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Sample records for cancer detection preliminary

  1. Shear wave elastography for detection of prostate cancer: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sung Min; Kim, Sang Youn; Cho, Jeong Yeon; KIm, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) for prostate cancer detection. In this retrospective study, 87 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/mL and abnormal digital rectal examination) underwent a protocol-based systematic 12-core biopsy followed by targeted biopsy at hypoechoic areas on grey-scale ultrasound. Prior to biopsy, SWE was performed by placing two circular 5 mm-sized regions of interest (ROIs) along the estimated biopsy tract in each sector and one ROI for hypoechoic lesions. SWE parameters, S (mean stiffness) and R (mean stiffness ratio), were calculated and compared regarding different histopathologic tissues and their accuracy for diagnosing prostate cancer was analyzed. SWE parameters were correlated with Gleason score and were compared between indolent (< 8) and aggressive (≥ 8) tissues in prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 7.5% of 1058 cores in 29.9% of 87 patients. Seven (43.8%) of 16 hypoechoic lesions were confirmed as prostate cancer. SWE parameters were significantly different among the histopathologic entities (p < 0.001). Prostate cancer was stiffer than benign tissues (p ≤ 0.003). Sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic curve area for diagnosing cancer were 43%, 80.8%, and 0.599, respectively, for a cutoff of S > 43.9 kPa and 60.8%, 66.4%, and 0.653, respectively, for R > 3. Both, S and R showed a significant correlation with Gleason score (r ≥ 0.296, p ≤ 0.008) and were significantly different between indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (p ≤ 0.006). Shear wave elastographic parameters are significantly different between prostate cancer and benign prostate tissue and correlate with Gleason score.

  2. Shear wave elastography for detection of prostate cancer: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) for prostate cancer detection. In this retrospective study, 87 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/mL and abnormal digital rectal examination) underwent a protocol-based systematic 12-core biopsy followed by targeted biopsy at hypoechoic areas on grey-scale ultrasound. Prior to biopsy, SWE was performed by placing two circular 5 mm-sized regions of interest (ROIs) along the estimated biopsy tract in each sector and one ROI for hypoechoic lesions. SWE parameters, S (mean stiffness) and R (mean stiffness ratio), were calculated and compared regarding different histopathologic tissues and their accuracy for diagnosing prostate cancer was analyzed. SWE parameters were correlated with Gleason score and were compared between indolent ( 43.9 kPa and 60.8%, 66.4%, and 0.653, respectively, for R > 3. Both, S and R showed a significant correlation with Gleason score (r ≥ 0.296, p ≤ 0.008) and were significantly different between indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (p ≤ 0.006). Shear wave elastographic parameters are significantly different between prostate cancer and benign prostate tissue and correlate with Gleason score.

  3. The value of the craniocaudal mammographic view in breast cancer detection: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Phuong Dung; Brennan, Patrick C.; Lee, Warwick; Ryan, Elaine; Reed, Warren; Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.

    2013-03-01

    Our research aims to assess the value of the single cranio-caudal view mammogram in the detection of breast cancer. 129 radiologists were asked to report 60 two-view mammograms of the left and right breasts and 55 radiologists assessed a set of 55 single cranio-caudal views. Participants were asked to search for the presence of any breast lesions and provide confidence scores for their decisions. Results showed that two-view mammograms were more effective in detecting malignant nodules than single cranio-caudal view in terms of sensitivity, localized-sensitivity, ROC and JAFROC. The single cranio-caudal view had a higher specificity as compared to two-view mammography.

  4. Potential usefulness of CTC detection in follow up of prostate cancer patients. A preliminary report obtained by using Adnagene platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Albino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prostate cancer (PCa represents one of the most important medical problems for males, being the second major cause of cancer death. Routinely, PCa patients are followed up with both periodic evaluation of serum PSA levels and imaging. Recently, alternative laboratory methods were proposed for PCa patients’ monitoring, with contrasting results. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new commercially CE-IVD kit for detection of prostate circulating tumour cells. Our intention was to verify the Adnagene platform usefulness to identify patients with disease progression, whatever treatment ongoing, in order to modify the therapeutic process even before treatment failure is evident with imaging methods. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients were enrolled and subdivided into three groups: n = 10 high risk tumor PCa patients; n = 6 low risk PCa patients; n = 5 sbjects without any signs of PCa. AdnaTest Prostate Cancer kit was used for enrichment and molecular characterization of prostate circulating tumour cells. Results: Healthy subjects (with BPH and patients without metastases resulted as negative, while 3 out of 10 high risk PCa patients were positive at least for one molecular marker like PSA, while only two showed positivity for PSMA mRNA. Our results indicate that the test specificity is 100% and the sensitivity is 100%; of course the sample is too small to give it statistical validity. In detail we verified that only the “not responder” patients resulted positive for AdnaTest. Conclusions: The present preliminary report provides evidence that isolation and detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs is feasible and it may be useful in the follow-up of patients with advanced prostate cancer. If the results of this preliminary study would be confirmed by a large prospective cohort study, it could be demonstrated that this test is a rapid diagnostic method, based on the analysis of a blood sample and

  5. Development and preliminary results of an in vivo Raman probe for early lung cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michael A.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2008-02-01

    Our previous results from Raman spectroscopy studies on ex vivo lung tissue showed the technique had great potential to differentiate between samples with different pathologies. In this work, a fast dispersive-type near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy system was developed to collect real-time, noninvasive, in vivo human lung spectra. The 785 nm excitation, and the collection of tissue emission were accomplished by using a reusable fiber optic catheter which passed down the instrument channel of a bronchoscope. Filters in two stages blocked laser emission other than 785 nm from reaching the tissue surface, and reduced fiber fluorescence and elastically scattered excitation light from being passed to the spectrometer. The spectrometer itself consisted of one of two holographic gratings with usable frequency ranges of: 700 to 2000 cm -1 and 1500 to 3400 cm -1. The dispersed light was detected by a cooled CCD array consisting of 400 by 1340 pixels. To increase the resolution of the system, while maximizing the throughput, a second fiber bundle, consisting of 54×100 μm diameter fibers connected the catheter to the spectrometer. The fibers in this second bundle were spread out to form a parabolic arc which replaced the conventional entrance slit. This geometry corrected for image aberrations, permitting complete CCD vertical binning, thereby yielding up to a 20-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated spectral resolution of the system was 9 cm -1 for both gratings. So far we have measured spectra from 20 patients and have seen clear differences between spectra from tumor and normal tissue.

  6. Indigenous surgical gamma probe: Performance evaluation in the detection of sentinel node in breast cancer: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Knowledge about the physical characteristics of the surgical gamma probe is essential for probe selection. In fact the relevant physical parameters should be deduced from the practical clinical requirements. The requirements are that all radioactive nodes should be detected and separated with reasonable precision especially those with low tracer uptake and those, which are deep-seated close to the injection site in the peritumoral area. This can be determined by the combination of angular resolution, collimation and shielding of the probe. The probe should be easily manoeuvrable in the small operative field and preferably have an audio signal. There have been quite a few reports in literature assessing the performance of the commercially available systems and it has been unanimously reported that various commercial gamma probe systems have strikingly different performance. These probes are also expensive to procure. Keeping these is mind and discussing our clinical requirements with the scientists of Isotope application division, Isotope group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) Mumbai, India, a basic surgical gamma probe was designed indigenously. This system is a microcomputer based gamma counting system that displays the number of pulse detected by the probe in counts per second and has an audible signal in direct correlation with the count density. The detector probe has an integral assembly of NaI (Tl) 10 mm x 20 mm. It has a size of 19 mm x 180 mm and weighs 0.23 kgs equipped with parallel hole lead collimator and has to be manually adjusted for 99mTc. The physical parameters are a high sensitivity of 5000 cps/MBq at probe tip with a good spatial resolution and FWHM <20mm measured at 1 cm distance. It is claimed that two sources separated by distance of 25mm can be easily distinguished The performance of this probe was evaluated to detect sentinel node in early breast cancer. 7 patients of early breast cancer (T1-2 N0M0) underwent

  7. Detection of miRNA-21 content in cervical cancer tissue and preliminary analysis of its downstream target molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Shen; Jian-Wu Gao; Yan-Yu Li; Peng Teng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the miRNA-21 content in cervical cancer tissue and analyze its downstream target molecules.Methods:Patients with different FIGO stages of cervical cancer and healthy subjects were selected, cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue were collected, and contents of miRNA-21 and apoptotic genes were detected; cervical cancer SiHa cells were cultured, miRNA-21 mimics and inhibitors were transfected, and then apoptotic gene contents were detected.Results:miRNA-21 contents in different stages of cervical cancer tissue were all higher than those in normal cervical tissue, mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 were lower than those in normal tissue, and mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 were negatively correlated with miRNA-21 contents; after miRNA-21 mimics were transfected, mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 significantly decreased, and after miRNA-21 inhibitors were transfected, mRNA contents of p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19 significantly increased.Conclusion:miRNA-21 contents in cervical cancer tissue significantly increase; downstream target genes of this miRNA may be apoptotic genes p16ink4a, ASPP1, Fas and GRIM-19.

  8. Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  9. Preliminary Results of Noninvasive Detection of TMPRSS2:ERG Gene Fusion in a Cohort of Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tavukcu, Hasan Huseyin; Mangir, Naside; Ozyurek, Mustafa; Turkeri, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate TMPRSS2:ERG fusion rates in tissue, urine, blood, and pubic hair samples in a cohort of patients with localized prostate cancer and to correlate these findings with various clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods A cohort of 40 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer (RRP group) and 10 control patients undergoing prostate biopsy were enrolled between 2006 and 2008. Urine, pubic hair, and peripheral blo...

  10. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda;

    2011-01-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening ...

  11. Incremental value of diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the detection of locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation treatment: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, Oguz; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gultekin, David H. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Pei, Xin; Sperling, Dahlia; Zelefsky, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology, New York, NY (United States); Schwartz, Lawrence H. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the incremental value of diffusion-weighted (DW-MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to T2-weighted MRI (T2WI) in detecting locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy. Twenty-four patients (median age, 70 years) with a history of radiotherapy-treated prostate cancer underwent multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) and transrectal prostate biopsy. Two readers independently scored the likelihood of cancer on a 1-5 scale, using T2WI alone and then adding DW-MRI and DCE-MRI. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were estimated at the patient and prostate-side levels. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from DW-MRI and the K{sup trans}, k{sub ep}, v{sub e}, AUGC90 and AUGC180 from DCE-MRI were recorded. Biopsy was positive in 16/24 (67%) and negative in 8/24 (33%) patients. AUCs for readers 1 and 2 increased from 0.64 and 0.53 to 0.95 and 0.86 with MP-MRI, at the patient level, and from 0.73 and 0.66 to 0.90 and 0.79 with MP-MRI, at the prostate-side level (p values < 0.05). Biopsy-positive and biopsy-negative prostate sides differed significantly in median ADC [1.44 vs. 1.68 (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s)], median K{sup trans} [1.07 vs. 0.34 (1/min)], and k{sub ep} [2.06 vs 1.0 (1/min)] (p values < 0.05). MP-MRI was significantly more accurate than T2WI alone in detecting locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  12. Bioelectrical impedance for detecting and monitoring lymphedema in patients with breast cancer. Preliminary results of the florence nightingale breast study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan Iyigun, Zeynep; Selamoglu, Derya; Alco, Gul; Pilancı, Kezban Nur; Ordu, Cetin; Agacayak, Filiz; Elbüken, Filiz; Bozdogan, Atilla; Ilgun, Serkan; Guler Uysal, Fusun; Ozmen, Vahit

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bioimpedance spectroscopy for the follow-up of patients with lymphedema in Turkey and its benefits in the diagnosis of stage 0, 1, and 2 lymphedema in patients who are under treatment for breast cancer. Thirty-seven female patients with breast cancer who underwent surgical procedures in our Breast Health Centre were followed up for lymphedema using bioimpedance, and clinical measurements were taken for a minimum period of 1 year at 3-month intervals. Patients who had been monitored regularly between November, 2011, and September, 2013, were enrolled to the study. In total, 8 patients developed lymphedema with an overall rate of 21.6%. Among the 8 patients who developed lymphedema, 4 had Stage 2, 1 had Stage 1, and 3 had Stage 0 lymphedema. Stage 0 lymphedema could not be detected with clinical measurements. During the patients' 1-year follow-up period using measurements of bioimpedance, a statistically significant relationship was observed between the occurrence of lymphedema and the disease characteristics. including the number of the extracted and remaining lymph nodes and the region of radiotherapy (p=0.042, p=0.024, p=0.040). Bioimpedance analysis seems to be a practical and reliable method for the early diagnosis of lymphedema. It is believed that regular monitoring of patients in the high-risk group using bioimpedance analyses increases the ability to treat lymphedema.

  13. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection + - Text Size Download Printable Version [ ... coverage for prostate cancer screening Additional resources for prostate cancer prevention and early detection References: Prostate cancer prevention and ...

  14. What Tests Can Detect Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection + - Text Size Download Printable Version [ ... coverage for prostate cancer screening Additional resources for prostate cancer prevention and early detection References: Prostate cancer prevention and ...

  15. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal and raises the index of suspicion that cancer may be present. Narrator: While the use of ... examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it ...

  16. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  17. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have by having their blood sampled and what we look for is a particular glyco-protein that's ... that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it and they should go ...

  18. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like to do is just do a rectal examination and feel that prostate. Narrator: The other necessary ... they do have an abnormality in their rectal examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. ...

  19. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rectal examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it and they should go on to have other tests, such as a trans-rectal ultrasound ... made of the prostate gland. Usually these are accompanied by a biopsy -- ...

  20. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectal examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it and they should go on to have other tests, such as a trans-rectal ultrasound ... made of the prostate gland. Usually these are accompanied by a biopsy -- ...

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, V. I.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Larionova, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Choynzonov, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI in the detection of breast, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. A total of 220 patients were included into the study: 120 patients with breast lesions (100 patients with breast cancer and 20 patients with benign breast tumors) and 100 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal diseases (80 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer and 20 patients with benign laryngeal/hypopharyngeal lesions). No abnormal 199Tl uptake was seen in all patients with benign breast and laryngeal lesions, indicating a 100% specificity of 199Tl SPECT. In the breast cancer patients, the increased 199Tl uptake in the breast was visualized in 94.8% patients, 99mTc-MIBI—in 93.4% patients. The increased 199Tl uptake in axillary lymph nodes was detected in 60% patients, and 99mTc-MIBI—in 93.1% patients. In patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer, the sensitivity of SPECT with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI was 95%. The 199Tl SPECT sensitivity in identification of regional lymph node metastases in the patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer was 75% and the 99mTc-MIBI SPECT sensitivity was 17%. The data obtained showed that SPECT with 199Tl and 99mTc-MIBI can be used as one of the additional imaging methods in detection of tumors.

  2. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Badgwell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in therapy, ovarian cancer remains the most deadly of the gynecological cancers. Less than 30% of women with advanced stage disease survive long-term. When diagnosed in stage I, up to 90% of patients can be cured with conventional surgery and chemotherapy. At present, only 25% of ovarian cancers are detected in stage I due, in part, to the absence of specific symptoms and to lack of an effective screening strategy. Early detection of ovarian cancer might significantly improve the overall survival rate of women with ovarian cancer if 1 most cancers are clonal and unifocal, arising in the ovary rather than in the peritoneum, 2 metastatic disease results from progression of clinically detectable stage I lesions, and 3 cancers remain localized for a sufficient interval to permit cost-effective screening. Given the prevalence of ovarian cancer, strategies for early detection must have high sensitivity for early stage disease (> 75%, but must have extremely high specificity (99.6% to attain a positive predictive value of at least 10%. Transvaginal sonography (TVS, serum markers and a combination of the two modalities have been evaluated for early detection of ovarian cancer. Among the serum markers, CA125 has received the most attention, but lacks the sensitivity or specificity to function alone as a screening test. Greater specificity can be achieved by combining CA125 and TVS and/or by monitoring CA125 over time. Two stage screening strategies promise to be cost effective, where abnormal serum assays prompt TVS to detect lesions that require laparotomy. Accrual has been completed for a 200,000 woman trial in the United Kingdom that will test the ability of a rising CA125 to trigger TVS and subsequent exploratory surgery. Given the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, it is unlikely that any single marker will be sufficiently sensitive to provide an effective initial screen. Sensitivity of serum assays might be enhanced by utilizing a

  3. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... M.D.: PSA stands for Prostate Specific Antigen. It is a test that men have by having ... detection is the digital rectal exam. Barry Trevithick: It doesn't make sense to be afraid of ...

  4. Early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midthun, David E

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  5. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  6. New Ways to Detect Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two together," recalls Arie Kaufman, chairman of the computer science department at New York's Stony Brook University. Dr. ... system for the prostate. Read More "Colorectal Cancer" Articles Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Colorectal Cancer / A Conversation ...

  7. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  8. Detecting Early Pancreatic Cancer- Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, Suresh T.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis. Improving survival will require diagnosis of early pancreatic cancer which can be defined based on resectability, size or curability. Pancreatic cancer progresses from non-invasive precursor lesions to invasive cancer over a variable time period. Retrospective review of CT scans done prior to diagnosis suggests that pancreatic cancer resectability may be significantly improved if detected as few as 6 months before clinical diagnosis. Since pancreatic ca...

  9. Early Detection Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Sarojini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of conventional and contemporary methods to detect ovarian cancer development, ovarian cancer remains a common and commonly fatal gynecological malignancy. The identification and validation of early detection biomarkers highly specific to ovarian cancer, which would permit development of minimally invasive screening methods for detecting early onset of the disease, are urgently needed. Current practices for early detection of ovarian cancer include transvaginal ultrasonography, biomarker analysis, or a combination of both. In this paper we review recent research on novel and robust biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer and provide specific details on their contributions to tumorigenesis. Promising biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer include KLK6/7, GSTT1, PRSS8, FOLR1, ALDH1, and miRNAs.

  10. Cancer risk following radiotherapy of cervical cancer: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women treated for cervical cancer were selected for study because (a) doses to body organs following radiotherapy can be accurately determined and vary sufficiently to permit dose-response evaluations, (b) organs remote from the cervix receive low-dose exposures in the range of current scientific interest, (c) treatment is relatively successful and many patients survive long enough to be at risk of late complications of radiotherapy, and (d) several nonexposed groups of women with cervical cancer are also available for comparison. In addition, population-based cancer registries provide an opportunity to inexpensively study large numbers of individuals over many decades. The careful procedures normally used by cancer registries to record second primary cancers facilitate the study of cancer incidence for which a wider view of radiation risk is expected than can be seen in investigations of mortality. Other special features of studies of cervical cancer patients include the ability to assess the effects of very large partial-body exposures, differences in organ sensitivities to radiation, interactions of radiation with biological factors such as age, and the duration of carcinogenic response

  11. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzick, J.; Thorat, M.A.; Andriole, G.; Brawley, O.W.; Brown, P.H.; Culig, Z.; Eeles, R.A.; Ford, L.G.; Hamdy, F.C.; Holmberg, L.; Ilic, D.; Key, T.J.; Vecchia, C. La; Lilja, H.; Marberger, M.; Meyskens, F.L.; Minasian, L.M.; Parker, C.; Parnes, H.L.; Perner, S.; Rittenhouse, H.; Schalken, J.A.; Schmid, H.P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schroder, F.H.; Stenzl, A.; Tombal, B.; Wilt, T.J.; Wolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-speci

  12. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  13. Understanding Cancer Prevention, Detection, Treatment, Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Understanding Cancer Prevention, Detection, Treatment, Control Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... 2004 than in 2003. Today's continuing progress against cancer is the result of enhanced prevention strategies, earlier detection, and better treatment — much of ...

  14. A Preliminary Analysis of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Biomarkers in Serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE-YUAN XIAO; YING TANG; XIU-PING WEI; DA-CHENG HE

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify potential serum biomarkers that could be used to discriminate lungcancers from normal. Methods Proteomic spectra of twenty-eight serum samples from patientswith non-small cell lung cancer and twelve from normal individuals were generated by SELDI(Surfaced Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization) Mass Spectrometry. Anion-exchange columns wereused to fractionate the sera into 6 designated pH groups. Two different types of protein chip arrays,IMAC-Cu and WCX2, were employed. Samples were examined in PBSII Protein Chip Reader(Ciphergen Biosystem Inc) and the discriminatory profiling between cancer and normal samples wasanalyzed with Biomarker Pattern software. Results Five distinct potential lung cancer biomarkerswith higher sensitivity and specificity were found, with four common biomarkers in both IMAC-Cuand WCX2 chip; the remaining biomarker occurred only in WCX2 chip. Two biomarkers wereup-regulated while three biomarkers were down-regulated in the serum samples from patients withnon-small cell lung cancer. The sensitivities provided by the individual biomarkers were 75%-96.43%and specificities were 75%-100%. Conclusions The preliminary results suggest that serum is acapable resource for detecting specific non-small cell lung cancer biomarkers. SELDI massspectrometry is a useful tool for the detection and identification of new potential biomarker ofnon-small cell lung cancer in serum.

  15. Development of a distress inventory for cancer: preliminary results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Advances in cancer treatment have led to cure and prolongation of patients′ lives; however associated psychosocial problems, including distress, can detrimentally affect patients′ compliance with treatment and ultimately, their outcome. Symptom distress has been well addressed in many studies; however, psychological distress has only been quantified by using depression or anxiety scales/checklists or quality of life scales containing a distress sub scale/component or by the use of scales that are not psychological distress-specific. AIMS: The present study is an attempt to construct a psychological distress inventory for specific use with cancer patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The standardisation sample consisted of 63 randomly selected patients with head and neck cancer who had undergone/ were undergoing curative treatment at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Distress Inventory for Cancer contained 57 positively and negatively toned items. An item analysis was conducted, followed by a factor analysis, thereby identifying the domains influencing distress. RESULTS: The final questionnaire contained 26 items subdivided into four domains viz. the personal, spiritual, physical, and the family domains, with each domain providing a sub score. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach′s alpha of the scale was found to be 0.85. CONCLUSIONS: These are the preliminary results of an ongoing study on global distress and tool development process. Reported here is the first step towards development of such tool.

  16. DETECTION OF CANCER BIOMARKERS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer biomarkers with high precision is critically important for cancer therapy. A variety of sensors based on different nanostructured materials have attracted intensive research interest due to their potential for highly sensitive and selective detection of cancer biomarkers. This review covers the use of a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon nanotubes, silicon nanowires, gold nanoparticles and quantum dots, in the fabrication of sensors. Emphases are placed on how the detection systems work and what detection limits can be achieved. Some assays described in this review outperform established methods for cancer biomarker detection. It is highly promising that these sensors would soon move into commercial-scale production and find routine use in hospitals.

  17. Compact endoscopic fluorescence detection system for gastrointestinal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Valerie; Padgett, Miles J.; Hewett, Jacqueline; Sibbett, Wilson; Hamdan, Khaled; Mohammed, Sami; Tait, Iain; Cushieri, Alfred

    2001-04-01

    We describe a compact endoscopic imaging system for the detection of gastro-intestinal cancers. This system is designed to image ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence and allows the clinician to perform fluorescence endoscopy and white light endoscopy simultaneously. The system comprises a filtered mercury arclamp for illumination and fluorescence excitation, a dual camera system coupled to an endoscope for detection and a desktop PC for processing and display of images. The result is a real-time colour image onto which fluorescence information is superimposed. Preliminary in vivo results indicate an increased fluorescence level within cancers in comparison with normal tissue. In addition, the system allows point spectroscopy to be carried out by the insertion of an optical fibre probe down the biopsy channel of the endoscope.

  18. Recurrent cervical cancer : detection and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn, A; Van Eijkeren, M; Kenter, G; Zwinderman, K; Ansink, A

    2002-01-01

    Background. Only a small proportion of cervical cancer recurrences is detected during routine follow-up. We investigated which percentage of recurrences is detected during follow-up, which diagnostic tools are helpful to detect recurrent disease and which factors are of prognostic significance once

  19. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bansi D.; Kumar, Saurabh; Mouli Pandey, Chandra

    2016-04-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection.

  20. Preliminary study on sentinel lymph node detection by contrast-enhanced ultrasound in patients with breast cancer%乳腺癌前哨淋巴结超声造影的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅; 常才; 张迅; 乐坚; 范亦武; 周世崇

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究超声造影技术是否可用于探测乳腺癌前哨淋巴结,是否比传统同位素联合亚甲蓝示踪探测技术有优势。方法对36例乳腺癌患者先后进行超声造影、同位素联合亚甲蓝示踪法两项检查探测乳腺癌患者腋下前哨淋巴结,对比病理结果,进行分析。结果超声造影技术发现前哨淋巴结的准确率为88.89%,同位素联合亚甲蓝示踪法发现前哨淋巴结的准确率为97.22%。结论超声造影可发现乳腺癌腋下前哨淋巴结,但其准确率略低于同位素联合亚甲蓝示踪法,临床价值还需进一步研究。%Objective To study the application feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in patients with breast cancer, and to compare it with traditional methylene blue dye combined with radioisotope as tracer. Methods Thirty-six patients with breast cancer received axillary SLN detection by CEUS and methylene blue dye combined with radioisotope before surgery. The results were compared and analyzed. Results The accuracies of CEUS and methylene blue dye combined with radioisotope were 88.89% and 97.22%, respectively. Conclusion CEUS can detect SLNs, but not better than methylene blue dye in combined with radioisotope. The value of CEUS needs more research.

  1. Preliminary assessment of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of imaging of bladder cancer with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning. We studied 12 patients with histologically proven bladder cancer who had undergone surgical procedures and/or radiotherapy. Retrograde irrigation of the urinary bladder with 1000-3710 ml saline was performed during nine of the studies. Dynamic and static PET images were obtained, and standardized uptake value images were reconstructed. FDG-PET scanning was true-positive in eight patients (66.7%), but false-negative in four (33.3%). Of 20 organs with tumor mass lesions confirmed pathologically or clinically, 16 (80%) were detected by FDG-PET scanning. FDG-PET scanning detected all of 17 distant metastatic lesions and two of three proven regional lymph node metastases. FDG-PET was also capable of differentiating viable recurrent bladder cancer from radiation-induced alterations in two patients. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate the feasibility of FDG-PET imaging in patients with bladder cancer, although a major remaining pitfall is intense FDG accumulation in the urine. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  3. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based scr...

  4. Rayleigh to Compton ratio scatter tomography applied to breast cancer diagnosis: A preliminary computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, a tomographic technique based on Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) was studied using computational simulation in order to assess its application to breast cancer diagnosis. In this preliminary study, some parameters that affect the image quality were evaluated, such as: (i) energy beam, (ii) size and glandularity of the breast, and (iii) statistical count noise. The results showed that the R/C contrast increases with increasing photon energy and decreases with increasing glandularity of the sample. The statistical noise showed to be a significant parameter, although the quality of the obtained images was acceptable for a considerable range of noise level. The preliminary results suggest that the R/C tomographic technique has a potential of being applied as a complementary tool in the breast cancer diagnostic. - Highlights: ► A tomographic technique based on Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio is proposed in order to study breast tissues. ► The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio technique is compared with conventional transmission technique. ► The influence of experimental parameters (energy, sample, detection system) is studied

  5. Automatic detection of larynx cancer from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Trushali; Soraghan, John; Grose, Derek; MacKenzie, Kenneth; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos

    2015-03-01

    Detection of larynx cancer from medical imaging is important for the quantification and for the definition of target volumes in radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being increasingly used in RTP due to its high resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast. Manually detecting larynx cancer from sequential MRI is time consuming and subjective. The large diversity of cancer in terms of geometry, non-distinct boundaries combined with the presence of normal anatomical regions close to the cancer regions necessitates the development of automatic and robust algorithms for this task. A new automatic algorithm for the detection of larynx cancer from 2D gadoliniumenhanced T1-weighted (T1+Gd) MRI to assist clinicians in RTP is presented. The algorithm employs edge detection using spatial neighborhood information of pixels and incorporates this information in a fuzzy c-means clustering process to robustly separate different tissues types. Furthermore, it utilizes the information of the expected cancerous location for cancer regions labeling. Comparison of this automatic detection system with manual clinical detection on real T1+Gd axial MRI slices of 2 patients (24 MRI slices) with visible larynx cancer yields an average dice similarity coefficient of 0.78+/-0.04 and average root mean square error of 1.82+/-0.28 mm. Preliminary results show that this fully automatic system can assist clinicians in RTP by obtaining quantifiable and non-subjective repeatable detection results in a particular time-efficient and unbiased fashion.

  6. Home-use cancer detecting band aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Sheinman, Victor; Tzoy, Andrey; Toktosunov, Aitmamat; Adashov, Arkady

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel concept in which special band aid is developed for early detection of cancer. The band aid contains an array of micro needles with small detection array connected to each needle which inspects the color of the surface of the skin versus time after being pinched with the needles. We were able to show in pre-clinical trials that the color varies differently if the skin is close to tumor tissue.

  7. Lung Cancer Detection Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhled S. AL-TARAWNEH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, image processing techniques are widely used in several medical areas for image improvement in earlier detection and treatment stages, where the time factor is very important to discover the abnormality issues in target images, especially in various cancer tumours such as lung cancer, breast cancer, etc. Image quality and accuracy is the core factors of this research, image quality assessment as well as improvement are depending on the enhancement stage where low pre-processing techniques is used based on Gabor filter within Gaussian rules. Following the segmentation principles, an enhanced region of the object of interest that is used as a basic foundation of feature extraction is obtained. Relying on general features, a normality comparison is made. In this research, the main detected features for accurate images comparison are pixels percentage and mask-labelling.

  8. Breast Cancer Detection Using Multilevel Thresholding

    CERN Document Server

    Rejani, Y Ireaneus Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm which aims to assist the radiologist in identifying breast cancer at its earlier stages. It combines several image processing techniques like image negative, thresholding and segmentation techniques for detection of tumor in mammograms. The algorithm is verified by using mammograms from Mammographic Image Analysis Society. The results obtained by applying these techniques are described.

  9. Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhua; He, Yuan; Wei, Jianjun; Que, Long

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report the label-free detection of a cancer biomarker using newly developed arrayed nanostructured Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) microchips. Specifically, the prostate cancer biomarker free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) has been detected with a mouse anti-human PSA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the receptor. Experiments found that the limit-of-detection of current nanostructured FPI microchip for f-PSA is about 10 pg/mL and the upper detection range for f-PSA can be dynamically changed by varying the amount of the PSA mAb immobilized on the sensing surface. The control experiments have also demonstrated that the immunoassay protocol used in the experiments shows excellent specificity and selectivity, suggesting the great potential to detect the cancer biomarkers at trace levels in complex biofluids. In addition, given its nature of low cost, simple-to-operation and batch fabrication capability, the arrayed nanostructured FPI microchip-based platform could provide an ideal technical tool for point-of-care diagnostics application and anticancer drug screen and discovery.

  10. Early esophageal cancer detection using RF classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Markus H. A.; van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising forms of cancer in the Western world. Using High-Definition (HD) endoscopy, gastroenterology experts can identify esophageal cancer at an early stage. Recent research shows that early cancer can be found using a state-of-the-art computer-aided detection (CADe) system based on analyzing static HD endoscopic images. Our research aims at extending this system by applying Random Forest (RF) classification, which introduces a confidence measure for detected cancer regions. To visualize this data, we propose a novel automated annotation system, employing the unique characteristics of the previous confidence measure. This approach allows reliable modeling of multi-expert knowledge and provides essential data for real-time video processing, to enable future use of the system in a clinical setting. The performance of the CADe system is evaluated on a 39-patient dataset, containing 100 images annotated by 5 expert gastroenterologists. The proposed system reaches a precision of 75% and recall of 90%, thereby improving the state-of-the-art results by 11 and 6 percentage points, respectively.

  11. Application of Gist SVM in Cancer Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Aruna, S; Nandakishore, L V

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the application of GIST SVM in disease prediction (detection of cancer). Pattern classification problems can be effectively solved by Support vector machines. Here we propose a classifier which can differentiate patients having benign and malignant cancer cells. To improve the accuracy of classification, we propose to determine the optimal size of the training set and perform feature selection. To find the optimal size of the training set, different sizes of training sets are experimented and the one with highest classification rate is selected. The optimal features are selected through their F-Scores.

  12. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-16

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  13. Cancer precursors epidemiology, detection, and prevention

    CERN Document Server

    Rohan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of cancer causation have come from epidemiologic and laboratory research, particularly over the past two decades. These developments have included a broadening interest in the critical events that take place during the early stages of the dynamic multistep process leading to - vasive cancer. Increasingly, cancer epidemiologists are pursuing research into the origins and natural history of premalignant lesions, including intermediate or surrogate endpoints, a trend - celerated by the development of molecular technologies that are revolutionizing our understanding of the transformation of normal to malignant cells. There seems little doubt that this emerging knowledge will provide further insights not only into carcinogenic processes, but also into more sensitive methods of early detection and more effective means of prevention. In this book, Drs. Franco and Rohan have succeeded in prep- ing a comprehensive, timely, and critical review of the substantial progress that has ...

  14. Cancer detection by quantitative fluorescence image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, W L; Hemstreet, G P

    1988-02-01

    Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is a rapidly evolving biophysical cytochemical technology with the potential for multiple clinical and basic research applications. We report the application of this technique for bladder cancer detection and discuss its potential usefulness as an adjunct to methods used currently by urologists for the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is a cytological method that incorporates 2 diagnostic techniques, quantitation of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid and morphometric analysis, in a single semiautomated system to facilitate the identification of rare events, that is individual cancer cells. When compared to routine cytopathology for detection of bladder cancer in symptomatic patients, quantitative fluorescence image analysis demonstrated greater sensitivity (76 versus 33 per cent) for the detection of low grade transitional cell carcinoma. The specificity of quantitative fluorescence image analysis in a small control group was 94 per cent and with the manual method for quantitation of absolute nuclear fluorescence intensity in the screening of high risk asymptomatic subjects the specificity was 96.7 per cent. The more familiar flow cytometry is another fluorescence technique for measurement of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid. However, rather than identifying individual cancer cells, flow cytometry identifies cellular pattern distributions, that is the ratio of normal to abnormal cells. Numerous studies by others have shown that flow cytometry is a sensitive method to monitor patients with diagnosed urological disease. Based upon results in separate quantitative fluorescence image analysis and flow cytometry studies, it appears that these 2 fluorescence techniques may be complementary tools for urological screening, diagnosis and management, and that they also may be useful separately or in combination to elucidate the oncogenic process, determine the biological potential of tumors

  15. Cancer detection based on Raman spectra super-paramagnetic clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Guizar-Ruiz, Juan Ignacio; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zerega, Brenda Esmeralda; Juárez-López, Héctor Alfonso; Vargas-Rodríguez, Héctor; Gallegos-Infante, Luis Armando; González-Silva, Ricardo Armando; Espinoza-Padilla, Pedro Basilio; Palomares-Anda, Pascual

    2016-08-01

    The clustering of Raman spectra of serum sample is analyzed using the super-paramagnetic clustering technique based in the Potts spin model. We investigated the clustering of biochemical networks by using Raman data that define edge lengths in the network, and where the interactions are functions of the Raman spectra's individual band intensities. For this study, we used two groups of 58 and 102 control Raman spectra and the intensities of 160, 150 and 42 Raman spectra of serum samples from breast and cervical cancer and leukemia patients, respectively. The spectra were collected from patients from different hospitals from Mexico. By using super-paramagnetic clustering technique, we identified the most natural and compact clusters allowing us to discriminate the control and cancer patients. A special interest was the leukemia case where its nearly hierarchical observed structure allowed the identification of the patients's leukemia type. The goal of this study is to apply a model of statistical physics, as the super-paramagnetic, to find these natural clusters that allow us to design a cancer detection method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of preliminary results evaluating the usefulness of super-paramagnetic clustering in the discipline of spectroscopy where it is used for classification of spectra.

  16. Epidemiology and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemanns, Peter; Soergel, Phillip; Hertel, Hermann; Jentschke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The new German S3 guideline 'Prevention of Cervical Cancer' published in 2016 is based on the latest available evidence about cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical precancer. Large randomized controlled trials indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening may provide better protection against cervical cancer than cytology alone through improved detection of premalignant disease in the first screening round prior to progression. Therefore, women aged 30 years and older should preferably be screened with HPV testing every 3-5 years (cytology alone every 2 years is an acceptable alternative). Co-testing is not recommended. Screening should start at 25 years using cytology alone every 2 years. The preferred triage test after a positive HPV screening test is cytology. Women positive for HPV 16 and HPV 18 should receive immediate colposcopy. Another alternative triage method is p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology. The mean yearly participation rate in Germany is between 45 and 50%. Offering devices for HPV self-sampling has the potential to increase participation rates in those women who are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. Regarding primary prevention, the 9-valent vaccine may provide protection against up to 85% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 and 90% of cervical cancer, and is available in Europe as a 2-dose schedule from May 2016. PMID:27614953

  17. Computer-aided detection of HER2 amplification status using FISH images: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Surti, Urvashi; Bhargava, Rohit; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    The amplification status of human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2) genes is strongly associated with clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology Tumor Marker Guidelines Panel has recommended routine testing of HER2 status on all newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancers since 2001. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides superior accuracy as compared with other approaches, current manual FISH analysis methods are somewhat subjective, tedious, and may introduce interreader variability. The goal of this preliminary study is to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to assess HER2 status using FISH images. Forty FISH images were selected for this study from our genetic laboratory. The CAD scheme first applies an adaptive, iterative threshold method followed by a labeling algorithm to segment cells of possible interest. A set of classification rules is then used to identify analyzable interphase cells and discard nonanalyzable cells due to cell overlapping and/or other image staining debris (or artifacts). The scheme then maps the detected analyzable cells onto two other gray scale images corresponding to the red and green color of the original image followed by application of a raster scan and labeling algorithms to separately detect the HER-2/neu ("red") and CEP17 ("green") FISH signals. A simple distance based criterion is applied to detect and merge split FISH signals within each cell. The CAD scheme computes the ratio between independent "red" and "green" FISH signals of all analyzable cells identified on an image. If the ratio is >= 2.0, the FISH image is assumed to have been acquired from a HER2+ case; otherwise, the FISH image is assumed to have been acquired from HER2- case. When we applied the CAD scheme to the testing dataset, the average computed HER2 amplification ratios were 1.06+/-0.25 and 2.53+/-0.81 for HER2- and HER2+ samples, respectively. The

  18. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  19. A dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for noninvasive sentinel lymph node detection: preliminary clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection, and it has rapidly become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first (i.e., sentinel) lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22), and a multichannel data acquisition system which displays co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound images in real-time. Our clinical results demonstrate that real-time photoacoustic imaging can provide sensitive and specific detection of methylene blue dye in vivo. While preliminary studies have shown that in vivo detection of SLNs by using co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging is feasible, further investigation is needed to demonstrate robust SLN detection.

  20. Compact fluorescence spectroscopic tool for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Valerie; Hamdan, Khaled; Hewett, Jacqueline; Makaryceva, Juljia; Tait, Iain; Cuschieri, Alfred; Padgett, Miles J.

    2002-05-01

    We describe a compact fluorescence spectroscopic tool for in vivo point monitoring of aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence and autofluorescence, as a non-invasive method of differentiating normal and cancerous tissue. This instrument incorporates a 405nm diode laser with a shutter to prevent exposure of tissue to harmful light doses and reduce photobleaching, a bifurcated optical fibre to allow illumination of tissue and collection of fluorescence with a single fibre, a compact grating spectrometer for collection of spectra and a PC for system control. We present spectra obtained using this system both during routine gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy for cancer detection and during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) for monitoring of treatment progress. These results illustrate the potential of the system to be used for fluorescence monitoring in a variety of clinical applications.

  1. Algorithms, nomograms and the detection of indolent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. However, only about 12% of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer will die of their disease. Result: The serum PSA test can detect prostate cancers early, but using a PSA based cut-off indication for prostate biopsy r

  2. Markers of pancreatic cancer: Working towards early detection

    OpenAIRE

    Goggins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Because early detection of pancreatic cancer is the best way to cure this disease, investigators continue to try and identify accurate markers of early pancreatic cancer. Since early-stage pancreatic cancer is generally asymptomatic, the only reliable way to detect it is by targeting individuals at increased risk for pancreatic screening.

  3. Cancer Prevention Interdisciplinary Education Program at Purdue University: Overview and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Adedokun, Omolola; Childress, Amy; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella; Nagel, Julie; Knapp, Deborah W.; Lelievre, Sophie; Agnew, Christopher R.; Shields, Cleveland; Leary, James; Adams, Robin; Jensen, Jakob D.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a broad field that crosses many disciplines; therefore, educational efforts to enhance cancer prevention research focused on interdisciplinary approaches to the field are greatly needed. In order to hasten progress in cancer prevention research, the Cancer Prevention Internship Program (CPIP) at Purdue University was designed to develop and test an interdisciplinary curriculum for undergraduate and graduate students. The hypothesis was that course curriculum specific to introducing interdisciplinary concepts in cancer prevention would increase student interest in and ability to pursue advanced educational opportunities (e.g., graduate school, medical school). Preliminary results from the evaluation of the first year which included 10 undergraduate and 5 graduate students suggested that participation in CPIP is a positive professional development experience, leading to a significant increase in understanding of interdisciplinary research in cancer prevention. In its first year, the CPIP project has created a successful model for interdisciplinary education in cancer prevention research. PMID:21533583

  4. Usefulness of Integrated PET/MRI in Head and Neck Cancer: A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Seo, Hyo Jung; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, E. Edmund; Kang, Keon Wook; Paeng, Jin Chul; Chung, Junekey; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The new modality of an integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) has recently been introduced but not validated. Our objective was to evaluate clinical performance of {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) PET/MRI in patients with head and neck cancer. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2013 and February 2013. Ten patients (eight men, two women; mean age, 61.4±13.4 years) with histologically proven head and neck tumors were enrolled.Whole-body PET/MRI and regional positron emission tomography (PET) with dedicated MRI were sequentially obtained. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis and contrast enhancement were analyzed. A total of ten whole-body positron emission tomography (PET), ten regional positron emission tomography (PET), ten dedicated MRI and ten regional PET/gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (Gd)-MRI images were analyzed for initial staging. Two nuclear medicine physicians analyzed positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/MRI with a consensus. One radiologist analyzed dedicated MRI. The primary lesions and number of metastatic lymph nodes analyzed from each image were compared. Eight patients were diagnosed with head and neck cancer (one tongue cancer, four tonsillar cancers, one nasopharyngeal cancer and two hypopharyngeal cancers) by histological diagnosis. Two benign tumors (pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin tumor) were diagnosed with surgical operation. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) and regional positron emission tomography (PET) attenuated by MRI showed good image quality for the lesion detection. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) and regional positron emission tomography (PET) detected ten primary sites and compensated for a missed lesion on dedicated MRI. A discordant number of suspicious lymph node metastases was noted according to the different images; 22, 16, 39 and 40 in the whole

  5. Do signal transduction cascades influence survival in triple-negative breast cancer? A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Jan-Niclas; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Jeschke, Udo; Andergassen, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a rather aggressive form of breast cancer, comprised by early metastasis formation and reduced overall survival of the affected patients. Steroid hormone receptors and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 are not overexpressed, limiting therapeutic options. Therefore, new treatment options have to be investigated. The aim of our preliminary study was to detect coherences between some molecules of intracellular signal transduction pathways and survival of patients with TNBC, in order to obtain some hints for new therapeutical solutions. Methods Thirty-one paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples, which were determined to be negative for steroid hormone receptors as well as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, were immunohistochemically stained for a number of signal transduction molecules from several signaling pathways. β-Catenin, HIF1α, MCL, Notch1, LRP6, XBP1, and FOXP3 were stained with specific antibodies, and their staining was correlated with patient survival by Kaplan–Meier analyses. Results Only two of the investigated molecules have shown correlation with overall survival. Cytoplasmic staining of HIF1α and centro-tumoral lymphocyte FOXP3 staining showed statistically significant correlations with survival. Conclusion The coherence of signal transduction molecules with survival of patients with TNBC is still controversially discussed in the literature. Our study comprises one more mosaic stone in the elucidation of these intracellular processes and their influences on patient outcome. Lots of research still has to be done in this field, but it would be worthwhile as it may offer new therapeutic targets for a group of patients with breast cancer, which is still hard to treat. PMID:27307757

  6. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  7. Ethnicity and prostate cancer in Southern Nigeria: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monday K Sapira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The natural history of prostate cancer varies among patients. The aim of this study is to detect any variations in clinical and pathological characteristics of the tumor in patients from different ethnic groups in Southern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients who presented with features of prostatic diseases at the Urology Units of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt and Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, were evaluated prospectively with history, physical examination, and relevant investigations using a proforma. Data obtained were collated and analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test and Microsoft Excel. Results: Of 187 patients studied, 169 were analyzed. Eighty-six were Ibos, 31 Ijaws, 25 Ikwerres, and 12 Ogonis. Two were from each Etche, Urhobo, Opobo, and Effik; 4 from Andoni, and 3 Ibibio. Fifty-seven (66.3% Ibos presented with the disease at higher ages (70–80 years than 19 (61.3% Ijaws and 11 (91.7% Ogonis. These age differences were statistically significant with 95% and 99.9% confidence, respectively. All cases were adenocarcinomas. Clinical features, pattern of serum prostate-specific antigen levels, grades of the tumors, tumor metastases, and complications were similar for all ethnic groups. Although more Ibos had tumors with relatively more aggressive metastatic features, there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: Clinical and pathological features of adenocarcinoma of the prostate in Ibos, Ikwerres, Ijaws, and Ogonis were found to be similar. However, Ibos presented with the disease at older ages than Ijaws and Ogonis.

  8. Transillumination in breast cancer detection: screening failures and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study of 1265 women referred to a multimodality breast diagnostic center compares the sensitivity for breast cancer detection of state-of-the-art transillumination light scanning and film-screen mammography. Of 33 biopsy-proven cancers, transillumination light scanning detected 58%, while mammography detected 97% of the cancers. Light scanning did detect 55% of the nonpalpable breast cancers, and 30% of those tumors smaller than 1 cm. Detection of breast cancer by light scanning was affected by breast size, but not architecture, and was directly related to tumor size. Although transillumination light scanning can detect some small curable breast cancers (smaller than 1 cm), it does not do so at a sensitivity adequate for screening

  9. Preliminary experiences with sentinel lymph node detection in cases of vulvar malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambo, Katalin; Schmidt, Erzsebet; Dehghani, Babak [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pecs, Faculty of Medicine (Hungary); Hartmann, Tamas; Bodis, Jozsef [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, County Teaching Hospital, University of Pecs, Faculty of Health Sciences (Hungary); Kornya, Laszlo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peterfy Sandor Hospital, Budapest (Hungary); Tinneberg, Hans Rudolf [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, City Hospital Bielefeld (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor in vulvar malignancy. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the clinical significance of radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in the management of vulvar neoplasms. Eight patients with squamous cell carcinoma and two patients with malignant melanoma of the vulva were studied with 100 MBq technetium-99m nanocolloid (Sentiscint, OSSKI, Budapest) 1 day before surgery. The location of the sentinel lymph node was checked by a single-head gamma camera-computer system (MB 9200, Mediso, Budapest). Vulvectomy with bilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy was performed in each case. At lymphadenectomy, the sentinel lymph node was separately removed and histologically studied. Three of the ten patients had positive sentinel lymph nodes (micrometastasis). Five months later one of them had local recurrence of the vulvar cancer, and another had inguinal recurrence of the tumour 6 months postoperatively; the third patient was operated on only recently. Our preliminary results are impressive and suggest that lymphoscintigraphy is an easy and reliable method for detection of the sentinel lymph node in vulvar malignancy. (orig.)

  10. Breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced cancer. Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    VERGINE, M.; SCIPIONI, P.; GARRITANO, S.; COLANGELO, M.; Di Paolo, A; LIVADOTI, G.; MATURO, A.; Monti, M

    2013-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in locally advanced breast tumors may allow an adequate control of the disease impossible with surgery alone. Moreover, NACT increases the chance of breast-conserving surgery. Between 2008 and 2012, we treated with NACT 83 patients with locally advanced breast cancer. We report the preliminary results evaluating the impact of NACT on the type of surgery.

  11. Preliminary study of the detectability of coronary plaque with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of coronary plaque vulnerability could be of great diagnostic value in cardiology. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a good candidate due to its ability to quantify micromolar concentrations of targeted drugs. However, the detectability of sub-voxel targets such as coronary plaque is limited by partial volume effects and by cardiorespiratory motion. The goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of these factors in the detectability of plaque uptake. Radioactive markers were implanted on the epicardium of a pig and in vivo scans were performed. This was complemented with phantom measurements to determine the minimum detectable uptake as a function of background activity. Simulations were used to evaluate the effect of cardiorespiratory motion on the reconstructed lesions. Despite cardiorespiratory motion of up to 7 mm, the markers were detectable in the in vivo scans even after the injection of background. A lower limit of 250 Bq was found for a target to be detectable. Motion reduced the contrast of the reconstructed lesions to 23% of their static counterpart. Respiratory gating improved this to 49% of the static value. The results suggest that coronary plaque evaluation with PET is possible, provided that sufficient plaque-to-myocardium uptake contrast (50 to 100) can be achieved. This requirement increases exponentially for lesions with uptake below 250 Bq. The described experiments provide a means of estimating the minimum uptake and contrast required to ensure the detectability of plaque lesions.

  12. Cancer outlier detection based on likelihood ratio test

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Microarray experiments can be used to help study the role of chromosomal translocation in cancer development through cancer outlier detection. The aim is to identify genes that are up- or down-regulated in a subset of cancer samples in comparison to normal samples.

  13. Detecting and treating breast cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonlee, Sun-Young; Bissell, Mina J.; Furuta, Saori; Meier, Roland; Kenny, Paraic A.

    2016-04-05

    The application describes therapeutic compositions and methods for treating cancer. For example, therapeutic compositions and methods related to inhibition of FAM83A (family with sequence similarity 83) are provided. The application also describes methods for diagnosing cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors. For example, a method of diagnosing cancer resistance to EGFR inhibitors by detecting increased FAM83A levels is described.

  14. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  15. FRET Biosensors for Cancer Detection and Evaluation of Drug Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shaoying; Wang, Yingxiao

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive and specific FRET biosensor was developed by Mizutani et al. and applied to detect the activity of BCR-ABL kinase in live cells. This biosensor allowed the detection of cancerous and drug-resistant cells, and the evaluation of kinase inhibitor efficacy. Future biosensor development and imaging can increasingly contribute to cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  16. DETECTION OF GENE MUTATION IN SPUTUM OF LUNG CANCER PATIENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG He-long; WANG Wen-liang; CUI Da-xiang

    1999-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor, which has ahigh incidence and mortality rate. Therefore, it is necessary to seek a new method for the diagnosis, especially the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The development of molecular biology makes the gene diagnosis of lung cancer possible.PCR-SSCP was applied to detect p53 gene mutation of lung cancer patients' sputum cells and we have achieved good results.

  17. Direct gastroscopy for detecting gastric cancer in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子其; 万军; 朱成; 王孟薇; 赵东海; 付永和; 张建萍; 王亚红; 吴本俨

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of direct gastroscopy for detecting gastric cancer. Methods Clinical screening by direct gastroscopy was performed for gastric cancer (GC) from September 1985 to July 1998. 3048 elderly people were screened. Their age ranged from 60 to 93 years, and 2034 of the 3084 were followed up. Results Ninety-two patients with gastric cancer were discovered by gastroscopy, representing 3.02% of the screened population. The rate of early gastric cancer (EGC) was 63.04% (58/92) of all gastric cancers detected. The rate was up to 79.59% (39/49) on follow-up, and was 74.14% (43/51) in asymptomatic patients with gastric cancer. The excision rate was 88.89% for patients with gastric cancer, and 100% for patients with early gastric cancer. The 5-year survival rate was 91.89% for patients with gastric cancer, and 96.30% for patients with early gastric cancer. Conclusion Clinical screening and follow-up by direct gastroscopy in persons over 60 years of age are a safe and effective method for raising the 5-year survival and detection rate of gastric cancer, especially early gastric cancer.

  18. Preliminary Report of Molecular Detection of Retinoblastoma Gene Mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    To develop gene diagnosis for retinoblastoma predisposition, it is necessary to disclose the retinoblastoma gene mutations or deletions in detail. Genomic DNA from tumor and peripheral white blood cells in 33 patients with retinoblastoma was detected with 3.8kb probe derived from 3' end of retinoblastoma gene cDNA. The gene abnormalities, including deletion, partial deletion and rearrangement, were found in 18 patients. Further research will be aimed at microdeletions or mutations for those patients wti...

  19. Preliminary Study of Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From March 1997 to November 1999, 45 patients with lung cancer were treated by astereotactic radiotherapy, with 15 cases treated by a stereotactic radiotherapy alone, and 30 cases by the external radiotherapy plus stereotactic radiotherapy. The clinical target volume was 1.89-187. 26 cm3 with the median being 18. 17 cm3. The doses of plan target volume (PTV) edge was 16-30 Gy/2-3 times and the doses of center was 120 % to 150 % of PTV edge doses. The overall response rate was 84.4 % (38/45), with 11 complete response (CR) and 27 partial response (PR). This study confirmed that the stereotactic radiotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for lung cancer. For those early-stage patients who can tolerate neither operation nor even conventional radiotherapy for various reasons, it can both achieve therapeutic purpose and improve quality of life.

  20. Development of a distress inventory for cancer: preliminary results.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas B; Mohan V; Thomas I; Pandey M

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Advances in cancer treatment have led to cure and prolongation of patients′ lives; however associated psychosocial problems, including distress, can detrimentally affect patients′ compliance with treatment and ultimately, their outcome. Symptom distress has been well addressed in many studies; however, psychological distress has only been quantified by using depression or anxiety scales/checklists or quality of life scales containing a distress sub scale/component or by...

  1. Preliminary performance study of different radio-frequency interference detection and mitigation algorithms in microwave radiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Depau, Veronica; Tarongí Bauzá, José Miguel; Forte Veliz, Giuseppe Francesco; Camps Carmona, Adriano José

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary performance study of several RFI detection and mitigation algorithms applied to real data. The used algorithms include statistical analysis in the time and frequency domains and time and frequency domains analysis. The data has been acquired in an urban area using a new experimental radiometer called MERITXELL.

  2. Salivary Markers for Oral Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K; Michailidou, Evangelia Z.; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer refers to all malignancies that arise in the oral cavity, lips and pharynx, with 90% of all oral cancers being oral squamous cell carcinoma. Despite the recent treatment advances, oral cancer is reported as having one of the highest mortality ratios amongst other malignancies and this can much be attributed to the late diagnosis of the disease. Saliva has long been tested as a valuable tool for drug monitoring and the diagnosis systemic diseases among which oral cancer. The new em...

  3. Discovery Radiomics for Multi-Parametric MRI Prostate Cancer Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Audrey G; Kumar, Devinder; Khalvati, Farzad; Haider, Masoom A; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed form of cancer in Canadian men, and is the third leading cause of cancer death. Despite these statistics, prognosis is relatively good with a sufficiently early diagnosis, making fast and reliable prostate cancer detection crucial. As imaging-based prostate cancer screening, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires an experienced medical professional to extensively review the data and perform a diagnosis, radiomics-driven methods help streamline the process and has the potential to significantly improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency, and thus improving patient survival rates. These radiomics-driven methods currently rely on hand-crafted sets of quantitative imaging-based features, which are selected manually and can limit their ability to fully characterize unique prostate cancer tumour phenotype. In this study, we propose a novel \\textit{discovery radiomics} framework for generating custom radiomic sequences tailored for prostate cancer detection. Discover...

  4. Ziconotide in severe, drug-resistant cancer pain. preliminary experience

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Lavano

    2008-01-01

    The Author reports the case of ziconotide intrathecal treatment in three terminal cancer patients, with nociceptive and neuropathic pain, unresponsive to the treatment with intrathecal opioid and adjuvant drugs. An external pump for continuous subarachnoid infusion was implanted to the three patients. The initial dose was 2,4 mcg/die, with increments of 1,2 mcg/die every three days till the maximum dose of 4,8 mcg/die in two patients (survival 61 and 45 days) and 7,2 mcg/die in a pat...

  5. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  6. Algorithms, nomograms and the detection of indolent prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Roobol-Bouts, Monique

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. However, only about 12% of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer will die of their disease. Result: The serum PSA test can detect prostate cancers early, but using a PSA based cut-off indication for prostate biopsy results in unnecessary testing in app. 75-80% of the men and perhaps even more important the serum PSA test cannot tell how aggressive the cancer is. To decrease unnecessary testing different test r...

  7. Detecting cancer: Pearls for the primary care physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Simon B; Montero, Alberto J

    2016-07-01

    Five-year survival rates have improved over the past 40 years for nearly all types of cancer, partially thanks to early detection and prevention. Since patients typically present to their primary care physician with initial symptoms, it is vital for primary care physicians to accurately diagnose common cancers and to recognize unusual presentations of highly curable cancers such as Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancers, for which the 5-year overall survival rates are greater than 85%. This paper reviews these cancers and provides clinically relevant pearls from an oncologic perspective for physicians who are the first point of contact. PMID:27399864

  8. Methods for detection of subtle mutations in cancer genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christina; Ralfkiaer, Ulrik; Guldberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    With the realization that cancer is a genetic disease, detection of mutations in genomic DNA has become an important discipline in many areas of cancer research. Although the publication of the human genome sequence and the immense technological advancements have facilitated the analysis of cancer...... genomes, detection of mutations in tumor specimens may still be challenging and fraught with technical problems. In this review, we describe current technologies for detection of small DNA mutations, including mutation scanning techniques to search for unknown mutations, and diagnostic techniques...... to detect known cancer mutations. We outline the principles of the different techniques and discuss their advantages and limitations. We also discuss critical issues that must be considered before choosing methodology, including sensitivity, specificity, limit of detection, throughput and cost, quantity...

  9. Ziconotide in severe, drug-resistant cancer pain. preliminary experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Lavano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Author reports the case of ziconotide intrathecal treatment in three terminal cancer patients, with nociceptive and neuropathic pain, unresponsive to the treatment with intrathecal opioid and adjuvant drugs. An external pump for continuous subarachnoid infusion was implanted to the three patients. The initial dose was 2,4 mcg/die, with increments of 1,2 mcg/die every three days till the maximum dose of 4,8 mcg/die in two patients (survival 61 and 45 days and 7,2 mcg/die in a patient (survival 52 days. VAS reduction was 50% in the fi rst patient, of 57% in the second one and 70% in the third one. In one case, at the dose of 4,8 mcg/die, the treatment was associated with important collateral effects, that requested the temporary suspension of the drug.

  10. Assembling a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for breast tissue signal detection: preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumkin, Jules; Zheng, Bin; Gruss, Michelle; Drescher, John; Leader, Joseph; Good, Walter; Lu, Amy; Cohen, Cathy; Shah, Ratan; Zuley, Margarita; Gur, David

    2008-03-01

    Using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology to detect breast abnormalities in general and cancer in particular has been attracting research interests for decades. Large clinical tests suggest that current EIS systems can achieve high specificity (>= 90%) at a relatively low sensitivity ranging from 15% to 35%. In this study, we explore a new resonance frequency based electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) technology to measure breast tissue EIS signals in vivo, which aims to be more sensitive to small tissue changes. Through collaboration between our imaging research group and a commercial company, a unique prototype REIS system has been assembled and preliminary signal acquisition has commenced. This REIS system has two detection probes mounted in the two ends of a Y-shape support device with probe separation of 60 mm. During REIS measurement, one probe touches the nipple and the other touches to an outer point of the breast. The electronic system continuously generates sweeps of multi-frequency electrical pulses ranging from 100 to 4100 kHz. The maximum electric voltage and the current applied to the probes are 1.5V and 30mA, respectively. Once a "record" command is entered, multi-frequency sweeps are recorded every 12 seconds until the program receives a "stop recording" command. In our imaging center, we have collected REIS measurements from 150 women under an IRB approved protocol. The database includes 58 biopsy cases, 78 screening negative cases, and other "recalled" cases (for additional imaging procedures). We measured eight signal features from the effective REIS sweep of each breast. We applied a multi-feature based artificial neural network (ANN) to classify between "biopsy" and normal "non-biopsy" breasts. The ANN performance is evaluated using a leave-one-out validation method and ROC analysis. We conducted two experiments. The first experiment attempted to classify 58 "biopsy" breasts and 58 "non-biopsy" breasts acquired on 58 women

  11. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  12. Radiologic aspects of breast cancers detected through a breast cancer screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early detection in breast cancer and reduced mortality in women with this disease is today attributed to widespread use of mammography. High-quality performance is essential in all steps of breast cancer screening programs in order to avoid unnecessary anxiety and surgery in the women concerned. This report presents radiologic aspects of screening cancers. A total of 8370 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years were screened with 2-view mammography, of which only 70 (0.84 percent) were selected for surgery after a thorough work-up. Cancers were verified histologically in 61 women and 9 showed non-malignant histology, giving a cancer detection rate of 7.3 cancers per thousand screened asymptomatic women. The benign/malignant ratio in the operated cases is thus approximately 1:7. The cancers detected showed all existing types of mammographic features where 77 percent (47 cases) showed rather typical findings, such as spiculated densities both with and without microcalcifications. The results indicate that surgery can be minimized without impairing the breast cancer detection rate. Radiologists in screening programs should be aware that a large proportion of non-palpable breast cancers present in rather unconventional forms. This point is important in order to maintain a high cancer detection rate and thereby justify the widespread use of mammography as a screening tool for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. (author). 20 refs.; 1 tab

  13. In vivo detection of oral epithelial cancer using endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging: a pilot human study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Javier A.; Hwang, Dae Yon; Palma, Jorge; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Malik, Bilal; Jabbour, Joey; Cheng, Lisa; Wright, John; Maitland, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    Endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) provides direct access to the concomitant functional and biochemical changes accompanying tissue transition from benign to precancerous and cancerous. Since FLIM can noninvasively measure different and complementary biomarkers of precancer and cancer, we hypothesize that it will aid in clinically detecting early oral epithelial cancer. Our group has recently demonstrated the detection of benign from premalignant and malignant lesions based on endogenous multispectral FLIM in the hamster cheek-pouch model. Encouraged by these positive preliminary results, we have developed a handheld endoscope capable of acquiring multispectral FLIM images in real time from the oral mucosa. This novel FLIM endoscope is being used for imaging clinically suspicious pre-malignant and malignant lesions from patients before undergoing tissue biopsy for histopathological diagnosis of oral epithelial cancer. Our preliminary results thus far are already suggesting the potential of endogenous FLIM for distinguishing a variety of benign lesions from advanced dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To the best of out knowledge, this is the first in vivo human study aiming to demonstrate the ability to predict the true malignancy of clinically suspicious lesions using endogenous FLIM. If successful, the resulting clinical tool will allow noninvasive real-time detection of epithelial precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral mucosa and could potentially be used to assist at every step involved on the clinical management of oral cancer patients, from early screening and diagnosis, to treatment and monitoring of recurrence.

  14. Symptom report in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Mei R.; Axelrod, Deborah; Cleland, Charles M.; Qiu, Zeyuan; Amber A. Guth; Kleinman, Robin; Scagliola, Joan; Haber, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a syndrome of abnormal swelling coupled with multiple symptoms resulting from obstruction or disruption of the lymphatic system associated with cancer treatment. Research has demonstrated that with increased number of symptoms reported, breast cancer survivors’ limb volume increased. Lymphedema symptoms in the affected limb may indicate a latent stage of lymphedema in which changes cannot be detected by objective measures. The latent stage of lymphedema may...

  15. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinsky, Steven A.; Palmisano, William A.

    2007-05-08

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  16. Early Detection of Oral Pre-Cancerous Lesions: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Meena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The high mortality rate in cancer such as oral squamous cell carcinoma is commonly attributed to the negligence in detection of the disease at an early treatable stage. A number of promising recent technologies have been proposed to improve the effectiveness of early oral cancer detection. The goal of a cancer-screening is to detect tumors at a stage early enough so that treatment is likely to be successful. Screening tools are needed that exhibit the combined features of high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the screening tool must be sufficiently noninvasive and inexpensive to allow widespread applicability. This paper will attempt to overview the recent advances in the dentistry with special emphasis on detection of oral cancer in early stages and also aim to familiarize, the various diagnostic tools among undergraduates’ and postgraduates’ from different medical fields.

  17. Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, C.M.A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Hambrock, T.; Yakar, D.; Somford, D.M.; Heijmink, S.W.T.P.J.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vos, P.C.; Huisman, H.J.; Oort, I.M. van; Witjes, J.A.; Heerschap, A.; Futterer, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    This review presents the current state of the art regarding multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of prostate cancer. Technical requirements and clinical indications for the use of multiparametric MR imaging in detection, localization, characterization, staging, biopsy guidance, and active

  18. Impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on locally advanced cervical cancer treatment—preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S.; Dumitrascu, Irina; Roba, Carmen A.; Pop, Cristian; Ordeanu, Claudia; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Gurzau, Eugen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer research is a national and international priority, with the efficiency and effectiveness of current anti-tumor therapies being one of the major challenges with which physicians are faced. Objective To assess the impact of exposure to tobacco smoke, arsenic, and phthalates on cervical cancer treatment. Methods We investigated 37 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We determined cotinine and five phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected prior to cancer treatment, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and urinary total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. We used linear regression to evaluate the effects of cotinine, arsenic, and phthalates on the change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for confounding variables. Results We detected no significant associations between urinary cotinine, arsenic, or phthalate monoesters on change in tumor size after treatment, adjusted for urine creatinine, age, baseline tumor size, and cotinine (for arsenic and phthalates). However, higher %mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (%MEHP), a putative indicator of phthalate diester metabolism, was associated with a larger change in tumor size (β = 0.015, 95% CI [0.003–0.03], P = 0.019). Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between the urinary levels of arsenic, cotinine, and phthalates metabolites and the response to cervical cancer treatment as measured by the change in tumor size. Still, our results suggested that phthalates metabolism may be associated with response to treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, these observations are preliminary and will require confirmation in a larger, more definitive investigation. PMID:27652000

  19. Computer Aided Diagnosis systems for MR cancer detection

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The research activity conducted during my PhD aims to develop two different Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for breast and prostate cancer diagnosis using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. During the first part of this thesis I will illustrate a fully automatic CAD system for breast cancer detection and diagnosis with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) developed by our group. The main goal of a CAD system is lesions detection and characterization. The processing pipeline includes automa...

  20. Gene Expression Profiling in Hereditary, BRCA1-linked Breast Cancer: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaladava Volha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global analysis of gene expression by DNA microarrays is nowadays a widely used tool, especially relevant for cancer research. It helps the understanding of complex biology of cancer tissue, allows identification of novel molecular markers, reveals previously unknown molecular subtypes of cancer that differ by clinical features like drug susceptibility or general prognosis. Our aim was to compare gene expression profiles in breast cancer that develop against a background of inherited predisposing mutations versus sporadic breast cancer. In this preliminary study we analysed seven hereditary, BRCA1 mutation-linked breast cancer tissues and seven sporadic cases that were carefully matched by histopathology and ER status. Additionally, we analysed 6 samples of normal breast tissue. We found that while the difference in gene expression profiles between tumour tissue and normal breast can be easily recognized by unsupervised algorithms, the difference between those two types of tumours is more discrete. However, by supervised methods of data analysis, we were able to select a set of genes that may differentiate between hereditary and sporadic tumours. The most significant difference concerns genes that code for proteins engaged in regulation of transcription, cellular metabolism, signalling, proliferation and cell death. Microarray results for chosen genes (TOB1, SEPHS2 were validated by real-time RT-PCR.

  1. Optimizing the Detection of Circulating Markers to Aid in Early Lung Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Ramnath, Nithya; Nagrath, Sunitha; Reddy, Rishindra M

    2016-01-01

    Improving early detection of lung cancer is critical to improving lung cancer survival. Studies have shown that computerized tomography (CT) screening can reduce mortality from lung cancer, but this involves risks of radiation exposure and can identify non-cancer lung nodules that lead to unnecessary interventions for some. There is a critical need to develop alternative, less invasive methods to identify patients who have early-stage lung cancer. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising area of research, but current technology is limited by a low yield of CTCs. Alternate studies are investigating circulating nucleic acids and proteins as possible tumor markers. It is critical to develop innovative methods for early lung cancer detection that may include CTCs or other markers that are low-risk and low-cost, yet specific and sensitive, to facilitate improved survival by diagnosing the disease when it is surgically curable. PMID:27367729

  2. Theranostic nanomedicine for cancer detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Fan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA according to the American Cancer Society. In the past 5 years, “theranostic nanomedicine”, for both therapeutics and imaging, has shown to be “the right drug for the right patient at the right moment” to manage deadly cancers. This review article presents an overview of recent developments, mainly from the authors' laboratories, along with potential medical applications for theranostic nanomedicine including basic concepts and critical properties. Finally, we outline the future research direction and possible challenges for theranostic nanomedicine research.

  3. DETECTION OF Helicobacter pylori IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF SHEEP: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rella; C. Tamborrino; G. V. Celano; Normanno, G; Alberti, F.; A. Dambrosio; N.C. Quaglia

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an organism widespread in humans and sometimes responsible for serious illnesses. It has been hypothesized the existence of animal reservoirs, and that the infection route by H. pylori involves multiple pathways including food-borne transmission as the microorganism has been detected from sheep, goat and cow milk. This work reports the preliminary results of a survey conducted in order to investigate the presence of H. pylori in gastric mucosa of sheep slaughtered in Ap...

  4. Preliminary study on detection of irradiated foodstuffs from the Romanian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Chirita, Daniel; Savu, Diana; Elisabeta Secu, Corina; Mihai, Radu; Secu, Mihai; Ponta, Corneliu

    2007-08-01

    In order to fulfil the European task for market survey in food irradiation the first Romanian laboratory for detection of irradiated foodstuffs was established at IRASM Irradiation Centre. In this preliminary study, a wide range of Romanian food samples (spices, vegetables and meat) gamma irradiated at IRASM have been studied using different detection methods: (1) DNA comet assay, (2) thermoluminescence (TL) and (3) electron spin resonance (ESR) for foodstuffs containing bone or cellulose. The results suggest that there is no general available detection method and there is no perfect detection method. In conclusion, in order to carry out a correct identification of radiation treatment of a food sample it is recommended to use at least two standardised detection methods.

  5. Strategy against micrometastasis of epithelial cancer: Detection and elimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is generally agreed to be the major cause of cancer death. Over the last few years, studies of new diagnosis techniques and tumor immunotherapy have made great progress. Recent clinical studies on the occult metastases of breast, lung and colorectal cancer all suggested that the detection of micrometastases in bone marrow is prognostically important and provides substantial evidence of tumor dissemination. On the other hand, two kinds of the mAb-based immunotherapy have been approved for the treatment against epithelial cancer. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 17-1A for colorectal carcinomas and mAb herceptin for breast cancer both have produced good curative effects. Potential therapeutics based on some antibodies with prominent antitumor activity also has shown obvious clinical effect. These studies indicate that detection of micrometastasis in circulatory system and immunotherapy by eliminating metastatic malignant cells suggested a new strategy against the metastatic cancer.

  6. Occurrence of Breast Cancer After Chest Wall Irradiation for Pediatric Cancer, as Detected by a Multimodal Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terenziani, Monica [Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Casalini, Patrizia [Molecular Biology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Scaperrotta, Gianfranco; Gandola, Lorenza; Trecate, Giovanna [Radiology and Radiotherapy Departments, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Catania, Serena; Cefalo, Graziella [Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Conti, Alberto [Breast Surgery Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Massimino, Maura; Meazza, Cristina; Podda, Marta; Spreafico, Filippo [Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Suman, Laura [Radiology and Radiotherapy Departments, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Gennaro, Massimiliano, E-mail: gennaromassimiliano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Breast Surgery Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the occurrence of breast cancer (BC) after exposure to ionizing radiation for pediatric cancer, by means of a multimodal screening program. Patients and Methods: We identified 86 patients who had received chest wall radiation therapy for pediatric cancer. Clinical breast examination (CBE), ultrasound (US), and mammography (MX) were performed yearly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added as of October 2007. We calculated the risk of developing BC by radiation therapy dose, patient age, and menarche before or after primary treatment. Results: Eleven women developed a BC from July 2002-February 2010. The sensitivity of the screening methods was 36% for CBE, 73% for MX, 55% for US, and 100% for MRI; the specificity was 91%, 99%, 95%, and 80% for CBE, MX, US, and MRI, respectively. The annual BC detection rate was 2.9%. The median age at BC diagnosis was 33 years. Although age had no influence, menarche before as opposed to after radiation therapy correlated significantly with BC (P=.027): the annual BC detection rate in the former subgroup was 5.3%. Conclusions: Mammography proved more sensitive and specific in our cohort of young women than CBE or US. Magnetic resonance imaging proved 100% sensitive (but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed). Our cohort of patients carries a 10-fold BC risk at an age more than 20 years younger than in the general population.

  7. Occurrence of Breast Cancer After Chest Wall Irradiation for Pediatric Cancer, as Detected by a Multimodal Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the occurrence of breast cancer (BC) after exposure to ionizing radiation for pediatric cancer, by means of a multimodal screening program. Patients and Methods: We identified 86 patients who had received chest wall radiation therapy for pediatric cancer. Clinical breast examination (CBE), ultrasound (US), and mammography (MX) were performed yearly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added as of October 2007. We calculated the risk of developing BC by radiation therapy dose, patient age, and menarche before or after primary treatment. Results: Eleven women developed a BC from July 2002-February 2010. The sensitivity of the screening methods was 36% for CBE, 73% for MX, 55% for US, and 100% for MRI; the specificity was 91%, 99%, 95%, and 80% for CBE, MX, US, and MRI, respectively. The annual BC detection rate was 2.9%. The median age at BC diagnosis was 33 years. Although age had no influence, menarche before as opposed to after radiation therapy correlated significantly with BC (P=.027): the annual BC detection rate in the former subgroup was 5.3%. Conclusions: Mammography proved more sensitive and specific in our cohort of young women than CBE or US. Magnetic resonance imaging proved 100% sensitive (but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed). Our cohort of patients carries a 10-fold BC risk at an age more than 20 years younger than in the general population.

  8. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter ... that can cause lung cancer." The 2011 National Cancer Institute's National Lung Screening Trial showed the importance of detecting lung ...

  9. 99mTc somatostatin imaging for detection of somatostatin receptor. A preliminary result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    clinical indications patient with 99mTcSR negative and positive finding, were correlated with Chest Rx, TAC, MNR, 131I MIBG, 67Ga imaging. These results are presented. Conclusion: The results of this preliminary study revealed that the scintigraphy with 99mTc-SR is a promising agent for routine detection of somatostatin receptor

  10. Optimizing early upper gastrointestinal cancer detection at endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Andrew M; Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi; East, James E

    2015-11-01

    Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers are poor and oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing. Upper gastrointestinal cancer is also often missed during examinations; a predicament that has not yet been sufficiently addressed. Improvements in the detection of premalignant lesions, early oesophageal and gastric cancers will enable organ-preserving endoscopic therapy, potentially reducing the number of advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers and resulting in improved prognosis. Japan is a world leader in high-quality diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the clinical routine in this country differs substantially from Western practice. In this Perspectives article, we review lessons learnt from Japanese gastroscopy technique, training and screening for risk stratification. We suggest a key performance indicator for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a minimum total procedure time of 8 min, and examine how quality assurance concepts in bowel cancer screening in the UK could be applied to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and improve clinical practice.

  11. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O;

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case-control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom...... Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening where women gave annual blood samples. Cases were postmenopausal women who developed colorectal cancer following recruitment, with 2 or more serum samples preceding diagnosis. Controls were age-matched women with no history of cancer.Results:The 50¿640 women...

  12. Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Peter; Joy, Cody; Bujana, Antonio; Rho, DongGee; Kim, Seunghyun

    2016-03-01

    We report an optical cavity based biosensor using a novel differential detection method for point-of-care applications. Two laser diodes allow for multiplexing capability along with the ability to enhance the responsivity using differential detection. The laser wavelengths are chosen so that the optical intensities of two lasers change monotonically with opposite slopes upon the adsorption of desired biomarkers. The cavity width, PMMA thickness, and silver thickness have been optimized to achieve a large change in scaled differential value. We chose biotinylated BSA detection with Avidin as a receptor molecule to demonstrate the proposed design. Avidin is attached directly to the PMMA layer by physisorption. Then, biotinylated BSA is introduced to the sample and the intensities of the laser diodes are measured by a sCMOS camera. A change in the scaled differential value will correlate to the binding of biotinylated BSA. In this presentation, we will discuss simulation results, fabrication procedures, and preliminary measurement results.

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiubo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PC (pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates have been increasing year by year worldwide, and this review has analyzed the most recent incidence and mortality data for pancreatic cancer occurrence in China. Several possible risk factors have been discussed here, involving known established risk factors and novel possible risk factors. The development of this cancer is a stepwise progression through intraepithelial neoplasia to carcinoma. Though early and accurate diagnosis is promising based on a combination of recent techniques including tumor markers and imaging modalities, lacking early clinical symptoms makes the diagnosis late. Correct staging is critical because treatment is generally based on this parameter. Treatment options have improved throughout the last decades. However, surgical excision remains the primary therapy and efficacy of conventional chemoradiotherapy for PC is limited. Recently, some novel new therapies have been developed and will be applied in clinics soon. This review will provide an overview of pancreatic cancer, including an understanding of the developments and controversies.

  14. Systems biology of cancer biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sanga; Das, Smarajit; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems-biology is an ever-growing area of research due to explosion of data; how to mine these data and extract useful information is the problem. To have an insight on carcinogenesis one need to systematically mine several resources, such as databases, microarray and next-generation sequences. This review encompasses management and analysis of cancer data, databases construction and data deposition, whole transcriptome and genome comparison, analysing results from high throughput experiments to uncover cellular pathways and molecular interactions, and the design of effective algorithms to identify potential biomarkers. Recent technical advances such as ChIP-on-chip, ChIP-seq and RNA-seq can be applied to get epigenetic information transformed into a high-throughput endeavour to which systems biology and bioinformatics are making significant inroads. The data from ENCODE and GENCODE projects available through UCSC genome browser can be considered as benchmark for comparison and meta-analysis. A pipeline for integrating next generation sequencing data, microarray data, and putting them together with the existing database is discussed. The understanding of cancer genomics is changing the way we approach cancer diagnosis and treatment. To give a better understanding of utilizing available resources' we have chosen oral cancer to show how and what kind of analysis can be done. This review is a computational genomic primer that provides a bird's eye view of computational and bioinformatics' tools currently available to perform integrated genomic and system biology analyses of several carcinoma.

  15. Detection of colon cancer by terahertz techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Valusis, Gintaras; Bernardo, Luis M.; Almeida, Abílio; Moreira, Joaquim A.; Lopes, Patricia C.; Macutkevic, Jan; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Adomavicius, Ramunas; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Machado

    2011-12-01

    Human normal and cancer affected samples of colon tissue have been measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and continuous wave terahertz imaging. We show that it is possible to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in the samples when they are fixed in formalin or embedded in paraffin. The still noticeable contrast in the dried paraffin-embedded tissues could indicate that there are additional contrast-contributing factors other than water, which is the main goal of the present work. Plots of the refractive index of normal and cancer affected tissues as well as 2-D transmission THz images are shown. Experimental results are presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue are discussed.

  16. p53 Response to Ultrasound: Preliminary Observations in MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Janis M.; Campbell, Paul A.

    2011-09-01

    Mutated p53 can be found in approximately half of all human cancers. Strategies which seek to restore, or at least exercise a level of external control over, p53 functionality are thus potentially useful as adjuncts to therapy. Here, we report our preliminary measurements in this area, and demonstrate that short-burst pulsed ultrasound can indeed affect p53 activity. Specifically, we have observed that expression of the p53 protein can be regulated in the period immediately following low intensity short pulse (millisecond) ultrasound exposure, and that altered activity levels return to basal levels over a 24 hour period post-insonation.

  17. E-Learning Content for Early Detection Cervival Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus PUTRANTO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most commonly type of cancer that strikes women. The rate of deaths caused by this type of cancer is quite high. The mortality rate caused by this cancer can be reduced through early detection program. To support this program, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia is aware of the need for training the health workers in order to do the socialization quickly and evenly to all corners of Indonesia in order to reduce the number of cases of death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this research was to find out the type of online learning content that was suitable and easy for the public and medical personnel to understand on early detection of cervical cancer. The method used British Columbia’s standard for online learning content which mainly focused on four criteria. Moreover, the method that was used by Jeong and Kim to design the content of an instructional approach was also employed. Bloom’s taxonomy theory was followed as the reference theory in designing the online learning material. The result described the information content of the early detection of cervical cancer in form of multimedia in online learning.

  18. Early detection of lung cancer using low-dose CT: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from malignancy. Due to a lack of early symptoms patients usually undergo therapy at advanced tumor stages when prognosis is poor. Feasibility studies of low-dose spiral CT screening of heavy smokers have shown that many small, resectable lung cancers can be diagnosed at early stages using simple diagnostic algorithms based on size and attenuation of detected pulmonary nodules with a small proportion of invasive procedures for benign lesions. Preliminary results of repeat screening confirms small size and favourable stage distribution of detected cancers, using even simpler diagnostic algorithms: additional diagnostic procedures are only required in new or growing nodules whereas follow-up with low-dose CT is sufficient in nodules that appear unchanged to exclude slow growth. However, mortality reduction by lung cancer screening with low-dose CT has yet to be demonstrated. Several randomised controlled trials are under way to assess possible mortality reduction by comparison of mortalities in a screening group and a control group. It is hoped that through international cooperation data from these trials can be pooled to allow for statistically significant conclusions as early as possible. (orig.)

  19. Contrast-Enhanced Harmonic Ultrasonography for the Assessment of Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness: a Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunkai; Chen, Yaqing; Jiang, Jun [Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ren; Zhou, Yongchang; Zhang, Huizhen [Sixth People' s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-02-15

    To determine whether contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography can be used to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography was performed in 103 patients suspected of prostate cancer before biopsy. Time intensity curves were reconstructed for systematic biopsy sites and sonographic abnormalities. The characteristics of the curves were described using hemodynamic indices including arrival time (AT), time-to-peak (TTP), and peak intensity (PI). The differences of hemodynamic indices between high-grade and low-grade cancer were analyzed and the correlations between the hemodynamic indices and biopsy Gleason score were studied. Prostate cancer was detected in 41 of 103 patients and there were significant differences in the hemodynamic indices between the biopsy sites of the non-malignant patients and prostate cancer lesions (p < 0.05). The prostate biopsies revealed 154 prostate cancer lesions, including 31 low-grade lesions and 123 high-grade lesions. The hemodynamic indices AT and TTP of highgrade tumors were significantly shorter than those of low-grade tumors (p = 0.001, 0.002). In addition, high-grade peripheral zone (PZ) tumors had higher PI than low-grade PZ tumors (p = 0.009). The PZ prostate cancer Gleason score correlated with PI, AT and TTP, with Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.223, -0.335, and -0.351, respectively (p = 0.013, < 0.001 and < 0.001). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound measurements of hemodynamic indices correlate with the prostate cancer Gleason score.

  20. Development of a combined ultrasound and electrical impedance imaging system for prostate cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuqing

    Approximately 240,890 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 33,720 men were expected to die from it in the year of 2011 in the United States. Unfortunately, the current clinical diagnostic methods (e.g. prostate-specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination, ultrasound guided biopsy) used for detecting and staging prostate cancer are limited. It has been shown that cancerous prostate tissue has significantly different electrical properties when compared to benign tissues. Based on these electrical property findings, a transrectal electrical impedance tomography (TREIT) system is proposed as a novel prostate imaging modality. An ultrasound probe is incorporated with TREIT to achieve anatomic information of the prostate and guide electrical property reconstruction. Without the guidance of the ultrasound, the TREIT system can easily discern high contrast inclusions of 1 cm in diameter at distances centered at two times the radius of the TREIT probe away from the probe surface. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that our system is able to detect low contrast inclusions. With the guidance of the ultrasound, our system is capable of detecting a plastic inclusion embedded in a gelatin phantom, indicating the potential to detect cancer. In addition, the results of preliminary in vivo clinical trials using the imaging system are also presented in the thesis. After collecting data for a total 66 patients, we demonstrated that the in vivo conductivity of cancerous tissue is significantly greater than that of benign tissue (p=0.0015 at 400 Hz) and the conductivity of BPH tissue is significantly lower than that of normal tissue (p=0.0009 at 400 Hz). Additionally at 25.6 kHz, the dual-modal imaging system is able to differentiate cancerous tissue from benign tissue with sensitivity of 0.6012 and specificity of 0.5498, normal tissue from BPH tissue with sensitivity of 0.6085 and specificity of 0.5813 and differentiate cancerous tissue from BPH tissue with sensitivity of

  1. Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommenda...

  2. Observations of liver cancer cells in scanning probe acoustic microscope: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohui; Fang, Xiaoyue; Xi, Qing; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Ning; Ding, Mingyue

    2016-04-01

    Scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM) can be used to acquire the morphology image as well as the non-destructive internal structures acoustic image. However, the observations of the morphology image as well as the internal structures acoustic image of liver cancer cells in SPAM are few. In this paper, we cultured 4 different types of liver cancer cells on the silicon wafer and coverslip to observe their morphology images as well as acoustic images in SPAM, and made a preliminary study of the 8 types of cells specimens (hereinafter referred to as the silicon specimens and coverslips specimens). The experimental measurement results showed that some cellular pseudopodium were observed in the morphology images of the coverslip specimens while no such cellular pseupodium were appeared in the morphology images of the silicon specimens, which concluded that the living liver cancer cells were less likely to grow on the silicon wafer. SPAM provides a rapid and sensitive visual method for studying the morphology and internal structures of the cancer cells. The proposed method can be also used to obtain the morphology and internal information in both solid and soft material wafers, such as silicon and cells, with the resolution of nanometer scale.

  3. Chemopreventive Effects of Morindia Citrifolia Juice (noni on Experimental Breast Cancer in Rats: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Serrano Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the effect of Morindia citrifolia juice (Tahitian Noni® in the development of breast cancer induced by carcinogen agent 7.12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA in rats. For this purpose, the breast cancer induction model 1.7-DMBA was used on Spraguey Dawley nulliparous rats of 35 days of age, randomly divided into three groups: group 1 control, which received no treatment, and groups 2 and 3, induced with DMBA at a dose of 55 mg/kg. The latter received a dose of noni juice of 4 ml/kg per day for 90 days. The results showed that a significant percentage (83.33% of the rats from the group induced with DMBA not treated with noni juice developed palpable breast tumors ( ≤ 2 cm of the ductal carcinoma in situ type and atypical ductal hyperplasia, compared to the other groups that did not develop any kind of tumors. In addition, it was found that rats that developed breast cancer had a lower weight gain and significantly increased water consumption (p < 0.05 compared to the other two groups. The results of the hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes between groups. Histopathological changes compatible with liver toxicity were found in rats treated with noni juice. In conclusion, it was found in this preliminary study that noni juice has positive effects in modulating the development of breast cancer induced by DMBA.

  4. Preliminary research on abnormal brain detection by wavelet-energy and quantum- behaved PSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yudong; Ji, Genlin; Yang, Jiquan; Wang, Shuihua; Dong, Zhengchao; Phillips, Preetha; Sun, Ping

    2016-04-29

    It is important to detect abnormal brains accurately and early. The wavelet-energy (WE) was a successful feature descriptor that achieved excellent performance in various applications; hence, we proposed a WE based new approach for automated abnormal detection, and reported its preliminary results in this study. The kernel support vector machine (KSVM) was used as the classifier, and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) was introduced to optimize the weights of the SVM. The results based on a 5 × 5-fold cross validation showed the performance of the proposed WE + QPSO-KSVM was superior to ``DWT + PCA + BP-NN'', ``DWT + PCA + RBF-NN'', ``DWT + PCA + PSO-KSVM'', ``WE + BPNN'', ``WE +$ KSVM'', and ``DWT $+$ PCA $+$ GA-KSVM'' w.r.t. sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The work provides a novel means to detect abnormal brains with excellent performance. PMID:27163327

  5. DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE IN EARLY CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李斌; 章文华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection in early cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 27 patients with operable invasive early cervical cancer and clinically proved negative pelvic lymph nodes were included in this study. The 99Tcm-dextran of 74 MBq (2 mCi) was injected around the cervix at 2( and 10(. Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection were used to find the SLN. Results: The SLN was identified in 27 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the SLN detection to predict the metastasis of the pelvic lymph node were 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Identification of the SLN using radionuclide is feasible and possible in women with early cervical cancer.

  6. Preliminary experimental validation of a landmine detection system based on localized heating and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsi, M.; Corcione, M.; Dell'Omo, P.; Esposito, S.; Magliocchetti, L.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present results of experimental validation of a new methodology for anti-personnel mine (APM) detection for humanitarian demining, proposed by the authors and previously validated only by simulation. The technique is based on local heating and sensing by contactless thermometers (pyrometers). A large sand box (2.6m 3) has been realized and fitted with a cart moving on rails and holding instrumentation. Accurate mine surrogates have been hidden in the sand together with confounders. Preliminary measurements are consistent with simulations and prove validity of the approach.

  7. Chemoresistive Gas Sensors for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Malagù

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous medical studies show that tumor growth is accompanied by protein changes that may lead to the peroxidation of the cell membrane with consequent emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by breath or intestinal gases that should be seen as biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC. The analysis of VOCs represents a non-invasive and potentially inexpensive preliminary screening technique. An array of chemoresistive gas sensors based on screen-printed metal oxide semiconducting films has been selected to discriminate gases of oncological interest, e.g., 1-iodononane and benzene, widely assumed to be biomarkers of colorectal cancer, from those of interference in the gut, such as methane and nitric oxide.

  8. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  9. Proteomic profiling of urine for the detection of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakelam Michael JO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death in the developed world. To date, no blood or stool biomarkers with both high sensitivity and specificity for potentially curable early stage disease have been validated for clinical use. SELDI and MALDI profiling are being used increasingly to search for biomarkers in both blood and urine. Both techniques provide information predominantly on the low molecular weight proteome ( Results We collected urine from 67 patients with colorectal cancer and 72 non-cancer control subjects, diluted to a constant protein concentration and generated MALDI and SELDI spectra. The intensities of 19 peaks differed significantly between cancer and non-cancer patients by both t-tests and after adjusting for confounders using multiple linear regressions. Logistic regression classifiers based on peak intensities identified colorectal cancer with up to 78% sensitivity at 87% specificity. We identified and independently quantified 3 of the discriminatory peaks using synthetic stable isotope peptides (an 1885 Da fragment of fibrinogen and hepcidin-20 or ELISA (β2-microglobulin. Conclusion Changes in the urine proteome may aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer.

  10. Computational optimisation of targeted DNA sequencing for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pierre; McGranahan, Nicholas; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; Swanton, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Despite recent progress thanks to next-generation sequencing technologies, personalised cancer medicine is still hampered by intra-tumour heterogeneity and drug resistance. As most patients with advanced metastatic disease face poor survival, there is need to improve early diagnosis. Analysing circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) might represent a non-invasive method to detect mutations in patients, facilitating early detection. In this article, we define reduced gene panels from publicly available datasets as a first step to assess and optimise the potential of targeted ctDNA scans for early tumour detection. Dividing 4,467 samples into one discovery and two independent validation cohorts, we show that up to 76% of 10 cancer types harbour at least one mutation in a panel of only 25 genes, with high sensitivity across most tumour types. Our analyses demonstrate that targeting ``hotspot'' regions would introduce biases towards in-frame mutations and would compromise the reproducibility of tumour detection.

  11. Improved detection of breast cancer on FDG-PET cancer screening using breast positioning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of breast cancer by positron emission tomography cancer screening using a breast positioning device. Between January 2004 and January 2006, 1,498 healthy asymptomatic individuals underwent cancer screening by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at our institution; 660 of 1498 asymptomatic healthy women underwent breast PET imaging in the prone position using the breast positioning device to examine the mammary glands in addition to whole-body PET imaging. All subjects that showed abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the mammary glands were referred for further examination or surgery at our institution or a local hospital. Our data were compared with the histopathological findings or findings of other imaging modalities in our institution and replies from the doctors at another hospital. Of the 660 participants, 7 (1.06%) were found to have breast cancers at a curable stage. All the seven cancers were detected by breast PET imaging, but only five of these were detected by whole-body PET imaging; the other two were detected by breast PET imaging using the breast positioning device. In cancer screening, prone breast imaging using a positioning device may help to improve the detection rate of breast cancer. However, overall cancer including mammography and ultrasonography screening should be performed to investigate the false-negative cases and reduce false-positive cases. The effectiveness of prone breast PET imaging in cancer screening should be investigated using a much larger number of cases in the near future. (author)

  12. Use of Autoantibodies to Detect the Onset of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Lacombe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of screening mammography has resulted in increased detection of early-stage breast disease, particularly for in situ carcinoma and early-stage breast cancer. However, the majority of women with abnormalities noted on screening mammograms are not diagnosed with cancer because of several factors, including radiologist assessment, patient age, breast density, malpractice concerns, and quality control procedures. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive detection tool that has become standard for women at very high risk of developing breast cancer, it lacks sufficient specificity and costeffectiveness for use as a general screening tool. Therefore, there is an important need to improve screening and diagnosis of early-invasive and noninvasive tumors, that is, in situ carcinoma. The great potential for molecular tools to improve breast cancer outcomes based on early diagnosis has driven the search for diagnostic biomarkers. Identification of tumor-specific markers capable of eliciting an immune response in the early stages of tumor development seems to provide an effective approach for early diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe several autoantibodies identified during breast cancer diagnosis. We will focus on these molecules highlighted in the past two years and discuss the potential future use of autoantibodies as biomarkers of early-stage breast cancer.

  13. Relationship Between Dual Time Point FDG PET and Immunohistochemical Parameters in Preoperative Colorectal Cancer: Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Lee, Won Ae; Park, Seok Gun; Park, Dong Kook; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The clinical availability of 2 deoxy 2 [18F] fluoro D glucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (DTPP) has been investigated in diverse oncologic fields. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the relationship between various immunohistopathologic markers reflecting disease progression of colorectal cancer and parameters extracted from FDG DTPP in colorectal cancer patients. Forty seven patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were analyzed in this preliminary study. FDG DTPP consisted of an early scan 1 h after FDG injection and a delayed scan 1.5 h after the early scan. Based on an analysis of FDG DTPP, we estimated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumors on the early and delayed scans (SUV{sup earlya}nd SUV{sup delayed,} respectively). The retention index (RI) was calculated as follows: (SUV{sup delayed-} SUV{sup early)} x 100/ SUV{sup early.} The clinicopathological findings (size and T and N stages) and immunohistochemical factors [glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1), hexokinase 2 (HK 2), p53, P504S, and {beta} catenin] were analyzed by visual analysis. The RIs calculated from the SUVs ranged from -1.8 to 73.4 (31.8{+-}15.5). The RIs were significantly higher in patients with high T stages (T3 and T4) than with low T stages (T1 and T2; P<0.05). Among the immunohistochemical analytic markers, GLUT 1 had the highest positive staining rate (93.6%) compared to other markers. Based on unvariable analysis, it was shown that the RI of high level GLUT 1 expression was significantly higher than low level GLUT 1 expression (p=0.01), and the RI of high level p53 expression (p=0.08). Multivariate analysis to investigate a link between RI and clinico pathologic parameters of colorectal carcinoma showed that GLUT 1, p53, and T staging were independently connected with increased RIs (p<0.05, total) using backward selection methods. There was no significant statistical relationship between SUV

  14. Tumor specific glycoproteins and method for detecting tumorigenic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of tumour specific glycoproteins (TSGP) in human sera often indicates the presence of a malignant tumour in a patient. The distinguishing characteristics of TSGP isolated from the blood sera of cancer patients are described in detail together with methods of TSGP isolation and purification. Details are also given of radioimmunoassay techniques capable of detecting very low levels of serum TSGP with high specificity. (U.K.)

  15. Breast Cancer Detection Using Interferometric MUSIC: Experimental and Numerical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ruvio, Giuseppe; Solimene, Raffaele; Cuccaro, Antonio; Gaetano, Domenico; Browne, Jacinta; Ammann, Max

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In microwave breast cancer detection, it is often beneficial to arrange sensors in close proximity to the breast. The resultant coupling generally changes the antenna response. As an a priori characterization of the radio frequency system becomes difficult, this can lead to severe degradation of the detection efficacy. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the advantages of adopting an interferometric multiple signal classification (I-MUSIC) approach due to its limited dependen...

  16. DETECTION OF Helicobacter pylori IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF SHEEP: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is an organism widespread in humans and sometimes responsible for serious illnesses. It has been hypothesized the existence of animal reservoirs, and that the infection route by H. pylori involves multiple pathways including food-borne transmission as the microorganism has been detected from sheep, goat and cow milk. This work reports the preliminary results of a survey conducted in order to investigate the presence of H. pylori in gastric mucosa of sheep slaughtered in Apulia region (Italy employing a Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR assay for the detection of the phosphoglucosamine mutase gene (glmM, as screening method followed by conventional bacteriological isolation. Out of the 50 gastric mucosa samples examined, 3 (6% resulted positive for the presence of glmMgene, but at this time no strains were isolated. The results deserve further investigations to asses the role of ruminants as possible reservoirs of H. pylori.

  17. Preliminary study for the personal handheld device based snoring detection in ordinary sleep situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hangsik; Choi, Wangrim; Kim, Yi-gon; Cho, Jaegeol

    2014-01-01

    Snoring is one of the representative phenomena of the sleep disorder and detection of snoring is quite important for improving quality of daily human life. The purpose of this research is to define the noises of the ordinary sleep situation and to find its characteristics as a preliminary research of snoring detection. Differently from previous snoring researches, we use a built-in sound recording system of Smartphone for practical use in ordinary sleep condition, and recording was carried out in a general private bedroom. Especially, we designed the experimental protocol, including the various noises could be frequently occurred during sleep such as cough, music, talking, alarm, door open/close, fan, radio and footstep to make closer to the actual sleep circumstance. The sound data set was recorded during actual sleep from 10 normal subjects. Totally 44 snoring data set and 75-noise dataset is acquired and analyzed. PMID:25570791

  18. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  19. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  20. Supercontinuum based mid-IR imaging spectroscopy for cancer detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis;

    2014-01-01

    The mid-infrared (IR) spectral region is of significant technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinct spectral fingerprints. To date, the limitations of mid-IR light sources, such as thermal emitters, low...... cancer detection with mid-IR imaging spectroscopy....

  1. Molecular markers for detection, surveillance and prognostication of bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrooman, O.P.; Witjes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Many markers for the detection of bladder cancers have been tested and almost all urinary markers reported are better than cytology with regard to sensitivity, but they score lower in specificity. Currently molecular and genetic changes play an important role in the discovery of new molecular marker

  2. F-18-FLT-PET for detection of rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijs, Christina T.; Beukema, Jannet C.; Widder, Joachim; van den Bergh, Alphons C. M.; Havenga, Klaas; Pruim, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This pilot study was undertaken to examine the ability of F-18-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxy-L-thymidine positron emission tomography (F-18-FLT-PET)to detect rectal cancer, to identify pathologic lymph nodes and to determine the accuracy of tumour length estimation in comparison with computer tomograp

  3. Optimizing prostate cancer detection: 8 versus 12-core biopsy protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M.C.H. de la Rosette; M.H. Wink; C. Mamoulakis; N. Wondergem; F.J.C. ten Kate; K. Zwinderman; Th.M. de Reijke; H. Wijkstra

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We compared prostate cancer detection rates achieved using an 8 and 12-core biopsy protocol in a clinical population to determine the significance of additional transition zone sampling on repeat biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 2004 and September 2007, 269 eligible patients

  4. Assessment and Development of Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard

    At the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), a 3D tomographic microwave imaging system is currently being developed with the aim of using nonlinear microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection. The imaging algorithm used in the system is based on an iterative Newton-type scheme. In this algorithm...

  5. The preliminary clinical application of PET/CT on the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of PET/CT on the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Methods: 46 lung cancer patients including 35 pre-treatment and 11 post-treatment cases. PET/CT fusion images, PET images and CT images of the same patient were analyzed frame by frame. Results: 1) The sensitivity of PET/CT in 35 pre-treated cases reached 100%. Except one case of alveolar carcinoma showed a diffuse uptake in both lungs, the other patients displayed as hypermetabolic nodular or mass lesions with the size around 0.8-9.4 cm and the standardized uptake value (SUV) 4.6 ± 1.94. The position of hypermetabolic lesion of PET finding were all concordant to CT. PET/CT was superior to PET and CT in final diagnosis, delineating the border, detecting tumor invasion and in differentiating lung cancer from atelectasis, obstructive pneumonitis and pleural effusion. Among 11 post-treated cases, no malignancy was seen in 9 cases and in two cases with metastases in both lungs, the lesions were detected definitely by PET/CT. 2)For the staging, PET/CT was also superior to PET and CT alone with the sensitivity of 95.2%(PET/CT), 90.4%(PET), 73.8%(CT) respectively. PET and CT were complemental each other in the detection of the lesions. Obviously, PET was superior to CT in detection of small lymph node metastases, pleura, bone and adrenal metastases. CT was better than PET in detection of small lung metastases. Conclusions: PET/CT is superior to PET and CT alone in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. PET and CT can complement each other. (authors)

  6. Surface engineered biosensors for the early detection of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhymin

    Cancer commences in the building block of human body which is cells and in most of the cases remains silent at early stage. Diseases are only expressed at molecular and cellular level at primary stages. Recognition of diseases at this micro and nano level might reduce the mortality rate of cancer significantly. This research work aimed to introduce novel electronic biosensors for for identification of cancer at cellular level. The dissertation study focuses on 1) Label-Free Isolation of Metastatic Tumor Cells Using Filter Based Microfluidic device; 2) Nanotextured Polymer Substrates for Enhanced Cancer Cell Isolation and Cell Growth; 3) Nanotextured Microfluidic Channel for Electrical Profiling and Detection of Tumor Cells from Blood; and 4) Single Biochip for the Detection of Tumor Cells by Electrical Profile and Surface Immobilized Aptamer. Standard silicon processing techniques were followed to fabricate all of the biosensors. Nantoextruing and surface functionalizon were also incorporated to elevate the efficiency of the devices. The first approach aimed to detect cancer cells from blood based on their mechanophysical properties. Cancer cells are larger than blood cells but highly elastic in nature. These cells can squeeze through small microchannels much smaller than their size. The cross sectional area of the microchannels was optimized to isolate tumor cells from blood. Nanotextured polymer substrates, a platform inspired from the natural basement membrane was used to enhance the isolation and growth of tumor cells. Micro reactive ion etching was performed to have better control on features of nantoxtured surfaces and did not require any template. Next, electrical measurement of ionic current was performed across single microchannel to detect tumor cells from blood. Later, nanotexturing enhanced the efficiency of the device by selectively altering the translocation profile of cancer cells. Eventually aptamer functionalized nanotextured polymer surface was

  7. Symptom report in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu MR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mei R Fu,1 Deborah Axelrod,2,3 Charles M Cleland,1 Zeyuan Qiu,4 Amber A Guth,2,3 Robin Kleinman,2 Joan Scagliola,2 Judith Haber1 1College of Nursing, New York University, 2Department of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine, 3NYU Clinical Cancer Center, New York, NY, 4Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA Abstract: Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a syndrome of abnormal swelling coupled with multiple symptoms resulting from obstruction or disruption of the lymphatic system associated with cancer treatment. Research has demonstrated that with increased number of symptoms reported, breast cancer survivors' limb volume increased. Lymphedema symptoms in the affected limb may indicate a latent stage of lymphedema in which changes cannot be detected by objective measures. The latent stage of lymphedema may exist months or years before overt swelling occurs. Symptom report may play an important role in detecting lymphedema in clinical practice. The purposes of this study were to: 1 examine the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of symptoms for detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema and 2 determine the best clinical cutoff point for the count of symptoms that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Data were collected from 250 women, including healthy female adults, breast cancer survivors with lymphedema, and those at risk for lymphedema. Lymphedema symptoms were assessed using a reliable and valid instrument. Validity, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated using logistic regression, analysis of variance, and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Count of lymphedema symptoms was able to differentiate healthy adults from breast cancer survivors with lymphedema and those at risk for lymphedema. A diagnostic cutoff of three symptoms discriminated breast cancer survivors with lymphedema from healthy women with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 97

  8. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denz Hubert

    2009-09-01

    insensitive method. Hence compounds not appearing in exhaled breath of healthy volunteers may be below the limit of detection (LOD. PTR-MS, on the other hand, does not need preconcentration and gives much more reliable quantitative results then GCMS-SPME. The shortcoming of PTR-MS is that it cannot identify compounds with certainty. Hence SPME-GCMS and PTR-MS complement each other, each method having its particular advantages and disadvantages. Exhaled breath analysis is promising to become a future non-invasive lung cancer screening method. In order to proceed towards this goal, precise identification of compounds observed in exhaled breath of lung cancer patients is necessary. Comparison with compounds released from lung cancer cell cultures, and additional information on exhaled breath composition in other cancer forms will be important.

  9. Computational optimisation of targeted DNA sequencing for cancer detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Pierre; McGranahan, Nicholas; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul;

    2013-01-01

    circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) might represent a non-invasive method to detect mutations in patients, facilitating early detection. In this article, we define reduced gene panels from publicly available datasets as a first step to assess and optimise the potential of targeted ctDNA scans for early tumour...... detection. Dividing 4,467 samples into one discovery and two independent validation cohorts, we show that up to 76% of 10 cancer types harbour at least one mutation in a panel of only 25 genes, with high sensitivity across most tumour types. Our analyses demonstrate that targeting "hotspot" regions would...

  10. A Novel Technique to Detect EGFR Mutations in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanbin Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations occur in multiple human cancers; therefore, the detection of EGFR mutations could lead to early cancer diagnosis. This study describes a novel EGFR mutation detection technique. Compared to direct DNA sequencing detection methods, this method is based on allele-specific amplification (ASA, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA, peptide nucleic acid (PNA, and SYBR Green I (SYBR, referred to as the AS-RPA-PNA-SYBR (ARPS system. The principle of this technique is based on three continuous steps: ASA or ASA combined with PNA to prevent non-target sequence amplification (even single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, the rapid amplification advantage of RPA, and appropriate SYBR Green I detection (the samples harboring EGFR mutations show a green signal. Using this method, the EGFR 19Del(2 mutation was detected in 5 min, while the EGFR L858R mutation was detected in 10 min. In this study, the detection of EGFR mutations in clinical samples using the ARPS system was compatible with that determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing methods. Thus, this newly developed methodology that uses the ARPS system with appropriate primer sets is a rapid, reliable, and practical way to assess EGFR mutations in clinical samples.

  11. A Novel Technique to Detect EGFR Mutations in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanbin; Lei, Ting; Liu, Zhiyu; Kuang, Yanbin; Lyu, Jianxin; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations occur in multiple human cancers; therefore, the detection of EGFR mutations could lead to early cancer diagnosis. This study describes a novel EGFR mutation detection technique. Compared to direct DNA sequencing detection methods, this method is based on allele-specific amplification (ASA), recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), peptide nucleic acid (PNA), and SYBR Green I (SYBR), referred to as the AS-RPA-PNA-SYBR (ARPS) system. The principle of this technique is based on three continuous steps: ASA or ASA combined with PNA to prevent non-target sequence amplification (even single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs), the rapid amplification advantage of RPA, and appropriate SYBR Green I detection (the samples harboring EGFR mutations show a green signal). Using this method, the EGFR 19Del(2) mutation was detected in 5 min, while the EGFR L858R mutation was detected in 10 min. In this study, the detection of EGFR mutations in clinical samples using the ARPS system was compatible with that determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. Thus, this newly developed methodology that uses the ARPS system with appropriate primer sets is a rapid, reliable, and practical way to assess EGFR mutations in clinical samples. PMID:27223277

  12. Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Kevin B; Yeager, Meredith; Zhou, Weiyin; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Hutchinson, Amy; Deng, Xiang; Liu, Chenwei; Horner, Marie-Josephe; Cullen, Michael; Epstein, Caroline G; Burdett, Laurie; Dean, Michael C; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Sampson, Joshua; Chung, Charles C; Kovaks, Joseph; Gapstur, Susan M; Stevens, Victoria L; Teras, Lauren T; Gaudet, Mia M; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Philip R; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Goldstein, Alisa M; Hu, Nan; Yu, Kai; Yuan, Jian-Min; Liao, Linda; Ding, Ti; Qiao, You-Lin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Koh, Woon-Puay; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Fan, Jin-Hu; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harris, Curtis C; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret R; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Zanetti, Krista A; Ziegler, Regina G; Figueroa, Jonine D; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Malats, Nuria; Marenne, Gaelle; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Johnson, Alison; Landi, Maria Teresa; Goldin, Lynn; Consonni, Dario; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Rotunno, Melissa; Rajaraman, Preetha; Andersson, Ulrika; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Berg, Christine D; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Carreon, Tania; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartge, Patricia; Henriksson, Roger; Inskip, Peter D; Johansen, Christoffer; Landgren, Annelie; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Michaud, Dominique S; Melin, Beatrice S; Peters, Ulrike; Ruder, Avima M; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Silverman, Debra T; Kogevinas, Manolis; Gonzalez, Juan R; Villa, Olaya; Li, Donghui; Duell, Eric J; Risch, Harvey A; Olson, Sara H; Kooperberg, Charles; Wolpin, Brian M; Jiao, Li; Hassan, Manal; Wheeler, William; Arslan, Alan A; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Fuchs, Charles S; Gallinger, Steven; Gross, Myron D; Holly, Elizabeth A; Klein, Alison P; LaCroix, Andrea; Mandelson, Margaret T; Petersen, Gloria; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M; Canzian, Federico; Chang, Kenneth; Cotterchio, Michelle; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goggins, Michael; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Jenab, Mazda; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; McWilliams, Robert R; Mendelsohn, Julie B; Rabe, Kari G; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Elena, Joanne W; Yu, Herbert; Amundadottir, Laufey; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Kraft, Peter; Schumacher, Fredrick; Stram, Daniel; Savage, Sharon A; Mirabello, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L; Wunder, Jay S; García, Ana Patiño; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Barkauskas, Donald A; Gorlick, Richard G; Purdue, Mark; Chow, Wong-Ho; Moore, Lee E; Schwartz, Kendra L; Davis, Faith G; Hsing, Ann W; Berndt, Sonja I; Black, Amanda; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B; Graubard, Barry I; Kratz, Christian P; Greene, Mark H; Erickson, Ralph L; Hunter, David J; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N; Real, Francisco X; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Caporaso, Neil E; Tucker, Margaret; Rothman, Nathaniel; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Chanock, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls drawn from 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones from DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of size >2 Mb were observed in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%) with abnormal cell proportions between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, the frequency increased with age; 0.23% under 50 and 1.91% between 75 and 79 (p=4.8×10−8). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid-tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals, OR=1.25, p=0.016), with a stronger association for cases who had DNA collected prior to diagnosis or treatment (OR=1.45, p=0.0005). Detectable clonal mosaicism was common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least one year prior to diagnosis of leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR=35.4, p=3.8×10−11). These findings underscore the importance of the role and time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and other late-onset diseases. PMID:22561519

  13. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha P Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  14. Logic Programming and Artificial Neural Networks in Breast Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, José; Guimarães, Tiago; Gomes, Sabino; Vicente, Henrique; Santos, Mariana; Neves, João; Machado, José; Novais, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    About 90% of breast cancers do not cause or are capable of producing death if detected at an early stage and treated properly. Indeed, it is still not known a specific cause for the illness. It may be not only a beginning, but also a set of associations that will determine the onset of the disease. Undeniably, there are some factors that seem to be associated with the boosted risk of the malady. Pondering the present study, different breast cancer risk assessment models where considered. It i...

  15. Logic programming and artificial neural networks in breast cancer detection

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, T.; Gomes, S.; Vicente, H.; Santos, M. F.; Neves, José; Machado, José Manuel; Novais, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    About 90% of breast cancers do not cause or are capable of producing death if detected at an early stage and treated properly. Indeed, it is still not known a specific cause for the illness. It may be not only a beginning, but also a set of associations that will determine the onset of the disease. Undeniably, there are some factors that seem to be associated with the boosted risk of the malady. Pondering the present study, different breast cancer risk assessment models where considered. It i...

  16. The diagnostic rules of peripheral lung cancer preliminary study based on data mining technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqian Qiang; Youmin Guo; Xue Li; Qiuping Wang; Hao Chen; Duwu Cui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical and imaging diagnostic rules of peripheral lung cancer by data mining technique, and to explore new ideas in the diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer, and to obtain early-stage technology and knowledge support of computer-aided detecting (CAD). Methods: 58 cases of peripheral lung cancer confirmed by clinical pathology were collected. The data were imported into the database after the standardization of the clinical and CT findings attributes were identified. The data was studied comparatively based on Association Rules (AR) of the knowledge discovery process and the Rough Set (RS) reduction algorithm and Genetic Algorithm(GA) of the generic data analysis tool (ROSETTA), respectively. Results: The genetic classification algorithm of ROSETTA generates 5 000 or so diagnosis rules. The RS reduction algorithm of Johnson's Algorithm generates 51 diagnosis rules and the AR algorithm generates 123 diagnosis rules. Three data mining methods basically consider gender, age,cough, location, lobulation sign, shape, ground-glass density attributes as the main basis for the diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer. Conclusion: These diagnosis rules for peripheral lung cancer with three data mining technology is same as clinical diagnostic rules, and these rules also can be used to build the knowledge base of expert system. This study demonstrated the potential values of data mining technology in clinical imaging diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

  17. Preliminary study on association between toxoplasmosis and breast cancer in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narges; Kalantari; Salman; Ghaffari; Masomeh; Bayani; Maryam; Mitra; Elmi; Daryush; Moslemi; Novin; Nikbakhsh; Fariedh; Ghavipanjeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the possible association between Toxoplasma gondii(T.gondii)infection and breast cancer by examining the seropositivity and serointensity rate of anti-T gondii antibodies in breast cancer patients and healthy volunteers.Methods:This study was carried out on 66 women with breast cancer which consists of 29 newly diagnosed patients(Group 1) and 37 cases undergoing treatment and regular checkups(Group 2).Also,60 healthy women(Group 3) with no history of cancer confirmed by clinical examination and imaging participated in this study.The participants were tested for T.gondii immunoglobulin G(IgG) and immunoglobulin M(IgM) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoassays.Results:The mean age of Groups 1.2 and 3 were 43.3±6.8,41.8±5.5 and 42.3±4.9.respectively(P=0.72).Overall.104(82.5%) and 8(6.3%) out of 126 women were positive for anti-T gondii IgG and IgM antibodies,respectively.Higher seropositivity rate of anti-T.gondii antibodies(IgG) was seen in breast cancer patients(86.4%) compared with control group(78.3%)(P=0.24).IgG antibodies were detected in 89.2%of cancer patients under treatment.82.7%of newly diagnosed patients(P=0.18).IgM antibodies were found in 3(10.3%),2(5.4%)and 3(5%) in Groups 1.2 and 3.No significant difference was found between the mean titers of T.gondii IgG antibody among these groups(P=0.87).Conclusions:This study did not find any significant association between toxoplasmosis and breast cancer besides higher rates of seropositivity and serointensity in patients compared with healthy volunteers.

  18. Leptin/HER2 crosstalk in breast cancer: in vitro study and preliminary in vivo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with increased breast cancer risk, development of more aggressive tumors and resistance to certain anti-breast cancer treatments. Some of these effects might be mediated by obesity hormone leptin, acting independently or modulating other signaling pathways. Here we focused on the link between leptin and HER2. We tested if HER2 and the leptin receptor (ObR) can be coexpressed in breast cancer cell models, whether these two receptors can physically interact, and whether leptin can transactivate HER2. Next, we studied if leptin/ObR can coexist with HER2 in breast cancer tissues, and if presence of these two systems correlates with specific clinicopathological features. Expression of ObR, HER2, phospo-HER2 was assessed by immonoblotting. Physical interactions between ObR and HER2 were probed by immunoprecipitation and fluorescent immunostaining. Expression of leptin and ObR in breast cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Associations among markers studied by IHC were evaluated using Fisher's exact test for count data. HER2 and ObR were coexpressed in all studied breast cancer cell lines. In MCF-7 cells, HER2 physically interacted with ObR and leptin treatment increased HER2 phosphorylation on Tyr 1248. In 59 breast cancers, the presence of leptin was correlated with ObR (the overall association was about 93%). This result was confirmed both in HER2-positive and in HER2-negative subgroups. The expression of leptin or ObR was numerically more frequent in larger (> 10 mm) tumors. Coexpression of HER2 and the leptin/ObR system might contribute to enhanced HER2 activity and reduced sensitivity to anti-HER2 treatments

  19. A color spectrographic phonocardiography (CSP applied to the detection and characterization of heart murmurs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani Kamran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cardiac auscultation remains important to detect abnormal sounds and murmurs indicative of cardiac pathology, the application of electronic methods remains seldom used in everyday clinical practice. In this report we provide preliminary data showing how the phonocardiogram can be analyzed using color spectrographic techniques and discuss how such information may be of future value for noninvasive cardiac monitoring. Methods We digitally recorded the phonocardiogram using a high-speed USB interface and the program Gold Wave http://www.goldwave.com in 55 infants and adults with cardiac structural disease as well as from normal individuals and individuals with innocent murmurs. Color spectrographic analysis of the signal was performed using Spectrogram (Version 16 as a well as custom MATLAB code. Results Our preliminary data is presented as a series of seven cases. Conclusions We expect the application of spectrographic techniques to phonocardiography to grow substantially as ongoing research demonstrates its utility in various clinical settings. Our evaluation of a simple, low-cost phonocardiographic recording and analysis system to assist in determining the characteristic features of heart murmurs shows promise in helping distinguish innocent systolic murmurs from pathological murmurs in children and is expected to useful in other clinical settings as well.

  20. Detection and Localization of Pre-Cancerous Lesions and Early Lung Cancer Using Tissue Autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jaclyn Yip-Chan

    In this work, two different yet related hypotheses were tested by experimental means as follows: (i) pre-cancerous and non-invasive (early) lung cancer can be detected and localized using the fluorescence properties of tumour localizing drugs at non-photosensitizing doses to skin tissue; (ii) significant differences exist in laser-induced autofluorescence between normal, pre-cancerous and cancerous tissues such that these differences alone can be exploited to detect and delineate early lung cancer without using exogenous drug(s). Exogenous fluorescent tumour markers such as hematoporphyrin derivatives (e.g. Photofrin) have been used to enhance to detection of occult lung lesions. Photofrin is preferentially retained in tumor tissues compared to the surrounding normal tissues; it fluoresces at 630 nm and 690 nm when excited at -405 nm. Based on this principle several imaging and non-imaging devices have been developed. However, wider clinical applications were limited due to the skin photosensitivity property of Photofrin. We have postulated that this could be solved by employing a much lower dose of Photofrin (0.25 mg/kg) which was believed to be less photosensitizing to human patients. This postulate was experimentally tested by ratio fluorometry and early lung cancers were detected with no false negative results and no apparent skin photosensitivity. An important finding in this study was that the mechanism for detection of early cancer was mainly due to the differences in the green autofluorescence between normal and malignant tissues, rather than fluorescence of tumour localizing drug. This discovery led to the second postulate of this thesis that tissue autofluorescence alone can be exploited for the detection of early lung cancer. The results indicated that algorithm(s) could be developed to clearly delineate early lesions from the normal tissues. Several algorithms were then tested using a non-imaging ratio fluorometer device and a prototype imaging

  1. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association

  2. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  3. Non-invasive Optical Molecular Imaging for Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. Improved fundamental understanding of molecular processes and pathways resulting in cancer development has catalyzed a shift towards molecular analysis of cancer using imaging technologies. It is expected that the non-invasive or minimally invasive molecular imaging analysis of cancer can significantly aid in improving the early detection of cancer and will result in reduced mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. The central hypothesis of the proposed research is that non-invasive imaging of changes in metabolic activity of individual cells, and extracellular pH within a tissue will improve early stage detection of cancer. The specific goals of this research project were to: (a) develop novel optical imaging probes to image changes in choline metabolism and tissue pH as a function of progression of cancer using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (b) correlate changes in tissue extracellular pH and metabolic activity of tissues as a function of disease state using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (c) provide fundamental understanding of relationship between tumor hypoxia, acidification of the extracellular space and altered cellular metabolism with progression of cancer. Three novel molecular imaging probes were developed to detect changes in choline and glucose metabolism and extracellular pH in model systems and clinically isolated cells and biopsies. Glucose uptake and metabolism was measured using a fluorescence analog of glucose, 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose), while choline metabolism was measured using a click chemistry analog of choline, propargyl choline, which can be in-situ labeled with a fluorophore Alexa-488 azide via a click chemistry reaction. Extracellular pH in tissue were measured by Alexa-647 labeled pHLIP (pH low insertion peptide

  4. Early detection of lung cancer [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Midthun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer.

  5. Preprocessing: A Step in Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  6. Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  7. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

  8. Preliminary study for the detection of neutrons in heavy-ion collisions with charged particle detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auditore L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS the CHIMERA 4π multidetector has been designed and setup to detect charged particles emitted in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. Properties and performances of CHIMERA have been widely demonstrated by published results obtained in the performed experiments. Moreover, in recent years, a new charged particle detector (ChPD for correlation studies (FARCOS has been designed, and recently a first prototype has been coupled to CHIMERA, in order to test performances in view of correlation measurements in coincidence with 4π detectors. Simultaneous neutrons and charged particles detection in heavy ion collisions represents an important experimental progress for future experiments to be performed with both stable and exotic nuclei. In order to investigate about this possibility, simple Monte Carlo simulations have been performed. Preliminary simulations have been carried out by means of MCNPX transport code to evaluate the perturbation effects, including cross-talk and time response, induced in CHIMERA and/or FARCOS Si-CsI(Tl telescopes on (typical 20MeV neutron signals coming froma typical reaction in heavy ion collisions at the Fermi energy. Moreover, first data analysis results of the INKIISSY experiment indicates sizable probability to detect neutrons by properly shadowing CHIMERA Si-CsI(Tl telescopes. Analysis is still in progress.

  9. Automatic Polyp Detection in Pillcam Colon 2 Capsule Images and Videos: Preliminary Feasibility Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro N. Figueiredo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this work is to present an automatic colorectal polyp detection scheme for capsule endoscopy. Methods. PillCam COLON2 capsule-based images and videos were used in our study. The database consists of full exam videos from five patients. The algorithm is based on the assumption that the polyps show up as a protrusion in the captured images and is expressed by means of a P-value, defined by geometrical features. Results. Seventeen PillCam COLON2 capsule videos are included, containing frames with polyps, flat lesions, diverticula, bubbles, and trash liquids. Polyps larger than 1 cm express a P-value higher than 2000, and 80% of the polyps show a P-value higher than 500. Diverticula, bubbles, trash liquids, and flat lesions were correctly interpreted by the algorithm as nonprotruding images. Conclusions. These preliminary results suggest that the proposed geometry-based polyp detection scheme works well, not only by allowing the detection of polyps but also by differentiating them from nonprotruding images found in the films.

  10. Evaluation of salivary sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in oral cancer: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, noninvasive methods like analysis of saliva may provide a cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Thus, this study aimed to estimate salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in the oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. Study Design: Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy controls (Group I and 30 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II. Estimations of salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar were performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical Analysis and Results: The Student′s ′ t ′ test and multivariate regression analysis were performed. The results showed that salivary levels of total protein, total sugar, protein-bound sialic acid, and free sialic acid were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to those of normal healthy controls ( P values in all the results were less than 0.001. The salivary free sialic acid levels were found to be significantly higher in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma than in moderately differentiated carcinoma ( P < 0.001. However, protein-bound sialic acid, total proteins, and total sugars did not show any statistical significance between well and moderately differentiated carcinomas. Conclusion: Biochemical analysis of saliva can be used in early detection of cancer and is best correlated with histopathological degree of squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Translational potential of cancer stem cells: A review of the detection of cancer stem cells and their roles in cancer recurrence and cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farhadul; Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A; Lam, Alfred K-Y

    2015-07-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells with many clinical implications in most cancer types. One important clinical implication of CSCs is their role in cancer metastases, as reflected by their ability to initiate and drive micro and macro-metastases. The other important contributing factor for CSCs in cancer management is their function in causing treatment resistance and recurrence in cancer via their activation of different signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Hedgehog, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK/STAT pathways. Thus, many different therapeutic approaches are being tested for prevention and treatment of cancer recurrence. These may include treatment strategies targeting altered genetic signalling pathways by blocking specific cell surface molecules, altering the cancer microenvironments that nurture cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation of CSCs, immunotherapy based on CSCs associated antigens, exploiting metabolites to kill CSCs, and designing small interfering RNA/DNA molecules that especially target CSCs. Because of the huge potential of these approaches to improve cancer management, it is important to identify and isolate cancer stem cells for precise study and application of prior the research on their role in cancer. Commonly used methodologies for detection and isolation of CSCs include functional, image-based, molecular, cytological sorting and filtration approaches, the use of different surface markers and xenotransplantation. Overall, given their significance in cancer biology, refining the isolation and targeting of CSCs will play an important role in future management of cancer.

  12. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Taher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer continues to rank as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the most promising techniques for early detection of cancerous cells relies on sputum cell analysis. This was the motivation behind the design and the development of a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD system for early detection of lung cancer based on the analysis of sputum color images. The proposed CAD system encompasses four main processing steps. First is the preprocessing step which utilizes a Bayesian classification method using histogram analysis. Then, in the second step, mean shift segmentation is applied to segment the nuclei from the cytoplasm. The third step is the feature analysis. In this step, geometric and chromatic features are extracted from the nucleus region. These features are used in the diagnostic process of the sputum images. Finally, the diagnosis is completed using an artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM for classifying the cells into benign or malignant. The performance of the system was analyzed based on different criteria such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation was carried out using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the SVM classifier over other classifiers, with 97% sensitivity and accuracy as well as a significant reduction in the number of false positive and false negative rates.

  13. Multiple-instance learning for breast cancer detection in mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Rosa, Rubén; Lamard, Mathieu; Cazuguel, Guy; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Cozic, Michel; Quellec, Gwenolé

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental computer-aided detection and diagnosis system for breast cancer, the most common form of cancer among women, using mammography. The system relies on the Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL) paradigm, which has proven useful for medical decision support in previous works from our team. In the proposed framework, the breasts are first partitioned adaptively into regions. Then, either textural features, or features derived from the detection of masses and microcalcifications, are extracted from each region. Finally, feature vectors extracted from each region are combined using an MIL algorithm (Citation k-NN or mi-Graph), in order to recognize "normal" mammography examinations or to categorize examinations as "normal", "benign" or "cancer". An accuracy of 91.1% (respectively 62.1%) was achieved for normality recognition (respectively three-class categorization) in a subset of 720 mammograms from the DDSM dataset. The paper also discusses future improvements, that will make the most of the MIL paradigm, in order to improve "benign" versus "cancer" discrimination in particular. PMID:26737917

  14. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Neural Network Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Naresh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective identification of lung cancer at an initial stage is an important and crucial aspect of image processing. Several data mining methods have been used to detect lung cancer at early stage. In this paper, an approach has been presented which will diagnose lung cancer at an initial stage using CT scan images which are in Dicom (DCM format. One of the key challenges is to remove white Gaussian noise from the CT scan image, which is done using non local mean filter and to segment the lung Otsu’s thresholding is used. The textural and structural features are extracted from the processed image to form feature vector. In this paper, three classifiers namely SVM, ANN, and k-NN are applied for the detection of lung cancer to find the severity of disease (stage I or stage II and comparison is made with ANN, and k-NN classifier with respect to different quality attributes such as accuracy, sensitivity(recall, precision and specificity. It has been found from results that SVM achieves higher accuracy of 95.12% while ANN achieves 92.68% accuracy on the given data set and k-NN shows least accuracy of 85.37%. SVM algorithm which achieves 95.12% accuracy helps patients to take remedial action on time and reduces mortality rate from this deadly disease.

  15. Comparison of {sup 18}F-FACBC and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in patients with radically treated prostate cancer and biochemical relapse: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina; Boschi, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Martorana, Giuseppe; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Urology, Bologna (Italy); Pettinato, Cinzia [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Medical Physics, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    We assessed the rate of detection rate of recurrent prostate cancer by PET/CT using anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC, a new synthetic amino acid, in comparison to that using {sup 11}C-choline as part of an ongoing prospective single-centre study. Included in the study were 15 patients with biochemical relapse after initial radical treatment of prostate cancer. All the patients underwent anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT within a 7-day period. The detection rates using the two compounds were determined and the target-to-background ratios (TBR) of each lesion are reported. No adverse reactions to anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT were noted. On a patient basis, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was positive in 3 patients and negative in 12 (detection rate 20 %), and anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT was positive in 6 patients and negative in 9 (detection rate 40 %). On a lesion basis, {sup 11}C-choline detected 6 lesions (4 bone, 1 lymph node, 1 local relapse), and anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC detected 11 lesions (5 bone, 5 lymph node, 1 local relapse). All {sup 11}C-choline-positive lesions were also identified by anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT. The TBR of anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC was greater than that of {sup 11}C-choline in 8/11 lesions, as were image quality and contrast. Our preliminary results indicate that anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC may be superior to {sup 11}C-choline for the identification of disease recurrence in the setting of biochemical failure. Further studies are required to assess efficacy of anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC in a larger series of prostate cancer patients. (orig.)

  16. Flexible sixteen monopole antenna array for microwave breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, H; Porter, E; Santorelli, A; Gosselin, B; Popovic, M; Rusch, L A

    2014-01-01

    Radar based microwave imaging (MI) has been widely studied for breast cancer detection in recent times. Sensing dielectric property differences of tissues over a wide frequency band has been made possible by ultra-wideband (UWB) techniques. In this paper, a flexible, compact monopole antenna on a 100 μm Kapton polyimide is designed, using a high frequency structure simulator (HFSS), to be in contact with biological breast tissues over the 2-5GHz frequency range. The antenna parameters are optimized to obtain a good impedance match over the required frequency range. The designed antenna size is 18mm × 18mm. Further, a flexible conformal 4×4 ultra-wideband antenna array, in a format similar to that of a bra, was developed for a radar-based breast cancer detection system.

  17. Flexible sixteen monopole antenna array for microwave breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, H; Porter, E; Santorelli, A; Gosselin, B; Popovic, M; Rusch, L A

    2014-01-01

    Radar based microwave imaging (MI) has been widely studied for breast cancer detection in recent times. Sensing dielectric property differences of tissues over a wide frequency band has been made possible by ultra-wideband (UWB) techniques. In this paper, a flexible, compact monopole antenna on a 100 μm Kapton polyimide is designed, using a high frequency structure simulator (HFSS), to be in contact with biological breast tissues over the 2-5GHz frequency range. The antenna parameters are optimized to obtain a good impedance match over the required frequency range. The designed antenna size is 18mm × 18mm. Further, a flexible conformal 4×4 ultra-wideband antenna array, in a format similar to that of a bra, was developed for a radar-based breast cancer detection system. PMID:25570813

  18. Follow-up of breast cancer patients: Preliminary findings from nurse-patient consultations and patient surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyez Jiwa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:Although clinicians in both primary and tertiary care settings are involved in the care of breast cancer patientsfollowing the active treatment phase, few studies report how patients interact with health care providers.METHODS:Participants in this breast cancer follow-up study were recruited from a hospital based nurse-led follow-upclinic in Western Australia. Methods included audio taped, transcribed consultations with Specialist BreastNurses (SBNs and patient self-completed surveys.RESULTS:Preliminary data suggest that SBNs play an important role in supporting women to deal with the impact ofbreast cancer in the years following active treatment. The data suggest that the process of adjustment to adiagnosis of cancer continues for many years after the treatment has ceased. In many cases the women requireon-going support to recalibrate their response to normal physical changes that may or may not be aconsequence of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.CONCLUSIONS:These preliminary data map the plethora of issues that influence cancer patients in the years followingtreatment. Women who were attending follow-up appointments for breast cancer experienced similar levels ofenablement following SBN consultations as would be expected from consultations with general practitioners.

  19. Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeks, Caroline M A; Barentsz, Jelle O; Hambrock, Thomas; Yakar, Derya; Somford, Diederik M; Heijmink, Stijn W T P J; Scheenen, Tom W J; Vos, Pieter C; Huisman, Henkjan; van Oort, Inge M; Witjes, J Alfred; Heerschap, Arend; Fütterer, Jurgen J

    2011-10-01

    This review presents the current state of the art regarding multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of prostate cancer. Technical requirements and clinical indications for the use of multiparametric MR imaging in detection, localization, characterization, staging, biopsy guidance, and active surveillance of prostate cancer are discussed. Although reported accuracies of the separate and combined multiparametric MR imaging techniques vary for diverse clinical prostate cancer indications, multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate has shown promising results and may be of additional value in prostate cancer localization and local staging. Consensus on which technical approaches (field strengths, sequences, use of an endorectal coil) and combination of multiparametric MR imaging techniques should be used for specific clinical indications remains a challenge. Because guidelines are currently lacking, suggestions for a general minimal protocol for multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate based on the literature and the authors' experience are presented. Computer programs that allow evaluation of the various components of a multiparametric MR imaging examination in one view should be developed. In this way, an integrated interpretation of anatomic and functional MR imaging techniques in a multiparametric MR imaging examination is possible. Education and experience of specialist radiologists are essential for correct interpretation of multiparametric prostate MR imaging findings. Supportive techniques, such as computer-aided diagnosis are needed to obtain a fast, cost-effective, easy, and more reproducible prostate cancer diagnosis out of more and more complex multiparametric MR imaging data. PMID:21931141

  20. Detection of Hoxa1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chariot, Alain; Castronovo, Vincenzo

    1996-01-01

    Homeodomain-containing proteins are transcription factors that regulate the coordinated expression of multiple genes involved in development, differentiation and malignant transformation. To better understand the role played by these proteins in breast cancer cells, we demonstrate, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, that progestin induces HOXA1 mRNAs in MCF7 cells. This is the first evidence of regulation of a HOX gene by steroids. Moreover, we detected HOXA1 expression in a variety ...

  1. microRNA Expression Profiling of Side Population Cells in Human Lung Cancer and Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao XU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Recent studies indicate that the side population (SP which is an enriched source of cancer stem cells (CSCs is the root cause of tumor growth and development. SP appears to be highly resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy which becomes an important factor in tumor recurrence and metastasis. The aim of this study is to determine the difference of microRNA expression profiles between SP cells and non-SP cells so as to lay necessary basis for research on the function of miRNA in lung cancer stem cells. Methods SP and non-SP cells were isolated using flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 dye efflux assay from human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell. The total RNA was extracted. The microarray detection system was employed to analyze whether there was difference in miRNA expression profile between SP and non-SP cells. Results A total of 85 differentially expressed miRNA were found, including 32 over-expression and 53 low-expression miRNA in SP. Conclusion miRNA may play important roles in tumorigenesis of lung cancer stem cell. The study of miRNA contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanism of lung cancer stem cell.

  2. Flexible 16 Antenna Array for Microwave Breast Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramiabarghouei, Hadi; Porter, Emily; Santorelli, Adam; Gosselin, Benoit; Popović, Milica; Rusch, Leslie A

    2015-10-01

    Radar-based microwave imaging has been widely studied for breast cancer detection in recent times. Sensing dielectric property differences of tissues has been studied over a wide frequency band for this application. We design single- and dual-polarization antennas for wireless ultrawideband breast cancer detection systems using an inhomogeneous multilayer model of the human breast. Antennas made from flexible materials are more easily adapted to wearable applications. Miniaturized flexible monopole and spiral antennas on a 50-μm Kapton polyimide are designed, using a high-frequency structure simulator, to be in contact with biological breast tissues. The proposed antennas are designed to operate in a frequency range of 2-4 GHz (with reflection coefficient (S11) below -10 dB). Measurements show that the flexible antennas have good impedance matching when in different positions with different curvature around the breast. Our miniaturized flexible antennas are 20 mm × 20 mm. Furthermore, two flexible conformal 4 × 4 ultrawideband antenna arrays (single and dual polarization), in a format similar to that of a bra, were developed for a radar-based breast cancer detection system. By using a reflector for the arrays, the penetration of the propagated electromagnetic waves from the antennas into the breast can be improved by factors of 3.3 and 2.6, respectively.

  3. Flexible 16 Antenna Array for Microwave Breast Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramiabarghouei, Hadi; Porter, Emily; Santorelli, Adam; Gosselin, Benoit; Popović, Milica; Rusch, Leslie A

    2015-10-01

    Radar-based microwave imaging has been widely studied for breast cancer detection in recent times. Sensing dielectric property differences of tissues has been studied over a wide frequency band for this application. We design single- and dual-polarization antennas for wireless ultrawideband breast cancer detection systems using an inhomogeneous multilayer model of the human breast. Antennas made from flexible materials are more easily adapted to wearable applications. Miniaturized flexible monopole and spiral antennas on a 50-μm Kapton polyimide are designed, using a high-frequency structure simulator, to be in contact with biological breast tissues. The proposed antennas are designed to operate in a frequency range of 2-4 GHz (with reflection coefficient (S11) below -10 dB). Measurements show that the flexible antennas have good impedance matching when in different positions with different curvature around the breast. Our miniaturized flexible antennas are 20 mm × 20 mm. Furthermore, two flexible conformal 4 × 4 ultrawideband antenna arrays (single and dual polarization), in a format similar to that of a bra, were developed for a radar-based breast cancer detection system. By using a reflector for the arrays, the penetration of the propagated electromagnetic waves from the antennas into the breast can be improved by factors of 3.3 and 2.6, respectively. PMID:26011862

  4. Multispectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelo, Angelo; Manhas, Sandeep; Benali, Abdelali; Fallet, Clément; Totobenazara, Jean-Laurent; Antonelli, Maria-Rosaria; Novikova, Tatiana; Gayet, Brice; De Martino, Antonello; Validire, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    This work is devoted to a first exploration of Mueller polarimetric imaging for the detection of residual cancer after neoadjuvant treatment for the rectum. Three samples of colorectal carcinomas treated by radiochemotherapy together with one untreated sample are analyzed ex vivo before fixation in formalin by using a multispectral Mueller polarimetric imaging system operated from 500 to 700 nm. The Mueller images, analyzed using the Lu-Chipmann decomposition, show negligible diattenuation and retardation. The nonirradiated rectum exhibits a variation of depolarization with cancer evolution stage. At all wavelengths on irradiated samples, the contrast between the footprint of the initial tumor and surrounding healthy tissue is found to be much smaller for complete tumor regression than when a residual tumor is present, even at volume fractions of the order of 5%. This high sensitivity is attributed to the modification of stromal collagen induced by the cancer. The depolarization contrast between treated cancer and healthy tissue is found to increase monotonously with the volume fraction of residual cancer in the red part of the spectrum. Polarimetric imaging is a promising technique for detecting short-time small residual cancers, which is valuable information for pathological diagnosis and patient management by clinicians.

  5. A preliminary clinical report of 2LC reagent for early gastric cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Xue Zhong Chen; Zhi Xue Lin; Ling Chen

    2000-01-01

    AIM To explore the feasibility of early gastric cancer diagnosis with 2LC reagent, and to establish a grossexploration method for early gastric cancer with the reagent based on the feasibility.METHODS Add 30 mg or 0.3 mL 2LC reagent into 5 mL urinary sample, observe the change of urinary,and analyze the sample on DAO-JIN-UV-260 Ultraviolet-analyzer at 190nm - 700nm, then, record theabsorbance at 490nm. To determine best stage of sample, take some samples on 8:00 pm and 8:00 am,respectively. To select best dosage of 2LC, take the test with different concentrations. To test the effect ofoperation, conduct the experiment in different stages before and after the operation for the patients withgastric cancer. Two parallel samples were taken each time in the whole experiment.RESULTS Red compound produced by some reactions when the 2LC reagent was added into the urinary ofpatients with gastric cancer, and the urine had obvious absorptivity at about 490nm (positive). There was almost no reaction in the urine of other samples (negative). A total of 172 samples were tested, the positiverate of gastric cancer was above 90% in 48 samples before the operation, in which 8 advanced gastric cancerand 9 early stage gastric cancer samples behaved stronger positive reaction. The positive rate of 118 othersamples was less than 10%. The urine taken in the morning was batter than that in the evening. The bestdosage of 2LC was 6 mg/mL for crystal and 0.05 mL/mL for liquid. The test results of gastric cancerpatients with postoperative tumor recrudescence or transfer were positive, and the others were negative.CONCLUSION There is a high feasibility in manipulation simplification, specificity and receptivity of 2LCreagent for early gastric cancer detection, and the characteristics mentioned above will be improved based onthe advanced raw material used and the style of the 2LC reagent. It is an effective gross exploration methodfor early gastric cancer with the 2LC reagent, and can determine

  6. 荧光定量PCR检测血清微小RNA-21方法的建立及对乳腺癌诊断的初步应用%Establishment of real-time PCR for detecting serum microRNA-21 and its preliminary application in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪峰; 徐建军; 张青云

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立一种SYBR Green Ⅰ荧光定量PCR检测血清miR-21方法,并初步探讨其对乳腺癌诊断的应用价值.方法 用Trizol试剂提取血清总RNA.用茎环引物将miR-16(作为miR-21内参基因)与miR-21分别逆转录成相应cDNA.再用SYBR Green Ⅰ荧光定量RT-PCR对cDNA进行扩增、检测.然后,通过信噪比(signal to noise ratio,SNR)分析试验的准确性;通过熔解曲线评价试验的特异性;通过标准曲线的R2评估试验的精确性;通过批内和批间差异计算试验的稳定性.另外,用自建方法检测33例乳腺癌患者、18例乳腺良性疾病和49名健康人群血清miR-21和miR-16水平,并根据乳腺癌组与健康对照组中miR-21相对表达量确定临界值,以评价其对乳腺癌诊断的敏感度、特异度.结果 通过PCR退火与延伸在温度和时间上的优化,本试验所建立方法SNR≥99.36%;熔解曲线为单峰;标准曲线R3=0.994 8;批内CV< 1.5%,批间CV< 4%.以miR-16为内参,用自建SYBR Green Ⅰ荧光定量PCR检测乳腺癌组、良性疾病组与健康对照组血清miR-21的相对表达量分别为20.83±18.18、20.86±10.11和9.33±4.44,经Kruskal Wallis检验,3组间表达量差异有统计学意义(x2=16.92,P<0.001),且健康对照组与乳腺癌组、健康对照组与良性疾病组间的差异均有统计学意义(Z值分别为-2.58、-4.42,P均≤0.01),而乳腺癌组与良性疾病组血清miR-21表达量差异无统计学意义(Z=-0.51,P=0.608).以miR-21相对表达量18.32为临界值,其对乳腺癌诊断的敏感度为51.5%(17/33),特异度为93.9%(46/49).结论 建立了一种较敏感、特异、稳定的SYBRGreen Ⅰ荧光定量PCR检测血清miR-21方法,该方法对乳腺癌的诊断可能有一定价值.%Objective To establish a SYBR green Ⅰ real-time PCR method for detecting serum miR-21 and preliminarily explore its value in diagnosing breast cancer.Methods Total RNA was extracted from serum by Trizol reagent

  7. Preliminary evaluation of intraoperative gamma probe detection of the sentinel node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The resurgence of the lymphoscintigraphy with the sentinel node concept and the availability of the intraoperative gamma probe have been proposed to avoid the morbidity of an unnecessary regional node dissection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the intraoperative gamma probe use after lymphoscintigraphy for the localization of the sentinel node. Material and methods: Twenty-nine patients were studied, 18 females (62%), mean age 60 ± 19 y.o. (range 24-86 y.o.) at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. The reference diagnoses were 66% malignant melanoma, 21 % breast cancer, 10 % head and neck cancer and 3% vulvae cancer. Lymphoscintigraphs were performed with Tc99m-Dextran injected intradermally in four points around the primary lesion or around the biopsy site (for melanoma 500 microCi each one; for breast and head and neck 200 microCi each one). Afterwards, dynamic images were taken, followed by intraoperative gamma probe investigations in order to localize and remove the sentinel node. Additionally, isosulfan blue was injected before the surgery was made. Results: Lymphoscintigraphy was positive to detect sentinel node(s) in 20 patients (69%). During the surgery, 40 sentinel nodes were detected. In 33 cases, the intraoperative gamma probe was performed, of which 88 % were radioactives. In 35 nodes, the isosulfan blue was injected, of which 80 % were dyed. The correlation between both techniques was 75 %. The histology study of 37 samples demonstrated that 86% (n=32) were truly ganglionar nodes. Conclusion: The intraoperative gamma probe after lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the localization of the sentinel node

  8. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may pr

  9. Characteristics of breast cancers detected by ultrasound screening in women with negative mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening ultrasound (US) can increase the detection of breast cancer. However, little is known about the clinicopathologic characteristics of breast cancers detected by screening US. A search of the database for patients with breast cancer yielded a dataset in 6837 women who underwent breast surgery at Seoul National University Hospital (Korea). Of 6837 women, 1047 were asymptomatic and had a non-palpable cancer. Two hundred fifty-four women with 256 cancers detected by US (US-detected cancer) and 793 women with 807 cancers detected by mammography (MG-detected cancer) were identified. The imaging, clinicopathologic, and molecular data were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Women with US-detected cancer were younger and were more likely to undergo breast-conserving surgery and to have node-negative invasive cancer (P2 cm in size, tumors that were ≤1 cm in size were 2.2-fold more likely to be US-detected cancers (P=0.02). Compared to the luminal A subtype tumors (estrogen receptor [ER]+, PR+, HER2-), luminal B subtype tumors (ER+, PR+, HER2+) were less likely to be in the US-detected cancer group (P<0.01). Women with dense breasts were more likely to have US-detected cancer (P<0.01) versus those with non-dense breasts. Screening US-detected cancers were less likely to be diagnosed as category 5 instead of category 4 (P<0.01). In conclusion, women with US-detected breast cancer are more likely to have small-sized invasive cancer and more likely associated with the luminal A subtype. (author)

  10. Human Blood Autoantibodies in the Detection of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Ola H; Hamed, Mohamed R; Schoen, Robert E; Whelan, Richard L; Steele, Robert J; Scholefield, John; Dilnot, Elizabeth M; Shantha Kumara, H M C; Robertson, John F R; Sewell, Herbert F

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy in the western world. Early detection and diagnosis of all cancer types is vital to improved prognosis by enabling early treatment when tumours should be both resectable and curable. Sera from 3 different cohorts; 42 sera (21 CRC and 21 matched controls) from New York, USA, 200 sera from Pittsburgh, USA (100 CRC and 100 controls) and 20 sera from Dundee, UK (10 CRC and 10 controls) were tested against a panel of multiple tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) using an optimised multiplex microarray system. TAA specific IgG responses were interpolated against the internal IgG standard curve for each sample. Individual TAA specific responses were examined in each cohort to determine cutoffs for a robust initial scoring method to establish sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of combinations of TAAs provided good discrimination between cancer-positive and normal serum. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the sample sets tested against a panel of 32 TAAs were 61.1% and 80.9% respectively for 6 antigens; p53, AFP, K RAS, Annexin, RAF1 and NY-CO16. Furthermore, the observed sensitivity in Pittsburgh sample set in different clinical stages of CRC; stage I (n = 19), stage II (n = 40), stage III (n = 34) and stage IV (n = 6) was similar (73.6%, 75.0%, 73.5% and 83.3%, respectively), with similar levels of sensitivity for right and left sided CRC. We identified an antigen panel of sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection of CRC, based upon serum profiling of autoantibody response using a robust multiplex antigen microarray technology. This opens the possibility of a blood test for screening and detection of early colorectal cancer. However this panel will require further validation studies before they can be proposed for clinical practice. PMID:27383396

  11. Human Blood Autoantibodies in the Detection of Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola H Negm

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common malignancy in the western world. Early detection and diagnosis of all cancer types is vital to improved prognosis by enabling early treatment when tumours should be both resectable and curable. Sera from 3 different cohorts; 42 sera (21 CRC and 21 matched controls from New York, USA, 200 sera from Pittsburgh, USA (100 CRC and 100 controls and 20 sera from Dundee, UK (10 CRC and 10 controls were tested against a panel of multiple tumour-associated antigens (TAAs using an optimised multiplex microarray system. TAA specific IgG responses were interpolated against the internal IgG standard curve for each sample. Individual TAA specific responses were examined in each cohort to determine cutoffs for a robust initial scoring method to establish sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of combinations of TAAs provided good discrimination between cancer-positive and normal serum. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the sample sets tested against a panel of 32 TAAs were 61.1% and 80.9% respectively for 6 antigens; p53, AFP, K RAS, Annexin, RAF1 and NY-CO16. Furthermore, the observed sensitivity in Pittsburgh sample set in different clinical stages of CRC; stage I (n = 19, stage II (n = 40, stage III (n = 34 and stage IV (n = 6 was similar (73.6%, 75.0%, 73.5% and 83.3%, respectively, with similar levels of sensitivity for right and left sided CRC. We identified an antigen panel of sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection of CRC, based upon serum profiling of autoantibody response using a robust multiplex antigen microarray technology. This opens the possibility of a blood test for screening and detection of early colorectal cancer. However this panel will require further validation studies before they can be proposed for clinical practice.

  12. Development of terahertz endoscopic system for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2016-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging is emerging as a robust platform for a myriad of applications in the fields of security, health, astronomy and material science. The terahertz regime with wavelengths spanning from microns to millimeters is a potentially safe and noninvasive medical imaging modality for detecting cancers. Endoscopic imaging systems provide high flexibility in examining the interior surfaces of an organ or tissue. Researchers have been working on the development of THz endoscopes with photoconductive antennas, which necessarily operate under high voltage, and require at least two channels to measure the reflected signal from the specimen. This manuscript provides the design and imperative steps involved in the development of a single-channel terahertz endoscopic system. The continuous-wave terahertz imaging system utilizes a single flexible terahertz waveguide channel to transmit and collect the back reflected intrinsic terahertz signal from the sample and is capable of operation in both transmission and reflection modalities. To determine the feasibility of using a terahertz endoscope for cancer detection, the co- and cross-polarized terahertz remittance from human colonic tissue specimens were collected at 584 GHz frequency. The two dimensional terahertz images obtained using polarization specific detection exhibited intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions of fresh colorectal tissue. The level of contrast observed using endoscopic imaging correlates well with the contrast levels observed in the free space ex vivo terahertz reflectance studies of human colonic tissue. The prototype device developed in this study represents a significant step towards clinical endoscopic application of THz technology for in vivo colon cancer screening.

  13. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  14. Prone breast radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Women with large breasts have marked dose inhomogeneity and often an inferior cosmetic outcome when treated with breast conservation compared to smaller-sized patients. We designed a prone breast board, which both minimizes breast separation and irradiated lung or heart volume. We report feasibility, cosmesis, and preliminary local control and survival for selected women with Stage 0-II breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients with clinical Stage 0-II breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy and breast irradiation utilizing a prototype prone breast board. A total of 59 breasts were treated. Indications for treatment in the prone position were large or pendulous breast size (n = 57), or a history of cardiopulmonary disease (n = 2). The median bra size was 41D (range, 34D-44EE). Cosmesis was evaluated on a 1-10 (worst-to-best) scale. Results: Acute toxicity included skin erythema (80% of patients experienced Grade I or Grade II erythema), breast edema (72% of patients experienced mild edema), pruritus (20% of patients), and fatigue (20% of patients reported mild fatigue). One patient required a treatment break. The only late toxicity was related to long-term cosmesis. The mean overall cosmesis score for 53 patients was 9.37 (range, 8-10). Actuarial 3- and 5-year local control rates are 98%. Actuarial overall survival at 3 and 5 years are 98% and 94%. Conclusion: Our data indicate that treating selected women with prone breast radiotherapy is feasible and tolerated. The approach results in excellent cosmesis, and short-term outcome is comparable to traditional treatment techniques. This technique offers an innovative alternative to women who might not otherwise be considered candidates for breast conservation

  15. Development and preliminary evaluation of a rehabilitation consult for survivors of head and neck cancer: an intervention mapping protocol

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, Sara E; Aileen M. Davis; Jones, Jennifer M; Martino, Rosemary; Poon, Ian; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Ringash, Jolie

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that rehabilitation interventions can improve function and quality of life in survivors of head and neck cancer (HNC), but there is a lack of coordinated, integrated services, and those offered are inconsistent. To address these gaps, we will develop and conduct preliminary evaluation of a rehabilitation consult, built on the theoretical foundations of goal setting and self-management, and composed of a brief functional evaluation, a resource compendium, and colla...

  16. Detection of micrometastatic prostate cancer cells in the bone marrow of patients with prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, T; Yang, M..; Ehara, H.; Ito, S.; Nishino, Y; Takahashi, Y.; Ito, Y.; Shimokawa, K; Tanaka, T.; Imaeda, T.; Doi, T.; Kawada, Y

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with prostate cancer were examined for micrometastases to the bone marrow using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers specific for the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene. Of nine patients with bone metastases detectable by bone scan imaging, five patients had PSA mRNA expression in the bone marrow detectable by RT-PCR. Of 26 patients with negative bone scan findings, seven patients had PSA mRNA expression detectable in the bone marrow. RT...

  17. Digital Image Processing Technique for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Cabrera, R.; Guzmán-Sepúlveda, J. R.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; May-Arrioja, D. A.; Ruiz-Pinales, J.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Aviña-Cervantes, G.; Parada, A. González

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Primary prevention in the early stages of the disease becomes complex as the causes remain almost unknown. However, some typical signatures of this disease, such as masses and microcalcifications appearing on mammograms, can be used to improve early diagnostic techniques, which is critical for women’s quality of life. X-ray mammography is the main test used for screening and early diagnosis, and its analysis and processing are the keys to improving breast cancer prognosis. As masses and benign glandular tissue typically appear with low contrast and often very blurred, several computer-aided diagnosis schemes have been developed to support radiologists and internists in their diagnosis. In this article, an approach is proposed to effectively analyze digital mammograms based on texture segmentation for the detection of early stage tumors. The proposed algorithm was tested over several images taken from the digital database for screening mammography for cancer research and diagnosis, and it was found to be absolutely suitable to distinguish masses and microcalcifications from the background tissue using morphological operators and then extract them through machine learning techniques and a clustering algorithm for intensity-based segmentation.

  18. Human papillomavirus detection in paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena R; Amicizia, Daniela; Martinelli, Marianna; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Brisigotti, Maria Pia; Colzani, Daniela; Fasoli, Ester; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a well-recognized aetiological role in the development of cervical cancer and other anogenital tumours. Recently, an association between colorectal cancer and HPV infection has been suggested, although this is still controversial. This study aimed at detecting and characterizing HPV infection in 57 paired biopsies from colorectal cancers and adjacent intact tissues using a degenerate PCR approach. All amplified fragments were genotyped by means of sequencing. Overall, HPV prevalence was 12.3 %. In particular, 15.8 % of tumour tissues and 8.8 % of non-cancerous tissue samples were HPV DNA-positive. Of these samples, 85.7 % were genotyped successfully, with 41.7 % of sequences identifying four genotypes of the HR (high oncogenic risk) clade Group 1; the remaining 58.3 % of HPV-genotyped specimens had an unclassified β-HPV. Examining additional cases and analysing whole genomes will help to outline the significance of these findings.

  19. [Intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the scientific data was made. It was used the literature devoted to the intraoperative visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. Correct detection of such lymph nodes with following pathologic investigation allowed limiting the volume of lympho-dissection in a number of patients. There is the possibility of maximal in-depth study of the sentinel lymph nodes by purposeful application of most sensible pathologic and molecular methods for detection their micrometastatic lesions. At the same time the treatment strategy and prognosis could be determined. The authors present the results of an application of dye techniques, radioactive preparation and fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node detection. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are shown in the article. There are validated the prospects of technical development, study of information value of new applications and the most perspective method of fluorescence indocyanine green visualization by lymph outflow. PMID:25962306

  20. Experimental Study of Breast Cancer Detection Using UWB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Alshehri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer detection using UWB imaging is presented in this paper. The study is performed experimentally. Homogeneous breast phantom is constructed using pure petroleum jelly. The tumor is modeled using mixture of water and wheat flour. The breast fatty tissue and tumor tissue are put in breast shaped glass which mimics the skin. The dielectric properties values are comparable to previous study. Neural Network (NN was trained and tested using feature vector which is prepared by performing discrete cosine transform (DCT of the received UWB signals. Very encouraging results were obtained. Up to 100 % tumor existence detection was achieved. Tumor size and location detection rate were 91.3% and 95.6% respectively.

  1. Minimally invasive prostate cancer detection test using FISH probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinawi-Aljundi R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rima Tinawi-Aljundi,1 Shannon T Knuth,2 Michael Gildea,2 Joshua Khal,2 Jason Hafron,1 Kenneth Kernen,1 Robert Di Loreto,1 Joan Aurich-Costa2 1Pathology and Research Department, Michigan Institute of Urology, St Clair Shores, MI, USA; 2Research and Development, Cellay, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA Purpose: The ability to test for and detect prostate cancer with minimal invasiveness has the potential to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies. This study was conducted as part of a clinical investigation for the development of an OligoFISH® probe panel for more accurate detection of prostate cancer.Materials and methods: One hundred eligible male patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound biopsies were enrolled in the study. After undergoing digital rectal examination with pressure, voided urine was collected in sufficient volume to prepare at least two slides using ThinPrep. Probe panels were tested on the slides, and 500 cells were scored when possible. From the 100 patients recruited, 85 had more than 300 cells scored and were included in the clinical performance calculations.Results: Chromosomes Y, 7, 10, 20, 6, 8, 16, and 18 were polysomic in most prostate carcinoma cases. Of these eight chromosomes, chromosomes 7, 16, 18, and 20 were identified as having the highest clinical performance as a fluorescence in situ hybridization test and used to manufacture the fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panels. The OligoFISH® probes performed with 100% analytical specificity. When the OligoFISH® probes were compared with the biopsy results for each individual, the test results highly correlated with positive and negative prostate biopsy pathology findings, supporting their high specificity and accuracy. Probes for chromosomes 7, 16, 18, and 20 showed in the receiver operator characteristics analysis an area under the curve of 0.83, with an accuracy of 81% in predicting the biopsy result.Conclusion: This investigation demonstrates the ease of use

  2. Breast Cancer Detection with Gabor Features from Digital Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new breast cancer detection algorithm, named the “Gabor Cancer Detection” (GCD algorithm, utilizing Gabor features is proposed. Three major steps are involved in the GCD algorithm, preprocessing, segmentation (generating alarm segments, and classification (reducing false alarms. In preprocessing, a digital mammogram is down-sampled, quantized, denoised and enhanced. Nonlinear diffusion is used for noise suppression. In segmentation, a band-pass filter is formed by rotating a 1-D Gaussian filter (off center in frequency space, termed as “Circular Gaussian Filter” (CGF. A CGF can be uniquely characterized by specifying a central frequency and a frequency band. A mass or calcification is a space-occupying lesion and usually appears as a bright region on a mammogram. The alarm segments (suspicious to be masses/calcifications can be extracted out using a threshold that is adaptively decided upon the histogram analysis of the CGF-filtered mammogram. In classification, a Gabor filter bank is formed with five bands by four orientations (horizontal, vertical, 45 and 135 degree in Fourier frequency domain. For each mammographic image, twenty Gabor-filtered images are produced. A set of edge histogram descriptors (EHD are then extracted from 20 Gabor images for classification. An EHD signature is computed with four orientations of Gabor images along each band and five EHD signatures are then joined together to form an EHD feature vector of 20 dimensions. With the EHD features, the fuzzy C-means clustering technique and k-nearest neighbor (KNN classifier are used to reduce the number of false alarms. The experimental results tested on the DDSM database (University of South Florida show the promises of GCD algorithm in breast cancer detection, which achieved TP (true positive rate = 90% at FPI (false positives per image = 1.21 in mass detection; and TP = 93% at FPI = 1.19 in calcification detection.

  3. Clinical value of cancer cells joint detection in peripheral blood plasma of thyroid cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqiong Ni; Qinjiang Liu ; Youxin Tian

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to detect cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and polymorphic epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) expression in peripheral blood of thyroid cancer patients, and investigate the clinical value of it as a diagnostic marker for circulating blood micrometastases. Methods:The flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect and analyze CK19 and MUC1-expressing cel s in peripheral blood of 491 thyroid cancer patients. Results:CK19 and MUC1 expression showed no statistical y significant dif-ference with gender and age in thyroid cancer patients (P>0.05), while had statistical y significant dif erence with tumor size, lymph node stage and distant metastasis (P<0.01). The expression of CK19 and MUC1 were positively correlated (r=0.628, P=0.00). Conclusion:CK19 is closely related to MUC1 expression, tumor size, extent of invasion and distant metastasis in peripheral blood of thyroid cancer patients. The circulating blood CK19 and MUC1 tests can help predict thyroid cancer micrometastases and prognosis.

  4. Millimeter Wave Spectroscopy for Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Konstantin; Chen, Shu; Afsar, Mohammed; Naber, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Broad-band millimeter wave transmittance measurements of normal and tumorous (cancerous) human breast tissue samples have been acquired in--vitro by employing a free-space, quasi-optical spectrometer. Freshly excised breast tissues were prepared and preserved in 10% neutral-buffered formalin solution before testing. Significant differences in the transmittance profiles have been found between the normal and tumorous tissues. It has been found that despite the inhomogeneity and variable structure and composition of each single tissue, the tumorous specimens consistently manifest much higher absorption level of millimeter wave radiation than the normal ones. It has been shown that free space, quasi-optical spectrometer is capable of contributing valuable insights into the dielectric properties of normal and tumorous human breast tissues and aiding in further developments of millimeter wave spectroscopy and mammography for the breast cancer diagnostics and detection.

  5. Dual-wavelength laser transmission photoscanner for breast cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the prototype of a laser transmission photoscanner (LTPS) constructed and used for the detection of breast cancer and compared with x-ray mammography. LTPS has been improved to enable spectroanalysis and application in breast cancer screening. The new type is introduced. In order to obtain higher sensitivity, the output of lasers was increased in intensity. The signal integration time was increased 10-fold, and the width of the detector area was doubled. The gated operation of the detector enables the good throughput. Simultaneous scanning in the dual wavelengths of 630 and 830 nm makes it possible to differentiate hemoglobin (Hb) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) in spectroanalysis by means of Lambert--Beer's law. Clinical application of dual-wavelength LTPS shows good correlation with pathology

  6. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening recommendations for both breast and cervical cancer on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  7. Pattern of follow-up care and early relapse detection in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, S.M.E.; Vegt, de F.; Siesling, S.; Flobbe, K.; Aben, K.K.H.; Heiden-van der Loo, van der M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Dijck, van J.A.A.M.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Routine breast cancer follow-up aims at detecting second primary breast cancers and loco regional recurrences preclinically. We studied breast cancer follow-up practice and mode of relapse detection during the first 5 years of follow-up to determine the efficiency of the follow-up schedule. The Neth

  8. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast...

  9. Electrochemical Sandwich Immunoassay for the Ultrasensitive Detection of Human MUC1 Cancer Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Taleat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new electrochemical sandwich immunoassay for the ultrasensitive detection of human MUC1 cancer biomarker using protein G-functionalized magnetic beads (MBs and graphite-based screen-printed electrodes (SPEs was developed. Magnetic beads were employed as the platforms for the immobilization and immunoreaction process. A pair of primary and secondary antibodies was used to capture the MUC1 protein. After labeling with a third antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP, the resulting conjugate was trapped at the surface of the graphite-based SPEs and MUC1 determination was carried out by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV at 0.4 V upon H2O2 addition using acetaminophen (APAP as the redox mediator. A linear relationship was obtained for the detection of human MUC1 over a range of 0–25 ppb with the lowest detection limit of 1.34 ppb when HRP was applied as a label. Preliminary experiments were performed using disposable electrochemical sensors in order to optimize some parameters (i.e., incubation times, concentrations, and blocking agent.

  10. A preliminary study of the use of bioimpedance in the screening of squamous tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congo Tak-Shing Ching

    2010-03-01

    conclusion, bioimpedance at a particular frequency is a potentially promising technique for tongue cancer screening.Keywords: bioimpedance, tongue, cancer, noninvasive, detection, screening

  11. Validation of Candidate Serum Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers for Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have previously analyzed protein profi les using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy (SELDI-TOF-MS [Kozak et al. 2003, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:12343–8] and identified 3 differentially expressed serum proteins for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC [Kozak et al. 2005, Proteomics, 5:4589–96], namely, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, transthyretin (TTR and transferin (TF. The objective of the present study is to determine the efficacy of the three OC biomarkers for the detection of early stage (ES OC, in direct comparison to CA125.Methods: The levels of CA125, apoA-I, TTR and TF were measured in 392 serum samples [82 women with normal ovaries (N, 24 women with benign ovarian tumors (B, 85 women with ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP, 126 women with early stage ovarian cancer (ESOC, and 75 women with late stage ovarian cancer (LSOC], obtained through the GOG and Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Following statistical analysis, multivariate regression models were built to evaluate the utility of the three OC markers in early detection.Results: Multiple logistic regression models (MLRM utilizing all biomarker values (CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I from all histological subtypes (serous, mucinous, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma distinguished normal samples from LMP with 91% sensitivity (specifi city 92%, and normal samples from ESOC with a sensitivity of 89% (specifi city 92%. MLRM, utilizing values of all four markers from only the mucinous histological subtype showed that collectively, CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I, were able to distinguish normal samples from mucinous LMP with 90% sensitivity, and further distinguished normal samples from early stage mucinous ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of 95%. In contrast, in serum samples from patients with mucinous tumors, CA125 alone was able to distinguish normal samples from LMP and early stage ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of

  12. The development of a telemedical cancer center within the Veterans Affairs Health Care System: a report of preliminary clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Kevin G; Schwartz, David L; Lentz, Susan; Vallières, Eric; Montgomery, R Bruce; Schubach, William; Penson, David; Yueh, Bevan; Chansky, Howard; Zink, Claudia; Parayno, Darla; Starkebaum, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    In order to optimize the delivery of multidisciplinary cancer care to veterans, our institution has developed a regional cancer center with a telemedical outreach program. The objectives of this report are to describe the organization and function of the telemedical cancer center and to report our early clinical results. The Veterans Affairs Health Care System is organized into a series of integrated service networks that serve veterans within different areas throughout the United States. Within Veterans Integrated Service Network 20 (Washington, Alaska, Idaho, Oregon) we have developed a regional cancer center with telemedicine links to four outlying facilities within the service area. The telemedical outreach effort functions through the use of a multidisciplinary telemedicine tumor board. The tumor board serves patients in outlying facilities by providing comprehensive, multidisciplinary consultation for the complete range of malignancies. For individuals who do require referral to the cancer center, the tumor board serves to coordinate the logistical and clinical details of the referral process. This program has been in existence for 1 year. During that time 85 patients have been evaluated in the telemedicine tumor board. Sixty-two percent of the patients were treated at their closest facility; 38% were referred to the cancer center for treatment and/or additional diagnostic studies. The patients' diagnoses included the entire clinical spectrum of malignant disease. Preliminary clinical results demonstrate the program is feasible and it improves access to multidisciplinary cancer care. Potential benefits include improved referral coordination and minimization of patient travel and treatment delays. PMID:12020412

  13. Preliminary Study of 13C/12C Application for the Detection of Adulterated Honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey and pollen in natural products derived from the same plant both share the same carbon source; as a result their 13C isotope signature should be identical. The majority of honey adulteration in Thailand was done particularly by adding cheap sugars such as high sucrose cane syrup (HSCS). The accepted differences in 13C/12C between honey and its associated protein extract is -1δ/ο deviation, which provides the international benchmark of 7% C4 sugar addition. This study reports the preliminary detection of adulterated Thai honey samples by using isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled to elemental analyzer (EAIRMS). The 5 Thailand honey samples and the pure honey were adulterated with HSCS dilution as: 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 50%, respectively. The results were found that two of the Thai honey samples and of 10, 15, and 50% dilution were adulterated. The result of analyzed cane sugar of ten replicates were found -11.2 and -10.8 δdeviation, respectively.

  14. A preliminary study of visual memory and rule detection in fencing. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELOS VERTOPOULOS, CHARILAOS TSOLAKIS & MARIETTA REMOUNDOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate possible differences among a group of fencers and a group of swimmers, in the visual memory task and the spatial anticipation task. 15 national level fencers (aged between 16 to 23 years and 15 swimmers of a competitive swimming club (aged between 15 to 22 years, were studied. The Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test (BSAT was used as a measure of executive functioning. The second test was the Visual Patterns Test (VPT, which measured visual short-term memory. The Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS was also included as an estimate of general intelligence. There was a significant difference between fencers & swimmers in the BSAT, (F=5.261, p<0.030, while the analysis of the VPT test scores showed no significant differences among groups (F=0.325 p<=0.573. In conclusion, fencers showed no better performance on visual memory, while they were superior in rule detection, comparing to swimmers. The long training fencing program, may greatly affects the speed of constitute information process as attributes of the decision making speed in national level fencers.

  15. Buprenorphine detection in hair samples by immunometric screening test: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaizer, Fiorenza; Lotti, Andrea; Gottardi, Massimo; Miozzo, Maria Pia

    2010-03-20

    The recent introduction of buprenorphine use by the Drug Addiction Services has induced toxicology laboratories to develop new qualitative or semiquantitative screening assay for its determination in hair samples. The aim of this preliminary study was to verify the correlation between the buprenorphine intake and the immunometric screening test results (VMA-T Comedical and buprenorphine CEDIA/Thermo-Fisher/Microgenics reagents) and therefore their comparison with the liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) results. Hair samples were obtained from 32 subjects without buprenorphine-therapy reported and 17 in treatment. In glass test tube with hermetic cap were weighed 33 mg of 49 finely cut hair samples, washed with 1 mL of SLV-VMA-T washing solution, which is then completely sucked and eliminated. The samples were extracted with 400 microL of VMA-T reagent for an hour at 100 degrees C. The extracts were analysed by immunometric screening test on ILab 650 chemistry analyser, using buprenorphine CEDIA reagent assay. From the 32 non-takers of drug, 30 semiquantitative results were less than 10 pg/mg and 2 were over 10 pg/mg; from the 17 subjects with therapy, all were over 10 pg/mg (range 13-50 pg/mg); no samples were false-negative. Results suggest that exist a good relationship between the administration of buprenorphine and its concentration in hair, detectable through this method and reagents line. PMID:20080369

  16. Detection of HPV-16 DNA by PCR in histologically cancer free lymph nodes from patients with cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.D. Baay (Marc); J. Koudstaal; H. Hollema; J.M. Duk; M.P.M. Burger; W.G.V. Quint (Wim); E. Stolz (Ernst); P. Herbrink (Paul)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe prognostic value of detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA in histologically cancer free lymph nodes was assessed in left obturator lymph nodes from cervical cancer patients with HPV-16 positive primary tumours. HPV-16 DNA was detected by po

  17. Detection of HPV-16 DNA by PCR in histologically cancer free lymph nodes from patients with cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baay, MFD; Koudstaal, J; Hollema, H; Duk, JM; Burger, MPM; Quint, WGV; Stolz, E; Herbrink, P

    1997-01-01

    The prognostic value of detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA in histologically cancer free lymph nodes was assessed in left obturator lymph nodes from cervical cancer patients with HPV-16 positive primary tumours. HPV-16 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 12 of 35 patien

  18. The role of apparent diffusion coefficient values in detecting testicular intraepithelial neoplasia: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsili, Athina C., E-mail: a_tsili@yahoo.gr [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Ntorkou, Alexandra, E-mail: alexdorkou@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Baltogiannis, Dimitrios, E-mail: Greece.dbaltog@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Goussia, Anna, E-mail: agoussia@uoi.gr [Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G., E-mail: astrakas@uoi.gr [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Malamou-Mitsi, Vasiliki, E-mail: vmalamou@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Sofikitis, Nikolaos, E-mail: akrosnin@hotmail.com [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I., E-mail: margyrop@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • ADC values proved useful in the discrimination between TGCNs and normal testis. • Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia represents the precursor of most TGCNs. • ADC values cannot be used to detect testicular intraepithelial neoplasia. - Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study is to improve detection of testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: Fifty-six MRI examinations of the scrotum, including 26 histologically proven testicular germ cell neoplasms were retrospectively evaluated. DWI was performed using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s mm{sup −2}. ADC measurements were classified into three groups according to their location: group 1 (n = 19), non-tumoral part, adjacent to testicular carcinoma, where the possible location of TIN was; group 2 (n = 26), testicular carcinoma; and group 3 (n = 60), normal testicular parenchyma. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc analysis (Dunnett T3) was used for statistical purposes. Results: The mean ± s.d. of ADC values (×10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) of different groups were: group 1, 1.08 ± 0.20; group 2, 0.72 ± 0.27; and group 3, 1.11 ± 0.14. ANOVA revealed differences of mean ADC between groups (F = 38.859, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed differences between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001), groups 2 and 1 (P < 0.001), but not between groups 3 and 1 (P = 0.87). Conclusions: Based on our preliminary results, ADC values do not provide a reliable differentiation between TIN and testicular carcinoma or normal testicular parenchyma.

  19. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis Past ... healthcare provider when they have a concern." Clinical Breast Exam During a clinical breast exam, your healthcare ...

  20. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  1. Intraoperative ultrasonography in detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus;

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare diagnostic accuracies of measuring liver enzymes, preoperative ultrasonography, surgical examination, and intraoperative ultrasonography for detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. METHODS: Blind, prospective comparisons of diagnostic...... of the findings by the surgeon. The presence of metastases was further assessed by ultrasonography three months postoperatively, as well as additional surgery and liver biopsy in some of the patients. RESULTS: The sensitivity of intraoperative ultrasonography (62/64) was significantly superior to...... that of surgical exploration (54/64) and that of preoperative ultrasonography (45/64). The lowest sensitivity was presented by liver enzymes. Bilobar metastases were detected in 42 of 46 patients by intraoperative ultrasonography but in only 33 patients by the surgeon. Intraoperative ultrasonography...

  2. Individual responsibility in early detection of prostate gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the point that morbidity and mortality rate due to prostate gland cancer has increased in Santiago de Cuba, the authors of this work decided to analyze the relation to individual responsibility in order to early detect the aforementioned condition. Therefore, 48 men over 50 years old belonging to the health area of Frank Pais Garcia University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba were surveyed during the first months of the year 2011 to determine the factors that influenced on the low risk perception. Results showed the urgent need of carrying out actions of health promotion and disease prevention in order to achieve the individual feels more responsible of his health care. Of the case material, 85,4 % participants admitted they did not have the tests to guarantee the early diagnosis or detect this tumor.(author)

  3. Overview of the evidence on digital breast tomosynthesis in breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Skaane, Per

    2013-04-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT, or 3D-mammography), a three-dimensional derivative of digital mammography (DM), reduces the effect of tissue superimposition and may improve mammographic interpretation. In this review, we examined the evidence on the accuracy of DBT in clinical studies. Published studies of DBT were relatively small studies, mostly test-set observer (reader) studies or clinical series that included symptomatic and screen-recalled cases, and were generally enriched with cancers. With these limitations in mind, the evidence showed some consistent findings, summarized as follows: two-view DBT has at least equal or better accuracy than standard two-view DM, whereas one-view DBT does not have better accuracy than standard DM; the addition of DBT to standard mammography (for mammographic interpretation or for assessment or triage of screen-recalled abnormalities) increases accuracy; improved accuracy from using DBT (relative to, or added to, DM) may be due to increased cancer detection or due to reduced false positive recalls, or both; and subjective interpretation of cancer conspicuity consistently found that cancers were equally or more conspicuous on DBT relative to DM. Preliminary data from population screening trials suggest that the integration of DBT with conventional DM (screen-reading using combined 2D + 3D mammography) may substantially improve breast cancer detection, although final results are not yet available, and many logistical issues need further evaluation to determine the potential implications and cost of combined 2D + 3D mammographic screening. At present, there is insufficient evidence to justify a change from standard DM to DBT however the available data strongly support investment in new large-scale population screening trials. These trials need to avoid the 'double' acquisitions required for 2D + 3D mammograms, and should therefore focus on evaluating integrated 2Dsynthetic + 3D mammography (where 2D-images are

  4. Regional Distributions of Distant Metastases Detected in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuzer Kalender

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our multicenter study is to determine retrospectively the regional distributions of distant metastases which are detected in differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC. Material and Method: Thirty-two of 960 patients with distant metastases who were given radioiodine (RAI treatment in Gaziantep University School of Medicine and Mustafa Kemal University School of Medicine were included to study. Six of patients were male, 26 of them were female. Mean age was 52±15.4. Hystopathological diagnoses were reported as papillary thyroid cancer in 23 patients and folliculary thyroid cancer in 9 patients. The distant metastasis ratio, metastasis regions and distributions were determined. Results: It was observed only lung metastasis in 18 (56.25 %, only bone metastasis in 6 (18.75 %, combination of lung and bone metastases in 3 (9.4 %, other organ metastases accompanying to bone and lung metastases in 3 (9.4 % (liver, soft tissue, mediastinum and multipl organ involvoment in 2 (6.2 % of patients. It was determined single metastasis region in 24 (75 %, 2 metastasis regions in 6 (18.75 % and multipl metastasis regions in 2 (6.25 % of patients. Discussion: Distant metastases are the biggest problem in treatment and follow-up of DTCs. It is very important to diagnosis of metastases and determine the regions of involvoment in these patients.

  5. Preliminary study for non – invasive optical detection of squamous and basal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early detection of skin cancer may highly increase the chances of its healing. One of the non-invasive methods of such detection based on the Oblique- Incidence Diffuse Reflectance (OIDR measurements of the reflected diode laser light from the skin. In this research we designed and implemented the OIDR reflectometry measuring system with a 650 nm diode laser source to aid physicians in diagnosing both squamous cell carcinomas (SCC and basal cell carcinomas(BCC. Method The laser is delivered obliquely to the skin surface by an optical fiber fitted through a tube holder of CCD camera. The diffused reflected laser light from the skin is captured by the CCD camera and sent to a computer, which is supplied by a specially prepared Matlab program to analyze these images in order to decide in a time whether the lesion is malignant or benign. Fifty cases were diagnosed under supervision of the consultant section of The Governmental Specialized Marjan Teaching Hospital – MOH – Iraq. Result The fifty diagnosed cases by this technique, the results were 90% accurate. Conclusion The method of laser oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIDR combined with using the developed algorithms that have high classification rates may prove useful in the clinic as the process is fast, noninvasive and accurate.

  6. Prostate-specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ian M; Ankerst, Donna P.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout Canada, the United States and much of Europe, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer has proliferated over the past 2 decades, leading to dramatic increases in detection rates of prostate cancer. Although it has unquestionably led to increased detection of cancer and a migration to lower-stage and -volume tumours, it is still unknown whether PSA screening significantly reduces mortality from prostate cancer. Often thought to be dichotomous (i.e., either norma...

  7. Smoking cessation intervention within the framework of a lung cancer screening program: preliminary results and clinical perspectives from the "Cosmos-II" Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo, Lococo; Principe, Rosastella; Cesario, Alfredo; Apolone, Giovanni; Carleo, Francesco; Ialongo, Pasquale; Veronesi, Giulia; Cardillo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Data coming from the literature investigating the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation (SC) and lung cancer screening (LCScr) are still sparse and inconsistent. Herein, we report the preliminary results from the ongoing lung cancer screening trial ("Cosmos-II") focusing our analysis on the inter-relationship between the SC program and the LCScr.

  8. Detection and identification of the designer benzodiazepine flubromazepam and preliminary data on its metabolism and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Huppertz, Laura M; Hutter, Melanie; Buchwald, Armin; Ferlaino, Sascha; Auwärter, Volker

    2013-11-01

    The appearance of pyrazolam in Internet shops selling 'research chemicals' in 2012 marked the beginning of designer benzodiazepines being sold as recreational drugs or 'self medication'. With recent changes in national narcotics laws in many countries, where two uncontrolled benzodiazepines (phenazepam and etizolam), which were marketed by pharmaceutical companies in some countries, were scheduled, clandestine laboratories seem to turn to poorly characterized research drug candidates as legal substitutes. Following the appearance of pyrazolam, it comes with no surprise that recently, flubromazepam (7-bromo-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one), a second designer benzodiazepine, was offered on the market. In this article, this new compound was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight MS (LC-Q-ToF-MS). Additionally, a study was carried out, in which one of the authors consumed 4 mg of flubromazepam to gain preliminary data on the pharmacokinetic properties and the metabolism of this compound. For this purpose, serum as well as urine samples were collected for up to 31 days post-ingestion and analyzed applying LC-MS/MS and LC-Q-ToF-MS techniques. On the basis of this study, flubromazepam appears to have an extremely long elimination half-life of more than 100 h. One monohydroxylated compound and the debrominated compound could be identified as the predominant metabolites, the first allowing a detection of a consumption for up to 28 days post-ingestion when analyzing urine samples in our case. Additionally, various immunochemical assays were evaluated, showing that the cross-reactivity of the used assay seems not to be sufficient for safe detection of the applied dose in urine samples, bearing the risk that it could be misused in drug-withdrawal settings or in other circumstances requiring

  9. Polyaniline modified flexible conducting paper for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Sen, Anindita; Kumar, Suveen; Augustine, Shine; Yadav, Birendra K.; Mishra, Sandeep; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2016-05-01

    We report results of studies relating to the fabrication of a flexible, disposable, and label free biosensing platform for detection of the cancer biomarker (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA). Polyaniline (PANI) has been electrochemically deposited over gold sputtered paper (Au@paper) for covalent immobilization of monoclonal carcinoembryonic antibodies (anti-CEA). The bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been used for blocking nonspecific binding sites at the anti-CEA conjugated PANI/Au@Paper. The PANI/Au@Paper, anti-CEA/PANI/Au@Paper, and BSA/anti-CEA/PANI/Au@Paper platforms have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance techniques. The results of the electrochemical response studies indicate that this BSA/anti-CEA/PANI/Au@paper electrode has sensitivity of 13.9 μA ng-1 ml cm2, shelf life of 22 days, and can be used to estimate CEA in the range of 2-20 ng ml-1. This paper sensor has been validated by detection of CEA in serum samples of cancer patients via immunoassay technique.

  10. Risk of non-sentinel node metastases in patients with symptomatic cancers compared to screen-detected breast cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove F; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Symptomatic breast cancers may be more aggressive as compared to screen-detected breast cancers. This could favor axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with symptomatic breast cancer and positive sentinel nodes. METHOD: We identified 955 patients registered in the Danish...... Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) Database in 2008 - 2010 with micrometastases (773) or isolated tumor cells (ITC) (182) in the sentinel node. Patients were cross-checked in the Danish Quality Database of Mammography Screening and 481 patients were identified as screen-detected cancers....... The remaining 474 patients were considered as having symptomatic cancers. Multivariate analyses of the risk of non-sentinel node metastases were performed including known risk factors for non-sentinel node metastases as well as method of detection. RESULTS: 18% of the patients had metastases in non...

  11. Local microwave hyperthermia and irradiation in cancer therapy: preliminary observations and directions for future clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C.A.; Kopecky, W.; Venkata Rao, D.; Baglan, R.; Mann, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report outlies the preliminary experience at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology with hyperthermia and irradiation. Twenty-nine lesions were treated with 400 rad fractions given every 72 hours (twice weekly) for a total dose of 2000 to 4000 rad followed by hyperthermia (2450 MHz or 915 MHz microwaves, 42.0/sup 0/ to 43/sup 0/C, 90 minutes, every 72 hours.) in addition, 6 lesions were treated with three doses of 500 rad followed by hyperthermia and 12 with irradiation alone (three doses of 600, 700 or 800 rad every 72 h). In the lesions treated with 2000 to 4000 rad and heat, nine of 12 recurrent epidermoid carcinomas of the head and neck showed complete regression (75%) and one more than 50% response. Four of five metastatic melanoma nodules showed complete regression of the tumors and one over 80% response. Of nine recurrent adenocarcinoma of the breast nodules in the chest wall treated with 3200 to 4000 rad, five lesions exhibited complete regression and two others about 80%. Four of five metastatic melanoma nodules and three soft tissue sarcomas had complete tumor regression. Of the six lesions treated with 1500 rad and hyperthermia, two metastatic melanomas showed complete regression (CR), and three tumors exhibited partial regression. Despite the fact that the majority of the patients had been previously treated with definitive radiotherapy, the retreatment with moderate doses of irradiation and heat has been well tolerated. Of the 35 sites treated, four (11%) developed blisters, seven (20%) erythema only, three (8%) moist desquamation and 27 (77%) dry desquamation. There has been one instance of severe necrosis of soft tissues in the upper neck, in a patient previously treated with 5000 rad and surgery. Additional clinical trials are warranted to assess the potential value of hyperthermia alone or combined with irradiation in the treatment of selected cancer patients.

  12. Skin artifact removal technique for breast cancer radar detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caorsi, S.; Lenzi, C.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose a new model-based skin artifact cleaning technique with the aim to remove skin reflections with good effectiveness, without introducing significant signal distortions, and without assuming a priori information on the real structure of the breast. The reference cleaning model, constituted by a two-layer geometry skin-adipose tissue, is oriented to all the ultrawideband radar methods able to detect the tumor starting by the knowledge of each trace recorded around the breast. All the radar signal measurements were simulated by using realistic breast models derived from the University of Wisconsin computational electromagnetic laboratory database and the finite difference time domain (FDTD)-based open source software GprMax. First, we have searched for the best configuration for the reference cleaning model with the aim to minimize the distortions introduced on the radar signal. Second, the performance of the proposed cleaning technique has been assessed by using a breast cancer radar detection technique based on the use of artificial neural network (ANN). In order to minimize the signal distortions, we found that it was necessary to use the real skin thickness and the static Debye parameters of both skin and adipose tissue. In such a case the ANN-based radar approach was able to detect the tumor with an accuracy of 87%. By extending the performance assessment also to the case when only average standard values are used to characterize the reference cleaning model, the detection accuracy was of 84%.

  13. Early Detection of Breast Cancer using SVM Classifier Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Ireaneus Anna Rejani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a tumor detection algorithm from mammogram. The proposed system focuses on the solution of two problems. One is how to detect tumors as suspicious regions with a very weak contrast to their background and another is how to extract features which categorize tumors. The tumor detection method follows the scheme of (a mammogram enhancement. (b The segmentation of the tumor area. (c The extraction of features from the segmented tumor area. (d The use of SVM classifier. The enhancement can be defined as conversion of the image quality to a better and more understandable level. The mammogram enhancement procedure includes filtering, top hat operation, DWT. Then the contrast stretching is used to increase the contrast of the image. The segmentation of mammogram images has been playing an important role to improve the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. The most common segmentation method used is thresholding. The features are extracted from the segmented breast area. Next stage include, which classifies the regions using the SVM classifier. The method was tested on 75 mammographic images, from the mini-MIAS database. The methodology achieved a sensitivity of 88.75%.

  14. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer treatment using quantitative CT image biomarkers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and apply quantitative image biomarkers for early prediction of the tumor response to the chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer patients participated in the clinical trials of testing new drugs. In the experiment, we retrospectively selected 30 cases from the patients who participated in Phase I clinical trials of new drug or drug agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Each case is composed of two sets of CT images acquired pre- and post-treatment (4-6 weeks after starting treatment). A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was developed to extract and analyze the quantitative image features of the metastatic tumors previously tracked by the radiologists using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The CAD scheme first segmented 3-D tumor volumes from the background using a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, for each segmented tumor, CAD computed three quantitative image features including the change of tumor volume, tumor CT number (density) and density variance. The feature changes were calculated between the matched tumors tracked on the CT images acquired pre- and post-treatments. Finally, CAD predicted patient's 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) using a decision-tree based classifier. The performance of the CAD scheme was compared with the RECIST category. The result shows that the CAD scheme achieved a prediction accuracy of 76.7% (23/30 cases) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.493, which is significantly higher than the performance of RECIST prediction with a prediction accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 60% (17/30) and 0.062, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing quantitative image features to improve the early predicting accuracy of the tumor response to the new testing drugs or therapeutic methods for the ovarian cancer patients.

  15. Growth rate and characteristics of breast cancers detected by ultrasonography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer screening was carried out at our institution in a ''Human Dock'' style health check, by inspection and palpation, together with ultrasonography. Breast cancers detected were reviewed and the utility of ultrasonography was evaluated. A total of 14,063 women underwent the screening and the results were good, with a recall rate of 3.4%, a cancer detection rate of 0.30%, and a positive predictive value of 8.7%. Of 42 breast cancers detected by ultrasonography, 30 (71%) were 1.5 cm or less in diameter. For breast cancers detected by inspection and palpation, the detection rate for small cancers measuring 1.5 cm or less was 33% (10 out of 30 women), and 100% (12 women) for tumors measuring more than 1.5 cm. The cancer detection rate by mammography was 39% (9 out of 23 cancers) for tumors measuring 1.5 cm or less, and 91% (10 out of 11 cases) for those larger than 1.5 cm. Thus cancer detection by ultrasonography was optimal for tumors measuring 1.5 cm or less. Histologically proven lymph node metastasis was positive in 8 (25%) of 32 patients, among whom some had primary cancers measuring 1.5 cm or less. Tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) was measurable in 10 women; there was no change in size in one instance, and in the others TVDT was 4.8 to 32.5 months (mean 15.5 months), small cancers approximately 1 cm in size having a long TVDT. In women whose cancer size could be determined twice or more, TVDT tended to be short when a cancer measured about 1 cm or more. Cancers with a long TVDT showed low histological malignancy, and thus detection of breast cancers with a long TVDT at screening appears to be rewarding. (author)

  16. A Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Lung Cancer Detection Using Support Vector Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Gomathi, M; P. Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Computer Tomography (CT) has been considered as the most sensitive imaging technique for early detection of lung cancer. Approach: On the other hand, there is a requirement for automated methodology to make use of large amount of data obtained CT images. Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) can be used efficiently for early detection of Lung Cancer. Results: The usage of existing CAD system for early detection of lung cancer with the help of CT images has ...

  17. Increasing cancer detection yield of breast MRI using a new CAD scheme of mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Aghaei, Faranak; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Stough, Rebecca G.; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Although breast MRI is the most sensitive imaging modality to detect early breast cancer, its cancer detection yield in breast cancer screening is quite low (digital mammograms to identify women at high risk of harboring mammography-occult breast cancers, which can be detected by breast MRI. For this purpose, we retrospectively assembled a dataset involving 30 women who had both mammography and breast MRI screening examinations. All mammograms were interpreted as negative, while 5 cancers were detected using breast MRI. We developed a CAD scheme of mammograms, which include a new quantitative mammographic image feature analysis based risk model, to stratify women into two groups with high and low risk of harboring mammography-occult cancer. Among 30 women, 9 were classified into the high risk group by CAD scheme, which included all 5 women who had cancer detected by breast MRI. All 21 low risk women remained negative on the breast MRI examinations. The cancer detection yield of breast MRI applying to this dataset substantially increased from 16.7% (5/30) to 55.6% (5/9), while eliminating 84% (21/25) unnecessary breast MRI screenings. The study demonstrated the potential of applying a new CAD scheme to significantly increase cancer detection yield of breast MRI, while simultaneously reducing the number of negative MRIs in breast cancer screening.

  18. - and Syn-Eruptive Surface Movements of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes Detected Through Insar Analysis: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Aliyev, Chingiz

    2014-05-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that consists in the extrusion of mud, fragments or blocks of country rocks, saline waters and gases, mostly methane. This mechanism is typically linked to in-depth hydrocarbon traps, and it builds up a variety of conical edifices with dimension and morphology similar to those of magmatic volcanoes. Interferometry by Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques have been commonly used to monitor and investigate the ground deformation connected to the eruptive phases of magmatic volcanoes. InSAR techniques have also been employed to explore the ground deformation associated with the LUSI mud volcano in Java (Indonesia). We aim to carry out a study on the paroxysmal activities of the Azerbaijan mud volcanoes, among the largest on Earth, using similar techniques. In particular the deformations of the mud volcanic systems were analyzed through the technique of satellite differential interferometry (DInSAR), thanks to the acquisition of 16 descending and 4 ascending Envisat images, spanning about 4 years (October 2003-November 2007); these data were provided by the European Space Agency. The preliminary analysis of a set of 77 interferograms and the unwrapping process elaboration of some of them selected according to the best coherence values, allowed the detection of significant deformations in correspondence of Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara Zira Island mud volcanoes. This analysis has allowed to identify relevant ground deformations of the volcanic systems in connection with the main eruptive events in 2005 and in 2006 respectively, that are recorded by the catalogue of Azerbaijan mud volcano eruptions until 2007. The preliminary analysis of the interferograms of the Ayaz-Akhtarma and the Khara Zira mud volcanoes shows that the whole volcano edifice or part of it is subject to a ground displacement before or in coincidence with the eruption. Assuming that the movement is mainly vertical, we suppose that deformation is due to bulging of the volcanic

  19. Relationship of detection rate of PET cancer screening examinees and risk factors. Analysis of background of examinees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening is performed widely in Japan as opportunistic screening, but no study has focused on the correlation with various cancer risk factors and the seeking bias of examinees and cancer detection rate. Analyzing our large series of PET cancer screening data, correlations with cancer detection rates according to general cancer risk factors and PET detection survey were reviewed, and the selection bias of the medical examinees was determined. 19189 examinees who underwent PET cancer screening were enrolled. Using logistic-regression analysis, we analyzed correlations between smoking history/drinking history/cancer family history and detection rates of thyroid cancer/breast cancer/colorectal cancer/lung cancer, which are the main malignancies detected in PET cancer screening. In addition, we evaluated seeking bias of examinees, analyzing correlations between the presence of cancer risk factors and prior screening checkups at other institutions to our PET cancer screening using a matched case-control study. Cancer detection rates by FDG-PET were 1.17% (224/19189), being much higher than those of standard cancer mass screenings. In males, statistically significant correlations were seen between lung cancer and smoking, and between prostate cancer and a family history of prostate cancer, but not between the detection rates of three other types of cancer (thyroid cancer/lung cancer/colorectal cancer) and other cancer risk factors. In females, detection rates of four types of cancer (thyroid cancer/lung cancer/colorectal cancer/breast cancer) were significantly higher in the examinees without cancer risks, and subgroup analysis according to types of cancer did not indicate significant correlations either. The matched case-control study evaluating seeking bias indicated that a significant proportion of the examinees with cancer risks had undergone prior cancer screening at other institutions. Our study indicated that there was

  20. Mitosis Detection for Invasive Breast Cancer Grading in Histopathological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angshuman; Mukherjee, Dipti Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Histopathological grading of cancer not only offers an insight to the patients' prognosis but also helps in making individual treatment plans. Mitosis counts in histopathological slides play a crucial role for invasive breast cancer grading using the Nottingham grading system. Pathologists perform this grading by manual examinations of a few thousand images for each patient. Hence, finding the mitotic figures from these images is a tedious job and also prone to observer variability due to variations in the appearances of the mitotic cells. We propose a fast and accurate approach for automatic mitosis detection from histopathological images. We employ area morphological scale space for cell segmentation. The scale space is constructed in a novel manner by restricting the scales with the maximization of relative-entropy between the cells and the background. This results in precise cell segmentation. The segmented cells are classified in mitotic and non-mitotic category using the random forest classifier. Experiments show at least 12% improvement in F1 score on more than 450 histopathological images at 40× magnification.

  1. Hyperspectral Imaging Using Flexible Endoscopy for Laryngeal Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Regeling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging (HSI is increasingly gaining acceptance in the medical field. Up until now, HSI has been used in conjunction with rigid endoscopy to detect cancer in vivo. The logical next step is to pair HSI with flexible endoscopy, since it improves access to hard-to-reach areas. While the flexible endoscope’s fiber optic cables provide the advantage of flexibility, they also introduce an interfering honeycomb-like pattern onto images. Due to the substantial impact this pattern has on locating cancerous tissue, it must be removed before the HS data can be further processed. Thereby, the loss of information is to minimize avoiding the suppression of small-area variations of pixel values. We have developed a system that uses flexible endoscopy to record HS cubes of the larynx and designed a special filtering technique to remove the honeycomb-like pattern with minimal loss of information. We have confirmed its feasibility by comparing it to conventional filtering techniques using an objective metric and by applying unsupervised and supervised classifications to raw and pre-processed HS cubes. Compared to conventional techniques, our method successfully removes the honeycomb-like pattern and considerably improves classification performance, while preserving image details.

  2. Hyperspectral Imaging Using Flexible Endoscopy for Laryngeal Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeling, Bianca; Thies, Boris; Gerstner, Andreas O. H.; Westermann, Stephan; Müller, Nina A.; Bendix, Jörg; Laffers, Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is increasingly gaining acceptance in the medical field. Up until now, HSI has been used in conjunction with rigid endoscopy to detect cancer in vivo. The logical next step is to pair HSI with flexible endoscopy, since it improves access to hard-to-reach areas. While the flexible endoscope’s fiber optic cables provide the advantage of flexibility, they also introduce an interfering honeycomb-like pattern onto images. Due to the substantial impact this pattern has on locating cancerous tissue, it must be removed before the HS data can be further processed. Thereby, the loss of information is to minimize avoiding the suppression of small-area variations of pixel values. We have developed a system that uses flexible endoscopy to record HS cubes of the larynx and designed a special filtering technique to remove the honeycomb-like pattern with minimal loss of information. We have confirmed its feasibility by comparing it to conventional filtering techniques using an objective metric and by applying unsupervised and supervised classifications to raw and pre-processed HS cubes. Compared to conventional techniques, our method successfully removes the honeycomb-like pattern and considerably improves classification performance, while preserving image details. PMID:27529255

  3. Biophysical basis for noninvasive skin cancer detection using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J.; Markey, Mia K.; Fox, Matthew C.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) is proving to be a valuable tool for real time noninvasive skin cancer detection via optical fiber probe. However, current methods utilizing RS for skin cancer diagnosis rely on statistically based algorithms to provide tissue classification and do not elucidate the underlying biophysical changes of skin tissue. Therefore, we aim to use RS to explore skin biochemical and structural characteristics and then correlate the Raman spectrum of skin tissue with its disease state. We have built a custom confocal micro-Raman spectrometer system with an 830nm laser light. The high resolution capability of the system allows us to measure spectroscopic features from individual tissue components in situ. Raman images were collected from human skin samples from Mohs surgical biopsy, which were then compared with confocal laser scanning, two-photon fluorescence and hematoxylin and eosin-stained images to develop a linear model of skin tissue Raman spectra. In this model, macroscopic tissue spectra obtained from RS fiber probe were fit into a linear combination of individual basis spectra of primary skin constituents. The fit coefficient of the model explains the biophysical changes spanning a range of normal and various disease states. The model allows for determining parameters similar to that a pathologist is familiar reading and will be a significant guidance in developing RS diagnostic decision schemes.

  4. Large area MEMS based ultrasound device for cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodnicki, Robert, E-mail: wodnicki@research.ge.com [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Thomenius, Kai [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Ming Hooi, Fong; Sinha, Sumedha P.; Carson, Paul L. [Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lin Dersong; Zhuang Xuefeng; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Woychik, Charles [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

    2011-08-21

    We present image results obtained using a prototype ultrasound array that demonstrates the fundamental architecture for a large area MEMS based ultrasound device for detection of breast cancer. The prototype array consists of a tiling of capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (cMUTs) that have been flip-chip attached to a rigid organic substrate. The pitch on the cMUT elements is 185 {mu}m and the operating frequency is nominally 9 MHz. The spatial resolution of the new probe is comparable to those of production PZT probes; however the sensitivity is reduced by conditions that should be correctable. Simulated opposed-view image registration and Speed of Sound volume reconstruction results for ultrasound in the mammographic geometry are also presented.

  5. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  6. Performance of computer-aided detection applied to full-field digital mammography in detection of breast cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadaf, Arifa, E-mail: arifa.sadaf@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X5 (Canada); Crystal, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.crystal@utoronto.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X5 (Canada); Scaranelo, Anabel, E-mail: anabel.scaranelo@uhn.on.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Rm 3-922, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Helbich, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.helbich@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University Vienna - General Hospital Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Floor 7F, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) with full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in detection of breast cancers. Materials and Methods: CAD was retrospectively applied to standard mammographic views of 127 cases with biopsy proven breast cancers detected with FFDM (Senographe 2000, GE Medical Systems). CAD sensitivity was assessed in total group of 127 cases and for subgroups based on breast density, mammographic lesion type, mammographic lesion size, histopathology and mode of presentation. Results: Overall CAD sensitivity was 91% (115 of 127 cases). There were no statistical differences (p > 0.1) in CAD detection of cancers in dense breasts 90% (53/59) versus non-dense breasts 91% (62/68). There was statistical difference (p < 0.05) in CAD detection of cancers that appeared mammographically as microcalcifications only versus other mammographic manifestations. CAD detected 100% (44/44) of cancers manifesting as microcalcifications, 89% (47/53) as no-calcified masses or asymmetries, 88% (14/16) as masses with associated calcifications, and 71% (10/14) as architectural distortions. CAD sensitivity for cancers 1-10 mm was 84% (38/45); 11-20 mm 93% (55/59); and >20 mm 97% (22/23). Conclusion: CAD applied to FFDM showed 100% sensitivity in identifying cancers manifesting as microcalcifications only and high sensitivity 86% (71/83) for other mammographic appearances of cancer. Sensitivity is influenced by lesion size. CAD in FFDM is an adjunct helping radiologist in early detection of breast cancers.

  7. Positive diagnostic values and histological detection ratios from the Rotterdam cervical cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Kreuger; H. Beerman (Henk); H.G. Nijs (Huub); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In organized screening programmes for cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions are detected by cervical smears. However, during follow-up after a positive smear these pre-cancerous lesions are not always found. The purpose of the study is to analys

  8. Challenges of Early Detection of Oral Cancer: Raising Awareness as a First Step to Successful Campaigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Eva; Koller, Michael; Wiltfang, Jörg; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Möller, Björn; Hertrampf, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, ~13 000 people are found to have oral and pharyngeal cancer every year. Awareness and knowledge about this cancer remain insufficient, particularly amongst elderly people. A campaign for early detection was launched in Northern Germany in April 2012. The first step of the campaign was to increase awareness about oral cancer. Prior to a…

  9. Understanding the Health Behaviors of Survivors of Childhood and Young-Adult Cancer: Preliminary Analysis and Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie C. Vuotto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents preliminary correlational data used to develop a model depicting the psychosocial pathways that lead to the health behaviors of survivors of childhood and young-adult cancer. Data collected from a sample of 18- to 30-year-old cancer survivors (n = 125 was used to examine the relations among interpersonal support and nonsupport, personal agency, avoidance, depressive symptoms and self-efficacy as they related to health behaviors. The outcome measures examined included tobacco and alcohol use, diet, exercise, sunscreen use, medication compliance and follow-up/screening practices. Correlational analyses revealed a number of significant associations among variables. Results are used to inform the development of a health behavior model. Implications for health promotion and survivorship programming are discussed, as well as directions for future research.

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  11. Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  12. Detection of the Odor Signature of Ovarian Cancer using DNA-Decorated Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, Christopher; Kybert, Nicholas; Yodh, Jeremy; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    Carbon nanotubes are low-dimensional materials that exhibit remarkable chemical and bio-sensing properties and have excellent compatibility with electronic systems. Here, we present a study that uses an electronic olfaction system based on a large array of DNA-carbon nanotube field effect transistors vapor sensors to analyze the VOCs of blood plasma samples collected from patients with malignant ovarian cancer, patients with benign ovarian lesions, and age-matched healthy subjects. Initial investigations involved coating each CNT sensor with single-stranded DNA of a particular base sequence. 10 distinct DNA oligomers were used to functionalize the carbon nanotube field effect transistors, providing a 10-dimensional sensor array output response. Upon performing a statistical analysis of the 10-dimensional sensor array responses, we showed that blood samples from patients with malignant cancer can be reliably differentiated from those of healthy control subjects with a p-value of 3 x 10-5. The results provide preliminary evidence that the blood of ovarian cancer patients contains a discernable volatile chemical signature that can be detected using DNA-CNT nanoelectronic vapor sensors, a first step towards a minimally invasive electronic diagnostic technology for ovarian cancer.

  13. A preliminary study of the use of bioimpedance in the screening of squamous tongue cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Sun, Tai-Ping; Huang, Su-Hua; Hsiao, Chin-Sung; Chang, Ching-Haur; Huang, Shiow-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Juai; Cheng, Chi-Sheng; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Chen, Chung-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancers are the 11th most common malignancy reported worldwide, accounting for 3% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases, and one with high mortality ratios among all malignancies. The objective of this study was to study the electrical properties of cancerous tongue tissue (CTT) and normal tongue tissue (NTT). Five tongue cancer patients participated in this study. A disposable probe incorporating four silver electrodes was used to measure the electrical properties of CTT and the surroundi...

  14. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Autoantibody Markers — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify large numbers of antigens that can be used to recognize the presence of cancer by detecting antibodies to tumor proteins in the serum of the test subjects. Our technology will provide an early detection test for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. We will use bioinformatics techniques to analyze these protein microarray-immunoassays to discriminate between cancer patients and healthy subjects so as to detect disease prior to standard diagnoses as well as discriminate patients with benign conditions or other cancers that might be a false positive in less specific assays.

  15. Preliminary Study on 41Ca-AMS Technology for Early Diagnosis and Monitoring of Bone Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Hong-tao; PANG; Fang-fang; HE; Ming; DONG; Ke-jun; DOU; Liang; SHI; Yan-jun; ZHANG; Shuang; WU; Shao-yong; WANG; Xiao-ming; ZHAO; Qin-zhang; YANG; Xu-ran; XU; Yong-ning; LAN; Xiao-xi; CAI; Li; JIANG; Shan

    2013-01-01

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million,50%-60%of which will end up with bone metastasis.The bone metastasis of cancer and bone cancer usually causes a variety of bone-related events,such as the pathological fracture,malignant hypercalcemia and bone marrow

  16. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  17. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...

  18. Integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of patients with primary cervical cancer: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Kinner, Sonja; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Umutlu, Lale [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael [University Hospital Dusseldorf, University of Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Heubner, Martin; Aktas, Bahriye [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Essen (Germany); Ruhlmann, Verena [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of cervical cancer patients, as well as to investigate a potential association between PET/MRI derived functional parameters and prognostic factors of cervical cancer. The present study was approved by the local institutional review board. Twenty-seven patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a whole-body PET/MRI examination after written informed consent was obtained. Two radiologists separately evaluated the PET/MRI data sets regarding the determination of local tumor extent of primary cervical cancer lesions, as well as detection of nodal and distant metastases. Furthermore, SUV and ADC values of primary tumor lesions were analyzed and correlated with dedicated prognostic factors of cervical cancer. Results based on histopathology and cross-sectional imaging follow-up served as the reference standard. PET/MRI enabled the detection of all 27 primary tumor lesions of the uterine cervix and allowed for the correct determination of the T-stage in 23 (85 %) out of the 27 patients. Furthermore, the calculated sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of nodal positive patients (n = 11) were 91 %, 94 % and 93 %, respectively. PET/MRI correctly identified regional metastatic disease (N1-stage) in 8/10 (80 %) patients and non-regional lymph node metastases in 5/5 (100 %) patients. In addition, quantitative analysis of PET and MRI derived functional parameters (SUV; ADC values) revealed a significant correlation with pathological grade and tumor size (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the high potential of integrated PET/MRI for the assessment of primary tumor and the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. Providing additional prognostic information, PET/MRI may serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for cervical cancer patients in a pretreatment setting

  19. Determinants of delayed detection of cancers in Texas Counties in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Gordon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Previous studies have shown that delayed detection of several cancers is related to socioeconomic deprivation as measured by the Wellbeing Index (WI in Texas, the United States of America (USA. The current study investigates whether delayed cancer detection is related to lack of health insurance, physician shortage and higher percentages of Hispanics rather than WI per se since these factors are directly related to delayed cancer detection and may confound WI. Methods Cancer data and potential determinants of delayed cancer detection are derived from Texas Cancer Registry, Texas State Data Center, and Texas Department of State Health Services and U.S. Census Bureau. Texas cancer data from 1997 to 2003 are aggregated to calculate age-adjusted late- and early-stage cancer detection rates. The WI for each county is computed using data from the USA Census 2000. A weighted Tobit regression model is used to account for population size and censoring. The percentage of late-stage cancer cases is the dependent variable while independent variables include WI and the aforementioned potential confounders. Results Delayed detection of breast, lung, colorectal and female genital cancers is associated with higher percentage of uninsured residents (p ceteris paribus ( p p  Conclusions The percentages of uninsured and Hispanic residents as well as physician supply are determinants of delayed detection for several cancers independently of WI, and vice versa. Identification of these determinants provides the evidence-base critical for decision makers to address specific issues for promoting early detection in effective cancer control.

  20. Screen-detected vs symptomatic breast cancer: is improved survival due to stage migration alone?

    OpenAIRE

    Wishart, G. C.; Greenberg, D. C.; Britton, P D; Chou, P; Brown, C.H.; Purushotham, A. D.; Duffy, S W

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines whether screen-detected breast cancer confers additional prognostic benefit to the patient, over and above that expected by any shift in stage at presentation. In all, 5604 women (aged 50–70 years) diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1998 and 2003 were identified by the Eastern Cancer Registration and Information Centre (ECRIC) and mammographic screening status was determined. Using proportional hazards regression, we estimated the effect of screen detection comp...

  1. Neural networks improve brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in the presence of light artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Michael; Desroches, Joannie; Mercier, Jeanne; St-Arnaud, Karl; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Petrecca, Kevin; Leblond, Frederic

    2016-03-01

    It is often difficult to identify cancer tissue during brain cancer (glioma) surgery. Gliomas invade into areas of normal brain, and this cancer invasion is frequently not detected using standard preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This results in enduring invasive cancer following surgery and leads to recurrence. A hand-held Raman spectroscopy is able to rapidly detect cancer invasion in patients with grade 2-4 gliomas. However, ambient light sources can produce spectral artifacts which inhibit the ability to distinguish between cancer and normal tissue using the spectral information available. To address this issue, we have demonstrated that artificial neural networks (ANN) can accurately classify invasive cancer versus normal brain tissue, even when including measurements with significant spectral artifacts from external light sources. The non-parametric and adaptive model used by ANN makes it suitable for detecting complex non-linear spectral characteristics associated with different tissues and the confounding presence of light artifacts. The use of ANN for brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy, in the presence of light artifacts, improves the robustness and clinical translation potential for intraoperative use. Integration with the neurosurgical workflow is facilitated by accounting for the effect of light artifacts which may occur, due to operating room lights, neuronavigation systems, windows, or other light sources. The ability to rapidly detect invasive brain cancer under these conditions may reduce residual cancer remaining after surgery, and thereby improve patient survival.

  2. Multitemporal satellite data analyses for archaeological mark detection: preliminary results in Italy and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    within Basilicata and Puglia Region, southern Patagonia and Payunia-Campo Volcanicos Liancanelo e PayunMatru respectively, in Italy and Argentina. We focused our attention on diverse surfaces and soil types in different periods of the year in order to assess the capabilities of both optical and radar data to detect archaeological marks in different ecosystems and seasons. We investigated not only crop culture during the "favourable vegetative period" to enhance the presence of subsurface remains but also the "spectral response" of spontaneous, sparse herbaceous covers during periods considered and expected to be less favourable (as for example summer and winter) for this type of investigation. The main interesting results were the capability of radar (cosmoskymed) and multispectral optical data satellite data (Pleiades, Quickbird, Geoeye) to highlight the presence of structures below the surface even (i) in during period of years generally considered not "suitable for crop mark investigations" and even (ii) in areas only covered by sparse, spontaneous herbaceous plants in several test sites investigate din both Argentine and Italian areas of interest. Preliminary results conducted in both Italian and Argentina sites pointed out that Earth Observation (EO) technology can be successfully used for extracting useful information on traces the past human activities still fossilized in the modern landscape in different ecosystems and seasons. Moreover the multitemporal analyses of satellite data can fruitfully applied to: (i) improve knowledge, (ii) support monitoring of natural and cultural site, (iii) assess natural and man-made risks including emerging threats to the heritage sites. References Lasaponara R, N Masini 2009 Full-waveform Airborne Laser Scanning for the detection of medieval archaeological microtopographic relief Journal of Cultural Heritage 10, e78-e82 Ciminale M, D Gallo, R Lasaponara, N Masini 2009 A multiscale approach for reconstructing archaeological

  3. Cancer stem cells, cancer-initiating cells and methods for their detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Birgani, Shiva; Paranjothy, Ted; Zuse, Anna; Janikowski, Tomasz; Cieślar-Pobuda, Artur; Likus, Wirginia; Urasińska, Elżbieta; Schweizer, Frank; Ghavami, Saeid; Klonisch, Thomas; Łos, Marek J

    2016-05-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis considers CSCs as the main culprits of tumor initiation, propagation, metastasis and therapy failure. CSCs represent a minority subpopulation of cells within a tumor. Their detection, characterization and monitoring are crucial steps toward a better understanding of the biological roles of these special cells in the development and propagation of tumors which, in turn, improves clinical reasoning and treatment options. Nowadays, in vitro and in vivo assays are available that address the self-renewal and differentiation potential of CSCs, and advanced in vivo molecular imaging technology facilitates the detection and provides an unprecedented in vivo observation platform to study the behavior of CSCs in their natural environment. Here, we provide a brief overview of CSCs and describe modern cellular models and labeling techniques to study and trace CSCs. PMID:26976692

  4. Preliminary specification of X-ray CT for lung cancer screening (LSCT) and its evaluation on risk-cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan mass screening for lung cancer is widely performed by chest X-ray film of 10 x 10 cm, with sputum cytology for high-risk groups. However, the effectiveness of the present mass screening program for lung cancer has been less than expected, although some data have shown improvement of the survival rate as a result of mass screening. We propose a new X-ray CT method of screening for lung cancer called Lung Cancer Screening CT (LSCT). The preliminary specifications for LSCT are as follows: scan speed is within 10 sec for a 40 cm length with a 1 cm slice thickness, and the absorption dose for lung is less than 1 cGy. A computer-assisted diagnostic system is necessary for image reading. The risk-benefit analysis of LSCT indicates that Japanese men and women over 45 years old can be screened in 1992 and thereafter. The cost per person·year of LSCT screening is estimated to be 1.4 x 106 yen for a population incidence rate of 50 x 10-5 person/year and average life expectancy of 30 years. In 1992 the above condition will be satisfied by men aged 55 years old and above, but not by women of any age. We believe that LSCT should be developed further and tested in the high-risk group of men with an incidence rate of 100 x 10-5 person/year or more. (author)

  5. The preliminary study of 16α-[18F]fluoroestradiol PET/CT in assisting the individualized treatment decisions of breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Sun

    Full Text Available To evaluate the clinical value of 16α-[18F]fluoroestradiol (18F-FES PET/CT in assisting the individualized treatment decisions of breast cancer patients.Thirty-three breast cancer patients, who underwent both 18F-FES and 18F-FDG PET/CT from July 2010 to March 2013 in our center, were enrolled in this preliminary study. All the patients used 18F-FES PET/CT as a diagnostic tool with a clinical dilemma. We used the maximum Standardized Uptake Value (SUVmax to quantify ER expression and a cutoff value of 1.5 to dichotomize results into ER positive and negative lesions. All patients were clinically followed up at least 6 months.In evaluating equivocal lesions on conventional work-up group (n = 4, three lung lesions and another iliac lesion were enrolled. As for three lung lesions, 18F-FES PET/CT showed one lesion with high uptake, which suggested it was an ER positive metastasis. The other two lesions were 18F-FES negative, which meant an ER negative metastasis or secondary primary tumor. Additionally, one iliac lesion was detected by MRI. 18F-FDG uptake was high at the suspected lesion, whereas 18F-FES uptake was absent; In predicting origin of metastasis group (n = 2, two breast cancer patients had secondary primary tumors were collected. They were 18F-FES negative, which showed low possibility of metastasis from breast cancer and they were all confirmed by biopsy. In detecting ER status in metastasis group (n = 27, 18F-FES PET/CT showed increased 18F-FES uptake in all metastatic lesions in 11 patients; absent in all lesions in 13 patients; and the remaining 3 patients had both 18F-FES positive and negative lesions. Totally, on the basis of the 18F-FES PET/CT results, we found changes in the treatment plans in 16 patients (48.5%, 16/33.18F-FES PET/CT could assess the entire tumor volume receptor status; therefore, it may be used to assist the individualized treatment decisions of breast cancer patients.

  6. Preliminary research on dendritic cells loaded with resistant breast cancer antigens in breast cancer-bearing nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhuang; Limin Lun

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the inhibitory ef ects of dendritic cel s (DCs) loaded with resistant breast cancer antigens on breast cancer in nude mice. Methods A single-cel suspension was prepared from a primary breast cancer and chemotherapeutic drugs were screened using the ATP-PCA susceptibility testing system. Cancer cel s were treated with 1/10 × IC50, 1/5 × IC50, 1/2 × IC50, 1 × IC50, and 2 × IC50 medium until their growth became steady in the 2 × IC50 medium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cel s (PBMCs) were obtained from the peripheral blood of patients with leukapheresis. The obtained adherent cel s were induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimu-lating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) to generate DCs, which carried resistant strain cel lysis compounds or non-treated cancer cel lysis compounds. The former mature DCs carried resistant breast tumor antigens. A breast tumor-bearing nude mouse model was established with these resistant strains and the mice were randomly divided in three groups. The mice in the treatment group were injected with DCs loaded with resistant breast cancer antigens. The control group consisted of mice injected with DCs loaded with primary tumor cel antigens and the blank group consisted of mice injected with the same volume of normal saline. Changes in the cancers were observed. Results After treatment with the ef ector cel s, the cancer volume and weight were significantly dif erent to those before treatment in every group of mice (P Conclusion DCs loaded with resistant breast cancer antigens demonstrated a significant inhibition ef ect on the cancers of breast tumor-bearing nude mice.

  7. Sentinel lymph node (Sln) detection in vulvar cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of the study is to verify the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in patients with evidence of vulva cancer. We studied 13 women with early stage (T1/T2) carcinoma of the vulva. One day before surgery a lymphoscintigraphy was done. We injected intradermally an average 76 MBq of 99mTc-labelled human colloides (Albu-Res(r) in 0.4-0.6 ml NaCI at 4 locations round the tumor regarding the midline. Because of the large particles the colloid was filtered before to obtain the small particle fraction between 200-450 nm. Immediately alter injection a dynamic scintigraphy was performed with 28 images, 1 minute per frame. Additional we made static images, 5 minutes per image, 30 and 120 minutes after injection. The location of the SLN was marked on the skin. The SLN was intraoperatively identified using a hand-held gamma probe. In every case a complete inguino-femoral lymph node dissection was done. In all cases we could show one or more (on average 3) SLN by means of lymphoscintigraphy and in 11/13 cases we could detect SLN by using the gamma probe. Lymph channels were seen in 7/13 dynamic studies. 4/13 patients had lymph node metastasis in the SLN (3/4 cases only the SLN and in 1/4 cases the SLN and one additional lymph node were positive). We did not found any tumor-positive non-sentinel lymph node in case of tumor-negative SLN. The morbidity after operation of patients with vulva cancer is considerable and related to the groin dissection. The selective SLN-biopsy instead of radical groin dissection is feasible to reduce the morbidity without a loss of staging and prognostic factors. This method should be restricted to patients with early stage vulva cancer with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes. Further studies are needed to evaluate the accuracy and clinical validity of this procedure. (author)

  8. Preliminary study of steep pulse irreversible electroporation technology in human large cell lung cancer cell lines L9981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zuoqing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to validate the effectiveness of steep pulse irreversible electroporation technology in human large cell lung cancer cells and to screen the optimal treatment of parameters for human large cell lung cancer cells. Three different sets of steep pulse therapy parameters were applied on the lung cancer cell line L9981. The cell line L9981 inhibition rate and proliferation capacity were detected by Vi-Cell vitality analysis and MTT. Steep pulsed irreversible electroporation technology for large cell lung cancer L9981 presents killing effects with various therapy parameters. The optimal treatment parameters are at a voltage amplitude of 2000V/cm, pulse width of 100μs, pulse frequency of 1 Hz, pulse number 10. With this group of parameters, steep pulse could have the best tumor cell-killing effects.

  9. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE TREATMENT AND DETECTION OF INTRAOCULAR CANCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Ashwin; Thevenot, Paul; Hu, Wenjing; Tang, Liping

    2008-01-01

    Tremendous progress in nanotechnology has lead to the development of nanometer-sized objects as medical implants or devices. Many of these nanodevices have recently been tested in many cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as leukemia, melanoma, breast tumor, prostate tumor, and brain cancer. Despite the increasing importance of nanotechnology in cancer, the potential of these nanodevices in diagnosing and treating intraocular cancers has not been systematically evaluated. This...

  10. Detection of infectious organisms in archival prostate cancer tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Yow, Melissa A; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Severi, Gianluca; Bolton, Damien M; Pedersen, John; Longano, Anthony; Suzanne M Garland; Southey, Melissa C.; Graham G Giles

    2014-01-01

    Background Seroepidemiological studies have reported associations between exposure to sexually transmitted organisms and prostate cancer risk. This study sought DNA evidence of candidate organisms in archival prostate cancer tissues with the aim of assessing if a subset of these cancers show any association with common genital infections. Methods 221 archival paraffin-embedded tissue blocks representing 128 histopathologically confirmed prostate cancers comprising 52 “aggressive” (Gleason sco...

  11. Transcriptionally targeted gene therapy to detect and treat cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lily; Johnson, Mai; Sato, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    The greatest challenge in cancer treatment is to achieve the highest levels of specificity and efficacy. Cancer gene therapy could be designed specifically to express therapeutic genes to induce cancer cell destruction. Cancer-specific promoters are useful tools to accomplish targeted expression; however, high levels of gene expression are needed to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Incorporating an imaging reporter gene in tandem with the therapeutic gene will allow tangible proof of principle t...

  12. Oil Spill Detection and Modelling: Preliminary Results for the Cercal Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, R. T.; Azevedo, A.; da Silva, J. C. B.; Oliveira, A.

    2013-03-01

    Oil spill research has significantly increased mainly as a result of the severe consequences experienced from industry accidents. Oil spill models are currently able to simulate the processes that determine the fate of oil slicks, playing an important role in disaster prevention, control and mitigation, generating valuable information for decision makers and the population in general. On the other hand, satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery has demonstrated significant potential in accidental oil spill detection, when they are accurately differentiated from look-alikes. The combination of both tools can lead to breakthroughs, particularly in the development of Early Warning Systems (EWS). This paper presents a hindcast simulation of the oil slick resulting from the Motor Tanker (MT) Cercal oil spill, listed by the Portuguese Navy as one of the major oil spills in the Portuguese Atlantic Coast. The accident took place nearby Leix˜oes Harbour, North of the Douro River, Porto (Portugal) on the 2nd of October 1994. The oil slick was segmented from available European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellite SAR images, using an algorithm based on a simplified version of the K-means clustering formulation. The image-acquired information, added to the initial conditions and forcings, provided the necessary inputs for the oil spill model. Simulations were made considering the tri-dimensional hydrodynamics in a crossscale domain, from the interior of the Douro River Estuary to the open-ocean on the Iberian Atlantic shelf. Atmospheric forcings (from ECMWF - the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and NOAA - the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), river forcings (from SNIRH - the Portuguese National Information System of the Hydric Resources) and tidal forcings (from LNEC - the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering), including baroclinic gradients (NOAA), were considered. The lack of data for validation purposes only allowed the use of the

  13. Research Progress of MicroRNA in Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Hua Wang; Cong-Jian Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to update the progress ofmicroRNA (miRNA) in early detection of ovarian cancer.We discussed the current clinical diagnosis methods and biomarkers of ovarian cancer, especially the methods of miRNA in early detection of ovarian cancer.Data Sources: We collected all relevant studies about miRNA and ovarian cancer in PubMed and CNKI from 1995 to 2015.Study Selection: We included all relevant studies concerning miRNA in early detection of ovarian cancer, and excluded the duplicated articles.Results: miRNAs play a key role in various biological processes of ovarian cancer, such as development, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and metastasis, and these phenomena appear in the early-stage.Therefore, miRNA can be used as a new biomarker for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer, intervention on miRNA expression of known target genes, and potential target genes can achieve the effect of early prevention.With the development ofnanoscience and technology, analysis methods ofmiRNA are also quickly developed, which may provide better characterization of early detection of ovarian cancer.Conclusions: In the near future, miRNA therapy could be a powerful tool for ovarian cancer prevention and treatment, and combining with the new analysis technology and new nanomaterials, point-of-care tests for miRNA with high throughput, high sensitivity, and strong specificity are developed to achieve the application of diagnostic kits in screening of early ovarian cancer.

  14. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) The... the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC...

  15. Differences between men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone S Noell

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing in the United States of America (USA has led to a dramatic increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in the United States as well as the number of men undergoing aggressive treatment with radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. We compared patient characteristics and treatment selection between American men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers. Methods We evaluated 3,173 men with prostate cancer in the USA. Surveys and medical records provided information on demographics, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, symptoms, tumor characteristics, and treatment. We classified men presenting with symptoms of advanced cancer – bone pain, weight loss, or hematuria – as "clinically diagnosed"; asymptomatic men and those with only lower urinary tract symptoms were considered "screening-detected." We used multivariate analyses to determine whether screening predicted receiving aggressive treatment for a clinically localized cancer. Results We classified 11% of cancers as being clinically diagnosed. Men with screening-detected cancers were more often non-Hispanic white (77% vs. 65%, P Conclusion Most cancers were detected by screening in this American cohort. Appropriately, younger, healthier men were more likely to be diagnosed by screening. Minority status and lower socio-economic status appeared to be screening barriers. Screening detected earlier-stage cancers and was associated with receiving aggressive treatment.

  16. Experimental investigation of real aperture synthetically organised radar for breast cancer detection

    OpenAIRE

    Craddock, IJ; Nilavalan, R.; Leendertz, JA; Preece, AW; Benjamin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in woman, and early detection increases the likelihood of successful treatment and long-term survival screen film mammography is currently the most effective method for detecting breast tumours, however this technique suffers from relatively high false negative and positive detection rates, and it involves uncomfortable compression of the breast. This paper presents the experimental investigation of real aperture synthetically organised radar for breast...

  17. Detecting Fetal Movements Using Non-Invasive Accelerometers: A Preliminary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Girier, T.; O'Toole, J; Mesbah, M.; Boashash, B.; Clough, I.; Wilson, S; Fuentes, M; Callan, S.; East, C; COLDITZ, P

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring fetal movement is important to assess fetal health. Standard clinical fetal monitoring technologies include ultrasound imaging and cardiotocography. Both have limited prognostic value and require significant health resources. We have recently developed a low-cost, passive, non-invasive system to monitor fetal activity, and therefore fetal health. This accelerometer-based system does not require trained operators and can be used outside a clinic. This work is a preliminary study to ...

  18. The preclinical natural history of serous ovarian cancer: defining the target for early detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick O Brown

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer kills approximately 15,000 women in the United States every year, and more than 140,000 women worldwide. Most deaths from ovarian cancer are caused by tumors of the serous histological type, which are rarely diagnosed before the cancer has spread. Rational design of a potentially life-saving early detection and intervention strategy requires understanding the lesions we must detect in order to prevent lethal progression. Little is known about the natural history of lethal serous ovarian cancers before they become clinically apparent. We can learn about this occult period by studying the unsuspected serous cancers that are discovered in a small fraction of apparently healthy women who undergo prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed models for the growth, progression, and detection of occult serous cancers on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of published data on serous cancers discovered by PBSO in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Our analysis yielded several critical insights into the early natural history of serous ovarian cancer. First, these cancers spend on average more than 4 y as in situ, stage I, or stage II cancers and approximately 1 y as stage III or IV cancers before they become clinically apparent. Second, for most of the occult period, serous cancers are less than 1 cm in diameter, and not visible on gross examination of the ovaries and Fallopian tubes. Third, the median diameter of a serous ovarian cancer when it progresses to an advanced stage (stage III or IV is about 3 cm. Fourth, to achieve 50% sensitivity in detecting tumors before they advance to stage III, an annual screen would need to detect tumors of 1.3 cm in diameter; 80% detection sensitivity would require detecting tumors less than 0.4 cm in diameter. Fifth, to achieve a 50% reduction in serous ovarian cancer mortality with an annual screen, a test would need to detect tumors of 0.5 cm in diameter

  19. International programs for the detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Smith

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of early breast cancer detection is the foundation for programs around the globe to reduce morbidity and mortality related to breast cancer. These programs range from educational programs targeted to women and health professionals to organized or opportunistic screening programs that target specific age groups of women.Modern mammography programs tend to follow the protocols from the randomized clinical trials, but there is variation in key program elements such as the age groups invited to screening, the screening interval, performance indicators, and the uptake rate. Until recently, the emphasis on early breast cancer detection was limited to mammography, but the steady rise in incidence and mortality in low and medium resource countries, where mammography may be unaffordable, has led to a renewal in emphasizing the incremental value of downsizing palpable tumors through physical exams. There is consensus that programs should be designed based on disease burden and available resources, but that even in low resource countries there are opportunities to reduce breast deaths through earlier diagnosis and effective treatment. Screening programs are most effective when they are organized, and program planners should consider WHO criteria and local input data as a basis for tailoring screening programs to the needs of their population.El beneficio de la detección temprana del cáncer de mama es el fundamento para programas alrededor del mundo que buscan reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad relacionada con este padecimiento. Estos programas abarcan desde los de tipo educativo, orientados a mujeres y profesionales de la salud, hasta programas de monitoreo organizados u oportunistas que tienen como objetivo grupos específicos de edad. Los programas modernos de mastografía tienden a seguir protocolos para estudios clínicos aleatorios,pero hay una variación en elementos clave como los grupos de edad invitados a participar, el intervalo

  20. Cancer bioinformatics: detection of chromatin states,SNP-containing motifs, and functional enrichment modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobo Zhou

    2013-01-01

    In this editorial preface,I briefly review cancer bioinformatics and introduce the four articles in this special issue highlighting important applications of the field:detection of chromatin states; detection of SNP-containing motifs and association with transcription factor-binding sites; improvements in functional enrichment modules; and gene association studies on aging and cancer.We expect this issue to provide bioinformatics scientists,cancer biologists,and clinical doctors with a better understanding of how cancer bioinformatics can be used to identify candidate biomarkers and targets and to conduct functional analysis.

  1. DETECTION OF TUMOR MUTANT DNA IN PLASMA OF PATIENT WITH COLORECTAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 万文辉; 顾晋

    2002-01-01

    Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are mandatory to prevent colorectal cancer. Detection of free circulating tumor DNA in the serum of the cancer patients provides new possibilities for cancer diagnosis. Several circulating colorectal cancer DNAs have been identified by PCR detection such as the activated K-ras oncogene, inactivated APC, p53 genes, and microsatellite instability (MSI). Circulating tumor DNA was predominantly found in patients with advanced disease and poor prognosis. It was suggested that analysis for circulating tumor DNA might be useful in early diagnosis.

  2. Cancer bioinformatics: detection of chromatin states, SNP-containing motifs, and functional enrichment modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Zhou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this editorial preface, I briefly review cancer bioinformatics and introduce the four articles in this special issue highlighting important applications of the field: detection of chromatin states; detection of SNP-containing motifs and association with transcription factor-binding sites; improvements in functional enrichment modules; and gene association studies on aging and cancer. We expect this issue to provide bioinformatics scientists, cancer biologists, and clinical doctors with a better understanding of how cancer bioinformatics can be used to identify candidate biomarkers and targets and to conduct functional analysis.

  3. Novel Method for Detection of Gastric Cancer by Hyperspectral Image Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades, many studies have been performed on the early detection of cancer.Gastric cancer causes about 8,00,00 deaths worldwide per year. The objective of the work is to develop a novel hyperspectral imaging algorithm for gastric cancer detection by the medical community, however, due to the amounts of data and the highly computational nature of the algorithms, running these complex algorithms can result computationally intensive. This paper, for the early detection of gastric cancer, proposes the analysis system of an endoscopic image of the stomach, which detects the abnormal region by using the change of color in the image and by providing the surface tissue information to the detector. While advanced inflammation and cancer may be easily detected, early inflammation and cancer are difficult to detect and requires more attention to be detected. This research proposes the implementation of the data bank that will provide the medical community with the necessary tools to develop novel algorithms for the early and accurate gastric cancer patents. Graphical processing unit provides the necessary computing power for the acceleration of the proposed algorithms in the data bank to their capability of running data parallel algorithms. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rates of the algorithm’s diagnostic capability will be enhanced by image processing.

  4. Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: A preliminary study in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to explore the correlation between the frequency of micronuclei in Trad-MN, measured across 28 biomonitoring stations during the period comprised between 11 of May and 2 of October, 2006, and adjusted mortality rates due to cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and cancer in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, an area with different sources of air pollution. For controlling purposes, mortality rate due to gastrointestinal diseases (an event less prone to be affected by air pollution) was also considered in the analysis. Spatial distribution of micronuclei frequency was determined using average interpolation. The association between health estimators and micronuclei frequency was determined by measures of Pearson's correlation. Higher frequencies of micronuclei were detected in areas with high traffic and close to a petrochemical pole. Significant associations were detected between micronuclei frequency and adjusted mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (r = 0.841, p = 0.036) and cancer (r = 0.890, p = 0.018). The association between mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases was positive but did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.640, p = 0.172), probably because of the small number of events. Gastrointestinal mortality did not exhibit significant association with micronuclei frequency. Because the small number of observations and the nature of an ecological study, the present findings must be considered with caution and considered as preliminary. Further studies, performed in different conditions of contamination and climate should be done before considering Trad-MN in the evaluation of human health risk imposed by air pollutants. - Bioassay used to explore the correlation between air pollution exposition and mortality rates.

  5. Early detection of prostate cancer relapse by biochemistry and diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, L; Zattoni, F; Rossi, E; Karnes, R J; Lowe, V

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignancy in men associated with an increase in the incidence rate. Radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) represents the most employed treatments for the local control of disease. However, 10-50% of patients who experienced a recurrence of disease after primary treatments can benefit from salvage or palliative therapies. To date, prostate specific antigen (PSA) is usually used in clinical practice to monitor the status of disease and to early detect the recurrence of PCa. Nevertheless, PSA cannot discriminate the presence of local vs. distant metastatic disease. Circulating tumor cells are considered as a sign of disease widespread, but their correlation with metastatic PCa and local recurrence of disease is still indeterminate. Digital rectal exploration and transrectal ultrasonography are considered the first clinical and diagnostic approach to identify the local recurrence of PCa, but are associated with a low detection rate and low diagnostic accuracies. Conversely, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained a great importance in this setting of disease, being able to determine the presence of local recurrence with high sensitivity, also in the presence of low serum PSA levels. Lastly, the introduction of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with radiolabeled choline agents let to improve the management of patients with early recurrence of disease, although its accuracy is linked to the PSA and PSA dynamic values. New radiopharmaceutical agents, like 68Ga-PSMA or 18F-FACBC and others could improve the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT, but the data is still preliminary. In the present review we will discuss both clinical and diagnostic instrumentations, actually available in clinical practice, able to early identify the presence of recurrent PCa and to differentiate between local and distant relapse of tumor.

  6. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer: combining pulmonary nodule detection systems with a tumor risk prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setio, Arnaud A. A.; Jacobs, Colin; Ciompi, Francesco; van Riel, Sarah J.; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) has been shown to be a promising tool for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules from computed tomography (CT) images. However, the vast majority of detected nodules are benign and do not require any treatment. For effective implementation of lung cancer screening programs, accurate identification of malignant nodules is the key. We investigate strategies to improve the performance of a CAD system in detecting nodules with a high probability of being cancers. Two strategies were proposed: (1) combining CAD detections with a recently published lung cancer risk prediction model and (2) the combination of multiple CAD systems. First, CAD systems were used to detect the nodules. Each CAD system produces markers with a certain degree of suspicion. Next, the malignancy probability was automatically computed for each marker, given nodule characteristics measured by the CAD system. Last, CAD degree of suspicion and malignancy probability were combined using the product rule. We evaluated the method using 62 nodules which were proven to be malignant cancers, from 180 scans of the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The malignant nodules were considered as positive samples, while all other findings were considered negative. Using a product rule, the best proposed system achieved an improvement in sensitivity, compared to the best individual CAD system, from 41.9% to 72.6% at 2 false positives (FPs)/scan and from 56.5% to 88.7% at 8 FPs/scan. Our experiment shows that combining a nodule malignancy probability with multiple CAD systems can increase the performance of computerized detection of lung cancer.

  7. Development of a preliminary nomogram to predict progression of bone scan for castration-resistant prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lin GW; Ye DW; Jia HX; Dai B; Zhang HL; Zhu Y; Shi GH; Ma CG

    2015-01-01

    Guo-Wen Lin,1,2 Ding-Wei Ye,1,2 Hui-Xun Jia,2,3 Bo Dai,1,2 Hai-Liang Zhang,1,2 Yao Zhu,1,2 Guo-Hai Shi,1,2 Chun-Guang Ma1,2 1Department of Urology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, 3Department of Clinical Statistics Center, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The optimal time to perform bone scan to detect new metastasis during the castration-re...

  8. The performance of computer-aided detection when analyzing prior mammograms of newly detected breast cancers with special focus on the time interval from initial imaging to detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malich, Ansgar [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Suedharz-Hospital Nordhausen, Dr.-R.-Koch-Street 38, 99734 Nordhausen (Germany)], E-mail: ansgar.malich@gmx.de; Schmidt, Sabine [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Fischer, Dorothee R. [Institute of diagnostic, interventional and pediatric Radiology, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Facius, Mirjam; Kaiser, Werner A. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: The clinical role of CAD systems to detect breast cancer, which have not been on cancer containing mammograms not detected by the radiologist was proven retrospectively. Methods: All patients from 1992 to 2005 with a histologically verified malignant breast lesion and a mammogram at our department, were analyzed in retrospect focussing on the time of detection of the malignant lesion. All prior mammograms were analyzed by CAD (CADx, USA). The resulting CAD printout was matched with the cancer containing images yielding to the radiological diagnosis of breast cancer. CAD performance, sensitivity as well as the association of CAD and radiological features were analyzed. Results: 278 mammograms fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 111 cases showed a retrospectively visible lesion (71 masses, 23 single microcalcification clusters, 16 masses with microcalcifications, in one case two microcalcification clusters). 54/87 masses and 34/41 microcalcifications were detected by CAD. Detection rates varied from 9/20 (ACR 1) to 5/7 (ACR 4) (45% vs. 71%). The detection of microcalcifications was not influenced by breast tissue density. Conclusion: CAD might be useful in an earlier detection of subtle breast cancer cases, which might remain otherwise undetected.

  9. Design and Analysis of Breast Cancer Detection System Using Mammogram Features Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Saini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed among women. Mammogram is a radiograph of the breast tissue and is one of the most effective, non-invasive methods of detecting breast cancer in its earliest and most treatable stage This paper aims at designing a breast cancer detection system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Image Processing Techniques in digital mammography. The effectiveness of the ANN based detection system will be investigated for different number of layers and optimum number of layers will be chosen. The performance of the system will be analyzed on the basis of Mean Square Error (MSE.

  10. Diagnostic sensitivity of ¹⁸fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Norio; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Nishimura, Goshi

    2012-05-01

    We assessed the sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers, particularly synchronous esophageal cancers in head and neck cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 230 head and neck cancer patients. All the patients routinely underwent the following examinations: urinalysis, occult blood, tumor marker detection [squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)], esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy (when CEA was high or occult blood was positive), abdominal ultrasonography, plain chest computed tomography (CT), and PET. Bronchoscopy was performed when CT revealed lung shadow of central region. Synchronous multiple primary cancers were detected in 42 (18.2%) patients. The diagnostic sensitivity of PET for synchronous primary cancers was as follows: esophagus, 7.6% (1/13); stomach, 25.0% (2/8); lung, 66.7% (4/6); head and neck, 75.0% (3/4); colon, 0% (0/1); kidney, 0% (0/1); and subcutaneous, 100% (1/1). The sensitivity of PET for detecting synchronous esophageal cancers is low because these are early-stage cancers (almost stage 0-I). Therefore, it is necessary to perform esophagogastroduodenoscopy for detecting synchronous esophageal cancers. PET is an important additional tool for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers because the diagnostic sensitivity of PET in synchronous head and neck cancer and lung cancer is high. But PET has the limitation of sensitivity for synchronous multiple primary cancers because the diagnostic sensitivity of PET in synchronous esophageal cancer is very low.

  11. Prevalence and detection of psychosocial problems in cancer genetic counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Eijzenga, W.; Bleiker, E M A; Hahn, D E E; Kolk, van der, J.; Sidharta, G. N.; Aaronson, N K

    2015-01-01

    Only a minority of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling experience heightened levels of psychological distress, but many more experience a range of cancer genetic-specific psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such psychosocial problems, and to identify possible demographic and clinical variables associated significantly with them. Consenting individuals scheduled to undergo cancer genetic counseling completed the Psychosocial Aspects of H...

  12. Monitoring plan for the detection of gluten not declared on labels in meat preparations: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Campagna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available European Union (EU legislation protects consumers who have a known sensitivity to gluten making obligatory to label the presence of this protein in all foods. Lazio region has therefore adopted a four-year monitoring plan in order to acquire information about the presence of undeclared gluten in products considered as a serious risk to food safety. Preliminary data reported in this work indicate the absence of gluten in all 100 samples analyzed (29 meat preparations and 71 meat products, in accordance with legislation in force. However, the number of samples of this work is still limited and therefore additional data need to be collected.

  13. Identification of Circulating Tumor DNA for the Early Detection of Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Perdomo, Sandra; Avogbe, Patrice H; Leblay, Noemie; Delhomme, Tiffany M; Gaborieau, Valerie; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Chanudet, Estelle; Olivier, Magali; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Vilensky, Marta; Holcatova, Ivana; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Lagiou, Pagona; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Byrnes, Graham; Scelo, Ghislaine; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Foll, Matthieu; McKay, James D; Brennan, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a key potential biomarker for post-diagnosis surveillance but it may also play a crucial role in the detection of pre-clinical cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an excellent candidate for early detection given there are no successful therapeutic options for late-stage disease, and it displays almost universal inactivation of TP53. We assessed the presence of TP53 mutations in the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from the plasma of 51 SCLC cases and 123 non-cancer controls. We identified mutations using a pipeline specifically designed to accurately detect variants at very low fractions. We detected TP53 mutations in the cfDNA of 49% SCLC patients and 11.4% of non-cancer controls. When stratifying the 51 initial SCLC cases by stage, TP53 mutations were detected in the cfDNA of 35.7% early-stage and 54.1% late-stage SCLC patients. The results in the controls were further replicated in 10.8% of an independent series of 102 non-cancer controls. The detection of TP53 mutations in 11% of the 225 non-cancer controls suggests that somatic mutations in cfDNA among individuals without any cancer diagnosis is a common occurrence, and poses serious challenges for the development of ctDNA screening tests. PMID:27377626

  14. In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Bo Li; Xiao-Si Zhou; Jing-Sen Shi; Jin-Guang Wu; Zhi Xu; Neng-Wei Zhang; Li Zhang; Fan Wang; Li-Min Yang; Jian-Sheng Wang; Su Zhou; Yuan-Fu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Real-time and rapid identification of the malignant tissue can be performed during or before surgical operation.Here we aimed to detect in vivo and in situ colorectal cancer by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and fiber-optic technology.METHODS: A total of five patients with large intestine cancer were detected in vivo and in situ. Of them, three cases of colon cancer and one case of cecum cancer were detected intraoperatively and in vivo by using a FTIR spectrometer during surgical operation, and one case of rectum cancer was explored non-invasively and in vivo before the surgical operation. Normal and malignant colorectal tissues were detected in vivo and in situ using FTIR spectroscopy on the basis of fundamental studies.RESULTS: There were significant differences between FTIR spectra of normal and malignant colorectal tissues detected in vivo and in situ. Experimental results revealed that the spectral characteristics of normal and malignant tissues found in vivo and in situ were similar to those obtained from in vitro measurement in our previous fundamental research.CONCLUSION: FTIR fiber-optic attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy can identify in situ and in vivo colorectal cancer. FTIR spectroscopic method with fiber optics is a non-invasive, rapid, accurate and in vivo cancer detection technique in clinical diagnosis.

  15. A review of repeat prostate biopsies and the influence of technique on cancer detection: our experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, M R

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Follow-up of patients with an initial negative prostate biopsy, but surrounding whom a suspicion of prostate cancer persists, is difficult. In addition, debate exists as to the optimal technique for repeat prostate biopsy. AIMS: To assess the cancer detection rate on repeat prostate biopsy. METHODS: We reviewed patients who underwent prostate biopsy in our department in 2005 who had >or=1 previous biopsy within the preceding 5 years. Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy and the influence of the number of biopsy cores were recorded. RESULTS: Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy was 15.4%, with approximately 60% detected on the first repeat biopsy, but approximately 10% not confirmed until the fourth repeat biopsy. Gleason score was similar regardless of the time of diagnosis (6.1-6.5). Mean interval between first biopsy and cancer diagnosis (range 18-55 months) depended on the number of repeat procedures. There was an association between the number of biopsy cores and cancer detection. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the practice of increasing the number of cores taken on initial and first repeat biopsy to maximise prostate cancer detection and reduce the overall number of biopsies needed.

  16. Cancer of the cervix: Early detection and cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Lynette; Prendiville, Walter

    2015-10-01

    Cervical cancer is known to be a preventable disease through the detection of cervical cancer precursors, historically using cytology of the cervix as the primary screening test. Over 85% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in low-resource countries. Alternatives to cytology have been investigated with the strongest possibilities being visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and HPV DNA testing. HPV DNA testing has been shown in randomized trials to be significantly more sensitive for the detection of cervical cancer precursors than either cytology or VIA. In this paper we argue that prevention really does cost less than cure, or that prevention and treatment of cancer costs less than no prevention, in effect just treatment, of cancer. The true cost savings of prevention will include a more difficult assessment of the socioeconomic savings associated with longer, healthier lives for women in their prime who have a major role in supporting their families. PMID:26433500

  17. An Automated System for the Detection of Stratified Squamous Epithelial Cancer Cell Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Krishna Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer disease is a difficult problem and if it is not detected in starting phase the cancer can be fatal. Current medical procedures which are used to diagnose the cancer in body partsare time taking and more laboratory work is required for them. This work is an endeavor to possible recognition of cancer cells in the body part. The process consists of image taken of the affected area and digital image processing of the images to get a morphological pattern which differentiate normal cell to cancer cell. The technique is different than visual inspection and biopsy process. Image processing enables the visualization of cellular structure with substantial resolution. The aim of the work is to exploit differences in cellular organization between cancerous and normal tissue using image processing technique, thus allowing for automated, fast and accurate diagnosis.

  18. Label-free detection of liver cancer cells by aptamer-based microcantilever biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuejuan; Pan, Yangang; Liu, Huiqing; Bai, Xiaojing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Bailin

    2016-05-15

    Liver cancer is one of the most common and highly malignant cancers in the world. There are no effective therapeutic options if an early liver cancer diagnosis is not achieved. In this work, detection of HepG2 cells by label-free microcantilever array aptasensor was developed. The sensing microcantilevers were functionalized by HepG2 cells-specific aptamers. Meanwhile, to eliminate the interferences induced by the environment, the reference microcantilevers were modified with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol self-assembled monolayers. The aptasensor exhibits high specificity over not only human liver normal cells, but also other cancer cells of breast, bladder, and cervix tumors. The linear relation ranges from 1×10(3) to 1×10(5)cells/mL, with a detection limit of 300 cells/mL (S/N=3). Our work provides a simple method for detection of liver cancer cells with advantages in terms of simplicity and stability.

  19. A new method for cancer detection based on diffusion reflection measurements of targeted gold nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankri R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rinat Ankri, Vital Peretz, Menachem Motiei, Rachela Popovtzer, Dror FixlerFaculty of Engineering and the Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, IsraelAbstract: This paper presents a new method for cancer detection based on diffusion reflection measurements. This method enables discrimination between cancerous and noncancerous tissues due to the intense light absorption of gold nanorods (GNRs, which are selectively targeted to squamous cell carcinoma head and neck cancer cells. Presented in this paper are tissue-like phantom and in vivo results that demonstrate the high sensitivity of diffusion reflection measurements to the absorption differences between the GNR-targeted cancerous tissue and normal, noncancerous tissue. This noninvasive and nonionizing optical detection method provides a highly sensitive, simple, and inexpensive tool for cancer detection.Keywords: molecular imaging, nanoparticles, EGFR targeted, tissues’ optical properties

  20. Design of a smartphone-camera-based fluorescence imaging system for the detection of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Ross

    Shown is the design of the Smartphone Oral Cancer Detection System (SOCeeDS). The SOCeeDS attaches to a smartphone and utilizes its embedded imaging optics and sensors to capture images of the oral cavity to detect oral cancer. Violet illumination sources excite the oral tissues to induce fluorescence. Images are captured with the smartphone's onboard camera. Areas where the tissues of the oral cavity are darkened signify an absence of fluorescence signal, indicating breakdown in tissue structure brought by precancerous or cancerous conditions. With this data the patient can seek further testing and diagnosis as needed. Proliferation of this device will allow communities with limited access to healthcare professionals a tool to detect cancer in its early stages, increasing the likelihood of cancer reversal.

  1. Preliminary study on the potential of polysaccharide from indigenous Tiger's Milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) as anti-lung cancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei Hong; Zainal, Zamri; Daud, Fauzi

    2014-09-01

    Tiger's Milk mushroom is a tropical polypore genus that can be found in the tropical part of the world in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vanuatu. In Malaysia, Lignosus rhinocerus is the most sought after medicinal mushroom by Semai aborigine upon request by local herbalist. This priced mushroom has been used traditionally to treat various diseases such as asthma, breast cancer, cough, fever and food poisoning. Current results indicated polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus extracted through hot water is able to inhibit up to 45% growth of human lung carcinoma. Inhibition is achieved when concentration of polysaccharide are in the range of 4-8 μg/ml. Present preliminary study suggests beta-glucan-rich polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus has anti-proliferation activity on human lung carcinoma (A549).

  2. Vision 20/20: The role of Raman spectroscopy in early stage cancer detection and feasibility for application in radiation therapy response assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devpura, Suneetha, E-mail: sdevpur1@hfhs.org; Barton, Kenneth N.; Brown, Stephen L.; Siddiqui, Farzan; Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Palyvoda, Olena [College of Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Kalkanis, Steven [Department of Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Naik, Vaman M. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan 48128 (United States); Naik, Ratna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique capable of identifying chemical constituents of a sample by their unique set of molecular vibrations. Research on the applicability of Raman spectroscopy in the differentiation of cancerous versus normal tissues has been ongoing for many years, and has yielded successful results in the context of prostate, breast, brain, skin, and head and neck cancers as well as pediatric tumors. Recently, much effort has been invested on developing noninvasive “Raman” probes to provide real-time diagnosis of potentially cancerous tumors. In this regard, it is feasible that the Raman technique might one day be used to provide rapid, minimally invasive real-time diagnosis of tumors in patients. Raman spectroscopy is relatively new to the field of radiation therapy. Recent work involving cell lines has shown that the Raman technique is able to identify proteins and other markers affected by radiation therapy. Although this work is preliminary, one could ask whether or not the Raman technique might be used to identify molecular markers that predict radiation response. This paper provides a brief review of Raman spectroscopic investigations in cancer detection, benefits and limitations of this method, advances in instrument development, and also preliminary studies related to the application of this technology in radiation therapy response assessment.

  3. The reliability of lymphoscintigraphy and gamma-detecting probe in detection of sentinel node in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Rhim, C. C.; Yoo, I. R.; Kim, S. H.; Park, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Chung, S. K.; Namkoong, S. E. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A complete pelvic node dissection is associated with significant morbidity in cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of lymphoscintgraphy and a gamma-detecting probe for identifying sentinel node (SN) in patients with cervical cancer. On 6 {approx} 24 hours before surgery, lymphoscintigram were obtained in all 11 patients with cervical cancer following peritumoral injection of Tc-99m-labelled Antimony sulfur colloid. And an intraoperative gamma-detecting probe was used to identify SN during surgery and sentinel nodes were submitted separately to pathologic evaluation. If the sentinal node was invaded, then a complete pelvic node dissection was performed. But pelvic nodes were preserved in the cases with SN being not invaded. Localization of the SN was successful in the all cases. The sentinel node was invaded in one case. Ten cases with SN being not invaded were turned out negative for lymph node metastases. Lymphoscintigraphy and SN biopsy under gamma-detecting probe guidance proved to be an easy and reliable method for the detection of SN in cervical cancer and could be helpful in determining the extent of node dissection in cervical cancer.

  4. Preliminary Report: Vitamin D Deficiency in Advanced Cancer Patients with Symptoms of Fatigue or Anorexia

    OpenAIRE

    Dev, Rony; Del Fabbro, Egidio; Gary G. Schwartz; Hui, David; Palla, Shana L.; Gutierrez, Noah; Bruera, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of low serum vitamin D levels in cancer patients with fatigue or poor appetite and their association with symptom burden and other correctable endocrine abnormalities were investigated.

  5. AGR3 in Breast Cancer: Prognostic Impact and Suitable Serum-Based Biomarker for Early Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garczyk, Stefan; von Stillfried, Saskia; Antonopoulos, Wiebke; Hartmann, Arndt; Schrauder, Michael G.; Fasching, Peter A.; Anzeneder, Tobias; Tannapfel, Andrea; Ergönenc, Yavuz; Knüchel, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Blood-based early detection of breast cancer has recently gained novel momentum, as liquid biopsy diagnostics is a fast emerging field. In this study, we aimed to identify secreted proteins which are up-regulated both in tumour tissue and serum samples of breast cancer patients compared to normal tissue and sera. Based on two independent tissue cohorts (n = 75 and n = 229) and one serum cohort (n = 80) of human breast cancer and healthy serum samples, we characterised AGR3 as a novel potential biomarker both for breast cancer prognosis and early breast cancer detection from blood. AGR3 expression in breast tumours is significantly associated with oestrogen receptor α (P<0.001) and lower tumour grade (P<0.01). Interestingly, AGR3 protein expression correlates with unfavourable outcome in low (G1) and intermediate (G2) grade breast tumours (multivariate hazard ratio: 2.186, 95% CI: 1.008-4.740, P<0.05) indicating an independent prognostic impact. In sera analysed by ELISA technique, AGR3 protein concentration was significantly (P<0.001) elevated in samples from breast cancer patients (n = 40, mainly low stage tumours) compared to healthy controls (n = 40). To develop a suitable biomarker panel for early breast cancer detection, we measured AGR2 protein in human serum samples in parallel. The combined AGR3/AGR2 biomarker panel achieved a sensitivity of 64.5% and a specificity of 89.5% as shown by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistics. Thus our data clearly show the potential usability of AGR3 and AGR2 as biomarkers for blood-based early detection of human breast cancer. PMID:25875093

  6. Gadolinium metallo nanocongregates as potential magnetosensors for detecting early stage cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Ranu, E-mail: ranu.dutta16@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); NanoeRA Medicare Private Limited, Uttar Pradesh (India); Pandey, Avinash C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (India)

    2015-04-27

    Gadolinium chelates and gadolinium based inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively studied, because of the high magnetic moment of gadolinium. Here, metallic gadolinium nanocongregates have been developed. Upon injecting these nanoparticles in the mice, they initially circulate in the blood stream and are localized at the cancer site, which could be visualized upon application of magnetic field hence acting as small magnetic nanosensors searching for even small cancers, detecting cancers at a very early stage.

  7. Human synthetic lethal inference as potential anti-cancer target gene detection

    OpenAIRE

    Solé Ricard V; Munteanu Andreea; Conde-Pueyo Nuria; Rodríguez-Caso Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Two genes are called synthetic lethal (SL) if mutation of either alone is not lethal, but mutation of both leads to death or a significant decrease in organism's fitness. The detection of SL gene pairs constitutes a promising alternative for anti-cancer therapy. As cancer cells exhibit a large number of mutations, the identification of these mutated genes' SL partners may provide specific anti-cancer drug candidates, with minor perturbations to the healthy cells. Since exi...

  8. MRI detection of breast cancer micrometastases with a fibronectin-targeting contrast agent

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Qutaish, Mohammed; Han, Zheng; Schur, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yiqiao; Wilson, David L.; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in breast cancer patients. Early detection of high-risk breast cancer, including micrometastasis, is critical in tailoring appropriate and effective interventional therapies. Increased fibronectin expression, a hallmark of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, is associated with high-risk breast cancer and metastasis. We have previously developed a penta-peptide CREKA (Cys-Arg-Glu-Lys-Ala)-targeted gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cont...

  9. Urine Cell-Free DNA Integrity Analysis for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta Salvi; Giorgia Gurioli; Filippo Martignano; Flavia Foca; Roberta Gunelli; Giacomo Cicchetti; Ugo De Giorgi; Wainer Zoli; Daniele Calistri; Valentina Casadio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The detection of tumor-specific markers in urine has paved the way for new early noninvasive diagnostic approaches for prostate cancer. We evaluated the DNA integrity in urine supernatant to verify its capacity to discriminate between prostate cancer and benign diseases of the urogenital tract. Patients and Methods. A total of 131 individuals were enrolled: 67 prostate cancer patients and 64 patients with benign diseases of the urogenital tract (control group). Prostate-specific...

  10. Detection of HER2 amplification in circulating free DNA in patients with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Page, K; Hava, N.; Ward, B; Brown, J.; Guttery, D S; Ruangpratheep, C; Blighe, K; Sharma, A.; Walker, R. A.; Coombes, R. C.; Shaw, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is amplified and overexpressed in 20–25% of breast cancers. This study investigated circulating free DNA (cfDNA) for detection of HER2 gene amplification in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Circulating free DNA was extracted from plasma of unselected patients with primary breast cancer (22 before surgery and 68 following treatment), 30 metastatic patients and 98 female controls using the QIAamp Blood DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen). The r...

  11. The characteristics and spatial distributions of initially missed and rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Won You

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of initially missed and rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers following 12-core transrectal biopsy. Methods: A total of 45 patients with prostate cancers detected on rebiopsy and 45 patients with prostate cancers initially detected on transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were included in the study. For result analysis, the prostate was divided into six compartments, and the cancer positive rates, estimated tumor burden, and agreement rates between biopsy and surgical specimens, along with clinical data, were evaluated. Results: The largest mean tumor burden was located in the medial apex in both groups. There were significantly more tumors in this location in the rebiopsy group (44.9% than in the control group (30.1%, P=0.015. The overall sensitivity of biopsy was significantly lower in the rebiopsy group (22.5% vs. 43.4%, P<0.001. The agreement rate of cancer positive cores between biopsy and surgical specimens was significantly lower in the medial apex in the rebiopsy group compared with that of the control group (50.0% vs. 65.6%, P=0.035. The cancer positive rates of target biopsy cores and premalignant lesions in the rebiopsy group were 63.1% and 42.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers showed different spatial distribution and lower cancer detection rate of biopsy cores compared with initially diagnosed cancers. To overcome lower cancer detection rate, target biopsy of abnormal sonographic findings, premalignant lesions and medial apex which revealed larger tumor burden would be recommended when performing rebiopsy.

  12. Aberrant reduction of telomere repetitive sequences in plasma cell-free DNA for early breast cancer detection

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xi; Tanaka, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Excessive telomere shortening is observed in breast cancer lesions when compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues, suggesting that telomere length may represent a key biomarker for early cancer detection. Because tumor-derived, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is often released from cancer cells and circulates in the bloodstream, we hypothesized that breast cancer development is associated with changes in the amount of telomeric cfDNA that can be detected in the plasma. To test this hypothesis, we devi...

  13. Method for detecting the presence of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael; Luo, Jun-Li; Tan, Wei

    2010-04-13

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for cancer diagnosis, treatment and drug screening. In particular, the present invention provides compositions and methods for targeting the nuclear translocation of IkB kinase-.alpha. (IKK.alpha.) and the IKK.alpha.-mediated suppression of Maspin expression observed in metastatic prostate cancer cells.

  14. Prevalence and detection of psychosocial problems in cancer genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, W; Bleiker, E M A; Hahn, D E E; Van der Kolk, L E; Sidharta, G N; Aaronson, N K

    2015-12-01

    Only a minority of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling experience heightened levels of psychological distress, but many more experience a range of cancer genetic-specific psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such psychosocial problems, and to identify possible demographic and clinical variables associated significantly with them. Consenting individuals scheduled to undergo cancer genetic counseling completed the Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Distress Thermometer (DT) prior to or immediately following their counseling session. More than half of the 137 participants reported problems on three or more domains of the PAHC, most often in the domains 'living with cancer' (84%), 'family issues' (46%), 'hereditary predisposition' (45%), and 'child-related issues' (42%). Correlations between the PAHC, the HADS and the DT were low. Previous contact with a psychosocial worker, and having a personal history of cancer were associated significantly with HADS scores, but explained little variance (9%). No background variables were associated significantly with the DT. Previous contact with a psychosocial worker, and having children were significantly associated with several PAHC domains, again explaining only a small percentage of the variance (2-14%). The majority of counselees experience specific cancer genetic counseling-related psychosocial problems. Only a few background variables are associated significantly with distress or psychosocial problems. Thus we recommend using the PAHC or a similar problem-oriented questionnaire routinely in cancer genetic counseling to identify individuals with such problems. PMID:25968807

  15. Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Shaker A., E-mail: shaker.mosua@acphs.edu [The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Bharali, Dhruba J. [The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The application of nanotechnology to biomedicine, particularly in cancer diagnosis and treatment, promises to have a profound impact on healthcare. The exploitation of the unique properties of nano-sized particles for cancer therapeutics is most popularly known as nanomedicine. The goals of this review are to discuss the current state of nanomedicine in the field of cancer detection and the subsequent application of nanotechnology to treatment. Current cancer detection methods rely on the patient contacting their provider when they feel ill, or relying on non-specific screening methods, which unfortunately often result in cancers being detected only after it is too late for effective treatment. Cancer treatment paradigms mainly rely on whole body treatment with chemotherapy agents, exposing the patient to medications that non-specifically kill rapidly dividing cells, leading to debilitating side effects. In addition, the use of toxic organic solvents/excipients can hamper the further effectiveness of the anticancer drug. Nanomedicine has the potential to increase the specificity of treatment of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact through the use of novel nanoparticles. This review discusses the use of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, nanoshells, nanocrystals, nanocells, and dendrimers for the detection and treatment of cancer. Future directions and perspectives of this cutting-edge technology are also discussed.

  16. Serum/plasma DNA methylation pattern and early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arootin Gharibiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. With its fatality rate reduced significantly if diagnosed early, developing cost-effective, noninvasive methods of early detection is highly investigated. Currently, mammography with magnetic resonance imaging is considered the optimal method of early detection in women who are at a significantly raised risk of developing breast cancer. Due to environmental effects and life-style changes in recent years, elevation of the risk of cancer incidents in lower risk populations is observed and therefore, the development of a relatively easy-performed and low-cost method for early detection of cancer in general and breast cancer in particular is needed. Serum-based analysis techniques have been quite popular subject of research recently as they can be performed with low technical knowledge, become automated and are cheap. In the present article, we have reviewed the literature related to the use of DNA methylation-detection based techniques for diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer using serum or plasma circulating tumor DNA and their power as a future biomarker. A reference to all genes that is reported to be differentially methylated in breast cancer accompanies the article.

  17. Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of nanotechnology to biomedicine, particularly in cancer diagnosis and treatment, promises to have a profound impact on healthcare. The exploitation of the unique properties of nano-sized particles for cancer therapeutics is most popularly known as nanomedicine. The goals of this review are to discuss the current state of nanomedicine in the field of cancer detection and the subsequent application of nanotechnology to treatment. Current cancer detection methods rely on the patient contacting their provider when they feel ill, or relying on non-specific screening methods, which unfortunately often result in cancers being detected only after it is too late for effective treatment. Cancer treatment paradigms mainly rely on whole body treatment with chemotherapy agents, exposing the patient to medications that non-specifically kill rapidly dividing cells, leading to debilitating side effects. In addition, the use of toxic organic solvents/excipients can hamper the further effectiveness of the anticancer drug. Nanomedicine has the potential to increase the specificity of treatment of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact through the use of novel nanoparticles. This review discusses the use of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, nanoshells, nanocrystals, nanocells, and dendrimers for the detection and treatment of cancer. Future directions and perspectives of this cutting-edge technology are also discussed

  18. Automated breast cancer detection and classification using ultrasound images: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, H. D.; JuanShan; WenJu; YanhuiGuo; Ling Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. Since the cause of the disease remains unknown,early detection and diagnos is is the key for breast cancer control,and it can increase the success of treatment,save lives and reduce cost.

  19. Cancer core modules identification through genomic and transcriptomic changes correlation detection at network level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wenting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of driver mutations among numerous genomic alternations remains a critical challenge to the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of cancer. Because driver mutations by definition are associated with a greater number of cancer phenotypes compared to other mutations, we hypothesized that driver mutations could more easily be identified once the genotype-phenotype correlations are detected across tumor samples. Results In this study, we describe a novel network analysis to identify the driver mutation through integrating both cancer genomes and transcriptomes. Our method successfully identified a significant genotype-phenotype change correlation in all six solid tumor types and revealed core modules that contain both significantly enriched somatic mutations and aberrant expression changes specific to tumor development. Moreover, we found that the majority of these core modules contained well known cancer driver mutations, and that their mutated genes tended to occur at hub genes with central regulatory roles. In these mutated genes, the majority were cancer-type specific and exhibited a closer relationship within the same cancer type rather than across cancer types. The remaining mutated genes that exist in multiple cancer types led to two cancer type clusters, one cluster consisted of three neural derived or related cancer types, and the other cluster consisted of two adenoma cancer types. Conclusions Our approach can successfully identify the candidate drivers from the core modules. Comprehensive network analysis on the core modules potentially provides critical insights into convergent cancer development in different organs.

  20. Breast Cancer:Detection and Diagnosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 ... treatment is more likely to work well. Clinical Breast Exam During a clinical breast exam, your health ...

  1. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  2. Research from the Early Detection Research Network on New Methods to Detect Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed non-skin cancer in men in the United States. In 2010 there were 218,000 men diagnosed with prostate cancer. The prevalence of the diagnosis makes the disease a major health burden. While the majority of the diagnosed men will survive the disease, about 15% will die from it, a rate that is affected by over-diagnosis and the consequent over-treatment. |

  3. Impact of two types of image processing on cancer detection in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lucy M.; Halling-Brown, Mark D.; Looney, Padraig T.; Dance, David R.; Wilkinson, Louise; Wallis, Matthew G.; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Cooke, Julie; McAvinchey, Rita; Young, Kenneth C.

    2016-03-01

    The impact of image processing on cancer detection is still a concern to radiologists and physicists. This work aims to evaluate the effect of two types of image processing on cancer detection in mammography. An observer study was performed in which six radiologists inspected 349 cases (a mixture of normal cases, benign lesions and cancers) processed with two types of image processing. The observers marked areas they were suspicious were cancers. JAFROC analysis was performed to determine if there was a significant difference in cancer detection between the two types of image processing. Cancer detection was significantly better with the standard setting image processing (flavor A) compared with one that provides enhanced image contrast (flavor B), p = 0.036. The image processing was applied to images of the CDMAM test object, which were then analysed using CDCOM. The threshold gold thickness measured with the CDMAM test object was thinner using flavor A than flavor B image processing. Since Flavor A was found to be superior in both the observer study and the measurements using the CDMAM phantom, this may indicate that measurements using the CDMAM correlate with change in cancer detection with different types of image processing.

  4. CEST-MRI detects metabolite levels altered by breast cancer cell aggressiveness and chemotherapy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kannie W Y; Jiang, Lu; Cheng, Menglin; Wijnen, Jannie P; Liu, Guanshu; Huang, Peng; van Zijl, Peter C M; McMahon, Michael T; Glunde, Kristine

    2016-06-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is an MRI contrast mechanism that detects the exchange of protons from distinct hydroxyl, amine, and amide groups to tissue water through the transfer of signal loss, with repeated exchange enhancing their effective signal. We applied CEST to detect systematically 15 common cellular metabolites in a panel of differentially aggressive human breast cancer cell lines. The highest CEST contrast was generated by creatine, myo-inositol, glutamate, and glycerophosphocholine, whose cellular concentrations decreased with increasing breast cancer aggressiveness. These decreased metabolite concentrations resulted in turn in a decreased CEST profile with increasing breast cancer aggressiveness in water-soluble extracts of breast cell lines. Treatment of both breast cancer cell lines with the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin resulted in increased metabolic CEST profiles, which correlated with significant increases in creatine, phosphocreatine, and glycerophosphocholine. CEST can detect breast cancer aggressiveness and response to chemotherapy in water-soluble extracts of breast cell lines. The presented results help shed light on possible contributions from CEST-active metabolites to the CEST contrast produced by breast cancers. The metabolic CEST profile may improve detection sensitivity over conventional MRS, and may have the potential to assess breast cancer aggressiveness and response to chemotherapy non-invasively using MRI if specialized metabolic CEST profile detection can be realized in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27100284

  5. Targeting breast cancer stem cells by dendritic cell vaccination in humanized mice with breast tumor: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham PV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phuc Van Pham,1 Hanh Thi Le,1 Binh Thanh Vu,1 Viet Quoc Pham,1 Phong Minh Le,1 Nhan Lu-Chinh Phan,1 Ngu Van Trinh,1 Huyen Thi-Lam Nguyen,1 Sinh Truong Nguyen,1 Toan Linh Nguyen,2 Ngoc Kim Phan1 1Laboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, 2Vietnam Military Medical University, Ha Dong, Ha Noi, Vietnam Background: Breast cancer (BC is one of the leading cancers in women. Recent progress has enabled BC to be cured with high efficiency. However, late detection or metastatic disease often renders the disease untreatable. Additionally, relapse is the main cause of death in BC patients. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs are considered to cause the development of BC and are thought to be responsible for metastasis and relapse. This study aimed to target BCSCs using dendritic cells (DCs to treat tumor-bearing humanized mice models. Materials and methods: NOD/SCID mice were used to produce the humanized mice by transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells. Human BCSCs were injected into the mammary fat pad to produce BC humanized mice. Both hematopoietic stem cells and DCs were isolated from the human umbilical cord blood, and immature DCs were produced from cultured mononuclear cells. DCs were matured by BCSC-derived antigen incubation for 48 hours. Mature DCs were vaccinated to BC humanized mice with a dose of 106 cells/mice, and the survival percentage was monitored in both treated and untreated groups. Results: The results showed that DC vaccination could target BCSCs and reduce the tumor size and prolong survival. Conclusion: These results suggested that targeting BCSCs with DCs is a promising therapy for BC. Keywords: breast cancer, breast cancer stem cells, targeting cancer therapy, humanized mice, targeting cancer stem cells 

  6. CLINICAL USE OF COMBINED DETECTION WITH TUMOR MARKERS FOR PANCREATIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of clinical use of combined detection with tumor markers for pancreatic cancer. Methods Tumor markers CA242,CA19-9 and CA50 in serum of 32 patinets with pancreatic cancer;26 patients with non-pancreatic digestive tract cancers and 24 patietns with benign pancreatic or biliary tract diseases were measured by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Results The levels of three markers in serum and positive rates of patients with pancreatic cancer were higher than those of other patients. The effect of measurement combining CA242 with CA19-9 was the best. The sensitivity ,specificity and accuracy of diagnosis for pancreatic cancer were 92.6%, 73.8% and 81.2% respectively. The levels of CA242 and CA19-9 were positively relative to burden of pancreatic cancer, and serum levels of these two markers of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer were lower than those with unresectable, but on difference was observed for CA50. Conclusion Combined detection of serum CA242 and CA19-9 could prove the effectual indicator for finding the patients with pancreatic cancer in high risk population or for resectable pancreatic cancer. Pre-operative measurement of serum levels of CA242 and CA19-9 is helpful to evaluate the burden of the tumors and possiblity of resect for pancreatic cancers.

  7. Early detection of colorectal cancer relapse by infrared spectroscopy in ``normal'' anastomosis tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ahmad; Sebbag, Gilbert; Argov, Shmuel; Mordechai, Shaul; Sahu, Ranjit K.

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers usually occurring in people above the age of 50 years. In the United States, colorectal cancer is the third most diagnosed cancer. The American Cancer Society has estimated 96,830 new cases of colon cancer and 40,000 new cases of rectal cancer in 2014 in the United States. According to the literature, up to 55% of colorectal cancer patients experience a recurrence within five years from the time of surgery. Relapse of colorectal cancer has a deep influence on the quality of patient life. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been widely used in medicine. It is a noninvasive, nondestructive technique that can detect changes in cells and tissues that are caused by different disorders, such as cancer. Abnormalities in the colonic crypts, which are not detectable using standard histopathological methods, could be determined using IR spectroscopic methods. The IR measurements were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded colorectal tissues from eight patients (one control, four local recurrences, three distant recurrences). A total of 128 crypts were measured. Our results showed the possibility of differentiating among control, local, and distant recurrence crypts with more than a 92% success rate using spectra measured from the crypts' middle sites.

  8. Preliminary study on MR colonography with air enema in detection of colorectal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming-yue; LIU Li; YAN Fu-hua; SHEN Ji-zhang; YAO Li-qing; ZHOU Kang-rong

    2010-01-01

    Background The few studies on MR colonography with air enema involved feasibility of bowel distention and imaging quality and lacked detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms with the three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography with air enema.Methods A total of 30 patients scheduled for optical colonoscopy due to rectal bleeding, positive fecal occult blood test results or altered bowel habits were recruited and successfully underwent entire colorectal examinations with three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography and subsequent optical colonoscopy on the same day. Detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms with MR colonography was statistically analyzed on a per-neoplasm size basis by using findings from optical colonoscopy and histopathological examinations as the reference standards.Results Seventy-six neoplasms were detected with optical colonoscopy, consisting of 1 mm-5 mm (n=11), 6 mm-9 mm (n=29) and >10 mm (n=36) in diameter. Detection sensitivities of 1 mm-5 mm, 6 mm-9 mm, ≥10 mm and >6 mm colorectal neoplasms with MR colonography were 9.1%, 75.9%, 100% and 89.2%, respectively; overall detection sensitivity for all sizes colorectal neoplasms was 77.6%.Conclusions Detection sensitivity of three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography with air enema is low for 1 mm-5 mm colorectal neoplasms, but the detection sensitivity is 89.2% for ≥6 mm neoplasms, and all ≥10 mm neoplasms could be detected.

  9. Multiple Biomarker Panels for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers.

  10. The photodynamic detection of mucosal abnormality in oral cancer patients: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Martin; Ogden, Graham; McLaren, Stuart; Padgett, Miles

    2005-03-01

    Patients who have had one oral cancer are at increased risk of developing a semi-malignant tumour. The detecting of oral cancer is made difficult (and is often delayed) by the unknown appearance of the early oral lesion. A technique that could reliably detect early cancers would be useful to the oral and dental health specialist. One possible technique is the use of a photosensitiser that may be preferentially taken up by cancerous cells. 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is one such drug that is converted to Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and fluoresces at 636nm when illuminated with light of wavelength 405nm. It has been hypothesized that cell inclined towards malignant change would have a higher metabolic rate, and thus convert more ALA into its metabolite PpIX. These drugs can then be detected using a technique called Photodynamic detection, through the analysis of their fluorescence spectra. We describe a pilot study that used a compact spectroscopic instrument designed to excite and measure fluorescence in the oral cavity. Some Inter-subject variation in PpIX time course characteristics may be evident in our volunteers, as has been reported by other researchers. The obtained data would suggest that this instrument may be a valuable tool for detecting early oral cancers. However, further studies are required, not least to ensure that these data are due to detection of ALA metabolite in cancer and not some other systemic effect.

  11. Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Kevin B.; Yeager, Meredith; Zhou, Weiyin; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Hutchinson, Amy; Deng, Xiang; Liu, Chenwei; Horner, Marie-Josephe; Cullen, Michael; Epstein, Caroline G; Burdett, Laurie; Dean, Michael C.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2012-01-01

    In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls from 13 genome-wide association studies, we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones in DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. We observed mosaic abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of >2 Mb in size in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%), with abnormal cell proportions of between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, frequency increased with age, from 0.23% u...

  12. Preliminary Study on Cytotoxic Effect of Biodegradation of Magnesium on Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhang; Ling Ren; Mei Li; Xiao Lin; Huafu Zhao; Ke Yang

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradation of magnesium (Mg) based metals in body fluid can lead to a strong alkalinity as well as an increase of Mg2+ concentration in its surrounding environment. In vitro cytotoxic effects of the extracts of pure Mg with and without micro arc oxidation (MAO) coating on osteosarcoma U2-OS cells, a kind of bone cancer cells, were preliminarily studied, independently considering the increase of either alkalinity or Mg2+ concentration. The results indicated that the high alkalinity, i.e., a great increase of pH value, caused by the degradations of Mg with and without MAO coating in the culture medium all showed strong cytotoxic effects on U2-OS cells. However, the increase of Mg2+ concentration had no such cytotoxic effect. This finding may provide an alternative way to cure bone cancers through creating a high alkalinity surrounding the cancer cells.

  13. Performance of computer-aided detection in false-negative screening mammograms of breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze retrospectively the abnormalities visible on the false-negative screening mammograms of patients with breast cancer and to determine the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) in the detection of cancers. Of 108 consecutive cases of breast cancer diagnosed over a period of 6 years, of which previous screening mammograms were available, 32 retrospectively visible abnormalities (at which locations cancer later developed) were found in the previous mammograms, and which were originally reported as negative. These 32 patients ranged in age from 38 to 72 years (mean 52 years). We analyzed their previous mammographic findings, and assessed the ability of CAD to mark cancers in previous mammograms, according to the clinical presentation, the type of abnormalities and the mammographic parenchymal density. In these 32 previous mammograms of breast cancers (20 asymptomatic, 12 symptomatic), the retrospectively visible abnormalities were identified as densities in 22, calcifications in 8, and densities with calcifications in 2. CAD marked abnormalities in 20 (63%) of the 32 cancers with false-negative screening mammograms; 14 (70%) of the 20 subsequent screening-detected cancers, 5 (50%) of the 10 interval cancers, and 1 (50%) of the 2 cancers palpable after the screening interval. CAD marked 12 (50%) of the 24 densities and 9 (90%) of the 10 calcifications. CAD marked abnormalities in 7 (50%) of the 14 predominantly fatty breasts, and 13 (72%) of the 18 dense breasts. CAD-assisted diagnosis could potentially decrease the number of false-negative mammograms caused by the failure to recognize the cancer in the screening program, although its usefulness in the prevention of interval cancers appears to be limited

  14. Bilateral mammographic density asymmetry and breast cancer risk: A preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Bin, E-mail: zhengb@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sumkin, Jules H., E-mail: jsumkin@mail.magee.edu [Department of Radiology, Magee Womens Hospital, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zuley, Margarita L., E-mail: zuleyml@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, Magee Womens Hospital, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Wang, Xingwei, E-mail: wangx6@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Klym, Amy H., E-mail: klymah@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Gur, David, E-mail: gurd@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    To improve efficacy of breast cancer screening and prevention programs, it requires a risk assessment model with high discriminatory power. This study aimed to assess classification performance of using computed bilateral mammographic density asymmetry to predict risk of individual women developing breast cancer in near-term. The database includes 451 cases with multiple screening mammography examinations. The first (baseline) examinations of all case were interpreted negative. In the next sequential examinations, 187 cases developed cancer or surgically excised high-risk lesions, 155 remained negative (not-recalled), and 109 were recalled benign cases. From each of two bilateral cranio-caudal view images acquired from the baseline examination, we computed two features of average pixel value and local pixel value fluctuation. We then computed mean and difference of each feature computed from two images. When applying the computed features and other two risk factors (woman's age and subjectively rated mammographic density) to predict risk of cancer development, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were computed to evaluate the discriminatory/classification performance. The AUCs are 0.633 {+-} 0.030, 0.535 {+-} 0.036, 0.567 {+-} 0.031, and 0.719 {+-} 0.027 when using woman's age, subjectively rated, computed mean and asymmetry of mammographic density, to classify between two groups of cancer-verified and negative cases, respectively. When using an equal-weighted fusion method to combine woman's age and computed density asymmetry, AUC increased to 0.761 {+-} 0.025 (p < 0.05). The study demonstrated that bilateral mammographic density asymmetry could be a significantly stronger risk factor associated to the risk of women developing breast cancer in near-term than woman's age and assessed mean mammographic density.

  15. Bilateral mammographic density asymmetry and breast cancer risk: A preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve efficacy of breast cancer screening and prevention programs, it requires a risk assessment model with high discriminatory power. This study aimed to assess classification performance of using computed bilateral mammographic density asymmetry to predict risk of individual women developing breast cancer in near-term. The database includes 451 cases with multiple screening mammography examinations. The first (baseline) examinations of all case were interpreted negative. In the next sequential examinations, 187 cases developed cancer or surgically excised high-risk lesions, 155 remained negative (not-recalled), and 109 were recalled benign cases. From each of two bilateral cranio-caudal view images acquired from the baseline examination, we computed two features of average pixel value and local pixel value fluctuation. We then computed mean and difference of each feature computed from two images. When applying the computed features and other two risk factors (woman's age and subjectively rated mammographic density) to predict risk of cancer development, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were computed to evaluate the discriminatory/classification performance. The AUCs are 0.633 ± 0.030, 0.535 ± 0.036, 0.567 ± 0.031, and 0.719 ± 0.027 when using woman's age, subjectively rated, computed mean and asymmetry of mammographic density, to classify between two groups of cancer-verified and negative cases, respectively. When using an equal-weighted fusion method to combine woman's age and computed density asymmetry, AUC increased to 0.761 ± 0.025 (p < 0.05). The study demonstrated that bilateral mammographic density asymmetry could be a significantly stronger risk factor associated to the risk of women developing breast cancer in near-term than woman's age and assessed mean mammographic density.

  16. Measurement of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, cytokeratin-19 fragment and matrix metalloproteinase-7 for detecting cholangiocarcinoma: a preliminary case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, Franco; Lo Re, Giovanni; Tozzoli, Renato; D'Aurizio, Federica; Facomer, Flavio; Chiara, Giordano B; Basso, Stefano M M

    2014-11-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of the liver arising from the bile duct epithelium, accounting for 10-25% of all primary hepatic cancers. The clinical presentation of this tumor is not specific and the diagnosis of early cholangiocarcinoma is difficult, especially in patients with other biliary diseases. Measurement of serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are commonly used to monitor response to therapy, but are also useful for confirming the presence of a cholangiocarcinoma. In this setting, other biomarkers have been previously tested, including cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) and the matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7). The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical usefulness of the assay of serum CEA, CA 19-9, CYFRA 21-1 and MMP7, individually and together, as tumor markers for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-four patients (14 men, 10 women, 62.6±8.2 years of age) with histologically-confirmed cholangiocarcinoma (cases) and 25 age- and sex-matched patients with benign liver disease (controls) underwent measurement of these biomarkers. The mean values of all serum markers of patients with cholangiocarcinoma were significantly higher (pCYFRA 21-1: 76%, 79% and 78%; MMP7: 78%, 77% and 80%, respectively. The combination of all serum markers afforded 92.0% sensitivity and 96% specificity in detecting cholangiocarcinoma, showing the highest diagnostic accuracy (94%). In conclusion, our preliminary results suggest that the measurement of all four biomarkers together can help in the early detection of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:25368272

  17. External hyperalimentation: its role in radiotherapy/chemotherapy of lung cancer - a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation and chemotherapy can result in further deterioration of the nutritional status of lung cancer patients who frequently are malnourished as a consequence of their underlying malignancy. Nutritional support of these individuals should be based on a complete assessment of each patient's requirements as well as providing such requirements through a safe efficacious eternal hyperalimentaton program. This investigation was designed to study whether clinically significant palliation maybe achieved by nutritional rehabilitation of the cachetic lung cancer patient as an adjuvant to conventional antitumor therapy. (auth.). 13 refs.; 4 tabs

  18. Pituitary Incidentalomas Detected with Technetium-99m MIBI in Patients with Suspected Parathyroid Adenoma: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Tiktinsky, Ekaterina; Horne, Tifha; Friger, Michael; Agranovich, Svetlana; Lantsberg, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Tc-99m MIBI (MIBI) is a cationic lipophilic agent, which has traditionally been used for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, detection and monitoring of different benign and malignant tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of pituitary incidentalomas detected on MIBI scans performed on patients with suspected parathyroid adenomas and to provide semiquantitative analysis of tracer uptake in the pituitary region. Tomographic images of MIBI scans on 56 patients with sus...

  19. Our approach for breast cancer screening using both mammography and echography, with special reference to detection of nonpalpable minute invasive cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of our approach for breast cancer screening using both mammography and echography. A total of 4,632 participants underwent screening with our own combined method using mammography and echography at our clinic during a two-year period in 2005 and 2006. Recall studies were carried out in 364 women (recall rate, 79%), and breast cancer was detected in 36 women (cancer detection rate, 0.78%). When the detected cancers were classified histopathologically, 22 were invasive ductal cancers and the remaining 14 were non-invasive cancers. Of the 22 women who proved to have invasive cancers, 14 had been unaware of their tumors, which were non-palpable. If an invasive cancer is overlooked, the consequences may be more serious than if a non-invasive cancer is missed, because the former is can be potentially fatal. In order to decrease breast cancer mortality, invasive cancers must be detected when they are small. Since we were able to detect many small and non-palpable breast cancers that had not been noticed by the participants, our current breast cancer screening system appears to be more efficient for life-saving than other systems. (author)

  20. Nimotuzumab combined with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer: preliminary study of a Phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jun Liang,1 Mingyan E,2 Gang Wu,3 Lujun Zhao,4 Xia Li,5 Xia Xiu,6 Ning Li,1 Bo Chen,1 Zhouguang Hui,1 Jima Lv,1 Hui Fang,1 Yu Tang,1 Nan Bi,1 Wenqing Wang,1 Yirui Zhai,1 Tao Li,1 Dongfu Chen,1 Shuangmei Zou,7 Ning Lu,7 Rolando Perez-Rodríguez,8 Junqi Zheng,9 Luhua Wang11Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Radiotherapy, Tongji Cancer Center Hospital, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 5Department of Radiotherapy, LiaoNing Province Cancer Hospital, Shenyang, People's Republic of China; 6Department of Radiotherapy, Beijing Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 7Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 8Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana, Cuba; 9School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaObjective: To determine the safety and therapeutic effects of nimotuzumab (h-R3 combined with radiotherapy in esophageal cancer.Methods: This Phase II clinical trial involved 42 patients with stage II (inoperable or refused surgery to stage IV (supraclavicular lymph node metastasis only esophageal cancers treated between November 2008 and July 2010. All patients had squamous cell carcinomas, and all received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and 200 mg nimotuzumab per week during radiotherapy.Results: There were 9, 25, and 8 patients with stage II, III and IV disease, respectively. All except two patients received 50–70 Gy radiation; 37 patients (88.1% received more than five nimotuzumab doses. Grade III toxicities (21.4% of all adverse events included esophagitis and gastrointestinal, dermatological and hematological

  1. A minimum spanning forest based hyperspectral image classification method for cancerous tissue detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Robert; Patton, Samuel K.; Lu, Guolan; Halig, Luma V.; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a developing modality for cancer detection. The rich information associated with hyperspectral images allow for the examination between cancerous and healthy tissue. This study focuses on a new method that incorporates support vector machines into a minimum spanning forest algorithm for differentiating cancerous tissue from normal tissue. Spectral information was gathered to test the algorithm. Animal experiments were performed and hyperspectral images were acquired from tumor-bearing mice. In vivo imaging experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed classification method for cancer tissue classification on hyperspectral images.

  2. Preparation of Immuno-magnetic Beads and Their Separation & Detection to Ovary Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The organic monomer-molecule with nanometer magnetic powder by means of reforming the surface of nanometer magnetic powder have been synthesized.Magnetic beads in diameter of 2μm or so are obtained by controlling conditions.Ovary cancer cells of ascites are separated and ovary cancer cells of blood are detected by using immuno-magnetic beads linked with ovary cancer cell mono-antibodies.Results show that the specificity is 85%,sensitivity is 87%,accuracy is 84%,cells acquiring purity is 90%,cells activity is 92% and detection sensitivity is 25×10-7.

  3. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Naku Ghartey Jnr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76% breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46% participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56% were premenopausal (<46.6 years with 7 (0.23% being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  4. Breast cancer detection and differentiation using piezoelectric fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegingil, Hakki Orhan

    A piezoelectric finger (PEF) is a tissue elasticity sensor developed in our laboratory. With a dual piezoelectric layer design, a PEF can apply a force and detect the resultant displacement all-electrically, ideal for potential in vivo tissue elasticity measurements. The goal of this thesis is to develop PEFs towards a breast cancer detector. The study encompasses (1) fundamental development and characterization of PEFs as a tissue elasticity sensor using model tissues, (2) application of PEFs to ex vivo breast samples, and (3) development of array PEFs towards in vivo measurements. I have shown that a PEF can accurately measure the elastic or shear moduli values of soft polymer samples using indentation methods. Furthermore, I have shown that a PEF has a depth sensitivity twice its width by testing inclusions embedded at various depths in model tissues. Using the measurements from two PEFs of different widths, I showed that the depth and modulus of an inclusion can be determined with an empirical "two-spring" model. I have shown that a PEF could distinguish between the 2-D and 3-D smooth and rough surface inclusions by examining the shear (G) to elastic (E) moduli ratio: smooth and rough inclusions have G/E ratio of ˜0.3 and >0.7, respectively. I have characterized 71 ex vivo breast tumors in terms of tumor size, location, malignancy and invasiveness. I have shown that PEFs predicted all abnormalities, including a 3 mm tumor. PEF's size predictions were accurate within 10% of the pathologic measurements. Furthermore, using G/E > 0.7 as a criterion, we predicted invasive carcinoma with 89% sensitivity and 82% specificity. With G/E = 0.3 and >0.7 as a criterion, the malignancy prediction had a 96% sensitivity and 54% specificity. Moving toward real patient applications, PEF compression array was developed, characterized over the model tissue samples, and successfully located an in-vivo tumor inside breast tissue and predicted its size, depth and modulus

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ...

  6. Life expectancy of screen-detected invasive breast cancer patients compared with women invited to the Nijmegen Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.M. Otten; M.J.M. Broeders (Mireille); G.J. den Heeten (Gerard); R. Holland (Roland); J. Fracheboud (Jacques); H.J. de Koning (Harry); A.L.M. Verbeek (Andre)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Screening can lead to earlier detection of breast cancer and thus to an improvement in survival. The authors studied the life expectancy of women with screen-detected invasive breast cancer (patients) compared with women invited to the breast cancer screening program in Nijme

  7. Preliminary results of the study about predictors of rectal side effects in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze quantitatively and qualitatively the rectal side effect of radical radiotherapy applied to prostate cancer in patients treated at the National Cancer Institute (INCA) with three-dimensional external radiotherapy which the purposes is to determine predictions of this. Materials and Methods: From July 2008 to July 2010 98 patients were recruited, 63 of whom were followed up for 6 months. The gastrointestinal secondary effects occurred in different times of monitoring patients with RTOG / EORTC classifications (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer) and SOMA / LENT, is also used a questionnaire specifically constructed and validated by the cooperative Italian group . The results were correlated with clinical parameters (PSA, Gleason score, clinical T, risk class, hypertension and diabetes) and dosimetry (treatment volume, rectal volume, Total Dose, Dose Maximum rectum, mean dose to the rectum) to assess the correlation between them and the appearance of gastrointestinal secondary effects. Results: 27% and 28% patients experienced grade 1 and 2 RTOG rectal secondary effect at 1 and 3 months and 6 months the SOMA / LENT classification determined by 25%. Qualitatively altered intestinal transit is the most affected in these patients, it is having also found some relationship between the probability of occurrence of abnormal intestinal transit, and the tracking time passed. Conclusions: The rectal secondary effects is one of the major side effects both acute an chronic of the prostate radiotherapy, identify the determinants effects of the INCA patient population implies a substantial improvement in the quality of prostate cancer patients. Patients treated with radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer often have long survivals and consequently may suffer chronic effects of radiation therapy. We have verified the existence of secondary effects in the intestine but the results are very preliminary

  8. Thyroid cancer detected by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, T; Fukata, S; Kuma, K; Matsuzuka, F; Kobayashi, A; Hirai, K; Miyauchi, A; Sugawara, M

    1996-09-01

    A greater percentage of thyroid cancers can be detected by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (UG-FNAB) than by ordinary FNAB. A group of 678 patients were selected sequentially as having been diagnosed with benign nodules by the conventional FNAB method. We reexamined these patients by UG-FNAB and investigated the types of thyroid cancer that were missed by the conventional FNAB. Of the 678 patients diagnosed with benign nodules (using conventional FNAB), 571 (84.2%) demonstrated the same diagnosis when UG-FNAB was used. The remaining 107 patients (15.8%) studied were suspected of having a malignancy after UG-FNAB had been performed. Surgical specimen histology proved thyroid cancer in 99 of the 107 patients: 93 had papillary carcinoma, 4 had follicular carcinoma, 1 had medullary carcinoma and 1 had anaplastic carcinoma. Two drawbacks were noted when conventional FNAB was used: (1) cancer lesions difficult to palpate (n = 55) (e.g., small cancers with or without benign lesions or cancers associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease); and (2) palpable cancers with insufficient cell material for analysis (n = 44) (e.g., cystic carcinoma and cancers with calcified lesions. UG-FNAB is a powerful technique for detecting microcancers, cystic carcinomas, cancers associated with benign nodules, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or coarse calcifications. PMID:8678961

  9. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of prostate cancer; Multiparametrische Magnetresonanztomografie zur Detektion des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmus, T.; Baur, A.; Hamm, B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-03-15

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, but only about 10 % of patients die from that cancer. Recent studies suggest that not all patients benefit from a radical therapeutic approach. When prostate cancer is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can make an important contribution to cancer localization within the prostate. Many studies show that T2-weighted morphologic imaging should be supplemented by multiparametric MRI techniques including diffusion-weighted imaging, contrast-enhanced sequences, and MR spectroscopy. This approach detects aggressive prostate cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. The findings of multiparametric MRI additionally contribute information to the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. The use of these multiparametric MRI techniques will gain an increasing role in the clinical management of prostate cancer patients. They can help in establishing a definitive diagnosis with a minimum of invasiveness and may also contribute to optimal individualized treatment. This review article presents the different techniques of multiparametric MRI and discusses their contribution to the detection of prostate cancer. Moreover, this review outlines an objective approach to image interpretation and structured reporting of MRI findings using the PI-RADS criteria. The review concludes with an outline of approaches to prostate biopsy on the basis of MRI (transrectal ultrasound, direct MRI guidance of tissue sampling, and MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy) and emerging future uses of MRI in the planning of focal treatment options and in the active surveillance of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. (orig.)

  10. Impedimetric detection of mutant p53 biomarker-driven metastatic breast cancers under hyposmotic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Menglu; Shtraizent, Nataly; Polotskaia, Alla; Bargonetti, Jill; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In cancer cells, the oncogenic mutant p53 (mtp53) protein is present at high levels and gain-of-function (GOF) activities with more expression of mtp53 proteins contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Robust analytical approaches that probe the degree of metastasis of cancer cells in connection with the mtp53 activity will be extremely useful not only for establishing a better cancer prognosis but also understanding the fundamental mechanism of mtp53 oncogenic action. Here we assessed the influence of mtp53 in breast cancers to the mechanical property of breast cancer cells. Recently, ovarian and kidney cancer cell lines have been shown to have higher cellular elasticity as compared to normal cells assessed by monitoring the degree of deformation under hyposmotic pressure. To make fast detection in large scale, the impedance measurement was applied to monitor the swelling ratio of cells with time. The results showed that knockdown of mtp53 leads to decrease in cell swelling. In addition, by means of two types of impedimetric detection systems we consistently detected enhancement of impedance signal in mtp53-expressing breast cancer cells. Based on this observation we hypothesize that highly expressed mtp53 in metastatic mutant breast cancers can promote tumor progression by making cells more deformable and easier to spread out through extracellular matrix. The identification via the electric measurement can be accomplished within 10 minutes. All results in this report suggest that electric probing for the extent of the mtp53 expression of breast cancer cells may serve as a meaningful fingerprint for the cancer diagnostics, and this outcome will also have an important clinical implication for the development of mtp53-based targeting for tumor detection and treatment.

  11. Circulating tumor DNA as a liquid biopsy target for detection of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Erina; Yachida, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Most pancreatic cancer patients present with advanced metastatic disease, resulting in extremely poor 5-year survival, mainly because of the lack of a reliable modality for early detection and limited therapeutic options for advanced disease. Therefore, there is a need for minimally-invasive diagnostic tools for detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, when curative surgery and also novel therapeutic approaches including precision medicine may be feasible. The “liquid biopsy” addresses these unmet clinical needs based on the concept that simple peripheral blood sampling and detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) could provide diagnostic information. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status of blood-based tests for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and the potential utility of ctDNA for precision medicine. We also discuss challenges that remain to be addressed in developing practical ctDNA-based liquid biopsy approaches for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  12. Ultrasensitive Detection of Dual Cancer Biomarkers with Integrated CMOS-Compatible Nanowire Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Gao, Anran; Dai, Pengfei; Mao, Hongju; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Yuelin; Li, Tie

    2015-11-17

    A direct, rapid, highly sensitive and specific biosensor for detection of cancer biomarkers is desirable in early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. However, the existing methods of detecting cancer biomarkers suffer from poor sensitivity as well as the requirement of enzymatic labeling or nanoparticle conjugations. Here, we proposed a two-channel PDMS microfluidic integrated CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistor arrays with potentially single use for label-free and ultrasensitive electrical detection of cancer biomarkers. The integrated nanowire arrays showed not only ultrahigh sensitivity of cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) with detection to at least 1 fg/mL in buffer solution but also highly selectivity of discrimination from other similar cancer biomarkers. In addition, this method was used to detect both CYFRA21-1 and PSA real samples as low as 10 fg/mL in undiluted human serums. With its excellent properties and miniaturization, the integrated SiNW-FET device opens up great opportunities for a point-of-care test (POCT) for quick screening and early diagnosis of cancer and other complex diseases. PMID:26473941

  13. Preliminary Validation of High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Detection of Methyltestosterone Residue in Carp Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jie; LIN Hong; FU Xiaoting; LI Mingming

    2005-01-01

    The use of synthetic anabolic steroid methyltestosterone (MT) as growth promoter is prohibited in China. Validations of analytical methods for MT residue in food and the results obtained have become indispensable. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection of MT with liquid-liquid extraction by trichloromethanemethanol in carp muscle tissue was preliminarily validated with reference to the following parameters: recovery (accuracy)at the 1, 5 and 10 mgkg-1 level, between-run and within-run CV values (repeatability, also called relative standard deviation(RSD)) and limit of detection. The recoveries were above 80% and the between-run and within-run CV values below 10%for muscle tissue. The limit of detection was 0.05 mgkg-1.

  14. Novel sensing approach for LPG leakage detection: Part I: Operating Mechanism and Preliminary Results

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-10-30

    Gas sensing technology has been among the topical research work for quite some time. This paper showcases the research done on the detection mechanism of leakage of domestic cooking gas at ambient conditions. MEMS-based interdigital sensors were fabricated on oxidized single crystal silicon surfaces by maskless photolithography technique. The electrochemical impedance analysis of these sensors was done to detect liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) with and without coated particles of tin oxide (SnO2) in form of thin layer.A thin-film of SnO2 was spin-coated on the sensing surface of the interdigital sensor to induce selectivity to LPG that consists of a 60/40 mixture of propane and butane respectively. The paper reports a novel strategy for gas detection under ambient temperature and humidity conditions. The response time of the coated sensor was encouraging and own a promising potential to the development of a complete efficient gas sensing system.

  15. Algorithms for Detecting Significantly Mutated Pathways in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandin, Fabio; Upfal, Eli; Raphael, Benjamin J.

    Recent genome sequencing studies have shown that the somatic mutations that drive cancer development are distributed across a large number of genes. This mutational heterogeneity complicates efforts to distinguish functional mutations from sporadic, passenger mutations. Since cancer mutations are hypothesized to target a relatively small number of cellular signaling and regulatory pathways, a common approach is to assess whether known pathways are enriched for mutated genes. However, restricting attention to known pathways will not reveal novel cancer genes or pathways. An alterative strategy is to examine mutated genes in the context of genome-scale interaction networks that include both well characterized pathways and additional gene interactions measured through various approaches. We introduce a computational framework for de novo identification of subnetworks in a large gene interaction network that are mutated in a significant number of patients. This framework includes two major features. First, we introduce a diffusion process on the interaction network to define a local neighborhood of "influence" for each mutated gene in the network. Second, we derive a two-stage multiple hypothesis test to bound the false discovery rate (FDR) associated with the identified subnetworks. We test these algorithms on a large human protein-protein interaction network using mutation data from two recent studies: glioblastoma samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas and lung adenocarcinoma samples from the Tumor Sequencing Project. We successfully recover pathways that are known to be important in these cancers, such as the p53 pathway. We also identify additional pathways, such as the Notch signaling pathway, that have been implicated in other cancers but not previously reported as mutated in these samples. Our approach is the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a computationally efficient strategy for de novo identification of statistically significant mutated subnetworks. We

  16. Online detection of radiation produced in Boron-10 neutron capture reaction: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron microdistribution in both tumor and normal tissue sections can be studied by the autoradiography technique in solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). A measurement of boron concentration in tissue is obtained through the evaluation of the density of tracks produced by alpha and lithium ions generated in the neutron capture reaction 10B(n,α) 7Li. This knowledge is pivotal when a BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) protocol is considered. A new methodology is proposed in order to record alpha and lithium events in real time, as light spots superimposed to the tissue section image. CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) and CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) are used as detectors, with the advantage of avoiding the superposition of events. Commercial web cams were employed for the preliminary experiments. They were partially disassembled in order to get the sensor chip uncovered. These devices were exposed to different radiation sources: 6.118 MeV alpha particles (252Cf), 0.662 MeV gamma rays (137Cs) and thermal neutrons (moderated 241Am-Be source, 103n.cm2.seg-1), to analyze the characteristics of the respective images. Pictures from tissue sections put in contact with the sensor surface were also acquired. A software was developed in Matlab to perform the image capture and processing. Early results show the feasibility of using these devices to study the distribution 10B in tissue samples. (author)

  17. Circulating microRNAs as specific biomarkers for breast cancer detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enders K O Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed microRNAs (miRNAs in plasma are potential biomarkers for colorectal cancer detection. Here, we aimed to develop specific blood-based miRNA assay for breast cancer detection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TaqMan-based miRNA profiling was performed in tumor, adjacent non-tumor, corresponding plasma from breast cancer patients, and plasma from matched healthy controls. All putative markers identified were verified in a training set of breast cancer patients. Selected markers were validated in a case-control cohort of 170 breast cancer patients, 100 controls, and 95 other types of cancers and then blindly validated in an independent set of 70 breast cancer patients and 50 healthy controls. Profiling results showed 8 miRNAs were concordantly up-regulated and 1 miRNA was concordantly down-regulated in both plasma and tumor tissue of breast cancer patients. Of the 8 up-regulated miRNAs, only 3 were significantly elevated (p<0.0001 before surgery and reduced after surgery in the training set. Results from the validation cohort showed that a combination of miR-145 and miR-451 was the best biomarker (p<0.0001 in discriminating breast cancer from healthy controls and all other types of cancers. In the blind validation, these plasma markers yielded Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve area of 0.931. The positive predictive value was 88% and the negative predictive value was 92%. Altered levels of these miRNAs in plasma have been detected not only in advanced stages but also early stages of tumors. The positive predictive value for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS cases was 96%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that these circulating miRNAs could be a potential specific biomarker for breast cancer screening.

  18. Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer-a Defined Future Using Lessons From Other Cancers: A White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J; Chari, Suresh T; Maitra, Anirban; Srivastava, Sudhir; Cleeter, Deborah F; Go, Vay Liang W; Rothschild, Laura J; Goldberg, Ann E

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of effective early detection programs has significantly improved treatment, prognosis, and life expectancy in breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Early-detection methods need to be developed for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), where progress during the past decades has remained slow. Addressing this need, the forum "Early Detection: Lessons Learned from Other Cancers" was held in November 2015 and presented by the Kenner Family Research Fund in partnership with the American Pancreatic Association. Leading experts from breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers described the development of early detection methods in their respective fields. Emerging opportunities for scientific advancement were subsequently identified that hold the greatest promise for the future of early detection in PDAC, including a 4-part strategic map of necessary actionable items. Knowledge from other fields must be applied to achieve large-scale change within the arena of PDAC. A major breakthrough in early detection of PDAC will occur only through a definitive interdisciplinary collaborative effort involving a critical mass of committed academic research institutions, government agencies, industry leaders, and philanthropies. PMID:27518362

  19. A novel minimally invasive dual-modality fiber optic probe for prostate cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikrant

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in males, and is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in United States. In prostate cancer diagnostics and therapy, there is a critical need for a minimally invasive tool for in vivo evaluation of prostate tissue. Such a tool finds its niche in improving TRUS (trans-rectal ultrasound) guided biopsy procedure, surgical margin assessment during radical prostatectomy, and active surveillance of patients with a certain risk levels. This work is focused on development of a fiber-based dual-modality optical device (dMOD), to differentiate prostate cancer from benign tissue, in vivo. dMOD utilizes two independent optical techniques, LRS (light reflectance spectroscopy) and AFLS (auto-fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy). LRS quantifies scattering coefficient of the tissue, as well as concentrations of major tissue chromophores like hemoglobin derivatives, β-carotene and melanin. AFLS was designed to target lifetime signatures of multiple endogenous fluorophores like flavins, porphyrins and lipo-pigments. Each of these methods was independently developed, and the two modalities were integrated using a thin (1-mm outer diameter) fiber-optic probe. Resulting dMOD probe was implemented and evaluated on animal models of prostate cancer, as well as on human prostate tissue. Application of dMOD to human breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma) identification was also evaluated. The results obtained reveal that both LRS and AFLS are excellent techniques to discriminate prostate cancer tissue from surrounding benign tissue in animal models. Each technique independently is capable of providing near absolute (100%) accuracy for cancer detection, indicating that either of them could be used independently without the need of implementing them together. Also, in case of human breast cancer, LRS and AFLS provided comparable accuracies to dMOD, LRS accuracy (96%) being the highest for the studied population. However, the

  20. Sputum-Based Molecular Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer: Limitations and Promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Connie E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine. 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng; Rom, William N., E-mail: william.rom@nyumc.org [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine. 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2011-07-19

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, with an overall survival of 15% at five years. Biomarkers that can sensitively and specifically detect lung cancer at early stage are crucial for improving this poor survival rate. Sputum has been the target for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for lung cancer because it contains airway epithelial cells, and molecular alterations identified in sputum are most likely to reflect tumor-associated changes or field cancerization caused by smoking in the lung. Sputum-based molecular biomarkers include morphology, allelic imbalance, promoter hypermethylation, gene mutations and, recently, differential miRNA expression. To improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of sputum-based biomarkers, we recommend standardization of processing protocols, bronchial epithelial cell enrichment, and identification of field cancerization biomarkers.

  1. PSA velocity may not be of value in prostate cancer detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derrick Johnston; Martha K Tetris

    2011-01-01

    @@ Prostate cancer is the most prevalent nonskin cancer and is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States.It is estimated to affect millions of men worldwide and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality.1 The detection and treatment of prostate cancer has changed significantly since the discovery of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1970s and the development of the first PSA serum assay in the 1980s.PSA testing has been implemented as a tumor marker and as a screening instrument for prostate cancer.Much data have been generated regarding the properties and usefulness of PSA in both roles.PSA velocity (PSAV), or the rate of increase in serum PSA levels over time, has been discussed and studied for many years as an adjunct to PSA alone in predicting prostate cancer.

  2. Sputum-Based Molecular Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer: Limitations and Promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, with an overall survival of 15% at five years. Biomarkers that can sensitively and specifically detect lung cancer at early stage are crucial for improving this poor survival rate. Sputum has been the target for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for lung cancer because it contains airway epithelial cells, and molecular alterations identified in sputum are most likely to reflect tumor-associated changes or field cancerization caused by smoking in the lung. Sputum-based molecular biomarkers include morphology, allelic imbalance, promoter hypermethylation, gene mutations and, recently, differential miRNA expression. To improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of sputum-based biomarkers, we recommend standardization of processing protocols, bronchial epithelial cell enrichment, and identification of field cancerization biomarkers

  3. Evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer patients using real-time CT navigated ultrasonography: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dae Kwon; Choi, Yoon Jung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Kook, Shin Ho; Park, Hee Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of real-time neck computed tomography (CT)-guided ultrasonography (US) in detecting cervical neck lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We retrospectively reviewed data from 176 patients (mean age, 43 years; range, 23 to 74 years) with surgically confirmed PTC who underwent preoperative US, neck CT, and neck CTguided US. We then compared the sensitivities and diagnostic accuracies of each of the three above modalities in detecting cervical LNM. Preoperative US showed 17.3% sensitivity and 58.5% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM compared with 64.3% sensitivity and 89.2% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral neck LNM. Neck CT showed 23.5% sensitivity and 55.7% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM and 71.4% sensitivity with 90.9% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral neck LNM. CT-guided US exhibited 37.0% sensitivity and 63.1% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM compared with 92.9% sensitivity and 96.0% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral LNM. CT-guided US showed higher diagnostic accuracy with superior sensitivity in detecting central and lateral LNM than did US (P<0.001, P=0.011) and CT (P=0.026, P=0.063). Neck CT-guided US is a more accurate technique with higher sensitivity for detecting cervical LNM than either US or CT alone. Therefore, our data indicate that neck CT-guided US is an especially useful technique in preoperative examinations.

  4. Predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer using volumetric helical perfusion computed tomography: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether CT-derived vascular parameters in primary breast cancer predict complete pathological response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Twenty prospective patients with primary breast cancer due for NAC underwent volumetric helical perfusion CT to derive whole tumour regional blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and flow extraction product (FE) by deconvolution analysis. A pCR was achieved if no residual invasive cancer was detectable on pathological examination. Relationships between baseline BF, BV, FE, tumour size and volume, and pCR were examined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the parameter best able to predict response. Intra- and inter-observer variability was assessed using Bland-Altman statistics. Seventeen out of 20 patients completed NAC with four achieving a pCR. Baseline BF and FE were higher in patients who achieved a pCR compared with those who did not (P = 0.032); tumour size and volume were not significantly different (P > 0.05). ROC analysis revealed that BF and FE were able to identify responders effectively (AUC = 0.87; P = 0.03). There was good intra- and inter-observer agreement. Primary breast cancers which exhibited higher levels of perfusion before treatment were more likely to achieve a pCR to NAC. (orig.)

  5. Predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer using volumetric helical perfusion computed tomography: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Sonia P.; Makris, Andreas [Academic Oncology Unit, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Gogbashian, Andrew; Simcock, Ian C.; Stirling, J.J. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Goh, Vicky [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lambeth Wing, St Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, Kings College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate whether CT-derived vascular parameters in primary breast cancer predict complete pathological response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Twenty prospective patients with primary breast cancer due for NAC underwent volumetric helical perfusion CT to derive whole tumour regional blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and flow extraction product (FE) by deconvolution analysis. A pCR was achieved if no residual invasive cancer was detectable on pathological examination. Relationships between baseline BF, BV, FE, tumour size and volume, and pCR were examined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the parameter best able to predict response. Intra- and inter-observer variability was assessed using Bland-Altman statistics. Seventeen out of 20 patients completed NAC with four achieving a pCR. Baseline BF and FE were higher in patients who achieved a pCR compared with those who did not (P = 0.032); tumour size and volume were not significantly different (P > 0.05). ROC analysis revealed that BF and FE were able to identify responders effectively (AUC = 0.87; P = 0.03). There was good intra- and inter-observer agreement. Primary breast cancers which exhibited higher levels of perfusion before treatment were more likely to achieve a pCR to NAC. (orig.)

  6. Facilitative glucose transporters: Implications for cancer detection, prognosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Carly C; Bilan, Philip J; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Tsiani, Evangelia

    2016-02-01

    It is long recognized that cancer cells display increased glucose uptake and metabolism. In a rate-limiting step for glucose metabolism, the glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins facilitate glucose uptake across the plasma membrane. Fourteen members of the GLUT protein family have been identified in humans. This review describes the major characteristics of each member of the GLUT family and highlights evidence of abnormal expression in tumors and cancer cells. The regulation of GLUTs by key proliferation and pro-survival pathways including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), Ras, c-Myc and p53 pathways is discussed. The clinical utility of GLUT expression in cancer has been recognized and evidence regarding the use of GLUTs as prognostic or predictive biomarkers is presented. GLUTs represent attractive targets for cancer therapy and this review summarizes recent studies in which GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT5 and others are inhibited to decrease cancer growth. PMID:26773935

  7. Preliminary performance assessment of biotoxin detection for UWS applications using a MicroChemLab device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2010-03-01

    In a multiyear research agreement with Tenix Investments Pty. Ltd., Sandia has been developing field deployable technologies for detection of biotoxins in water supply systems. The unattended water sensor or UWS employs microfluidic chip based gel electrophoresis for monitoring biological analytes in a small integrated sensor platform. This instrument collects, prepares, and analyzes water samples in an automated manner. Sample analysis is done using the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} analysis module. This report uses analysis results of two datasets collected using the UWS to estimate performance of the device. The first dataset is made up of samples containing ricin at varying concentrations and is used for assessing instrument response and detection probability. The second dataset is comprised of analyses of water samples collected at a water utility which are used to assess the false positive probability. The analyses of the two sets are used to estimate the Receiver Operating Characteristic or ROC curves for the device at one set of operational and detection algorithm parameters. For these parameters and based on a statistical estimate, the ricin probability of detection is about 0.9 at a concentration of 5 nM for a false positive probability of 1 x 10{sup -6}.

  8. The value of detectable thyroglobulin in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after initial I-131 therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, D.; Plukker, J. T. M.; van der Horst-Schrivers, A. N. A.; Jansen, L.; Brouwers, A. H.; Muller-Kobold, A.; Sluiter, W. J.; Links, T. P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prognostic value of detectable thyroglobulin (Tg) after initial surgery and radioactive iodine (I-131) therapy by comparing patients with a negative post-therapeutic whole body scan (WBS) with either detectable or undetectable Tg. Background Differentiated thyroid cancer has

  9. Values of mutations of K-ras oncogene at codon 12 in detection of pancreatic cancer:15-year experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Qing Mu; You-Shu Peng; Qiao-Jian Xu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To summarize progress in the study of K-ras gene studies in pancreatic cancer and its potential clinical significance in screening test for early detection of pancreatic cancer, and to differentiate pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis in recent decade.METHODS: Literature search (MEDLINE 1986-2003) was performed using the key words K-ras gene, pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and diagnosis. Two kind of opposite points of view on the significance of K-ras gene in detection early pancreatic cancer and differentiation pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis were investigated.The presence of a K-ras gene mutation at codon 12 has been seen in 75-100% of pancreatic cancers, and is not rare in patients with chronic pancreatitis, and represents an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. However, the significance of the detection of this mutation in specimens obtained by needle aspiration from pure pancreatic juice and from stools for its utilization for the detection of early pancreatic cancer, and differentiation pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis remains controversial. CONCLUSION: The value of K-ras gene mutation for the detection of early pancreatic cancer and differentiation pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis remains uncertains in clinical pratice. Nevertheless, K-ras mutation screening may increase the sensitivity of FNA and ERP cytology and may be useful in identifying pancreatitis patients at high risk for developing cancer, and as a adjunct with cytology to differentiate pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis.

  10. Detecting falls with 3D range camera in ambient assisted living applications: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Diraco, Giovanni; Siciliano, Pietro

    2011-07-01

    In recent years several world-wide ambient assisted living (AAL) programs have been activated in order to improve the quality of life of older people, and to strengthen the industrial base through the use of information and communication technologies. An important issue is extending the time that older people can live in their home environment, by increasing their autonomy and helping them to carry out activities of daily living (ADLs). Research in the automatic detection of falls has received a lot of attention, with the object of enhancing safety, emergency response and independence of the elderly, at the same time comparing the social and economic costs related to fall accidents. In this work, an algorithmic framework to detect falls by using a 3D time-of-flight vision technology is presented. The proposed system presented complementary working requirements with respect to traditional worn and non-worn fall-detection devices. The vision system used a state-of-the-art 3D range camera for elderly movement measurement and detection of critical events, such as falls. The depth images provided by the active sensor allowed reliable segmentation and tracking of elderly movements, by using well-established imaging methods. Moreover, the range camera provided 3D metric information in all illumination conditions (even night vision), allowing the overcoming of some typical limitations of passive vision (shadows, camouflage, occlusions, brightness fluctuations, perspective ambiguity). A self-calibration algorithm guarantees different setup mountings of the range camera by non-technical users. A large dataset of simulated fall events and ADLs in real dwellings was collected and the proposed fall-detection system demonstrated high performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  11. The Danish version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale: preliminary validation in cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale (DMARS-4) adapted to measure adherence to analgesic regimen among cancer patients. METHODS: The validated English version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale was translated...... into Danish following the repeated back-translation procedure. Cancer patients for the study were recruited from specialized pain management facilities. Thirty-three patients responded to the DMARS-4, the Danish Barriers Questionnaire II, The Danish version of Patient Perceived Involvement in Care Scale...... measuring the quality of patient-physician pain communication, and the Danish Brief Pain Inventory pain severity scale. RESULTS: A factor analysis of the DMARS-4 resulted in one factor. Mean (SD) score on the cumulative scale ranging from 4 to 20, with higher scores indicating better medication adherence...

  12. 3D freehand ultrasound for medical assistance in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fabian; Fanti, Zian; Arambula Cosío, F.

    2013-11-01

    Image-guided interventions allow the physician to have a better planning and visualization of a procedure. 3D freehand ultrasound is a non-invasive and low-cost imaging tool that can be used to assist medical procedures. This tool can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. There are common medical practices that involve large needles to obtain an accurate diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. In this study we propose the use of 3D freehand ultrasound for planning and guiding such procedures as core needle biopsy and radiofrequency ablation. The proposed system will help the physician to identify the lesion area, using image-processing techniques in the 3D freehand ultrasound images, and guide the needle to this area using the information of position and orientation of the surgical tools. We think that this system can upgrade the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures.

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of computer-assisted breast cancer detection in mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate a system of computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) in mammography. Material and Methods: A sample of 120 sets of two-view mammograms was examined by an expert screener, a screening radiologist, a clinical radiologist, and a CAD system. The screening and clinical radiologists examined the mammograms twice, first without and then with the help of CAD. The sample consisted of first-round screening films from a two-round population-based screening, and comprised: 32 women in whom breast cancer was detected at the first screening; 10 with cancer detected during the screening interval; 32 with cancer detected at the second screening; and 46 with normal mammograms at both screenings. Results: The expert screener, the screening radiologist, the clinical radiologist, and the CAD system detected respectively 44, 41, 34 and 37 cancers. Their respective specificities were 80%, 83%, 100% and 22%. With the help of CAD, the screening radiologist detected 1 additional cancer and the clinical radiologist detected 3; their respective specificities were 80% and 100%. Conclusion: The sensitivity of the CAD system was satisfactory. The two radiologists helped by CAD achieved a modest increase in sensitivity with unaffected specificity. However, the CAD system by itself had a very low specificity and it needs improvement before it can be useful in mammographic screening. (orig.)

  14. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA and support vector machine (SVM was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  15. Statistical approach for detecting cancer lesions from prostate ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, A. G.; Premkumar, Saganti B.; Babaian, Richard J.; Pitts, David E.

    1993-07-01

    Sequential digitized cross-sectional ultrasound image planes of several prostates have been studied at the pixel level during the past year. The statistical distribution of gray scale values in terms of simple statistics, sample means and sample standard deviations, have been considered for estimating the differences between cross-sectional image planes of the gland due to the presence of cancer lesions. Based on a variability measure, the results for identifying the presence of cancer lesions in the peripheral zone of the gland for 25 blind test cases were found to be 64% accurate. This accuracy is higher than that obtained by visual photo interpretation of the image data, though not as high as our earlier results were indicating. Axial-view ultrasound image planes of prostate glands were obtained from the apex to the base of the gland at 2 mm intervals. Results for the 25 different prostate glands, which include pathologically confirmed benign and cancer cases, are presented.

  16. Call for a Computer-Aided Cancer Detection and Classification Research Initiative in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzal, Andri; Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in Oman. It is reported that cancer incidence in Oman is the second highest after Saudi Arabia among Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, Oman is predicted to face an almost two-fold increase in cancer incidence in the period 2008-2020. However, cancer research in Oman is still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that medical institutions and infrastructure that play central roles in data collection and analysis are relatively new developments in Oman. We believe the country requires an organized plan and efforts to promote local cancer research. In this paper, we discuss current research progress in cancer diagnosis using machine learning techniques to optimize computer aided cancer detection and classification (CAD). We specifically discuss CAD using two major medical data, i.e., medical imaging and microarray gene expression profiling, because medical imaging like mammography, MRI, and PET have been widely used in Oman for assisting radiologists in early cancer diagnosis and microarray data have been proven to be a reliable source for differential diagnosis. We also discuss future cancer research directions and benefits to Oman economy for entering the cancer research and treatment business as it is a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. PMID:27268600

  17. Cyberknife fractionated radiotherapy for adrenal metastases: Preliminary report from a multispecialty Indian cancer care center

    OpenAIRE

    Trinanjan Basu; Tejinder Kataria; Ashu Abhishek; Deepak Gupta; Shikha Goyal; Shyam S. Bisht; Karthick K Payaliappan; Vikraman Subhramani

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Metastasis to adrenal gland from lung, breast, and kidney malignancies are quite common. Historically radiotherapy was intended for pain palliation. Recent studies with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) including Cyberknife robotic radiosurgery aiming at disease control brings about encouraging results. Here we represent the early clinical experience with Cyberknife stereotactic system from an Indian cancer care center. The main purpose of this retrospective review is to serve as...

  18. A Preliminary Study of the Safety of Red Light Phototherapy of Tissues Harboring Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Stadler, Istvan; Brondon, Philip; Axe, David R.; Friedman, Mark; Nardia, Frances Barg; Lanzafame, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Red light phototherapy is known to stimulate cell proliferation in wound healing. This study investigated whether low-level light therapy (LLLT) would promote tumor growth when pre-existing malignancy is present. Background data: LLLT has been increasingly used for numerous conditions, but its use in cancer patients, including the treatment of lymphedema or various unrelated comorbidities, has been withheld by practitioners because of the fear that LLLT might result in initiation o...

  19. Risk factors for recurrence after conservative treatment in early breast cancer; Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate our experience in the breast-conserving treatment for early breast cancer with special regard to recurrence pattern and related risk factors. Two hundred and sixteen patients with AJC stage I and II beast cancer who received breast conserving treatment between January 1991 and December 1994 were evaluated. Age distribution ranged from 23-80 year old with a median age of 44. One hundred and seventeen patients had T1 lesions and 99 patients had T2 lesions. Axillary lymph nodes were involved in 73 patients. All patients received a breast conserving surgery (wide excision to quadrantectomy) and axillary node dissection followed by radiotherapy. Ninety six patients received chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy. During the follow-up period (3-60 months, median 30 months), local recurrence were noted in six patients (true; 3, elsewhere; 1, skin; 2). Sixteen patients developed distant metastases as the first sign of recurrence at 8-38 months (median 20 months) after surgery. Among them, three patients simultaneously developed local recurrence with distant metastases. Contralateral breast cancer developed in one patient and non-mammary cancers developed in three patients. The actuarial 5 year survival rate was 88.4% (stage I: 96.7%, stage IIa: 95.2%, stage IIb 69.9%). Age, T stage, number of involved axillary lymph nodes, and AJC stage were risk factors for distant metastases in univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the number of involved axillary lymph nodes was the most significant risk factor for metastases. Local recurrence was not common in the early years after radiotherapy. Distant metastases occurred at a steady rate during the first three years and was more common in the patients with larger tumors, higher number of involved axillary nodes, and younger age. (author)

  20. Preliminary Treatment Results of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kang-Hsing Fan; Yen-Chao Chen; Cheng-Keng Chuang; Min-Li Hsieh; Ji-Hong Hong

    2006-01-01

    Background: To review the initial treatment results of intensity-modulated radiotherapy(IMRT) for prostate cancer.Methods: Ninety-two patients treated with IMRT before July 2003 were included inthis study. The median follow-up was 32 months. The indications for IMRTincluded primary, adjuvant, and salvage treatment. Combined treatment withandrogen suppression therapy was variable. The primary study endpointswere chronic adverse events which were subjectively reported. Only patientswith an aden...

  1. Dual-energy perfusion-CT in recurrent pancreatic cancer. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual energy (DE) perfusion-CT for the differentiation between postoperative soft-tissue formation and tumor recurrence in patients after potentially curative pancreatic cancer resection. 24 patients with postoperative soft-tissue formation in the conventional regular follow-up CT acquisition after pancreatic cancer resection with curative intent were included prospectively. They were examined with a 64-row dual-source CT using a dynamic sequence of 34 DE acquisitions every 1.5 s (80 ml of iodinated contrast material, 370 mg/ml, flow rate 5 ml/s). Weighted average (linearly blended M0.5) 120 kVp-equivalent dual-energy perfusion image data sets were evaluated with a body-perfusion CT tool for estimating blood flow, permeability, and blood volume. Diagnosis was confirmed by histological study (n=4) and by regular follow-up. Final diagnosis was local recurrence of pancreatic cancer in 15 patients and unspecific postoperative tissue formation in 9 patients. The blood-flow values for recurrence tissue trended to be lower compared to postoperative tissue formation with 16.6 ml/100 ml/min and 24.7 ml/100 ml/min, respectively for weighted average 120 kVp-equivalent image data, which was not significant (n.s.) (p=0.06, significance level 0.05). Permeability- and blood-volume values were only slightly lower in recurrence tissue (n.s.). DE perfusion-CT is feasible in patients after pancreatic cancer resection and a promising functional imaging technique. As only a trend for lower perfusion values in local recurrence compared to unspecific postoperative alterations was found, the perfusion differences are not yet sufficient to differentiate between malignancy and unspecific postoperative alterations for this new technique. Further studies and technical improvements are needed to generate reliable data for this clinically highly relevant differentiation.

  2. Dual-energy perfusion-CT in recurrent pancreatic cancer. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, F.; Skornitzke, S.; Kauczor, H.U.; Stiller, W.; Klauss, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Hackert, T. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Surgery; Grenacher, L. [Diagnostik Muenchen (Germany). Diagnostic Imaging Center

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual energy (DE) perfusion-CT for the differentiation between postoperative soft-tissue formation and tumor recurrence in patients after potentially curative pancreatic cancer resection. 24 patients with postoperative soft-tissue formation in the conventional regular follow-up CT acquisition after pancreatic cancer resection with curative intent were included prospectively. They were examined with a 64-row dual-source CT using a dynamic sequence of 34 DE acquisitions every 1.5 s (80 ml of iodinated contrast material, 370 mg/ml, flow rate 5 ml/s). Weighted average (linearly blended M0.5) 120 kVp-equivalent dual-energy perfusion image data sets were evaluated with a body-perfusion CT tool for estimating blood flow, permeability, and blood volume. Diagnosis was confirmed by histological study (n=4) and by regular follow-up. Final diagnosis was local recurrence of pancreatic cancer in 15 patients and unspecific postoperative tissue formation in 9 patients. The blood-flow values for recurrence tissue trended to be lower compared to postoperative tissue formation with 16.6 ml/100 ml/min and 24.7 ml/100 ml/min, respectively for weighted average 120 kVp-equivalent image data, which was not significant (n.s.) (p=0.06, significance level 0.05). Permeability- and blood-volume values were only slightly lower in recurrence tissue (n.s.). DE perfusion-CT is feasible in patients after pancreatic cancer resection and a promising functional imaging technique. As only a trend for lower perfusion values in local recurrence compared to unspecific postoperative alterations was found, the perfusion differences are not yet sufficient to differentiate between malignancy and unspecific postoperative alterations for this new technique. Further studies and technical improvements are needed to generate reliable data for this clinically highly relevant differentiation.

  3. Risk factors for recurrence after conservative treatment in early breast cancer; Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, C. O.; Chung, E. J.; Lee, H. D.; Lee, K. S.; Oh, K. K.; Kim, G. E. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate our experience in the breast-conserving treatment for early breast cancer with special regard to recurrence pattern and related risk factors. Two hundred and sixteen patients with AJC stage I and II beast cancer who received breast conserving treatment between January 1991 and December 1994 were evaluated. Age distribution ranged from 23-80 year old with a median age of 44. One hundred and seventeen patients had T1 lesions and 99 patients had T2 lesions. Axillary lymph nodes were involved in 73 patients. All patients received a breast conserving surgery (wide excision to quadrantectomy) and axillary node dissection followed by radiotherapy. Ninety six patients received chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy. During the follow-up period (3-60 months, median 30 months), local recurrence were noted in six patients (true; 3, elsewhere; 1, skin; 2). Sixteen patients developed distant metastases as the first sign of recurrence at 8-38 months (median 20 months) after surgery. Among them, three patients simultaneously developed local recurrence with distant metastases. Contralateral breast cancer developed in one patient and non-mammary cancers developed in three patients. The actuarial 5 year survival rate was 88.4% (stage I: 96.7%, stage IIa: 95.2%, stage IIb 69.9%). Age, T stage, number of involved axillary lymph nodes, and AJC stage were risk factors for distant metastases in univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the number of involved axillary lymph nodes was the most significant risk factor for metastases. Local recurrence was not common in the early years after radiotherapy. Distant metastases occurred at a steady rate during the first three years and was more common in the patients with larger tumors, higher number of involved axillary nodes, and younger age. (author).

  4. Urinary Volatile Organic Compounds for the Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzeela Khalid

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate volatile organic compounds (VOCs emanating from urine samples to determine whether they can be used to classify samples into those from prostate cancer and non-cancer groups. Participants were men referred for a trans-rectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy because of an elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA level or abnormal findings on digital rectal examination. Urine samples were collected from patients with prostate cancer (n = 59 and cancer-free controls (n = 43, on the day of their biopsy, prior to their procedure. VOCs from the headspace of basified urine samples were extracted using solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Classifiers were developed using Random Forest (RF and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA classification techniques. PSA alone had an accuracy of 62-64% in these samples. A model based on 4 VOCs, 2,6-dimethyl-7-octen-2-ol, pentanal, 3-octanone, and 2-octanone, was marginally more accurate 63-65%. When combined, PSA level and these four VOCs had mean accuracies of 74% and 65%, using RF and LDA, respectively. With repeated double cross-validation, the mean accuracies fell to 71% and 65%, using RF and LDA, respectively. Results from VOC profiling of urine headspace are encouraging and suggest that there are other metabolomic avenues worth exploring which could help improve the stratification of men at risk of prostate cancer. This study also adds to our knowledge on the profile of compounds found in basified urine, from controls and cancer patients, which is useful information for future studies comparing the urine from patients with other disease states.

  5. The prevention, detection, and management of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Cuzick, Jack; Dixon, J Michael

    2006-03-01

    The reduction in the incidence of contralateral breast cancer in women treated with adjuvant tamoxifen provided a model for prevention using endocrine agents. Oestrogen-receptor-positive cancer can be prevented with tamoxifen, but side effects limit its clinical utility, and the risk-benefit ratio is not sufficiently high to routinely recommend tamoxifen as a preventive agent. Agents being evaluated in prevention trials include raloxifene and the aromatase inhibitors; these are expected to be at least as effective as tamoxifen and to have fewer side effects. Core needle biopsy (providing histological information) and high-resolution breast ultrasound enhance preoperative assessment of breast cancer. Mammography remains the only screening test shown to reduce breast cancer deaths in randomised trials. Magnetic resonance imaging may have a role in screening women with inherited mutations of the breast cancer genes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy accurately assesses lymph node status and is associated with less morbidity than axillary dissection. Where the biopsy is negative (no histologic evidence of metastases), no further axillary treatment is necessary. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy can produce good cosmetic results, especially where autologous tissue is used. Myocutaneous flaps using latissimus dorsi or transverse rectus abdominus muscles are increasingly popular. Adjuvant trastuzumab therapy in patients whose tumours overexpress HER2 (growth factor receptor) can reduce recurrence rates and improve survival. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (as an initial treatment before surgery) is an underutilised treatment in postmenopausal women with oestrogen-receptor-positive large operable or locally advanced cancers. It makes more patients suitable for surgery and offers others the choice of breast conservation. PMID:16515434

  6. Symptom report in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Fu; Axelrod D; Clel; CM; Qiu Z; Guth AA; Kleinman R; Scagliola J; Haber J

    2015-01-01

    Mei R Fu,1 Deborah Axelrod,2,3 Charles M Cleland,1 Zeyuan Qiu,4 Amber A Guth,2,3 Robin Kleinman,2 Joan Scagliola,2 Judith Haber1 1College of Nursing, New York University, 2Department of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine, 3NYU Clinical Cancer Center, New York, NY, 4Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA Abstract: Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a syndrome of abnormal swelling coupled with multiple symptoms resulting from obstru...

  7. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  8. The Relationship between Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use and Breast Cancer Early Detection: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Dale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use is prevalent. Concurrently, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with early detection techniques widely available. This paper examined the overlap between participation in allopathic breast cancer early detection activities and CAM use. Methods. A systematic review examined the association between breast screening behaviors and CAM use. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and NCCAM databases and gray literature between 1990 and 2011. STROBE criteria were used to assess study quality. Results. Nine studies met the search criteria. Four focused on CAM use in women at high breast cancer risk and five on average risk women. CAM use in women ranged from 22% to 82% and was high regardless of breast cancer risk. Correlations between CAM use and breast cancer early detection were not strong or consistent but significant relationships that did emerge were positive. Conclusions. Populations surveyed, and measures used to assess CAM, breast cancer screening, and correlates, varied widely. Many women who obtained allopathic screening also sought out CAM. This provides a foundation for future interventions and research to build on women’s motivation to enhance health and develop ways to increase the connections between CAM and allopathic care.

  9. Detection of Mycoplasma Hyorhinis Infection in Ovarian Cancer with in situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YANG; Jian-zhi ZHANG; Cheng-chao SHOU

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To detect Mycoplasma hyorhinis in ovarian cancer tissues and the relationship between mycoplasma infection and ovarian cancer. METHODS All specimens obtained from 109 cases with ovarian cancer were fixed in freshly prepared 10% neutral buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, and cut into 4-μm sections for insitu hybridization (ISH) and then detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expressions of 16S rRNA and P37 protein from mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected respectively using ISH and IHC. SPSS 13.0 so ware was employed to analyze the relationship between the results of the study and clinical pathological materials. RESULTS The expression rate of mycoplasma hyorhinis 16S rRNA gene and P37 protein was 20.2% (22/109) and 43.1% (47/109cases) in ovarian cancer tissues, respectively, but it was 0 (0/30cases) in the normal ovarian tissues. The difference in mycoplasma infection ratio between ovarian cancer tissues and normal tissues was extremely significant (P < 0.001). Anyhow, we didn't found any association between the mycoplasma infection and clinical pathological characters.CONCLUSION There was a mycoplasma infection in ovarian cancer tissues, which may play a role in oncogenesis of ovarian cancer.

  10. Fingerprint detection on counterfeit US dollar banknotes: the importance of preliminary paper examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoury, Myriam; Cohen, Drorit; Himberg, Kimmo; Qvintus-Leino, Pia; Saari, Terhi; Almog, Joseph

    2004-09-01

    Two seizures of counterfeit 100 US dollar bills related to the same indicative number were submitted for processing of latent fingerprints. On one group of notes, identifiable fingerprints could be detected by the routine application of amino acid reagents. In the second case, this technique gave no results, even on deliberately deposited prints. Fingerprints could be revealed, however, by cyanoacrylate fuming followed by magnetic powder. Comprehensive paper analysis showed that banknotes from both seizures differed remarkably by chemical composition as well as paper macroscopic properties. The difference in surface free energy (related to surface tension) of the banknotes in the two groups seemed to be the major factor responsible for the great variance in fingerprint detectability.

  11. Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many

  12. Preliminary detection of native lipase producing microorganisms for bio diesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase producing microorganisms (LPM) may catalyze the hydrolysis or transesterification of triacylglycerols to alkyl esters of fatty acids (bio diesel). The main objective of this work was to detect LPM in oil and grease contaminated environments for future applications in bio diesel production from rapeseed oil. Samples from contaminated soil (with rapeseed oil) from an industrial facility and contaminated soil (with salmon grease) near to a fish wastewater treatment plant were collected. (Author)

  13. Preliminary study for the detection of neutrons in heavy-ion collisions with charged particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Auditore L.; Pagano A.; Russotto P.

    2015-01-01

    At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) the CHIMERA 4π multidetector has been designed and setup to detect charged particles emitted in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. Properties and performances of CHIMERA have been widely demonstrated by published results obtained in the performed experiments. Moreover, in recent years, a new charged particle detector (ChPD) for correlation studies (FARCOS) has been designed, and recently a first prototype has been coupled to CHIMERA, in order ...

  14. A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenova, Rumiana; Tomova, Iskra; Saparevska, Raina; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country.

  15. Preliminary detection of native lipase producing microorganisms for bio diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciudad, G.; Jorquera, M.; Briones, R.; Azocar, L.; Leal, J.; Navia, R.

    2009-07-01

    Lipase producing microorganisms (LPM) may catalyze the hydrolysis or transesterification of triacylglycerols to alkyl esters of fatty acids (bio diesel). The main objective of this work was to detect LPM in oil and grease contaminated environments for future applications in bio diesel production from rapeseed oil. Samples from contaminated soil (with rapeseed oil) from an industrial facility and contaminated soil (with salmon grease) near to a fish wastewater treatment plant were collected. (Author)

  16. Preliminary studies on the detection of irradiated prawns using 2-alkylcyclobutanones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionising radiation for the preservation of food has been under investigation for many years but has yet to receive worldwide acceptance. Although irradiation can be carefully controlled, it is generally accepted that the development of a test or tests for the detection of irradiated food would enhance consumer confidence and might help to enforce labelling regulations. The 2-alkylcyclobutanones are reported to be the only cyclic compounds formed as the products of the radiolysis of saturated and unsaturated triglycerides. The synthesis of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (TCB), which are formed from palmitic and stearic acid respectively following irradiation, has been carried out and using irradiated chicken meat as the model for a high-lipid containing food, both cyclobutanones have been extracted with hexane and then identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). DCB and TCB have been detected in chicken meat irradiated at doses well below 10 kGy and were not detectable in non-irradiated chicken. Systematic studies have been undertaken to confirm the specificity of these compounds as markers for irradiation treatment. The presence of both DCB and TCB in other irradiated meats and irradiated liquid whole egg has also been confirmed. (author)

  17. NIR fluorophore-hollow gold nanosphere complex for cancer enzyme-triggered detection and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianting; Wheeler, Damon; Zhang, Jin Z; Achilefu, Samuel; Kang, Kyung A

    2013-01-01

    Hollow gold nanospheres (HGN) may be delicately tuned to absorb near infrared light (NIR) by tailoring the diameter-to-shell ratio. This unique property can be utilized for enhancing the contrast for the NIR and X-ray/CT imaging, and also noninvasive and local, photothermal hyperthermia by conjugating cancer-targeting molecules on the particle surface. In addition, when an NIR fluorophore is placed on the surface of the NIR-tuned HGNs, the fluorescence can be significantly quenched due to the emitted light absorption by the HGNs. Combining the NIR fluorescence quenching property of HGNs and the enzyme secreting nature of cancer, we have developed a novel enzyme-triggered NIR contrast agent for cancer detection with high specificity. NIR fluorophore Cypate (Indocyanine Green based) was conjugated to HGN via a short spacer for fluorescence quenching. The spacer contains an enzyme-substrate-motif (G-G-R) that can be cleaved by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, a breast cancer enzyme). The nano-complex normally does not emit fluorescence but, in the presence of uPA, the fluorescence was restored, providing high specificity. The enzyme-specific emission allows us to characterize the nature of the cancer (e.g., invasive, metastatic, etc.). Once the cancer is detected, the same HGNs can be used to deliver heat to the cancer site for cancer-specific hyperthermia. PMID:22879051

  18. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler RE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Racquel E Kohler,1 Clara N Lee,2 Satish Gopal,3 Bryce B Reeve,1 Bryan J Weiner,1 Stephanie B Wheeler11Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, MalawiBackground: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment.Objective: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare.Methods: We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs.Results: Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes

  19. Detecting Temporal and Spatial Effects of Epithelial Cancers with Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Keller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cancers, including those of the skin and cervix, are the most common type of cancers in humans. Many recent studies have attempted to use Raman spectroscopy to diagnose these cancers. In this paper, Raman spectral markers related to the temporal and spatial effects of cervical and skin cancers are examined through four separate but related studies. Results from a clinical cervix study show that previous disease has a significant effect on the Raman signatures of the cervix, which allow for near 100% classification for discriminating previous disease versus a true normal. A Raman microspectroscopy study showed that Raman can detect changes due to adjacent regions of dysplasia or HPV that cannot be detected histologically, while a clinical skin study showed that Raman spectra may be detecting malignancy associated changes in tissues surrounding nonmelanoma skin cancers. Finally, results of an organotypic raft culture study provided support for both the skin and the in vitro cervix results. These studies add to the growing body of evidence that optical spectroscopy, in this case Raman spectral markers, can be used to detect subtle temporal and spatial effects in tissue near cancerous sites that go otherwise undetected by conventional histology.

  20. Detection and Diagnosis of Small Peripheral Lung Cancers Less than 15mm in Diameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuchengHan; YueYuan; JianguoChu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the value of chest X-ray film, conventional CT (CCT), Spiral CT (SCT) and high resolution CT (HRCT) for detection and diagnosis of small peripheral lung cancers less than 15 mm in diameter. METHODS Chest X-ray film, CCT, SCT and HRCT were taken in 59 cases of peripheral lung cancers less than 15 mm in diameter confirmed by pathological examination following an operation. The value of these procedures for diagnosis was analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS In 47% of chest X-ray films and 17% of CCT, small lung cancers were not detected. However no tumor escaped detection by SCT. HRCT was superior for showing density and detailed image signs compared to chest films and CCT. The HRCT features of small peripheral lung cancers were quite different from those of larger peripheral lung cancers. CONCLUSION The SCT is the best method for detection, and HRCT for diagnosis of small peripheral lung cancers less than 15 mm in diameter. CT guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy should be advocated.

  1. Noninvasive Detection of TMPRSS2:ERG Fusion Transcripts in the Urine of Men with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Laxman

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported the identification of recurrent gene fusions in the majority of prostate cancers involving the 5V untranslated region of the androgenregulated gene TMPRSS2, the ETS family members ERG, ETV1, ETV4. Here we report the noninvasive detection of these gene fusions in the urine of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. By quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we assessed the expression of ERG, TMPRSS2:ERG transcripts in urine samples obtained after prostatic massage from 19 patients (11 prebiopsy, 8 pre-radical prostatectomy with prostate cancer. We observed a strong concordance between ERG overexpression, TMPRSS2:ERG expression, with 8 of 19 (42% patients having detectable TMPRSS2:ERG transcripts in their urine. Importantly, by fluorescence in situ hybridization, we confirmed the presence or the absence of TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions in matched prostate cancer tissue samples from three of three patients with fusion transcripts in their urine, from two of two patients without fusion transcripts in their urine. These results demonstrate that TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions can be detected in the urine of patients with prostate cancer, support larger studies on prospective cohorts for noninvasive detection of prostate cancer.

  2. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L. [Department of Radiology, MC2026, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V{sup ®} ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  3. Detection methods predict differences in biology and survival in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to measure the biological characteristics involved in tumorigenesis and the progression of breast cancer in symptomatic and screen-detected carcinomas to identify possible differences. For this purpose, we evaluated clinical-pathological parameters and proliferative and apoptotic activities in a series of 130 symptomatic and 161 screen-detected tumors. After adjustment for the smaller size of the screen-detected carcinomas compared with symptomatic cancers, those detected in the screening program presented longer disease-free survival (RR = 0.43, CI = 0.19-0.96) and had high estrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations more often than did symptomatic cancers (OR = 3.38, CI = 1.72-6.63 and OR = 3.44, CI = 1.94-6.10, respectively). Furthermore, the expression of bcl-2, a marker of good prognosis in breast cancer, was higher and HER2/neu expression was lower in screen-detected cancers than in symptomatic cancers (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.01-3.23 and OR = 0.64, CI = 0.40-0.98, respectively). However, when comparing prevalent vs incident screen-detected carcinomas, prevalent tumors were larger (OR = 2.84, CI = 1.05-7.69), were less likely to be HER2/neu positive (OR = 0.22, CI = 0.08-0.61) and presented lower Ki67 expression (OR = 0.36, CI = 0.17-0.77). In addition, incident tumors presented a shorter survival time than did prevalent ones (RR = 4.88, CI = 1.12-21.19). Incident carcinomas include a variety of screen-detected carcinomas that exhibit differences in biology and prognosis relative to prevalent carcinomas. The detection method is important and should be taken into account when making therapy decisions

  4. Aberrant p16 promoter hypermethylation in bronchial mucosae as a biomarker for the early detection of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-shun; HOU Ai-rong; LI Long-yun; GAO Yan-ning; CHENG Shu-jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in the world and its mortality could be greatly reduced by diagnosis and treatment in its early stages. Effective tools for the early detection of lung cancer and its high risk factors remain a major challenge. Biomarkers that detect lung cancer in its early stages or identify its pretumour lesions,enabling early therapeutic intervention, would be invaluable to improve its dismal prognosis.

  5. Cervical cancer, quality issues in early detection and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that cervical cancer incidence will reduce in The Netherlands over the next decades, as a result of hrHPV vaccination and hrHPV-based screening. Untill then, quality of care could need some improvements as suggested by the work described in this thesis. Novel tools are being indicated

  6. Detection of occult cancer in patients with idiopathic venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Marianne Ingerslev; Knudsen, Søren Tang; Andersen, Birthe Søgaard;

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic venous thrombosis (VTE) is frequently associated with underlying malignancy. Thus, it is tempting to search for underlying cancer in these patients. However, extensive screening is cost-intensive and no survival benefit has been demonstrated. Based on a review of the literature, we...

  7. Identification of candidate epigenetic biomarkers for ovarian cancer detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yi-Wen; Jansen, Rachel A.; Fabbri, Enrica; Potter, Dustin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Chan, Michael W. Y.; Liu, Joseph C.; Crijns, Anne P. G.; Brown, Robert; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Van Der Zee, Ate G. J.; Cohn, David E.; Yan, Pearlly S.; Huang, Tim H. -M.; Lin, Huey-Jen L.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer ranks the most lethal among gynecologic neoplasms in women. To develop potential biomarkers for diagnosis, we have identified five novel genes (CYP39A1, GTF2A1, FOXD4L4, EBP, and HAAO) that are hypermethylated in ovarian tumors, compared with the non-malignant normal ovarian surface e

  8. Preliminary Scientific Results of Chang'E-1 Lunar Orbiter: Based on Payloads Detection Data in the First Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ziyuan; YANG Jianfeng; ZHANG Wenxi; WANG Jianyu; MOU Lingli; CHANG Jin; ZHANG Liyan; WANG Huanyu; LI Yongquan; ZHANG Xiaohui; ZHENG Yongchun; JIANG Jingshan; WANG Shijin; BIAN Wei; LI Chunlai; SUN Huixian; ZOU Yongliao; LIU Jianzhong; LIU Jianjun; ZHAO Baochang; REN Xin

    2008-01-01

    Chang'E-1 lunar Orbiter was launched by Long March 3A rocket from Xichang Satellite Launch Center at 18:05 BT (Beijing Time) Oct. 24, 2007. It is the first step of its ambitious three-stage moon program, a new milestone in the Chinese space exploration history. The primary science objectives of Chang'E-1 lunar orbiter are to obtain three-Dimension (3D) stereo images of the lunar surface, to analyze the distribution and abundance of elements on the surface, to investigate the thickness of lunar soil, evaluate helium-3 resources and other characteristics, and to detect the space environment around the moon. To achieve the above four mission objectives, eight sets of scientific instruments are chosen as the payloads of the lunar orbiter, including a CCD stereo camera (CCD), a Sagnac-based interferometer spectrometer (IIM), a Laser Altimeter (LAM), a Microwave Radiometer (MRM), a Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS), an X-ray spectrometer (XRS), a High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD), and two Solar Wind Ion Detectors (SWID). The detected data of the payloads show that all payloads work well. This paper introduces the status of payloads in the first phase and preliminary scientific results.

  9. [Early detection and prevention of cancers in various therapeutic areas. Discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, H; Tsuruo, T; Tsukamoto, T; Noguchi, S; Moriwaki, H; Isonishi, S; Masuda, N; Hinotsu, S; Nash, A F; von Euler, M; Wildin, J; Stribling, D

    1999-10-01

    As illustrated by prostate cancer screening provides an opportunity for early intervention and treatment. However the screening test needs to detect patients with cancer with a low rate of false positives and at a stage which can be treated. Recently the concept of treating patients at high risk of developing breast cancer or suffering a recurrence has been highlighted by the western studies with Nolvadex (tamoxifen). Thus roundtable discussion (held in Tokyo) discussed the different strategies in Japan compared to US & Europe for screening & early intervention/prevention of cancer for breast, prostate, bladder, liver, lung, gynaecological & GI cancers. The range of strategies for cancer screening, how it is funded, whether it is appropriately targeted and whether there is any evidence for a beneficial effect on morbidity or mortality & future prospects for improved sensitivity through new methodology or markers were discussed. Although the relative rates of cancer vary between Japan & the West, the same factors seem to influence cancer development & the data on intervention were seen to be valid. The changing patterns of cancer in Japan suggest a clear opportunity for reducing, the incidence of cancer through lifestyle modification. For some cancers, e.g. cervical & bladder where there is a clear link between abnormal cytology & development cancer true prevention is already practiced. In other cases, preventive treatment is limited by the efficacy of available therapies. As far as drug treatment is concerned, funding of healthcare in Japan does not recognise the concept of prevention although there is, in practice, no barrier to the use of interventions where there is a clear link between biochemical/histological markers & development of cancer.

  10. Multianalyte Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer: Speedbumps and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tainsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become very clear that a single molecular event is inadequate to accurately predict the biology (or pathophysiology of cancer. Furthermore, using any single molecular event as a biomarker for the early detection of malignancy may not comprehensively identify the majority of individuals with that disease. Therefore, the fact that technologies have arisen that can simultaneously detect several, possibly hundreds, of biomarkers has propelled the field towards the development of multianalyte-based in vitro diagnostic early detection tests for cancer using body fl uids such as serum, plasma, sputum, saliva, or urine. These multianalyte tests may be based on the detection of serum autoantibodies to tumor antigens, the presence of cancer-related proteins in serum, or the presence of tumor-specific genomic changes that appear in plasma as free DNA. The implementation of non-invasive diagnostic approaches to detect early stage cancer may provide the physician with evidence of cancer, but the question arises as to how the information will affect the pathway of clinical intervention. The confirmation of a positive result from an in vitro diagnostic cancer test may involve relatively invasive procedures to establish a true cancer diagnosis. If in vitro diagnostic tests are proven to be both specific, i.e. rarely produce false positive results due to unrelated conditions, and sufficiently sensitive, i.e. rarely produce false negative results, then such screening tests offer the potential for early detection and personalized therapeutics using multiple disease-related targets with convenient and non-invasive means. Here we discuss the technical and regulatory barriers inherent in development of clinical multianalyte biomarker assays.

  11. Carotid sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy on early glottic cancer: Preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hoon Sik; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Jeong, Ho Jin; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Woo, Seung Hoon; Kang, Ki Mun [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To compare the dose distribution between carotid sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and opposed lateral field technique (LAFT), and to determine the effects of carotid sparing IMRT in early glottic cancer patients who have risk factors for atherosclerosis. Ten early glottic cancer patients were treated with carotid sparing IMRT. For each patient, the conventional LAFT plan was developed for comparison. IMRT and LAFT plans were compared in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage, conformity index, homogeneity index, and the doses to planning organ at risk volume (PRV) for carotid arteries, spinal cord and pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Recurrence was not observed in any patients during the follow-up period. V95% for PTV showed no significant difference between IMRT and LAFT plans, while V100% was significantly higher in the IMRT plan (95.5% vs. 94.6%, p = 0.005). The homogeneity index (11.6%) and conformity index (1.4) in the IMRT plan were significantly better than those in the LAFT plans (8.5% and 5.1, respectively) (p = 0.005). The median V5Gy (90.0%), V25Gy (13.5%), and V50Gy (0%) for carotid artery PRV in the IMRT plan were significantly lower than those in the LAFT plan (99.1%, 89.0%, and 77.3%, respectively) (p = 0.005). Our study suggests that carotid sparing IMRT can significantly decrease the dose to carotid arteries compared to LAFT, and it would be considered for early glottic cancer patient with high risk of atherosclerosis.

  12. Development and preliminary validation of an Observation List for detecting mental disorders and social Problems in the elderly in primary and home care (OLP)

    OpenAIRE

    Tak, E.C.P.M.; Hespen, A.T.H. van; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Eekhof, J.; Hopman-Rock, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Even though the prevalence of mental disorders and social problems is high among elderly patients, it is difficult to detect these in a primary (home) care setting. Goal was the development and preliminary validation of a short observation list to detect six problem areas: anxiety, depression, cognition, suspicion, loneliness, and somatisation. Methods: A draft list of indicators identified from a short review of the literature and the opinions of 22 experts was evaluated by genera...

  13. Preliminary Analysis of Difficulty of Importing Pattern-Based Concepts into the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Geller, James

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of biomedical ontologies is difficult. We have developed a pattern-based method for dealing with the problem of identifying missing concepts in the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt). Specifically, we are mining patterns connecting NCIt concepts with concepts in other ontologies to identify candidate missing concepts. However, the final decision about a concept insertion is always up to a human ontology curator. In this paper, we are estimating the difficulty of this task for a domain expert by counting possible choices for a pattern-based insertion. We conclude that even with support of our mining algorithm, the insertion task is challenging.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Difficulty of Importing Pattern-Based Concepts into the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Geller, James

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of biomedical ontologies is difficult. We have developed a pattern-based method for dealing with the problem of identifying missing concepts in the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt). Specifically, we are mining patterns connecting NCIt concepts with concepts in other ontologies to identify candidate missing concepts. However, the final decision about a concept insertion is always up to a human ontology curator. In this paper, we are estimating the difficulty of this task for a domain expert by counting possible choices for a pattern-based insertion. We conclude that even with support of our mining algorithm, the insertion task is challenging. PMID:27577410

  15. Detection of simulated microcalcifications in digital mammography: effects of quantum and anatomic noises: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; You, Zhicheng; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Chen, Lingyun; Han, Tao; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Geiser, William R.; Flores, David; Whitman, Gary J.; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2010-04-01

    To study the effects of overlapping anatomy on microcalcification detection at various incident exposure levels. Images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom (RMI 169) overlapping with simulated microcalcifications ranging from 150 to 212 μm in size placed in two breast density regions, fatty and heterogeneously dense, were acquired with an a-Si/a-Se flat panel based digital mammography system (Selenia) operated with Mo-Mo target/filter combination at 28 kVp. The mammograms were exposed with 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 120, 160, 240 and 325 mAs for varying the exposure level. A 4-AFC study was performed for evaluation of the detection performance. Four 400×400-pixel images were displayed as 2×2 array on a LCD flat panel based review workstation. One of the four images contained a cluster of five microcalcifications and was randomly placed in one of the four quadrants. A physicist was asked to select the image containing the microcalcifications and to report the number of visible microcalcifications. The fraction of correct responses was computed with two different criteria: (1) the selected images contained one or more microcalcifications, and (2) the selected images contained 4 or 5 visible microcalcifications. The statistical significance of the differences in fractions for different exposure levels and regions was evaluated. The results showed that, if visibility of one or more microcalcifications is required, the fractions of correct responses were 1 for all size groups and most exposure levels in both fatty and heterogeneously dense regions. If a visibility of 80% or more of the microcalcifications was required, the fractions of correct responses significantly decreased in both regions. The results indicated that microcalcification detection in the fatty region appeared to be mainly limited by the quantum noise, and that in the heterogeneously dense region may be limited by both the anatomic noise and the quantum noise.

  16. Health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours in women who applied to cancer early detection center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Serpil Talas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting women in Turkey. The early detection methods for breast cancer have been associated with health belief variables. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine women's health beliefs related to breast cancer screening behaviours. Methods: This study was designed as descriptive and cross-sectional survey and was performed on 344 women who applied the Nigde Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening and Education Center between May and October 2009. The data were collected using a questionnaire which consists of socio-demographic characteristics and breast cancer risk factors and Health Belief Model Scale. Data analysis was performed using frequency and Mann-Whitney U Test. All values of p0.05. According to study results, the rate of regular BSE performance rate for women was found low. Therefore, KETEM was planned to the training programs related to breast cancer screening methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 265-271

  17. Preventing cervical cancer : overviews of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and 2 US immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kris; Curtis, C Robinette; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Stokley, Shannon; Walker, Chastity; Roland, Katherine; Benard, Vicki; Saraiya, Mona

    2008-11-15

    Three federal programs with the potential to reduce cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, especially among underserved populations, are administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program, and the Section 317 immunization grant program. The NBCCEDP provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to uninsured and underinsured women. The VFC program and the Section 317 immunization grant program provide vaccines, including human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, to targeted populations at no cost for these vaccines. This article describes the programs, their histories, populations served, services offered, and roles in preventing cervical cancer through HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Potential long-term reduction in healthcare costs resulting from HPV vaccination is also discussed. As an example of an initiative to vaccinate uninsured women aged 19-26 years through a cancer services program, a state-based effort that was recently launched in New York, is highlighted.

  18. Fifty years of tobacco carcinogenesis research: from mechanisms to early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Szabo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1964 Surgeon General's Report initiated definitive and comprehensive research on the identification of carcinogens in tobacco products and the relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. This mechanistic understanding has provided a framework for the regulation of tobacco products and for the development of relevant tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers that can be applied in cancer prevention. Simultaneously, the recognition of the link between smoking and lung cancer paved the way for two additional critical approaches to cancer prevention that are discussed here: detection of lung cancer at an early, curable stage, and chemoprevention of lung cancer. Recent successes in more precisely identifying at-risk populations and in decreasing lung cancer mortality with helical computed tomography screening are notable, and progress in chemoprevention continues, although challenges with respect to bringing these approaches to the general population exist. Collectively, research performed since the 1964 Report demonstrates unequivocally that the majority of deaths from lung cancer are preventable.

  19. Preliminary experiment of fluorescent X-ray computed tomography to detect dual agents for biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Takeda, T; Yuasa, T; Hasegawa, Y; Wu, J; Thet-Thet-Lwin; Hyodo, K; Dilmanian, F A; Itai, Y; Akatsuka, T

    2001-05-01

    The simultaneous observation of various information, such as blood flow, tissue metabolism and distribution of receptors, is quite important in order to understand the functional state of biomedical objects. The simultaneous detectability of contrast agents by fluorescent X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) with synchrotron radiation is examined in this study. The system consisted of a silicon (111) double-crystal monochromator, an X-ray slit system, a scanning table, a PIN diode, a highly purified germanium detector and an X-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The monochromatic X-ray beam energy was adjusted to 37.0 keV and collimated into a pencil beam of 1 x 1 mm. The fluorescent spectra of the K alpha lines for iodine and xenon were detected simultaneously. FXCT could image the distribution of both iodine and xenon agents in a phantom clearly and the contrast ratio was significantly better than that of transmission X-ray computed tomography images. PMID:11486409

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nest Usage Sensor to Detect Double Nest Occupations of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens’ welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage “sensor”, based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  1. Aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormality utilizing SPECT atlas and images registration: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padua, Rodrigo Donizete Santana de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Cardiologia]. E-mail: rodrigo_dsp@hcrp.fmrp.usp.br; Oliveira, Lucas Ferrari de [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica. Dept. de Tecnologia da Informacao; Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Groote, Jean-Jacques Georges Soares de [Instituto de Ensino Superior COC, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Lab. of Artifical Intelligence and Applications; Castro, Adelson Antonio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Ana, Lauro Wichert [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Divisao de Cardiologia

    2008-11-15

    To develop an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and evaluating its applicability in computer-aided detection of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with ischemic heart disease. The atlas was created with rest-stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic images of 20 patients of both genders with low probability of coronary artery disease and considered as normal by two experienced observers. Techniques of image registration and mathematical operations on images were utilized for obtaining template images depicting mean myocardial uptake and standard deviation for each gender and physiological condition. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images of one male and one female patient were aligned with the corresponding atlas template image, and voxels with myocardial uptake rates two standard deviations below the mean voxel value of the respective region in the atlas template image were highlighted on the tomographic sections and confirmed as perfusion defects by both observe. The present study demonstrated the creation of an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with promising results of this tool as an aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. However, further prospective validation with a more representative sample is recommended. (author)

  2. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices. PMID:25629704

  3. COMPARISONOF FACTORS AFFECTING THE DETECTION OF SMALL IMPURITIES IN BREAST CANCER USING EIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIDYA SARODE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. It is very essential to detect breast cancer at an early stage so as to cure it efficiently. This paper mainly focuses on detecting impurities of small dimensions in circular plastic phantom which relate small tumors in breast. Benign cancertumor is analogous to non conducting impurity while malignant tumor is analogous to conducting impurity. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT based conductivity images are obtained for both conducting as well as non conducting impurities using Electrical Impedance and Diffused Optical Reconstruction Software (EIDORS. Different factors affecting the shape and size of reconstructed impurity like frequency of current source, type of forward model, material of electrodes, are discussed and compared.

  4. [Preoperative concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy in cervix cancer: preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochbati, Lotfi; Ben Ammar, Chiraz Nasr; Benna, Farouk; Hechiche, Monia; Boussen, Hamouda; Besbes, Mounir; Ben Abdallah, Mansour; Rahal, Khaled; Ben Ayed, Farhat; Ben Romdhane, Khaked; Maalej, Mongi

    2005-03-01

    This is a retrospective study of patients treated for cervix cancer staged IB2, IIA or IIB with bulky tumor (> 4cm). Treatment was concurrent radiotherapy (45Gy with 1,8Gy daily fraction) and chemotherapy (5 cycles of Platinum 40mg/m2/week). All patients underwent Brachytherapy (15Gy on the reference isodose according to Paris system) followed by surgery (radical abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy: Piver 3) Between October 1999 and December 2002, forty five patients were treated in this protocol. Median age was 46 years (21- 68). Histology was squamous cell carcinoma in 93% and glandular carcinoma in 7%. Average external radiation dose was 44Gy (20-50). Ninety three percent of patients had at least 3 cycles of chemotherapy and 46,5% received the planned 5 cycles. On the operative specimens, there was 62,5% complete response and only 7 pelvic node involvement (17,5%). Four postoperative complications were noted (one vascular injury, one urinary fistula, one phlebitis and one lymph collection). Preoperative combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the early bulky stages of uterine cervix cancer is well tolerated and "gives" a high rate of sterilisation. There was no increase in surgical morbidity.

  5. Detection of Germline Mutation in Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancers by Next-Generation Sequencing on a Four-Gene Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Au, Chun H; Law, Fian B F; Ho, Dona N; Ip, Bui K; Wong, Anthony T C; Lau, Silvia S; To, Rene M Y; Choy, Gigi; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Chan, Tsun L

    2016-07-01

    Mutation in BRCA1/BRCA2 genes accounts for 20% of familial breast cancers, 5% to 10% of which may be due to other less penetrant genes which are still incompletely studied. Herein, a four-gene panel was used to examine the prevalence of BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and PTEN in hereditary breast and ovarian cancers in Southern Chinese population. In this cohort, 948 high-risk breast and/or ovarian patients were recruited for genetic screening by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The performance of our NGS pipeline was evaluated with 80 Sanger-validated known mutations and eight negative cases. With appropriate bioinformatics analysis pipeline, the detection sensitivity of NGS is comparable with Sanger sequencing. The prevalence of BRCA1/BRCA2 germline mutations was 9.4% in our Chinese cohort, of which 48.8% of the mutations arose from hotspot mutations. With the use of a tailor-made algorithm, HomopolymerQZ, more mutations were detected compared with single mutation detection algorithm. The frequencies of PTEN and TP53 were 0.21% and 0.53%, respectively, in the Southern Chinese patients with breast and/or ovarian cancers. High-throughput NGS approach allows the incorporation of control cohort that provides an ethnicity-specific data for polymorphic variants. Our data suggest that hotspot mutations screening such as SNaPshot could be an effective preliminary screening alternative adopted in a standard clinical laboratory without NGS setup. PMID:27157322

  6. Investigation of undesired errors relating to the planar array system of electrical impedance mammography for breast cancer detection

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal, Rabia

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer in women continues to be one of the leading causes of death in the world. Since the exact causes are not completely known, the most important approach is to reduce this mortality by early detection and treatment. Although the current detection techniques for breast cancer such as X-ray mammography provide useful information for diagnosis; development of a new imaging technique using non-ionising radiation is highly desirable in order to detect breast cancer at an ...

  7. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  8. Noninvasive fluorescence-based instrumentation for cancer and precancer detection and screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Robert R.; Katz, Alvin

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we review our research in the use of UV and visible native fluorescence emission and excitation spectroscopy for the detection of cancer and precancer. We discuss some of the spectroscopic signatures indicative of the presence of cancer and precancer. We describe three generations of instruments being developed to extent optical biopsy technology into the clinical environment as both a screening tool and as a diagnostic aide suitable for gynecological, gastro-intestinal tract, oral cavity, brain and breast.

  9. Anti-p21 autoantibodies detected in colorectal cancer patients: A proof of concept study

    OpenAIRE

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Gach, Johannes S.; Akagi, Naomi; Webber, Molly K; Bauer, Jessica; Jung, Barbara H.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the presence of autoantibodies in cancer patients has been acknowledged, their diagnostic or therapeutic significance has yet to be established. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of robust screening techniques to detect and characterize such antibodies for further assessment. In this study, we screened colorectal cancer (CRC) patient sera for antibodies specifically targeting the key cell cycle inhibitory factor p21 encoded by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A)...

  10. Detection of cancer cells using a peptide nanotube–folic acid modified graphene electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Rozlosnik, Noemi;

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preparation of a graphene electrode modified with a new conjugate of peptide nanotubes and folic acid for the selective detection of human cervical cancer cells over-expressing folate receptors. The functionalization of peptide nanotubes with folic acid was confirmed by....... The modified electrode described here opens up new possibilities for future applications in early stage diagnoses of diseases where cells over-express folate receptors, such as in cancer or leishmaniasis disease....

  11. Second-look ultrasonography for MRI-detected suspicious breast lesions in patients with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Min Ji Hong; Joo Hee Cha; Hak Hee Kim; Hee Jung Shin; Eun Young Chae; Ji Eun Shin; Woo Jung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of second-look ultrasonography (US) for investigating additional suspicious lesions detected on preoperative staging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer. Methods: Between September 2008 and August 2010, 1,970 breast MRIs were performed at our medical institution for the evaluation of breast cancer before surgery. Second-look US was recommended for 135 patients with 149 suspicious lesions, following the MRI interpretation...

  12. Early Cancer Detection and Targeted Therapy by Magnetic Resonance Molecular Imaging and Nano Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The common theme of my 5-year PhD research is to channel progress in spin physics and nano-bio-materials into meaningful improvements in the theoretical studies, methodological developments, and advanced applications of magnetic resonance (MR) to: 1) MR Molecular Imaging: to detect lesions (especially cancers) at early stages through imaging the existence and locations of physiologically important biomarkers; and2) MR Nano Medicine: to cure diseases (especially cancers) by targeted therapy th...

  13. Challenges in the Design of Microwave Imaging Systems for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    Among the various breast imaging modalities for breast cancer detection, microwave imaging is attractive due to the high contrast in dielectric properties between the cancerous and normal tissue. Due to this reason, this modality has received a significant interest and attention from the microwav...... and disadvantages of the implemented imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs between the various system requirements are indicated. Some strategies to overcome these limitations are outlined....

  14. Glypican-1 in exosomes as biomarker for early detection of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2016-01-01

    On June 24, 2015 Nature published an article entitle “Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer’’, which demonstrates that exosomes positives for the proteoglycan glypican-1 (GPC1) are expressed in serum of patients with pancreatic cancer since very early stages but not in benign pancreatic disease. Additionally, these GPC1+ circulating exosomes correlate with tumor burden and could be used as prognostic biomarker in pre and post-surgical patients. The study is...

  15. More than apples and oranges - Detecting cancer with a fruit fly's antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Martin; Lüdke, Alja; Münch, Daniel; Laudes, Thomas; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Martinelli, Eugenio; Lavra, Luca; Paolesse, Roberto; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Catini, Alexandro; Capuano, Rosamaria; di Natale, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells and non-cancer cells differ in their metabolism and they emit distinct volatile compound profiles, allowing to recognise cancer cells by their scent. Insect odorant receptors are excellent chemosensors with high sensitivity and a broad receptive range unmatched by current gas sensors. We thus investigated the potential of utilising the fruit fly's olfactory system to detect cancer cells. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we recorded an array of olfactory receptor neurons on the fruit fly's antenna. We performed multidimensional analysis of antenna responses, finding that cell volatiles from different cell types lead to characteristic response vectors. The distances between these response vectors are conserved across flies and can be used to discriminate healthy mammary epithelial cells from different types of breast cancer cells. This may expand the repertoire of clinical diagnostics, and it is the first step towards electronic noses equipped with biological sensors, integrating artificial and biological olfaction.

  16. Cancer Detection via Determination of Fractal Cell Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, W; Bauer, Wolfgang; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    1995-01-01

    We utilize the fractal dimension of the perimeter surface of cell sections as a new observable to characterize cells of different types. We propose that it is possible to distinguish cancerous from healthy cells with the aid of this new approach. As a first application we show that it is possible to perform this distinction between patients with hairy-cell lymphocytic leukemia and those with normal blood lymphocytes.

  17. Automated prostate tissue referencing for cancer detection and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Jin Tae; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Kajdacsy-Balla, André Alexander; Sinha, Saurabh; Bhargava, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Background The current practice of histopathology review is limited in speed and accuracy. The current diagnostic paradigm does not fully describe the complex and complicated patterns of cancer. To address these needs, we develop an automated and objective system that facilitates a comprehensive and easy information management and decision-making. We also develop a tissue similarity measure scheme to broaden our understanding of tissue characteristics. Results The system includes a database o...

  18. Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Control and Early Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Sol; Kerr, A. Ross; Epstein, Joel B.

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-four standardized continuing education courses were given for dentists throughout the ten public health districts of the USA to determine if certain behaviors regarding oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) control could be modified. Questionnaires were obtained at baseline and at 6 months along with matched control groups. One thousand eight hundred two general dentists participated at baseline and 988 at a 6-month questionnaire follow-up. Analysis of the data indicated that continuing educ...

  19. Preliminary report. Concomitant irradiation and paclitaxel as radiosensitizer to increase the operability of unresectable locally advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this non-randomized, single-arm pilot study was to investigate whether paclitaxel (50 mg/m2 body surface area) concomitantly administered with radiation (2 Gy/fr, total 50 Gy) could increase the operability of unresectable locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Operability was assessed based on the Haagensen criteria, toxicity based on EORTC criteria, and response to therapy based on WHO criteria. Thus far 13 inoperable LABC patients have participated in the study as subjects in the treatment group, and 12 of the cases have been analyzable. As a result of radiopaclitaxel therapy, 10 of the 12 tumors became operable (>83%), and in 3 of the 10 patients there was no evidence of residual tumor. To date there have been no cases of local relapse in the treatment group. Given these results, the preliminary conclusions of the study are as follows: The results of radiochemotherapy, specifically with radiopaclitaxel, are quite promising as a method of treating inoperable LABC by reducing tumor size until it becomes operable. The efficacy and safety of the 50 mg/m2 body surface area dose of paclitaxel were adequate, allowing use of higher doses with the expectation of better results. The schedule of administration in this study yielded effective results. (K.H.)

  20. Targeting breast cancer stem cells by dendritic cell vaccination in humanized mice with breast tumor: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Phuc Van; Le, Hanh Thi; Vu, Binh Thanh; Pham, Viet Quoc; Le, Phong Minh; Phan, Nhan Lu-Chinh; Trinh, Ngu Van; Nguyen, Huyen Thi-Lam; Nguyen, Sinh Truong; Nguyen, Toan Linh; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is one of the leading cancers in women. Recent progress has enabled BC to be cured with high efficiency. However, late detection or metastatic disease often renders the disease untreatable. Additionally, relapse is the main cause of death in BC patients. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are considered to cause the development of BC and are thought to be responsible for metastasis and relapse. This study aimed to target BCSCs using dendritic cells (DCs) to treat tumor-bearing humanized mice models. Materials and methods NOD/SCID mice were used to produce the humanized mice by transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells. Human BCSCs were injected into the mammary fat pad to produce BC humanized mice. Both hematopoietic stem cells and DCs were isolated from the human umbilical cord blood, and immature DCs were produced from cultured mononuclear cells. DCs were matured by BCSC-derived antigen incubation for 48 hours. Mature DCs were vaccinated to BC humanized mice with a dose of 106 cells/mice, and the survival percentage was monitored in both treated and untreated groups. Results The results showed that DC vaccination could target BCSCs and reduce the tumor size and prolong survival. Conclusion These results suggested that targeting BCSCs with DCs is a promising therapy for BC. PMID:27499638

  1. Development of a multiplex autoantibody test for detection of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jia

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths for both men and women. Early diagnosis of lung cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 48.8%, however, nearly 35% of stage I patients relapses after surgical resection, thus portending a poor prognosis. Therefore, detecting lung cancer in early stage and further identifying the high-risk patients would allow the opportunity to provide adjuvant therapy and possibly increase survival. There is considerable evidence that the immune system produces an autoantibody response to neoplastic cells. The detection of such autoantibodies has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic value. Here we took advantage of the high-throughput Luminex technique to multiplex a total of 14 tumor-associated autoantigens to detect the autoantibody from the patients sera. The 14 antigens were expressed by in vitro transcription/translation system with HaloTag at N-terminus. The fusion proteins were then covalently immobilized onto the Luminex microspheres conjugated by the halo-link ligand, thus eliminating the protein purification procedure. Sera samples from cancer patients and healthy controls were interacted with the microsphere-antigen complex to measure the autoantibodies. We have developed a quick multiplex detection system for measuring autoantibody signature from patient sera with minimal cross-reaction. A panel of seven autoantibody biomarkers has generated an AUC>80% in distinguishing the lung cancers from healthy controls. This study is the first report by combining Luminex platform and HaloTag technology to detect humoral immune response in cancer patients. Due to the flexibility of the Luminex technology, this approach can be applied to others conditions such as infectious, neurological, and metabolic diseases. One can envision that this multiplex Luminex system as well as the panel of seven biomarkers could be used to screen the high-risk population with subsequent CT test based on the blood test

  2. Breast density and mode of detection in relation to breast cancer specific survival: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to examine breast density in relation to breast cancer specific survival and to assess if this potential association was modified by mode of detection. An additional aim was to study whether the established association between mode of detection and survival is modified by breast density. The study included 619 cases from a prospective cohort, The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Breast density estimated qualitatively, was analyzed in relation to breast cancer death, in non-symptomatic and symptomatic women, using Cox regression calculating hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. Adjustments were made in several steps for; diagnostic age, tumour size, axillary lymph node involvement, grade, hormone receptor status, body mass index (baseline), diagnostic period, use of hormone replacement therapy at diagnosis and mode of detection. Detection mode in relation to survival was analyzed stratified for breast density. Differences in HR following different adjustments were analyzed by Freedmans%. After adjustment for age and other prognostic factors, women with dense, as compared to fatty breasts, had an increased risk of breast cancer death, HR 2.56:1.07-6.11, with a statistically significant trend over density categories, p = 0.04. In the stratified analysis, the effect was less pronounced in non-symptomatic women, HR 2.04:0.49-8.49 as compared to symptomatic, HR 3.40:1.06-10.90. In the unadjusted model, symptomatic women had a higher risk of breast cancer death, regardless of breast density. Analyzed by Freedmans%, age, tumour size, lymph nodes, grade, diagnostic period, ER and PgR explained 55.5% of the observed differences in mortality between non-symptomatic and symptomatic cases. Additional adjustment for breast density caused only a minor change. High breast density at diagnosis may be associated with decreased breast cancer survival. This association appears to be stronger in women with symptomatic cancers but breast density could

  3. High resolution colonoscopy in a bowel cancer screening program improves polyp detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R Banks; Kalpesh Basherdas; Manuel Rodriguez-Justo; Laurence B Lovat; Rehan Haidry; M Adil Butt; Lisa Whitley; Judith Stein; Louise Langmead; Stuart L Bloom; Austin O'Bichere; Sara McCartney

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To compare high resolution colonoscopy (Olympus Lucera) with a megapixel high resolution system (Pentax HiLine) as an in-service evaluation.METHODS:Polyp detection rates and measures of performance were collected for 269 colonoscopy procedures.Five colonoscopists conducted the study over a three month period,as part of the United Kingdom bowel cancer screening program.ration (X2 P = 0.98),caecal intubation rates (X2 P = 0.67),or depth of sedation (X2 P = 0.64).Mild discomfort was more common in the Pentax group (X2 P = 0.036).Adenoma detection rate was significantly higher in the Pentax group (X2 test for trend P = 0.01).Most of the extra polyps detected were flat or sessile adenomas.CONCLUSION:Megapixel definition colonoscopes improve adenoma detection without compromising other measures of endoscope performance.Increased polyp detection rates may improve future outcomes in bowel cancer screening programs.

  4. Detection of free gastric cancer cell in peripheral and portal blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Ho Yoon; Lee, Jong Inn [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    In fact, there is no definite treatment modality after liver or hematogenous metastasis in the gastric cancer. So it is important to develop a new method to predict the high risk patients for systemic recurrence. If we can detect metastatic cell in circulation, it may be beneficial in assessing tumor progression, metastatic potential and prognosis. To establish the RT-PCR methodology for detection of CEA expressing cancer cells in peripheral and portal blood and to define the relationship between peripheral and portal blood detection rate of gastric cancer patients, we performed RT-PCR analysis with peripheral and portal blood samples from 24 patients with gastric cancer (stage Ia,b, n=3; stage II, n=2; stage IIIa, n=9; stage IIIb, n=7; stage IV, n=3) and checked serum CEA level preoperatively. Mean age was 49.2 years old and male : female was 1.2 : 2 (13:11 patients). The mean serum CEA level was 10.4 ng/ml and that was higher than normal in only 2 cases. There was no positive case of tumor cell in portal and peripheral blood using RT-PCR and CEA gene specific primer. Our results indicate that the incidence of circulating cancer cells is unexpectedly very low even in advanced gastric cancer patients. (author). 20 refs.

  5. Clinical significance of detection of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in colorectal cancer and its precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the expression and clinical significance of human telomerase reverse transcriptase(h TERT)in colorectal cancer and its precancerous lesion.Methods The levels of h TERT expression were detected by immunohistochemistry in colorectal cancers(n=95),colorectal adenomatous polyposis(n=30)and normal colorectal tissues(n=30).The relationship between the expression of h TERT in colorectal cancer tissues and the pathologic features and prognosis were analyzed.Results The positive rate of h TERT expression

  6. Robust multi-tissue gene panel for cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talantov Dmitri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have identified a set of genes whose relative mRNA expression levels in various solid tumors can be used to robustly distinguish cancer from matching normal tissue. Our current feature set consists of 113 gene probes for 104 unique genes, originally identified as differentially expressed in solid primary tumors in microarray data on Affymetrix HG-U133A platform in five tissue types: breast, colon, lung, prostate and ovary. For each dataset, we first identified a set of genes significantly differentially expressed in tumor vs. normal tissue at p-value = 0.05 using an experimentally derived error model. Our common cancer gene panel is the intersection of these sets of significantly dysregulated genes and can distinguish tumors from normal tissue on all these five tissue types. Methods Frozen tumor specimens were obtained from two commercial vendors Clinomics (Pittsfield, MA and Asterand (Detroit, MI. Biotinylated targets were prepared using published methods (Affymetrix, CA and hybridized to Affymetrix U133A GeneChips (Affymetrix, CA. Expression values for each gene were calculated using Affymetrix GeneChip analysis software MAS 5.0. We then used a software package called Genes@Work for differential expression discovery, and SVM light linear kernel for building classification models. Results We validate the predictability of this gene list on several publicly available data sets generated on the same platform. Of note, when analysing the lung cancer data set of Spira et al, using an SVM linear kernel classifier, our gene panel had 94.7% leave-one-out accuracy compared to 87.8% using the gene panel in the original paper. In addition, we performed high-throughput validation on the Dana Farber Cancer Institute GCOD database and several GEO datasets. Conclusions Our result showed the potential for this panel as a robust classification tool for multiple tumor types on the Affymetrix platform, as well as other whole genome arrays

  7. Preanalytical considerations in detection of colorectal cancer in blood serum using Raman molecular imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treado, Patrick J.; Stewart, Shona D.; Smith, Aaron; Kirschner, Heather; Post, Christopher; Overholt, Bergein F.

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and women in the United States. Raman Molecular Imaging (RMI) is an effective technique to evaluate human tissue, cells and bodily fluids, including blood serum for disease diagnosis. ChemImage Corporation, in collaboration with clinicians, has been engaged in development of an in vitro diagnostic Raman assay focused on CRC detection. The Raman Assay for Colorectal Cancer (RACC) exploits the high specificity of Raman imaging to distinguish diseased from normal dried blood serum droplets without additional reagents. Pilot Study results from testing of hundreds of biobank patient samples have demonstrated that RACC detects CRC with high sensitivity and specificity. However, expanded clinical trials, which are ongoing, are revealing a host of important preanalytical considerations associated with sample collection, sample storage and stability, sample shipping, sample preparation and sample interferents, which impact detection performance. Results from recent clinical studies will be presented.

  8. Chitosan microspheres loaded with holmium-165 produced by spray dryer for liver cancer therapy: preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Douglas Massao; Pires, Geovanna; Lira, Raphael A. de; Melo, Vitor H.S.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de, E-mail: douglas.miyamoto@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2011-07-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer of 2-deoxy-2-amino-D-glucose that is obtained by deacetylation of chitin. It's biocompatible, biodegradable, non toxic and has antitumor activity. Chitosan has many applications, such as their microparticles that can be used to treat prostate cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and for liver tumor brachytherapy treatment. Our group is developing different biodegradable polymer-based microspheres loaded with holmium-165 for this purpose. The Chitosan microspheres were produced loaded with holmium (III) chloride, and not loaded with it, by Mini Spray Dryer procedure. The microspheres were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, particle size, and X-ray diffraction. The EDS analysis confirmed the holmium chloride presence into the prepared chitosan microparticles. (author)

  9. Chitosan microspheres loaded with holmium-165 produced by spray dryer for liver cancer therapy: preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan is a biopolymer of 2-deoxy-2-amino-D-glucose that is obtained by deacetylation of chitin. It's biocompatible, biodegradable, non toxic and has antitumor activity. Chitosan has many applications, such as their microparticles that can be used to treat prostate cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and for liver tumor brachytherapy treatment. Our group is developing different biodegradable polymer-based microspheres loaded with holmium-165 for this purpose. The Chitosan microspheres were produced loaded with holmium (III) chloride, and not loaded with it, by Mini Spray Dryer procedure. The microspheres were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, particle size, and X-ray diffraction. The EDS analysis confirmed the holmium chloride presence into the prepared chitosan microparticles. (author)

  10. Au/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures for the detection of cancer cells and anticancer drug activity by potential sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jingjie; Chen, Jing; Chen, Shaowei; Gao, Li; Xu, Ping; Li, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Cancer is a cell dysfunction disease. The detection of cancer cells is extremely important for early diagnosis and clinical treatments. At present, the pretreatment for the detection of cancer cells is costly, complicated and time-consuming. As different species of the analytes may give rise to specific voltammetric signals at distinctly different potentials, simple potential sensing has the specificity to detect different cellular species. By taking advantage of the different electrochemical characteristics of normal cells, cancer cells and biointeractions between anticancer drugs and cancer cells, we develop a specific, sensitive, direct, cost-effective and rapid method for the detection of cancer cells by electrochemical potential sensing based on Au/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructure electrodes that will be of significance in early cancer diagnosis, in vitro screening of anticancer drugs and molecular biology research.

  11. Radiology and its role in the early detection of lung cancer; La radiologia y la deteccion precoz del cancer de pulmon: evolucion historica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastarrika, G.; Pueyo, J.; Bergaz, F.; Cano, D.; Vivas, I.; Zulueta, J. [Clinical Universitaria de Navarra (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Lung cancer is the neoplasia with the highest worldwide mortality rate. During recent decades, several programs for early detection of lung cancer have been initiated with none having demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality. Recent technological advances (spiral CT) have rekindled an interest in screening programs and results have been encouraging. Nevertheless, the initial question remains: would programs for the early detection of lung cancer be able to significantly decrease mortality rates?. (Author) 41 refs.

  12. Preliminary lessons learned from the "Native Navigators and the Cancer Continuum" (NNACC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhansstipanov, Linda; Krebs, Linda U; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Petereit, Daniel G; Pingatore, Noel L; Eschiti, Valerie

    2012-04-01

    This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study was based on patient navigation (Navigator) among three original sites: Colorado, Michigan, and South Dakota. During 2010, the study added two sites: the Comanche Nation and the Muscogee (Creek) Nation (Oklahoma). The intervention includes 24-h of a Navigator-implemented cancer education program that addresses the full continuum of cancer care. The partners include agreements with up to two local Native American organizations each year, called Memorandum Native Organizations, who have strong relationships with local American Indians. Family fun events are used to initiate the series of workshops and to collect baseline data and also to wrap up and evaluate the series 3 months following the completion of the workshop series. Evaluation data are collected using an audience response system (ARS) and stored using an online evaluation program. Among the lessons learned to date are: the Institutional Review Board processes required both regional and national approvals and took more than 9 months. All of the workshop slides were missing some components and needed refinements. The specifics for the Memorandum Native Organization deliverables needed more details. The ARS required additional training sessions, but once learned the Navigator use the ARS well. Use of the NACR website for a password-protected page to store all NNACC workshop and training materials was easier to manage than use of other online storage programs. The community interest in taking part in the workshops was greater than what was anticipated. All of the Navigators' skills are improving and all are enjoying working with the community.

  13. Whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Young Seok [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-12-15

    To assess the clinical efficacy and toxicity of whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) for high-risk prostate cancer. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. The study included patients who had undergone WP-IMRT with image guidance using electronic portal imaging devices and/or cone-beam computed tomography. The endorectal balloon was used in 93% of patients. Patients received either 46 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 76 Gy to the prostate in 2 Gy daily fractions, or 44 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 72.6 Gy to the prostate in 2.2 Gy fractions. The study cohort included 70 patients, of whom 55 (78%) had a Gleason score of 8 to 10 and 50 (71%) had a prostate-specific antigen level > 20 ng/mL. The androgen deprivation therapy was combined in 62 patients. The biochemical failure-free survival rate was 86.7% at 2 years. Acute any grade gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates were 47% and 73%, respectively. The actuarial rate of late grade 2 or worse toxicity at 2 years was 12.9% for GI, and 5.7% for GU with no late grade 4 toxicity. WP-IMRT was well tolerated with no severe acute or late toxicities, resulting in at least similar biochemical control to that of the historic control group with a small field. The long-term efficacy and toxicity will be assessed in the future, and a prospective randomized trial is needed to verify these findings.

  14. [Preliminary application of strontium-89 for the treatment of bone metastases from prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Deng, Houfu; Jie, Peng; Qing, Chun; Zhang, Xiying

    2010-12-01

    Bone metastases are a major problem in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. Despite the use of analgesic for the relief of such pain, the outcomes are not often satisfactory. Strontium-89 (89Sr) is a pure beta-emitting radioisotope to be avidly concentrated in the areas of high osteoblastic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 89Sr in the therapy for bone metastases of prostate carcinoma. 116 patients received intravenous injection of 89Sr at the dose of 3mCi (111MBq). All patients underwent physical examination and Karnofsky's Performance Score (KPS) evaluation before and after administration; the analgesic effects were evaluated by scores of pain. The complete response (CR) was defined as scores of pain > 75%; no response (NR) was defined as scores of pain bone metastases were screened by CT, MRI and 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy according to the standards of WHO. After the treatment with 89Sr, the total response rate was 80.2%. In the 116 cases, 21 cases (18.1%) displayed complete response and 72 cases (62.1%) displayed partial response, but 23 cases (19.2%) showed no response. The mean score on Karnfsky's performance status (KPS) was 20.0% higher. About 1/3 cases exhibited an obvious decrease in the number of metastases, and some foci disappeared. Thirteen cases (12%) showed a greater decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. 89Sr chloride is an effective and safe therapy of the bone metastases from prostate cancer.

  15. Hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun; Kim, Myung Soo; Jo, In Young; Lee, So Jung; Lee, Dong Hwan; Suh, Hong Jin; Choi, Yong Sun [Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this work was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with localized prostate cancer. Thirty-nine patients who received radical hypofractionated IMRT were retrospectively reviewed. Based on a pelvic lymph node involvement risk of 15% as the cutoff value, we decided whether to deliver treatment prostate and seminal vesicle only radiotherapy (PORT) or whole pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT). Sixteen patients (41%) received PORT with prostate receiving 45 Gy in 4.5 Gy per fraction in 2 weeks and the other 23 patients (59%) received WPRT with the prostate receiving 72 Gy in 2.4 Gy per fraction in 6 weeks. The median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions to the prostate was 79.9 Gy based on the assumption that the α/β ratio is 1.5 Gy. The median follow-up time was 38 months (range, 4 to 101 months). The 3-year biochemical failure-free survival rate was 88.2%. The 3-year clinical failure-free and overall survival rates were 94.5% and 96.3%, respectively. The rates of grade 2 acute genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were 20.5% and 12.8%, respectively. None of the patients experienced grade ≥3 acute GU and GI toxicities. The grade 2-3 late GU and GI toxicities were found in 8.1% and 5.4% of patients, respectively. No fatal late toxicity was observed. Favorable biochemical control with low rates of toxicity was observed after hypofractionated IMRT, suggesting that our radiotherapy schedule can be an effective treatment option in the treatment of localized prostate cancer.

  16. Depression and demoralization as distinct syndromes: Preliminary data from a cohort of advanced cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Juliet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The term demoralization has been used to describe existential distress and despair of patients with advanced disease. Aim: This study sought to determine whether a cluster of symptoms interpreted as demoralization could be identified and distinguished from a cluster of depressive symptoms. Materials and Methods: As part of the Coping with Cancer Study, a federally funded multi-site study of advanced cancer patients, 242 patients were interviewed on a broad range of mental health parameters related to depression, grief, quality of life, self-efficacy, coping and religiousness/spirituality. Results: A principal components analysis revealed separate depression and demoralization/despair factors. Seven symptoms constituted the demoralization/despair factor: loss of control, loss of hope, anger/bitterness, sense of failure, feeling life was a burden, loss of meaning and a belief that life′s meaning is dependent on health and were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach′s a = 0.78. Only 14.8% of subjects with "syndromal demoralization" met DSM-IV criteria for Major Depression (MDD; 7.4% for Minor Depression. Of those with MDD only 28.6% had syndromal level demoralization. Prior history of MDD predicted current MDD, but not syndromal demoralization. Demoralization, not MDD, was significantly associated with the patient′s reported level of inner peacefulness. When compared with MDD, syndromal demoralization was more strongly associated with wish to live and wish to die and equally predictive of mental health service use. Conclusion: The symptoms of demoralization are distinct from depressive symptoms and appear to be associated with the patient′s degree of inner peacefulness.

  17. A new paradigm of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy for non-invasive detection of breast abnormalities: a preliminary feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; Qian, Wei; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve efficacy of screening mammography, in recent years, we have been investigating the feasibility of applying a resonance-frequency based electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) technology to noninvasively detect breast abnormalities that may lead to the development of cancer in the near-term. Despite promising study-results, we found that REIS suffered from relatively poor reproducibility due to perturbations in electrode placement, contact pressure variation on the breast, as well as variation of the resonating inductor. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we propose and analyze a new paradigm of Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy (DRS) that measures polarization-lag of dielectric signals in breast-capacitance when excited by the pulses or sine waves. Unlike conventional DRS that operates using the signals at very high frequencies (GHz) to examine changes in polarization, our new method detects and characterizes the dielectric properties of tissue at low frequencies (=80 times as compared to conventional DRS, which operates at frequencies around 4GHz. By analyzing and comparing the relationship between the new DRS and REIS, we found that this DRS has potential advantages in enhancing repeatability from various readings, including temperature-insensitive detection, and yielding higher resolution or sensitivity (up to 100 Femtofarads).

  18. Risk factors predictive of occult cancer detection in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihaddadene, Ryma; Corsi, Daniel J.; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Shivakumar, Sudeep; Zarychanski, Ryan; Tagalakis, Vicky; Solymoss, Susan; Routhier, Nathalie; Douketis, James; Le Gal, Gregoire

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors predictive of occult cancer detection in patients with a first unprovoked symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) are unknown. Cox proportional hazard models and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of specific risk factors on occult cancer detection within 1 year of a diagnosis of unprovoked VTE in patients randomized in the Screening for Occult Malignancy in Patients with Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism (SOME) trial. A total of 33 (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.8%-5.4%) out of the 854 included patients received a new diagnosis of cancer at 1-year follow-up. Age ≥ 60 years (hazard ratio [HR], 3.11; 95% CI, 1.41-6.89; P = .005), previous provoked VTE (HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.19-8.62; P = .022), and current smoker status (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.24-6.33; P = .014) were associated with occult cancer detection. Age, prior provoked VTE, and smoking status may be important predictors of occult cancer detection in patients with first unprovoked VTE. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00773448. PMID:26817957

  19. [The level of evidence for the use of biomarkers in the early detection of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Salomon, Laurent; Haugh, Margaret; Ceraline, Jocelyn; Fulla, Yvonne; Georges, Agnès; Larré, Stéphane; Loric, Sylvain; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Martin, Pierre-Marie; Mazerolles, Catherine; Molinié, Vincent; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Piffret, Jacques; Thuillier, François; Perrin, Paul; Rebillard, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence for the use of PSA and other biomarkers in the early detection of prostate cancer, we searched PubMed for clinical trials and studies assessing PSA and other biomarkers in the early detection of prostate cancer, published between 2000 and May 2013 that included >200 subjects. The level of evidence (LOE) for clinical utility was evaluated using the tumor marker utility grading system. A total of 84 publications, corresponding to 70 trials and studies were selected for inclusion in this review. We attributed a level of evidence (LoE) of IA to PSA for early PCa detection, but we do not recommend its use in mass screening. Emerging biomarkers were assessed in prospective case-control and cohort studies: PCA3 (n=3); kallikreins (n=3); [-2]proPSA (n=5); fusion oncogenes (n=2). These studies used biopsy results for prostate cancer to determine specificity and sensitivity, but they did not assess the effect on PCa mortality. The LoE attributed was III-C. PSA can be used for early prostate cancer detection but mass screening is not recommended. Studies on other biomarkers suggest that they could be used, individually or in combination, to improve the selection of patients with elevated PSA levels for biopsy, but RCTs assessing their impact on prostate cancer management and mortality are needed. A better use of available tests is possible for men at risk in order to maximize the risk-benefit ratio.

  20. PRELIMINARY DETECTION OF BACTERIOCIN-LIKE INHIBITORY SUBSTANCES PRODUCED BY ENTEROCOCCUS SPECIESISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal P Nemade and M Musaddiq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some lactic acid bacteria and particularly species belonging to the genus Enetrococcus are known to produce bacteriocin like inhibitory substance (BLIS. Usually they are small cationic peptide with bactericidal activity. The antimicrobial peptide produced by bacteria that deserve considerable interest for their use as natural and non-toxic food preservatives. The use of bacteriocin is among the new approaches as it has major potential in preservatives. Broad spectrum activities against prominent pathogens make it an issue of medical interest. The ability to produce such a biocompound may play role in providing an ecological advantage on non-bacteriocin producer species. 34 strains of Enterococci were isolated from different sources. These strains were identified to species: E. faecalis and E. faecium. Direct antimicrobial activity against indicator strain S. aureus was detected in 34 of the tested isolates. From these, only 7 displayed strong inhibitory activity against this indicator strain. The antimicrobial activity was altered after treatment with trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, papain which confirms the proteinaceous nature of the inhibition. This fact suggests that bacteriocin-like substance produced by Enterococcus strains may find application as biopreservatives in food products. Hence, the focus here is put on bacteriocin like substance screened by Enterococcus species isolated from different sources

  1. High-b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer and Mass-Forming Chronic Pancreatitis: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Mass-forming chronic pancreatitis may mimic a pancreatic cancer on dynamic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and preoperative differential diagnosis is often difficult. Recently, the usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer has been reported in several studies. Purpose: To determine whether high-b-value DWI can distinguish pancreatic cancer from benign mass-forming chronic pancreatitis. Material and Methods: Twenty pancreatic cancers and four cases of mass-forming chronic pancreatitis were evaluated by high-b-value DWI (b=800 s/mm2). The signal intensity on DWI was visually evaluated, and the isotropic apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured. Results: All twenty pancreatic cancers showed high signal intensity (18 showed very high, two showed slightly high) on DWI. None of the mass-forming chronic pancreatitis cases showed very high intensity (three showed iso to low, one showed slightly high) on DWI. The ADCs in the pancreatic cancer and mass-forming chronic pancreatitis were 1.38±0.32x10-3 mm2/s and 1.0 0.18x10-3 mm2/s, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: On high-b-value DWI, most pancreatic cancers showed very high signal intensity, and may hence be distinguished from benign mass-forming chronic pancreatitis based on our preliminary results

  2. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...... spontaneously but the study was possibly confounded by use of hormone replacement therapy in the population. We did a similar analysis of data collected during an earlier period when few women were exposed to hormone replacement therapy....

  3. Radial scars detected mammographically in a breast cancer screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial scars are getting more and more common since implementation of mammography as diagnostic tool in screening women for breast cancer. At Karolinska Hospital, 18987 asymptomatic women, aged 50-69, were screened for breast cancer through mammography during August 1989-May 1991. A total of 735 (3.87%) were recalled for additional views after initial mammograms and 463 (2.44%) were assessed with help of cytology. In all 175 women (0.92%) were selected for surgery and 146 (0.77%) had histologically verified cancers. The remaining 29 (0.15%) had non- malignant lesions of which 11 (0.06%) were radial scars. All radial scars were diagnosed on mammograms and later confirmed with histology. The radiologic characteristics were found to be a) rather thick and long radiating structures accompanied by radiolucent linear structures parallel to some of the spicules, b) absence of calcifications, c) radiolucent areas in the body of the lesion, d) an average mean size of 6 mm and e) changing image in different views. Most of the lesions, 73% (8/11), were in moderately dense breasts and there was no specific relation to the right or left breast. A majority of radial scars, 64% (7/11), were found in the upper outer quadrants, 3/11 in the lower outer quadrants and 1/11 in the lower inner quadrant. Literature shows that histology uses many synonyms for radial scars and therefore team work between radiologists and pathologists is suggested for better conformity of the diagnosis. (author). 32 refs.; 1 fig

  4. Early detection of lung cancer using low-dose CT: an update; Lungenkrebsfrueherkennung mit Low-dose-CT: ein Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Heindel, W. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from malignancy. Due to a lack of early symptoms patients usually undergo therapy at advanced tumor stages when prognosis is poor. Feasibility studies of low-dose spiral CT screening of heavy smokers have shown that many small, resectable lung cancers can be diagnosed at early stages using simple diagnostic algorithms based on size and attenuation of detected pulmonary nodules with a small proportion of invasive procedures for benign lesions. Preliminary results of repeat screening confirms small size and favourable stage distribution of detected cancers, using even simpler diagnostic algorithms: additional diagnostic procedures are only required in new or growing nodules whereas follow-up with low-dose CT is sufficient in nodules that appear unchanged to exclude slow growth. However, mortality reduction by lung cancer screening with low-dose CT has yet to be demonstrated. Several randomised controlled trials are under way to assess possible mortality reduction by comparison of mortalities in a screening group and a control group. It is hoped that through international cooperation data from these trials can be pooled to allow for statistically significant conclusions as early as possible. (orig.) [German] Lungenkrebs ist die haeufigste zum Tode fuehrende maligne Erkrankung. Wegen des Fehlens von Fruehsymptomen kommen Patienten meist in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien zur Behandlung, wenn die Prognose sehr schlecht ist. Machbarkeitsstudien zum Einsatz der Niedrigdosis-Spiral-Computertomographie bei starken Rauchern haben gezeigt, dass sich bei Einsatz simpler, auf Groesse und Dichte gefundener Rundherde basierender diagnostischer Algorithmen eine grosse Zahl kleiner, resektabler Bronchialkarzinome in fruehen Stadien diagnostizieren liess, wobei der Anteil invasiver Massnahmen wegen benigner Laesionen gering war. Erste Ergebnisse von Wiederholungsuntersuchungen zeigen wiederum eine geringe Groesse und guenstige

  5. miRNAs as potential biomarkers in early breast cancer detection following mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sidney W; Lee, Woojin; Coffey, Caitrin; Lean, Alexa; Wu, Xiaoling; Tan, Xiaohui; Man, Yan-Gao; Brem, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women, except for skin cancers. About 12 % women in the United States will develop invasive breast cancer during their lifetime. Currently one of the most accepted model/theories is that ductal breast cancer (most common type of breast cancer) follows a linear progression: from normal breast epithelial cells to ductal hyperplasia to atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and finally to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Distinguishing pure ADH diagnosis from DCIS and/or IDC on mammography, and even combined with follow-up core needle biopsy (CNB) is still a challenge. Therefore subsequent surgical excision cannot be avoided to make a definitive diagnosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a highly abundant class of endogenous non-coding RNAs, which contribute to cancer initiation and progression, and are differentially expressed between normal and cancer tissues. They can function as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes. With accumulating evidence of the role of miRNAs in breast cancer progression, including our own studies, we sought to summarize the nature of early breast lesions and the potential use of miRNA molecules as biomarkers in early breast cancer detection. In particular, miRNA biomarkers may potentially serve as a companion tool following mammography screening and CNB. In the long-term, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the miRNA signatures associated with breast cancer development could potentially result in the development of novel strategies for disease prevention and therapy. PMID:26819702

  6. Preliminary study of the internal margin of the gross tumor volume in thoracic esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. - To measure the displacement of the tumor of the gross tumor volume (GTV) of thoracic esophageal cancer in the calm states of end-inspiration and end-expiration for determining the internal margin of the GTV (IGTV). Methods. - Twenty-two patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who were unable to undergo surgery were identified in our hospital. The patients received radiotherapy. By using 16-slice spiral computed tomography (CT), we acquired the calm states of end-inspiration and end-expiration. The displacement and volume changes in tumor target volume were measured, and the changes were analyzed to determine if these were associated with the tidal volume and the location and length of the target volume V. In the end, we analyzed the displacement of tumor target volume and calculated the internal margin of the GTV by empirical formula. Results. - The average tidal volume was 463.6 ml. The average GTV at end-inspiration was 33.3 ml and at end-expiration was 33.35 ml. Three was not any significant between two groups (T -0.034, P > 0.05). The IGTV (X-axis direction) was 3.09 mm for the right sector and 4.08 mm for the left border; the IGTV (Z-axis direction) was 3.96 mm for the anterior border and 2.83 mm for the posterior border; and the IGTV (Y-axis direction) was 7.31 mm for the upper boundary (head direction) and 10.16 mm for the lower boundary (feet direction). The motion of the GTV showed no significant correlation with the tidal volume of patients and the length of the tumor, but in relation to the tumor location, the displacement of the lower thoracic and the middle thoracic target volumes occurred in the direction of the anterior and right, which were not significantly different (T = 0.859, 0.229, P > 0.05) The significant differences were observed for the other directions (P < 0.05). Conclusions. - Because of respiratory and organ movements, the displacement of the tumor target volume was different in all directions. Therefore, we recommend that

  7. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  8. Septal flip flap for anterior skull base reconstruction after endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancers: preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, P; Turri-Zanoni, M; De Bernardi, F; Dehgani Mobaraki, P; Karligkiotis, A; Leone, F; Castelnuovo, P

    2016-06-01

    to be a safe and effective option for ASB reconstruction after endonasal resection of sinonasal malignancies in selected cases. Larger case series with a longer follow-up are needed to validate the preliminary results obtained with such an innovative and promising surgical technique. PMID:27214830

  9. SBRT in unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer: preliminary results of a mono-institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the efficacy and safety of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with either unresectable locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma or by locally recurrent disease after surgery. Between January 2010 and October 2011, 30 patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma underwent exclusive SBRT. Twenty-one patients (70%) presented with unresectable locally advanced disease and 9 patients (30%) showed local recurrence after surgery. No patients had metastatic disease. Gemcitabine-based chemotherapy was administered to all patients before SBRT. Prescription dose was 45Gy in 6 daily fractions of 7.5Gy. SBRT was delivered using the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RapidArc. Primary end-point of this study was freedom from local progression (FFLP), secondary end-points were overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and toxicity. Median Clinical Target Volume (CTV) was 25.6 cm3 (3.2-78.8 cm3) and median Planning Target Volume (PTV) was 70.9 cm3 (20.4- 205.2 cm3). The prescription dose was delivered in 25 patients (83%), in 5 patients (17%) it was reduced to 36Gy in 6 fractions not to exceed the dose constraints of organs at risk (OARs). Median follow-up was 11 months (2–28 months). FFLP was 91% at 6 months, 85% at median follow-up and 77% at 1 and 2 years. For the group with prescription dose of 45Gy, FFLP was 96% at 1 and 2 years. The median PFS was 8 months. The OS was 47% at 1 year and median OS was 11 months. At the end of the follow-up, 9 patients (32%) were alive and 4 (14%) were free from progression. No patients experienced G ≥ 3 acute toxicity. Our preliminary results show that SBRT can obtain a satisfactory local control rate for unresectable locally advanced and recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This fractionation schedule is feasible, and no G ≥ 3 toxicity was observed. SBRT is an effective emerging technique in the multi-modality treatment of locally advanced pancreatic tumors

  10. 99m-Tc tetrofosmin scintigraphy vs mammography in breast cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99m-Tc tetrofosmin is a widely used radiotracer for breast cancer imaging. Routine mammography ,as a method for screening breast cancer patients, might be insufficient for diagnosis, especially in patients with dense breast. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the results of mammography (MM) and scintimammography with 99m- Tc tetrofosmin (SMM) in detection of primary breast cancer. Method: Thirty patients with breast disease were included in study. All of them had clinical investigation, MM, SMM and surgical biopsy for final histological diagnosis. An amount of 600 MBq 99m- Tc tetrofosmin was injected intravenously in the arm opposite to the side of breast lesion. Ten minutes after injection planar breast 7-minutes scans were performed in supine (anterior) and prone (left and right lateral) position. Results: Out of 30 lesion breast cancer was histologically confirmed in 20 (15 ductal invasive, two lobular, one colloid, one papillar carcinoma and one case of cyst sarcoma phylodes- malignant type.) For MM sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 60% and accuracy of 76 % were obtained. At SMM 19/ 20 malignant lesions were detected. Only one false negative result was obtained in 1.0 cm lobular infiltrative cancer, although the smallest detectable lesion measured 0.6 cm. At pathohistology ten lesions presented benign. Four false positive results (two fibroadenomas, one lipogranuloma and one case of fibrocystic disease) were observed, six true negative results in four cases with fibrocystic disease and two fibroadenomas. The overall sensitivity of scintimammography was 95%, specificity 60% and accuracy 83%. Conclusion: We concluded that sensitivity of 99m-Tc tetrofosmin scintimammography in detection of breast cancer is superior to that of mammography. Our results suggest that 99m -Tc tetrofosmin is a suitable tumor seeking agent for breast cancer imaging

  11. Salivary microRNAs as promising biomarkers for detection of esophageal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijun Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tissue microRNAs (miRNAs can detect cancers and predict prognosis. Several recent studies reported that tissue, plasma, and saliva miRNAs share similar expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory power of salivary miRNAs (including whole saliva and saliva supernatant for detection of esophageal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By Agilent microarray, six deregulated miRNAs from whole saliva samples from seven patients with esophageal cancer and three healthy controls were selected. The six selected miRNAs were subjected to validation of their expression levels by RT-qPCR using both whole saliva and saliva supernatant samples from an independent set of 39 patients with esophageal cancer and 19 healthy controls. RESULTS: Six miRNAs (miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, miR-451, miR-486-5p, and miR-634 were identified as targets by Agilent microarray. After validation by RT-qPCR, miR-10b*, miR-144, and miR-451 in whole saliva and miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, and miR-451 in saliva supernatant were significantly upregulated in patients, with sensitivities of 89.7, 92.3, 84.6, 79.5, 43.6, 89.7, and 51.3% and specificities of 57.9, 47.4, 57.9%, 57.9, 89.5, 47.4, and 84.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found distinctive miRNAs for esophageal cancer in both whole saliva and saliva supernatant. These miRNAs possess discriminatory power for detection of esophageal cancer. Because saliva collection is noninvasive and convenient, salivary miRNAs show great promise as biomarkers for detection of esophageal cancer in areas at high risk.

  12. Sentinel lymph node detection with large human serum albumin colloid particles in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of metastatic involvement of lymph nodes is essential for management and prognostic evaluation in breast cancer patients. The success of lymphatic mapping depends on identifying the sentinel lymph node(s) draining the primary tumour. However, when mapping is performed with a radiocolloidal agent, the number of hot lymph nodes varies with the agent and its size, among other factors. In this study, we evaluated prospectively the detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer when injecting large particles (100-600 nm) of human serum albumin colloids (Senti-Scint). In 128 consecutive breast cancer patients without palpable lymph nodes, pre-operative static lymphoscintigraphic mapping of the breast was performed after subcutaneous injection of 15 MBq of the radiocolloid. Lymphoscintigrahic results were compared with intra-operative surgical gamma detection probe and blue dye mapping data. Pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy and surgical gamma detection probe both correctly detected 203 sentinel lymph nodes in 122/128 patients (95%), while blue dye mapping showed only 183 sentinel lymph nodes in 82% of the patients. Only one or two sentinel lymph nodes were identified in each patient, which allowed the surgeon easily to find the sentinel lymph node(s) intra-operatively. In conclusion, lymphoscintigraphy with large particles of human serum albumin colloids is a helpful and reliable procedure for the surgical management of breast cancer. (orig.)

  13. The Emergent Landscape of Detecting EGFR Mutations Using Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer are based on the evaluation of specific gene mutations especially the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. The assays largely depend on the acquisition of tumor tissue via biopsy before the initiation of therapy or after the onset of acquired resistance. However, the limitations of tissue biopsy including tumor heterogeneity and insufficient tissues for molecular testing are impotent clinical obstacles for mutation analysis and lung cancer treatment. Due to the invasive procedure of tissue biopsy and the progressive development of drug-resistant EGFR mutations, the effective initial detection and continuous monitoring of EGFR mutations are still unmet requirements. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA detection is a promising biomarker for noninvasive assessment of cancer burden. Recent advancement of sensitive techniques in detecting EGFR mutations using ctDNA enables a broad range of clinical applications, including early detection of disease, prediction of treatment responses, and disease progression. This review not only introduces the biology and clinical implementations of ctDNA but also includes the updating information of recent advancement of techniques for detecting EGFR mutation using ctDNA in lung cancer.

  14. A COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF LUNG CANCER NODULES USING EXTREME LEARNING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.GOMATHI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Computer Aided Diagnosing (CAD system is proposed in this paper for detection of lung cancer form the analysis of computed tomography (CT images of chest. To produce a successful Computer Aided Diagnosissystem, several problems has to be resolved. Segmentation is the first problem to be considered which helps in generation of candidate region for detecting cancer nodules. The second problem is identification of affected nodules from all the candidate nodules. Initially, the basic image processing techniques such as Bit-Plane Slicing, Erosion, Median Filter, Dilation, Outlining, Lung Border Extraction and Flood-Fill algorithms are applied to the CT scan image in order to detect the lung region. Then the segmentation algorithm is applied in order to detect the cancer nodules from the extracted lung image. In this paper, Fuzzy Possibilistic C Mean (FPCM algorithm is used for segmentation because of its accuracy. After segmentation, rule based technique is applied to classify the cancernodules. Finally, a set of diagnosis rules are generated from the extracted features. From these rules, the occurrences of cancer nodules are identified clearly. The learning is performed with the help of Extreme Learning Machine (ELM because of its better classification. For experimentation of the proposed technique, the CT images are collected from reputed hospital. The proposed system can be able to detect the false positive nodules accurately.

  15. [Application and prospect of circulating tumor cells detection in colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingmin; Tang, Qingchao; Chen, Yinggang; Wang, Xishan

    2016-06-01

    About 30%-50% of colorectal cancer patients would develop recurrence and metastasis. At present, there is still a lack of effective evaluation method for recurrence, metastasis and prognosis. In recent years, a great progress about circulating tumor cells (CTC) in diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer has been made. The most common CTC detection methods include immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, PCR, immunomagnetic separation, optical fiber array scanning and CTC chip. Based on present studies, researchers reach the consensus that CTC is clinically valuable in the following aspects: detection of occult metastasis, monitor of disease progress and evaluation of response to treatment. With recent development of clinical specialization, multi-disciplinary treatment (MDT), gene detection and targeted therapy, individualized treatment may greatly improve overall survive and disease-free survival of colorectal cancer patients. However, the methods above depend on tumor tissues that are always impractical to obtain for late stage and non-surgery patients. Moreover, the size of specimen is always small, making gene expression and mutation detection difficult. CTC detection may solve such problems based on molecular biology with high plausibility and repeatability. Therefore, CTC detection can be used as a new diagnosis tool. It is believed that CTC detection will play an important role in early diagnosis, evaluating recurrence, metastasis, making individualized treatment and predicting prognosis.

  16. [Application and prospect of circulating tumor cells detection in colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingmin; Tang, Qingchao; Chen, Yinggang; Wang, Xishan

    2016-06-01

    About 30%-50% of colorectal cancer patients would develop recurrence and metastasis. At present, there is still a lack of effective evaluation method for recurrence, metastasis and prognosis. In recent years, a great progress about circulating tumor cells (CTC) in diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer has been made. The most common CTC detection methods include immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, PCR, immunomagnetic separation, optical fiber array scanning and CTC chip. Based on present studies, researchers reach the consensus that CTC is clinically valuable in the following aspects: detection of occult metastasis, monitor of disease progress and evaluation of response to treatment. With recent development of clinical specialization, multi-disciplinary treatment (MDT), gene detection and targeted therapy, individualized treatment may greatly improve overall survive and disease-free survival of colorectal cancer patients. However, the methods above depend on tumor tissues that are always impractical to obtain for late stage and non-surgery patients. Moreover, the size of specimen is always small, making gene expression and mutation detection difficult. CTC detection may solve such problems based on molecular biology with high plausibility and repeatability. Therefore, CTC detection can be used as a new diagnosis tool. It is believed that CTC detection will play an important role in early diagnosis, evaluating recurrence, metastasis, making individualized treatment and predicting prognosis. PMID:27353110

  17. Discrimination analysis of mass spectrometry proteomics for ovarian cancer detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-jun HONG; Xiao-dan WANG; David SHEN; Su ZENG

    2008-01-01

    Aim:A discrimination analysis has been explored for the probabilistic classifica-tion of healthy versus ovarian cancer serum samples using proteomics data from mass spectrometry (MS).Methods:The method employs data normalization,clustering,and a linear discriminant analysis on surface-enhanced laser desorp-tion ionization (SELDI) time-of-flight MS data.The probabilistic classification method computes the optimal linear discriminant using the complex human blood serum SELDI spectra.Cross-validation and training/testing data-split experi-ments are conducted to verify the optimal discriminant and demonstrate the accu-racy and robustness of the method.Results:The cluster discrimination method achieves excellent performance.The sensitivity,specificity,and positive predic-tive values are above 97% on ovarian cancer.The protein fraction peaks,which significantly contribute to the classification,can be available from the analysis process.Conclusion:The discrimination analysis helps the molecular identities of differentially expressed proteins and peptides between the healthy and ovarian patients.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA as a potential tool for early cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parr Ryan L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent surge in mitochondrial research has been driven by the identification of mitochondria-associated diseases and the role of mitochondria in apoptosis. Both of these aspects have identified mitochondrial analysis as a vital component of medical research. Moreover, mitochondria have been implicated in the process of carcinogenesis because of their vital role in energy production, nuclear-cytoplasmic signal integration and control of metabolic pathways. Interestingly, at some point during neoplastic transformation, there is an increase in reactive oxygen species, which damage the mitochondrial genome. This accelerates the somatic mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA. It has been proposed that these mutations may serve as an early indication of potential cancer development and may represent a means for tracking tumour progression. The purpose of this review is to explore the potential utility that these mutations may afford for the identification and monitoring of neoplasia and malignant transformation where appropriate body fluids or non-invasive tissue access is available for mitochondrial DNA recovery. Specifically, prostate, breast, colorectal, skin and lung cancers are discussed.

  19. Proteomic Study of HPV-Positive Head and Neck Cancers: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Descamps

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV was recently recognized as a new risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. For oropharyngeal cancers, an HPV+ status is associated with better prognosis in a subgroup of nonsmokers and nondrinkers. However, HPV infection is also involved in the biology of head and neck carcinoma (HNC in patients with a history of tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption. Thus, the involvement of HPV infection in HN carcinogenesis remains unclear, and further studies are needed to identify and analyze HPV-specific pathways that are involved in this process. Using a quantitative proteomics-based approach, we compared the protein expression profiles of two HPV+ HNC cell lines and one HPV− HNC cell line. We identified 155 proteins that are differentially expressed (P<0.01 in these three lines. Among the identified proteins, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA was upregulated and eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (EEF1α was downregulated in the HPV+ cell lines. Immunofluorescence and western blotting analyses confirmed these results. Moreover, PSCA and EEF1α were differentially expressed in two clinical series of 50 HPV+ and 50 HPV− oral cavity carcinomas. Thus, our study reveals for the first time that PSCA and EEF1α are associated with the HPV-status, suggesting that these proteins could be involved in HPV-associated carcinogenesis.

  20. Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

    Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

  1. Evaluation of role of radical radiotherapy and chemotherapy in cervical cancer patients- A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh Chandel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carcinoma of uterine cervix is the commonest cancer affecting females in developing countries. Concurrent chemoradiation has remained the sole definitive treatment available in the advanced stages. The study was planned to take the advantage of radiosensitisation accruing due to chemotherapy at the time of brachytherapy, when approximately 40% of total tumor dose is applied. Subjects and Methods: Sixty-four patients were enrolled who had locally advanced uterine cervix carcinoma (Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIB–IVA from July 2011 to May 2013 for concurrent chemotherapy and intracavitory brachytherapy after completion of concurrent chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy followed by three insertion of brachytherapy separated by a week by flexitron brachytherapy unit to Point A, for each application was 6 Gy by high dose rate. Cisplatin was given (35 mg/m2 1 day before brachytherapy in each application. Results: At medium follow-up of 19 months (range 8–30 months clinical complete response rate was found to be 89% at 3 months of follow-up. Acute side effect as nausea and vomiting Grades I and II were recorded as 55% and 28% respectively, no renal dysfunction and no thrombocytopenia were encountered. No patients had Grade IV or life threatening toxicity. Overall survival and disease free survival after 30 months of follow-up is 88% and 75% respectively. Conclusion: Use of concurrent chemotherapy with brachytherapy is effective and feasible with acceptable toxicity for locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

  2. Lung cancer risk and welding--preliminary results from an ongoing case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöckel, K H; Ahrens, W; Bolm-Audorff, U

    1994-06-01

    In a hospital-based case-control study, 391 male cases or primary lung cancer and the same number of controls--matched by sex, age, and region--were personally interviewed for their job and smoking histories. The data reported reflect the midpoint of a study aiming at a total of 1,000 cases. One objective of the study was to assess confounding by asbestos exposure in what was thought to be a welding-associated risk. While the odds ratios (OR) increased steeply with cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke and were raised also for lifelong asbestos exposure of over 4,100 working hours (OR = 1.91), the effect of welding exposure was reduced after adjustment for smoking and exposure to asbestos. Furthermore, no consistent dose-response relationship could be shown in relation to welding hours. Therefore the present study supports the hypothesis that some, if not all, of the excess risk of welders observed in the literature may be due to the exposure to asbestos. The finding that the subgroup of employees in the aircraft industry showed an increased odds ratio of 2.14 after adjustment for smoking and exposure to asbestos deserves further attention. This suggests the need for further research on the role of berryllium-containing alloys, which has been suggested by other authors.

  3. Clinical applications of total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence in the treatment of cancer, Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple procedure is presents in which direct irradiation of small (10 ?l) quantities of blood serum, without chemical treatment or internal standard addition, allows reliable quantification of the PT plasma level with a 300 ppb detection limit and precision of 7% (n=7) It is shown that the method allows determination of the time evolution of the drug concentration and the drug half life in the patient the results indicated the viability of an improvement in the clinical practice of chemotherapy by the routine analysis of platinum with total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of circulating tumor cells detection in gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detection has previously been used for diagnosing gastric cancer. However, the previous studies failed to make an agreement whether the detection of CTCs contributes to the diagnosis of gastric cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the overall accuracy of CTCs detection for diagnosing gastric cancer. PubMed, Embase and the Wanfang database were searched in all languages published up to Oct 2012. The pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR, respectively), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve were calculated to evaluate the overall test performance. Twenty studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The diagnostic value of CTCs detection for the gastric cancer was calculated to evaluate the overall test performance. The summary estimates of The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio were 0.42 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21-0.67), 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00), 58.2 (95% CI, 9.8-345.9), 0.58 (95% CI, 0.38-0.89), and 100 (95% CI, 15–663), respectively. The summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). Deek’s funnel plot asymmetry test found no evidence of study publication bias in the current study (P = 0.49). This systematic review suggests that CTCs detection alone cannot be recommended as a screening test for gastric cancer. However, it might be used as a noninvasive method for the confirmation of the gastric cancer diagnosis

  5. Microvessel density and p53 in detecting cervical cancer by FDG PET in cases of suspected recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.M. van der Veldt; L. Hooft; P.J. van Diest; J. Berkhof; M.R. Buist; E.F.I. Comans; O.S. Hoekstra; C.F.M. Molthoff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Cervical cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. About one-third of patients experience recurrent disease. A better chance of survival might be achieved by the early detection of recurrent cervical cancer. [F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy- D-glucose (FDG) PET could be

  6. Defining an outcomes management program for definitive irradiation of prostate cancer: preliminary considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: The advent of managed medical care presents challenges to health care providers who strive to maintain a high quality of patient care at a reasonable cost. The goals of clinical guidelines and paths are to improve the quality of patient care by using outcomes to redefine the path and to eliminate ineffective steps in the clinical algorithm. The purpose of the current endeavor was to systematically develop a clinical pathway for the radiation therapy of prostate cancer which can serve as 1) a measurement tool of operational variables such as cost and utilization, 2) a treatment tool to measure satisfaction and toxicity, 3) a research framework from which questions of efficacy can be investigated. METHODS: An initial path was constructed by the physicians based on recommendations from consensus conference of the Patterns of Care Study (PCS), and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The program was initiated by a core group of 2 attending radiation oncologists, a radiation physicist, a clinical nurse specialist, a dosimetrist, a simulation technologist, a treatment technologist, and a medical social worker. These data served as a baseline from which clinical pathway development could begin using the method of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) as described by Berwick (New Engl J Med 320: 53, 1989). Following the creation of a draft path, the document was circulated to other staff members of the team. Simultaneously, the Clinical Financial Management System (Transition Systems Incorporated, Boston, MA) was applied to departmental and institutional records to determine treatment patterns, utilization, toxicity, and cost for prostate cancer patients irradiated between July 1, 1995 and December 31, 1995. The aforementioned staff team as well as a seven person patient group were queried by a CQI facilitator to identify process and quality factors to be included in the clinical path. RESULTS: During the period of study, 51 patients were definitively

  7. Design of Microwave Camera for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2008-01-01

    superheterodyne architecture, enabling parallel coherent measurements. In this way, mechanical scanning, which is commonly used in measurements of an electromagnetic field distribution, is avoided. The system presented is the first reported 3D microwave breast imaging camera with parallel signal detection...

  8. Cyberknife fractionated radiotherapy for adrenal metastases: Preliminary report from a multispecialty Indian cancer care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinanjan Basu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Metastasis to adrenal gland from lung, breast, and kidney malignancies are quite common. Historically radiotherapy was intended for pain palliation. Recent studies with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT including Cyberknife robotic radiosurgery aiming at disease control brings about encouraging results. Here we represent the early clinical experience with Cyberknife stereotactic system from an Indian cancer care center. The main purpose of this retrospective review is to serve as a stepping stone for future prospective studies with non- invasive yet effective technique compared to surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed four cases of adrenal metastases (three: lung and one: renal cell carcinoma treated with Cyberknife SBRT. X sight spine tracking was employed for planning and treatment delivery. Patients were evaluated for local response clinically as well as with PETCT based response criteria.Results: With a median gross tumor volume of 20.5 cc and median dose per fraction of 10 Gy, two patients had complete response (CR and two had partial response (PR when assessed 8-12 weeks post treatment as per RECIST. There was no RTOG grade 2 or more acute adverse events and organs at risk dosage were acceptable. Till last follow up all the patients were locally controlled and alive. Conclusion: Cyberknife SBRT with its unique advantages like non- invasive, short duration outpatient treatment technique culminating in similar local control rates in comparison to surgery is an attractive option. World literature of linear accelerator based SBRT and our data with Cyberknife SBRT with small sample size and early follow up are similar in terms of local control in adrenal metastases. Future prospective data would reveal more information on the management of adrenal metastases.

  9. Change in diffusion weighted MRI during liver cancer radiotherapy: Preliminary observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, Cynthia L.; Haider, Ehsan A.; Haider, Masoom A.; Fung, Sharon; Lockwood, Gina; Dawson, Laura A. (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    2009-10-15

    Purpose. To evaluate diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in liver and liver cancers during and following conformal radiotherapy (RT). To determine the feasibility of using changes in apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) as a potential surrogate for tumour control or normal tissue injury. Materials and methods. Patients on a six-fraction conformal liver RT protocol underwent DW-MRI at the time of treatment planning, during RT (week one and two) and one month following RT. Diffusion weighted MR images were acquired in exhale breath hold, using b-values of 0 and 600. Regions of interest (ROIs) corresponding to maximal tumour dose, high-dose peri-tumour liver, irradiated normal liver, non-irradiated liver, and spleen were analyzed on ADC maps. Results. Eleven patients (four hepatocellular carcinoma, five liver metastases, two cholangiocarcinoma) were evaluated. The baseline median tumour ADC of 1.56x10-3mm2/sec increased to 1.89x10-3mm2/sec at RT week one, to 1.91x10-3mm2/sec during week two and to 2.01x10-3mm2/sec at one month following treatment (p < 0.0001). Early increases in mean ADC were correlated with higher dose and sustained tumour response, whereas RECIST and volume changes on T2 images were not. Peri-tumour mean ADC also increased, from 1.40x10-3mm2/sec (baseline) to 1.55x10-3mm2/sec (RT week 2) and 1.64 x 10-3mm2/sec (follow-up). Small ADC changes were seen in the irradiated liver, and no significant changes were seen in the un-irradiated liver. Conclusions. Changes in tumour ADC were seen during RT. Larger increases were correlated with higher doses and increased likelihood of response

  10. Preliminary report of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy in head-and-neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemlewski, A.; Zienkiewicz, J. [Medical Univ. of Gdansk (Poland). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Serkies, K.; Badzio, A. [Medical Univ. of Gdansk (Poland). Dept. of Oncology and Radiotherapy

    2007-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and acute/delayed toxicity of pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy (PDR BT) in head-and-neck tumors. Patients and Methods: 45 head and neck cancer patients underwent interstitial or contact PDR BT at a dose of 10.2-70 Gy (median, 70 Gy) and 0.6 or 1.0 Gy/pulse/h. 42 patients were administered BT as part of their curative treatment; 32 of them had sole BT. Three reirradiated patients with recurrent tumor had palliative BT. Results: PDR BT was well tolerated. Intense bleeding was the only complication associated with catheter removal from the tongue and bucca. 44 patients who completed BT experienced acute mucositis. Grade 3 toxicity of skin and oral mucosa occurred in three (6.8%) and six patients (13.6%), respectively. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 2-67 months), late serious toxicity (grade 4, for soft tissue and bone) was seen in seven patients (15.9%). Among the parameters analyzed, only dental care performed before BT had a significant impact on mucosal side effects. Acute severe mucositis was observed in 23% of patients without dental care compared to 0% of those with dental care (p = 0.044). Late severe mucositis occurred in 17.7% and 26.9% of the respective patients (p = 0.035), overall in 23%. The larger the volume encompassed by the reference isodose, the more late (p = 0.004) mucosal reactions were observed. Conclusion: PDR BT continued over a few days is a feasible and safe approach in head-and-neck tumors; however, it is accompanied by some toxicity. Dental care should precede isotope application. (orig.)

  11. Protection against azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in rats by Phyllanthus amarus: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Ramalingam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Pancreatic cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. We studied the chemopreventive effect of Phyllanthus amarus on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status, which is used as biomarkers in azaserine induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in wistar rats. Male albino rats were randomized into 8 groups of animals each. Rats in group 1 received 1.0 ml of 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC everyday via intragastric intubation and served as an untreated control. Groups 2- 4 rats received Phyllanthus amarus via intragastric intubation (p.o at a daily dose of (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight. The rats in groups 5-8 received azaserine (5 mg/kg body weight injection once in a week intraperitonially (i.p for 3 weeks. In addition, groups 6 - 8 received Phyllanthus amarus as in groups 2-4 respectively and continued till the end of the experimental period. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 3 weeks. In the presence of azaserine, relative to the results for the control rats, there were increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as denoted by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased activities of the enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH. In Our study show that intragastric administration of Phyllanthus amarus inhibits pancreatic carcinogenesis, not only by modulating lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status, but also by preventing azaserine induced histopathological changes. Our results thus indicate that Phyllanthus amarus may act as a chemopreventive agent for pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  12. Computational methods for detecting copy number variations in cancer genome using next generation sequencing: principles and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Biao; Morrison, Carl D.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Qin, Maochun; Conroy, Jeffrey C.; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song

    2013-01-01

    Accurate detection of somatic copy number variations (CNVs) is an essential part of cancer genome analysis, and plays an important role in oncotarget identifications. Next generation sequencing (NGS) holds the promise to revolutionize somatic CNV detection. In this review, we provide an overview of current analytic tools used for CNV detection in NGS-based cancer studies. We summarize the NGS data types used for CNV detection, decipher the principles for data preprocessing, segmentation, and ...

  13. Breast lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in clinically axillary node negative breast cancer: A preliminary report of 35 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cases, additional concomitant axillary lymph nodes metastases were detected. In 4 cases, SLN was negative on frozen section and skipped metastasis lymph nodes were noted. Of those 3 cases that the SLNs were unable to localize on lymphoscintigraphy, the axillary lymph nodes were found positive for tumor cells in 2 cases and the remaining 1 case was negative for tumor involvement. We conclude that SLN localization using lymphoscintigraphy is an accurate, minimally invasive procedure for staging breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph node status and can substantially reduce the morbidity and costs of surgical treatment by avoiding unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection in the majority of patients. (author)

  14. Current status and prospects of clinical proteomics studies on detection of colorectal cancer: Hopes and fears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ME de Noo; RAEM Tollenaar; AM Deelder; LH Bouwman

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the fourth most frequent cause of death due to cancer worldwide. Given the natural history of CRC, early diagnosis appears to be the most appropriate tool to reduce disease-related mortality. A field of recent interest is clinical proteomics, which was reported to lead to high sensitivity and specificities for early detection of several solid tumors. This emerging field uses mass spectrometry-based protein profiles/patterns of easy accessible body fluids to distinguish cancer from non-cancer patients. These discrepancies may be a result of: (1) proteins being abnormally produced or shed and added to the serum proteome, (2) proteins clipped or modified as a consequence of the disease process, or (3) proteins subtracted from the proteome owing to disease-related proteolytic degradation pathways. Therefore, protein pattern diagnostics would provide easy and reliable tools for detection of cancer. This paper focuses on the current status of clinical proteomics research in oncology and in colorectal cancer especially,and will reflect on pitfalls and fears in this relatively new area of clinical medicine, which are reproducibility issues and pre-analytical factors, statistical issues, and identification and nature of discriminating proteins/peptides.

  15. Integrated OCT-US catheter for detection of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Cummins, Thomas; Shung, K. Kirk; Van Dam, Jacques; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2015-03-01

    Gastrointestinal tract cancer, the most common type of cancer, has a very low survival rate, especially for pancreatic cancer (five year survival rate of 5%) and bile duct cancer (five year survival rate of 12%). Here, we propose to use an integrated OCT-US catheter for cancer detection. OCT is targeted to acquire detailed information, such as dysplasia and neoplasia, for early detection of tumors. US is used for staging cancers according to the size of the primary tumor and whether or not it has invaded lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Considering the lumen size of the GI tract, an OCT system with a long image range (>10mm) and a US imaging system with a center frequency at 40MHz (penetration depth > 5mm) were used. The OCT probe was also designed for long-range imaging. The side-view OCT and US probes were sealed inside one probe cap piece and one torque coil and became an integrated probe. This probe was then inserted into a catheter sheath which fits in the channel of a duodenoscope and is able to be navigated smoothly into the bile duct by the elevator of the duodenoscope. We have imaged 5 healthy and 2 diseased bile ducts. In the OCT images, disorganized layer structures and heterogeneous regions demonstrated the existence of tumors. Micro-calcification can be observed in the corresponding US images.

  16. Detection of telornerase activity and cytology in diagnosis of cardiac cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Qing Ming Wu; Sheng Bao Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the diagnostic significance of cytology and telomerase activity in the exfoliated cells ofcardia obtained from endoscopic brushing in the cardiac cancer.METHODS The techniques of the qualitative TRAP-silver staining and quantitative TRAP-PCR-ELISAwere employed to detect telomerase activity in the exfoliated cells of cardia obtained from endoscopicbrushing in 72 cases with cardial lesions, cytological diagnosis was made at the same time.RESULTS Telomerase activity with cardiac cancer group (1.521 ± 0. 192) was significantly higher than thatwith cardialitis group (0.065± 0.014). Positive rate of telomerase activity detected in cardiac cancer group(88.89%) was significantly higher than that with cardialitis group (11.11%), the former was significantlyhiger than cytological examination (77.78%). The diagnostic rate of cardiac cancer reached 93.33% iftelomerase activity and cytology were examined at the same time.CONCLUSION Cytology and telomerase activity in the exfoliated cardiac cells may be an effective andsensitive methods in the diagnosis of cardiac cancer. This research can be a basis for the mass screening ofcardiac cancer.

  17. Detection of STAT2 in early stage of cervical premalignancy and in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zeng; Li-Hua Gao; Li-Jun Cao; De-Yun Feng; Ya Cao; Qi-Zhi Luo; Ping Yu; Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To measure the expression pattern ofSTAT2 in cervical cancer initiation and progression in tissue sections from patients with cervicitis, dysplasia, and cervical cancer. Methods:Antibody against humanSTAT2 was confirmed by plasmids transient transfection andWestern blot.Immunohistochemistry was used to detectSTAT2 expression in the cervical biopsies by using the confirmed antibody againstSTAT2 as the primary antibody.Results:It was found that the overall rate of positiveSTAT2 expression in the cervicitis, dysplasia and cervical cancer groups were38.5%,69.4% and76.9%, respectively.TheSTAT2 levels are significantly increased in premalignant dysplasia and cervical cancer, as compared to cervicitis(P<0.05). Noticeably,STAT2 signals were mainly found in the cytoplasm, implying thatSTAT2 was not biologically active.Conclusions:These findings reveal an association between cervical cancer progression and augmentedSTAT2 expression.In conclusion,STAT2 increase appears to be an early detectable cellular event in cervical cancer development.

  18. Detecting the somatic mutations spectrum of Chinese lung cancer by analyzing the whole mitochondrial DNA genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jun; Qiao, Fei; Chen, Hua-Mei; Hong, Zhi-Peng

    2015-02-01

    To detect the somatic mutations and character its spectrum in Chinese lung cancer patients. In this study, we sequenced the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes for 10 lung cancer patients including the primary cancerous, matched paracancerous normal and distant normal tissues. By analyzing the 30 whole mtDNA genomes, eight somatic mutations were identified from five patients investigated, which were confirmed with the cloning and sequencing of the somatic mutations. Five of the somatic mutations were detected among control region and the rests were found at the coding region. Heterogeneity was the main character of the somatic mutations in Chinese lung cancer patients. Further potential disease-related screening showed that, except the C deletion at position 309 showed AD-weakly associated, most of them were not disease-related. Although the role of aforementioned somatic mutations was unknown, however, considering the relative higher frequency of somatic mutations among the whole mtDNA genomes, it hints that detecting the somatic mutation(s) from the whole mtDNA genomes can serve as a useful tool for the Chinese lung cancer diagnostic to some extent.

  19. Evaluation of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography in detection of local recurrent colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau-Tong You; Chung-Rong Chang Chien; Jeng-Yi Wang; Koon-Kwan Ng; Jinn-Shiun Chen; Reiping Tang; Jy-Ming Chiang; Chien-Yuh Yeh; Pao-Shiu Hsieh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity,specificity of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography in detecting local recurrence of colorectal cancer.METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2004,434 patients after potentially curative resection for invasive colorectal cancer were followed up for a period ranging from 20 to 55 mo. Eighty of the four hundred and thirty-four patients showing strong clinical evidence for recurring colorectal cancer during the last followup were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography and colonoscopy on the same day. Any lesions, biopsies,identified during the colonoscopic examination, immediate complications and the duration of the procedure were recorded. The results of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography were evaluated by comparing to those of colonoscopy, surgical finding, and clinical follow-up.RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 83% and an overall accuracy of 94% in detecting local recurrent colorectal cancer.CONCLUSION: Conventional colonoscopy and contrastenhanced tomographic colonography can complement each other in detecting local recurrence of colorectal cancer.

  20. DETECTION OF p53 GENE MUTATION IN PLASMA OF PATIENTS WITH GASTRIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏鹏程; 李子禹; 张连海; 万文徽; 任晖; 张桂国; 王怡; 邓国仁; 季加孚

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigated p53 gene mutation in plasma of gastric cancer patients. Methods: DNA extracted from plasma and matched tumor and tumor-adjacent non-cancerous tissues of 96 gastric cancer patients, and DNA from 20 healthy volunteers were studied. Exon 5, 6, 7, and 8 of p53 were amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The mutation status was analyzed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), followed by direct sequencing of cases with aberrant chromatographic patterns. Results: Heterozygous mutations of p53 gene were detected in 19.9% (19/96) of primary tumor tissues and 5.2% (5/96) of corresponding plasma. All p53 gene mutations detected in plasma DNA consisted with mutations in the matched primary tumor samples. Neither the tumor-adjacent gastric mucosa tissues nor control plasma from healthy volunteers showed p53 gene mutation. No correlation was found between p53 mutation status and clinicopathological features of gastric cancer patients. Conclusion: p53 gene mutation in plasma can be detected in tissues and plasma of gastric cancer patients, which could be applied in screening and surveillance of this disease.