and make these available for patients at treatment facilities in all regions of Jordan.

  11. Digoxin use after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasneh, Reema A; Murray, Liam J; Mc Menamin, Úna C; Hughes, Carmel M; Cardwell, Chris R

    2015-06-01

    Digoxin has been shown to have an estrogenic effect and is associated with increased risk of gynecomastia and estrogen-sensitive cancers such as breast and uterus cancer. These findings, particularly recent observations of increased breast cancer risk, raise questions about the safety of digoxin use in breast cancer patients. Therefore, we investigated whether digoxin use after breast cancer diagnosis increased the risk of breast cancer-specific mortality in breast cancer patients. A cohort of 17,842 breast cancer patients newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2009 was identified from English cancer registries (from the National Cancer Data Repository). This cohort was linked to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (to provide digoxin and other prescription records) and to the Office of National Statistics mortality data (to identify breast cancer-specific deaths). Using time-dependent Cox regression models, unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the association between post-diagnostic exposure to digoxin and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. In 17,842 breast cancer patients, there were 2219 breast cancer-specific deaths. Digoxin users appeared to have increased breast cancer-specific mortality compared with non-users (HR 1.73; 95 % CI 1.39-2.15) but this association was entirely attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted HR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.72-1.14). In this large population-based breast cancer cohort study, there was little evidence of an increase in breast cancer-specific mortality with digoxin use after diagnosis. These results provide some reassurance that digoxin use is safe in breast cancer patients.

  12. Evaluation of total hepatocellular cancer lifespan, including both clinically evident and preclinical development, using combined network phenotyping strategy and fisher information analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pančoška, Petr; Skála, Lubomír; Nešetřil, Jaroslav; Carr, Brian I

    2015-04-01

    We previously showed that for hepatocellular cancer (HCC) prognostication, disease parameters need to be considered within a total personal clinical context. This requires preserving the coherence of data values, observed simultaneously for each patient during baseline diagnostic evaluation. Application of the Network Phenotyping Strategy (NPS) provided quantitative descriptors of these patient coherences. Combination of these descriptors with Fisher information about the patient tumor mass and the histogram of the tumor masses in the whole cohort permitted estimation of the time from disease onset until clinical diagnosis (t(baseline)). We found faster growth of smaller tumors having total masses70. Combining the clinical survival and t(baseline) normalized all HCC patients to a common 1,045 days of mean total disease duration (t(baseline) plus post diagnosis survival). We also found a simple relationship between the baseline clinical status, t(baseline), and survival. Every difference between individual patient baseline clinical profiles and special coherent clinical status (HL1) reduced the above common overall survival (OVS) by 65 days. In summary, we showed that HCC patients with any given tumor can best have their tumor biology understood, when account is taken of the total clinical and liver contexts, and with knowing the point in the tumor history when an HCC diagnosis is made. This ability to compute the t(baseline) from standard clinical data brings us closer to calculating survival from diagnosis of individual HCC patients.

  13. Colonoscopy after CT Diagnosis of Diverticulitis to Exclude Colon Cancer: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sai, Victor F.; Velayos, Fernando; Neuhaus, John; Westphalen, Antonio C.

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data about follow-up colonoscopy after a CT diagnosis of acute diverticulitis, and the pooled prevalence of colorectal cancer in a small number of patients is only slightly higher than the calculated prevalence of colorectal cancer in a population of comparable age.

  14. Non-oncology physician visits after diagnosis of cancer in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Lorenzi, M.F.; Korevaar, J.C.; McBride, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children diagnosed with cancer often require extensive care for medical, psychosocial and educational problems during and after therapy. Part of this care is provided by family physicians and non-cancer specialists, but their involvement in the first years after diagnosis has barely been

  15. Center of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment launched in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On 24 August, a center of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment was officially inaugurated in Tianjin. The center was jointly established by the CAS Institute of High-energy Physics, the CAS affiliated National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, and the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital.

  16. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...

  17. [Conformity of cancerous diagnosis of serum-fluorimetry under the influence of carotenoid fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, X; Ma, H; Ren, W; Xu, X; Cao, B; Li, W

    2000-08-01

    We observed that carotenoid had sensitization for fluorescence of porphyrin as cancerous diagnostic technology was applied in clinic by serum-fluorimetry. The Forster theory was used in order to analyse sensitized fluorescence between carotenoid and porphyrin in this paper. Transfer characteristic between energy donor and energy acceptor was calculated and discussed its influence on cancerous diagnosis.

  18. Role of multiparametric MRI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Giovanni; Indino, Elena Lucia; Salvo, Vincenzo; Colarieti, Anna; Fierro, Davide; Scialpi, Michele; Panebianco, Valeria

    2016-05-24

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy of the male gender. The role of magnetic resonance imaging has evolved very rapidly over the years to be currently recognized as a fundamental tool in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of prostate cancer.

  19. Malignant mesothelioma and asbestos-related lung cancer: diagnosis, prognosis and burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bij, S.

    2012-01-01

    The negative health-related consequences of the use of asbestos have become very clear and widely recognized. This thesis focused on the most frequent asbestos induced cancers: mesothelioma and lung cancer. Mesothelioma A confirmed diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is important to ensure proper me

  20. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis : stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Methods: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with chemot

  1. Impact of Urban Neighborhood Disadvantage on Late Stage Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Pam Baker; Cohn, Wendy F; Camacho, Fabian; Edwards, Brandy L; Sturz, Vanessa N; Schroen, Anneke T

    2017-04-01

    Research suggests that residents of inner-city urban neighborhoods have higher rates of late stage cancer diagnosis. Identifying urban neighborhoods with high rates of both concentrated disadvantage and late stage cancer diagnosis may assist health care providers to target screening interventions to reduce disparities. The purposes of this study were to (1) create an index to evaluate concentrated disadvantage (CD) using non-racial measures of poverty, (2) determine the impact of neighborhood CD on late stage breast cancer diagnosis in US cities, and (3) to understand the role of obesity on this relationship. We used census block group- (CBG) level poverty indicators from five Virginia cities to develop the index. Breast cancer cases of women aged 18-65 who lived in the five cities were identified from the 2000-2012 Virginia Cancer Registry. A logistic regression model with random intercept was used to evaluate the impact of disadvantage on late stage breast cancer diagnosis. CBG-level maps were developed to geographically identify neighborhoods with both high rates of CD and late breast cancer staging. Over 900 CBGs and 6000 breast cases were included. Global fit of the concentrated disadvantage model was acceptable. The effect of disadvantage on late stage was significant (OR = 1.0083, p = 0.032). Inner-city poverty impacts risk of late stage breast cancer diagnosis. Area-level obesity is highly correlated with neighborhood poverty (ρ = 0.74, p poverty neighborhoods may help combat disparities in late stage diagnosis for urban poor and for minorities living in these underserved neighborhoods, but more study is needed to understanding the complex relationship between concentrated neighborhood poverty, obesity, and late stage diagnosis.

  2. Enhancing radiotherapy for lung cancer using immunoadjuvants delivered in situ from new design radiotherapy biomaterials: a preclinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yao; Yasmin-Karim, Sayeda; Moreau, Michele; Sinha, Neeharika; Sajo, Erno; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-12-01

    Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients. In this preliminary study, the potential of such an approach is investigated for lung cancer using anti-CD40 antibody. First the benefit of using the anti-CD40 delivered in situ to enhance radiotherapy was tested in mice with subcutaneous tumors generated with the Lewis Lung cancer cell line LL/2 (LLC-1). The tumors were implanted on both flanks of the mice to simulate metastasis. Tumors on one flank were treated with and without anti-CD40 and the survival benefits compared. An experimentally determined in vivo diffusion coefficient for nanoparticles was then employed to estimate the time for achieving intratumoral distribution of the needed minimal concentrations of anti-CD40 nanoparticles if released from a multifuntional radiotherapy biomaterials. The studies show that the use of anti-CD40 significantly enhanced radiotherapy effect, slowing the growth of the treated and untreated tumors, and increasing survival. Meanwhile our calculations indicate that for a 2-4 cm tumor and 7 mg g-1 IA concentrations, it would take 4.4-17.4 d, respectively, following burst release, for the required concentration of IA nanoparticles to accumulate throughout the tumor during image-guided radiotherapy. The distribution of IA could be customized as a function of loading concentrations or nanoparticle size to fit current

  3. Magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Juan; Long, Nicholas J; Aboagye, Eric O

    2013-10-07

    Magnetic nanoparticles represent one of the most advanced developments in the application of nanotechnology to human health. To date, their clinical application has been restricted to the diagnosis of hepatic lesions and lymph node metastasis but functionalization of these materials with biomolecules as targeting motifs, and the inclusion of therapeutic drugs in their composition, is certain to make a substantial impact within biomedicine. One of the diseases that could benefit from these advances is cancer, as early diagnosis and effective treatment are crucial for a patient's survival and quality of life. This review will examine the recent uses of magnetic particles in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Selective Allosteric Inhibition of MMP9 Is Efficacious in Preclinical Models of Ulcerative Colitis and Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek C Marshall

    Full Text Available Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 is elevated in a variety of inflammatory and oncology indications, including ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. MMP9 is a downstream effector and an upstream mediator of pathways involved in growth and inflammation, and has long been viewed as a promising therapeutic target. However, previous efforts to target matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, including MMP9, have utilized broad-spectrum or semi-selective inhibitors. While some of these drugs showed signs of efficacy in patients, all MMP-targeted inhibitors have been hampered by dose-limiting toxicity or insufficient clinical benefit, likely due to their lack of specificity. Here, we show that selective inhibition of MMP9 did not induce musculoskeletal syndrome (a characteristic toxicity of pan-MMP inhibitors in a rat model, but did reduce disease severity in a dextran sodium sulfate-induced mouse model of ulcerative colitis. We also found that MMP9 inhibition decreased tumor growth and metastases incidence in a surgical orthotopic xenograft model of colorectal carcinoma, and that inhibition of either tumor- or stroma-derived MMP9 was sufficient to reduce primary tumor growth. Collectively, these data suggest that selective MMP9 inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of inflammatory and oncology indications in which MMP9 is upregulated and is associated with disease pathology, such as ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. In addition, we report the development of a potent and highly selective allosteric MMP9 inhibitor, the humanized monoclonal antibody GS-5745, which can be used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of MMP9 inhibition in patients.

  5. Sexuality after a cancer diagnosis: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-12-15

    This study explored differences in sexual activity, function, and concerns between cancer survivors and cancer-free controls in a population-based study. The data were from 2982 men and 3708 women who were 50 years old or older and were participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexual well-being was assessed with the Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire, and cancer diagnoses were self-reported. There were no differences between cancer survivors and controls in levels of sexual activity (76.0% vs 78.5% for men and 58.2% vs 55.5% for women) or sexual function. Men and women with cancer diagnoses were more dissatisfied with their sex lives than controls (age-adjusted percentages: 30.9% vs 19.8% for men [P = .023] and 18.2% vs 11.8% for women [P = .034]), and women with cancer were more concerned about levels of sexual desire (10.2% vs 7.1%; P = .006). Women diagnosed cancer are broadly comparable to age-matched, cancer-free controls. There is a need to identify the causes of sexual dissatisfaction among long-term cancer survivors despite apparently normal levels of sexual activity and function for their age. The development of interventions addressing low sexual desire and problems with sexual functioning in women is also important and may be particularly relevant for cancer survivors after treatment. Cancer 2016;122:3883-3891. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  6. Anxiety symptoms prior to a prostate cancer diagnosis: Associations with knowledge and openness to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Amanda J; Scherer, Laura D; Ubel, Peter A; Alexander, Stewart; Fagerlin, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that anxiety may be a common response to a cancer diagnosis, but research is needed to examine anxiety before diagnosis. Anxiety before diagnosis may relate to the comprehension of relevant health information or openness to potential treatments. This study examined anxiety and these outcomes in men who were waiting to learn of a prostate cancer diagnosis. One goal of this study was to determine whether anxiety would increase as men came closer to learning the results of their prostate cancer biopsy. Another goal was to test whether anxiety was associated with knowledge about prostate cancer or openness to different treatments. Men (N = 265) who were facing a prostate cancer diagnosis were surveyed at two time points. Time 1 occurred at the time of biopsy, and Time 2 occurred immediately before men received their biopsy result. At each time point, men reported their anxiety about prostate cancer and their biopsy result. At Time 2, they completed a knowledge test of information about prostate cancer and reported their openness to different potential treatments. Anxiety symptoms increased as men came closer to learning their diagnosis. Also, higher anxiety was associated with lower knowledge and greater openness to particular treatments like surgery. Interactions showed that when anxiety increased from Time 1 to Time 2, having high or low knowledge mattered less to treatment openness. Waiting for a cancer diagnosis is an important time period in which anxiety may increase and relate to information processing and openness to treatments. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Men undergoing prostate cancer screening have been found to experience high and low levels of anxiety. Research has shown that negative emotions like anxiety are common following a cancer diagnosis, but little research has examined emotions right before diagnosis. Anxiety has been associated with information processing and motivation to engage in

  7. Optical diagnosis of colon and cervical cancer by support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Kurmi, Indrajit; Dey, Rajib; Das, Nandan K.; Pradhan, Sanjay; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2016-05-01

    A probabilistic robust diagnostic algorithm is very much essential for successful cancer diagnosis by optical spectroscopy. We report here support vector machine (SVM) classification to better discriminate the colon and cervical cancer tissues from normal tissues based on elastic scattering spectroscopy. The efficacy of SVM based classification with different kernel has been tested on multifractal parameters like Hurst exponent, singularity spectrum width in order to classify the cancer tissues.

  8. Risk, diagnosis and treatment to postoperative delirium in elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Rui-Li

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, more elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancers have been undergoing surgery. As one of main postoperative complications, postoperative delirium (POD) is harmful and difficult to prevent and treat. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment to POD properly and ptomptly can promote the patient's overall recovery. However, health care providers still have many problems for POD to face in elderly,with gastrointestinal cancers during the clinical care. In this paper, Etiology, damages, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of POD in elderly with gastrointestinal cancer were reviewed, and the prospect of POD was also discussed.

  9. Lung cancer diagnosis with quantitative DIC microscopy and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Longfei; Cai, Shuangshuang; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, Min

    2017-01-01

    We report the study of lung squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis using the TI-DIC microscopy and the scattering-phase theorem. The spatially resolved optical properties of tissue are computed from the 2D phase map via the scattering-phase theorem. The scattering coefficient, the reduced scattering coefficient, and the anisotropy factor are all found to increase with the grade of lung cancer. The retrieved optical parameters are shown to distinguish cancer cases from the normal cases with high accuracy. This label-free microscopic approach applicable to fresh tissues may be promising for in situ rapid cancer diagnosis.

  10. Sickness Absence and Disability Pension After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A 5-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Bränström, Richard; Nilsson, Kerstin; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-06-20

    Purpose To explore future diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer compared with women without breast cancer. Also, to examine associations with disease-related and sociodemographic factors among those with breast cancer. Methods Longitudinal register data on 3,547 women living in Sweden (age 20 to 65 years) who were first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2005, and a matched comparison cohort (n = 14,188), were analyzed for the annual prevalence of diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension over 5 years. Logistic regressions were used to explore associations of disease-related and sociodemographic factors with future sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer. Results Immediately after being diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of women with sickness absence was high but decreased continuously from the 1st through 5th year after diagnosis (71%, 40%, 30%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). In comparison, the range for women without breast cancer was 17% to 11%, respectively. The higher prevalence of sickness absence after breast cancer was mainly a result of breast cancer diagnosis, not a mental diagnosis, or other somatic diagnoses. Advanced cancer at diagnosis, > 90 days sickness absence before diagnosis, low education, and being born outside Sweden were associated with higher odds ratios for sickness absence and disability pension (odds ratio range, 1.40 to 6.45). Conclusion The level of sickness absence increased substantially in women with breast cancer during the first year after diagnosis and approached the level of breast cancer-free women in the following years; however, even in the first year, most women were not on sickness absence for a substantial time, and even in high-risk groups, many were not on sickness absence or disability pension in the following years. Information about relatively low future sickness absence and disability pension levels can be used by

  11. Clinical (non-histological) diagnosis of advanced prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-03

    Aug 3, 2014 ... patients often have to travel long distances to a referral centre where prostate ... value (PPV) of 90% for a biopsy diagnosis of ACP, while a level of. >60 ng/ml had a .... and the time to PSA relapse significantly shorter, in the clinical diagnosis .... transrectal prostate biopsy and leads to substantial cost savings.

  12. Distance as a Barrier to Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroggi, Massimo; Biasini, Claudia; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Fornari, Fabio; Cavanna, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The burden of travel from a patient's residence to health care providers is an important issue that can influence access to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Although several studies have shown that the travel burden can result in delays in diagnosis and treatment of many common cancers, its role appears underestimated in the treatment of patients in clinical practice. Therefore, we performed a review of the published data on the role of travel burden influencing four items: delay of diagnosis, adequate treatment of cancer, outcome, and quality of life of cancer patients. Forty-seven studies published up to December 2014 were initially identified. Twenty studies were excluded because they did not regard specifically the four items of our review. Twenty-seven studies formed the basis of our study and involved 716,153 patients. The associations between travel burden and (a) cancer stage at diagnosis (12 studies), (b) appropriate treatment (8 studies), (c) outcome (4 studies), and (d) quality of life (1 study) are reported. In addition, in two studies, the relation between travel burden and compliance with treatment was examined. The results of our review show that increasing travel requirements are associated with more advanced disease at diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, a worse prognosis, and a worse quality of life. These results suggest that clinical oncologists should remember the specific travel burden problem for cancer patients, who often need health care services every week or every month for many years.

  13. AUTOFLUORESCENCE BRONCHOSCOPY AS A MODALITY FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAW Nugraha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has become a complicated health problem in the world. In 2005, approximately 172,500 people diagnosed with lung cancer in the United States. In Indonesia, lung cancer ranks fourth highest. Lung cancer is also the most common cause of death from cancer, so we need appropriate early detection modality to reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. Compared with other modalities that currently available, Autofluorescence Bronchoscopy (AFB seems to have better accuracy in early diagnosis of lung cancer. AFB can be used to evaluate patients with high-grade sputum atypia, evaluating patients with suspected or had suffered from lung cancer, and have a role in follow-up of bronchial high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia.

  14. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer remains a difficult task, and multiple imaging tests have been proposed over the years. The aim of this review is to describe the current role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the diagnosis and staging of patients with pancreatic cancer. A detailed search...... of MEDLINE between 1980 and 2007 was performed using the following keywords: pancreatic cancer, endoscopic ultrasound, diagnosis, and staging. References of the selected articles were also browsed and consulted. Despite progress made with other imaging methods, EUS is still considered to be superior...... for the detection of clinically suspected lesions, especially if the results of other cross-sectional imaging modalities are equivocal. The major advantage of EUS is the high negative predictive value that approaches 100%, indicating that the absence of a focal mass reliably excludes pancreatic cancer...

  15. Nutritional status at diagnosis in children with cancer. 2. An assessment by arm anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald; Collins, Laura; Nayiager, Trishana; Doring, Nancy; Kennedy, Charlene; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Sala, Alessandra; Webber, Colin

    2011-04-01

    Assessment of nutritional status in children with cancer is important but measures based on weight can be problematic at diagnosis, especially in those with advanced disease. Likewise, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be confounded by other radiological procedures and is not commonly available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. Arm anthropometry is not subject to these constraints. In a study sample of 99 Canadian patients with cancer at diagnosis, mid-upper arm circumference correlated well with lean body mass as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry but triceps skin fold thickness was a poor predictor of fat mass. Arm anthropometry can be a useful tool for the measurement of nutritional status in children with cancer. However, further studies, particularly in low-income countries and in children with solid tumors at diagnosis, are required to determine the full extent of its utility.

  16. "Shifting family boundaries" after the diagnosis of childhood cancer in stepfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Kelly, Katherine; Ganong, Lawrence H

    2011-02-01

    The childhood cancer experiences of stepfamilies have not been described despite the fact that nearly one third of U.S. children will live in a stepfamily household. To describe the impact of diagnosis on parental relationships in stepfamilies, we undertook a secondary analysis of data from a study of parental decision making in structurally diverse families. As described by 13 parents of six stepfamilies, the crisis of a childhood cancer diagnosis immediately changed family dynamics. Parental relationships changed, which shifted family boundaries, creating instability in families who were trying to cope with a very stressful life experience. Through increased understanding of parental relationship changes that occur after the diagnosis of childhood cancer in stepfamilies, clinicians can anticipate these changes and provide supportive interventions to reduce overall family conflict and distress. These distinctive stepfamily responses underscore the need to include structurally diverse families in future trials targeting parental coping in childhood cancer.

  17. Detection of Methylated Circulating DNA as Noninvasive Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Isabella Wai Yin; Shin, Vivian Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, breast cancer is the most common female cancer, and is induced by a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic risk factors. Despite the advancement of imaging techniques, invasive sampling of breast epithelial cells is the only definitive diagnostic procedure for patients with breast cancer. To date, molecular biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the screening and early detection of breast cancer are lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the detection of methylated circulating cell-free DNA in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer may be a promising quantitative and noninvasive method for cancer diagnosis. Methylation detection based on a multi-gene panel, rather than on the methylation status of a single gene, may be used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer screening. In this review, the results of 14 relevant studies, investigating the efficacy of cell-free DNA methylation screening for breast cancer diagnosis, have been summarized. The genetic risk factors for breast cancer, the methods used for breast cancer detection, and the techniques and limitations related to the detection of cell-free DNA methylation status, have also been reviewed and discussed. From this review, we conclude that the analysis of peripheral blood or other samples to detect differentially methylated cell-free DNA is a promising technique for use in clinical settings, and may improve the sensitivity of screening for both, early detection and disease relapse, and thus improve the future prognosis of patients with breast cancer. PMID:28382090

  18. Preclinical Diagnosis of Magnetic Resonance (MR Brain Images via Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform with Tsallis Entropy and Generalized Eigenvalue Proximal Support Vector Machine (GEPSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing an accurate computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system of MR brain images is essential for medical interpretation and analysis. In this study, we propose a novel automatic CAD system to distinguish abnormal brains from normal brains in MRI scanning. Methods: The proposed method simplifies the task to a binary classification problem. We used discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT to extract wavelet packet coefficients from MR brain images. Next, Shannon entropy (SE and Tsallis entropy (TE were harnessed to obtain entropy features from DWPT coefficients. Finally, generalized eigenvalue proximate support vector machine (GEPSVM, and GEPSVM with radial basis function (RBF kernel, were employed as classifier. We tested the four proposed diagnosis methods (DWPT + SE + GEPSVM, DWPT + TE + GEPSVM, DWPT + SE + GEPSVM + RBF, and DWPT + TE + GEPSVM + RBF on three benchmark datasets of Dataset-66, Dataset-160, and Dataset-255. Results: The 10 repetition of K-fold stratified cross validation results showed the proposed DWPT + TE + GEPSVM + RBF method excelled not only other three proposed classifiers but also existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of classification accuracy. In addition, the DWPT + TE + GEPSVM + RBF method achieved accuracy of 100%, 100%, and 99.53% on Dataset-66, Dataset-160, and Dataset-255, respectively. For Dataset-255, the offline learning cost 8.4430s and online prediction cost merely 0.1059s. Conclusions: We have proved the effectiveness of the proposed method, which achieved nearly 100% accuracy over three benchmark datasets.

  19. The trends of relevance about telling lung cancer diagnosis: social constraints, medical practice in several clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Sibel; Sevinç, Can; Sever, Fidan; Itil, Oya; Akkoçlu, Atila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the opinions of relatives about telling the lung cancer diagnosis to the patient and evaluate the implementation in our hospital. A survey questionnaire was designed, and applied on nurses and physicians working in oncology care units, 4th-6th grade medical students, and relatives of cancer and non-cancer patients. Totally 347 (228 males, 119 females) participants (64 physicians, 100 nurses, 61 medical students, and 122 relatives of patients) with a mean age of 28 were enrolled in the study. 62.5% of doctors, 53.2% of nurses, 59.5% of medical students and 45.9% of relatives of lung cancer patients thought that the patient should be informed about his/her cancer diagnosis. 29.5% of the physicians told their patients about their diagnosis of cancer. Gender, age, abroad experience, academic career, speciality, and period of professional experience were not determined to have any impact on physician's opinion and clinical practices. It was determined that physicians care more about patients' right to be informed than other participating groups. Generally, although physicians agree that the diagnosis of cancer should be told to the patient, their routine clinical practices do not reflect this viewpoint.

  20. Prostate cancer diagnosis in a resource-poor setting: the changing role of digital rectal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammed

    2011-07-01

    We undertook this study in order to determine the current role of digital rectal examination (DRE) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in a resource-poor setting. The diagnosis of prostate cancer has been revolutionized by the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for biopsy guidance and more efficient biopsy equipment, but they are not readily available in most developing countries. This is a prospective study of 131 patients with suspected prostate cancer based on clinical presentation, DRE and elevated PSA. The presence or absence of cancer was confirmed by biopsy and histologic examination. Patients with screen- or incidentally-detected prostate cancer were excluded. The most common symptom was the development of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). All patients had abnormal DRE and indurated prostate was the most frequent finding (50%). The mean PSA was 33.9 ng/mL: of the 131 patients, 80 (61.1%) had a malignant histology following biopsy, 47 (35.9%) were benign and four (3.0%) were prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). The low specificity of DRE in the diagnosis of prostate cancer requires that it should be combined with other diagnostic modalities such as PSA and TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. Thus government and health-care providers in resource-poor countries must strive to make these facilities available in order to improve prostate cancer diagnosis.

  1. Socioeconomic disparities in breast cancer survival: relation to stage at diagnosis, treatment and race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xue

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have documented lower breast cancer survival among women with lower socioeconomic status (SES in the United States. In this study, I examined the extent to which socioeconomic disparity in breast cancer survival was explained by stage at diagnosis, treatment, race and rural/urban residence using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER data. Methods Women diagnosed with breast cancer during 1998-2002 in the 13 SEER cancer registry areas were followed-up to the end of 2005. The association between an area-based measure of SES and cause-specific five-year survival was estimated using Cox regression models. Six models were used to assess the extent to which SES differences in survival were explained by clinical and demographical factors. The base model estimated the hazard ratio (HR by SES only and then additional adjustments were made sequentially for: 1 age and year of diagnosis; 2 stage at diagnosis; 3 first course treatment; 4 race; and 5 rural/urban residence. Results An inverse association was found between SES and risk of dying from breast cancer (p Conclusion Stage at diagnosis, first course treatment and race explained most of the socioeconomic disparity in breast cancer survival. Targeted interventions to increase breast cancer screening and treatment coverage in patients with lower SES could reduce much of socioeconomic disparity.

  2. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Linwah

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers including gene expression profiles, somatic gene alterations, and circulating peripheral markers have augmented diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic options for thyroid cancer patients.

  3. Local transdermal therapy to the breast for breast cancer prevention and DCIS therapy: preclinical and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oukseub; Ivancic, David; Allu, Subhashini; Shidfar, Ali; Kenney, Kara; Helenowski, Irene; Sullivan, Megan E; Muzzio, Miguel; Scholtens, Denise; Chatterton, Robert T; Bethke, Kevin P; Hansen, Nora M; Khan, Seema A

    2015-12-01

    Women at high risk of breast cancer and those with carcinoma in situ need non-toxic, well-tolerated preventive interventions. One promising approach is drug delivery through the breast skin (local transdermal therapy, LTT). Our goal was to test novel drugs for LTT, to establish that LTT is applicable to non-steroidal drugs. Athymic nude rats were treated with oral tamoxifen, transdermal 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) or endoxifen gel applied daily to the axillary mammary gland for 6 weeks (Study 1). Study 2 was identical to Study 1, testing transdermal telapristone acetate (telapristone) gel versus subcutaneous implant. At euthanasia, mammary glands and blood were collected. In Study 3, consenting women requiring mastectomy were randomized to diclofenac patch applied to the abdomen or the breast for 3 days preoperatively. At surgery, eight tissue samples per breast were collected from predetermined locations, along with venous blood. Drug concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Mammary tissue concentrations of 4-OHT, endoxifen, and telapristone were significantly higher in the axillary glands of the gel-treated animals, compared to inguinal glands or to systemically treated animals. Plasma concentrations were similar in gel and systemically treated animals. The clinical trial showed significantly higher mammary concentrations when diclofenac was applied to the breast skin versus the abdominal skin, but concentrations were variable. These results demonstrate that lipophilic drugs can be developed for LTT; although the nude rat is suitable for testing drug permeability, delivery is systemic. In human, however, transdermal application to the breast skin provides local delivery.

  4. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  5. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro, E-mail: saiky@z8.keio.jp; Kitagawa, Yuko [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2013-01-16

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.

  6. Familial gastric cancer : guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Plukker, John T.; de Jong, Daphne; van Krieken, J. Han; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Bleiker, Eveline; Cats, Anemieke

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a relatively rare disorder, with a mutated CDH1 gene as the only known cause. Carriers of a germline mutation in CDH1 have a lifetime risk of > 80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting earl

  7. [Familial gastric cancer: diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, I.; Sijmons, R.H.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Vasen, H.F.; Cats, A.

    2011-01-01

    The only known genetic causes of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) are germline mutations in the CDH1 gene.- CDH1 mutation carriers have a lifetime risk of 70-80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting early stages of HDGC, prop

  8. Emerging applications of nanoparticles for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Uday Kumar; Bhushan, Bharat; Dubey, Poornima; Matai, Ishita; Sachdev, Abhay; Packirisamy, Gopinath

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, most of them being active tobacco smokers. Non small cell lung cancer accounts for around 85% to 90% of deaths, whereas the rest is contributed by small cell lung cancer. The extreme lethality of lung cancer arises due to lack of suitable diagnostic procedures for early detection of lung cancer and ineffective conventional therapeutic strategies. In course with desperate attempts to address these issues independently, a multifunctional nanotherapeutic or diagnostic system is being sought as a favorable solution. The manifestation of physiochemical properties of such nanoscale systems is tuned favorably to come up with a versatile cancer cell targeted diagnostic and therapeutic system. Apart from this, the aspect of being at nanoscale by itself confers the system with an advantage of passive accumulation at the site of tumor. This review provides a broad perspective of three major subclasses of such nanoscale therapeutic and diagnostic systems which include polymeric nanoparticles-based approaches, metal nanoparticles-based approaches, and bio-nanoparticles-based approaches. This review work also serves the purpose of gaining an insight into the pros and cons of each of these approaches with a prospective improvement in lung cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

  9. Breast Cancer Diagnosis using Artificial Neural Networks with Extreme Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prasetyo Utomo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second cause of dead among women. Early detection followed by appropriate cancer treatment can reduce the deadly risk. Medical professionals can make mistakes while identifying a disease. The help of technology such as data mining and machine learning can substantially improve the diagnosis accuracy. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN has been widely used in intelligent breast cancer diagnosis. However, the standard Gradient-Based Back Propagation Artificial Neural Networks (BP ANN has some limitations. There are parameters to be set in the beginning, long time for training process, and possibility to be trapped in local minima. In this research, we implemented ANN with extreme learning techniques for diagnosing breast cancer based on Breast Cancer Wisconsin Dataset. Results showed that Extreme Learning Machine Neural Networks (ELM ANN has better generalization classifier model than BP ANN. The development of this technique is promising as intelligent component in medical decision support systems.

  10. Being given a cancer diagnosis in old age: a phenomenological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Swane, Christine E; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2008-01-01

    constituents: growing old in the context of illness, becoming a patient with cancer, everyday life being controlled by bodily limitations, managing family reactions, becoming conscious about dying and death through illness experience and retaining hope, and enjoying life. Conclusion: It is important......Objectives: The aim of the study was to illuminate the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age. Background: Little research has been done on the experience of elderly people developing cancer and the impact of the illness on their lives. Such knowledge is needed to support...... elderly people in dealing with issues arising after cancer is diagnosed. Design: A descriptive phenomenological method was used to investigate the phenomenon "the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age". Participants: In total, 16 persons (aged 65+, mean age 76, range 68...

  11. Epigenetic targets in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Manoharan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is one of leading cause of cancer related deaths in men. Various aspects of cancer epigenetics are rapidly evolving and the role of 2 major epigenetic changes including DNA methylation and histone modifications in prostate cancer is being studied widely. The epigenetic changes are early event in the cancer development and are reversible. Novel epigenetic markers are being studied, which have the potential as sensitive diagnostic and prognostic marker. Variety of drugs targeting epigenetic changes are being studied, which can be effective individually or in combination with other conventional drugs in PC treatment. In this review, we discuss epigenetic changes associated with PC and their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications including future areas of research.

  12. Nanoparticle-enabled terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Jae; Kang, Jinyoung; Maeng, Inhee; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2009-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the principle of the nanoparticle-contrast-agent-enabled terahertz imaging (CATHI) technique, which yields a dramatic sensitivity of the differential signal from cancer cells with nanoparticles. The terahertz (THz) reflection signal increased beam by 20% in the cancer cells with nanoparticles of gold nano-rods (GNRs) upon their irradiation with a infrared (IR) laser, due to the temperature rise of water in cancer cells by surface plasma ploritons. In the differential mode, the THz signal from the cancer cells with GNRs was 30 times higher than that from the cancer cells without GNRs. As the high sensitivity is achieved by the surface plasmon resonance through IR laser irradiation, the resolution of the CATHI technique can be as good as a few microns and THz endoscopy becomes more feasible.

  13. Clinical significance of plasma lysophosphatidic acid levels in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: We first performed a hospital-based, case-control study involving 123 ovarian cancer patients and 101 benign ovarian tumor patients, and then conducted a meta-analysis with 19 case-control studies to assess the correlation between ovarian cancer and plasma LPA levels. Results: The case-control study results demonstrated that ovarian cancer patients have increased LPA and cancer antigen (CA-125 levels compared to patients with benign ovarian tumor (LPA: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 5.28 ± 1.52 vs 1.82 ± 0.77 μmol/L; CA-125: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 87.17 ± 45.81 vs. 14.03 ± 10.14 U/mL, which showed statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05. LPA with advanced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rate of diagnosis excelled CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (both P < 0.05. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (LPA: 0.983; CA-125: 0.910 were statistically significant compared with the reference (both P < 0.001 and the difference of the areas of ROC curve between LPA and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. The meta-analysis results suggested that plasma LPA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues than in benign tissues (standardized mean difference (SMD =2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61-3.11, P < 0.001 and normal tissues (SMD = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.77-2.87, P < 0.001. Conclusion: LPA shows greater value in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer compared to CA-125 and may be employed as a biological index to diagnose ovarian cancer.

  14. Diagnosis of gallbladder cancer by imaging techniques. Problems, limitations, and their explanations, especially with ss invasive cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Masao; Onoyama, Hirohiko; Sako, Tatsuo; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Ohara, Sigetsugu; Yamazaki, Iwao; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Saito, Yoichi (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-11-01

    The preoperative diagnosis of less than ss depth gallbladder cancer is difficult. Its preoperative diagnosis rate was low (27.5%), and even lower with the presence of concomitant gallstone. In the latter case,the diagnosis rate was particularly low when the stones diameter was greater than 1 cm. Gallstones are frequently associated with macromorphologically invasive type of gallbladder cancer and this may be the reason for the lower diagnostic rate. We compared preoperative diagnosis rate of ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and drip infusion cholecystography (DIC) for each invasion depth. In US, the preoperative diagnosis rate for m depth invasion was 6/16 (37.5%), pm depth was 1/13 (7.7%), and ss depth was 14/41 (34.1%). In CT, its rate for m depth was 3/11 (27.3%), pm depth was 1/10 (10.0%), and ss depth was 11/37 (29.7%). In DIC, its rate for m depth was 3/11 (27.3%), pm depth was 1/10 (10.0%), and ss was depth 1/23 (4.3%). None of the currently used imaging techniques were very accurate in diagnosing gallbladder cancer. Thus, during preoperative work up, if one discovers a gallbladder full of stones, stones of greater than 1 cm in diameter, thickened gallbladder wall, or a non visualized gallbladder with DIC, gallbladder cancer must be highly suspected. (author).

  15. Preclinical pharmacology and toxicology study of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, a novel dual cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yanxin [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences of PLA, Changchun 130122 (China); Guo, Huanhuan [Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences of PLA, Changchun 130122 (China); Changchun Brother Biotech Co., Ltd., Changchun, 130000 (China); Hu, Ningning; He, Dongyun [Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences of PLA, Changchun 130122 (China); The Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun 130122 (China); Zhang, Shi [Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences of PLA, Changchun 130122 (China); School of Clinical Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130001 (China); Chu, Yunjie [Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130021 (China); Huang, Yubin [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Li, Xiao, E-mail: lixiao06@mails.jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences of PLA, Changchun 130122 (China); The Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun 130122 (China); Sun, LiLi, E-mail: linjiaxiaoya@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Tumor Hospital of Jilin Province, Changchun 130012 (China); Jin, Ningyi, E-mail: ningyij@126.com [Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences of PLA, Changchun 130122 (China); The Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun 130122 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that conditionally replicating adenovirus is safe. We constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, using a cancer-specific promoter (human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter, hTERTp) and a cancer cell-selective apoptosis-inducing gene (Apoptin). Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin was proven effective both in vitro and in vivo in our previous study. In this study, the preclinical safety profiles of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in animal models were investigated. At doses of 5.0 × 10{sup 8}, 2.5 × 10{sup 9}, and 1.25 × 10{sup 10} viral particles (VP)/kg, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin had no adverse effects on mouse behavior, muscle cooperation, sedative effect, digestive system, and nervous systems, or on beagle cardiovascular and respiratory systems at 5.0 × 10{sup 8}, 2.5 × 10{sup 9}, and 1.25 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg doses. In acute toxicity tests in mice, the maximum tolerated dose > 5 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg. There was no inflammation or ulceration at the injection sites within two weeks. In repeat-dose toxicological studies, the no observable adverse effect levels of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in rats (1.25 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg) and beagles (2.5 × 10{sup 9} VP/kg) were 62.5- and 12.5-fold of the proposed clinical dose, respectively. The anti-virus antibody was produced in animal sera. Bone marrow examination revealed no histopathological changes. Guinea pigs sensitized by three repeated intraperitoneal injections of 1.35 × 10{sup 10} VP/mL Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin each and challenged by one intravenous injection of 1.67 × 10{sup 8} VP/kg Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin did not exhibit any sign of systemic anaphylaxis. Our data from different animal models suggest that Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • We use the rodents and non-rodents animal models to evaluation Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin. • Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. • Demonstrate the safety and feasibility dose of injected Ad

  16. A meta-analysis of serum cancer antigen 125 array for diagnosis of ovarian cancer in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To further evaluation the diagnosis accuracy of serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer in Chinese patients. Materials and Methods: The PubMed, Wanfang and CNKI databases were electric searched and relevant diagnosis trials were reviewed and finally included in this meta-analysis. The diagnosis sensitivity, specificity, positive likely hood ratio (+LR, negative likely hood ratio (−LR, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR and receiver operating characteristic curve were pooled by Meta DiSc 1.4 software. Results: Nineteen studies with a total of 2426 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, +LR, −LR and DOR were 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.78, 0.80 (0.77-0.82, 4.52 (3.27-6.26, 0.31 (0.28-0.35 and 15.76 (10.45-23.75 respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84. Conclusion: Serum CA125 was potential biomarker for diagnosis of ovarian cancer with acceptable diagnosis value.

  17. Delay in Breast Cancer: Implications for Stage at Diagnosis and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eCaplan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer continues to be a disease with tremendous public health significance. Primary prevention of breast cancer is still not available, so efforts to promote early detection continue to be the major focus in fighting breast cancer. Since early detection is associated with decreased mortality, one would think that it is important to minimize delays in detection and diagnosis. There are two major types of delay. Patient delay is delay in seeking medical attention after self-discovering a potential breast cancer symptom. System delay is delay within the health care system in getting appointments, scheduling diagnostic tests, receiving a definitive diagnosis, and initiating therapy. Earlier studies of the consequences of delay on prognosis tended to show that increased delay is associated with more advanced stage cancers at diagnosis, thus resulting in poorer chances for survival. More recent studies have had mixed results, with some studies showing increased survival with longer delays. One hypothesis is that diagnostic difficulties could perhaps account for this survival paradox. A rapidly growing lump may suggest cancer to both doctors and patients, while a slow growing lump or other symptom could be less obvious to them. If this is the case, then the shorter delays would be seen with the more aggressive tumors for which the prognosis is worse leading to reduced survival. It seems logical that a tumor that is more advanced at diagnosis would lead to shorter survival; but the several counter-intuitive studies in this review show that it is dangerous to make assumptions.

  18. Comparing upper gastrointestinal X-ray and endoscopy for gastric cancer diagnosis in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoo-Yeon; Lee; Eun-Cheol; Park; Jae; Kwan; Jun; Kui; Son; Choi; Myung-Il; Hahm

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To compare the cost and accuracy of upper gastrointestinal(GI)X-ray and upper endoscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer using data from the 2002-2004 Korean National Cancer Screening Program(NCSP). METHODS:The study population included 1 503 646 participants in the 2002-2004 stomach cancer screening program who underwent upper GI X-ray or endoscopy.The accuracy of screening was defined as the probability of detecting gastric cancer.We calculated the probability by merging data from the NCSP and the Kore...

  19. Positron emission tomography in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, B M; Mortensen, J; Højgaard, L

    2001-01-01

    positron emission tomography (PET) and gamma-camera PET in the diagnostic investigation of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A systematic literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. We identified 55 original works on the diagnostic......Lung cancer is the cause of 32% of all male cancer deaths and 25% of all female cancer deaths. Because the prognosis depends on early diagnosis and staging, continuous evaluation of the diagnostic tools available is important. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of dedicated...

  20. Global histone post-translational modifications and cancer:Biomarkers for diagnosis,prognosis and treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafqat; Ali; Khan; Divya; Reddy; Sanjay; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Global alterations in epigenetic landscape are now recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Epigenetic mechanismssuch as DNA methylation,histone modifications,nucleosome positioning and non-coding RNAs are proven to have strong association with cancer. In particular,covalent post-translational modifications of histone proteins are known to play an important role in chromatin remodeling and thereby in regulation of gene expression. Further,histone modifications have also been associated with different aspects of carcinogenesis and have been studied for their role in the better management of cancer patients. In this review,we will explore and discuss how histone modifications are involved in cancer diagnosis,prognosis and treatment.

  1. An investigation of routes to cancer diagnosis in 10 international jurisdictions, as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weller, David; Vedsted, Peter; Anandan, Chantelle;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the methods used in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Module 4 Survey (ICBPM4) which examines time intervals and routes to cancer diagnosis in 10 jurisdictions. We present the study design with defining and measuring time intervals, identifying...... jurisdiction. Patients are approached directly or via their primary care physician (PCP). Patients' PCPs and cancer treatment specialists (CTSs) are surveyed, and 'data rules' are applied to combine and reconcile conflicting information. Where CTS information is unavailable, audit information is sought from...... and colorectal cancer. Initial patient and PCP survey response rates from the UK and Sweden are comparable with similar published surveys. Data collection was completed in early 2016 for all cancer types. CONCLUSION: An international questionnaire-based survey of patients with cancer, PCPs and CTSs has been...

  2. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention...

  3. New strategy for diagnosis and treatment of gynecological cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Jing-he

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the 21st century medicine is characterized by population problem, the great impact of computer and information technology, the contribution of genetics development to disease prevention and treatment, and the reform of health care system. By 2025, there will be 274 million people over 60 years old and cancer may be the primary killer as well in China. The incidences of cancers of the lung, intestine, and breast are on the rise; the incidence of cervical cancer is decreasing in developed countries while increasing in developing ones.

  4. Fuzzy method for pre-diagnosis of breast cancer from the Fine Needle Aspirate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizilio, Gláucia R M A; Leite, Cicília R M; Guerreiro, Ana M G; Neto, Adrião D Dória

    2012-11-02

    Across the globe, breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women and, currently, Fine Needle Aspirate (FNA) with visual interpretation is the easiest and fastest biopsy technique for the diagnosis of this deadly disease. Unfortunately, the ability of this method to diagnose cancer correctly when the disease is present varies greatly, from 65% to 98%. This article introduces a method to assist in the diagnosis and second opinion of breast cancer from the analysis of descriptors extracted from smears of breast mass obtained by FNA, with the use of computational intelligence resources--in this case, fuzzy logic. For data acquisition of FNA, the Wisconsin Diagnostic Breast Cancer Data (WDBC), from the University of California at Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository, available on the internet through the UCI domain was used. The knowledge acquisition process was carried out by the extraction and analysis of numerical data of the WDBC and by interviews and discussions with medical experts. The PDM-FNA-Fuzzy was developed in four steps: 1) Fuzzification Stage; 2) Rules Base; 3) Inference Stage; and 4) Defuzzification Stage. Performance cross-validation was used in the tests, with three databases with gold pattern clinical cases randomly extracted from the WDBC. The final validation was held by medical specialists in pathology, mastology and general practice, and with gold pattern clinical cases, i.e. with known and clinically confirmed diagnosis. The Fuzzy Method developed provides breast cancer pre-diagnosis with 98.59% sensitivity (correct pre-diagnosis of malignancies); and 85.43% specificity (correct pre-diagnosis of benign cases). Due to the high sensitivity presented, these results are considered satisfactory, both by the opinion of medical specialists in the aforementioned areas and by comparison with other studies involving breast cancer diagnosis using FNA. This paper presents an intelligent method to assist in the diagnosis and second

  5. Fuzzy method for pre-diagnosis of breast cancer from the Fine Needle Aspirate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizilio Gláucia RMA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Across the globe, breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women and, currently, Fine Needle Aspirate (FNA with visual interpretation is the easiest and fastest biopsy technique for the diagnosis of this deadly disease. Unfortunately, the ability of this method to diagnose cancer correctly when the disease is present varies greatly, from 65% to 98%. This article introduces a method to assist in the diagnosis and second opinion of breast cancer from the analysis of descriptors extracted from smears of breast mass obtained by FNA, with the use of computational intelligence resources - in this case, fuzzy logic. Methods For data acquisition of FNA, the Wisconsin Diagnostic Breast Cancer Data (WDBC, from the University of California at Irvine (UCI Machine Learning Repository, available on the internet through the UCI domain was used. The knowledge acquisition process was carried out by the extraction and analysis of numerical data of the WDBC and by interviews and discussions with medical experts. The PDM-FNA-Fuzzy was developed in four steps: 1 Fuzzification Stage; 2 Rules Base; 3 Inference Stage; and 4 Defuzzification Stage. Performance cross-validation was used in the tests, with three databases with gold pattern clinical cases randomly extracted from the WDBC. The final validation was held by medical specialists in pathology, mastology and general practice, and with gold pattern clinical cases, i.e. with known and clinically confirmed diagnosis. Results The Fuzzy Method developed provides breast cancer pre-diagnosis with 98.59% sensitivity (correct pre-diagnosis of malignancies; and 85.43% specificity (correct pre-diagnosis of benign cases. Due to the high sensitivity presented, these results are considered satisfactory, both by the opinion of medical specialists in the aforementioned areas and by comparison with other studies involving breast cancer diagnosis using FNA. Conclusions This paper presents an

  6. Cancer Phenotype Diagnosis and Drug Efficacy within Japanese Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihide Nishimura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on targeted personalized medicine is given describing the developments in Japan of lung cancer patients. These new targeted therapies with novel personalized medicine drugs require new implementations, in order to follow and monitor drug efficacy and outcome. Examples from IRESSA (Gefitinib and TARCEVA (Erlotinib treatments used in medication of lung cancer patients are presented. Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality in the world. The importance of both the quantification of disease progression, where diagnostic-related biomarkers are being implemented, in addition to the actual measurement of disease-specific mechanisms relating to pathway signalling activation of disease-progressive protein targets is summarised. An outline is also presented, describing changes and adaptations in Japan, meeting the rising costs and challenges. Today, urgent implementation of programs to address these needs has led to a rebuilding of the entire approach of medical evaluation and clinical care.

  7. Genetic determinants of psychic resilience after a diagnosis of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Drago, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity between cancer and psychiatric disorders including adjustment disorder, depressive disorders or angst can seriously influence the prognosis and the quality of life of patients. The identification of the psychological and biological profile of patients at risk for such comorbidity...

  8. Who tended to continue smoking after cancer diagnosis: the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Tung-Sung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that there are approximately 12 million cancer survivors in the United States. Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is linked to adverse effects among cancer survivors on overall survival, treatment effectiveness, and quality of life. Little is known about who is more likely to quit smoking after his/her cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate factors associated with smoking cessation in cancer survivors, which to date has not been well studied. Method The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2008 surveys were used in this study. A total of 2,374 cancer survivors aged 20 and over with valid smoking status in the NHANES 99–08 survey were included in this study. Among them, 566 cancer survivors who regularly smoked at the time of their cancer diagnosis were included in the analyses. Results Around 50.6% of cancer survivors smoked regularly prior to their cancer diagnosis and only 36.1% of them quit smoking after their cancer diagnosis. Racial disparity was observed in smoking cessation among cancer survivors. Hispanics (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.10-0.57 were less likely to quit smoking than Whites after their cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Two-thirds of cancer survivors continued smoking after cancer diagnosis. Our study observed that the high risk group of continued smokers among cancer survivors is made up of those who are female, younger, Hispanic, with longer smoking history, underweight or with normal weight and without smoking-related cancer. These findings suggest that smoking cessation for cancer survivors should target on the high risk subgroups.

  9. Problems of diagnosis and treatment of primary operable breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Troshenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with genotypic and phenotypic variability. Phenotypic diversity of tumors is directly related to genotypic variations, which can be determined with analyzing gene expression in a comprehensive immunohistochemical study. Today there are many methods of surgical treatment – from minimally invasive to radical, variable according to the number of stages, the volume of reconstructive techniques. Today organ-preserving operations are prefered by surgeons all the world.

  10. Advances in medical imaging for the diagnosis and management of common genitourinary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohammad H; Ahlman, Mark A; Lindenberg, Liza; Turkbey, Baris; Lin, Jeffrey; Cahid Civelek, Ali; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Agarwal, Piyush K; Choyke, Peter L; Folio, Les R; Apolo, Andrea B

    2017-07-01

    Medical imaging of the 3 most common genitourinary (GU) cancers-prostate adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder-has evolved significantly during the last decades. The most commonly used imaging modalities for the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of GU cancers are computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). Multiplanar multidetector computed tomography and multiparametric MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging are the main imaging modalities for renal cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma, and although multiparametric MRI is rapidly becoming the main imaging tool in the evaluation of prostate adenocarcinoma, biopsy is still required for diagnosis. Functional and molecular imaging using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET and sodium fluoride-PET are essential for the diagnosis, and especially follow-up, of metastatic GU tumors. This review provides an overview of the latest advances in the imaging of these 3 major GU cancers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Physiological basis for noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy offers a noninvasive, fast, and low-cost alternative to visual screening and biopsy for skin cancer diagnosis. We have previously acquired reflectance spectra from 137 lesions in 76 patients and determined the capability of spectral diagnosis using principal component analysis (PCA). However, it is not well elucidated why spectral analysis enables tissue classification. To provide the physiological basis, we used the Monte Carlo look-up table (MCLUT) model to extract physiological parameters from those clinical data. The MCLUT model results in the following physiological parameters: oxygen saturation, hemoglobin concentration, melanin concentration, vessel radius, and scattering parameters. Physiological parameters show that cancerous skin tissue has lower scattering and larger vessel radii, compared to normal tissue. These results demonstrate the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for detection of early precancerous changes in tissue. In the future, a diagnostic algorithm that combines these physiological parameters could be enable non-invasive diagnosis of skin cancer.

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer with emphasis on ultrasound-based approaches: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mehdi; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer and focuses, in particular, on ultrasound-based techniques for detection of cancer in prostate tissue. The current standard procedure for diagnosis of prostate cancer, i.e., ultrasound-guided biopsy followed by histopathological analysis of tissue samples, is invasive and produces a high rate of false negatives resulting in the need for repeated trials. It is against these backdrops that the search for new methods to diagnose prostate cancer continues. Image-based approaches (such as MRI, ultrasound and elastography) represent a major research trend for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Due to the integration of ultrasound imaging in the current clinical procedure for detection of prostate cancer, we specifically provide a more detailed review of methodologies that use ultrasound RF-spectrum parameters, B-scan texture features and Doppler measures for prostate tissue characterization. We present current and future directions of research aimed at computer-aided detection of prostate cancer and conclude that ultrasound is likely to play an important role in the field.

  13. The value of auditing negative lower GI investigations preceding a final diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasekar, A; James, L; Stephenson, B M; Thompson, I W; Vellacott, K D; Allison, M C

    2009-09-01

    To review all preceding 'negative' large bowel investigations in patients with a final diagnosis of colorectal cancer, and to examine whether delayed diagnosis was associated with worse outcome. Details were gathered on all patients with a new diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma presenting over 4.5 years. For each patient the hospital's clinical workstation and radiology and endoscopy databases were interrogated for all flexible sigmoidoscopies, colonoscopies and barium enemas during the 5 years prior to diagnosis. Among the 570 patients, 28 (5%) had undergone colonoscopy and/or flexible sigmoidoscopy that had not shown colorectal cancer during the 5 years preceding final diagnosis, and a further 28 (5%) had undergone 'negative' barium enemas. Polyp surveillance might have missed four lesions destined to become malignant. Correspondingly there were three patients undergoing IBD surveillance found to have CRC, having had a negative complete colonoscopy within the preceding 5 years. Among patients undergoing de novo colonoscopy for diagnosis the true miss rate was only one patient per year. At August 2007, 29 (58%) of those with delayed diagnosis were still alive, compared with 216 (42%) of those diagnosed during initial investigation (chi2 = 5.04, P auditing the quality assurance of lower gastrointestinal diagnostic services. Despite the delay, late diagnosis was found to be associated with improved survival and a lower likelihood of metastatic disease.

  14. Transgenic mouse models generated by hydrodynamic transfection for genetic studies of liver cancer and preclinical testing of anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hye-Lim; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Lee, Jong Doo; Ro, Simon Weonsang

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of HCC have been developed to elucidate the role of individual cancer-related genes in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the expensive and time-consuming processes related to generating a GEM model discourage the development of diverse genotype models. Recently, a simple and inexpensive liver-specific transgenic approach was developed, in which a hydrodynamics-based transfection (HT) method was coupled with the Sleeping Beauty transposase system. Various HT models in which different oncogenic pathways are activated and/or tumor-suppressing pathways inactivated have been developed in recent years. The applicability of HT models in liver cancer research is expected to broaden and ultimately elucidate the cooperation between oncogenic signaling pathways and aid in designing molecular therapy to target altered pathways.

  15. Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Brain Metastases from the Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi LIU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer with brain metastasis was 23% to 65%, and is the most common type in brain metastasis tumors with the poor prognosis. At present, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from lung carcinoma and its molecular mechanism have become one hot spot of amount researches. Here, we made a systematic review of the progress of the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from lung and its molecular mechanism.

  16. Testing breast cancer serum biomarkers for early detection and prognosis in pre-diagnosis samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, Anna; Blyuss, Oleg; Metodieva, Gergana; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ryan, Andy; Kiseleva, Elena M; Prytomanova, Olga M; Jacobs, Ian J; Widschwendter, Martin; Menon, Usha; Timms, John F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although mammography screening is available, there is an ongoing interest in improved early detection and prognosis. Herein, we have analysed a combination of serological biomarkers in a case–control cohort of sera taken before diagnosis. Methods: This nested case–control study within the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) used serum samples from 239 women who subsequently developed breast cancer and 239 matched cancer-free controls. Sera were screened by ELISA for 9 candidate markers. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations with clinico-pathological features and between case controls in different time groups before diagnosis. Results: Significant associations with clinico-pathological features related to prognosis were found for several candidates (CA15-3, HSP90A and PAI-1). However, there were no consistent differences between cases and controls for any candidate in the lead up to diagnosis. Whilst combination models outperformed single markers, there was no increase in performance towards diagnosis. Conclusions: This study using unique pre-diagnosis samples shows that CA15-3, HSP90A and PAI-1 have potential as early prognostic markers and warrant further investigation. However, none of the candidates or combinations would be useful for screening. PMID:28081538

  17. [The method for early diagnosis of the gastric cancer based metabolomics research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furina, R R; Ryzhkov, V L; Mitrakova, N N; Koptina, A V; Safiullin, I K; Lychagin, K A; Eroshkin, P R

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the questions of the usage of metabolomics research results in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. The central idea metabolomics is to identify the specific biomarkers in a biological sample used in a diagnostics this disease. The volatile organic compounds--metabolites isolated from the urine samples from patients are considered as biomarkers. The paper also describes main methods of separation and identification of volatile organic compounds (gas chromatography, mass spectrometry) applied in metabolomics. The paper presents some results of laboratory research aimed at the detection of biomarkers of gastric cancer. The presented material will be of some help in solving the problems of early diagnosis of this disease.

  18. [Current problems and challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Wang, Lei

    2014-06-01

    In the past 20 years, researches regarding colorectal cancer have experienced unprecedented boom in China. However, a seris problems have been exposed, including a rapid increase in morbility, the geographical limitations of tumor screening, nonstandard diagnosis and treatment, very limited mechanism researches, and lack of randomized controlled clinical trials with Chinese characteristics. This article puts forward some main emphases of the current work, based on the above problems and challenges, in order to improve the overall level of the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China.

  19. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF METACHRONOUS TESTICULAR CANCER: A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalpinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bilateral testicular cancer is 5% in the total cohort of patients. Synchronous and metachronous testicular cancers are detected in 1-2 and 3% of cases, respectively. The standard treatment for testicular cancer is orchifuniculectomy and that for synchronous or metachronous cancer is organ-saving treatment, testectomy.The paper describes a clinical case of multiple primary metachronous testicular cancer. A 24-year-old patient underwent surgery (orchifuniculectomy and received 4 courses of BEP polychemotherapy for embryonal carcinoma of the left testicle at the P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute. After 55 months, a dynamic control examination diagnosed a 9-mm tumor in his single right testis that was thereafter resected. Its histological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma with solitary structures in the immature teratoma. Following 22 months, a control examination showed a recurrence of the disease, for which orchifuniculectomy of the single right testis, followed by hormone replacement therapy, was performed. The follow-up period was 80 months; no recurrence is now observed.

  20. Male breast cancer: risk factors, biology, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, K J; Winer, E P

    2013-06-01

    The causes, optimal treatments, and medical/psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer in men are poorly understood. A systematic review of the English language literature was conducted to identify studies relevant to male breast cancer between 1987 and 2012 and including at least 20 patients. Searches were carried out on PubMed using the title terms 'male breast cancer' or 'male breast carcinoma'. Relevant published data regarding risk factors, biological characteristics, presentation and prognosis, appropriate evaluation and treatment, and survivorship issues in male breast cancer patients are presented. BRCA2 mutations, age, conditions that alter the estrogen/androgen ratio, and radiation are proven risk factors. Disease biology is distinct in men, but diagnostic approaches and treatments for men are generally extrapolated from those in women due to inadequate research in men. Survivorship issues in men may include sexual and hormonal side-effects of endocrine therapies as well as unique psychosocial impacts of the disease. Further research is needed to address gaps in knowledge pertaining to care of male breast cancer patients and survivors.

  1. Prediction of outcome after diagnosis of metachronous contralateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernö Mårten

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although 2-20% of breast cancer patients develop a contralateral breast cancer (CBC, prognosis after CBC is still debated. Using a unique patient cohort, we have investigated whether time interval to second breast cancer (BC2 and mode of detection are associated to prognosis. Methods Information on patient-, tumour-, treatment-characteristics, and outcome was abstracted from patients' individual charts for all patients diagnosed with metachronous CBC in the Southern Healthcare Region of Sweden from 1977-2007. Distant disease-free survival (DDFS and risk of distant metastases were primary endpoints. Results The cohort included 723 patients with metachronous contralateral breast cancer as primary breast cancer event. Patients with less than three years to BC2 had a significantly impaired DDFS (p = 0.01, and in sub-group analysis, this effect was seen primarily in patients aged Conclusions In a large cohort of patients with CBC, we found the time interval to BC2 to be a strong prognostic factor for DDFS in young women and mode of detection to be related to risk of distant metastases. Future studies of tumour biology of BC2 in relation to prognostic factors found in the present study can hopefully provide biological explanations to these findings.

  2. Predictive values of symptoms in relation to cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnik, Ivan; Andersen, John Sahl

    a manual describing the symptoms that should engender reasonable suspicion of malignancy (“alarm symptoms”) to the general practitioner. Objectives: To investigate the evidence in the literature of the predictive value (PPV) placed on the”alarm symptoms” for colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer...... years (6,6%-21,2%), but much lower in younger age groups. ”Change in bowel habits” and ”Significant general symptoms” are more uncertain (3,5%-8,5%). Breast cancer: ”Palpable suspect tumor” is well supported (8,1%-24%). The predictive value of ”Pitting of the skin”, ”Papil-areola eczema....../ulceration” and ”Clinically suspect axillary lymph nodes” was not found in the literature. Prostate cancer: One study shows a high PPV for rectal examination (12%). The value of “Lower urinary tract symptoms” is more uncertain (1,0%-3,0%). PPV of ”Perianal pain” and ”Haemospermia” are not described in the literature. Lung...

  3. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis: stability and adaptive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with chemotherapy (n=47), breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy (n=32) and in healthy women (n=58) at 3, 9 and 15 months after diagnosis. Results indicate that personal control was affected only in patients treated with chemotherapy, particularly right after the completion of treatment. Furthermore, the cross-sectional and longitudinal results provide modest support for the stress-buffering potential of control. The findings and future directions of research on the role of personal control in the adjustment to cancer will be discussed. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A new expert system for diagnosis of lung cancer: GDA-LS_SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Engin

    2012-06-01

    In nowadays, there are many various diseases, whose diagnosis is very hardly. Lung cancer is one of this type diseases. It begins in the lungs and spreads to other organs of human body. In this paper, an expert diagnostic system based on General Discriminant Analysis (GDA) and Least Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) Classifier for diagnosis of lung cancer. This expert diagnosis system is called as GDA-LS-SVM in rest of this paper. The GDA-LS-SVM expert diagnosis system has two stages. These are 1. Feature extraction and feature reduction stage and 2. Classification stage. In feature extraction and feature reduction stage, lung cancer dataset is obtained and dimension of this lung cancer dataset, which has 57 features, is reduced to eight features using Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) method. Then, in classification stage, these reduced features are given to Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) classifier. The lung cancer dataset used in this study was taken from the UCI machine learning database. The classification accuracy of this GDA-LS-SVM expert system was obtained about 96.875% from results of these experimental studies.

  5. Initial prostate cancer diagnosis and disease staging--the role of choline-PET-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Paola; Picchio, Maria

    2015-09-01

    An early and correct diagnosis together with accurate staging of prostate cancer is necessary in order to plan the most appropriate treatment strategy. Morphological imaging modalities such as transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT, and MRI can have some limitations regarding their accuracy for primary diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer; for instance, they have limited specificity in differentiating cancer from benign prostatic conditions and, by using size as the only criterion to characterize lymph node metastases, they might not be accurate enough for tumour characterization. In this scenario, PET-CT with (11)C-labelled or (18)F-labelled choline derivatives provides morphological and functional characterization and could overcome the limitations of the conventional imaging techniques. PET-CT is one of the most investigated molecular imaging modalities for prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. Currently, the main investigations on the role of PET-CT in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer have been performed on a retrospective basis and this type of analysis might be one of the main reasons why different results regarding its diagnostic accuracy have been reported.

  6. Application of Quantum Dots-Based Biotechnology in Cancer Diagnosis: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Peng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs have excellent photo-physical properties, and the QDs-based probes have achieved encouraging developments in cellular and in vivo molecular imaging. More and more researches showed that QDs-based technology may become a promising approach in cancer research. In this review, we focus on recent application of QDs in cancer diagnosis and treatment, including early detection of primary tumor such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer, as well as regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. With the development of QDs synthesis and modification, the effect of QDs on tumor metastasis investigation will become more and more important in the future.

  7. [Lugol's solution in endoscopic diagnosis of early esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Zhou, M; Cong, Q

    1995-07-01

    About 1500 high-risk subjects of esophageal cancer were found during screening by balloon cytology and all of them were examined endoscopically. Among them, 120 were considered as having early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. During the examination, Lugol's solution staining was used and guiding biopsy was taken. 98 subjects with unstained lesions were found, and biopsy showed early esophageal cancer in 60 (61.2%) and moderate and severe dysplasia in 38 (38.8%). It is usually extremely difficult to detect and localize the very early esophageal mucosal and submucosal carcinoma. But endoscopic examination and using Lugol's solution staining with multiple spots biopsy from unstained area are of great assistance. Minute malignant lesions may not be overlooked.

  8. European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The fourth edition of the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis was published by the European Commission in 2006. The present supplements to the fourth edition have been produced by the same groups of experts originally established under the Europe Against Cancer programme that have developed and updated the guidelines since the early 1990s. Over the years, the scope and the depth of the multidisciplinary guidelines have expanded, and recommendatio...

  9. EXAMINATION OF SPUTUM SEDIMENT PARAFFIN SECTION OF DIAGNOSIS OF LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁俊良; 申延琴; 黄杰雄; 马琼凤; 黄致治

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish the rapid and accurate methods for detecting cancer cells from the sputum of patients with lung cancer. Methods: Sputum sediment section examination and sputum smear examination were performed. For 142 cases of lung cancer patients diagnosed by bronchia fibrous lens and confirmed by pathologic diagnosis. Results: (a) The positive diagnosis rate of lung cancer cell was 71.83% (102/142) when using sputum sediment examination while that was 32.39% (46/142) when using sputum smear examination, when using sputum sediment examination jointly with sputum smear examination, the positive diagnosis rate of lung cancer was 91.55% (130/142). According to the positive diagnosis rate of lung cancer, the sputum sediment examination was significantly higher than sputum smear examination (P<0.001), joint examination of both of them was significantly higher than the single sputum sediment examination (P<0.001); (b) As to the histopathological types of lung cancers, 66 cases could be identified among 102 cases whom were confirmed by sputum sediment examination, the identification rate was 64.71%; and 8 cases could be identified among 46 cases whom were confirmed by sputum smear examination, with an identification rate of 17.39%, it was significantly lower than that by sputum sediment examination (P<0.001); (c) Immunohistochemistry technique could be used in the sections of sputum sediment to identify some histopathological types which could not be identified by routine HE stain, with an identification rate of 94.44% (34/36). Conclusion: the sputum sediment examination has some advantages compared to the sputum smear examination such as the specimen may include more materials, the higher cancer cell identification positive rate and immunohistochemistry method can be used to identify the histopathological type.

  10. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Novel theranostic nanoporphyrins for photodynamic diagnosis and trimodal therapy for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Li, Yuanpei; Liu, Qiangqiang; Chen, Jui-Lin; Zhang, Hongyong; Lac, Diana; Zhang, Hua; Ferrara, Katherine W; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Li, Tianhong; Airhart, Susan; deVere White, Ralph; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2016-10-01

    The overall prognosis of bladder cancer has not been improved over the last 30 years and therefore, there is a great medical need to develop novel diagnosis and therapy approaches for bladder cancer. We developed a multifunctional nanoporphyrin platform that was coated with a bladder cancer-specific ligand named PLZ4. PLZ4-nanoporphyrin (PNP) integrates photodynamic diagnosis, image-guided photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy and targeted chemotherapy in a single procedure. PNPs are spherical, relatively small (around 23 nm), and have the ability to preferably emit fluorescence/heat/reactive oxygen species upon illumination with near infrared light. Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded PNPs possess slower drug release and dramatically longer systemic circulation time compared to free DOX. The fluorescence signal of PNPs efficiently and selectively increased in bladder cancer cells but not normal urothelial cells in vitro and in an orthotopic patient derived bladder cancer xenograft (PDX) models, indicating their great potential for photodynamic diagnosis. Photodynamic therapy with PNPs was significantly more potent than 5-aminolevulinic acid, and eliminated orthotopic PDX bladder cancers after intravesical treatment. Image-guided photodynamic and photothermal therapies synergized with targeted chemotherapy of DOX and significantly prolonged overall survival of mice carrying PDXs. In conclusion, this uniquely engineered targeting PNP selectively targeted tumor cells for photodynamic diagnosis, and served as effective triple-modality (photodynamic/photothermal/chemo) therapeutic agents against bladder cancers. This platform can be easily adapted to individualized medicine in a clinical setting and has tremendous potential to improve the management of bladder cancer in the clinic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Support for coping after diagnosis of gynaecologic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adellund, Kamila; Frandsen, Helle Nørtved; Juhl, Inger Rudbeck

    Background: Denmark has implemented several cancer schools that offer training and support after treatment. However, there are no offers to patients and relatives from the referral until definitive treatment. Therefore we focus on nursing care for patients and relatives in this period of time where...... their existence is threatened and their ability to cope weakened. The main question of this investigation was: How can the nurse in a multidisciplinary team support patients and relatives to master the first few days where cancer is suspected? We aimed to: Fase 1:          Explore the needs of support...

  13. The current state of molecular cytogenetics in cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Thomas; Othman, Moneeb A K; Rittscher, Katharina; Alhourani, Eyad

    2015-04-01

    Cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetics are and will continue to be indispensable tools in cancer diagnostics. Leukemia and lymphoma diagnostics are still emphases of routine (molecular) cytogenetics and corresponding studies of solid tumors gain more and more prominence. Here, first a historical perspective of molecular tumor cytogenetics is provided, which is followed by the basic principles of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) approach. Finally the current state of molecular cytogenetics in cancer diagnostics is discussed. Nowadays routine diagnostics includes basic FISH approaches rather than multicolor-FISH. The latter together with modern high-throughput methods have their impact on research to identify new tumor-associated genomic regions.

  14. Ductal lavage, nipple aspiration, and ductoscopy for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, William C

    2003-01-01

    The intraductal approach to breast cancer has been invigorated this year by a series of papers exploring ductal-based screening through nipple aspiration and lavage and ductal exploration through endoscopy. The merging of these efforts to define the earliest biologic changes in the progression toward breast cancer is opening new fields for both bench-translational and clinical research. These techniques have already begun to show value in defining the presence and extent of proliferative disease in high-risk patients, allowing for more informed therapeutic decision making.

  15. Diagnosis and Management of Peritoneal Metastases from Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Halkia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The management and the outcome of peritoneal metastases or recurrence from epithelial ovarian cancer are presented. The biology and the diagnostic tools of EOC peritoneal metastasis with a comprehensive approach and the most recent literatures data are discussed. The definition and the role of surgery and chemotherapy are presented in order to focuse on the controversial points. Finally, the paper discusses the new data about the introduction of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC in the treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  16. Predicting Prostate Cancer Progression At Time of Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    standard deviation ; IQL, interquartile range; CAPRA, UCSF Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment. +p-value from Student’s t-test; *p-value from Pearson...PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE September 2016 2. REPORT TYPE FINAL 3. DATES COVERED 6/15/11 - 6/14/16 4. TITLE...prostatectomy for clinically low risk prostate cancer with known pathologic outcome information. In aim 1, the marker panel will be assessed for its

  17. Preclinical Development of an Anti-NaPi2b (SLC34A2) Antibody-Drug Conjugate as a Therapeutic for Non-Small Cell Lung and Ovarian Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kedan; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Zhang, Crystal; Firestein, Ron; Harstad, Eric; Roth, Leslie; Tsai, Siao Ping; Schutten, Melissa; Xu, Keyang; Hristopoulos, Maria; Polakis, Paul

    2015-11-15

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) selectively deliver a cytotoxic drug to cells expressing an accessible antigenic target. Here, we have appended monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to an antibody recognizing the SLC34A2 gene product NaPi2b, the type II sodium-phosphate cotransporter, which is highly expressed on tumor surfaces of the lung, ovary, and thyroid as well as on normal lung pneumocytes. This study evaluated its efficacy and safety in preclinical studies. The efficacy of anti-NaPi2b ADC was evaluated in mouse ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor xenograft models, and its toxicity was assessed in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. We show here that an anti-NaPi2b ADC is effective in mouse ovarian and NSCLC tumor xenograft models and well-tolerated in rats and cynomolgus monkeys at levels in excess of therapeutic doses. Despite high levels of expression in normal lung of non-human primate, the cross-reactive ADC exhibited an acceptable safety profile with a dose-limiting toxicity unrelated to normal tissue target expression. The nonproliferative nature of normal pneumocytes, together with the antiproliferative mechanism of MMAE, likely mitigates the potential liability of this normal tissue expression. Overall, our preclinical results suggest that the ADC targeting NaPi2b provides an effective new therapy for the treatment of NSCLC and ovarian cancer and is currently undergoing clinical developments. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Application of the rank-based method to DNA methylation for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongdong; Hong, Guini; Xu, Hui; Guo, Zheng

    2015-01-25

    Detecting aberrant DNA methylation as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for cancer has been a topic of considerable interest recently. However, current classifiers based on absolute methylation values detected from a cohort of samples are typically difficult to be transferable to other cohorts of samples. Here, focusing on relative methylation levels, we employed a modified rank-based method to extract reversal pairs of CpG sites whose relative methylation level orderings differ between disease samples and normal controls for cancer diagnosis. The reversal pairs identified for five cancer types respectively show excellent prediction performance with the accuracy above 95%. Furthermore, when evaluating the reversal pairs identified for one cancer type in an independent cohorts of samples, we found that they could distinguish different subtypes of this cancer or different malignant stages including early stage of this cancer from normal controls. The identified reversal pairs also appear to be specific to cancer type. In conclusion, the reversal pairs detected by the rank-based method could be used for accurate cancer diagnosis, which are transferable to independent cohorts of samples.

  19. Perspectives of the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum: Diagnosis through 30 Months Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Hulett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored breast cancer survivors’ perspectives regarding their experiences of the survivorship continuum from diagnosis through 30 months post-treatment. The sample included women (N = 379 with newly-diagnosed breast cancer undergoing treatment at a Midwestern university-affiliated cancer center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire at time of diagnosis, post-operatively, quarterly during the first year, and then semi-annually thereafter through 30 months post-treatment. A mixed-methodology was used to analyze participants’ comments. Themes central to long-term survivorship experiences included social support, positive worldviews, breast cancer and lymphedema health literacy, religious/spiritual beliefs, self-empowerment, and recovery expectations. These themes were consistent with a psychoneuroimmunological model of health in which psychosocial variables mediate stress and influence health outcomes. Qualitative data showed that social support and positive worldviews were the two themes with the most significant impact on long-term breast cancer survivorship experiences. Survivors expressed a need to advance their health care literacy in order to share ownership of breast cancer and lymphedema treatment decisions. Since breast cancer is an immune-mediated disease, long-term survivorship planning should address psychosocial factors that influence the long-term psychological distress associated with immune dysfunction.

  20. Case Report: Liquid-based cytology aids in primary fallopian tube cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo REN; Yun-ping ZHANG; Hui-xia YANG; Li-rong ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is a rare malignant carcinoma among all genital tract malignancies. It occurs most commonly in postmenopausal women and is similar to ovarian malignancy historically and clinically. Because of its insidious onset and silent course, the diagnosis is made usually postoperatively. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a type of method for cervical cancer screening, but sometimes it may aid in making PFTC diagnosis. We report a 47-year-old woman with PFTC, whose diagnosis was made with the aid of LBC.

  1. Detection and Diagnosis of Small Peripheral Lung Cancers Less than 15mm in Diameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuchengHan; YueYuan; JianguoChu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the value of chest X-ray film, conventional CT (CCT), Spiral CT (SCT) and high resolution CT (HRCT) for detection and diagnosis of small peripheral lung cancers less than 15 mm in diameter. METHODS Chest X-ray film, CCT, SCT and HRCT were taken in 59 cases of peripheral lung cancers less than 15 mm in diameter confirmed by pathological examination following an operation. The value of these procedures for diagnosis was analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS In 47% of chest X-ray films and 17% of CCT, small lung cancers were not detected. However no tumor escaped detection by SCT. HRCT was superior for showing density and detailed image signs compared to chest films and CCT. The HRCT features of small peripheral lung cancers were quite different from those of larger peripheral lung cancers. CONCLUSION The SCT is the best method for detection, and HRCT for diagnosis of small peripheral lung cancers less than 15 mm in diameter. CT guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy should be advocated.

  2. Oil/water nano-emulsion loaded with cobalt ferrite oxide nanocubes for photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance dual imaging in cancer: in vitro and preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Raffaele; Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Giustetto, Pierangela; Calabria, Dominic; Sathya, Ayyappan; Marotta, Roberto; Profeta, Martina; Nitti, Simone; Silvestri, Niccolò; Pellegrino, Teresa; Iaffaioli, Rosario V; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Dual imaging dramatically improves detection and early diagnosis of cancer. In this work we present an oil in water (O/W) nano-emulsion stabilized with lecithin and loaded with cobalt ferrite oxide (Co0.5Fe2.5O4) nanocubes for photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance dual imaging. The nanocarrier is responsive in in vitro photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests. A clear and significant time-dependent accumulation in tumor tissue is shown in in vivo photo-acoustic studies on a murine melanoma xenograft model. The proposed O/W nano-emulsion exhibits also high values of r2/r1 (ranging from 45 to 85, depending on the magnetic field) suggesting a possible use as T2 weighted image contrast agents. In addition, viability and cellular uptake studies show no significant cytotoxicity on the fibroblast cell line. We also tested the O/W nano-emulsion loaded with curcumin against melanoma cancer cells demonstrating a significant cytotoxicity and thus showing possible therapeutic effects in addition to the in vivo imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Individual Risk Assessment on Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. van Vugt (Heidi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCurrent prostate-specific antigen screening practice leads to two important unwanted side effects; first of all screening induces many unnecessary prostate biopsies and secondly it leads to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer. The large amount of unnecessary prostate biops

  4. The Adjunctive Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Lung Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT and digital mammography (DM for breast cancers. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between BIRADS category and index lesions of breast cancer was compared by chi-square test. Result. A total of 59 breast cancers were reviewed, including 17 (28.8% mass lesions, 12 (20.3% focal asymmetry/density, 6 (10.2% architecture distortion, 23 (39.0% calcifications, and 1 (1.7% intracystic tumor. Combo DBT was perceived to be more informative in 58.8% mass lesions, 83.3% density, 94.4% architecture distortion, and only 11.6% calcifications. As to the forced BIRADS score, 84.4% BIRADS 0 on DM was upgraded to BIRADS 4 or 5 on DBT, whereas only 27.3% BIRADS 4A on DM was upgraded on DBT, as BIRADS 4A lesions were mostly calcifications. A significant P value (<0.001 between the BIRADS category and index lesions was noted. Conclusion. Adjunctive DBT gives exquisite information for mass lesion, focal asymmetry, and/or architecture distortion to improve the diagnostic performance in mammography.

  5. The adjunctive digital breast tomosynthesis in diagnosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Lung; Liang, Huei-Lung; Chou, Chen-Pin; Huang, Jer-Shyung; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and digital mammography (DM) for breast cancers. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications) and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between BIRADS category and index lesions of breast cancer was compared by chi-square test. A total of 59 breast cancers were reviewed, including 17 (28.8%) mass lesions, 12 (20.3%) focal asymmetry/density, 6 (10.2%) architecture distortion, 23 (39.0%) calcifications, and 1 (1.7%) intracystic tumor. Combo DBT was perceived to be more informative in 58.8% mass lesions, 83.3% density, 94.4% architecture distortion, and only 11.6% calcifications. As to the forced BIRADS score, 84.4% BIRADS 0 on DM was upgraded to BIRADS 4 or 5 on DBT, whereas only 27.3% BIRADS 4A on DM was upgraded on DBT, as BIRADS 4A lesions were mostly calcifications. A significant P value (BIRADS category and index lesions was noted. Adjunctive DBT gives exquisite information for mass lesion, focal asymmetry, and/or architecture distortion to improve the diagnostic performance in mammography.

  6. Computer decision support system for the stomach cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, E. V.; Sukhova, O. G.; Korenevskaya, P. Y.; Ovcharova, V. S.; Kudryavtseva, I. O.; Vlasova, S. V.; Grebennikova, O. P.; Burov, D. A.; Yemelyanova, G. S.; Selchuk, V. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the creation of the computer knowledge base containing the data of histological, cytologic, and clinical researches. The system is focused on improvement of diagnostics quality of stomach cancer - one of the most frequent death causes among oncologic patients.

  7. A retrospective analysis of delays in the diagnosis of lung cancer and associated costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildea TR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas R Gildea,1 Stacey DaCosta Byfield,2 D Kyle Hogarth,3 David S Wilson,4 Curtis C Quinn5 1Department of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine and Transplant Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Optum, Eden Prairie, MN, 3Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 4The Lung Institute, Columbus Regional Hospital, Columbus, IN, 5Cardiothoracic Surgery/Thoracic Surgery, Cardiothoracic Surgery of Charleston, Roper St. Francis Physician Partners Group, Charleston, SC, USA Purpose: Diagnosis of lung cancer at advanced stages can result in missed treatment opportunities, worse outcomes, and higher health care costs. This study evaluated the wait time to diagnose non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC and the cost of diagnosis and treatment based on the stage at diagnosis. Patients and methods: Adult patients diagnosed with NSCLC between January 2007 and September 2011 were identified from a proprietary oncology registry and linked to health insurance claims from a large US health insurance company. Continuous enrollment in the health plan was required for at least 12 months prediagnosis (baseline and at least 3 months postdiagnosis (follow-up. Use of diagnostic tests and time to diagnosis were examined. The rates of health care utilization and per-patient per-month (PPPM health care costs were calculated. Results: A total of 1,210 patients with NSCLC were included in the analysis. Most patients (93.6% had evidence of diagnostic tests beginning 5 to 6 months prior to diagnosis, and most were diagnosed at an advanced stage (23% Stage IIIb and 46% Stage IV. The PPPM total health care costs in USD pre- and postdiagnosis were $2,407±$3,364 (mean±standard deviation and $16,577±$33,550, respectively. PPPM total health care costs and utilization after lung cancer diagnosis were significantly higher among patients diagnosed at Stage

  8. Self-disclosure of breast cancer diagnosis by Iranian women to friends and colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Azarkish, Fatemeh; Latifnejadroudsari, Robab; Shandiz, Fatemeh Homaei; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Kermani, Ali Taghizadeh; Esmaily, Habib Ollah

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common form of cancer in Iranian women, and it remains a major health problem. An increasing number of young women are being diagnosed with BC, and therefore, there is an increasing likelihood that more women will survive breast cancer for many years. Many opine that self-disclosure of BC diagnosis is important because talking about cancer helps people to make sense of their experiences; in fact, self-disclosure appears to play an important role in many health outcomes. However, this has not yet been studied in BC patients in Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the status of self-disclosure of BC diagnosis by Iranian women to friends and colleagues. All BC records for 2001-2011 of employed women were studied at five hospitals in Mashhad. Data about the self-disclosure of BC diagnosis were gathered through telephone interviews, and the participants filled out a questionnaire about their status of self-disclosure of BC diagnosis to various groups of people. The mean age of employed women at the time of diagnosis was 44.3 ± 6.7 years. Over 60% self-disclosed to work colleagues and over 90% to bosses/managers. Seventy per cent reported that they had support from their family and husband's family, while 95% reported that they had support from parents, siblings, children and friends. Most employed women self-disclosed freely to family, friends, colleagues and bosses/managers. Apparently, self-disclosure of breast cancer diagnosis may have negative effects at work. About half of patients reported that they had support from family, managers and colleagues; however, for nearly 28% of employed women, disclosure had less positive effects. In particular, it altered their perception of others, produced difficulties with work and family and diminished closeness with the people who were told. However, the stigma of BC is far less than it once was.

  9. Stage at diagnosis and mortality in women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna L V; Andersson, Therese M-L; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Jirström, Karin; Dickman, Paul; Cnattingius, Sven; Lambe, Mats

    2013-05-01

    Converging evidence indicates that women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have increased mortality compared to women with breast cancer not diagnosed near pregnancy (non-PABC). Our aim was to investigate if the stage distribution differs between PABC and non-PABC and if stage at diagnosis can explain the poorer prognosis observed among women with PABC. We identified 3,282 breast cancers in women aged 15-44 years at diagnosis for whom staging data (tumor size, nodal involvement, metastasis) were available in the Swedish Cancer Register between 2002 and 2009. Information on reproductive history and vital status was obtained from the Multi-Generation Register and the Cause of Death Register. PABC was defined as breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and up to 2 years after delivery (n = 317). Non-PABC was defined as cases diagnosed before pregnancy or more than 2 years postpartum. Stage distributions were compared between PABC and non-PABC, and mortality rates were modeled using Cox regression. Compared to women with non-PABC, the mortality was almost 50 % higher in women with PABC [unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.47 (95 % CI 1.04-2.08)], a difference which was reduced after adjustment for age and calendar year of diagnosis [HR 1.27 (95 % CI 0.88-1.83)]. Although advanced stage of breast cancer at diagnosis was more common among PABC than among non-PABC, further adjustment for stage only slightly reduced the HR [1.22 (95 % CI 0.84-1.78)]. The difference in mortality between PABC and non-PABC was more pronounced among women above 35 years and among women with PABC diagnosed within 1 year postpartum. Age, rather than stage at diagnosis, appears to act as the principal driver of the increased mortality observed in women with PABC. However, these findings do not preclude an untoward influence on mortality by pregnancy-associated factors affecting tumor aggressiveness and progression.

  10. The Role of Multivoxel H1 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Ghafoori

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men. Prostate cancer shows an insidious onset and screening programs are used worldwide for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Checking serum prostate specific antigen (PSA is most commonly used for this purpose. In the case of PSA elevation, the patients are routinely referred for transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy of the prostate. In some occasions despite several biopsy attempts, prostate cancer is not diagnosed."nMultivoxel H1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS of the prostate with the use of endorectal coils is a valuable method that aids in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The peripheral zone of the prostate normally contains high concentrations of citrate and low amounts of choline. When the tumoral cells of prostate cancer grow within the peripheral zone, they substitute the normal cells and decrease the amount of citrate. On the other hand because of the high turnover of tumoral cells and their rapid growth, choline increases in the tumoral region. The result of these changes is elevation of the choline to citrate ratio in prostate cancer."nIn the multivoxel H1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we divide the prostate to multiple small voxels and measure the amount of choline and citrate in each volume and evaluate the choline to citrate ratio. In the normal regions this ratio is low (because of high citrate and low choline and in the region of tumor this ratio is high (because of low citrate and high choline. "nMultivoxel H1 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS of the prostate with the use of endorectal coil is a valuable method for diagnosis of prostate cancer.    

  11. Socioeconomic position, stage of lung cancer and time between referral and diagnosis in Denmark, 2001-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Frederiksen, Flemming B.; Jacobsen, E;

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We investigated the association between socioeconomic position, stage at diagnosis, and length of period between referral and diagnosis in a nationwide cohort of lung cancer patients. METHODS: Through the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 18,103 persons diagnosed with lung...

  12. Ramucirumab: preclinical research and clinical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprile G

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Erika Rijavec,2 Caterina Fontanella,1 Karim Rihawi,1 Francesco Grossi21Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Udine, Udine, Italy; 2Lung Cancer Unit, National Cancer Institut “San Martino”, Genoa, ItalyAbstract: Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B, LY3009806, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2, is a new therapeutic option that selectively inhibits the human VEGFR-2 with a much greater affinity than its natural ligands. Based on the promising results of both preclinical and early clinical studies, ramucirumab has been tested in different tumor types either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. While it has recently been granted its first US Food and Drug Administration approval for use as a single agent in patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction carcinoma, its role for metastatic breast cancer or advanced non-small-cell lung cancer is still debated. The aims of this review are to recall and discuss the most significant preclinical and clinical studies that led to the development of ramucirumab and to present the results of the randomized clinical trials that have tested its efficacy in different malignancies, including gastric and lung cancer. Keywords: ramucirumab, gastric cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, antiangiogenic

  13. MicroRNA-200 Family Profile: A Promising Ancillary Tool for Accurate Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jianhua; Xie, Botao; Li, Hao; Shen, Jihong; Chen, Jianheng

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most threatening diseases in the world and great interests have been paid to discover accurate and noninvasive methods for cancer diagnosis. The value of microRNA-200 (miRNA-200, miR-200) family has been revealed in many studies. However, the results from various studies were inconsistent, and thus a meta-analysis was designed and performed to assess the overall value of miRNA200 in cancer diagnosis. Relevant studies were searched electronically from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Keyword combined with "miR-200," "cancer," and "diagnosis" in any fields was used for searching relevant studies. Then, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and partial AUC were calculated using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity among individual studies was also explored by subgroup analyses. A total of 28 studies from 18 articles with an overall sample size of 3676 subjects (2097 patients and 1579 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) are 0.709 (95% CI: 0.657-0.755) and 0.667 (95% CI: 0.617-0.713), respectively. Additionally, AUC and partial AUC for the pooled data is 0.735 and 0.627, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that using miRNA-200 family for cancer diagnosis is more effective in white than in Asian ethnic groups. In addition, cancer diagnosis by miRNA using circulating specimen is more effective than that using noncirculating specimen. Finally, miRNA is more accurate in diagnosing endometrial cancer than other types of cancer, and some miRNA family members (miR-200b and miR-429) have superior diagnostic accuracy than other miR-200 family members. In conclusion, the profiling of miRNA-200 family is likely to be a valuable tool in cancer detection and diagnosis.

  14. [Guidelines for the early diagnosis of lung cancer for primary care physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious/medical and social problem. It belongs to the most common cancers. In the past decades, lung cancer has steadily held a leading place in the structure of cancer morbidity and mortality in our country and in the majority of European countries. Cigarette smoking remains to be the major if not only risk factor for lung cancer. Many attempts were previously made to set up systems for the early (timely) lung cancerdetection in risk groups through cytological and radiological examinations. Prophylactic fluorography and X-ray study have long been an important screening procedure in Russia and foreign countries. Recently this procedure has transformed into digital lung radiography. However, there have been no conclusive proofs for its efficiency in the early detection of lung cancer for a few decades. In the past decade, large-scale prospective randomized trials of low-dose computed tomography (CT) have been performed to screen lung cancer. These have shown that this technology can potentially reduce mortality from this disease. This encouraging result has caused a substantial change in the tactics of examining people at high risk for lung cancer. CT has fully replaced linear tomography and all others special X-ray procedures in the verified diagnosis of lung cancer. The indications for pre-examination CT have been considerably expanded in patients with X-ray detected pathology. The tactics for estimating the small lung tissue foci found at CT has been changed. Availability of CT, clear clinical indications for the study, and observance of the standard procedure have become important elements of the entire system for the early identification of lung cancer. These clinical recommendations largely deal just with organizational and methodological issues. The authors hope that the recommendations will serve as a guide for primary care physicians (therapists, pulmonologists,and radiologists) in the early diagnosis of lung cancer and in the optimization

  15. Vegetable and fruit intake after diagnosis and risk of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Erin L; Carroll, Peter R; Chan, June M

    2012-07-01

    Cruciferous vegetables, tomato sauce and legumes have been associated with reduced risk of incident advanced prostate cancer. In vitro and animal studies suggest these foods may inhibit progression of prostate cancer, but there are limited data in men. Therefore, we prospectively examined whether intake of total vegetables, and specifically cruciferous vegetables, tomato sauce and legumes, after diagnosis reduce risk of prostate cancer progression among 1,560 men diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer and participating in the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor, a United States prostate cancer registry. As a secondary analysis, we also examined other vegetable subgroups, total fruit and subgroups of fruits. The participants were diagnosed primarily at community-based clinics and followed from 2004 to 2009. We assessed vegetable and fruit intake via a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and ascertained prostate cancer outcomes via urologist report and medical records. We observed 134 events of progression (53 biochemical recurrences, 71 secondary treatments likely due to recurrence, 6 bone metastases and 4 prostate cancer deaths) during 3,171 person-years. Men in the fourth quartile of post-diagnostic cruciferous vegetable intake had a statistically significant 59% decreased risk of prostate cancer progression compared to men in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio (HR): 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22, 0.76; p-trend: 0.003). No other vegetable or fruit group was statistically significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer progression. In conclusion, cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis may reduce risk of prostate cancer progression.

  16. Low 25-OH vitamin D levels at time of diagnosis and recurrence of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Teresa; Manganaro, Lucia; Petri, Luca; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Viggiani, Valentina; Angeloni, Antonio; Anastasi, Emanuela

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between 25-OH vitamin D and ovarian cancer as a diagnostic marker or recurrence disease marker. We studied the following: (1) 61 women without gynecologic diseases, (2) 45 women affected by benign ovarian disease, (3) 46 women with recent diagnosis of ovarian cancer, (4) 26 follow-up women with recurrent ovarian cancer, and (5) 32 follow-up women with stable ovarian cancer. The 25-OH vitamin D was quantified with LUMIPULSE® G 25-OH vitamin D on LUMIPULSE® G 1200 (Fujirebio, Japan). As a threshold value, identified by ROC curve analysis, 20.2 ng/mL (sensitivity 73.3 %, specificity 84 %) was chosen corresponding to the limit between sufficient and insufficient 25-OH vitamin D according to the WHO. Low 25-OH vitamin D levels were observed in 26 % of women without gynecologic diseases, in 80 % of women with recent diagnosis of ovarian cancer and in 24 % women affected by benign ovarian diseases (p < 0.001). The follow-up study showed an insufficient level of 25-OH vitamin D in 73 % women with recurrent ovarian cancer and in 47 % women with stable ovarian cancer (p < 0.0003). This study showed that patients with ovarian cancer are often insufficient in 25-OH vitamin D compared to women with benign ovarian diseases. The women with recurrent ovarian cancer presented more often low levels compared to women with stable ovarian cancer. This study suggests that 25-OH vitamin D, due to its antiproliferative properties, can be a good marker for ovarian cancer also.

  17. Testosterone replacement therapy following the diagnosis of prostate cancer: outcomes and utilization trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan L; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sun, Maxine; Carter, Stacey C; Nguyen, Paul L; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Marks, Leonard S; Hu, Jim C

    2014-04-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism may impair quality of life and contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidity in aging men. Testosterone replacement therapy is effective in treating hypogonadism. However, for the millions of men with a history of prostate cancer, exogenous testosterone has long been considered contraindicated, even though little data in such men are available. Clarification of this safety issue could allow treatment to be considered for a sizeable segment of the aging male population. The aim of this study is to examine population-based utilization and impact of testosterone replacement therapy in men with prostate cancer. Using linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data, we identified 149,354 men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1992 to 2007. Of those, 1181 (0.79%) men received exogenous testosterone following their cancer diagnosis. We used propensity scoring analysis to examine the effect of testosterone replacement on the use of salvage hormone therapy and overall and prostate cancer-specific mortality. We assessed overall mortality, cancer-specific mortality, and the use of salvage hormone therapy. Following prostate cancer diagnosis, testosterone replacement was directly related to income and educational status and inversely related to age (all P testosterone (all P testosterone replacement therapy was not associated with overall or cancer-specific mortality or with the use of salvage hormone therapy. In this population-based observational study of testosterone replacement therapy in men with a history of prostate cancer, treatment was not associated with increased overall or cancer-specific mortality. These findings suggest testosterone replacement therapy may be considered in men with a history of prostate cancer, but confirmatory prospective studies are needed. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Endocrine late-effects of childhood cancer and its treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaitilly, Wassim; Cohen, Laurie E

    2017-04-01

    Endocrine complications are frequently observed in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). One of two CCS will experience at least one endocrine complication during the course of his/her lifespan, most commonly as a late-effect of cancer treatments, especially radiotherapy and alkylating agent chemotherapy. Endocrine late-effects include impairments of the hypothalamus/pituitary, thyroid and gonads, as well as decreased bone mineral density and metabolic derangements leading to obesity and/or diabetes mellitus. A systematic approach where CCS are screened for endocrine late-effects based on their cancer history and treatment exposures may improve health outcomes by allowing the early diagnosis and treatment of these complications.

  19. DNA Hypermethylation Patterns Detected in Serum as a Tool for Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    renal [37], ovarian [38], colorectal [39], cervical 165 [40], lung [41–43], liver [44], and breast [32–34, 37, 38, 166 45]. Studies in lung cancer have...patterns of RASSF1A, p16 , and p15 172 (using DNA from 200 ll of serum) as much as 9 years 173 prior to diagnosis. 174 DNA methylation and breast cancer ...193) RARb2 CDH1 ESR1 BRCA1 CCND2 p16 TWIST 26% 80% 84% 41% 11% 14% 59% Not calculated (at least 84%) Cancer Causes Control 123 Journal : Large 10552

  20. [Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of recurrences of ovarian cancer in the small pelvis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, I M; Bulanova, T V; Burenchev, D V

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides the results of small pelvic magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) in 62 patients with ovarian cancer after primary special treatment. Out of them 50 patients were found to have recurrences and metastases of the underlying disease, 12 patients had clinical remission. The study yielded MR signs and MR semiotics of recurrences of ovarian cancer in the small pelvis. The capacities of MRI with low and high intensities of a magnetic field were comparatively studied in the diagnosis of recurrences and metastases of ovarian cancer.

  1. Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Sylvest Bergholt, Mads; Zheng, Wei; Yu Ho, Khek; Teh, Ming; Guan Yeoh, Khay; Bok Yan So, Jimmy; Shabbir, Asim; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-08-01

    Optical spectroscopic techniques including reflectance, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy have shown promising potential for in vivo precancer and cancer diagnostics in a variety of organs. However, data-analysis has mostly been limited to post-processing and off-line algorithm development. In this work, we develop a fully automated on-line Raman spectral diagnostics framework integrated with a multimodal image-guided Raman technique for real-time in vivo cancer detection at endoscopy. A total of 2748 in vivo gastric tissue spectra (2465 normal and 283 cancer) were acquired from 305 patients recruited to construct a spectral database for diagnostic algorithms development. The novel diagnostic scheme developed implements on-line preprocessing, outlier detection based on principal component analysis statistics (i.e., Hotelling's T2 and Q-residuals) for tissue Raman spectra verification as well as for organ specific probabilistic diagnostics using different diagnostic algorithms. Free-running optical diagnosis and processing time of training database (80% for learning and 20% for testing) provide the diagnostic accuracy of 85.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.9% to 88.2%] [sensitivity of 80.5% (95% CI: 71.4% to 89.6%) and specificity of 86.2% (95% CI: 83.6% to 88.7%)] for the detection of gastric cancer. The PLS-DA algorithms are further applied prospectively on 10 gastric patients at gastroscopy, achieving the predictive accuracy of 80.0% (60/75) [sensitivity of 90.0% (27/30) and specificity of 73.3% (33/45)] for in vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer. The receiver operating characteristics curves further confirmed the efficacy of Raman endoscopy together with PLS-DA algorithms for in vivo prospective diagnosis of gastric cancer. This work successfully moves biomedical Raman spectroscopic technique into real-time, on-line clinical cancer diagnosis, especially in routine endoscopic diagnostic applications.

  2. A systematic review of barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire EL; Maben, Jill; Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Forbes, Lindsay JL; Lucas, Grace; Ream, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women. Design Systematic review. Methods We searched multiple bibliographic databases (January 1991–February 2013) for primary research, published in English, conducted in developed countries and investigating barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with symptomatic breast cancer among black women (≥18 years). Studies were excluded if they did not report separate findings by ethnic group or gender, only reported differences in time to presentation/diagnosis, or reported on interventions and barriers to cancer screening. We followed Cochrane and PRISMA guidance to identify relevant research. Findings were integrated through thematic synthesis. Designs of quantitative studies made meta-analysis impossible. Results We identified 18 studies (6183 participants). Delay was multifactorial, individual and complex. Factors contributing to delay included: poor symptom and risk factor knowledge; fear of detecting breast abnormality; fear of cancer treatments; fear of partner abandonment; embarrassment disclosing symptoms to healthcare professionals; taboo and stigmatism. Presentation appears quicker following disclosure. Influence of fatalism and religiosity on delay is unclear from evidence in these studies. We compared older studies (≥10 years) with newer ones (<10 years) to determine changes over time. In older studies, delaying factors included: inaccessibility of healthcare services; competing priorities and concerns about partner abandonment. Partner abandonment was studied in older studies but not in newer ones. Comparisons of healthy women and cancer populations revealed differences between how people perceive they would behave, and actually behave, on finding breast abnormality. Conclusions Strategies to improve early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women need to address symptom recognition and interpretation of risk, as well as

  3. Implications of micro-RNA profiling for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, J M; Velculescu, V E

    2006-10-09

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are a large class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate protein expression in eucaryotic cells. Initially believed to be unique to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, miRNAs are now recognized to be important gene regulatory elements in multicellular organisms and have been implicated in a variety of disease processes, including cancer. Advances in expression technologies have facilitated the high-throughput analysis of small RNAs, identifying novel miRNAs and showing that these genes may be aberrantly expressed in various human tumors. These studies suggest that miRNA expression profiling can be correlated with disease pathogenesis and prognosis, and may ultimately be useful in the management of human cancer.

  4. Simultaneous cancer control and diagnosis with magnetic nanohybrid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saadat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coated magnetite nanoparticles were linked to 68Ga complexes used in the positron emission tomography (PET for a new technical approach to detect cancer tissue with radiopharmaceuticals. By substitution of the Ga isotope with an alpha emitter the same compound could be used for cancer treatment. Furthermore the nanoparticles were connected to pH-sensitive complexes, enabling a pH-controlled assembly/disassembly and therefore the spreading of the particles in the tissue. With this novel method of combining detection and treatment simultaneously, the amount of medical exposure could be minimized for the patient. The results demonstrate that magnetite nanoparticles can effectively be functionalized with PET isotopes and pH sensitive complexes in order to use them as a new type of radiopharmaceuticals.

  5. Overcoming tumor heterogeneity in the molecular diagnosis of urological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of tumor heterogeneity and impact on treatment response is still in its infancy, presenting significant challenges to the molecular pathologist, treating physician and ultimately for the patient. Given that tumor recurrence due to treatment resistance is the most common cause of cancer death, there remains a critical unmet need to change the current paradigm. The mechanisms which underlie tumor heterogeneity can be broadly divided into genomic instability and non-mutational processes, including stochastic variations in cellular responses, modulation by tumor microenvironment and or phenotypic/ functional plasticity relating to cancer stem cells. We believe that these biological mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and emphasize the need for more suitable methodologies to exploit the spatiotemporal patterns of intratumoral heterogeneity using novel approaches such as quantitative tissue-based biomarker assessment and systemic fluid analytics. Generating a comprehensive patient-centric phenotypic disease profile should generate a 'codex' which can be employed to change the current treatment decision process.

  6. [Lemierre's syndrome as differential diagnosis of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt Jensen, Jacob; Weinreich, Ulla Møller

    2012-05-28

    Lemierre's syndrome is a disseminated infection which is usually caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. An oropharyngeal infection progresses to a septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and later metastatic infections throughout the body occur. We present a clinical case in which a patient, initially presenting with symptoms characteristic of pulmonary cancer, turned out to have a rare variant of Lemierre's syndrome caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum.

  7. Predicting Prostate Cancer Progression at Time of Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    very low risk of invasion, metastasis, and consequent morbidity and mortality (1). Multiple studies have examined the natural history of these low-risk...contemporary patients with low-risk prostate cancer choose to pursue immediate cura - tive therapy such as surgery or radiotherapy with the atten- dant costs...aggres- sive disease or progression to a phenotypemore commonly associated with metastasis and mortality . Acceptance of active surveillance has been

  8. Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2013-01-01

    Deaths from lung cancer exceed those from any other type of malignancy, with 1·5 million deaths in 2010. Prevention and smoking cessation are still the main methods to reduce the death toll. The US National Lung Screening Trial, which compared CT screening with chest radiograph, yielded a mortali...... of CT-identified nodules; screening interval; and duration of screening. We suggest that a demonstration project of biennial screening over a 4-year period should be undertaken....

  9. Feasibility of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis by Transrectal Photoacoustic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    DOT. PA techniques can potentially be used for imaging cancers in human breast, prostate, skin , thyroid, neck, head, and others areas.4 PA techniques...Cole, Cengage Learning, 2013). 30. G. Zonios and A. Dimou, “Light scattering spectroscopy of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1256–1267...this pair is directly linked to the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which is a major electron acceptor. In its reduced form, it

  10. Optical diagnosis of cervical cancer by intrinsic mode functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Pratiher, Sawon; Pratiher, Souvik; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we make use of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to discriminate the cervical cancer tissues from normal ones based on elastic scattering spectroscopy. The phase space has been reconstructed through decomposing the optical signal into a finite set of bandlimited signals known as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). It has been shown that the area measure of the analytic IMFs provides a good discrimination performance. Simulation results validate the efficacy of the IMFs followed by SVM based classification.

  11. Socioeconomic position and stage at diagnosis of head and neck cancer - a nationwide study from DAHANCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Maja Halgren; Bøje, Charlotte Rotbøl; Kjær, Trille Kristina

    2015-01-01

    of advanced stage (TNM III-IV) HNSCC in multivariate logistic regression models by site (glottic, non-glottic larynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx and oral cancer), with adjustment for age, gender, period of diagnosis, education, income, cohabitation status, degree of urbanisation and comorbidity in accordance...

  12. Stress response symptoms in adolescents during the first year after a parent's cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, Gea A.; Visser, Annemieke; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Gazendam-Donofrio, Stacey M.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This work aims to prospectively study stress response symptoms (SRS) in adolescents during the first year after a parent's cancer diagnosis and factors associated with SRS. Additionally, SRS in these adolescents were compared to SRS in adolescents whose parents were diagnosed 1-5 years (refe

  13. Excess mortality from breast cancer 20 years after diagnosis when life expectancy is normal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); W.J. Klokman (Willem); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn a population-based study, causes of death were traced of 418 deceased breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1960-1979 who survived at least 10 years after diagnosis. The pattern of causes of death in these patients was compared with the general female population using standardized morta

  14. The Course of Psychological Disorders in the 1st Year After Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders over the first 12-month period following a cancer diagnosis. Individuals recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy were assessed for ASD within…

  15. Lung cancer stage at diagnosis: Individual associations in the prospective VITamins and lifestyle (VITAL cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au David H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Identifying factors associated with stage of diagnosis can improve our understanding of biologic and behavioral pathways of lung cancer development and detection. We used data from a prospective cohort study to evaluate associations of demographic, health history, and health behaviors with early versus late stage at diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods We calculated odds ratios (ORs for the association of patient-level characteristics with advanced stage of diagnosis for NSCLC. The OR's were then adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking status, income, education, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a comorbidity index. Results We identified 612 cases of NSCLC among 77,719 adults, aged 50 to 76 years from Washington State recruited in 2000-2002, with followup through December 2007. In univariate analyses, subjects who quit smoking Conclusions Smoking status, education, and a screening activity were associated with stage at diagnosis of NSCLC. These results may guide future studies of the underlying mechanisms that influence how NSCLC is detected and diagnosed.

  16. Perceived Partner Reactions to Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer: Impact on Psychosocial and Psychosexual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Sarah R.; Carver, Charles S.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Harris, Suzanne D.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined breast cancer patients' perceptions of their partners' reactions to their diagnosis and treatment as influences on 3 aspects of patients' well-being: psychosexual adjustment, emotional distress, and marital satisfaction. Study 1, cross-sectional, indicated that partner initiation of sex, frequency of sex, a positive 1st sexual…

  17. Excess mortality from breast cancer 20 years after diagnosis when life expectancy is normal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); W.J. Klokman (Willem); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn a population-based study, causes of death were traced of 418 deceased breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1960-1979 who survived at least 10 years after diagnosis. The pattern of causes of death in these patients was compared with the general female population using standardized morta

  18. Are work-related stressors associated with diagnosis of more advanced stages of incident breast cancers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Stahlberg, Claudia; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between work-related stressors and breast cancer incidence and prognostic characteristics (estrogen receptor status, grade, lymph node status, size, stage) at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: The 18,932 women included in the Danish Nurse Cohort reported work-relat...

  19. Primary vaginal cancer: role of MRI in diagnosis, staging and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, J; Klopp, A H; Devine, C E; Sagebiel, T; Viswanathan, C; Bhosale, P R

    2015-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the vagina is rare, accounting for 1–3% of all gynaecological malignancies. MRI has an increasing role in diagnosis, staging, treatment and assessment of complications in gynaecologic malignancy. In this review, we illustrate the utility of MRI in patients with primary vaginal cancer and highlight key aspects of staging, treatment, recurrence and complications. PMID:25966291

  20. Overview of current multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging approach in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aydın

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily based on the utility and validity of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and staging of prostate gland tumors. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging, useful approach for evaluating and detecting prostate cancers. It also aids in the management of a tumor and improve the care and follow-up of patients.