WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer control coalition

  1. Sustainability in a state comprehensive cancer control coalition: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Renee A; Chapman, Kathryn; Graf, Gavin; Stanfield, Bret; Waterbor, John W

    2014-03-01

    The Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC) has developed an integrated and coordinated approach to reducing cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and to improving the quality of life for cancer survivors, their families, and their caregivers. The ACCCC is currently in a maintenance phase and a formal plan for sustainability of the coalition was needed to keep the members engaged and productive. A training session in coalition sustainability conducted in 2013 identified the following elements as essential to success: (1) increased marketing of the coalition by simplifying its mission; (2) improved networking including flexibility in coalition meeting location and attendance; (3) increased membership satisfaction through transformational leadership; (4) revision of the working structure of committees and improved accountability; and (5) enhancement of partner satisfaction with coalition activities designed to recruit and retain new partners. A self-administered membership satisfaction survey was given to assess coalition mission, meeting logistics, organization, capacity building, and coalition goals. Results indicated that the subcategories of communication, mission, and meeting logistics were rated satisfied to very satisfied on a five-point scale. Although the ACCCC had clearly written goals, improvement could be made in leadership participation and new member orientation could be improved. Most members rated their parent organization as highly involved with the ACCCC and many offered suggestions on capacity building. Results of the sustainability training have clarified the ACCCC's plans to ensure coalition viability and improve strategies to inform stakeholders of the benefits of participation in the coalition.

  2. National Ovarian Cancer Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... History Day – Prepare for a Family Conversation About Genetics and Cancer November 08, 2017 Live Webinar on ... us here . Thanksgiving Day, November 23rd, is National Family ... Read ... Tree Display November 19, 2017 @ 10:00AM Hosted by ...

  3. Coalitions: Organizational, Political, Command & Control Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    assessment of their evolution with regard to advances in technology. The Command & Control (C2) structure of coalitions is detailed, including decision...assessment of the effects of technology on their evolution . Coalitions with equal and unequal partners are distinguished and their functioning...Gaulle is said to have remarked, “Dans toute association de deux hommes , il y en a toujours un qui se fait porter par l’autre.2” Throughout history

  4. National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the 11 other member organizations of the Cancer Leadership Council sent a letter to Congress expressing “serious concerns about the potential negative impact of tax reform legislation currently under consideration on those living with cancer.” Three areas of ...

  5. Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Robert; Demers, David; Gouin, Denis; McCann, Carol; Nourry, Gerard; Pigeau, Ross; Smith, Donald L.; Vezina, Guy; Walker, Robert S.

    1998-08-01

    Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.

  6. Research collaboration in the discovery, development, and delivery networks of a statewide cancer coalition

    OpenAIRE

    Provan, Keith G; Leischow, Scott J.; Keagy, Judith; Nodora, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    This study examines and evaluates collaborative network involvement among 18 organizations within the Arizona Cancer Coalition. All were involved in one or more of three types of research activity: discovery, development, and delivery, consistent with the 3D continuum developed by the National Cancer Institute. Data were collected in 2007 using surveys of key informants in each organization. Using network analysis methods, we examined the structure of each type of network as well as the relat...

  7. Continued benefits of a technical assistance web site to local tobacco control coalitions during a state budget shortfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Young, Walter F; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Borland, Ron; Walther, Joseph B; Helme, Donald; Andersen, Peter A; Cutter, Gary R; Maloy, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    A state budget shortfall defunded 10 local tobacco coalitions during a randomized trial but defunded coalitions continued to have access to 2 technical assistance Web sites. To test the ability of Web-based technology to provide technical assistance to local tobacco control coalitions. Randomized 2-group trial with local tobacco control coalitions as the unit of randomization. Local communities (ie, counties) within the State of Colorado. Leaders and members in 34 local tobacco control coalitions funded by the state health department in Colorado. Two technical assistance Web sites: A Basic Web site with text-based information and a multimedia Enhanced Web site containing learning modules, resources, and communication features. Use of the Web sites in minutes, pages, and session and evaluations of coalition functioning on coalition development, conflict resolution, leadership satisfaction, decision-making satisfaction, shared mission, personal involvement, and organization involvement in survey of leaders and members. Coalitions that were defunded but had access to the multimedia Enhanced Web site during the Fully Funded period and after defunding continued to use it (treatment group × funding status × period, F(3,714) = 3.18, P = .0234). Coalitions with access to the Basic Web site had low Web site use throughout and use by defunded coalitions was nearly zero when funding ceased. Members in defunded Basic Web site coalitions reported that their coalitions functioned worse than defunded Enhanced Web site coalitions (coalition development: group × status, F(1,360) = 4.81, P = .029; conflict resolution: group × status, F(1,306) = 5.69, P = .018; leadership satisfaction: group × status, F(1,342) = 5.69, P = .023). The Enhanced Web site may have had a protective effect on defunded coalitions. Defunded coalitions may have increased their capacity by using the Enhanced Web site when fully funded or by continuing to use the available online resources after defunding

  8. Tobacco-free community coalitions: opportunities for enhancing oral cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Judith G; Kolker, Justine L; McGowan, Joan M; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid I

    2009-01-01

    This study identified oral cancer (OC) education and tobacco reduction collaboration within tobacco-free community coalitions (TFCC). Data from 4 TFCC were collected via educational intervention surveys and structured focused group Interviews. Of the 52 participants, 96% were aware that tobacco products are risk factors for OC, yet 33% were unaware of the high OC impact locally. About 90% agreed that primary care providers and dentists should provide OC screenings and tobacco cessation. There is a need for provider endorsement and public demand for OC screenings. Opportunity exists for partnering and collaborative OC prevention with TFCC.

  9. Research collaboration in the discovery, development, and delivery networks of a statewide cancer coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Keith G; Leischow, Scott J; Keagy, Judith; Nodora, Jesse

    2010-11-01

    This study examines and evaluates collaborative network involvement among 18 organizations within the Arizona Cancer Coalition. All were involved in one or more of three types of research activity: discovery, development, and delivery, consistent with the 3D continuum developed by the National Cancer Institute. Data were collected in 2007 using surveys of key informants in each organization. Using network analysis methods, we examined the structure of each type of network as well as the relationship between network position and the importance of cancer research to each organization's mission. Findings indicated that while both the discovery and delivery networks were comparably densely connected, their centrality structures were quite different. In contrast, the structures of both these networks were similar to the development network. Centrality in the discovery and development networks was positively related to the importance of cancer research to the organization, but not in the delivery network. Implications of the findings for future research, policy, and planning are discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal control for competitive-cooperative systems: Modeling flexible coalitions in tomorrow`s competitive world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhart, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The last years have witnessed a dramatic shift of the world`s military, political, and economic paradigm from a bi-polar competitive gridlock to a more fluid, multi-player environment. This change has necessarily been followed by a re-evaluation of the strategic thinking and by a reassessment of mutual positions, options, and decisions. The essential attributes of the new situation are modeled by a system of nonlinear evolution equations with competitive/cooperative interactions. The mathematical setting is quite general to accommodate models related to military confrontation, arms control, economic competition, political negotiations, etc. Irrespective of the specific details, all these situations share a common denominator, namely the presence of various players with different and often changing interests and goals. The interests, ranging from conflicting to consensual, are defined in a context of interactions between the players that vary from competitive to cooperative. Players with converging interests tend to build up cooperative coalitions while coalitions with diverging interests usually compete among themselves, but this is not an absolute requirement (namely, one may have groups with converging interests and competitive interactions, and vice-versa). Appurtenance to a coalition may change in time according to the shift in one`s perceptions, interests, or obligations. During the time evolution, the players try to modify their strategies as to best achieve their respective goals. An objective functional quantifying the rate of success (payoff) vs. effort (cost) measures the degree of goal attainment for all players involved, thus selecting an optimal strategy based on optimal controls. While the technical details may vary from problem to problem, the general approach described here establishes a standard framework for a host of concrete situations that may arise from tomorrow`s {open_quotes}next competition{close_quotes}.

  11. Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial

  12. Using BML to Command and Control UAV Systems in a Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA564685. 2010 Coalition Battle Management Language Workshop (Atelier 2010 sur le langage de gestion du champ de bataille pour...algorithms for automatic target recognition emulation DRCI (detection, recognition, classification & identification) • Utilized George Mason University

  13. Evaluating Progress in Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, Pascal; Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio

    2017-04-04

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) funds every state, seven tribes, seven territories and the District of Columbia to develop formal cancer plans that focus efforts in cancer control. A 2010 review of cancer plans identified radon-related activities in 27 (42%) plans. Since then, 37 coalitions have updated their plans with new or revised cancer control objectives. There has also been recent efforts to increase awareness about radon among cancer coalitions. This study assesses NCCCP grantees current radon activities and changes since the 2010 review. We reviewed all 65 NCCCP grantee cancer plans created from 2005 to 2015 for radon related search terms and categorized plans by radon activities. The program's most recent annual progress report to CDC was also reviewed. We then compared the results from the updated plans with the findings from the 2010 review to assess changes in radon activities among cancer coalitions. Changes in state radon laws between 2010 and 2015 were also assessed. While a number of cancer plans have added or expanded radon-specific activities since 2010, approximately one-third of NCCCP grantees still do not include radon in their cancer plans. Cancer programs can consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs to further reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially among non-smokers.

  14. Radon control activities for lung cancer prevention in national comprehensive cancer control program plans, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Antonio; Stewart, Sherri L; Angell, William

    2013-08-08

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms "radon," "radiation," or "lung." Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program's most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n=21), remediation (n=11), support radon policy activities (n=13), and policy evaluation (n=1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n=21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs.

  15. Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Angell, William

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. Methods We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms “radon,” “radiation,” or “lung.” Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program’s most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Results Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Conclusion Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs. PMID:23928457

  16. Immunization Action Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Favorites ACIP Recommendations Package Inserts Additional Immunization Resources Photos Adult Vaccination Screening Checklists Ask the ...

  17. ADE and the English Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses English coalitions, "Some Plain Truths about Teaching English" (a statement drafted by the Coalition of English Associations), problems of the profession with communications, and ADE history. (EL)

  18. Tracing the evolution of pluralism in community-based coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Ford, Eric W; Holt, Michelle L; McClure, Jennifer A; Ward, Ann

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a crisis of leadership succession led to greater subsequent pluralism by the previously less inclusive coalition. Substantial tension existed between both coalitions and the federally funded Appalachia Cancer Network, especially around its evidence-based mission. The fact that this tension occurred even at the more locally inclusive site indicates that pluralism may vary across levels within the same coalition. This article contributes to theory by exploring how coalitions evolve over time across community boundaries, as well as to management practice by yielding guidance about how to build inclusive organizations.

  19. Minority coalition governance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2014-01-01

    in this share of coalition agreement-based laws. The analyses are based on unique data on legislative as well as governmental coalition agreements entered by three Danish governments with varying parliamentary strength. This study brings the blooming literature on coalition agreements one step further......Coalition governance is a challenge for political parties because it involves cooperation and compromises between parties that have different political goals and are competitors in political elections. Coalition coordination is crucial for the intra-coalitional cooperation of the governing parties....... A key element in coalition coordination is coalition agreements, which to a varying degree constrain the behaviour of the coalition partners. This article explores the share of laws that were precisely defined in government agreements and/or legislative agreements, and sets out to explain variation...

  20. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  1. Danish Experiences with Coalition Governments and Coalition Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Flemming Juul; Klemmensen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we outline the Danish and Scandinavian experiences with coalition governments and coalition governance. We do so by first briefly describing the historical path that has led to the political system we see working today in these countries. Then we tell about the political culture...

  2. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  3. A model-driven approach to qualitatively assessing the added value of community coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Elizabeth Jane; Keller, Adrienne; Davis, Adam; Ehrensberger, Ryan; Telleen, Sharon; Kurz, Richard; Nesvold, Jill Heins; Findley, Sally; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Benson, Mindy; Fierro, Leslie

    2011-02-01

    Community-based coalitions are commonly formed to plan and to carry out public health interventions. The literature includes evaluations of coalition structure, composition, and functioning; evaluations of community-level changes achieved through coalition activities; and the association between coalition characteristics and various indicators of success. Little information is available on the comparative advantage or "added value" of conducting public health interventions through coalitions as opposed to less structured collaborative mechanisms. This paper describes a qualitative, iterative process carried out with site representatives of the Controlling Asthma in American Cities Project (CAACP) to identify outcomes directly attributable to coalitions. The process yielded 2 complementary sets of results. The first were criteria that articulated and limited the concept of "added value of coalitions". The criteria included consensus definitions, an organizing figure, a logic model, and inclusion/exclusion criteria. The second set of results identified site-specific activities that met the definitional criteria and were, by agreement, examples of CAACP coalitions' added value. Beyond the specific findings relevant to the added value of coalitions in this project, the use of a social ecological model to identify the components of added value and the placement of those components within a logic model specific to coalitions should provide useful tools for those planning and assessing coalition-based projects.

  4. National Coalition for Homeless Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Continues Support of National Campaign to End Veteran Homelessness Nov. 14, 2017 This Veterans Day, Harbor Freight ... support of the national campaign to end veteran homelessness through generous contributions to the National Coalition for ...

  5. Improving HPV Vaccination Through a Diverse Multi-state Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Echo L; Fowler, Brynn; Martel, Laura; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-04-09

    Rural and highly religious Intermountain West states demonstrate low levels of HPV vaccination uptake. The Intermountain West HPV Vaccination Coalition (IWHVC) was formed to improve HPV vaccination by enhancing collaborations between cancer centers, health departments, health clinics, religious groups, and community organizations. Coalition members' perceptions and experiences are described within. A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to the IWHVC. N = 86 responded to the online survey. Six subsequent focus groups were conducted (N = 36). Participant demographics, barriers, and facilitators of HPV vaccination were summarized. The first three focus groups were coded in an iterative manner based on a coding scheme. The final three focus groups were selectively coded for content related to five themes: barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination, how the coalition has been useful, future directions of the coalition, and how to engage religious communities. Participants suggested that HPV vaccination should occur in a doctor's office (70.9%), public health clinic (64.0%), or at a community health fair (58.1%). Perceived barriers included a lack of education/low knowledge about the HPV vaccine (55.8%), concerns about sexuality/promiscuity (44.2%), and not knowing the vaccine is recommended for boys (38.4%). Participants stressed the importance of gaining buy-in from religious leaders, and felt the coalition helped them advocate for HPV vaccination through networking, idea and information sharing, and voicing their community's needs. Future goals emphasized targeted outreach, sustainable funding, expanded environmental scans, gaining religious support, and policy reforms. Targeted coalition work builds community capacity and coordinates HPV vaccination efforts. A community driven coalition approach could help improve HPV vaccination in other rural and highly religious regions.

  6. Core stability in hedonic coalition formation

    OpenAIRE

    Woeginger, Gerhard J.

    2012-01-01

    In many economic, social and political situations individuals carry out activities in groups (coalitions) rather than alone and on their own. Examples range from households and sport clubs to research networks, political parties and trade unions. The underlying game theoretic framework is known as coalition formation. This survey discusses the notion of core stability in hedonic coalition formation (where each player's happiness only depends on the other members of his coalition but not on ho...

  7. Towards a Conditional Model of Coalition Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Sebastianus A.H.

    1985-01-01

    This is an attempt to formulate a conditional model of coalition formation. Predictions from this model are tested against data on coalition formation in Dutch local government in 1982. Starting from a simple model of the behaviour of party politicians, it is assumed that the coalition behaviour of

  8. Coalition Warfare: the Leadership Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    multinational operations, leadership challenges, leadership attributes, unity of command. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: UNCLASSIFIED 17. LIMITATION OF...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Coalition Warfare: The leadership challenges A Monograph by Colonel Mark J Thornhill...The leadership challenges. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel Mark J. Thornhill

  9. Subtalar Coalition: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CG Chua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Subtalar coalition is an uncommon condition that usually manifests in early adolescence(1. Frequently, this condition is missed. Delayed diagnosis may result in osteoarthritis requiring triple arthrodesis. Here, we report two patients with subtalar coalition. The first patient is a 12 year old boy who presented with right ankle pain for one year and was treated with excision of the coalition and bone wax insertion at the excision site. We followed up the patient for two years and the result was excellent with full range of movement of his right ankle and subtalar joint attained within two months. He returned to athletic activity by six months and was discharged with no complications after two years. The second patient is a 15 year old girl who presented with bilateral ankle pain and swelling for three years and was treated with excision of the coalition and subtalar interpositional arthroplasty bilaterally. She defaulted follow up after seven months as she was very satisfied with the result. We wish to highlight this condition which may be misdiagnosed as flexible flat foot or ankle sprain.

  10. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 3. Recommendations on alcohol consumption. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N R; Ashley, M J; Carruthers, S G; Lacourcière, Y; McKay, D W

    1999-05-04

    low-risk drinking guidelines (i.e., healthy adults who choose to drink should limit alcohol consumption to 2 or fewer standard drinks per day, with consumption not exceeding 14 standard drinks per week for men and 9 standard drinks per week for women). (3) Hypertensive patients should also be advised to limit alcohol consumption to the levels set out in the Canadian low-risk drinking guidelines. These recommendations are similar to those of the World Hypertension League, the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Primary Prevention of Hypertension and the previous recommendations of the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control and the Canadian Hypertension Society. They have not been clinically tested. The low-risk drinking guidelines are those of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario and the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. The low-risk drinking guidelines have been endorsed by the College of Family Physicians of Canada and several provincial organizations.

  11. On the nature of voters’ coalition preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Carolina; Aichholzer, Julian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT An expanding literature indicates that in multiparty systems with coalition governments, citizens consider the post-electoral bargaining process among parties when casting their vote. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the nature of voters’ coalition preferences. This paper uses data from the Austrian National Election Study to examine the determinants as well as the independence of preferences for coalitions as political object. We find that coalition preferences are strongly informed by spatial considerations; but additional non-ideological factors, such as party and leader preferences, also play a fundamental role. We also find that coalitions enjoy a certain degree of independence from other objects of vote choice and they do not always represent a simple average score on the feeling thermometer of the constituent parties. There are, however, substantial differences among voters, with party identifiers and those with extreme ideology being less likely to consider coalitions as separate entities from their component parties. PMID:28824702

  12. On the nature of voters' coalition preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Carolina; Aichholzer, Julian

    2017-07-03

    An expanding literature indicates that in multiparty systems with coalition governments, citizens consider the post-electoral bargaining process among parties when casting their vote. Yet, we know surprisingly little about the nature of voters' coalition preferences. This paper uses data from the Austrian National Election Study to examine the determinants as well as the independence of preferences for coalitions as political object. We find that coalition preferences are strongly informed by spatial considerations; but additional non-ideological factors, such as party and leader preferences, also play a fundamental role. We also find that coalitions enjoy a certain degree of independence from other objects of vote choice and they do not always represent a simple average score on the feeling thermometer of the constituent parties. There are, however, substantial differences among voters, with party identifiers and those with extreme ideology being less likely to consider coalitions as separate entities from their component parties.

  13. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Banglade...

  14. Radiographic diagnosis of posterior facet talocalcaneal coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staser, Jonathan [Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Karmazyn, Boaz [Indiana University/Purdue University at Indianapolis, Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Lubicky, John [Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Orthopedics, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2007-01-15

    Tarsal coalition is a relatively common segmentation abnormality of the hindfoot that can result in foot and ankle pain in both adolescents and adults. The most common types are calcaneonavicular and talocalcaneal. Posterior subtalar facet coalition is less common. We present a 10-year-old boy with a history of chronic left ankle and foot pain. Radiographs demonstrated calcaneal ''humpback'' sign, representing the posterior subtalar bony coalition, and CT demonstrated in more detail the extent of bony and fibrous coalition. These findings led to surgical intervention. (orig.)

  15. Campus and Community Coalitions. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on campus and community coalitions. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Campus and Community Coalitions: Implementing Environmental Prevention Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Campus Brief: University of Rhode Island; (3) International Town & Gown Association; (4) Q&A With…

  16. Wind energy aggregation: A coalitional game approach

    KAUST Repository

    Baeyens, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we explore the extent to which a group of N wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation and quantity risk sharing by forming a willing coalition to pool their variable power to jointly offer their aggregate power output as single entity into a forward energy market. We prove that wind power generators will always improve their expected profit when they aggregate their generated power and use tools from coalitional game theory to design fair sharing mechanisms to allocate the payoff among the coalition participants. We show that the corresponding coalitional game is super-additive and has a nonempty core. Hence, there always exists a mechanism for profit-sharing that makes the coalition stable. However, the game is not convex and the celebrated Shapley value may not belong to the core of the game. An allocation mechanism that minimizes the worst-case dissatisfaction is proposed. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 4. Recommendations on physical exercise training. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléroux, J; Feldman, R D; Petrella, R J

    1999-05-04

    of moderate rhythmic exercise of the lower limbs, such as brisk walking or cycling, 3 or 4 times per week to reduce blood pressure, (2) Exercise should be prescribed as an adjunctive therapy for people who require pharmacologic therapy for hypertension, especially those who are not receiving beta-blockers. (3) People who do not have hypertension should participate in regular exercise as it will decrease blood pressure and reduce the risk of coronary artery disease, although there is no direct evidence that it will prevent hypertension. These recommendations agree with those of the World Hypertension League, the American College of Sports Medicine, the report of the US Surgeon General on physical activity and health, and the US National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health. These guidelines have not been clinically tested. The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

  18. Oversized Government Coalitions in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Meireles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on executive-legislative relations in presidential systems have emphasized how presidents use cabinet appointments to form and manage government coalitions in the absence of majority legislative support. Yet not all coalitions are similar, as some are larger and, consequently, more prone to agency and coordination problems than others. But what shapes presidents’ decision to include more parties in their coalitions? While several hypotheses exist in the literature, few have been tested in a systematic fashion, none focusing on why surplus coalitions form. This article intends to fill this gap by examining an original time-series cross-sectional dataset comprising 168 unique coalitions in all 18 Latin American presidential countries since 1979. In particular, I find that highly fragmented party systems and presidents with great legislative powers are more likely to generate oversized government coalitions. An additional analysis, with monthly data from Brazilian cabinets between 1989 and 2010, also shows that supermajority rules and bicameralism dynamics play a role in the occurrence of surplus coalitions, but party discipline and presidential approval do not.

  19. Coalitional games and contracts based on individual deviations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, P.E.M.; Lazarova, E.A.; van Velzen, S.

    2011-01-01

    We study what coalitions form and how the members of each coalition split the coalition value in coalitional games in which only individual deviations are allowed. In this context we employ three stability notions: individual, contractual, and compensational stability. These notions differ in terms

  20. Developmental Stages and Work Capacities of Community Coalitions: How Extension Educators Address and Evaluate Changing Coalition Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Allison; Riffe, Jane; Peck, Terrill; Kaczor, Cheryl; Nix, Kelly; Faulkner-Van Deysen, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators provide resources to community coalitions. The study reported here adds to what is known about community coalitions and applies an assessment framework to a state-level coalition-based Extension program on healthy relationships and marriages. The study combines the Internal Coalition Outcome Hierarchy (ICOH) framework with four…

  1. Tarsal tunnel disease and talocalcaneal coalition: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FitzGerald Alaia, Erin; Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka; Bencardino, Jenny T.; Ciavarra, Gina A.; Petchprapa, Catherine N. [New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Rossi, Ignacio [New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Centro de Diagnostico Dr. Enrique Rossi, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    To assess, utilizing MRI, tarsal tunnel disease in patients with talocalcaneal coalitions. To the best of our knowledge, this has only anecdotally been described before. Sixty-seven ankle MRIs with talocalcaneal coalition were retrospectively reviewed for disease of tendons and nerves of the tarsal tunnel. Interobserver variability in diagnosing tendon disease was performed in 30 of the 67 cases. Tarsal tunnel nerves were also evaluated in a control group of 20 consecutive ankle MRIs. Entrapment of the flexor hallucis longus tendon (FHL) by osseous excrescences was seen in 14 of 67 cases (21 %). Attenuation, split tearing, tenosynovitis, or tendinosis of the FHL was present in 26 cases (39 %). Attenuation or tenosynovitis was seen in the flexor digitorum longus tendon (FDL) in 18 cases (27 %). Tenosynovitis or split tearing of the posterior tibial tendon (PT) was present in nine cases (13 %). Interobserver variability ranged from 100 % to slight depending on the tendon and type of disease. Intense increased signal and caliber of the medial plantar nerve (MPN), indicative of neuritis, was seen in 6 of the 67 cases (9 %). Mildly increased T2 signal of the MPN was seen in 15 (22 %) and in 14 (70 %) of the control group. Talocalcaneal coalitions may be associated with tarsal tunnel soft tissue abnormalities affecting, in decreasing order, the FHL, FDL, and PT tendons, as well as the MPN. This information should be provided to the referring physician in order to guide treatment and improve post-surgical outcome. (orig.)

  2. Planning for cancer control programs: Leadership considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John; Sutcliffe, Simon B

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a significant challenge globally. Reducing the impact of cancer requires a program and plans that address the main aspects of cancer from prevention through to end-of-life care. This article summarizes the requirements of a robust cancer control program and outlines the contextual and leadership considerations that are required to ensure that the planning and implementation of a control program can achieve improved cancer outcomes.

  3. INTELLIGENCE CYCLE PLANNING IN MILITARY COALITION OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin ANTON

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A long list of allied or coalition type military actions against entities declared as aggressors, failed or terrorist states/organizations has been recorded for the past 25 years. To reach an end state for any action planned by the military or established at any decagon making level, usually the political one, all information must be shared throughout all coalition/ allied components. That is mainly done by specialized elements that play the role of primary structures in charge of analyzing all information necessary for the military commander’s decision-making process. In this context, the article aims to outline the importance of the decision-making process for military commandants, as part of large /important coalition / allied structures and the level of training required of the latter to use the intelligence cycle to fulfill their main mission in their area of responsibility.

  4. Advancing coalition theory: the effect of coalition factors on community capacity mediated by member engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Swan, Deanne W

    2012-08-01

    Community coalitions have the potential to enhance a community's capacity to engage in effective problem solving for a range of community concerns. Although numerous studies have documented correlations between member engagement and coalition processes and structural characteristics, fewer have examined associations between coalition factors and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities program to examine pathways between coalition factors (i.e. membership, processes), member engagement (i.e. participation, satisfaction) and community capacity as hypothesized by the Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT). Surveys were completed by 231 members of 19 healthy cities and communities coalitions. Multilevel mediation analyses were used to examine possible mediating effects of member engagement on three community capacity indicators: new skills, sense of community and social capital. Results generally supported CCAT. Member engagement mediated the effects of leadership and staffing on community capacity outcomes. Results also showed that member engagement mediated several relationships between process variables (i.e. task focus, cohesion) and community capacity, but several unmediated direct effects were also observed. This suggests that although member engagement does explain some relationships, it alone is not sufficient to explain how coalition processes influence indicators of community capacity.

  5. Quantum Symmetric Cooperative Game with a Harmonious Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgazzar, A. S.; Elrayes, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of forming harmonious coalitions is introduced to both classical and quantum symmetric cooperative games. In both the cases, players are motivated to form coalitions. Also, the main feature of the cooperative game is conserved.

  6. Sex differences in the formation of coalitions among chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, F.B.M. de

    1984-01-01

    Observations were made of spontaneous coalition formation during aggressive encounters among chimpanzees in a large, semicaptive colony. The analysis of several thousand instances, collected over a period of 5 years, revealed striking differences between adult males and females. Male coalitions

  7. Grassroots coalition building: lessons from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Marcella L; Hewlett, Peggy O

    2009-01-01

    In an era of major health care reform, nursing professionals will best impact both the politics surrounding reform as well as related health policy through well-established and effective collaborative groups. Whether the work is taking place at the local, state, or national levels, successful and powerful coalitions are the result of skill and finesse-not luck-and therefore must be built upon connecting with the right people, communicating effectively, understanding political challenges, and navigating them skillfully. The authors offer 10 success strategies for building successful coalitions based on lessons learned over a decade of involvement in grassroots nursing workforce initiatives.

  8. Impact of coalition interoperability on PKI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Edward J.

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines methods for providing PKI interoperability among units of a coalition of armed forces drawn from different nations. The area in question is tactical identity management, for the purposes of confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation in such a dynamic coalition. The interoperating applications under consideration range from email and other forms of store-and-forward messaging to TLS and IPSEC-protected real-time communications. Six interoperability architectures are examined with advantages and disadvantages of each described in the paper.

  9. Desarrollo de un sistema de gestión en control y seguridad basc (business anti smuggling coalition) para una empresa administradora de recursos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos, Juan Carlos; Camino, Clara

    2009-01-01

    La empresa objeto de estudio es una empresa multinacional Administradora de Recursos Humanos, que ofrece servicios de administración de nómina y de personal con responsabilidad laboral, maquila de nóminas, provisión de personal, capacitación y evaluación. BASC es una asociación sin fines de lucro cuya misión es promover y apoyar dentro de sus asociados el fortalecimiento de los estándares de control y seguridad de la cadena logística en las actividades de comercio exterior con la ejecuci...

  10. Advocacy coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate: Exploring coalition structure, policy beliefs, resources, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D; Lewis, LaVonna B; Cousineau, Michael R; Nichol, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Advocacy coalitions often play an important role in the state health policymaking process, yet little is known about their structure, composition, and behavior. In 2008, California became the first state to enact a menu labeling law. Using the advocacy coalition framework, we examine different facets of the coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate. We use a qualitative research approach to identify coalition members and explore their expressed beliefs and policy arguments, resources, and strategies by analyzing legislative documents (n = 87) and newspaper articles (n = 78) produced between 1999 and 2009. Between 2003 and 2008, six menu labeling bills were introduced in the state's legislature. We found the issue received increasing media attention during this period. We identified two advocacy coalitions involved in the debate-a public health (PH) coalition and an industry coalition. State organizations acted as coalition leaders and participated for a longer duration than elected officials. The structure and composition of each coalition varied. PH coalition leadership and membership notably increased compared to the industry coalition. The PH coalition, led by nonprofit PH and health organizations, promoted a clear and consistent message around informed decision making. The industry coalition, led by a state restaurant association, responded with cost and implementation arguments. Each coalition used various resources and strategies to advance desired outcomes. PH coalition leaders were particularly effective at using resources and employing advocacy strategies, which included engaging state legislators as coalition members, using public opinion polls and information, and leveraging media resources to garner support. Policy precedence and a local policy push emerged as important policymaking strategies. Areas for future research on the state health policymaking process are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal Health Services. While India is rapidly gaining popularity as a destination for world-class health care, the state of maternal health in the country reflects poorly on public health priorities. Uttar Pradesh has the highest rate of maternal mortality in the country, ...

  12. TARSAL COALITIONS IN CHILDREN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kenis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of this condition in general and pediatric population is up to 13%. Conservative and surgical correction of this type of deformity is widely discussed in literature. In the series of 35 patients with tarsal coalition the results of treatment are observed. Differentiated approach to nonsurgical and surgical treatment is described and discussed.

  13. Instinctive analytics for coalition operations (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mel, Geeth R.; La Porta, Thomas; Pham, Tien; Pearson, Gavin

    2017-05-01

    The success of future military coalition operations—be they combat or humanitarian—will increasingly depend on a system's ability to share data and processing services (e.g. aggregation, summarization, fusion), and automatically compose services in support of complex tasks at the network edge. We call such an infrastructure instinctive—i.e., an infrastructure that reacts instinctively to address the analytics task at hand. However, developing such an infrastructure is made complex for the coalition environment due to its dynamism both in terms of user requirements and service availability. In order to address the above challenge, in this paper, we highlight our research vision and sketch some initial solutions into the problem domain. Specifically, we propose means to (1) automatically infer formal task requirements from mission specifications; (2) discover data, services, and their features automatically to satisfy the identified requirements; (3) create and augment shared domain models automatically; (4) efficiently offload services to the network edge and across coalition boundaries adhering to their computational properties and costs; and (5) optimally allocate and adjust services while respecting the constraints of operating environment and service fit. We envision that the research will result in a framework which enables self-description, discover, and assemble capabilities to both data and services in support of coalition mission goals.

  14. Coalition Modeling in Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Operation Dessert Storm (DoD, Apr 2000: II-12...Command Relationship for Operation Dessert Storm (DoD, Apr 2000: II-12) Figure II- 3: Lead Nation Command Structure (DoD, Apr 2000: II-10) 11...Logistics may be the most important ingredient for coalition success since partner nations have various degrees of military and logistics capabilities

  15. The coalitional value theory of antigay bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winegard, Bo; Reynolds, Tania; Baumeister, Roy F.; Plant, E. Ashby

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that antigay bias follows a specific pattern (and probably has throughout written history, at least in the West): (a) men evince more antigay bias than women; (b) men who belong to traditionally male coalitions evince more antigay bias than those who do not; (c) antigay bias is

  16. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas

    2012-01-01

    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  17. Coalition draws support of respected Virginia leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Grow By Degrees, a campaign initiated by the Virginia Business Higher Education Council (VBHEC) to promote economic growth through high-impact investment and innovation in Virginia's public colleges, universities, and community colleges, today announced that 10 respected Virginia leaders - all present or former Governors and U.S. Senators - have joined the Grow By Degrees coalition as honorary co-chairs.

  18. Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment (ACODE)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment (ACODE) is an independent policy research and advocacy organization based in Kampala, Uganda, with a reputation for producing good quality research to underpin its advocacy work. To date, the organization has relied on project-specific funds for its operation, ...

  19. EDITORIAL CERVICAL CANCER CAN BE CONTROLLED Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    palliative care of invasive cancer(9). But it must also be accepted that even these modest comparisons will mean little to countries where per capita annual expenditure on health is less than five US dollars. This is a realisation that has spurred the search for alternative approaches to cervical cancer screening.

  20. Is the coal industry worth protecting? An examination of the effects of competing advocacy coalitions on implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Michael Sean

    Harold Lasswell (1936) defined politics as the exploration of "who gets what, when, and how." As such, one of the central concerns of democratic governance is the role that affected interests play not only in politics, but in the implementation of adopted policies as well. In this dissertation, I use both comparative method case studies, as well as pooled-time series statistical techniques, to examine the effects of political, economic and market forces, and competition between the affected interests on implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The findings of this, as well as previous, research shows that state-level implementing agencies have some discretion in enforcement activities; however, closer examination shows that this discretion is rarely used. This lack of use of regulatory discretion by the state-level implementing agencies suggests that in most states, there is either sufficient competition between the affected interests to neutralize the excessive use of discretion in enforcement activity, or that there is insufficient pressure placed on the implementing agencies by the affected interests to warrant the use of discretion.

  1. Community coalition-driven interventions to reduce health disparities among racial and ethnic minority populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laurie M; Adeney, Kathryn L; Shinn, Carolynne; Safranek, Sarah; Buckner-Brown, Joyce; Krause, L Kendall

    2015-06-15

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health status are pervasive at all stages of the life cycle. One approach to reducing health disparities involves mobilizing community coalitions that include representatives of target populations to plan and implement interventions for community level change. A systematic examination of coalition-led interventions is needed to inform decision making about the use of community coalition models. To assess effects of community coalition-driven interventions in improving health status or reducing health disparities among racial and ethnic minority populations. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, Dissertation Abstracts, System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE) (from January 1990 through September 30, 2013), and Global Health Library (from January 1990 through March 31, 2014). Cluster-randomized controlled trials, randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs, controlled before-after studies, interrupted time series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies. Only studies of community coalitions with at least one racial or ethnic minority group representing the target population and at least two community public or private organizations are included. Major outcomes of interest are direct measures of health status, as well as lifestyle factors when evidence indicates that these have an effect on the direct measures performed. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias for each study. Fifty-eight community coalition-driven intervention studies were included. No study was considered to be at low risk of bias. Behavioral change outcomes and health status change outcomes were analyzed separately. Outcomes are grouped by intervention type. Pooled effects across intervention types are not presented because the diverse

  2. Networking and knowledge exchange to promote the formation of transdisciplinary coalitions and levels of agreement among transdisciplinary peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Rebecca; Petermann, Lisa; Manafo, Elizabeth; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Funding for transdisciplinary chronic disease prevention research has increased over the past decade. However, few studies have evaluated whether networking and knowledge exchange activities promote the creation of transdisciplinary teams to successfully respond to requests for proposals (RFPs). Such evaluations are critical to understanding how to accelerate the integration of research with practice and policy to improve population health. To examine (1) the extent of participation in pre-RFP activities among funded and nonfunded transdisciplinary coalitions that responded to a RFP for cancer and chronic disease prevention initiatives and (2) levels of agreement in proposal ratings among research, practice, and policy peer reviewers. Descriptive report of a Canadian funding initiative to increase the integration of evidence with action. Four hundred forty-nine representatives in 41 research, practice, and policy coalitions who responded to a RFP and whose proposals were peer reviewed by a transdisciplinary adjudication panel. The funder hosted 6 national meetings and issued a letter of intent (LOI) to foster research, practice, and policy collaborations before issuing a RFP. All provinces and territories in Canada were represented by the coalitions. Funded coalitions were 2.5 times more likely than nonfunded coalitions to submit a LOI. A greater proportion of funded coalitions were exposed to the pre-RFP activities (100%) compared with coalitions that were not funded (68%). Overall research, practice, and policy peer reviewer agreement was low (intraclass correlation 0.12). There is widespread interest in transdisciplinary collaborations to improve cancer and chronic disease prevention. Engagement in networking and knowledge exchange activities, and feedback from LOIs prior to submission of a final application, may contribute to stronger proposals and subsequent funding success. Future evaluations should examine best practices for transdisciplinary peer review to

  3. Cancer control and prevention: nutrition and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate recent developments in nutritional epigenomics and related challenges, opportunities, and implications for cancer control and prevention. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and understanding the factors that contribute to cancer development may facilitate the development of strategies for cancer prevention and control. Cancer development involves genetic and epigenetic alterations. Genetic marks are permanent, whereas epigenetic marks are dynamic, change with age, and are influenced by the external environment. Thus, epigenetics provides a link between the environment, diet, and cancer development. Proper food selection is imperative for better health and to avoid cancer and other diseases. Nutrients either contribute directly to cancer prevention or support the repair of genomic and epigenomic damage caused by exposure to cancer-causing agents such as toxins, free radicals, radiation, and infectious agents. Nutritional epigenomics provides an opportunity for cancer prevention because selected nutrients have the potential to reverse cancer-associated epigenetic marks in different tumor types. A number of natural foods and their bioactive components have been shown to have methylation-inhibitory and deacetylation-inhibitory properties. Natural foods and bioactive food components have characteristics and functions that are similar to epigenetic inhibitors and therefore have potential in cancer control and prevention.

  4. Cancer control-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, I

    2017-01-01

    Disparities in cancer control exist in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many countries do not have cancer registries to record incidence, mortality and prevalence and are reliant on Globocan estimates of their cancer burden. Poorer cancer control within and between countries occurs in those living remotely from urban centres, those in a low socioeconomic group and some ethnic groups who have lifestyle and belief systems which impact on cancer control. High-income countries generally have population screening programmes for cervix, breast and bowel cancer. However, simpler forms of screening for cancer of the cervix like visual inspection with acetic acid have been shown to be feasible in developing nations. The widespread use of vaccines to prevent cancer has been achieved with the Hepatitis B vaccine but the human papilloma virus vaccine to prevent cancer of the cervix is largely only available in high-income countries. Access to and training of oncological surgeons in LMICs is limited, while 70% of patients in these countries cannot access radiotherapy. The World Health Organization has developed a list of essential medicines although access remains poor in LMICs. The United Nations has set targets for the control of non-communicable diseases to improve global cancer control. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Promoting public health through state cancer control plans: a review of capacity and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Marcia G; Sanner, Brigid; Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Melvin, Cathy L

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Prevention and Control's National Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) Program oversee CCC programs designed to develop and implement CCC plans via CCC coalitions, alliances, or consortia of program stakeholders. We reviewed 40 up-to-date plans for states and the District of Columbia in order to assess how capacity building and sustainability, two evidence-based practices necessary for organizational readiness, positive growth, and maintenance are addressed. We employed an electronic key word search, supplemented by full text reviews of each plan to complete a content analysis of the CCC plans. Capacity is explicitly addressed in just over half of the plans (53%), generally from a conceptual point of view, with few specifics as to how capacity will be developed or enhanced. Roles and responsibilities, timelines for action, and measurements for evaluation of capacity building are infrequently mentioned. Almost all (92%) of the 40 up-to-date plans address sustainability on at least a cursory level, through efforts aimed at funding or seeking funding, policy initiatives, and/or partnership development. However, few details as to how these strategies will be implemented are found in the plans. We present the Texas plan as a case study offering detailed insight into how one plan incorporated capacity building and sustainability into its development and implementation. Training, technical assistance, templates, and tools may help CCC coalition members address capacity and sustainability in future planning efforts and assure the inclusion of capacity building and sustainability approaches in CCC plans at the state, tribal, territorial, and jurisdiction levels.

  6. Adding Reports to Coalition Battle Management Language for NATO MSG-048

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullen, J.M.; Corner, D.; Singapogo, S.S.; Clarc, N.; Cordonnier, N.; Menane, M.; Khimeche, L.; Mevassvik, O.M.; Alstad, A.; Schad, U.; Frey, M.; Reus, N. M. de; Krom, P.P.J. de; Grand, N.P. le; Brook, A.

    2009-01-01

    The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 48 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language for multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with modeling and simulation. Its initial work in defining and

  7. How does community context influence coalitions in the formation stage? A multiple case study based on the Community Coalition Action Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Rigler, Jessica; Honeycutt, Sally

    2010-02-23

    Community coalitions are rooted in complex and dynamic community systems. Despite recognition that environmental factors affect coalition behavior, few studies have examined how community context impacts coalition formation. Using the Community Coalition Action theory as an organizing framework, the current study employs multiple case study methodology to examine how five domains of community context affect coalitions in the formation stage of coalition development. Domains are history of collaboration, geography, community demographics and economic conditions, community politics and history, and community norms and values. Data were from 8 sites that participated in an evaluation of a healthy cities and communities initiative in California. Twenty-three focus groups were conducted with coalition members, and 76 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local coordinators and coalition leaders. Cross-site analyses were conducted to identify the ways contextual domains influenced selection of the lead agency, coalition membership, staffing and leadership, and coalition processes and structures. History of collaboration influenced all four coalition factors examined, from lead agency selection to coalition structure. Geography influenced coalition formation largely through membership and staffing, whereas the demographic and economic makeup of the community had an impact on coalition membership, staffing, and infrastructure for coalition processes. The influence of community politics, history, norms and values was most noticeable on coalition membership. Findings contribute to an ecologic and theory-based understanding of the range of ways community context influences coalitions in their formative stage.

  8. How does community context influence coalitions in the formation stage? a multiple case study based on the Community Coalition Action Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honeycutt Sally

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community coalitions are rooted in complex and dynamic community systems. Despite recognition that environmental factors affect coalition behavior, few studies have examined how community context impacts coalition formation. Using the Community Coalition Action theory as an organizing framework, the current study employs multiple case study methodology to examine how five domains of community context affect coalitions in the formation stage of coalition development. Domains are history of collaboration, geography, community demographics and economic conditions, community politics and history, and community norms and values. Methods Data were from 8 sites that participated in an evaluation of a healthy cities and communities initiative in California. Twenty-three focus groups were conducted with coalition members, and 76 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local coordinators and coalition leaders. Cross-site analyses were conducted to identify the ways contextual domains influenced selection of the lead agency, coalition membership, staffing and leadership, and coalition processes and structures. Results History of collaboration influenced all four coalition factors examined, from lead agency selection to coalition structure. Geography influenced coalition formation largely through membership and staffing, whereas the demographic and economic makeup of the community had an impact on coalition membership, staffing, and infrastructure for coalition processes. The influence of community politics, history, norms and values was most noticeable on coalition membership. Conclusions Findings contribute to an ecologic and theory-based understanding of the range of ways community context influences coalitions in their formative stage.

  9. Top coalitions, common rankings, and semistrict core stability

    OpenAIRE

    Dinko Dimitrov

    2006-01-01

    The top coalition property of Banerjee et al. (2001) and the common ranking property of Farrell and Scotchmer (1988) are sufficient conditions for core stability in hedonic games. We introduce the semistrict core as a stronger stability concept than the core, and show that the top coalition property guarantees the existence of semistrictly core stable coalition structures. Moreover, for each game satisfying the common ranking property, the core and the semistrict core coincide.

  10. Advocacy coalitions and wind power development: Insights from Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegen, Maya, E-mail: jegen.maya@uqam.ca [Departement de science politique, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Case postale 8888, Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Audet, Gabriel [Departement de science politique, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Case postale 8888, Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    This article addresses the issue of wind energy acceptance in the Canadian province of Quebec and, in particular, the impact of different models of wind power development on the degree of social acceptance. We show that the dominant advocacy coalition, which favors a hard path energy development in general, enforces a large-scale development of wind energy. Two other coalitions - a soft path coalition and a nationalist coalition - oppose this development, but not wind energy per se. We argue that difference in belief systems explains their opposition rather than planning issues or NIMBY concerns. We also contend that, despite its predominance over (wind) energy policy, the hard path coalition is willing to learn and make concessions towards the soft path coalition, but not towards the nationalist coalition. - Highlights: > We address social acceptance of wind energy. > We illustrate the interaction of advocacy coalitions. > Different advocacy coalitions support different models of wind energy development. > Models of wind energy development influence the degree of social acceptance. > Opposition is not aimed at wind energy per se, but at the hard path model.

  11. Evidence-Based Cancer Survivorship Activities for Comprehensive Cancer Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J Michael; Lakhani, Naheed; Finifrock, DeAnna; Pinkerton, Beth; Johnson, Krystal L; Mallory, Sharon H; Migliore Santiago, Patricia; Stewart, Sherri L

    2015-12-01

    One of six priorities of CDC's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is to address the needs of cancer survivors within the local population served by individually funded states, tribes, and territories. This report examines cancer survivorship activities implemented in five NCCCP grantees, which have initiated evidence-based activities outlined in A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship: Advancing Public Health Strategies (NAP). NCCCP action plans, submitted annually to CDC, from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed in February 2015 to assess implementation of cancer survivorship activities and recommended strategies consistent with the NAP. Four state-level and one tribal grantee with specific activities related to one of each of the four NAP strategies were chosen for inclusion. Brief case reports describing the initiation and impact of implemented activities were developed in collaboration with each grantee program director. New Mexico, South Carolina, Vermont, Washington state, and Fond Du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa programs each implemented activities in surveillance and applied research; communication, education, and training; programs, policies, and infrastructure; and access to quality care and services. This report provides examples for incorporating cancer survivorship activities within Comprehensive Cancer Control programs of various sizes, demographic makeup, and resource capacity. New Mexico, South Carolina, Vermont, Washington state, and Fond Du Lac Band developed creative cancer survivorship activities that meet CDC recommendations. NCCCP grantees can follow these examples by implementing evidence-based survivorship interventions that meet the needs of their specific populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 3. Recommendations on alcohol consumption. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, NR; Ashley, MJ; Carruthers, SG; Lacourciere, Y; McKay, DW

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations concerning the effects of alcohol consumption on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women). OPTIONS: There are 2 main options for those at risk for hypertension: avert the condition by limiting alcohol consumption or by using other nonpharmacologic methods, or maintain or increase the risk of hypertension by making no change in alcohol consumption. The options for those who alrea...

  13. The National Urban-Growth Coalition in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhorst, P.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Many American social scientists use the concept of 'urban growth coalition' which indicates that 'locally dependent' business elites, local state officials and, sometimes, labour unions form a territorially based coalition in order to revitalize cities in decay or to promote urban growth. Although

  14. 45 CFR 1370.4 - State domestic violence coalition grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State domestic violence coalition grants. 1370.4... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.4 State domestic violence coalition grants. Each...

  15. Parenting Coalitions after Remarriage: Dynamics and Therapeutic Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visher, Emily B.; Visher, John S.

    1989-01-01

    Defines and discusses advantages of parenting coalitions when children have contact with both of their parents after divorce and remarriage. Outlines developmental sequence leading to such coalitions and describes common obstacles encountered by the adults. Major focus is on therapeutic interventions which can help adults form parenting…

  16. Strongly Essential Coalitions and the Nucleolus of Peer Group Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Solymosi, T.; Tijs, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the known efficient algorithms designed to compute the nucleolus for special classes of balanced games are based on two facts: (i) in any balanced game, the coalitions which actually determine the nucleolus are essential; and (ii) all essential coalitions in any of the games in the class

  17. Anzio to Libya: Strategic Direction in Coalition Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    telling exchange just after the landings, General Clark offered this advice to General Lucas: “Don’t stick your neck out, Johnny. I did at Salerno and...resource and operating limitations, and interoperability of the participating forces is the bread and butter of coalition operations. As coalitions of

  18. Social Norms Tactics to Promote a Campus Alcohol Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…

  19. Coalitional game theory as a promising approach to identify candidate autism genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anika; Sun, Min Woo; Paskov, Kelley Marie; Stockham, Nate Tyler; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Wall, Dennis Paul

    2018-01-01

    Despite mounting evidence for the strong role of genetics in the phenotypic manifestation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the specific genes responsible for the variable forms of ASD remain undefined. ASD may be best explained by a combinatorial genetic model with varying epistatic interactions across many small effect mutations. Coalitional or cooperative game theory is a technique that studies the combined effects of groups of players, known as coalitions, seeking to identify players who tend to improve the performance--the relationship to a specific disease phenotype--of any coalition they join. This method has been previously shown to boost biologically informative signal in gene expression data but to-date has not been applied to the search for cooperative mutations among putative ASD genes. We describe our approach to highlight genes relevant to ASD using coalitional game theory on alteration data of 1,965 fully sequenced genomes from 756 multiplex families. Alterations were encoded into binary matrices for ASD (case) and unaffected (control) samples, indicating likely gene-disrupting, inherited mutations in altered genes. To determine individual gene contributions given an ASD phenotype, a "player" metric, referred to as the Shapley value, was calculated for each gene in the case and control cohorts. Sixty seven genes were found to have significantly elevated player scores and likely represent significant contributors to the genetic coordination underlying ASD. Using network and cross-study analysis, we found that these genes are involved in biological pathways known to be affected in the autism cases and that a subset directly interact with several genes known to have strong associations to autism. These findings suggest that coalitional game theory can be applied to large-scale genomic data to identify hidden yet influential players in complex polygenic disorders such as autism.

  20. Building coalitions to support women's health and rights in the United States: South Carolina and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Theresa

    2007-05-01

    There is a health care crisis in the United States and women, particularly low-income women and women of colour, are paying the price. The politicisation of pregnancy, sexuality and women's reproductive rights has created a uniquely contradictory situation in many states. Policymakers are working to control women's reproductive choices and sexuality, and restricting sex education, but doing little to address the overall lack of access to quality reproductive health care. This article describes a new reproductive rights advocacy model that was implemented starting in 2003 in two US states, South Carolina and Florida. In-depth research on the status of reproductive health and rights in each state, analysed by race, economic status, county and state policy initiatives relevant to women's health, showed that in both states access to contraception and abortion, cervical and breast cancer screening and treatment, HIV/AIDS-related care and pregnancy care were poor, with African American and Hispanic women faring even worse than white women. Implementing the advocacy model involved identifying and bringing together a diverse set of health care professionals, academics and activists who formed coalitions and are now working together and developing advocacy strategies in support of policies to improve access to reproductive health care and protect reproductive rights in both states.

  1. Community Health Coalitions in Context: Associations between Geographic Context, Member Type and Length of Membership with Coalition Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, V.; Sanders, M.; Andrews, M. L.; Hale, R.; Carrillo, C.

    2014-01-01

    The coalition literature recognizes context (geography, demographics and history) as a variable of interest, yet few coalition evaluation studies have focused on it. This study explores the association between geographic context and structures (e.g. member type) with functional characteristics (e.g. decision making or levels of conflict) in a…

  2. New Perspective on Factors Related to Coalition Success: Novel Findings From an Investigation of Physical Activity Coalitions Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Daniel B; Pate, Russell R; Beets, Michael W; Ortaglia, Andrew; Saunders, Ruth P; Blair, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) coalitions are a fundamental component of efforts to increase population levels of PA in the United States. Coalitions are often composed of organizational members including government agencies, for-profit corporations, and nonprofit organizations. Very little is known about PA coalitions, their organizational members, and the factors related to their success. First, this study aimed to describe the characteristics of PA coalitions across the United States. Second, the study aimed to describe the characteristics of organizational members of PA coalitions. Third, the study aimed to investigate the association between organizational membership and coalition success. A cross-sectional design was employed to study individuals from a diverse sample of PA coalitions across the United States. A total of 120 individuals (86% response rate) completed the Member Involvement in Physical Activity Coalitions (MIPAC) survey. The MIPAC included 3 sections: (1) demographic items assessing descriptive characteristics of PA coalitions and their organizational members; (2) 3 subscales for assessing key organizational membership factors (Strategic Alignment, Organizational Alignment, and Providing Input); and (3) 2 subscales for assessing perceived coalition success. Descriptive statistics characterize PA coalitions and their organizational members. Univariate analyses were employed to investigate associations between key organizational membership factors and perceived coalition success. Statistically significant associations were observed between the key organizational membership factors (Strategic Alignment, Organizational Alignment, and Providing Input) and measures of perceived coalition success. Many PA coalitions lacked organizational members from the settings in which the coalitions strive to make change. Physical activity coalitions and health-based coalitions overall may be more likely to succeed when they can identify ways in which their coalition

  3. Targeting deregulated epigenetic control in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K; Van Wijnen, Andre J; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2013-11-01

    Cancer is a multifaceted disease that involves acquisition of genetic mutations, deletions, and amplifications as well as deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms that fine-tune gene regulation. Key epigenetic mechanisms that include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing are often deregulated in a variety of cancers. Subnuclear localization of key proteins in the interphase nucleus and bookmarking of genes by lineage commitment factors in mitosis-a new dimension to epigenetic control of fundamental biological processes-is also modified in cancer. In this review, we discuss the various aspects of epigenetic control that are operative in a variety of cancers and their potential for risk assessment, early detection, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Long-Term Sustainability of Evidence-Based Prevention Interventions and Community Coalitions Survival: a Five and One-Half Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Knowlton; Collins, David; Shamblen, Steve; Kenworthy, Tara; Wandersman, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    This study examines (1) coalition survival, (2) prevalence of evidence-based prevention interventions (EBPIs) to reduce substance abuse implemented as part of the Tennessee Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) State Incentive Grant (SIG), (3) EBPI sustainability, and (4) factors that predict EBPI sustainability. Secondary data were collected on 27 SPF SIG-funded coalitions and 88 EBPI and non-EBPI implementations. Primary data were collected by a telephone interview/web survey five and one-half years after the SPF SIG ended. Results from secondary data show that 25 of the 27 coalitions survived beyond the SPF SIG for one to five and one-half years; 19 coalitions (70%) were still active five and one-half years later. Further, 88 EBPIs and non-EBPIs were implemented by 27 county SPF SIG coalitions. Twenty-one (21) of 27 coalitions (78%) implemented one to three EBPIs, totaling 37 EBPI implementations. Based on primary survey data on 29 of the 37 EBPI implementations, 28 EBPIs (97%) were sustained between two and five and one-half years while 22 EBPI implementations (76%) were sustained for five and one-half years. When controlling for variability among coalitions (nesting of EBPIs in coalitions), increases in data resources (availability of five types of prevention data) was a strong predictor of length of EBPI sustainability. Positive change in extramural funding resources and level of expertise during SPF SIG implementation, as well as level of coalition formalization at the end of the SPF SIG predicted EBPI sustainability length. One intervention attribute (trialability) also predicted length of sustainability. Implications are discussed.

  5. The Road to Resilience: Insights on Training Community Coalitions in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Biblia S; Lawrence, Rachel I; Bliss, Jesse C; Wells, Kenneth B; Chandra, Anita; Eisenman, David P

    2016-12-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) have little guidance for operationalizing community resilience (CR). We explored how community coalitions responded to 4 CR levers (education, engagement, partnerships, and community self-sufficiency) during the first planning year of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) Project. Sixteen communities were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental CR group or the control preparedness group. Eight CR coalitions met monthly to plan CR-building activities or to receive CR training from a public health nurse. Trained observers documented the coalitions' understanding and application of CR at each meeting. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze structured observation reports around the 4 levers. Analysis of 41 reports suggested that coalitions underwent a process of learning about and applying CR concepts in the planning year. Groups resonated with ideas of education, community self-sufficiency, and engagement, but increasing partnerships was challenging. LHDs can support coalitions by anticipating the time necessary to understand CR and by facilitating engagement. Understanding the issues that emerge in the early phases of planning and implementing CR-building activities is critical. LHDs can use the experience of the LACCDR Project's planning year as a guide to navigate challenges and issues that emerge as they operationalize the CR model. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:812-821).

  6. State of the Art: Solution Concepts for Coalitional Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Branzei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates solution concepts for coalitional games. Several solution concepts are characterized, such as the core, Shapley value, bargaining set, stable set, nucleolus, and kernel. We look at recent developments of succinct representations of coalitional games, such as weighted voting games, coalitional resource games, cooperative boolean games, and marginal contribution nets. Existing solution concepts have prohibitive complexity requirements even for very simple classes of games. We discuss an agenda for finding an equilibrium solution concept that is as appealing as the core, but that is tractable and guaranteed to exist.

  7. Development of a Community Readiness Survey for Coalitions to Address Prescription Opioid Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.

    2015-01-01

    A community readiness survey for coalitions to address the growing epidemic of prescription opioid misuse was developed in this four-part study. A total of 70 coalition members participated. 1) We conducted 30-minute phone interviews with coalition members (n = 30) and a literature review to develop an item list. 2) Coalition members rated these…

  8. Gove v. the Blob: The Coalition and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Derek

    2015-01-01

    The author provides a year-by-year account of events during the period of the Conservative-led coalition government from 2010 to 2015 and concludes with some observations on the damage done to England's state education system.

  9. Forming coalitions: the case of Brazil in the BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Pereyra Doval

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the importance of belonging to a group that puts pressure internationally through a coalition pursuing similar goals. The process of coalition building has been central in Brazil’s multilateral negotiations to balance the centre-periphery forces, but also with regard to the possibilities that this country has of belonging to the club of the powerful. We hold that the BRICS group is a step in Brazilian ambitions towards that end. We also emphasize the common views and differences of these five countries at multilateral level. The aim of this article is to analyse Brazil’s strategy of coalition building to understand what kind of coalition the so-called BRICS countries form and ascertain the advantages and disadvantages of Brazil’s participation in it.

  10. Intelligence, Coalitional Killing, and the Antecedents of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul Roscoe

    2007-01-01

    ... males to seek out low-cost opportunities for conspecific killing. This conclusion has been extended into a claim that human warfare and other forms of coalitional killing are outcomes of a hardwired, "demonic male" complex...

  11. Endangered Species Case - Washington Toxics Coalition v. EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page provides information on the Washington Toxics Coalition v. EPA case, related to protection of Pacific salmon and steelhead, and links to the biological opinions issued by the NMFS and EPA’s responses.

  12. Preparing for Coalition Warfare in the Age of Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    determines their ability to minimize cross- 18 cultural tension with fellow coalition partners.‖57 Continued multicultural education, coupled with an...lower levels is also increasingly common. For example, in Afghanistan in 2008, it was not unusual to see soldiers from the Netherlands, Australia ...membership includes Australia , Canada, France, Italy, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and is a forum for potential coalition lead

  13. Community coalition building--contemporary practice and research: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, T

    2001-04-01

    Over the last 20 years, coalition building has become a prominent intervention employed in communities across America. Coalitions provide community psychologists and those in related fields with a chance to work with whole communities and to better understand how to create community change. As we reflect on the past two decades of community coalition building, there are many questions to be answered about this phenomenon. Why has there been such an upsurge in community coalition building activity? What is the impact of this activity? What have we as students of community learned? What are the questions that we need to be asking to improve the effectiveness of coalition building efforts and their evaluation? This set of articles will review the state of the art of community coalition building in both practice and research. The structure of the articles reflects a collaborative process, with multiple contributors from different disciplines, using a variety of formats. Because this is an evolving phenomenon where the questions asked are as important as the lessons learned, many of the major sections include dialogues with community experts from across the country and from multiple fields, including community psychology, public health, political science, public administration, and grassroots organizing.

  14. Modeling the Aneuploidy Control of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneuploidy has long been recognized to be associated with cancer. A growing body of evidence suggests that tumorigenesis, the formation of new tumors, can be attributed to some extent to errors occurring at the mitotic checkpoint, a major cell cycle control mechanism that acts to prevent chromosome missegregation. However, so far no statistical model has been available quantify the role aneuploidy plays in determining cancer. Methods We develop a statistical model for testing the association between aneuploidy loci and cancer risk in a genome-wide association study. The model incorporates quantitative genetic principles into a mixture-model framework in which various genetic effects, including additive, dominant, imprinting, and their interactions, are estimated by implementing the EM algorithm. Results Under the new model, a series of hypotheses tests are formulated to explain the pattern of the genetic control of cancer through aneuploid loci. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical behavior of the model. Conclusions The model will provide a tool for estimating the effects of genetic loci on aneuploidy abnormality in genome-wide studies of cancer cells.

  15. [Strengthen the cancer surveillance to promote cancer prevention and control in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J

    2018-01-23

    Cancer is a major chronic disease threatening the people's health in China. We reviewed the latest advances on cancer surveillance, prevention and control in our country, which may provide important clues for future cancer control. We used data from the National Central Cancer Registry, to describe and analyze the latest cancer statistics in China. We summarized updated informations on cancer control policies, conducting network, as well as programs in the country. We provided important suggestions on the future strategies of cancer prevention and control. The overall cancer burden in China has been increasing during the past decades. In 2014, there were about 3 804 000 new cancer cases and 2 296 000 cancer deaths in China. The age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were 190.63/100 000 and 106.98/100 000, respectively. China has formed a comprehensive network on cancer prevention and control. Nationwide population-based cancer surveillance has been built up. The population coverage of cancer surveillance has been expanded, and the data quality has been improved. As the aging population is increasing and unhealthy life styles persist in our country, there will be an unnegligible cancer burden in China. Based on the comprehensive rationale of cancer control and prevention, National Cancer Center of China will perform its duty for future precise cancer control and prevention, based on cancer surveillance statistics.

  16. A case cancer control study of reproductive in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee B; Chaudhury S; Sengupta S

    1994-01-01

    The role of reproductive factors, such as, parity, age at menarche, age at first child′s birth have been investigated in a hospital based case-control study, for their independent as well as combined influences on the incidence of female breast cancer. The study indicates that except for parity, these factors have no influence on the age at onset of the disease. Parity is positively correlated with age at onset. The patient and the control groups were found to be similar in respect of ...

  17. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  18. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  19. Nurse's role in controlling cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudh, Salma Said

    2011-10-01

    Nurses spend more time with patients than any other member of the healthcare team. They play a critical, active and very important part in controlling cancer patients' pain and alleviating suffering. In controlling cancer pain the nurse needs to understand the psychological state of the cancer patient, cancer pain, cancer pain treatment, deleterious effects of unrelieved cancer pain and patient's socio cultural background. She needs to understand that there are two types of pain, nociceptive and neuropathic pains and that 80% of the cancer patients in pain could have 2 or more than 4 different pains at the same time. Nurses' role in controlling cancer pain include believing the patient, assessing pain, identifying the root of the problem, planning the care, administering medication, evaluating effectiveness, ensuring good pain control and individualizing treatment. It also includes nursing interventions such as giving tender nursing care, preventing pain, educating, advocating, communicating, comforting, supporting, and counseling the patient. The nurse must use both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments to individualize treatment, know all the drugs that are used for the treatment of Cancer Pain, how these drugs relieve pain and what their side effects are. She must use the WHO guidelines to treat pain and must choose the right drug, right dose, given at the right times, with the right intervals and to the right patient. She must evaluate effectiveness of treatment, give PRN doses for breakthrough pain and recommend for specific changes. The role of the nurse is to anticipate the patient's pain needs, advocate for the patient for what feels appropriate for him within his cultural context and incorporate the patient's belief. The nurse can physically relieve pain by promoting comfort, support painful area, gentleness in handling the patient and use nursing treatments. The nurse can recommend physiotherapy, (TENS)/Acupuncture, Occupational therapy

  20. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 1. Methods and an overview of the Canadian recommendations. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N R; Burgess, E; Choi, B C; Taylor, G; Wilson, E; Cléroux, J; Fodor, J G; Leiter, L A; Spence, D

    1999-05-04

    the studies reviewed. Supplementing the diet with potassium, calcium and magnesium has not been associated with a clinically important reduction in blood pressure in people consuming a healthy diet. (1) It is recommended that health care professionals determine the body mass index (weight in kilograms/[height in metres]2) and alcohol consumption of all adult patients and assess sodium consumption and stress levels in all hypertensive patients. (2) To reduce blood pressure in the population at large, it is recommended that Canadians attain and maintain a healthy body mass index. For those who choose to drink alcohol intake should be limited to 2 or fewer standard drinks per day (maximum of 14/week for men and 9/week for women). Adults should exercise regularly. (3) To reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients, individualized therapy is recommended. This therapy should emphasize weight loss for overweight patients, abstinence from or moderation in alcohol intake, regular exercise, restriction of sodium intake and, in appropriate circumstances, individualized cognitive behaviour modification to reduce the negative effects of stress. The recommendations were reviewed by all of the sponsoring organizations and by participants in a satellite symposium of the fourth international Conference on Preventive Cardiology. They are similar to those of the World Hypertension League and the Joint National committee, with the exception of the recommendations on stress management, which are based on new information. They have not been clinically tested. The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at health Canada, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

  1. Community coalition project directors: what makes them effective leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mary Perry; Zakocs, Ronda C; Earp, Jo Anne L; French, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Effective leaders, both voluntary and paid, facilitate successful coalitions. The attributes that characterize effective project directors, however, are unclear. Our aim was to identify characteristics of effective project directors leading community coalitions. The study examined 13 project directors who led eight community-based coalitions established to combat substance abuse. We inductively identified common characteristics and leadership effectiveness of the project directors by abstracting data from detailed ethnographic studies of these coalitions. We assessed the validity of leadership effectiveness by comparing data abstracted from ethnographic studies with two independent ratings. We then employed a cross-case comparison strategy for analyzing patterns among the common characteristics identified and leadership effectiveness. Six characteristics emerged among the project directors studied: status with community (insider vs outsider); shared leadership; bridge building skills; substance abuse expertise; vision; and management style. Shared leadership, bridge building skills, and insider status were consistently related to leadership effectiveness. Less support was found for substance abuse expertise or vision. When hiring project directors, coalition leaders may consider assessing whether candidates are "insiders" within the community and demonstrate shared leadership and bridge building skills.

  2. The Dynamics of Coalition Formation on Complex Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, S; Heitzig, J; Kornek, U; Schöll, E; Kurths, J

    2015-08-25

    Complex networks describe the structure of many socio-economic systems. However, in studies of decision-making processes the evolution of the underlying social relations are disregarded. In this report, we aim to understand the formation of self-organizing domains of cooperation ("coalitions") on an acquaintance network. We include both the network's influence on the formation of coalitions and vice versa how the network adapts to the current coalition structure, thus forming a social feedback loop. We increase complexity from simple opinion adaptation processes studied in earlier research to more complex decision-making determined by costs and benefits, and from bilateral to multilateral cooperation. We show how phase transitions emerge from such coevolutionary dynamics, which can be interpreted as processes of great transformations. If the network adaptation rate is high, the social dynamics prevent the formation of a grand coalition and therefore full cooperation. We find some empirical support for our main results: Our model develops a bimodal coalition size distribution over time similar to those found in social structures. Our detection and distinguishing of phase transitions may be exemplary for other models of socio-economic systems with low agent numbers and therefore strong finite-size effects.

  3. Hedonic Coalition Formation for Distributed Task Allocation among Wireless Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Walid; Basar, Tamer; Debbah, Merouane; Hjørungnes, Are

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous wireless agents such as unmanned aerial vehicles or mobile base stations present a great potential for deployment in next-generation wireless networks. While current literature has been mainly focused on the use of agents within robotics or software applications, we propose a novel usage model for self-organizing agents suited to wireless networks. In the proposed model, a number of agents are required to collect data from several arbitrarily located tasks. Each task represents a queue of packets that require collection and subsequent wireless transmission by the agents to a central receiver. The problem is modeled as a hedonic coalition formation game between the agents and the tasks that interact in order to form disjoint coalitions. Each formed coalition is modeled as a polling system consisting of a number of agents which move between the different tasks present in the coalition, collect and transmit the packets. Within each coalition, some agents can also take the role of a relay for improving...

  4. Coalition Formation and Spectrum Sharing of Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhensheng Jiang; Wei Yuan; Leung, Henry; Xinge You; Qi Zheng

    2017-05-01

    In cognitive radio networks, self-interested secondary users (SUs) desire to maximize their own throughput. They compete with each other for transmit time once the absence of primary users (PUs) is detected. To satisfy the requirement of PU protection, on the other hand, they have to form some coalitions and cooperate to conduct spectrum sensing. Such dilemma of SUs between competition and cooperation motivates us to study two interesting issues: 1) how to appropriately form some coalitions for cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) and 2) how to share transmit time among SUs. We jointly consider these two issues, and propose a noncooperative game model with 2-D strategies. The first dimension determines coalition formation, and the second indicates transmit time allocation. Considering the complexity of solving this game, we decompose the game into two more tractable ones: one deals with the formation of CSS coalitions, and the other focuses on the allocation of transmit time. We characterize the Nash equilibria (NEs) of both games, and show that the combination of these two NEs corresponds to the NE of the original game. We also develop a distributed algorithm to achieve a desirable NE of the original game. When this NE is achieved, the SUs obtain a Dhp-stable coalition structure and a fair transmit time allocation. Numerical results verify our analyses, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  5. Clean cities: Award winning coalition -- Paso del Norte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, K.

    1999-10-25

    Designated the 41st Clean Cities coalition in November 1995, the Paso del Norte Clean Cities Coalition (PDNCCC) is the first in the country to gain international participation. Spanning the US-Mexico border; the coalition includes stakeholders from El Paso, Texas; Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; and Las Cruces, New Mexico. PDNCCC developed a comprehensive plan to jump-start its program place, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on the road, and eliminate barriers inhibiting alternative fuel market growth. PDNCC raised more than $2.3 million for alternative fuel activities and clean air initiatives in less than 26 months. In 1998, the US Department of Energy (DOE) recognized that PDNCCC accomplishment with its Rainmaker Award for leveraging the most funds from outside sources. PDNCCC is proud of its efforts to drive the alternative fuels and AFV market in the El Paso/Juarez region.

  6. Faculty practice as partnership with a community coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, B J

    1998-01-01

    Faculty practice as partnership with a community coalition can be a dynamic strategy for retooling the future of nursing. The Escalante ElderCARE Coalition was formed in 1991, with the Community Health Division of the Arizona State College of Nursing taking a leadership role. Since that time, more than 50 aging network and community agencies have become involved. More than $300,000 in grant funding has been awarded for Healthy WAY services with low-income seniors as health care and program partners. The conceptual model includes health-promotion services, participation of community elders in program planning and evaluation, and education of health professionals. Participation theory is the basis for the conceptual model. A large number of undergraduate and graduate nursing students have been involved in the nontraditional delivery of services provided by the coalition. The Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Lifestyle Directions Questionnaire are the health status outcome measures, and elder satisfaction, coalition effectiveness, and cost-savings measures are the process indicators. Elders reported healthier scores in six of the eight SF-36 dimensions, including general health, than the older US general population, but they also report that their amount of physical exercise and fiber intake is less than adequate. Overall, the elders express great satisfaction with the Healthy WAY programs but do not perceive as much ownership as do the coalition's agency professionals. Coalitions are emerging as a force for change and a public health strategy, and faculty members are encouraged to take seriously the opportunities afforded by them for proactive, advanced practice roles.

  7. STATE-BUILDING IN BOOM TIMES: COMMODITIES AND COALITIONS IN LATIN AMERICA AND AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Rogerio; Universidade de Brasília

    2014-01-01

    Resenha do Livro "State-building in Boom Times: commodities and coalitions in Latin America and Africa" Bookreview "State-building in Boom Times: commodities and coalitions in Latin America and Africa"

  8. Radiotherapy and local control in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, V; Rosetto, M E; Fares, C; Mantini, G; Salvi, G; Turriziani, A

    1998-01-01

    Recurrence is a stage in the natural history of rectal cancer. Preoperative radiotherapy or postoperative radiochemotherapy lower the rate of recurrence, improving local control. From 1980 to 1997, at the "Divisione di Radioterapia" of the "Università Cattolica del S. Cuore" of Rome 380 patients with rectal cancer of early clinical stage T2-3, candidates for surgery for cure, underwent radiation therapy. 119 patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (45-50 Gy); 45 patients underwent "sandwich" radiotherapy (45 Gy:27 Gy before and 28 Gy after surgery), of whom 7 were treated with preoperative radiotherapy alone; 145 patients underwent preoperative concomitant radiochemotherapy according to 3 different protocols, radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with mitomycin C and 5-FU; radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) combined with cisplatin and 5-FU; radiotherapy (45 Gy) combined with 5-FU and folinic acid. 71 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with IORT (10 Gy). Median follow-up was 6 years. Overall local control was 85% at 3 years, 83% at 5 years, 81% at 10 years. The rate of local control at 5 years was: 76% for postoperative radiotherapy, 83% for "sandwich" radiotherapy, 84% for preoperative radiochemotherapy and 93% for preoperative radiotherapy combined with IORT. Local control was shown to be significantly better with preoperative treatment as compared to postoperative treatment (p = 0.02). The incidence of metastases was 35% in the patients with local recurrence and 16% in those with local control. The difference in survival was highly significant in patients with local control as compared to those with local recurrence: at 5 years 87% and 32% respectively. Patients with local control showed a lower incidence of metastasis and a better survival.

  9. Coalitional Tracker for Deception Detection in Thermal Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, Jonathan; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis

    We propose a novel tracking method that uses a network of independent particle filter trackers whose interactions are modeled using coalitional game theory. Our tracking method is general; it maintains pixel-level accuracy, and can negotiate surface deformations and occlusions. We tested our method in a substantial video set featuring nontrivial motion from over 40 objects in both the infrared and vi sual spectra. The coalitional tracker demonstrated fault-tolerant behavior that far exceeds the performance of single-particle filter trackers. Our method represents a shift from the typical tracking paradigms and may find application in demanding imaging problems across the electromagnetic spectrum.

  10. Ecological Contexts in the Development of Coalitions for Youth Violence Prevention: An Organizational Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Kimberly D.; Speer, Paul W.; Perkins, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    Community coalitions are a recognized strategy for addressing pressing public health problems. Despite the promise of coalitions as an effective prevention strategy, results linking coalition efforts to positive community outcomes are mixed. To date, research has primarily focused on determining organizational attributes related to successful…

  11. Standing Apart and Sitting Together. Enforcing Coalition Agreements in Multiparty Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most obvious questions to be asked about coalition governments is what these governments do, but this question has received little systematic attention from coalition researchers. A key element of coalition governance that may inform our empirical knowledge of the actions of government –

  12. Strategies for Building Local Literacy Coalitions as Seen through a Social Capital Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewiss, Jennifer; Pickard, Larissa Vigue

    2010-01-01

    Literacy coalitions have been organized in various settings, from small towns and cities to counties and states. Coalitions are alliances "created for the purpose of joint action [and] drawn together by common interests." Literacy coalitions promote the power and pleasure of reading and stimulate community conversations about literacy.…

  13. Liking and Power as Factors Affecting Coalition Choices in the Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacci, Peter L.; Tedeschi, James T.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of resource capability and interpersonal attraction on coalition behavior were studied. Introductory psychology students role played across three experimental conditions. Subjects were asked to select a coalition partner, predict formation of coalition, estimate winnings distribution. Male and female choices and predictions differed.…

  14. Testing a Comprehensive Community Problem-Solving Framework for Community Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Evelyn; Foster-Fishman, Pennie; Collins, Charles; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Community problem solving is believed to help coalitions achieve community changes and subsequent population-level reductions in targeted community health problems. This study empirically examined a community problem solving model used by CADCA, a national coalition training organization, to determine if the model explains how coalitions become…

  15. Optimal control of multiplicative control systems arising from cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, K.; Kim, M.

    1975-01-01

    This study deals with ways of curtailing the rapid growth of cancer cell populations. The performance functional that measures the size of the population at the terminal time as well as the control effort is devised. With use of the discrete maximum principle, the Hamiltonian for this problem is determined and the condition for optimal solutions are developed. The optimal strategy is shown to be a bang-bang control. It is shown that the optimal control for this problem must be on the vertices of an N-dimensional cube contained in the N-dimensional Euclidean space. An algorithm for obtaining a local minimum of the performance function in an orderly fashion is developed. Application of the algorithm to the design of antitumor drug and X-irradiation schedule is discussed.

  16. Solution concepts for games with general coalitional structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshevoy, G.A.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a theory of marginal values and their core stability for cooperative games with transferable utility and arbitrary set systems representing the set of feasible coalitions. The theory is based on the notion of strictly nested sets in a set system. For each maximal strictly nested set, we

  17. The Grand Coalition and Pension and Health Care Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverland, M.; Stiller, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on German pension and health care reform politics under the Grand Coalition. All rich democracies face functional pressures to reform these sectors but are confronted with political and sometimes also institutionalobstacles. This holds in particular for the German party system,

  18. Strengthening ecological mindfulness through hybrid learning in vital coalitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, A.J.; Wals, A.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution a key policy ‘tool’ used in the Dutch Environmental Education and Learning for Sustainability Policy framework is introduced as a means to develop a sense of place and associated ecological mindfulness. The key elements of this tool, called the vital coalition, are described

  19. Sustaining Physics Teacher Education Coalition Programs in Physics Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Plisch, Monica; Goertzen, Renee Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of increasing the number of physics teachers educated per year at institutions with thriving physics teacher preparation programs may inspire and support other institutions in building thriving programs of their own. The Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC), led by the American Physical Society (APS) and the…

  20. Omnishambles: Reactions to the Second Year of Coalition Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The UK's Coalition Government completed its second year in office in May 2012. Many of its policies and pronouncements have been divisive and are contributing to the dismantling of the state education system as we have known it. Here, reflecting George Orwell's observation that "Every joke against the established order is a tiny…

  1. Examining Capacity and Functioning of Bicycle Coalitions: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations.MethodsBicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation. The survey addressed basic information about the coalition (community demographics, location, leadership, communication strategies, coalition priorities, barriers to programming/activities, and partners.ResultsCoalitions (n = 56 from four countries completed the survey. Most coalitions operated as a non-profit (n = 44, 95.7%, 45% (n = 21 have paid staff as leaders, while 37% (n = 17 have volunteers as leaders. The following skills were represented in coalitions’ leadership: fundraising (n = 31, 53.4%, event planning (n = 31, 53.4%, urban planning (n = 26, 44%, and policy/legislation expertise (n = 26, 44.8%. Education (n = 26, 63.4% and encouragement (n = 25, 61.6% were viewed as top priorities and the safety of bicyclists (n = 21, 46.7% and advocacy for infrastructure and policy (n = 22, 48.9% is the focus of most activities. A lack of financial resources (n = 36, 81.8% and capable personnel (n = 25, 56.8% were significant barriers to offering programming in the community and that the availability of grants to address issues (n = 38, 86.4% would be the top motivator for improvements.ConclusionBike coalitions represent a critical partner in creating activity-friendly environments and understanding their capacity allows for creating skill/capacity building intervention programs, development of effective toolkits and fostering strong collaborations to address physical inactivity.

  2. Building coalitions to promote women's health: the Philippine example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiar, F M

    1995-01-01

    The formation and activities of a variety of Filipino women's groups working to protect women's reproductive rights are described in this article. Reproductive health was promoted and comprehensive services were provided in 1980 by the Women's Health Care Foundation (WHCF) and the Institute for Social Studies (ISSA) in the Philippines. In 1987 the state assured couples the right to determine their family size according to their religious beliefs and the demands of responsible parenthood, but conservative forces inserted a provision guaranteeing the equal rights of the unborn. Cory Aquino drafted an executive order in early 1987 that would have promoted only natural family planning had the WHCF and the ISSA not mobilized support against this order. The lobbyists vowed to be more vigilant about moves to curtail reproductive rights. A new organization was formed (WomanHealth Philippines), and the First National Convention of Health NGOs was implemented. WHCF and ISSA also helped to form other NGOs such as the Council for Family Planning, Health, and Welfare (PNGOC), which works to help smaller NGOs by sharing resources. Other NGOs working for reproductive health include BUKAS, the Remedios AIDS Foundation, the Legislative Agenda for Women, the Alliance for Women's Health, KALAKASAN, SIBOL, Women's Vote for Health and Family Planning, and Marching for Life Coalition. Cory Aquino stated support for family planning but allowed Catholic priorities to stifle the family planning program. The Secretary of Health in 1990 took over control of family planning. Later that year the Alliance for Women's Health was formed to assure protection of reproductive rights and the separation of church and state. The Alliance was active in senate and congressional public hearings on bills and resolutions relating to women's health and rights and effectively killed anti-woman bills. A National Steering Committee, comprised of the Alliance and seven other NGOs, participated in the Nairobi

  3. Utilization of Cancer Information System for Breast Cancer Control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: there is a substantial increase in the incidence of breast cancer in Nigeria usually with the late stage presentations and subsequent poor rates of survival attributed mainly to a low level of cancer awareness and ignorance amongst patients. Cancer information system (CIS) is now assuming an emerging role in ...

  4. Developing and maintaining state-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, J B; Galano, J

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of state-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions. Key informants in five states throughout the southern United States were given semi-structured interviews regarding the adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions in their states. From these interviews and other documents, conclusions were drawn regarding the nature and importance of the environments within which these coalitions operate, the universe of activities in which coalitions engage, and the stages of development of these coalitions. Katz and Kahn's model of social organizations served as the basis for understanding coalitions in terms of these three considerations. Future research should consider the utility of organizational models that can explain more fully the organization--committee hybrid structure that tends to characterize these coalitions.

  5. Online Air-Conditioning Energy Management under Coalitional Game Framework in Smart Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the potential ability of air conditioning (A/C units in demand response, this paper explores how to utilize A/C units to increase the profit of a smart community. A coalitional game between the households and the load serving entity (LSE in a smart community is studied, where the LSE joins by selling renewable energy to householders and providing an energy saving service to them through an A/C controller. The A/C controller is designed to reduce the amount of electricity purchased from the main grid by controlling A/C units. An online A/C energy management algorithm is developed, based on Lyapunov optimization, that considers both the A/C energy consumption and the thermal comfort level of consumers. In order to quantify the contribution of A/C units, the Shapley value is adopted for distribution of the reward among the participating householders and the LSE, based on their contribution. The simulation result verifies the effectiveness of the proposed coalitional game for a smart community and the algorithm for A/C.

  6. Effect of glycemic control on the risk of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Er, Kian-Ching; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been studied, the effects of glycemic control on pancreatic cancer have never been evaluated. This study investigates the relationship between glycemic control and pancreatic cancer. Data from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were screened. The study cohort consisted of 46,973 diabetic patients and 652,142 nondiabetic subjects. Of the patients with diabetes, 1114 who had been admitted for hyperglyce...

  7. Cancer in Angola, resources and strategy for its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Oliveira, João Blasques; Tavares, António; Domingos, Clarinha; Santos, Lucio Lara

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important health problem in Africa. The number of cancer cases in this region could double, ranging between 700 000 and 1 600 000 new cases in 2030. The mortality rate is higher than 80% and is explained, mainly, by a lack of early detection, diagnostics and treatment resources. In Angola, about 7,000 patients die of cancer every year. Data were derived from open-ended interviews conducted in 2010-11 with health authorities, clinicians, nurses and Administration of Hospitals. According Angola epidemiological data, results of interviews and international published advocacy for cancer control we develop a potential strategy for its control. The objectives are to identify existing resources for cancer control and describe the needs thereto, in order to establish an oncological program to guide the development of Angola cancer control strategies. Malaria remains the leading cause of illness and death in Angola, and other communicable diseases remain a public health problem. However, 9 000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year.The most common types of cancer are: cancer of the cervix, breast, prostate, esophagus, stomach and head and neck, as well as cancers with infectious origin, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and liver and bladder cancer. The foundation for developing national cancer control strategies includes: oncological data; investment and training; identifying and removing barriers; guidance and protection of the patient. Angolan National Cancer Centre, Sagrada Esperança Clinic and Girassol Clinic are now developing a cancer program. Improving the economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which in itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. On the other hand, infectious diseases, associated with the risk of malignant tumors, are endemic. Thus, an increase in patients with malignant disease is expected. A plan is therefore necessary to organize the response to this old

  8. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    is conclusive evidence that screening will decrease morality . The methods used to screen for breast cancer include Self Breast Examination, Clinical...Raciathnic Pattern of Cancer in United States. MMWR. 1991;40:754-757. the United States, 1973-1993. Rockville, Md: National Cancer 11. Escobedo LG

  9. Health Beliefs and Locus of Control as Predictors of Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OR= 0.35, p < 0.05), internal locus of control (OR = 1.43, p < 0.05) and health risks behaviour (OR= 0.42, p < 0.05) all significantly predicted cervical cancer screening behaviour of women. Keywords: Health beliefs, Health locus of control, cancer ...

  10. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  11. Perceived control, adjustment, and communication problems in laryngeal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, G W; Dineen, M; Kauffman, S M; Raimondi, S C; Simpson, K C

    1993-12-01

    Health locus of control, adjustment to cancer, and communication experiences after a laryngectomy were investigated in 63 laryngeal cancer survivors. Survivors who showed internal control also scored as better adjusted and had fewer communication problems. Scales were intercorrelated (.68 to .92).

  12. Overlapping coalition formation games in wireless communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tianyu; Saad, Walid; Han, Zhu

    2017-01-01

    This brief introduces overlapping coalition formation games (OCF games), a novel mathematical framework from cooperative game theory that can be used to model, design and analyze cooperative scenarios in future wireless communication networks. The concepts of OCF games are explained, and several algorithmic aspects are studied. In addition, several major application scenarios are discussed. These applications are drawn from a variety of fields that include radio resource allocation in dense wireless networks, cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks, and resource management for crowd sourcing. For each application, the use of OCF games is discussed in detail in order to show how this framework can be used to solve relevant wireless networking problems. Overlapping Coalition Formation Games in Wireless Communication Networks provides researchers, students and practitioners with a concise overview of existing works in this emerging area, exploring the relevant fundamental theories, key techniqu...

  13. Community prevention coalition context and capacity assessment: Comparing the United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D.; Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Ramos, Rebeca; Gallegos, Nora; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Effective planning for community health partnerships requires understanding how initial readiness—that is, contextual factors and capacity-- influence implementation of activities and programs. This study compares the context and capacity of drug and violence prevention coalitions in Mexico to those in the United States. Measures of coalition context include community problems, community leadership style, and sense of community. Measures of coalition capacity include the existence of collaborative partnerships and coalition champions. The assessment was completed by 195 members of 9 coalitions in Mexico and 139 members of 7 coalitions in the United States. Psychometric analyses indicate the measures have moderate to strong internal consistency, along with good convergent and discriminant validity in both settings. Results indicate that members of Mexican coalitions perceive substantially more serious community problems, especially with respect to education, law enforcement, and access to alcohol and drugs. Compared to respondents in the U.S., Mexican respondents perceive sense of community to be weaker and that prevention efforts are not as valued by the population where the coalitions are located. The Mexican coalitions appear to be operating in a substantially more challenging environment for the prevention of violence and substance use. Their ability to manage these challenges will likely play a large role in determining whether they are successful in their prevention efforts. The context and capacity assessment is a valuable tool coalitions can use to identify and address initial barriers to success. PMID:26205249

  14. Soutien institutionnel à l'Advocates Coalition for Development and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment (ACODE) est un groupe de réflexion indépendant oeuvrant dans le domaine de la recherche sur les politiques publiques et du plaidoyer établi à Kampala, en Ouganda. Il est reconnu pour la qualité des recherches qui étayent ses activités de plaidoyer. À ce jour ...

  15. Coalition Logistics: A Case Study in Operation Restore Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    toilets , and lumber forced a "life-cycle of latrines" upon the coalition forces.’ 3" Similar to disease and snakebite, the latrine dilemma hit every area...posts. Many units, considered Echelon Above Corps (EAC) assets, were deployed to perform a specific functional mission, e.g., mortuary affairs, laundry...support and technical expertise in laying pipelines, respectively. Mortuary Affairs The 54th Quartermaster Detachment, Fort Lee, Virginia provided

  16. Competition and Efficiency of Coalitions in Cournot Games with Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Baosen; Johari, Ramesh; Rajagopal, Ram

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of coalition formation on the efficiency of Cournot games where producers face uncertainties. In particular, we study a market model where firms must determine their output before an uncertain production capacity is realized. In contrast to standard Cournot models, we show that the game is not efficient when there are many small firms. Instead, producers tend to act conservatively to hedge against their risks. We show that in the presence of uncertainty, the game bec...

  17. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Advocates Coalition for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle de l'Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment (ACODE) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques publiques en Ouganda, en améliorant sa capacité à fournir des recherches de qualité supérieure, influentes et utiles en matière de politiques.

  18. Worksite Cancer Prevention Activities in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmias, Zachary; Townsend, Julie S; Neri, Antonio; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-08-01

    Workplaces are one setting for cancer control planners to reach adults at risk for cancer and other chronic diseases. However, the extent to which Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded National Comprehensive Cancer Control Programs (NCCCP) implement interventions in the workplace setting is not well characterized. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of program action plans submitted by NCCCP grantees from 2013 to 2015 to identify and describe cancer prevention objectives and interventions in the workplace setting. Nearly half of NCCCP action reports contained at least one cancer prevention objective or intervention in the workplace setting. Common interventions included education about secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace, and the importance of obtaining colorectal cancer screening. Workplace interventions were relatively common among NCCCP action plans, and serve as one way to address low percentages of CRC screening, and reduce risk for obesity- and tobacco-related cancers.

  19. Strengthening ecological mindfulness through hybrid learning in vital coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Jifke; Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2015-03-01

    In this contribution a key policy `tool' used in the Dutch Environmental Education and Learning for Sustainability Policy framework is introduced as a means to develop a sense of place and associated ecological mindfulness. The key elements of this tool, called the vital coalition, are described while an example of its use in practice, is analysed using a form of reflexive monitoring and evaluation. The example focuses on a multi-stakeholder learning process around the transformation of a somewhat sterile pre-school playground into an intergenerational green place suitable for play, discovery and engagement. Our analysis of the policy-framework and the case leads us to pointing out the importance of critical interventions at so-called tipping points within the transformation process and a discussion of the potential of hybrid learning in vital coalitions in strengthening ecological mindfulness. This paper does not focus on establishing an evidence base for the causality between this type of learning and a change in behavior or mindfulness among participants as a result contributing to a vital coalition but rather focusses on the conditions, processes and interventions that allow for such learning to take place in the first place.

  20. Organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions across the United States: development and testing of a novel survey instrument for assessing coalition functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Daniel B; Pate, Russell R; Beets, Michael W; Saunders, Ruth P; Blair, Steven N

    2015-06-01

    Coalitions are often composed of member organizations. Member involvement is thought to be associated with coalition success. No instrument currently exists for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This study aimed to develop a survey instrument for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. The study was carried out in three phases: (a) developing a draft survey, (b) assessing the content validity of the draft survey, and (c) assessing the underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity of the survey. A cross-sectional design was employed. In Phase 1, a team of experts in survey development produced a draft survey. In Phase 2, the content validity of the draft survey was evaluated by a panel of individuals with expertise in physical activity coalitions. In Phase 3, the survey was administered to 120 individuals on local-, state-, and national-level physical activity coalitions. Responses were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the survey's underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity. Phases 1 and 2yielded a survey instrument with demonstrated content validity. Phase 3 yielded a three-factor model with three subscales: Strategic Alignment, Organizational Alignment, and Providing Input. Each subscale demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument developed here demonstrated sound psychometric properties and provides new insight into organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This instrument may be an important tool in developing a more complete picture of coalition functioning in physical activity coalitions specifically and health-based coalitions overall. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. Prostate Cancer Disparities throughout the Cancer Control Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Dalton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that 238,590 U.S. men will develop PCa and 29,720 men will die from the disease in 2013. PCa exhibits the most profound racial disparities of all cancers with African American men having a 70% higher incidence rate and more than two times higher mortality rate than Caucasian men. Published research on PCa disparities focuses on singular outcomes such as incidence, mortality or quality of life. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the racial disparities found at each stage of the PCa Care Continuum which includes prevention, detection, treatments, and outcomes and survival. It focuses primarily on disparities among Caucasian (white and African American men.

  2. The history and use of cancer registry data by public health cancer control programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Babcock, Frances; Hayes, Nikki S; Mariotto, Angela B; Wong, Faye L; Kohler, Betsy A; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-12-15

    Because cancer registry data provide a census of cancer cases, registry data can be used to: 1) define and monitor cancer incidence at the local, state, and national levels; 2) investigate patterns of cancer treatment; and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts to prevent cancer cases and improve cancer survival. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the history of cancer surveillance programs in the United States, and illustrate the expanding ways in which cancer surveillance data are being made available and contributing to cancer control programs. The article describes the building of the cancer registry infrastructure and the successful coordination of efforts among the 2 federal agencies that support cancer registry programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The major US cancer control programs also are described, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, and the Colorectal Cancer Control Program. This overview illustrates how cancer registry data can inform public health actions to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes and may be instructional for a variety of cancer control professionals in the United States and in other countries. Cancer 2017;123:4969-76. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Alcohol Control Efforts in Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans and Alcohol Use Among Adults in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, S. Jane; Kanny, Dafna; Roland, Katherine B.; Grossman, Melissa; Peaker, Brandy; Liu, Yong; Gapstur, Susan M.; White, Mary C.; Plescia, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand how US cancer control plans address alcohol use, an important but frequently overlooked cancer risk factor, and how many US adults are at risk. Methods We reviewed alcohol control efforts in 69 comprehensive cancer control plans in US states, tribes and jurisdictions. Using the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we assessed the prevalence of current alcohol use among US adults and the proportion of these drinkers who exceeded guidelines for moderate drinking. Results Most comprehensive cancer control plans acknowledged alcohol use as a cancer risk factor but fewer than half included a goal, objective or strategy to address alcohol use. More than half of US adults reported current alcohol use in 2011, and two of three drinkers exceeded moderate drinking guidelines at least once in the past month. Many states that did not address alcohol use in comprehensive cancer control plans also had a high proportion of adults at risk. Conclusion Alcohol use is a common cancer risk factor in the USA, but alcohol control strategies are not commonly included in comprehensive cancer control plans. Supporting the implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent the excessive use of alcohol is one tool the cancer control community can use to reduce the risk of cancer. PMID:25313255

  4. Theories of coalition formation: An empirical test using data from Danish local government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjæveland, Asbjørn; Serritzlew, Søren; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Theories of coalition formation represent a diverse set of arguments about why some government coalitions form while others do not. In this article, the authors present a systematic empirical test of the relative importance of the various arguments. The test is designed to avoid a circularity...... problem present in many coalition studies - namely that the theories are tested on data of national government coalitions in postwar Europe: the very data that gave rise to the theories in the first place. Instead, the authors focus on government coalitions at the municipal level. They base their analysis...... on office and policy motives. At the same time, the analysis raises the question of whether actors really seek minimal coalitions....

  5. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for

  6. THE BLENDING EFFECT OF COALITE, COCONUT SHELL CHARCOAL AND GELAM WOOD CHARCOAL ON CALORIFIC VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Nukman; Riman Sipahutar; Irsyadi Yani; Taufik Arief

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to scrutinize the effect of blend solid fuels consisting of coalite, coconut shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal on calorific value. Coalite is the solid fuels made from coal that is mined from the earth, while coconuts shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal are processed from natural plants. Coalite, coconut shell charcoal and gelam wood charcoal are solid fuels which was obtained from carbonization process or pyrolitic process of fuel material. Gelam wood char...

  7. The Lancet Oncology's Cancer Control in Africa | Michael | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2013 the Lancet Oncology published a series on cancer control in Africa comprising 7 papers (Lancet Oncology vol 14 number 4). The significance of these papers to Africa's attempts at tackling the rapidly rising prevalence of cancer cannot be over-emphasized. Potentially, these papers will form the basis of ...

  8. THE LANCET ONCOLOGY'S CANCER CONTROL IN AFRICA O.S. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2013 the Lancet Oncology published a series on cancer control in Africa comprising 7 papers (Lancet Oncology vol 14 number 4). The significance of these papers to Africa's attempts at tackling the rapidly rising prevalence of cancer cannot be over-emphasized. Potentially, these papers will form the basis of ...

  9. Regional Cancer Control in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Proposal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an impending cancer epidemic in Africa. In Nigeria, this disease is causing untold devastation, and control measures are desperately needed. Breast, cervical, prostate, and liver cancers are the most common types in Nigerian adults. In children, the predominant malignant diseases are Burkitt's lymphoma, acute ...

  10. Control of breast cancer using health education | Nzarubara | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Todetermine theefficacy of massscreening in the control of primary breast cancer among a selected group of women from Mpigi district, Uganda. Design: Qualitative study by comparing the level of knowledge of risk factors, attitude and practice to breast cancer and the ability to carry out self breast examination ...

  11. Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do, this booklet includes tips about managing your pain with medicine and other treatments. PDF Kindle ePub This booklet covers: The types and causes of cancer pain How to talk about your pain with your ...

  12. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Gestational Diabetes , Sickle Cell Anemia in the laboratories of Jayduff Vadgama, P.D. and of Steven Taylor, M.D. at Charles Drew University of Medicine...Ethnic differences in food consumption in the U-S:Relevance to cancer prevalence . In: Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, proceedings of the Fourth Annual...life events such as sick- nessanddeah (agaw-Siger 198).ment was found-the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Wes Acculturation Scale (Suinn, Ahuman, & Khoo

  13. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  14. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  15. Use Cases for Dynamic Secure Wireless Networking in Coalition Environments (Cas d utilisation de r seau sans fil dynamique et s curis dans des environnements de coalition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    sécurisé dans des environnements de coalition) This Report documents the findings of Task Group IST-109/RTG-054. Published May 2015 Distribution...d’utilisation de réseau sans fil dynamique et sécurisé dans des environnements de coalition) This Report documents the findings of Task Group IST...dynamique et sécurisé dans des environnements de coalition (STO-TR-IST-109) Synthèse Les réseaux sans fil mobiles et dynamiques utilisent des

  16. Controlled English for Effective Communication during Coalition Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    personnel. • Use of Slang , Colloquialisms and Jargon Use of slang , colloquialisms and jargon are related to the notion of language register or style...People use appropriate styles depending on the settings in question. The problem is that slang , colloquial expressions and jargon typically belong to...approach could be used to handle the cases of acronyms, slang , and jargon discussed above. It could also help with terms that have alternatives in the

  17. Do abatement quotas lead to more successful climate coalitions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Cabrera, J.-C.; Dellink, R. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group; Finus, M. [Univ. of Hagen (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2007-07-01

    Casual empirical evidence has already shown that existing international environmental agreements (IEAs) depart from a globally optimal solution typically in three respects. Firstly, not all countries that are responsible for negative transboundary spillovers participate in IEAs. A typical example is the Kyoto Protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. Neither the USA, a major current emitter of greenhouse gases, nor major future emitters such as China and India, have accepted quantified emission reductions under this agreement. Secondly, total abatement of the coalition is below coalitional optimal levels. For framework conventions (such as the Vienna Convention preceding the Montreal Protocol on CFC-reductions, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) preceding the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse gases reduction or the Convention Long Range Transboundary Pollution (LRTAP) preceding the Helsinki and Oslo Protocols on sulfur reductions) this is evident as they are mere declarations of intentions without abatement obligations. However, this suboptimality is also true for other conventions which is supported by empirical studies, suggesting that emission reduction targets are not much higher than in the absence of these agreements. Thirdly, emission reduction efforts are not cost-effectively allocated. Abatement obligations are often specified as uniform emission reduction quotas, even though countries face different marginal abatement costs. In the non-cooperative game theoretical literature on IEAs, the first type of deficiency has received much attention. A common assumption in many of these studies is that total abatement within a coalition is chosen optimally. The first papers shwoing that only small coalitions are self-enforcing go back to Barrett (1994) and Carraro and Siniscalco (1993), which has recently been confirmed by Breton et al. (2006). Later papers have addressed the problem of heterogeneous payoff functions and

  18. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  19. Pediatric disaster triage education and skills assessment: a coalition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenningham, Katherine; Koelemay, Kathryn; King, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to 1) demonstrate one method of pediatric disaster preparedness education using a regional disaster coalition organized workshop and 2) evaluate factors reflecting the greatest shortfall in pediatric mass casualty incident (MCI) triage skills in a varied population of medical providers in King County, WA. Educational intervention and cross-sectional survey. Pediatric disaster preparedness conference created de novo and offered by the King County Healthcare Coalition, with didactic sessions and workshops including a scored mock pediatric MCI triage. Ninety-eight providers from throughout the King County, WA, region selected by their own institutions following invitation to participate, with 88 completing exit surveys. Didactic lectures regarding pediatric MCI triage followed by scored exercises. Mock triage scores were analyzed and compared according to participant characteristics and workplace environment. A half-day regional pediatric disaster preparedness educational conference convened in September 2011 by the King County Healthcare Coalition in partnership with regional pediatric experts was so effective and well-received that it has been rescheduled yearly (2012 and 2013) and has expanded to three Washington State venues sponsored by the Washington State Department of Health. Emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU) employment and regular exposure to pediatric patients best predicted higher mock pediatric MCI triage scores (ED/ICU 80 percent vs non-ED/ICU 73 percent, p = 0.026; regular pediatric exposure 80 percent vs less exposure 77 percent, p = 0.038, respectively). Pediatric Advanced Life Support training was not found to be associated with improved triage performance, and mock patients whose injuries were not immediately life threatening tended to be over-triaged (observed trend). A regional coalition can effectively organize member hospitals and provide education for focused populations using specialty experts such as

  20. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Salt Lake City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Since its designation as a national Clean City in 1994, Salt Lake Clean Cities has put more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on community streets. The 82 business, nonprofit, and government agencies that comprise the coalition are all dedicated to cleaning the air by reducing vehicle exhaust. Salt Lake Clean Cities has the third largest compressed natural gas and propane-refueling infrastructure in the country, with 98 locations available. They sponsor an annual ''Spring Soiree'' to increase public awareness about the program and educate the public about the benefits of alternative fuel and AFVs.

  1. Disparities in Cancer Clinical Trials: An Analysis of Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Moniek Felder, Tisha; Pena, Gabriela D.; Chapital, Bridget F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Disparities in enrollment of adults in cancer clinical trials are well documented, but little is known about the attention given to this topic in comprehensive cancer control (CCC) plans. We assessed the extent to which CCC plans address disparities in clinical trials and whether jurisdictions whose plans address disparities also mandate third-party reimbursement for clinical trial participation. Methods We analyzed 57 CCC plans identified from Cancer PLANET (Plan, Link, Act, Net...

  2. Anti-viral treatment and cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Liang; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chen, Pei-Jer

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contribute to about 10-15 % global burden of human cancers. Conventional chemotherapy or molecular target therapies have been used to treat virus-associated cancers. However, a more proactive approach would be the use of antiviral treatment to suppress or eliminate viral infections to prevent the occurrence of cancer in the first place. Antiviral treatments against chronic HBV and HCV infections have achieved this goal, with significant reduction in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in treated patients. Antiviral treatments for EBV, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) had limited success in treating refractory EBV-associated lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, KSHV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients, and HTLV-1-associated acute, chronic, and smoldering subtypes of adult T-cell lymphoma, respectively. Therapeutic HPV vaccine and RNA-interference-based therapies for treating HPV-associated cervical cancers also showed some encouraging results. Taken together, antiviral therapies have yielded promising results in cancer prevention and treatment. More large-scale studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of antiviral therapy. Further investigation for more effective and convenient antiviral regimens warrants more attention.

  3. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  4. Control of cervical cancer: women's options and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Joanna M; Ngan, Hextan; Garland, Suzanne; Wright, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer takes the lives of more than 250,000 women each year globally, particularly in under-resourced areas of low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Options for cancer control and treatment have reached a point that there are interventions for control that could be adopted for virtually every resource and demographic situation. Women die despite the availability of attractive control options, which means that educating policy makers, women's health professionals, as well as women themselves, must become a major focus for ongoing control of this disease. The human right to life, to prevention of suffering, and to education are all key rights linked to improving the control of cervical cancer and saving the lives of women, particularly in resource-poor parts of the world.

  5. Improving the Organisational Effectiveness of Coalition Operations (Amelioration de l’efficacite structurelle des operations en coalition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    pratiques de relèves ; 4) L’augmentation de la confiance dans les coalitions multinationales ; et 5) La réduction des obstacles liés à la pluralité de...Krijnen, H.G. (1979). The flexile firm . Long Range Planning, 12, 63-75. [49] Kühlmann, T.M. (2005). Mitarbeiterführung und kulturelle Diversität. In...80] Volberda, H.W. (1998). Building the flexible firm : How to remain competitive. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. [81] Von Glinow, M.A

  6. Coalition Formation under Uncertainty: Bargaining Equilibria and the Bayesian Core Stability Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Chalkiadakis (Georgios); V. Markakis (Vangelis); C. Boutillier (Cédric); E.H. Durfee; M. Yokoo; M.N. Huhns (Michael)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCoalition formation is a problem of great interest in AI, allowing groups of autonomous, rational agents to form stable teams. Fur- thermore, the study of coalitional stability concepts and their re- lation to equilibria that guide the strategic interactions of agents during bargaining

  7. Project coalitions in healthcare construction projects and the application of real options: an exploratory survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, Maartje; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Exploring the impact of the type of project coalition on types of flexibility by analyzing considered and exercised flexibilities in separated and integrated project coalitions in the design and construction phase and the operations and maintenance phase of a healthcare construction

  8. 75 FR 17872 - High-Cost Universal Service Support, Jurisdictional Separations, and Coalition for Equity in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Coalition for Equity in Switching Support Petition for Reconsideration AGENCY: Federal Communications... for Equity in Switching Support in the jurisdictional separations freeze proceeding. DATES: Effective... reform. We also dismiss the petition for reconsideration filed by the Coalition for Equity in Switching...

  9. Special Interest Group Coalitions: Ethical Standards for Broad-Based Support Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodensteiner, Carol A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines case studies of coalitions formed by a for-profit corporation, a trade association, and a foreign government. Finds: coalitions perform an important role when representing public interest; media play a role as watchdogs but do not always rise to responsibility; and the public relations profession bears the brunt of public and media…

  10. Stability likelihood of coalitions in a two-stage cartel game: An estimation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, N.J.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Existing formulations of a cartel game aim at finding stable coalitions, i.e. a coalition is labelled stable or not stable. Uncertainty about the underlying structure and/or parameter values gives rise to sensitivity or uncertainty analysis. In this paper we follow a probabilistic robustness

  11. Competitive Outcomes and Endogenous Coalition Formation in an n-Person Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, N.; Trockel, W.; Yang, Z.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study competitive outcomes and endogenous coalition formation in a cooperative n-person transferable utility (TU) game from the viewpoint of general equilibrium theory.For any given game, we construct a competitive exchange coalition production economy corresponding to the game.

  12. Urban Educational Change: Building Trust and Alignment among Fragmented Coalitions of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tricia J.; Finnigan, Kara S.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a historical case study of an attempt to build a citywide coalition in Rochester, NY. The coalition wanted to improve urban education by implementing community based wrap-around supports in a similar form as the well-respected Harlem Children's Zone. Our study found that groups had difficulty creating buy-in for this reform effort…

  13. Socio-Economic Inequalities in English Schooling under the Coalition Government 2010-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Ruth; Thomson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of socio-economic inequalities in school outcomes was a major priority of the Coalition Government in England from 2010-15. In this paper we examine the Coalition's policies and spending, including an analysis of the distributional effect of its pupil premium policy. We also look at trends in outcomes up to 2014. We find that…

  14. Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Henry, Kevin A; Paskett, Electra D; Ellison, Gary L; Oh, April; Taplin, Stephen H; Tatalovich, Zaria; Berrigan, David A

    2017-04-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality display strong geographic patterns worldwide and in the United States (1, 2). The environment where individuals live, work, and play is increasingly being recognized as important across the cancer control continuum, including the risk of cancer development, detection, diagnosis, treatment, mortality, and survivorship (3-5). At the same time, emergent technological capacity in geographic information systems (GIS) and mapping, along with increasing sophistication in applied spatial methods, has resulted in a growing research community developing and applying geospatial approaches in health research (5). Through collaborative, transdisciplinary efforts, and continued data collection efforts, there is great potential to apply these emerging geospatial approaches to various aspects of cancer prevention and control to inform etiology and target interventions and implementation of efficacious risk-reducing strategies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 472-5. ©2017 AACRSee all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences." ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. The Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply project: An introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Karcher, D

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, empirical information on the sustainability of commercial-scale egg production is lacking. The passage of state regulations specific to hen housing created urgency to better understand the effects of different housing systems on the sustainability of the egg supply, and stimulated the formation of a coalition, the Coalition for a Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES), to conduct research on this topic. The CSES is a multi-stakeholder group with 27 members, including food manufacturers, research institutions, scientists, restaurants, food service, retail food companies, egg suppliers, and nongovernmental organizations. A commercial-scale study was developed to better understand the effect of 3 housing systems (conventional cage, enriched colony, and cage-free aviary) on 5 areas related to a sustainable egg supply. These 5 sustainability areas represent effects on people, animals, and the environment: animal health and well-being, environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and food affordability. Five teams of scientists, each associated with a sustainability area, conducted an integrated field study at a commercial site in the upper Midwest through 2 flock cycles in 3 housing systems. This paper provides a brief overview of the CSES project to serve as an introduction for the papers that follow in this volume of Poultry Science. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  16. Dynamic and adaptive policy models for coalition operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh; Calo, Seraphin; Chakraborty, Supriyo; Bertino, Elisa; Williams, Chris; Tucker, Jeremy; Rivera, Brian; de Mel, Geeth R.

    2017-05-01

    It is envisioned that the success of future military operations depends on the better integration, organizationally and operationally, among allies, coalition members, inter-agency partners, and so forth. However, this leads to a challenging and complex environment where the heterogeneity and dynamism in the operating environment intertwines with the evolving situational factors that affect the decision-making life cycle of the war fighter. Therefore, the users in such environments need secure, accessible, and resilient information infrastructures where policy-based mechanisms adopt the behaviours of the systems to meet end user goals. By specifying and enforcing a policy based model and framework for operations and security which accommodates heterogeneous coalitions, high levels of agility can be enabled to allow rapid assembly and restructuring of system and information resources. However, current prevalent policy models (e.g., rule based event-condition-action model and its variants) are not sufficient to deal with the highly dynamic and plausibly non-deterministic nature of these environments. Therefore, to address the above challenges, in this paper, we present a new approach for policies which enables managed systems to take more autonomic decisions regarding their operations.

  17. Speak Up Speak Out Coalition Survey Results | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive planning is a visionary planning process that integrates community values and land use policy. The Mayor of Duluth, Minnesota, directed the inclusion of two new values into the City’s comprehensive planning process to direct the community’s future, process: health and fairness. In order to understand the meanings of health and fairness that residents of the city hold, the Community Planning Department included questions in a city-wide survey of planning priorities. As a community organization reviewed the survey results that would inform the new directives, they realized that overburdened communities were underrepresented in the survey responses. To address this deficiency, the community organization asked the City of Duluth if they could conduct a survey of the underrepresented voices to ensure their input was included in the process. The Health in All Policies Coalition contacted the USEPA Office of Research and Development in Duluth, MN at the advice of the Planning Department. The support USEPA provided ensured that the Coalition could make recommendations to the City of Duluth based on systematically collected and analyzed data. This presentation will share the results of the survey. This presentation of the Speak Up Speak Out survey data represents support for local decision-making, technical assistance and data analysis. The data were collected and analyzed through advice and consultation with USEPA Office of Research and Development, an

  18. Building Coalitions with NGOs: Religion Scholars and Disability Justice Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Iozzio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Council of Churches (WCC, an organization of 348 member churches, is a model of coalition building particularly through its support of individuals, churches, and their ministries for the inclusion, participation, and contributions of people with disabilities in its ecumenical work. The Ecumenical Disability Advocates Network (EDAN informs one of the initiatives of the WCC—faith in Jesus Christ and communion fellowship—in the journey toward visible unity and justice for people who were too often missing the banquet of a church of all and for all. EDAN and other international disability advocates have most recently embedded its agenda of inclusion into the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations explicitly recognizes the Human Rights for persons with disabilities and, with the Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006, has raised protections against discrimination, exploitation, and abuse of people with disabilities to the level of international law. The World Health Organization works collaboratively in gathering data and local analyses of efforts to minimize preventable disability and maximize rehabilitation program availability with partners across the globe. These organizations, global in nature, have benefitted from the insights raised by people with disabilities and scholars working at the intersections of disability, religion, and justice. This essay examines the efficacy and opportunities of international coalitions available with these organizations so as to challenge the ethics of simple accommodations with a more robust social justice of affirmation and advocacy for people with disabilities: a new paradigm for our churches and our world.

  19. Learning from Iraq and Afghanistan: Four Lessons for Building More Effective Coalitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite many tactical and operational successes by brave military and civilian personnel, post-9/11 operations by U.S. led coalitions in Iraq and Afghanistan did not achieve their intended outcomes. Although many efforts are underway by discrete organizations within coalition countries to identify and learn their own lessons from these conflicts, comparatively less attention is paid to broader lessons for successful coalitions. Given that the U.S. and its allies will most certainly form coalitions in the future for a range of different contingency scenarios, these lessons are equally deserving of close examination. This article identifies four interrelated lessons from Iraq and Afghanistan that can be utilized to inform more effective coalition development and employment.

  20. Local Self-Government as an Architect of Coalitions for Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gąsior-Niemiec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the new role played by local self-government units in Poland. Main factors that determine the public authorities’ capacity to become architects of coalitions for local development are identified. Coalitions are defined as partnerships linking and mobilizing stakeholders anchored in three sectors: public, economic and non-governmental. The coalition-making role of the public organs is investigated on the basis of Local Action Groups (LAGs, which are pro-developmental cross-sector organizations established in rural areas of the Podkarpackie (Sub-Carpathian Voivodesh ip, Poland. Findings are presented that draw on quantitative and qualitative results of the research project that investigated mechanisms involved in the operation of the cross-s ector coalitions. The dominant role of the public authorities in those coalitions is demonstrated. The Community-led Local Development model is referred to as the future framework for LAGs.

  1. Evaluating Effective Leadership and Governance in a Midwestern Agricultural Safety and Health Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendl, Mary J; Cramer, Mary E

    2018-02-01

    Agricultural Centers are a coalition of organizations and individual members with a common purpose: to improve the health and safety of the agricultural community. Successful leadership and governance are essential in accomplishing these goals. This article examined the effectiveness of a midwestern Agricultural Health and Safety Center (Ag Center) leadership and governance structure. The Internal Coalition Outcomes Hierarchy (ICOH) framework and the Internal Coalition Effectiveness (ICE©) instrument were used, with field visit interviews conducted to gain further insight. Combined comparative findings from both research methods showed that scores in each of the categories increased. Adjustments led to stronger collaborative leadership, vital to successful population health improvement programs. This study showcases coalition qualities in a broader environment, capturing a clearer depiction of leadership and member interaction. Field visit interviews confirmed that this midwestern Ag Center continued to have strong levels of effectiveness in each of the conceptual constructs of a coalition.

  2. The RAISE Coalition: Lessons Learned From a Multisector Coalition Used to Implement High-impact Population-Wide Strategies in Cleveland, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista, Pedro; Vue, Cathy; Byun, Michael; Choi, Ashley; Chin, Kathy Ko

    2017-01-01

    Recent public health initiatives include policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) strategies with the aim of improving community health. These high-impact, population-wide strategies provide opportunities for multisector coalitions to engage and inform the implementation process to ultimately reach underrepresented communities, like Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). The purpose of this article is to discuss (1) the objectives of "Reaching Asian Americans through Innovative and Supportive Engagement," (RAISE) a multisector coalition (2) describe the process in which the coalition was engaged in, and (3) share lessons learned that can inform future partnerships with various sectors that reach AAPI communities that are highly diverse and in geographically dispersed areas. Asian Services In Action, a community-based organization in Cleveland, Ohio recruited 10 member organizations to participate in a multisector coalition to identify, plan and implement a PSE strategy reaching AAPIs. Key lessons learned include: the need to navigate competing priorities for member organizations; the value in creating a space where racial/ethnic diversity and cultural adaption are discussed; and the importance of creating a shared learning community for coalition members. As the public health landscape shifts toward effectively improving community health through PSE strategies, it is vital that multisector coalitions are included to potentially have the greatest impact in health overall and to increase community engagement and buy-in.

  3. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  4. State Fall Prevention Coalitions as Systems Change Agents: An Emphasis on Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ellen C; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G; Altpeter, Mary; Beattie, Bonita Lynn; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Shubert, Tiffany E

    2016-03-01

    Falls among older adults are an escalating public health issue, which requires a multidisciplinary and multilevel approach to affect systems change to effectively address this problem. The National Council on Aging established the Falls Free® Initiative, enfolding and facilitating statewide Fall Prevention Coalitions. Fall Free® activities included developing the State Policy Toolkit for Advancing Falls Prevention to promote sustainable change by supporting the dissemination and adoption of evidence-based strategies. To (1) determine if the policies being implemented were recommended and supported by the Toolkit, (2) identify the perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing policies, and (3) identify Coalitions' current and future fall prevention policy activities. A 63-item online survey was distributed to State Coalition Leads. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and counts) were used to describe Coalition characteristics and activities. Coalitions had several similarities, and varied greatly in their number of member organizations and members as well as meeting frequencies. Key activities included building partnerships, disseminating programs, and pursuing at least one of the eight National Council on Aging-recommended policy goals. The most commonly reported facilitator was active support from the Coalition Leads, whereas the lack of funding was the most cited barrier. This study serves as the first national census of empirical evidence regarding Falls Coalitions' composition, goals, and activities. Results indicate that Coalitions are actively pursuing evidence-based policies but could benefit from additional technical assistance and resources. Findings support the value of Toolkit recommendations by documenting what is feasible and being implemented. Knowledge about facilitators and barriers will inform future efforts to foster sustainable systems change in states with active Coalitions and encourage Coalitions in other states. © 2015 Society for

  5. A 2040 Vision for the I-95 Coalition Region : Supporting Economic Growth in a Carbon-Constrained Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The I-95 Corridor Coalitions Vision project is a departure from the Coalitions historic role that focused primarily on shorter-term operational improvements in the corridor. In the past, most of the day-to-day issues confronting the Coalition m...

  6. P27 in cell cycle control and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    2000-01-01

    In order to survive, cells need tight control of cell cycle progression. The control mechanisms are often lost in human cancer cells. The cell cycle is driven forward by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The CDK inhibitors (CKIs) are important regulators of the CDKs. As the name implies, CKIs were...

  7. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Cancer Pain Control for Advanced Cancer Patients by Using Autonomic Nerve Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwi-joong Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ─ 20 mL injection of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain.

  9. Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategies for Cancer Prevention in Current National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Underwood, J Michael; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity, diet and physical inactivity are risk factors for some cancers. Grantees of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) in US states, tribes, and territories develop plans to coordinate funding and activities for cancer prevention and control. Including information and goals related to nutrition and physical activity (NPA) is a key opportunity for primary cancer prevention, but it is currently unclear to what extent NCCCP plans address these issues. We reviewed 69 NCCCP plans and searched for terms related to NPA. Plans were coded as (1) knowledge of NPA and cancer link; (2) goals to improve NPA behaviors; and (3) strategies to increase healthy NPA activities, environments, or systems changes. NPA content was consistently included in all cancer plans examined across all years. Only 4 (6 %) outlined only the relationship between NPA and cancer without goals or strategies. Fifty-nine plans (89 %) contained goals or strategies related to NPA, with 53 (82 %) including both. However, numbers of goals, strategies, and detail provided varied widely. All programs recognized the importance of NPA in cancer prevention. Most plans included NPA goals and strategies. Increasing the presence of NPA strategies that can be modified or adapted appropriately locally could help with more widespread implementation and measurement of NPA interventions.

  10. DNA damage among thyroid cancer and multiple cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurdson, A J; Hauptmann, M; Alexander, B J; Doody, M M; Thomas, C B; Struewing, J P; Jones, I M

    2004-08-24

    Variation in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage contributes to human cancer risk. To assess capacity to modulate endogenous DNA damage among radiologic technologists who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and another malignancy (breast-other; n=42), early-onset breast cancer (early-onset, age {<=} 35; n=38), thyroid cancer (n=68), long-lived cancer-free individuals (hyper-normals; n=20) and cancer-free controls (n=49) we quantified DNA damage (single strand breaks and abasic sites) in untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines using the alkaline comet assay. Komet{trademark} software provided comet tail length, % DNA in tail (tail DNA), comet distributed moment (CDM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) summarized as the geometric mean of 100 cells. Category cut-points (median and 75th percentile) were determined from the distribution among controls. Tail length (for {>=} 75% vs. below the median, age adjusted) was most consistently associated with the highest odds ratios in the breast-other, early-onset, and thyroid cancer groups (with risk increased 10-, 5- or 19-fold, respectively, with wide confidence intervals) and decreased risk among the hyper-normal group. For the other three Comet measures, risk of breast-other was elevated approximately three-fold. Risk of early-onset breast cancer was mixed and risk of thyroid cancer ranged from null to a two-fold increase. The hyper-normal group showed decreased odds ratios for tail DNA and OTM, but not CDM. DNA damage, as estimated by all Comet measures, was relatively unaffected by survival time, reproductive factors, and prior radiation treatment. We detected a continuum of endogenous DNA damage that was highest among cancer cases, less in controls, and suggestively lowest in hyper-normal individuals. Measuring this DNA damage phenotype may contribute to the identification of susceptible sub-groups. Our observations require replication in a prospective study with a large number of pre-diagnostic samples.

  11. A critical evaluation of subtalar joint arthrosis associated with middle facet talocalcaneal coalition in 21 surgically managed patients: a retrospective computed tomography review. Investigations involving middle facet coalitions-part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernbach, Klaus J; Barkan, Howard; Blitz, Neal M

    2010-01-01

    Symptomatic middle facet talocalcaneal coalition is frequently associated with rearfoot arthrosis that is often managed surgically with rearfoot fusion. However, no objective method for classifying the extent of subtalar joint arthrosis exists. No study has clearly identified the extent of posterior facet arthrosis present in a large cohort treated surgically for talocalcaneal coalition through preoperative computerized axial tomography. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 21 patients (35 feet) with coalition who were surgically treated over a 12-year period for coalition on at least 1 foot. Using a predefined original staging system, the extent of the arthrosis was categorized into normal or mild (Stage I), moderate (Stage II), and severe (Stage III) arthrosis. The association of stage and age is statistically significant. All of the feet with Stage III arthrosis had fibrous coalitions. No foot with osseous coalition had Stage III arthrosis. The distribution of arthrosis staging differs between fibrous and osseous coalitions. Only fibrous coalitions had the most advanced arthrosis (Stage III), whereas osseous coalitions did not. This suggests that osseous coalitions may have a protective effect in the prevention of severe degeneration of the subtalar joint. Concomitant subtalar joint arthrosis severity progresses with age; surgeons may want to consider earlier surgical intervention to prevent arthrosis progression in patients with symptomatic middle facet talocalcaneal coalition.

  12. Teaching responsibility through sport education: prospects of a coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, P A; Buchanan, A M

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a database analysis of a combined sport model and from this to develop a theory from practice. In particular, the original concern was to examine the extent to which the teaching of personal and social responsibility (TPSR) could form a coalition with the Sport Education model. Forty-five 6th-grade boys, who had a previous history of struggling with the fair play requirements of Sport Education, participated in a 26-lesson season of Xball, an invasion game designed by those students. As a general summary, it was found that some of the features of TPSR strengthened the foundation of Sport Education, but due to the need to introduce new tasks and problems for students, a hybrid model (Empowering Sport) was developed. This hybrid, with a predominately ecological integration perspective, presents a curriculum model that allows for achievement within a powerful triangle of goals--sport skill competence, social responsibility, and personal empowerment.

  13. The Library Publishing Coalition: organizing libraries to enhance scholarly publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kalikman Lippincott

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Library-based publishing efforts are gaining traction in academic and research libraries across the world, primarily in response to perceived gaps in the scholarly publishing system. Though publishing is a new area of work for libraries, it is often a natural outgrowth of their existing infrastructure and skill sets, leveraging the institutional repository as publishing platform and repositioning librarians’ skills as information managers. For decades, these initiatives were primarily ad hoc and local, limiting the potential for library publishing to effect significant change. In 2013, over 60 academic and research libraries collectively founded the Library Publishing Coalition (LPC, a professional association expressly charged with facilitating knowledge sharing, collaboration and advocacy for this growing field. This article offers an overview of library publishing activity, primarily in the US, followed by an account of the creation and mission of the LPC, the first professional association dedicated wholly to the support of library publishers.

  14. Coalition Factor in the Evolution of Non-Kin Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessalles, Jean-Louis

    Animal behavior is often altruistic. In the frame of the theory of natural selection, altruism can only exist under specific conditions like kin selection or reciprocal cooperation. We show that reciprocal cooperation, which is generally invoked to explain non-kin altruism, requires very restrictive conditions to be stable. Some of these conditions are not met in many cases of altruism observed in nature. In search of another explanation of non-kin altruism, we consider Zahavis's theory of prestige. We extend it to propose a "political" model of altruism. We give evidence showing that non-kin altruism can evolve in the context of inter-subgroup competition. Under such circumstances, altruistic behavior can be used by individuals to advertise their quality as efficient coalition members. In this model, only abilities which positively correlate with the subgroup success can evolve into altruistic behaviors.

  15. Stable structures of coalitions in competitive and altruistic military teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurangzeb, M.; Mikulski, D.; Hudas, G.; Lewis, F. L.; Gu, Edward

    2013-05-01

    In heterogeneous battlefield teams, the balance between team and individual objectives forms the basis for the internal topological structure of teams. The stability of team structure is studied by presenting a graphical coalitional game (GCG) with Positional Advantage (PA). PA is Shapley value strengthened by the Axioms of value. The notion of team and individual objectives is studied by defining altruistic and competitive contribution made by an individual; altruistic and competitive contributions made by an agent are components of its total or marginal contribution. Moreover, the paper examines dynamic team effects by defining three online sequential decision games based on marginal, competitive and altruistic contributions of the individuals towards team. The stable graphs under these sequential decision games are studied and found to be structurally connected, complete, or tree respectively.

  16. Evolution of fairness and coalition formation in three-person ultimatum games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Okada, Akira; Shirata, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-07

    We consider the evolution of fairness and coalition formation in a three-person ultimatum game in which the coalition value depends on its size. Traditional game theory, which assumes selfish and rational players, predicts the largest and efficient coalition with a proposer exploiting most of the total value. In a stochastic evolutionary model (the frequency-dependent Moran process with mutations) where players make errors in estimating the payoffs and strategies of others, evolutionary selection favors the formation of a two-person subcoalition under weak selection and in the low mutation limit if and only if its coalition value exceeds a high proportion (0.7) of that of the largest coalition. Proposers offer 30-35% of the subcoalition value to a coalition member, excluding a non-member. Multilateral bargaining is critically different from the bilateral one. Coalition-forming behavior may cause economic inefficiency and social exclusion. Stochastic evolutionary game theory thus provides theoretical support to explain the behavior of human subjects in economic experiments of a three-person ultimatum game. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Advocacy coalitions, REDD+, and forest governance in Papua New Guinea: how likely is transformational change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Babon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests in developing countries are increasingly being valued for their role in carbon sequestration. Such interest is reflected in the emergence of international initiatives for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+. REDD+ requires addressing both tropical forests as complex social-ecological systems and the multiple sectors involved in tropical forest resources, which may necessitate transformational change away from business-as-usual approaches to forest governance. We studied the potential for REDD+ to mobilize an influential coalition of actors promoting transformational change in forest governance in Papua New Guinea (PNG, a leading proponent of REDD+ internationally. Combining policy network approaches with the advocacy coalition framework, we identified four advocacy coalitions in the REDD+ policy domain in PNG and estimated the influence of each coalition. We found the most influential advocacy coalition is promoting the status quo rather than governance reforms capable of reducing deforestations and forest degradation, leading us to suggest that business as usual is the dominant perspective in the REDD+ policy domain in PNG. This may explain why, despite the large amount of REDD+ rhetoric, there has been only modest change in formal policy or practice in PNG to date. However, we did find influential coalitions calling for transformational change. Although these are currently minority coalitions, we identified several pathways through which they could increase their power to realize transformational change

  18. Discovery day: A community coalition for science awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, X.K.; Sanders, J. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Bull, E. [Monte Vista School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This is a science awareness outreach program which drew approximately half a percent of Monterey County`s inhabitants for one day of hands-on science activities. Monterey County is about half the size of Massachusetts, but with a relatively small population (376,000). Yet, children from more than 120 rural and urban schools, along with their parents participated in DISCOVERY DAY 1993. Discovery Day is an outgrowth of a 1989 science fair workshop attended by about 60 students. Explosive growth came after changing from a goal-oriented workshop theme to an activity-based hands-on program emphasizing participation, enjoyment and the fascination value of science. Scaled to larger metropolitan areas, this six hour science program drew as many attendees as a professional sports team; the difference for our event being that participants far outnumbered spectators. The event is sponsored by the Monterey County Science and Engineering Fair Coalition, which includes the Monterey County Herald, First National Bank of Central California, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey County Office of Education, Lyceum of Monterey County, Junior League of Monterey County, Naval Postgraduate School and the California American Water Company. The ownership of this event has expanded to a truly community-wide coalition as members of other organizations interested in science education provide activities, experiments and personnel. These include teachers from local elementary, middle and high schools, both public and private, community colleges, staff from the community hospital and the Monterey City Library, members of MOOSE (Monterey Organization Of Science Educators) and the local Sigma Xi Club. Local merchants contributed to insure success of this science awareness day. It was gratifying to observe that support for science education extended beyond our parocial circle of scientists.

  19. A Tailored Approach to Launch Community Coalitions Focused on Achieving Structural Changes: Lessons Learned From a HIV Prevention Mobilization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Kate S; Willard, Nancy; Walker, Bendu C; Boyer, Cherrie B; Ellen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Public health HIV prevention efforts have begun to focus on addressing social and structural factors contributing to HIV risk, such as unstable housing, unemployment, and access to health care. With a limited body of evidence-based structural interventions for HIV, communities tasked with developing structural changes need a defined process to clarify their purpose and goals. This article describes the adaptations made to a coalition development model with the purpose of improving the start-up phase for a second group of coalitions. Modifications focused on preparing coalitions to more efficiently apply structural change concepts to their strategic planning activities, create more objectives that met study goals, and enhance coalition procedures such as building distributed coalition leadership to better support the mobilization process. We report on primary modifications to the process, findings for the coalitions, and recommendations for public health practitioners who are seeking to start a similar coalition.

  20. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  1. Blocking protein quality control to counter hereditary cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmeyer, Caroline; Nielsen, Sofie V.; Clausen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    imbalance, which makes them more dependent on protein quality control (PQC) mechanisms than normal cells. Accordingly, blocking PQC, e.g. by proteasome inhibitors, may cause a lethal proteotoxic crisis in cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unaffected. Evidence, however, suggests that the PQC system...

  2. Cervical cancer control and prevention in Malawi: need for policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents finding on a qualitative study which carried out to determine the suitability of the national sexual and reproductive health and rights [SRHR] in mitigating challenges in cervical cancer control and prevention. Methods: a desk review of the Malawi National Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights ...

  3. Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy for Pain Control in Irresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavassoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Severepain is a major problem in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy (TS on pain control in these patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods:Between years 2000 to 2011, 20 patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent TS due to severe pain. They were studied in terms of age, sex, location of pancreas tumor, history of previous surgery, response to treatments for pain control (assessed with VAS scoring system and complications of surgery. Results:M/F = 14/6 with a mean age of 63 years. The most common tumour site was at the pancreas head (in 8 patients. The most cause of unresectability was local expansion to critical adjacent elements (in 10 patients. Surgery was performed successfully in all patients. Post-operative complication included only pleural effusion on the left side which was cured by proper treatment. There were no post-op mortalities.  15 patients had acceptable levels of pain at the end of a six month follow-up period. ConclusionTS provides good pain control, little side effects and minimal invasiveness, the technique is recommended for pain control in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  4. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns of psychological symptoms between trajectories. This naturalistic study focused on 241 cancer patients receiving psychological care at psycho-oncology institutions. Data were collected before the initiation of psychological care, and 3 and 9 months thereafter. Latent class growth analysis was applied to identify personal control trajectories. Three personal control trajectories were identified: enduring improvement (41%), temporary improvement (50%), and deterioration (9%). Education and baseline physical symptoms distinguished these trajectories. In the whole group, improvements in personal control were associated with improvements in psychological symptoms. Patients at distinct trajectories reported different levels of psychological symptoms, but did not differ in their courses of psychological symptoms. Patients in the enduring and temporary control improvement groups experienced significant psychological symptoms reductions over time, whereas patients in the control deterioration group maintained high psychological symptoms. Improvements in personal control seem to depend on initial control level: those who start with the highest control levels show subsequent improvements, whereas those with the lowest control levels show subsequent deterioration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshram II

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban field practice area, Sadar, without any malignancy. Bivariate analyses included odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI for odds ratio. Results: Earlier age at menarche ≤ 12 years of age, late age at first full term delivery, nulliparity, Lack of breast-feeding were found to be significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer in both pre menopausal & post menopausal women while age at menopause at or after 50 years was significantly associated with the risk in post menopausal women. Conclusions: Study suggests that the changes in menstrual and reproductive patterns among women i.e. early age at menarche and late age at first childbirth and some environmental factors in Central India may have contributed to the increase in breast cancer risk, particularly among younger women.

  6. [Occupational risks for laryngeal cancer: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Sergio Guerra; Eluf-Neto, José; Travier, Noemie; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Arcuri, Arline Sydneia Abel; Kowalski, Luís Paulo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The most solidly established risk factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol. As for occupational factors, the only established carcinogen is exposure to strong inorganic acid mists. However, asbestos, pesticides, paints, gasoline, diesel engine emissions, dusts, and other factors have been reported in the literature as occupational agents that increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Detailed data on smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational history were collected for 122 laryngeal cancers and 187 controls matched by frequency (according to sex and age). Laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to respirable free crystalline silica (OR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.00-3.36), soot (from coal, coke, fuel oil, or wood) (odds ratio - OR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 1.03-3.03), fumes (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.14-5.67), and live animals (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.02-3.19).

  7. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  8. The voice of experience: results from Cancer Control New Zealand's first national cancer care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Inga; Britton, Emma; Sarfati, Diana; Naylor, Wayne; Borman, Barry; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Simpson, Andrew; Tamblyn, Craig; Atkinson, Chris

    2010-11-05

    The 2009 Cancer Care Survey aimed to gather information from patients about their experiences receiving outpatient cancer care. In mid-2009, Cancer Control New Zealand sent an NRC+Picker postal survey to a stratified sample of 3251 eligible adults, who had received outpatient cancer care between October 2008 and March 2009. Eight cancer treatment facilities across New Zealand provided patient lists from which potential respondents were selected. The final response rate to the survey was 68%. Most of the patients surveyed responded very positively to questions related to specialist care coordination (91% positive response; 95%CI: 90-93), the level of privacy (87% positive response; 95%CI: 85-89), and the dignity and respect provided by healthcare professionals (86% positive response; 95%CI: 85-88). However, patients tended to be much less positive about the level of information they received on the effects of cancer treatment on their day-to-day life (responses ranging between 30% and 40% positive) and the level of emotional support provided (36% positive response; 95%CI: 33-39). Responses from different cancer services tended to follow similar patterns, although for twelve questions there was at least a 20% difference in response between services. Overall, patients rated their outpatient cancer care experiences as positive, but important gaps exist in the provision of information, emotional support, and treating patients within the context of their living situation. Cancer patient experience surveys can achieve high response rates and generate useful information on patient perceptions of their care. This data can be used to inform quality improvement efforts at both national and cancer treatment service levels.

  9. COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory

    2012-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L. (2012). COalitions in COOperation Networks (COCOON): Social Network Analysis and Game Theory to Enhance Cooperation Networks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). September, 28, 2012, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  10. A kernel-oriented model for coalition-formation in general environments: Implementation and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehory, O.; Kraus, S. [Bar Ilan Univ., Ramat Gan (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a model for coalition formation and payoff distribution in general environments. We focus on a reduced complexity kernel-oriented coalition formation model, and provide a detailed algorithm for the activity of the single rational agent. The model is partitioned into a social level and a strategic level, to distinguish between regulations that must be agreed upon and are forced by agent-designers, and strategies by which each agent acts at will. In addition, we present an implementation of the model and simulation results. From these we conclude that implementing the model for coalition formation among agents increases the benefits of the agents with reasonable time consumption. It also shows that more coalition formations yield more benefits to the agents.

  11. A coalitional graph game framework for network coding-aided D2D communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yulei; Li, Yong; Ding, Zhiguo; Ge, Ning; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-01-01

    .... In this paper, a coalitional graph game framework is proposed to jointly accomplish resource allocation and relay selection, two challenging problems in network coding-aided D2D communication networks...

  12. California: Environmental Health Coalition Clean Ports, Healthy Communities in San Diego (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Health Coalition (EHC) is a recipient of a CARE Level II cooperative agreement grant. The Clean Ports, Healthy Communities in San Diego targets the Barrio Logan and Old Town National City areas located along San Diego Bay.

  13. A block chain based architecture for asset management in coalition operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh; Desai, Nirmit; Preece, Alun; Taylor, Ian

    2017-05-01

    To support dynamic communities of interests in coalition operations, new architectures for efficient sharing of ISR assets are needed. The use of blockchain technology in wired business environments, such as digital currency systems, offers an interesting solution by creating a way to maintain a distributed shared ledger without requiring a single trusted authority. In this paper, we discuss how a blockchain-based system can be modified to provide a solution for dynamic asset sharing amongst coalition members, enabling the creation of a logically centralized asset management system by a seamless policy-compliant federation of different coalition systems. We discuss the use of blockchain for three different types of assets in a coalition context, showing how blockchain can offer a suitable solution for sharing assets in those environments. We also discuss the limitations in the current implementations of blockchain which need to be overcome for the technology to become more effective in a decentralized tactical edge environment.

  14. Operational Ethics in Coalition Warfare: Whose Ethics Will Prevail? A Philosophical/Theological Conundrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howell, Abigail

    2002-01-01

    .... Ethical development and biases formed may be based on theological or philosophical tenets and represent a potential area of conflict during the coalition's operational war planning and decision-making cycle...

  15. Pain Control In Cancer Patients By Opiate Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohagheghi M A

    2003-07-01

    current barriers, WHO stepwise model for cancer pain control and palliative care is recommended. Publishing Standard Treatment Guidelines for different levels of health care system is another recommended approach to optimize cancer pain."n 

  16. New frontiers in translational control of the cancer genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Morgan L.; Ruggero, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The past several years have seen dramatic leaps in our understanding of how gene expression is rewired at the translation level during tumorigenesis to support the transformed phenotype. This work has been driven by an explosion in technological advances and is revealing previously unimagined regulatory mechanisms that dictate functional expression of the cancer genome. In this Review we discuss emerging trends and exciting new discoveries that reveal how this translational circuitry contributes to specific aspects of tumorigenesis and cancer cell function, with a particular focus on recent insights into the role of translational control in the adaptive response to oncogenic stress conditions. PMID:27112207

  17. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors: a Lebanese case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, Loulou Hassan; Yassine, Ibrahim Adnan; Jabbour, Michel Elias; Moussa, Mohamad Ahmad; Dhaini, Hassan Rida

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most incident malignancy among Lebanese men. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors associated with this observed high incidence. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002-2008. Controls were conveniently selected from the same settings. Data were collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. Exposure data were collected using a structured face-to-face interview questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to determine N-acetyltransferase1 (NAT1) genotype by PCR-RFLP. Analyses revolved around univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, along with checks for effect modification. The odds of having bladder cancer among smokers was 1.02 times significantly higher in cases vs. controls. The odds of exposure to occupational diesel or fuel combustion fumes were 4.1 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. The odds of prostate-related morbidity were 5.6 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. Cases and controls showed different clustering patterns of NAT1 alleles. No significant differences between cases and controls were found for consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, or artificial sweeteners. This is the first case-control study investigating bladder cancer risk factors in the Lebanese context. Results confirmed established risk factors in the literature, particularly smoking and occupational exposure to diesel. The herein observed associations should be used to develop appropriate prevention policies and intervention strategies, in order to control this alarming disease in Lebanon.

  18. Abortion and breast cancer: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if certain aspects of a woman's experience of abortion might be associated with the risk of breast cancer. The case-control study was conducted in Kragujevac (Serbia) during the period 2004-2005. The case group (191 women) consisted of patients with newly diagnosed first primary breast cancer, which was histologically confirmed. The control group (191 women), individually matched by age (± 2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence (rural/urban) to the respective cases, was selected from female patients admitted for other diseases. The analysis was restricted to parous women (168 cases and 171 controls). Breast cancer risk was reduced among women who had a history of any abortion (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.88). The protective effect was found for both induced abortion (adjusted OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.90) and spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.98). It seems that these associations did not depend on the number of abortions, age at first abortion, or gestational age at first aborted pregnancy. Our study suggests that even short pregnancies ending in abortion add to the protection against breast cancer.

  19. Practical use of cancer control promoters in municipalities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yako-Suketomo, Hiroko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Imai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Control Act in Japan became effective in 2006. In Ibaraki, Toyama, and Hyogo prefectures, the Cancer Control Promoter (CCP) plan was created to strengthen partnerships for cancer prevention. This study aimed to examine the curre nt status of CCP utilization and analyze relationships with intersectoral collaboration, both within the government and with outside partners. In 2008, we mailed questionnaires to 100 administrators responsible for disease prevention and health promotion in municipal governments of the three prefectures. Ninety-one administrators responded (response rate, 91.0%). We analyzed responses to questions regarding whether or not the municipalities had used CCPs. Items assessing intersectoral collaboration examined municipality characteristics and relationships with outside partners and sectors specializing in areas other than community health. Among 90 administrators with valid data, 33 municipalities (36.7%) used CCPs while 57 (63.3%) did not. The Fisher's exact test revealed that intersectoral collaboration for using CCPs was associated with communication with all of the municipal government sectors not related to health. The present study indicated that CCPs were not consistently used in municipalities. However, we found that intersectoral collaborations, especially within the local government, may be related to the practical use of CCPs. This, in turn, may result in effective cancer control and prevention, as well as improvement in community health.

  20. How Was President Clinton Able to Build a Winning Political Coalition on NAFTA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    ARCHIVE COPY NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE HOW WAS PRESIDENT CLINTON ABLE TO BUILD A WINNING POLITICAL COALITION ON NAFTA ...Political Coalition on NAFTA ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...Amerrcan Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) creating the largest free trade area m hstory wrth a market of $7 t&on and 365 million consumers Congress

  1. Sustaining Physics Teacher Education Coalition programs in physics teacher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Plisch, Monica; Goertzen, Renee Michelle

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of increasing the number of physics teachers educated per year at institutions with thriving physics teacher preparation programs may inspire and support other institutions in building thriving programs of their own. The Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC), led by the American Physical Society (APS) and the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT), has supported transformation of physics teacher preparation programs at a number of institutions around the country for over a decade. In 2012-2013, PhysTEC supported an independent study on the sustainability of its sites after project funding ends. The study sought to measure the extent to which programs have been sustained and to identify what features should be prioritized for building sustainable physics teacher preparation programs. Most of the studied sites have sustained increases in the number of physics teachers educated per year as well as funding for physics teacher preparation. About half of the programs are thriving, in that in the post-award period, they have further increased both the number of physics teachers educated per year and funding for physics teacher preparation. All studied sites that sustained increases in the number of physics teachers educated per year have two features in common: a champion of physics teacher education and institutional commitment. The thriving physics teacher preparation programs in this study implemented different elements of physics teacher preparation according to diverse local priorities and opportunities, including the unique expertise of local personnel.

  2. Sustaining Physics Teacher Education Coalition programs in physics teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Scherr

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of increasing the number of physics teachers educated per year at institutions with thriving physics teacher preparation programs may inspire and support other institutions in building thriving programs of their own. The Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC, led by the American Physical Society (APS and the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT, has supported transformation of physics teacher preparation programs at a number of institutions around the country for over a decade. In 2012–2013, PhysTEC supported an independent study on the sustainability of its sites after project funding ends. The study sought to measure the extent to which programs have been sustained and to identify what features should be prioritized for building sustainable physics teacher preparation programs. Most of the studied sites have sustained increases in the number of physics teachers educated per year as well as funding for physics teacher preparation. About half of the programs are thriving, in that in the post-award period, they have further increased both the number of physics teachers educated per year and funding for physics teacher preparation. All studied sites that sustained increases in the number of physics teachers educated per year have two features in common: a champion of physics teacher education and institutional commitment. The thriving physics teacher preparation programs in this study implemented different elements of physics teacher preparation according to diverse local priorities and opportunities, including the unique expertise of local personnel.

  3. Domestic coalitions in the FTAA negotiations: the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Castelan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes an explanation to the domestic coalitions organised in Brazil around the FTAA negotiations, which stand as a hard case for the existing theories on political cleavages: industrialists and trade unions, albeit having shared common interests in the negotiations, did not adopt a joint strategy to foster their positions. The hypothesis to explain the political alignments in the FTAA is that the opening of the Brazilian market, which had advanced a lot in the years of negotiations, altered the priorities of workers and employers, as well as their preferences in foreign trade policy, hindering the reconciliation of class interests. Both agreed that the U.S. proposal for the FTAA was undesirable, but they completely disagreed on other issues that emerged in the political agenda during the reforms period, such as the role of the State in an open economy, the scope of labour and social rights and the social security system, the structure of taxation, etc. Some of the controversial issues were not new, but the international trade liberalisation intensified the dispute over them.

  4. Case-control study of gastric cancer screening in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, P; Oliver, W E; Parkin, D M; Alvarez, N; Vivas, J

    1994-06-01

    A screening programme for early gastric cancer was introduced in the state of Tachira, Venezuela, in 1980. Screening was performed by photofluorography, using two mobile units. The efficacy of this programme in reducing mortality from stomach cancer was evaluated by means of a case-control study. Cases were 241 individuals who died from stomach cancer in the period 1985-89. Ten live controls per case were drawn from the electoral rolls, matched by sex, age and residence. Exposure to the screening examination of cases and controls was assessed through individual linkage with the programme's centralised database. After the exclusion of examinations occurring within the 6 months preceding the case's diagnosis, the odds ratio (OR) of dying from stomach cancer for those screened was 1.26 (CI 0.83-1.91) and the OR in females was lower than in males: 0.77 (CI 0.33-1.78) and 1.52 (CI 0.94-2.47) respectively. Odds ratios associated with years since last test and number of tests did not differ significantly from 1. These results show the inefficacy of the programme in reducing mortality from gastric cancer in the area. In an attempt to determine whether this result was due to selection bias, an analysis restricted to subjects who had been screened at least once was performed. When examinations occurring after an index date at various intervals before the case's diagnosis were excluded, the screening test appeared to protect from death, although confidence intervals of the odds ratios are large, for example OR = 0.47 (CI 0.24-0.98) when excluding tests within 1 month.

  5. Bivalent Epigenetic Control of Oncofetal Gene Expression in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K; Frietze, Seth E; Gordon, Jonathan A; Heath, Jessica L; Messier, Terri; Hong, Deli; Boyd, Joseph R; Kang, Mingu; Imbalzano, Anthony N; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2017-12-01

    Multiple mechanisms of epigenetic control that include DNA methylation, histone modification, noncoding RNAs, and mitotic gene bookmarking play pivotal roles in stringent gene regulation during lineage commitment and maintenance. Experimental evidence indicates that bivalent chromatin domains, i.e., genome regions that are marked by both H3K4me3 (activating) and H3K27me3 (repressive) histone modifications, are a key property of pluripotent stem cells. Bivalency of developmental genes during the G 1 phase of the pluripotent stem cell cycle contributes to cell fate decisions. Recently, some cancer types have been shown to exhibit partial recapitulation of bivalent chromatin modifications that are lost along with pluripotency, suggesting a mechanism by which cancer cells reacquire properties that are characteristic of undifferentiated, multipotent cells. This bivalent epigenetic control of oncofetal gene expression in cancer cells may offer novel insights into the onset and progression of cancer and may provide specific and selective options for diagnosis as well as for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Family History as a Risk for Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    A Safaee; Moghimi Dehkordi, B; Fatemi, SR; Maserat, E; Ghafarnejad, F; Zali, MR

    2011-01-01

    Background Although, family history of cancer is an important risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers development, but limited information is available on the upper gastrointestinal cancers associated with family history in Iran. The purpose of this study was to define upper gastrointestinal cancers risk associated with family history of cancer. Methods This study was conducted as a case control study. A total number of 1,010 cases of upper gastrointestinal cancer and 1,010 healthy con...

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, S.G.; Vidaurre, T.; Abugattas, J.E.; Manrique, J.E.; Sarria, G.; Jeronimo, J.; Seinfeld, J.N.; Lauer, J.A.; Sepulveda, C.R.; Venegas, D.; Baltussen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant

  8. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, S.G.; Vidaurre, T.; Abugattas, J.E.; Manrique, J.E.; Sarria, G.; Jeronimo, J.; Seinfeld, J.N.; Lauer, J.A.; Sepulveda, C.R.; Venegas, D.; Baltussen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant

  10. The adaptive role of perceived control before and after cancer diagnosis : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, A.V.; Wardle, J.; Steptoe, A.; Henselmans, I.; Ormel, J.; Sanderman, R.

    Cancer is generally considered a low-control situation. Stability of perceptions of control before and after cancer was examined, as well as the adaptive value of maintenance versus relinquishment of control in the psychological adjustment to cancer. This study, conducted in the northern

  11. Cancer control and the communication innovation in South Korea: implications for cancer disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the number of cancer survivors in South Korea has reached nearly one million with a survival rate of 49.4%. However, integrated supportive care for cancer survivors is lagging. One area in which the current cancer control policy needs updating is in the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT). The remarkable progress in the field of ICT over the past 10 years presents exciting new opportunities for health promotion. Recent communication innovations are conducive to the exchange of meta-information, giving rise to a new service area and transforming patients into active medical consumers. Consequently, such innovations encourage active participation in the mutual utilization and sharing of high-quality information. However, these benefits from new ICTs will almost certainly not be equally available to all, leading to so-called communication inequalities where cancer survivors from lower socioeconomic classes will likely have more limited access to the best means of making use of the health information. Therefore, most essentially, emphasis must be placed on helping cancer survivors and their caregivers utilize such advances in ICT to create a more efficient flow of health information, thereby reducing communication inequalities and expanding social support. Once we enhance access to health information and better manage the quality of information, as a matter of fact, we can expect an alleviation of the health inequalities faced by cancer survivors.

  12. Coalitions and Competition in Malaysia – Incremental Transformation of a Strong-party System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith L. Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeming entrenchment of a two-coalition system in Malaysia solidifies the centrality of strongly institutionalised parties in the polity. The primary parties in Malaysia reach deeply into society and nest within dense networks of both intra-party and external organisations. Given this order – which differentiates Malaysia from its neighbours in the region – political liberalisation, if it happens, should be expected largely via electoral politics, and, specifically, through inter-party challenges. Indeed, the ideological and material premises of the emergent Pakatan Rakyat (People’s Alliance differ substantially from those of the long-standing Barisan Nasional (National Front, even as both pursue the same broad swathe of voters. This distinction reflects and furthers transformation in Malaysian politics, including not just a shift in the salience of communal identities and in policy proposals and issues, but also in patterns of political engagement both within and outside of parties, regardless of which coalition controls parliament.

  13. Adding to the HIV Prevention Portfolio – the Achievement of Structural Changes by 13 Connect to Protect® Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Kate S.; Muyeed, Adaline Z.; Willard, Nancy; Greenberg, Lauren; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Opportunities to control risk factors that contribute to HIV transmission and acquisition extend far beyond individuals and include addressing social and structural determinants of HIV risk, such as inadequate housing, poor access to healthcare and economic insecurity. The infrastructure within communities, including the policies and practices that guide institutions and organizations, should be considered crucial targets for change. This paper examines the extent to which 13 community coalitions across the U.S. and Puerto Rico were able to achieve “structural change” objectives (i.e., new or modified practices or policies) as an intermediate step toward the long-term goal of reducing HIV risk among adolescents and young adults (12-24 years old). The study resulted in the completion of 245 objectives with 70% categorized as structural in nature. Coalitions targeted social services, education and government as primary community sectors to adopt structural changes. A median of 12 key actors and six new key actors contributed to accomplishing structural changes. Structural change objectives required a median of seven months to complete. The structural changes achieved offer new ideas for community health educators and practitioners seeking to bolster their HIV prevention agenda. PMID:25632407

  14. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, J.; Le, Q. H.; Duong, B. H.; Sun, P.; Pham, H. T.; Ta, V. T.; Kotsopoulos, J.; Narod, S. A.; Ginsburg, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK), Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and path...

  15. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Winta Yellow; Bamlet, William R.; Ann L Oberg; Anderson, Kristin E.; Olson, Janet E.; Rashmi Sinha; Petersen, Gloria M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Jansen, Rick J.

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%). Our findings sho...

  16. The experience of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzin, L J; Anderson, N J; Figueredo, A T; Gudelis, S O

    1994-05-01

    The illness career of the person with cancer has been characterized as a 'living-dying' experience in which, faced with the intolerable incompatibility of life and death, the individual and his or her family attempt to maintain control and 'normalize' everyday activity. Unfortunately, in their everyday struggles, families in North America appear to face social isolation from existing community services and networks that might assist them. Perhaps because the illness is so heavily medicalized and stigmatized, most persons with cancer and their families do not participate in them. A minority benefit from self-help organizations such as Cancer Society groups and survivor coalitions. The palliative care and hospice/home care movements provide an alternative to dying in the acute-care hospital, again, for a minority. Half of those with cancer survive more than 5 years; for these persons, the ordeal has just begun. Survivors must cope with physical disabilities due to surgery and the side effects of other treatments, the psychological traumas of fear of recurrence and social stigma, and the disappointment of a considerably reduced range of future possibilities for career and development. The fact that their relationships with others are negatively affected is well documented, particularly with intimate relationships. In a sense, a person never really 'gets over' cancer: it is a sword of Damocles that continues to hang over the individual and his or her family for the rest of the person's life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, M; Risch, H A; Bosetti, C; Anderson, K E; Petersen, G M; Bamlet, W R; Cotterchio, M; Cleary, S P; Ibiebele, T I; La Vecchia, C; Skinner, H G; Strayer, L; Bracci, P M; Maisonneuve, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Zaton Ski, W; Lu, L; Yu, H; Janik-Koncewicz, K; Polesel, J; Serraino, D; Neale, R E

    2015-08-01

    The potential role of vitamin D in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer is unclear, with recent studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. We used data from nine case-control studies from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) to examine associations between pancreatic cancer risk and dietary vitamin D intake. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, and ORs were then pooled using a random-effects model. From a subset of four studies, we also calculated pooled estimates of association for supplementary and total vitamin D intake. Risk of pancreatic cancer increased with dietary intake of vitamin D [per 100 international units (IU)/day: OR = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.19, P = 7.4 × 10(-6), P-heterogeneity = 0.52; ≥230 versus vitamin A intake. Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed with higher levels of dietary vitamin D intake. Additional studies are required to determine whether or not our finding has a causal basis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Advancing the science of hospice care: Coalition of Hospices Organized to Investigate Comparative Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David J; Harrold, Joan; Oldanie, Betty; Prince-Paul, MaryJo; Teno, Joan

    2012-12-01

    There is very little high-quality evidence to guide clinical practice in hospice care. In the areas of medical therapy, patient-centered and family-centered outcomes, and patient safety, there are numerous high-impact questions for which answers are needed. Although randomized controlled trials are the gold standard for research, such trials are difficult, time consuming, and expensive to conduct in a hospice population. Moreover, they cannot examine the implementation of therapies in real-world settings. Therefore, there is a need for novel, complementary approaches to research in this unique population. This article describes the initial experience of the Coalition of Hospices Organized to Investigate Comparative Effectiveness (CHOICE). CHOICE is a national network of hospices that use electronic health record-based data collection procedures to answer key questions relevant to clinical care and policy. By using a rich source of existing data to conduct observational studies, CHOICE is able to overcome many of the most significant challenges of randomized controlled trials in hospice. However, this approach also created unique challenges related to governance and privacy concerns. CHOICE is a growing research network that has the potential to make a contribution to the science of palliative care in a hospice population.

  19. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 1. Methods and an overview of the Canadian recommendations. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, NR; Burgess E,; Choi, BC; Taylor, G; Wilson, E; Cleroux, J; Fodor, JG; Leiter, LA; Spence, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for health care professionals on lifestyle changes to prevent and control hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women). OPTIONS: For people at risk for hypertension, there are a number of lifestyle options that may avert the condition--maintaining a healthy body weight, moderating consumption of alcohol, exercising, reducing sodium intake, altering intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium, and reducing stress....

  20. Tumour control probability in cancer stem cells hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Andrew; Kohandel, Mohammad; Hill, Richard; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2014-01-01

    The tumour control probability (TCP) is a formalism derived to compare various treatment regimens of radiation therapy, defined as the probability that given a prescribed dose of radiation, a tumour has been eradicated or controlled. In the traditional view of cancer, all cells share the ability to divide without limit and thus have the potential to generate a malignant tumour. However, an emerging notion is that only a sub-population of cells, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of the tumour. A key implication of the CSC hypothesis is that these cells must be eradicated to achieve cures, thus we define TCPS as the probability of eradicating CSCs for a given dose of radiation. A cell surface protein expression profile, such as CD44high/CD24low for breast cancer or CD133 for glioma, is often used as a biomarker to monitor CSCs enrichment. However, it is increasingly recognized that not all cells bearing this expression profile are necessarily CSCs, and in particular early generations of progenitor cells may share the same phenotype. Thus, due to the lack of a perfect biomarker for CSCs, we also define a novel measurable TCPCD+, that is the probability of eliminating or controlling biomarker positive cells. Based on these definitions, we use stochastic methods and numerical simulations parameterized for the case of gliomas, to compare the theoretical TCPS and the measurable TCPCD+. We also use the measurable TCP to compare the effect of various radiation protocols.

  1. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoxu; Zheng, Rongshou; He, Yutong; Sun, Xibin; Wang, Ning; Chen, Tianhui; Chen, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs). Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11-3.70), obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22-2.57), diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48-5.92) and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02-3.10) were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.84) was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  2. Early rehabilitation of cancer patients - a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arving, Cecilia; Thormodsen, Inger; Brekke, Guri; Mella, Olav; Berntsen, Sveinung; Nordin, Karin

    2013-01-07

    Faced with a life-threatening illness, such as cancer, many patients develop stress symptoms, i.e. avoidance behaviour, intrusive thoughts and worry. Stress management interventions have proven to be effective; however, they are mostly performed in group settings and it is commonly breast cancer patients who are studied. We hereby present the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individual stress-management intervention with a stepped-care approach in several cancer diagnoses. Patients (≥ 18 years) with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, prostate cancer or testicle cancer and scheduled for adjuvant/curative oncology treatment, will consecutively be included in the study. In this prospective longitudinal intervention study with a stepped-care approach, patients will be randomized to control, treatment as usual, or an individual stress-management intervention in two steps. The first step is a low-intensity stress-management intervention, given to all patients randomized to intervention. Patients who continue to report stress symptoms after the first step will thereafter be given more intensive treatment at the second step of the programme. In the intervention patients will also be motivated to be physically active. Avoidance and intrusion are the primary outcomes. According to the power analyses, 300 patients are planned to be included in the study and will be followed for two years. Other outcomes are physical activity level, sleep duration and quality recorded objectively, and anxiety, depression, quality of life, fatigue, stress in daily living, and patient satisfaction assessed using valid and standardized psychometric tested questionnaires. Utilization of hospital services will be derived from the computerized patient administration systems used by the hospital. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated through a cost-utility analysis. This RCT

  3. Model-Checking an Alternating-time Temporal Logic with Knowledge, Imperfect Information, Perfect Recall and Communicating Coalitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Dima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a variant of ATL with distributed knowledge operators based on a synchronous and perfect recall semantics. The coalition modalities in this logic are based on partial observation of the full history, and incorporate a form of cooperation between members of the coalition in which agents issue their actions based on the distributed knowledge, for that coalition, of the system history. We show that model-checking is decidable for this logic. The technique utilizes two variants of games with imperfect information and partially observable objectives, as well as a subset construction for identifying states whose histories are indistinguishable to the considered coalition.

  4. Quality of reporting randomized controlled trials in cancer nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia-Wen; Sward, Katherine A; Beck, Susan L; Staggers, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide high-level evidence for evidence-based practice (EBP). The quality of RCTs has a substantial influence on providing reliable knowledge for EBP. Little is known about the quality of RCT reporting in cancer nursing. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of reporting in published cancer nursing RCTs from 1984 to 2010. A total of 227 RCTs in cancer nursing published in English-language journals and indexed in PubMed or Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were reviewed using the Jadad scale, key methodologic index (KMI), and the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist to assess the quality of reporting methodological aspects of research and the overall quality of reporting RCTs. Adherence to reporting metrics was relatively low, based on the Jadad score (M = 1.94 out of 5, SD = 1.01), KMI scores (M = 0.84 out of 3, SD = .87), and adherence to CONSORT checklist items (M =16.92 out of 37, SD = 4.03). Only 11 of 37 items in the CONSORT checklist were reported in 80% or more of the studies reviewed. The quality of reporting showed some improvement over time. Adherence to reporting metrics for cancer nursing RCTs was suboptimal, and further efforts are needed to improve both methodology reporting and overall reporting. Journals are encouraged to adopt the CONSORT checklist to influence the quality of RCT reports.

  5. Leadership in Nigerian health system for cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbimi, R I

    2009-06-01

    Unacceptable health system outcomes are often related to problems with leadership because the ultimate responsibility for assigned work rests on leadership. In this paper, proper leadership at micro and macro-levels can have positive impact on the health and well being of citizens. While this may be readily obvious in other spheres, it has not been addressed adequately in the context of health care systems and its impact on health outcomes. In this paper, I discuss types of work and leadership systems in order to highlight the importance of leadership and leadership training in collaborative training and research for cancer management. The complexity of health systems highlight the expanded role of leadership in terms of capacity and capability to control the environmental risk factors for cancer, deploy adequate resources for the management of cancers, and ensure fruitful and productive post treatment life for citizens. Improved community awareness, better training of health care workers, improved working environment based on better interpersonal relationships between all cadres of health care workers, environmental health and safety initiatives and research on cancer are some of the areas where improved leadership can lead to better health outcomes. Effective leadership requires a set of skills that can be acquired with requisite operating environment, political will and adequate funding in order to generate the expected improvements in outcome.

  6. Technique for histological control of surgical margins in lip cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Satoru; Hata, Hiroo; Homma, Erina; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    To preserve oral function and achieve acceptable cosmetic results, intraoperative control of surgical margins with frozen section evaluation may help to determine surgical technique in lip cancer. However, frozen section analysis is usually limited to suspicious areas and has not been systematically performed among surgeons. The accuracy of such analysis for detecting histological surgical margins is highly dependent on the methods used to obtain and analyze the margins. Improving the pathodiagnostic reliability of conventional intraoperative frozen section evaluation is the most important goal of surgical management in our method. We describe the successful use of the "double-blade method" in lip cancer treatment. The technique we describe has the advantage of histologically confirming clear margins in lip cancer. This method appears to be time-saving and easy to apply with existing surgical systems. In addition, this method may be used as an alternative to complete evaluation of lateral surgical margins that is important in planning a suitable surgical reconstruction procedure in lip cancer at many institutions where Mohs micrographic surgery is difficult to perform. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. CDC Grand Rounds: Family History and Genomics as Tools for Cancer Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan L; Thomas, Cheryll C; Massetti, Greta M; Duquette, Debra; Avner, Lindsay; Iskander, John; Khoury, Muin J; Richardson, Lisa C

    2016-11-25

    Although many efforts in cancer prevention and control have routinely focused on behavioral risk factors, such as tobacco use, or on the early detection of cancer, such as colorectal cancer screening, advances in genetic testing have created new opportunities for cancer prevention through evaluation of family history and identification of cancer-causing inherited mutations. Through the collection and evaluation of a family cancer history by a trained health care provider, patients and families at increased risk for a hereditary cancer syndrome can be identified, referred for genetic counseling and testing, and make informed decisions about options for cancer risk reduction (1). Although hereditary cancers make up a small proportion of all cancers, the number of affected persons can be large, and the level of risk among affected persons is high. Two hereditary cancer syndromes for which public health professionals have worked to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality are hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome.

  8. A Coalition on the Public Understanding of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, L.; Hehn, J.; Kass, J.; O'Grady, R.; Scotchmoor, J.; Stucky, R.

    2006-12-01

    For many of the problems facing contemporary societies, such as potential impacts of climate change, coastal degradation, reductions of fisheries stocks, volcanic and earthquake hazards in densely populated areas, quality and availability of water, and exploitation of hydrocarbon resources and development of alternative energy sources, formulation of wise public policy depends on evaluation of the state of geoscientific research in the relevant areas. In a democratic society, public discourse about and input to policy decisions on key issues affecting the public welfare requires a public that understands the scientific research process, values the contribution of science to society, and has a working knowledge of what science can and cannot yet say about specific issues. Arguably, that ideal falls short in contemporary American society. Disturbing trends in science education, low public scientific literacy, and increasing alarms about U.S. competitiveness have all been prominent national news topics in recent years. (1) A recent National Science Board report indicated that two-thirds of Americans do not understand what science is, how it is conducted, and what one can expect from it. (2) A recent Gallup poll reports widespread and increasingly prevalent belief in pseudoscience. (3) There is a growing public complacency about and disengagement from science at the very moment when the impact of science on public life is greater than ever. (4) The Business Roundtable of major U.S. companies notes that the scientific and technical building blocks of our economic leadership are eroding at a time when many other nations are gathering strength. In response, a Coalition on the Public Understanding of Science COPUS has been initiated. Essential to COPUS is the premise that public understanding of science and the scientific process and an awareness of the impacts of scientific advancements on our quality of life are necessary to increase student interest in science as a

  9. Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil...

  10. A coalition formation game for transmitter cooperation in OFDMA uplink communications

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The SC-FDMA (single-carrier frequency division multiple access) is the access scheme that has been adopted by 3GPP (3rd generation partnership project) for the LTE (long term evolution) uplink. The SC-FDMA is an attractive alternative to OFDMA (orthogonal frequency-division multiple access) especially on the uplink owing to its low peak-to-average power ratio. This fact increases the power efficiency and reduces the cost of the power amplifiers at the mobile terminals. The use of SC-FDMA on the uplink implies that for highly loaded cells the base station allocates a single subcarrier to each user. This results in the limitation of the achievable rate on the uplink. In this work, we propose a coalition game between mobile terminals that allows them to improve their performance by sharing their subcarriers without creating any interference to each other. The proposed scheme allows a fair use of the subcarriers and leads to a significant capacity gain for each user. The cooperation between the nodes is modelled using coalitional game theory. In this game, each coalition tries to maximize its utility in terms of rate. In the absence of cooperation cost, it can be shown that the grand coalition is sum-rate optimal and stable, i.e., the mobile terminals have no incentive to leave the grand coalition.

  11. Business Coalitions in the Us and Their Role in Advancing a Regional Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdana NEAMTU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis herein explores the topic of business coalitions and focuses on the role they may play in advancing a regional agenda. The structure of the paper is threefold: (1 in the introductory section I briefly explain the meaning of the concept and how it relates to other similar concepts such as public-private partnerships or growth coalitions; (2 the second part focuses on analyzing the characteristics that best define contemporary business coalitions and stresses the implications of these characteristics for the structuring or restructuring of traditional local and regional political entities; (3 the last section focuses on how planners and other public officials could use or partner with business coalitions in order to advance their own regional agenda. In the conclusion section I argue that though business coalitions are important for the development of a regional economy and regional identity, it would be a mistake to think that they alone can determine the success of a region. Regional government should continue to be pursued as it represents the only solution to problems such as social and environmental justice, tax sharing, education, and inner city redevelopment.

  12. A CONCEPTUAL TOOL FOR ASSESSING CLIENT PERFORMANCE IN THE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT COALITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Holt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant impact of client performance on overall project performance and the interdependence of participant%5C%27s performance in the construction project coalition %28i.e. clients%2C designers and constructors%29%2C there is a need to establish client performance measures. Based on data collected from in-depth interviews with nineteen UK architects and nine UK contractors%2C a generic tool for the on-going formal assessment of client performance is presented. It was found that this approach to performance assessment %28i.e. from the view point of other%2C non-client coalition participants%29 should lead to improved project relationships. Data analysis showed that in addition to %5C%27harder%5C%27 measures such as understanding of project requirements and finance%2C other%2C %5C%27softer%5C%27 measures of client performance %28e.g. attitude%29 were worthy of consideration since they determine the quality of participant relationships. It is recommended that the tool be used to promote more effective client performance and thus enhance coalition relationships%2C enabling continuous improvement. The ultimate aim is to develop similar tools for the assessment of all coalition participants based on a culture of openness and trust. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : assessment+tool%2C+coalition+participants%2C+client+performance%2C+perceptions%2C+performance+measures%2C+satisfaction.

  13. Simultaneous cancer control and diagnosis with magnetic nanohybrid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saadat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coated magnetite nanoparticles were linked to 68Ga complexes used in the positron emission tomography (PET for a new technical approach to detect cancer tissue with radiopharmaceuticals. By substitution of the Ga isotope with an alpha emitter the same compound could be used for cancer treatment. Furthermore the nanoparticles were connected to pH-sensitive complexes, enabling a pH-controlled assembly/disassembly and therefore the spreading of the particles in the tissue. With this novel method of combining detection and treatment simultaneously, the amount of medical exposure could be minimized for the patient. The results demonstrate that magnetite nanoparticles can effectively be functionalized with PET isotopes and pH sensitive complexes in order to use them as a new type of radiopharmaceuticals.

  14. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  15. A Cross-Layer Optimization Approach for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks: Coalition-Aided Data Aggregation, Cooperative Communication, and Energy Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Gao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We take a cross-layer optimization approach to study energy efficient data transport in coalition-based wireless sensor networks, where neighboring nodes are organized into groups to form coalitions and sensor nodes within one coalition carry out cooperative communications. In particular, we investigate two network models: (1 many-to-one sensor networks where data from one coalition are transmitted to the sink directly, and (2 multihop sensor networks where data are transported by intermediate nodes to reach the sink. For the many-to-one network model, we propose three schemes for data transmission from a coalition to the sink. In scheme 1, one node in the coalition is selected randomly to transmit the data; in scheme 2, the node with the best channel condition in the coalition transmits the data; and in scheme 3, all the nodes in the coalition transmit in a cooperative manner. Next, we investigate energy balancing with cooperative data transport in multihop sensor networks. Built on the above coalition-aided data transmission schemes, the optimal coalition planning is then carried out in multihop networks, in the sense that unequal coalition sizes are applied to minimize the difference of energy consumption among sensor nodes. Numerical analysis reveals that energy efficiency can be improved significantly by the coalition-aided transmission schemes, and that energy balancing across the sensor nodes can be achieved with the proposed coalition structures.

  16. Diet and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norell, S E; Ahlbom, A; Erwald, R; Jacobson, G; Lindberg-Navier, I; Olin, R; Törnberg, B; Wiechel, K L

    1986-12-01

    In a population-based case-control study carried out in Sweden in 1982-1984, the authors examined the association of pancreatic cancer with several dietary factors, coffee, alcohol, and tobacco. Analyses were based on 99 cases, 138 population controls, and 163 hospital controls. The cases were persons aged 40-79 years diagnosed with cancer of the exocrine pancreas at three surgical departments in Stockholm and Uppsala. The risk increased with higher consumption frequency of fried and grilled meat in the comparison with each series of controls (e.g., relative risk (RR) = 1.7 (90% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-2.7) for weekly intake and RR = 13.4 (90% CI = 2.4-74.7) for almost daily intake, in the comparison with population controls). Furthermore, associations were found with other fried or grilled foods, but not with meat other than fried or grilled. The risk also increased with the intake of margarine (e.g., RR = 9.7 (90% CI = 3.1-30.2) for 15+ g of margarine on a slice of bread, in the comparison with population controls). In contrast, no excess risk was associated with high intake of butter. A low risk was associated with frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, particularly carrots (RR = 0.3 (90% CI = 0.2-0.7)) and citrus fruits (RR = 0.5 (90% CI = 0.3-0.9)) for almost daily intake. No consistent associations were found with coffee, artificial sweeteners or alcohol consumption, but a threefold increase in risk was associated with smoking at least one pack of cigarettes per day.

  17. Coalitional Games in Partition Form for Joint Spectrum Sensing and Access in Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Walid; Zheng, Rong; Hjørungnes, Are; Başar, Tamer; Poor, H Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Unlicensed secondary users (SUs) in cognitive radio networks are subject to an inherent tradeoff between spectrum sensing and spectrum access. Although each SU has an incentive to sense the primary user (PU) channels for locating spectrum holes, this exploration of the spectrum can come at the expense of a shorter transmission time, and, hence, a possibly smaller capacity for data transmission. This paper investigates the impact of this tradeoff on the cooperative strategies of a network of SUs that seek to cooperate in order to improve their view of the spectrum (sensing), reduce the possibility of interference among each other, and improve their transmission capacity (access). The problem is modeled as a coalitional game in partition form and an algorithm for coalition formation is proposed. Using the proposed algorithm, the SUs can make individual distributed decisions to join or leave a coalition while maximizing their utilities which capture the average time spent for sensing as well as the capacity achi...

  18. Growing but not transforming: Fragmented ruling coalitions and economic developments in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Katusiimeh, Mesharch

    In spite of decades of GDP growth, Uganda remains an agricultural economy still awaiting an economic transformation. Sustained state initiatives to promote such a transformation have been lacking. We find that the explanation for this is to be found in the nature of the ruling coalition, which has...... been stable enough to maintain macro-economic stability, attract aid and ensure the one-off gains from introducing peace. However, the fact that it has proved so challenging to hold the ruling coalition together has hindered the ruling elite in implementing initiatives to support transformation...... is to use state resources to hold the ruling coalition together. This, however, is not likely to result in an economic transformation and hence in job creation for the poor majority of Ugandans....

  19. Differential effects of strategic planning on community change in two urban neighborhood coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Thompson, Jomella; Fawcett, Stephen B; Schultz, Jerry A

    2008-09-01

    Community coalitions represent a promising approach for addressing the interrelated and multiply- determined issues affecting urban neighborhoods of concentrated poverty. The literature suggests a number of community processes that may affect coalition efforts to change and improve communities. This study uses an interrupted time-series design to examine the effects of a strategic planning intervention on community change in two urban neighborhoods in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Results showed that strategic planning was associated with increased rates of community change in the two urban neighborhood coalitions. Under appropriate conditions, such as the presence of consistent leadership, strategic planning may be a particularly effective mechanism for stimulating community change and addressing locally-determined goals in urban neighborhoods.

  20. Tumour control probability in cancer stem cells hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dhawan

    Full Text Available The tumour control probability (TCP is a formalism derived to compare various treatment regimens of radiation therapy, defined as the probability that given a prescribed dose of radiation, a tumour has been eradicated or controlled. In the traditional view of cancer, all cells share the ability to divide without limit and thus have the potential to generate a malignant tumour. However, an emerging notion is that only a sub-population of cells, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs, are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of the tumour. A key implication of the CSC hypothesis is that these cells must be eradicated to achieve cures, thus we define TCPS as the probability of eradicating CSCs for a given dose of radiation. A cell surface protein expression profile, such as CD44high/CD24low for breast cancer or CD133 for glioma, is often used as a biomarker to monitor CSCs enrichment. However, it is increasingly recognized that not all cells bearing this expression profile are necessarily CSCs, and in particular early generations of progenitor cells may share the same phenotype. Thus, due to the lack of a perfect biomarker for CSCs, we also define a novel measurable TCPCD+, that is the probability of eliminating or controlling biomarker positive cells. Based on these definitions, we use stochastic methods and numerical simulations parameterized for the case of gliomas, to compare the theoretical TCPS and the measurable TCPCD+. We also use the measurable TCP to compare the effect of various radiation protocols.

  1. Patient outcomes from lung cancer and diabetes mellitus: a matched case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin, Nina J; Amin, Shailja B; Buras, Matthew R; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Verona, Patricia M; Cook, Curtiss B

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This case–control study examined the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on survival in lung cancer patients and lung cancer on glycemic control in DM. Materials & methods: Patients with a new lung cancer diagnosis and DM (n = 124) were matched to 124 lung cancer patients without DM. Laboratory results and DM and cancer therapies were obtained from electronic records. Results: Five-year overall survival for lung cancer patients with and without DM was 20 versus 29% (p = .12). Glycemic contr...

  2. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S.M.; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G Y; Lin, S. W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new additio...

  3. Space, place and body: temporary coalitions, nodes in a network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerith Power

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this collection share a concern for place, space and bodies as frameworks for thinking about and conducting educational research. The authors range in experience from senior academics, independent educators, beginning and emerging new researchers spanning a range of educational sectors. The articles originate from connections forged within and between Australia and northern countries with visits back and forth between 2004 and 2010. Some of the writers have met each other in these travels and others have not. All have encountered and participated in some way in the work of the space place and body research group, which originated in 2007 as a named research ‘node’ at Monash University.   The space place and body group formed as a result of a process designed to re-imagine research in the Faculty of Education at Monash University in order to address ‘the big questions of our time’. As a leading global university with campuses in Asia and Europe as well as several in Australia, the Dean of the Faculty cited recent evidence that the field of educational research had become too narrowly focused and that new approaches were needed to enliven the field and move it forward. Individualistic research was no longer supported and groups were formed organically around coalitions of interest. The purpose of the space place and body group was to come together to generate new conceptual, theoretical and methodological resources within the core concepts of space, place and body by collaborating across our differences. In the early phase of our development we focused on linked identity (ontological and knowledge (epistemological work, at the intersection of postcolonial and poststructural approaches to place in educational research. A specific interest in alternative and creative methodologies emerged from these onto-epistemological activities.   As part of our process we initiated temporary definitions of space, place and body, to

  4. Denmark’s participation in the coalition against IS reflects the country’s commitment to ‘ethical militarism’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schouenborg, Laust

    2014-01-01

    The United States has put together a coalition of several western and Arab states to support military action against Islamic State (IS) forces in Iraq and Syria. Laust Schouenborg writes on the participation of Denmark in this coalition. He argues that the decision to take part reflects a princip...

  5. Creation of the Quebrada Arriba Community and Academic Partnership: An Effective Coalition for Addressing Health Disparities in Older Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M; González-Laboy, Yolanda; De Jesús-Rosario, Amarelis

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a community-academic coalition partnership to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address health disparities in older adults with chronic conditions living in the Quebrada Arriba community. We used the 'Developing and Sustaining CPPR Partnerships: A Skill-Building Curriculum', to create the Quebrada Arriba Community-Academic Partnership (QACAP). We assessed the meetings effectiveness and the CBPR experiences of the coalition members in the community-academic partnership. The stepwise process resulted in: the development of The Coalition for the Health and Wellbeing of Older People of Quebrada Arriba; the partnership's mission and vision; the operating procedures; the formulation of the research question, and; the action plan for obtaining funding resources. The mean levels of satisfaction for each of the items of the Meeting Effectiveness Evaluation tool were 100%. The mean agreement rating scores on variables related to having a positive experience with the coalition, members' representativeness of community interest, respectful contacts between members, the coalition's vision and mission, the participation of the members in establishing the prioritized community problem, and sharing of resources between the members was 100%. The steps used to build the QACAP provided an effective structure to create the coalition and captured the results of coalition activities. Partners' time to build trust and developing a sufficient understanding of local issues, high interest of the community members, flexibility of the partners, capitalization on the partners' strengths, and the shared decision building process were key contributors of this coalition's success.

  6. [The strategy for establishment of comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H L; Fang, L W; Wang, L H

    2017-01-06

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women. Screening programs for cervical cancer have been implemented in many developed countries. Comprehensive systems for cervical cancer prevention and control have improved over the past 30 years, which has led to a significant decline in the morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer. Since 2009, the Chinese government has conducted the Cervical Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening Program for Rural Women on a national scale, which has substantially improved cervical cancer prevention and control. However, a comprehensive system for cervical cancer prevention has been not established in China. It is essential to investigate suitable strategies for cervical cancer prevention system in the country by referring to the experiences of developed nations in comparison with the situation in China, with respect to system operations, compatibility with the existing health care system, choice of suitable technologies, and information and evaluation platforms.

  7. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-05-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to the basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this article is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Cancer-related information needs and cancer's impact on control over life influence health-related quality of life among adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Tao, Li; Bellizzi, Keith M; Lynch, Charles F; Parsons, Helen M; Kent, Erin E; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2015-09-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 39 years of age often report need for greater amounts of cancer-related information and perceive that cancer has had a negative impact on control over their life. We examined whether unmet information need and perceived control over life are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We examined data from 484 AYA cancer survivors recruited from population-based cancer registries in 2007-2008. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months after diagnosis. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated associations of unmet cancer-related information needs and impact of cancer on control over life on HRQOL (SF-12). Two-thirds of AYAs reported an intermediate or high level of unmet information need, and half (47%) reported a negative impact of cancer on control. Greater unmet information need was associated with lower overall mental and physical HRQOL and lower levels of all HRQOL subscales except vitality. A negative impact on control over life was associated with lower overall mental HRQOL as well as lower HRQOL across all subscales except general health perceptions (all p 0.1). Adolescent and young adult patients with cancer have high levels of unmet cancer-related information needs and perceived negative impact of cancer on control over life; both were independently associated with lower HRQOL. Addressing unmet information needs among AYA cancer survivors and finding ways to increase their sense of control may help improve HRQOL in this understudied population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey P Theiss

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR, but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  10. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parri Matteo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  11. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  12. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis : stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Methods: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with

  13. Report of the Jumpstarting Brain Tumor Drug Development Coalition and FDA clinical trials clinical outcome assessment endpoints workshop (October 15, 2014, Bethesda MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Jennifer L.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Blakeley, Jaishri; Gilbert, Mark R.; Armstrong, Terri S.

    2016-01-01

    On October 15, 2014, a workshop was held on the use of clinical outcome assessments in clinical trials for high-grade glioma of the brain. This workshop was sponsored by the Jumpstarting Brain Tumor Drug Development Coalition, consisting of the National Brain Tumor Society, the Society for Neuro-Oncology, the Musella Foundation for Brain Tumor Research and Information, and Accelerate Brain Cancer Cure. It was planned and carried out with participation from the US Food and Drug Administration. The workshop also included stakeholders from all aspects of the brain tumor community, including clinicians, researchers, industry, clinical research organizations, patients and patient advocates, and the National Cancer Institute. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions of that workshop and the proposals that emerged to move the field forward and toward greater inclusion of these endpoints in future clinical trials for high-grade gliomas. PMID:26989130

  14. Cast Metals Coalition Technology Transfer and Program Management Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwyn, Mike

    2009-03-31

    The Cast Metals Coalition (CMC) partnership program was funded to ensure that the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) metalcasting research and development (R&D) projects are successfully deployed into industry. Specifically, the CMC program coordinated the transfer and deployment of energy saving technologies and process improvements developed under separately funded DOE programs and projects into industry. The transition of these technologies and process improvements is a critical step in the path to realizing actual energy savings. At full deployment, DOE funded metalcasting R&D results are projected to save 55% of the energy used by the industry in 1998. This closely aligns with DOE's current goal of driving a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017. In addition to benefiting DOE, these energy savings provide metalcasters with a significant economic advantage. Deployment of already completed R&D project results and those still underway is estimated to return over 500% of the original DOE and industry investment. Energy savings estimates through December 2008 from the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) portfolio of projects alone are 12 x 1012 BTUs, with a projection of over 50 x 1012 BTUs ten years after program completion. These energy savings and process improvements have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the CMC partnership. The CMC team consists of DOE's Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical societies in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders Society of America; and the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. CMC provides collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,100 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people

  15. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body

  16. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  17. Strategies for the prevention and control of cervical cancer in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention programmes. This paper reviews epidemiology, recommendations, implementation strategies for prevention and control of cervical cancer ...

  18. Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention programmes. This paper reviews epidemiology, recommendations, implementation strategies for prevention and control of cervical cancer ...

  19. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Guzmán, V; Hernández-Girón, C; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Romieu, I; Hernández Avila, M

    2000-04-01

    In Mexico, breast cancer (BC) is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA) was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause). The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35); early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00); old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98) and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79). In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70). This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women's lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  20. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Tovar-Guzmán

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  1. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar-Guzmán Víctor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  2. The Transformative Power of Youth Action Coalition's Multimodal Arts-for-Change Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K. C. Nat; Way, Kate; Gray, Robin R. R.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the potential of a series of Youth Action Coalition's (YAC) Arts-for-Change (AfC) youth programs for literacy and identity development, as well as for engaging youth in addressing issues of social justice. Drawing primarily on transcripts of interviews, surveys, and participant-observation fieldnotes inventorying changes in…

  3. The Bargaining Power of Territorially Constituted Institutionalised Coalitions in EU Council Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Ruse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that negotiations in the European Union Council are not only taking place within the formal EU decision making structures. Member states strive to identify like-minded peers and to exchange information prior to the formal negotiations. Institutionalised intergovernmental coalitions that exist among the member states on a geographical affinity basis, e.g. Benelux and Nordic subgroups facilitate exchange among their members and grant them a bargaining advantage. The knowledge of the effects of territorially constituted institutionalised coalitions is, however, limited. Drawing on rational choice institutionalism, this study argues that territorially constituted institutionalised coalitions enhance the bargaining power through three mechanisms: first, exchange of information, which counterbalances the asymmetries in information distribution at the pre-negotiation stage; second, pooling of expertise that allows the member states to share resources and provide common argumentation for their positions; and, third, through rhetorical action that gives more strength to normative justifications ,which may lead to the normative entrapment of other member states outside the coalition.

  4. Building and Maintaining an Effective Campus-Wide Coalition for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Moffitt, Lauren; McLeod, Mark; Zesiger, Heather; Ammirati, Rachel; Berg, John P.; McIntosh, Belinda J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing suicide is a commonly shared priority among college administrators, faculty, staff, students, and family members. Coalitions are popular health promotion mechanisms for solving community-wide problems and are valuable in campus-wide suicide prevention efforts. This article provides an example of an effective suicide prevention…

  5. The Military Child Education Coalition[TM]: Supporting Military Families during Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surles, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The Military Child Education Coalition (MCEC[TM]) has recently released a new support for military families facing deployment, with the addition of another kit to its "Growing, Learning, and Understanding: Making Meaning through Early Literacy"[TM] (GLU[TM]) initiative. The GLU initiative focuses on developing early literacy skills in children…

  6. Utility-based Recommendation of Candidate Coalitions in Virtual Creativity Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Sloep, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L., Bitter-Rijpkema, M. E., & Sloep, P. B. (2010, 28-30 September). Utility-based Recommendation of Candidate Coalitions in Virtual Creativity Teams. Presentation at the first Workshop on Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL 2010), Barcelona, Spain.

  7. Against the Backdrop of "Brown: Testimonios of Coalitions" to Teach Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterreich, Heather A.; Conway, Allison P.

    2009-01-01

    This article utilizes "Brown v. Board of Education," which is traditionally taught in college and K-12 history courses as the case that both started the discussion about and ended the practice of segregation in schools, to highlight "testimonios of coalition" as a framework for historical analysis. First, the authors…

  8. Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

  9. The influence of Coalition Formation on Idea Selection in Dispersed Teams: A Game Theoretic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory

    2009-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L. (2009). The influence of coalition formation on idea selection in dispersed teams: a game theoretic approach. Poster presentation at the Fourth European conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France.

  10. Optimal sharing of quantity risk for a coalition of wind power producers facing nodal prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E. Y.

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that aggregation of geographically diverse wind energy resources offers compelling potential to mitigate wind power variability, as wind speed at different geographic locations tends to decorrelate with increasing spatial separation. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a coalition of wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation to mitigate the risk of quantity shortfall with respect to forward contract offerings for energy. We propose a simple augmentation of the existing two-settlement market system with nodal pricing to permit quantity risk sharing among wind power producers by affording the group a recourse opportunity to utilize improved forecasts of their ensuing wind energy production to collectively modify their forward contracted positions so as to utilize the projected surplus in generation at certain buses to balance the projected shortfall in generation at complementary buses. Working within this framework, we show that the problem of optimally sizing a set of forward contracts for a group of wind power producers reduces to convex programming and derive closed form expressions for the set of optimal recourse policies. We also asses the willingness of individual wind power producers to form a coalition to cooperatively offer contracts for energy. We first show that the expected profit derived from coalitional contract offerings with recourse is greater than that achievable through independent contract offerings. And, using tools from coalitional game theory, we show that the core for our game is non-empty.

  11. Senior Alcohol and Drug Coalition: Statement of Treatment Philosophy for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jean D.; And Others

    This document recognizes the growing awareness of alcohol problems faced by the elderly during the last 10 to 15 years and cites results of studies conducted to examine the extent of these problems. It then presents a community treatment continuum designed by a coalition of concerned individuals in the northwestern part of the United States. The…

  12. Unconscious vigilance: worldview defense without adaptations for terror, coalition, or uncertainty management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Sousa, Paulo; Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Individuals subtly reminded of death, coalitional challenges, or feelings of uncertainty display exaggerated preferences for affirmations and against criticisms of their cultural in-groups. Terror management, coalitional psychology, and uncertainty management theories postulate this "worldview defense" effect as the output of mechanisms evolved either to allay the fear of death, foster social support, or reduce anxiety by increasing adherence to cultural values. In 4 studies, we report evidence for an alternative perspective. We argue that worldview defense owes to unconscious vigilance, a state of accentuated reactivity to affective targets (which need not relate to cultural worldviews) that follows detection of subtle alarm cues (which need not pertain to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty). In Studies 1 and 2, death-primed participants produced exaggerated ratings of worldview-neutral affective targets. In Studies 3 and 4, subliminal threat manipulations unrelated to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty evoked worldview defense. These results are discussed as they inform evolutionary interpretations of worldview defense and future investigations of the influence of unconscious alarm on judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the outcomes of advocacy coalitions in education: a comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verger, A.; Novelli, M.; Verger, A.; Novelli, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we use comparative analysis lenses to better understand the nature of civil society coalitions and their impact in the educational field. The arguments provide a synthesis of core issues that have emerged from the case studies presented in earlier chapters. In particular, this

  14. Unconscious Vigilance: Worldview Defense Without Adaptations for Terror, Coalition, or Uncertainty Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Sousa, Paulo; Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Individuals subtly reminded of death, coalitional challenges, or feelings of uncertainty display exaggerated preferences for affirmations and against criticisms of their cultural in-groups. Terror management, coalitional psychology, and uncertainty management theories postulate this “worldview defense” effect as the output of mechanisms evolved either to allay the fear of death, foster social support, or reduce anxiety by increasing adherence to cultural values. In 4 studies, we report evidence for an alternative perspective. We argue that worldview defense owes to unconscious vigilance, a state of accentuated reactivity to affective targets (which need not relate to cultural worldviews) that follows detection of subtle alarm cues (which need not pertain to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty). In Studies 1 and 2, death-primed participants produced exaggerated ratings of worldview-neutral affective targets. In Studies 3 and 4, subliminal threat manipulations unrelated to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty evoked worldview defense. These results are discussed as they inform evolutionary interpretations of worldview defense and future investigations of the influence of unconscious alarm on judgment. PMID:21644809

  15. A Dual Centre? Executive Politics Under the Second Grand Coalition in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischer, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses executive politics under the second Grand Coalition in Germany with a particular emphasis on the role of the Chancellor and her Office. It applies a principal-agent framework to examine how the two parties in government affected the power relations within the executive. Next to

  16. The ACVP/STP Coalition for Veterinary Pathology Fellows Celebrates 32 New Training Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerell, Gary; Brayton, Cory; Barger, Anne; Bolon, Brad

    2017-06-01

    Since its creation in 2004, the Coalition for Veterinary Pathology Fellows, a partnership between the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, has established 32 new training positions backed by US$7.4 million in financial support from private sponsors.

  17. 77 FR 42738 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From the Coalition for Quality and Patient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From the Coalition for Quality and Patient Safety of Chicagoland (CQPS PSO) AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and...

  18. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... meetings focused on today's top issues including: Truck IntelliDrive: Beating Gridlock with a Smart Grid; U... ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The...

  19. 77 FR 14393 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants to State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... violence (Section 311 of the FVPSA, as amended by Section 201 of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment... discriminate on the basis of age, disability, sex, race, color, national origin, or religion (Section 306(c)(2... is present and child abuse is present (Section 311(d)(6)) unless the applicant coalition satisfies...

  20. Coalitions and the Decision making Process on the Common Flexicurity Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    the green paper of labour law and the expert group of flexicurity towards the Commission's proposal for the common principles and the adoption of the final version of the principles. The analysis shows: 1) that coalitions have played an important role in the decision-making process leading up...

  1. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winta Yellow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%. Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day. Our study showed dietary folate intake had a modest effect size, but was significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR = 0.99, p < 0.0001. The current study supports the hypothesis that pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.

  2. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow, Winta; Bamlet, William R; Oberg, Ann L; Anderson, Kristin E; Olson, Janet E; Sinha, Rashmi; Petersen, Gloria M; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Jansen, Rick J

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%). Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day). Our study showed dietary folate intake had a modest effect size, but was significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, p pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.

  3. The communications revolution and health inequalities in the 21st century: implications for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, K; Nagler, Rebekah H; Bigman-Galimore, Cabral A; McCauley, Michael P; Jung, Minsoo; Ramanadhan, Shoba

    2012-10-01

    The radical and transformative developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) offer unprecedented opportunities to promote cancer control and enhance population and individual health. However, the current context in which these technologies are being deployed--where cancer incidence and mortality and communication are characterized by inequalities among different racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status groups--raises important questions for cancer communication research, policy, and practice. Drawing on illustrative data, this essay characterizes the communications revolution and elucidates its implications for cancer control, with a particular focus on communication inequalities and cancer disparities. 2012 AACR

  4. Forecasting Model of Risk of Cancer in Lung Cancer Pedigree in a Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan LIN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Annual lung screening using spiral computed tomography (CT, has a high sensitivity of detecting early lung cancer (LC, but its high rates of false-positive often lead to unnecessary surgery. The aim of this study is to create a forecasting model of high risk individuals to lung cancer. Methods The pathologic diagnoses of LC in Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute were consecutively chosen as the probands. All the members of the first-degree relatives of probands' and their spouses' were enrolled in this study. These pedigrees consisted of 633 probands' pedigrees and 565 spouses' pedigrees. Unless otherwise stated, analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical software package. Results Compared with the control, a family history of carcinoma in first-degree relatives was significantly associated with LC risk (OR=1.71, P<0.001, the sub-group of either one infected individual or more than two infected individuals in first-degree relatives showed significantly statistical differences (P=0.005, P=0.002. In the forecasting model, the risk compared to that in Chinese population was from 0.38 to 63.08 folds. In the population whose risk was more than 10 times to the Chinese population, the accuracy rate of prediction was 88.1%. Conclusion A family history of carcinoma in first-degree relatives was significantly associated with increased LC risk. The more infected individuals exist in first-degree relatives, the more risk was showed. In the forecasting model, smokers especially heavy ones whose risk were more than 10 times to the Chinese population should be receive annual screening. The population are positive at least any two conditions which including male, lung disease history, occupation expose and history of cancer in first-degree relative.

  5. Environmental and occupational cancer in Argentina: a case-control lung cancer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos Elena

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the risks for lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in a developing country where lung cancer is the first cause of mortality from cancer in men. The study involved 200 men with lung cancer and 397 hospital controls. The OR for current smokers was 8.5, whereas former smokers displayed an OR of 5.3. The fraction attributable to smoking was 85%. Statistically significant high ORs were observed for employment in the alcoholic beverages industry (4.5, 95% CI:1.02-20.2, sawmills and wood mills (4.6, 95% CI:1.1-18.4, chemicals/plastics (1.8, 95% CI:1.04-3.2, and pottery, glass, or mineral manufactures (3.4, 95% CI:1.1-10.6. Other high, but not statistically significant, risks were observed for employment in leather shoe industry and repair (2.1, 95% CI:0.8-5.4, rubber industries (3.4, 95% CI:0.9-12.4, metal workers, including welders (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.4, motor vehicle mechanics (2.0, 95% CI:0.9-4.2, workers in cleaning services (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.5, and for workers in agriculture (2.4, 95% CI:0.9-6.0. Although some of the present results may be due to chance, most are consistent with those of previous investigations in other countries.

  6. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs and 95% confident intervals (CIs. Results: Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11–3.70, obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22–2.57, diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48–5.92 and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02–3.10 were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.84 was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  7. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women in northern Tanzania: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Irmgard; Hebestreit, Antje; Swai, Britta; Michael B. Krawinkel

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. It was tested within a case?control study in this region whether a specific dietary pattern impacts on the breast cancer risk. Methods A validated semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake of 115 female breast cancer patients and 230 healthy age-matched women living in the same districts. A logistic regression was performed to estimate breast ...

  8. Developing and Reflecting on a Black Disability Studies Pedagogy: Work from the National Black Disability Coalition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Dunhamn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This collection of writing has grown from the work of the National Black Disability Coalition, led by Jane Dunhamn and Leroy Moore. The Coalition met on June 7, 2013, in the historic Shiloh Baptist Church in Trenton, New Jersey to discuss the future of Black Disability Studies (BDS. Since that time, members of the Coalition have written an outline for a BDS course, presented at conferences, and developed strategies to incorporate BDS into the disciplines of Black Studies and Disability Studies. We have also reflected deeply on what the introduction of BDS will mean, both for Black Studies and for disability studies. Our writings in this collection are intended to mark the work of the National Black Disability Coalition thus far, but also to provide a platform from which further work in BDS can grow. By underscoring the development and potential of BDS, this article articulates the need for BDS within mainstream disability studies, and advocates for BDS not to be taken as a marginalized special-topic course, but rather to be engaged in every and at the heart of Disability Studies courses and pedagogies. Although we believe that BDS should be integrated into every Disability Studies course, we recognize that, like disability itself, it cannot simply be “added and stirred”; rather, the inclusion of BDS is a paradigm-shifting change. The pieces included in this collection are enactments of an ongoing conversation--a conversation that we hope the readers of Disability Studies Quarterly will join thoughtfully. The sections comprise statements from the leaders of the National Black Disability Coalition, Jane Dunhamn and Leroy Moore; reflective writings from three instructors and two students of Black Disability Studies; and a copy of the course outline.

  9. The coalition of industrialists and environmentalists in the climate change issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, U.S.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2003-07-01

    The political economy idea developed by Ackerman and Hassler (1981) is the starting point of this paper. It suggested that a coalition of environmentalists and industrialists successfully lobbied the US Congress. More strict technology-based standards for new sources than existing sources was the resulting policy outcome serving the common interest of the coalition because it both offered a barrier to entry for new firms and improved environmental quality. Wc focus both on cases from air and water pollution in the US confirming which seem to confirm this suggestion and the case of international climate negotiations and the promotion of wind-based energy. In the line of the Ackerman and Hassler approach wc suggest that the reason for EU eagerness to push forward ambitious reduction target levels (and thereby promote new green industries) is a similar coalition between industrialists and environmentalists. Such a strategy can be seen in the context of the Bootleggers and Baptist theory developed by Yandle (1983), where the Baptists (in our case the environmentalists) demand changes in behaviour on moral reasons. In contrast, the Bootleggers (the producers of renewable energy), who profit from the very regulation, keep a low profile. The actual heavy subsidisation of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, can be viewed as a successful policy outcome for the coalition of industrialists and environmentalists offering both market protection and improved environmental quality. Solving the current dead-lock in international climate negotiations across the Atlantic may well imply fighting the strong coalition of industrialists and environmentalists. Such a political battle may turn out to be just as tough as fighting windmills if not clearly investigated in future research. (au)

  10. Patterns of interventions and the effect of coalitions and sociality on male fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Lars; Muniz, Laura; Mundry, Roger; Widdig, Anja

    2011-01-01

    In group living animals, especially among primates, there is consistent evidence that high-ranking males gain a higher reproductive output than low-ranking males. Primate studies have shown that male coalitions and sociality can impact male fitness; however, it remains unclear whether males could potentially increase their fitness by preferentially supporting and socializing with females. Here we investigate patterns of male interventions and the effect of coalitions and sociality on male fitness in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with particular focus on male-female interactions. We combined behavioral collected on Cayo Santiago with genetic data analyzed for male reproductive output and relatedness. Our results revealed that the ten top-ranking males provided the majority of all male support observed. In contrast to other primates, male rhesus macaques mainly formed all-down coalitions suggesting that coalitions are less likely used to enhance male dominance. Males supporting females during and before their likely conception were not more likely to fertilize those females. We also found no evidence that males preferably support their offspring or other close kin. Interestingly, the most important predictor of male support was sociality, since opponents sharing a higher sociality index with a given male were more likely to be supported. Furthermore, a high sociality index of a given male-female dyad resulted in a higher probability of paternity. Overall, our results strengthen the evidence that sociality affects fitness in male primates, but also suggest that in species in which males queue for dominance, it is less likely that males derive fitness benefits from coalitions. PMID:21880090

  11. Role of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hon Man Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein in all eukaryotes—highlighting its important functions in the cell. Previous studies revealed that TCTP is implicated in many biological processes, including cell growth, tumor reversion, and induction of pluripotent stem cell. A recent study on the solution structure from fission yeast orthologue classifies TCTP under a family of small chaperone proteins. There is growing evidence in the literature that TCTP is a multifunctional protein and exerts its biological activity at the extracellular and intracellular levels. Although TCTP is not a tumor-specific protein, our research group, among several others, focused on the role(s of TCTP in cancer progression. In this paper, we will summarize the current scientific knowledge of TCTP in different aspects, and the precise oncogenic mechanisms of TCTP will be discussed in detail.

  12. A model for evaluating the activities of a coalition-based policy action group: the case of Hermosa Vida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lisa Jane; Wertheim, Peter; Bohan, Kyle; Quezada, Julio Cesar; Henley, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Scholars and clinicians are increasingly recognizing the complexity of social contexts of health and the need for multifunctioning approaches to health care problems including community- and policy-level strategies. Barriers to change in health care policy can sometimes be attributed to the actions of advocacy coalitions who operate from a limited view of "policy change." Advocates have a tendency to pressure stakeholders to mandate laws as a final resolution of a movement, often leading to failure or, worse, stigmatizing of issues. A more inclusive focus on health policy change as an ongoing process increases the efficacy of advocacy and outcomes measurement. This article presents a tool for policy action that coalition members developed through the implementation of a 3-year grant to improve the safety net for preventing childhood obesity. Scholars and policy makers developed the Policy Coalition Evaluation Tool with the intent to create a model to guide and measure efforts and outcomes of a local community-based policy coalition. The authors suggest using community-based participatory research approaches for developing a coalition-specific Policy Coalition Evaluation Tool to increase the effectiveness of advocacy groups and the documentation of coalition activities over time.

  13. Efficacy of an educational material on second primary cancer screening practice for cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Shin

    Full Text Available Cancer surivors have limited knowledge about second primary cancer (SPC screening and suboptimal rates of completion of screening practices for SPC. Our objective was to test the efficacy of an educational material on the knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices for SPC among cancer survivors.Randomized, controlled trial among 326 cancer survivors from 6 oncology care outpatient clinics in Korea. Patients were randomized to an intervention or an attention control group. The intervention was a photo-novel, culturally tailored to increase knowledge about SPC screening. Knowledge and attitudes regarding SPC screening were assessed two weeks after the intervention, and screening practices were assessed after one year.At two weeks post-intervention, the average knowledge score was significantly higher in the intervention compared to the control group (0.81 vs. 0.75, P<0.01, with no significant difference in their attitude scores (2.64 vs. 2.57, P = 0.18. After 1 year of follow-up, the completion rate of all appropriate cancer screening was 47.2% in both intervention and control groups.While the educational material was effective for increasing knowledge of SPC screening, it did not promote cancer screening practice among cancer survivors. More effective interventions are needed to increase SPC screening rates in this population.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00948337.

  14. Assessing Community Coalition Capacity and its Association with Underage Drinking Prevention Effectiveness in the Context of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewelling, Robert L; Hanley, Sean M

    2016-10-01

    Community coalitions are a prominent organizational structure through which community-based substance abuse prevention efforts are implemented. There is little empirical evidence, however, regarding the association between coalition attributes and success in achieving community-level reductions in substance abuse behaviors. In this study, we assessed the relationship between coalition capacity, based on coalition coordinator responses to 16 survey items, and reductions in underage drinking prevalence rates. The coalitions were funded through the federally sponsored Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF SIG). We first examined whether coalition capacity increased over the life of the projects. Mean capacity scores increased for all 16 capacity items examined (N = 318 coalitions), the majority of which were statistically significant. Analysis of the associations between capacity and reductions in underage drinking was limited to coalitions that targeted underage drinking and provided usable outcome measures based on student survey data for either past 30-day alcohol use (N = 129) or binge drinking (N = 100). Bivariate associations between the capacity items and prevalence reductions for each outcome were consistently positive, although many were not statistically significant. Composite measures of correlated items were then created to represent six different capacity constructs, and included in multivariate models to predict reductions in the targeted outcomes. Constructs that significantly predicted reductions in one or both outcome measures included internal organization and structure, community connections and outreach, and funding from multiple sources. The findings provide support for the expectation that high functioning community coalitions can be effective agents for producing desirable community-level changes in targeted substance abuse behaviors.

  15. Preventive care receipt and office visit use among breast and colorectal cancer survivors relative to age- and gender-matched cancer-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Salloum, Ramzi G; Fishman, Paul A; Ritzwoller, Debra Pearson; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen C; Hornbrook, Mark C

    2015-06-01

    We compare breast and colorectal cancer survivors' annual receipt of preventive care and office visits to that of age- and gender-matched cancer-free controls. Automated data, including tumor registries, were used to identify insured individuals aged 50+ at the time of breast or colorectal cancer diagnosis between 2000 and 2008 as well as cancer-free controls receiving care from four integrated delivery systems. Those with metastatic or un-staged disease, or a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. Annual visits to primary care, oncology, and surgery as well as receipt of mammography, colorectal cancer, Papanicolaou, bone densitometry, and cholesterol screening were observed for 5 years. We used generalized estimating equations that accounted for repeated observations over time per person to test annual service use differences by cancer survivor/cancer-free control status and whether survivor/cancer-free status associations were moderated by patient age breast and 1530 colorectal cancer survivors were identified, representing 12,923 and 5103 patient-years of follow-up, respectively. Compared to cancer-free controls, breast and colorectal cancer survivors were equally or more likely to use all types of office visits and to receive cancer screenings and bone densitometry testing. Both breast and colorectal cancer survivors were less likely than cancer-free controls to receive cholesterol testing, regardless of age, year of diagnosis, or use of primary care. Programs targeting cancer survivors may benefit from addressing a broad range of primary preventive care needs, including recommended cardiovascular disease screening.

  16. 77 FR 20491 - National Cancer Control Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... continues to shed light on the molecular basis of cancer and unlock new therapies. Innovative studies are paving the way for effective treatments to deadly cancers, including melanoma. And new research shows...

  17. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a paired case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Wagner Brant; Brandão, Eduardo Carvalho; Soares, Aleida Nazareth; Lucena, Clécio Enio Murta de; Antunes, Carlos Maurício Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of pregnancy concomitantly with a diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the evolution of the neoplasia. The present study aimed to compare pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) patients with non-pregnant cancer patients (controls) in relation to the time taken to diagnose the disease, tumor characteristics and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective, paired case-control study was conducted at the Hospital da...

  18. Association between Alcohol Consumption and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Rahman; Michelle Cotterchio; Cleary, Sean P; Steven Gallinger

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evidence is inconsistent regarding alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, although heavy drinking may increase risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted using 345 pancreas cancer cases diagnosed 2011?2012 and 1,285 frequency-matched controls from Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression was used to evaluate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk; data was also stratified by sex and smoking status to assess interaction. Results Alcohol consumption was not assoc...

  19. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening...

  20. Identification of critical regulatory genes in cancer signaling network using controllability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Vandana; Sunitha, V.; Bagler, Ganesh

    2017-05-01

    Cancer is characterized by a complex web of regulatory mechanisms which makes it difficult to identify features that are central to its control. Molecular integrative models of cancer, generated with the help of data from experimental assays, facilitate use of control theory to probe for ways of controlling the state of such a complex dynamic network. We modeled the human cancer signaling network as a directed graph and analyzed it for its controllability, identification of driver nodes and their characterization. We identified the driver nodes using the maximum matching algorithm and classified them as backbone, peripheral and ordinary based on their role in regulatory interactions and control of the network. We found that the backbone driver nodes were key to driving the regulatory network into cancer phenotype (via mutations) as well as for steering into healthy phenotype (as drug targets). This implies that while backbone genes could lead to cancer by virtue of mutations, they are also therapeutic targets of cancer. Further, based on their impact on the size of the set of driver nodes, genes were characterized as indispensable, dispensable and neutral. Indispensable nodes within backbone of the network emerged as central to regulatory mechanisms of control of cancer. In addition to probing the cancer signaling network from the perspective of control, our findings suggest that indispensable backbone driver nodes could be potentially leveraged as therapeutic targets. This study also illustrates the application of structural controllability for studying the mechanisms underlying the regulation of complex diseases.

  1. Urgent need to strengthen and expand screening and other cancer control programs in the CARICOM Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Renee A; Simeon, Donald T

    2017-11-01

    With high mortality in breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancers in Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries, we examined cancer control initiatives including screening as well as the implementation of relevant international and regional mandates. Secondary data were used to examine cancer control initiatives, which included the presence of national policies, programs, and screening services as well as the implementation of international and regional mandates. To identify the data, an on-line search was conducted using Google/Google Scholar. Data were available for 14 of the 15 full members of CARICOM. Although only six countries had distinct cancer control policies, strategies or action plans, all 14 had key elements of cancer control programs. Screening services were available in the 14 countries for cervical, in 12 countries for breast and in 11 for colorectal cancer. However, only four countries had screening policies. In addition, screening guidelines were available for cervical cancer in nine countries, in one country for breast and in none for colorectal cancer. Selected tobacco control policies were present in the 14 countries and immunization policies for human papillomavirus (HPV) in 13. Treatment services included chemotherapy in 10 countries and radiotherapy in six. Nine countries had palliative care services for patients with advanced disease. The countries were at different stages of implementation/compliance with international and regional mandates and frameworks. There is an urgent need to develop and implement comprehensive and customized cancer control policies addressing screening programs, treatment and palliative care.

  2. Epidemiology of Oral Cavity Cancers in a Country Located in the Esophageal Cancer Belt: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Saedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As one of the most common cancers among head and neck malignancies, cancer of the oral cavity probably has some variations in countries with a high prevalence of esophageal cancer.  Materials and Methods: Patients with oral cavity cancer who were treated at two tertiary referral centers from January 1999 to January 2009 were included in this study. In addition to demographic data, information regarding personal and family history of head and neck cancer, use of dentures, presence of immune deficiency, consumption of alcohol, and incidence of cigarette smoking was collected. Additionally, a history of opium usage was obtained from the participants in this study. Moreover, an appropriately matched control group was selected for comparisons between the risk factors.   Results: A total of 557 patients were entered into this study over a 10-year period, of whom 219 (39.3% were female and the remaining 338 (60.7% were male. The tongue was the most common site of cancer and 9% of the patients had a history of opium abuse, but more than half of the patients did not have any recognized risk factors. The incidence and stage of cancer had a significant relationship with cigarette smoking (P= 0.013.   Conclusion: Tongue cancer in non-smokers is the predominant pattern of oral cavity cancer in Iran.

  3. Diet and cancer of the prostate: a case-control study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzonou, A; Signorello, L B; Lagiou, P; Wuu, J; Trichopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    1999-03-01

    The nutritional aetiology of prostate cancer was evaluated in Athens, Greece, through a case-control study that included 320 patients with histologically confirmed incident prostate cancer and 246 controls without history or symptomatology of benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer, treated in the same hospital as the cases for minor diseases or conditions. Among major food groups, milk and dairy products as well as added lipids were marginally positively associated with risk for prostate cancer. Among added lipids, seed oils were significantly and butter and margarine non-significantly positively associated with prostate cancer risk, whereas olive oil was unrelated to this risk. Cooked tomatoes and to a lesser extent raw tomatoes were inversely associated with the risk for prostate cancer. In analyses focusing on nutrients, rather than foods, polyunsaturated fats were positively and vitamin E inversely associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that several nutrition-related processes jointly contribute to prostate carcinogenesis.

  4. Diverticular disease and the risk of colon cancer - a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, J; Svensson, T; Granath, F; Hjern, F; Ekbom, A; Blomqvist, P; Schmidt, P T

    2011-09-01

    Colon cancer and diverticular disease are most common in the Western world and their incidences tend to increase with advancing age. The association between the diseases remains unclear. To analyse the risk of colon cancer after hospitalisation for diverticular disease. Nationwide case-control study. A total of 41,037 patients with colon cancer during 1992-2006, identified from the Swedish Cancer Register were included. Each case was matched with two control subjects. From the Swedish Inpatient Register, cases and control subjects hospitalised for diverticular disease were identified. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals for receiving a diagnosis of colon cancer after hospital discharge for diverticular disease were calculated. Colon cancer mortality was compared between patients with or without diverticular disease. Within 6months after an admission due to diverticular disease, OR of having a colon cancer diagnosis were up to 31.49 (19.00-52.21). After 12 months, there was no increased risk. The number of discharges for diverticular disease did not affect the risk. Colon cancer mortality did not differ between patients with and without diverticular disease. Diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer in the long term, and a history of diverticular disease does not affect colon cancer mortality. The increased risk of colon cancer within the first 12months after diagnosing diverticular disease is most likely due to surveillance and misclassification. Examination of the colon should be recommended after a primary episode of symptomatic diverticular disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Cancer with diabetes: prevalence, metabolic control, and survival in an academic oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Nina J; Dueck, Amylou C; Cook, Curtiss B

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, glycemic control, and impact of diabetes on overall survival in an academic oncology practice. Data on cancer patients (1999 to 2008) were retrieved from the institutional cancer registry and linked to electronic files to obtain diabetes status and hemoglobin A1c (A1C) values within the first 6 months of cancer diagnosis. Overall survival by cancer type with and without diabetes was compared using Cox regression. Excluding skin and hematologic malignancies, 15,951 cancer cases were identified. Overall diabetes prevalence was 6.8% (n = 1,090), declining over time (Pcancers (7.6% [68 of 899]). Patients with diabetes were older (mean age, 70 versus 66 years; Pcancer patients was 6.8% and did not differ across cancer types (P = 0.80). Only 58.6% (331 of 565) of diabetic cancer patients had all A1C cancer diagnosis. Pancreatic cancer patients with coexisting diabetes had better overall survival than pancreatic cancer patients without diabetes (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.80; Pcancer patients had worse overall survival than prostate cancer patients without diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.76; P = 0.02). In this academic oncology practice, diabetes was common, glycemic control often was suboptimal, and survival varied by cancer type. Additional study is needed to optimize glucose management and investigate mechanisms underlying age, sex, and survival differences.

  6. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study in the Finnish Maternity Cohort. The cohort includes 98% of pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed at age ≥40 [4th vs. 1st quartile OR 0.71 (0.51-1.00); Ptrend = 0.02]. Elevated concentrations of the steroid hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed age ≥40. Further research on pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Tackling cancer control in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Othman, Saleh; Haoudi, Abdelali; Alhomoud, Samar; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Khoja, Tawfik; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in both high income and middle-to-low income countries, and is the second leading cause of death in the world. Although more than a third of cancer could be prevented and another third could be cured if diagnosed early, it remains a huge challenge to health-care systems worldwide. Despite substantial improvements in health services some of the countries in the Gulf region, the burden of non-communicable diseases is a major threat, primarily due to the rapid socioeconomic shifts that have led to unfavourable changes in lifestyle such as increased tobacco use, decreased physical activity, and consumption of unhealthy food. In the Gulf Cooperation Council states (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait), advanced breast cancer, colorectal cancer, leukaemia, thyroid cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphomas are the most common cancers affecting younger populations compared with other countries. By contrast with cancer prevalence in developed countries, prostate, lung, and cervical cancers are not among the most common cancers in the Gulf region. In view of the increased cost of cancer management worldwide, integrated approaches between primary, secondary, and tertiary health-care systems with special focus on prevention and early detection is an essential step in the countries' efforts in the fight against cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Power and uneven globalization: Coalitions and energy trade dependence in the newly independent states of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Corina Herron

    2000-10-01

    The economies of the European former Soviet Union were dependent upon energy subsidies in the form of virtually free oil and natural gas imports from Russia, the loss of which implied dramatic shocks to domestic production structures, and the maintenance of which implied continued policy concessions to Russia. Yet some of these states actively pursued integration into the global economy while others sought to maintain the shelter of domestic markets and Russian energy subsidies. While the economic costs of openness and restructuring would be high in all cases in the short term, it is the political costs of openness and restructuring that determine the policy of the state. Where the high costs of restructuring are borne by a politically disenfranchised group, a consensus coalition can emerge in favor of rapid restructuring and energy reorientation. Where the benefits of the status quo accrue to a well-organized coalition closely allied with the state, a consensus coalition emerges in favor of maintenance of energy subsidies from and political relationship with Russia. Where the costs of restructuring are borne broadly or by a well-organized minority group, power oscillation and fragmentation will lead to inconsistent policy and slow progress toward energy reorientation and reform. Integrating a state-in-society approach to coalition formation within the field of international political economy, the author argues that states dominated by globalist-liberalizing-nationalist coalitions were able to implement energy trade reorientation by politically disenfranchising the ethnic minorities who populated the sector most vulnerable to energy contraction, heavy industry. These "globalizers," Estonia and Latvia, bore the high costs of restructuring industries and importing energy at world prices. Belarus, dominated by pro-Moscow-statist-leftist coalitions, sought to preserve energy subsidies through political and economic reintegration with Russia. States ruled by divided

  9. Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Chan Wha; Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has rapidly increased over the past decade, few studies have investigated its risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for thyroid cancer in Korean adults. Materials and Methods The study design was a hospital-based case-control study. Between August 2002 and December 2011, a total of 802 thyroid cancer cases out of 34,211 patients screened from the Cancer Screenee. Cohort of the National Cancer Center in South Korea were inc...

  10. Physician Training in Cancer Prevention and Control: A Population Health Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Miranda A; Goodman, Richard A

    2017-12-11

    Cancer is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Although reducing the number of new cancer cases is a national health goal, the continuing growth of the older adult population ensures that the burden of cancer will increase. Despite documentation of the shortage of oncologists to meet the growing need, relatively limited attention has been focused on increasing the physician workforce trained in the prevention and control of cancer. The existing physician workforce with such specialized training in cancer prevention and control is small, aging, increasing at a low rate, and likely to decrease because of an imbalance between retiring physicians and new entrants. This commentary addresses the imperative for increasing the number of physicians trained in preventive medicine with a specialization in cancer prevention and control by first providing a brief overview of U.S. cancer morbidity and mortality, then describing the status of, and trends in, physician training in cancer prevention and control, and concluding by suggesting opportunities for bolstering physician training in cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk of cancer in autoimmune pancreatitis: a case-control study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Phil A; Law, Ryan J; Dierkhising, Ross A; Smyrk, Thomas C; Takahashi, Naoki; Chari, Suresh T

    2014-04-01

    The risk of pancreatic and extrapancreatic cancer in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has not been systematically evaluated. We compared the risk of malignancy in AIP patients and matched control subjects. We identified 116 subjects with AIP from a prospectively maintained database. From patients evaluated in primary care clinics, we selected 3 control subjects for each AIP patient matched on age, registration date, and sex (n = 344) . Risk for developing cancer after the index date was compared using a stratified Cox model. The proportion of patients diagnosed with cancer before AIP diagnosis (10.3%) was lower than that in the matched control subjects (17.4%). After a median follow-up of over 3 years, the risk of developing cancer after the index date was similar in AIP and control subjects (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-1.51). The 3 most commonly diagnosed malignancies in the AIP group were prostate cancer, lymphoma, and bladder cancer. Cancer risk before and after diagnosis of AIP is similar to that of control subjects. Specifically, there is no increased risk of cancer immediately preceding or following AIP diagnosis. Additional follow-up is needed to determine if there is a cumulative increase in cancer risk in AIP.

  12. Nurse Attitude-Related Barriers to Effective Control of Cancer Pain among Iranian Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Name, Name; Mohamadian, Robab; Rahmani, Azad; Fizollah-Zadeh, Hussein; Jabarzadeh, Franak; Azadi, Arman; Rostami, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Many cancer patients still experience pain worldwide. There are many barriers for effective control of cancer pain and many of these are related to health care providers. There is a need for further investigation of these barriers. The aim of this study was to investigate nurse-related barriers to control of cancer pain among Iranian nurses. In this descriptive study 49 nurses from two hospitals affiliated to Tabriz and Ardebil Universities of Medical Sciences participated using a census sampling method. A demographic and profession related checklist and Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II) were used for data collection. The results showed negative attitudes of participants regarding control of cancer pain. Participants believed that cancer pain medications do not manage cancer pain at acceptable levels; patients may become addicted by using these drugs; cancer pain medications have many uncontrollable effects; and controlling cancer pain may distract the physicians from treating disease. Iranian nurses have negative attitudes toward pain control in cancer patients especially about effectiveness of pain medication and their side effects. Educational intervention to reduce these misconceptions is needed.

  13. Body conformation, diet, and risk of breast cancer in pet dogs: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, E G; Glickman, L T; Goldschmidt, M H; McKee, L J

    1991-04-01

    Canine and human breast cancer share several important clinical and histologic features. A case-control study of nutritional factors and canine breast cancer was conducted at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in 1984-1987 by interviewing owners of 150 pet dogs diagnosed with breast cancer, owners of 147 cancer control dogs, and owners of 131 noncancer control dogs. The risk of breast cancer was significantly reduced in dogs spayed at or before 2.5 years of age. Neither a high-fat diet nor obesity 1 year before diagnosis increased the risk of breast cancer according to multiple logistic regression analysis. However, the risk of breast cancer among spayed dogs was significantly reduced in dogs that had been thin at 9-12 months of age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.004-0.4) and OR = 0.04 (95% CI 0.004-0.5) for cases vs. cancer controls and cases vs. noncancer controls, respectively, after adjustment for age at spay). Among intact dogs, the risk associated with being thin at 9-12 months of age was reduced, but not significantly so (OR = 0.60 (95% CI 0.2-1.9) and OR = 0.51 (95% CI 0.2-1.4) for the two comparisons, respectively). Results of this study suggest that nutritional factors operating early in life may be of etiologic importance in canine breast cancer.

  14. Cancer-associated autoantibodies to MUC1 and MUC4--a blinded case–control study of colorectal cancer in UK collaborative trial of ovarian cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johannes W; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Nøstdal, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that autoantibodies directed to aberrantly glycosylated mucins, in particular MUC1 and MUC4, are found in patients with colorectal cancer. There is, however, limited information on the autoantibody levels before clinical diagnosis, and their utility in cancer screening...... of colorectal cancer diagnosis and healthy controls. Subsequently, the selected biomarkers were evaluated in a blinded nested case–control study using stored serum samples from among the 50,640 women randomized to the multimodal arm of the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS), where...... in the general population. In our study, we have generated O-glycosylated synthetic MUC1 and MUC4 peptides in vitro, to mimic cancer-associated glycoforms, and displayed these on microarrays. The assay's performance was tested through an initial screening of serum samples taken from patients at the time...

  15. Networking expertise: discursive coalitions and collaborative networks of experts in a public creationism controversy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Experts do play a particular role in public socio-scientific debates, even more so if they form heterogeneous coalition with other actors and experts. A case study about a public science education controversy surrounding the teaching of evolution/creationism in the UK press is used to investigate in detail how connections and coalitions between experts and other actors involved in the controversy emerged and played out. The research focuses on the question of what role collaborative and other networks of experts played in terms of influence, visibility, credibility, consensus and weight of argument. Issues that are considered in the research are the status of the members of the coalitions forming during the debate and how it is displayed in media representations and letters and petitions, and also how these networks and coalitions of experts perform in relation to each other.

  16. An Analysis of the United States-Led Coalition Air Campaign Conducted During the 1991 War with IRAQ: Desert Storm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, John

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of the 1991 United States led coalition Persian Gulf War (DESERT STORM) Air Campaign is performed to measure its adherence to basic principles of war and to determine the potential implications for the future conduct of war...

  17. Correlation between familial cancer history and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in Taiwanese never smokers with non-small cell lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Chung; Cheng, Yun-Chung

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Cigarette smoking remains a prominent risk factor, but lung cancer incidence has been increasing in never smokers. Genetic abnormalities including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations predominate in never smoking lung cancer patients. Furthermore, familial aggregations of patients with these mutations reflect heritable susceptibility to lung cancer. The correlation between familial cancer history and EGFR mutations in never smokers with lung cancer requires investigation. This was a retrospective case-control study that evaluated the prevalence of EGFR mutations in lung cancer patients with familial cancer history. Never smokers with lung cancer treated at a hospital in Taiwan between April 2012 and May 2014 were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were never smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Exclusion criteria involved patients without records of familial cancer history or tumor genotype. This study included 246 never smokers with lung cancer. The study population mainly involved never smoking women with a mean age of 60 years, and the predominant tumor histology was adenocarcinoma. Lung cancer patients with familial cancer history had an increased prevalence of EGFR mutations compared to patients without family history [odds ratio (OR): 5.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-10.6; Pnever smoking lung cancer patients with familial cancer history. Moreover, a sizable proportion of never smoking cancer patients harbored these mutations. These observations have implications for the treatment of lung cancer in never smokers.

  18. Diet and oxidative stress in breast, colon and prostate cancer patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, E; Bartsch, H; Béréziat, J C; Camus, A M; McClinton, S; Eremin, O; Davidson, L; Boyle, P

    1994-08-01

    To study the changes in pro-oxidant-antioxidant status in breast, colon and prostate cancer patients as compared to respective controls. Cross-sectional case-control study. The pro-oxidant status was measured by analysing alkanes (ethane and pentane) in exhaled air and lipid peroxidation (as malonaldehyde) in blood samples. The antioxidant capacity was measured by studying blood glutathione concentration, vitamin concentrations and serum antioxidant capacity in liposomes in vitro. Aberdeen hospitals. Breast, prostate and colon cancer cases, and age- and sex-matched control patients (hospitalized for a benign disease). Breast cancer patients were females, prostate cancer patients were males and colon cancer patients were both males and females. Controls were age-matched to within 5 years, sex-matched and matched for smoking habits. The dietary study suggested a higher monoene and polyene fat intake in prostate cancer than in controls while in other cancer patients no significant differences were found. Breast and colon cancer patients tended to have lower vitamin intakes than controls. Pentane concentration in exhaled air increased in breast cancer patients as compared to respective controls. In serum total antioxidant capacity no significant differences were found. Both breast and colon cancer patients showed decreased C18:2 and C20:4 fatty acid concentrations in red blood cells while C22:6 concentration was elevated in breast cancer patients. Oxidative stress may be associated with malignant diseases, suggesting the importance of simultaneous analysis of pro- and antioxidation in the search of mechanistic parameters leading to the tumour formation.

  19. Effect of glycemic control on the risk of pancreatic cancer: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Kian-Ching; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been studied, the effects of glycemic control on pancreatic cancer have never been evaluated. This study investigates the relationship between glycemic control and pancreatic cancer.Data from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were screened. The study cohort consisted of 46,973 diabetic patients and 652,142 nondiabetic subjects. Of the patients with diabetes, 1114 who had been admitted for hyperglycemic crisis episodes were defined as having poorly controlled diabetes. All adult beneficiaries were followed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013, to determine whether pancreatic cancer was diagnosed. The Cox regression model was applied to compare the adjusted hazards for potential confounders.After controlling for age, sex, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, chronic liver disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, malignancies, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, history of alcohol intoxication, chronic renal insufficiency, biliary tract disease, chronic pancreatitis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and high-dimensional propensity score, the adjusted hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was 2.53 (95% confidence interval 1.96-3.26) in patients with diabetes. In diabetic patients with poor glycemic control, the hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was significantly higher (hazard ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval 1.34-9.78).This cohort study reveals a possible relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Moreover, poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with a higher possibility of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Mariet, Hagedoorn,

    Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial.......Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial....

  1. Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Hariet, Hagedoorn,

    Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial......Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial...

  2. Bone Marrow Microenvironmental Control of Prostate Cancer Skeletal Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    implicate PTHrP derived from prostate cancer in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer metastasis to bone. This aspect of the project is complete...presented initial findings as an invited speaker at the Cancer Induced Bone Disease meeting in Chicago (abstract appended). There was a statistically...Affiliations: 1 Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, the University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI; 2 Departments of

  3. International coalitions in Brazil’s foreign policy: security and governance reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Costa Vaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the relevance and role of international coalitions as instruments and arenas for negotiation in the context of Brazilian foreign policy under Luis Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010, and the perspectives they bring to the attainment of the goal of reforming the spaces and instruments of global governance in the political, economic and security spheres. Under Lula da Silva, Brazil supported and resorted intensively to coalitions not only for their instrumental value for consolidating the country’s international presence and actions, but also due to the possibility that they could induce systemic change towards a more uneven pattern of power distribution, thus helping to overcome lasting political and economic international asymmetries.

  4. Forming Social Justice Projects: Student Activists Reflect on Coalition-Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren E. Lund

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Student activists share their experiences with racism and more specifically, their attempts to form school diversity initiatives. The author outlines a problematic lack of engagement of student activists in the scholarly literature on social justice, particularly related to their undervalued role as leaders in school-based antiracist coalitions. Excerpts from in-depth interviews with seven student participants in western Canadian schools offer new understandings on the potential of school-based activists. They explain the challenges and successes in building and sustaining activist coalitions and in pursuing their social justice efforts beyond school. Their contributions represent new voices to join the ongoing conversation in educational research and community activism.

  5. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  6. [Colonoscopy quality control as a requirement of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Enrique; Alarcón-Fernández, Onofre; Jover, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    The strategies used in population-based colorectal screening strategies culminate in colonoscopy and consequently the success of these programs largely depends on the quality of this diagnostic test. The main factors to consider when evaluating quality are scientific-technical quality, safety, patient satisfaction, and accessibility. Quality indicators allow variability among hospitals, endoscopy units and endoscopists to be determined and can identify those not achieving recommended standards. In Spain, the working group for colonoscopy quality of the Spanish Society of Gastroenterology and the Spanish Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy have recently drawn up a Clinical Practice Guideline that contains the available evidence on the quality of screening colonoscopy, as well as the basic requirements that must be met by endoscopy units and endoscopists carrying out this procedure. The implementation of training programs and screening colonoscopy quality controls are strongly recommended to guarantee the success of population-based colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. Coalitions and Competition in Malaysia – Incremental Transformation of a Strong-party System

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith L. Weiss; State University of New York at Albany

    2014-01-01

    "The seeming entrenchment of a two-coalition system in Malaysia solidifies the centrality of strongly institutionalised parties in the polity. The primary parties in Malaysia reach deeply into society and nest within dense networks of both intra-party and external organisations. Given this order - which differentiates Malaysia from its neighbours in the region - political liberalisation, if it happens, should be expected largely via electoral politics, and, specifically, through inter-party c...

  8. A Technology Analysis to Support Acquisition of UAVs for Gulf Coalition Forces Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Decisive Storm in Yemen.” FDD’s Long War Journal . March 26. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2015/03/ saudi-arabia-begins-operation-decisive-storm...hills and rugged mountains dominate. Gulf Coalition Forces are accustomed to working in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula where dry desert and...detecting terrorist members located in tough, mountainous terrain using regular detection equipment and manned aircraft. The UAV can be adjusted

  9. Lessons in Community Health Activism: The Maternity Care Coalition, 1970–1990

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This study employed historical methodologies to explore the means through which the Maternity Care Coalition used grassroots activism to dismantle the power structures and other obstacles that contributed to high infant mortality rates in Philadelphia’s health districts 5 and 6 during the 1980s. Infant mortality within the black community has been a persistent phenomenon in the United States. Refusing to accept poverty as a major determinant of infant mortality within marginalized populations...

  10. Internal vs. core coalitional stability in the environmental externality game: A reconciliation

    OpenAIRE

    Tulkens, Henry

    2014-01-01

    In a game with positive externalities, such as e.g. the standard environmental externality game used in the analysis of international environmental agreements, the solutions having the property of coalitional internal stability, when they exist, are compared in this paper with the solutions with the property of ?-core stability. Key instruments for that comparison are the notions of stable imputations, on the one hand, and on the other, of partial agreement Nash equilibria relative to a coali...

  11. A national program for injury prevention in children and adolescents: the injury free coalition for kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Joyce C; Barlow, Barbara; Durkin, Maureen; Jacko, Sally A; Dominguez, DiLenny Roca; Johnson, Lenita

    2005-09-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and a major source of preventable disability in children. Mechanisms of injury are rooted in a complex web of social, economic, environmental, criminal, and behavioral factors that necessitate a multifaceted, systematic injury prevention approach. This article describes the injury burden and the way physicians, community coalitions, and a private foundation teamed to impact the problem first in an urban minority community and then through a national program. Through our injury prevention work in a resource-limited neighborhood, a national model evolved that provides a systematic framework through which education and other interventions are implemented. Interventions are aimed at changing the community and home environments physically (safe play areas and elimination of community and home hazards) and socially (education and supervised extracurricular activities with mentors). This program, based on physician-community partnerships and private foundation financial support, expanded to 40 sites in 37 cities, representing all 10 US trauma regions. Each site is a local adaptation of the Injury Free Coalition model also referred to as the ABC's of injury prevention: A, "analyze injury data through local injury surveillance"; B, "build a local coalition"; C, "communicate the problem and raise awareness that injuries are a preventable public health problem"; D, "develop interventions and injury prevention activities to create safer environments and activities for children"; and E, "evaluate the interventions with ongoing surveillance." It is feasible to develop a comprehensive injury prevention program of national scope using a voluntary coalition of trauma centers, private foundation financial and technical support, and a local injury prevention model with a well-established record of reducing and sustaining lower injury rates for inner-city children and adolescents.

  12. Replication of Prostate Cancer Risk Variants in a Danish Case-Control Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen; Nyegaard, Mette; Børglum, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is one of the main causes for cancer morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Recently, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies and multiple variant models have been...... developed to predict prostate cancer risk. The association between genetic markers and clinico-pathological tumor variables has, however, been inconsistent. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 previously identified prostate cancer-associated risk SNPs were genotyped in 648 prostate cancer cases and 526 age...... assays and associations between SNPs, prostate cancer risk, and clinico-pathological variables were assessed. Results: Seventeen SNPs were successfully replicated in our case-control study and the association estimates were consistent with previous reports. Four markers were excluded from further...

  13. Cancer-related information needs and cancer’s impact on control over life influence health-related quality of life among adolescents and young adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Tao, Li; Bellizzi, Keith M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Parsons, Helen M.; Kent, Erin E.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 39 years of age often report need for greater amounts of cancer-related information and perceive that cancer has had a negative impact on control over their life. We examined whether unmet information need and perceived control over life are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods We examined data from 484 AYA cancer survivors recruited from population-based cancer registries in 2007–2008. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months after diagnosis. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated associations of unmet cancer-related information needs and impact of cancer on control over life on HRQOL (SF-12). Results Two-thirds of AYAs reported an intermediate or high level of unmet information need, and half (47%) reported a negative impact of cancer on control. Greater unmet information need was associated with lower overall mental and physical HRQOL and lower levels of all HRQOL subscales except vitality. A negative impact on control over life was associated with lower overall mental HRQOL as well as lower HRQOL across all subscales (all p 0.1). Conclusions AYA patients with cancer have high levels of unmet cancer-related information needs and perceived negative impact of cancer on control over life; both were independently associated with lower HRQOL. Addressing unmet information needs among AYA cancer survivors and finding ways to increase their sense of control may help improve HRQOL in this understudied population. PMID:25611943

  14. Lung cancer and arsenic exposure in drinking water: a case-control study in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreccio Catterina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In some Chilean cities, levels of arsenic (As in drinking water reached 800 µg/L between 1950 and 1970, while current levels are 40 µg/L. To evaluate the causal role of this exposure in lung and bladder cancers, we conducted a case-control study in Regions I, II, and III of the country. From 1994 to 1996, cases diagnosed as lung cancer and two hospital controls were entered in the study; one control was a patient with a cancer, while the other was a patient without cancer, both conditions unrelated to As. Controls were matched with cases by age and sex. A standard survey containing questions about residence, employment, health history, was administered to study subjects. Data on As concentrations in water were obtained from records of the municipal water companies. A total of 151 lung cancer cases and 419 controls (167 with cancer and 242 without cancer were enrolled. Median level of lifetime As exposure was significantly higher among cases, with a clear dose-response relationship between mean As exposure levels, with an OR (95% CI of: 1, 1.7 (0.5-5.1, 3.9 (1.2-13.4, 5.5 (2.2-13.5, and 9.0 (3.6-22 for strata one to five respectively. This study provides new evidence that As in drinking water can cause internal cancers and gives an estimate of the form of this relationship.

  15. THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PROJECT COALITION IN THE UK CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY A CONCEPTUAL OPTIMISATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Proverbs

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK construction industry has long been criticised for engendering adversarial relationships among project participants. The nature of interrelationships ultimately determines overall project performance%2C in terms of finished product%2C and levels of performance and satisfaction for the participants. To investigate these interrelationships%2C the performance and satisfaction of each individual participant must be considered. Better understanding of the interrelationships should help reduce adversarialsm and improve the performance and satisfaction of each participant. The possible interrelationships that may exist are discussed based on %91soft knowledge%92 approaches%2C i.e. psychology%2C organisational behaviour and sociology. It is concluded that the performance of each participant is interdependent and essential towards project performance. Two levels of satisfaction%2C which determine the quality of working relationships between participants%2C are postulated. The first level of satisfaction %28i.e. satisfaction on achieving organisational objectives%29 is%2C to some extent%2C dependent on the second level of satisfaction %28i.e. satisfaction on the performance of the other participants%29. Therefore%2C within the construction project coalition%2C each participant has to be satisfied with the performance of the other participants if harmonious working relationships are to be sustained. Based on these%2C a conceptual model for optimising the relationships between main participants of the project coalition is presented. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Coalition+participants%2C+Interrelationships%2C+Performance%2C+Satisfaction+

  16. Discourse coalitions in Swiss waste management: gridlock or winds of change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duygan, Mert; Stauffacher, Michael; Meylan, Grégoire

    2018-02-01

    As a complex socio-technical system, waste management is crucially important for the sustainable management of material and energy flows. Transition to better performing waste management systems requires not only determining what needs to be changed but also finding out how this change can be realized. Without understanding the political context, insights from decision support tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) are likely to be lost in translation to decision and policy making. This study strives to provide a first insight into the political context and address the opportunities and barriers pertinent to initiating a change in Swiss waste management. For this purpose, the discourses around a major policy process are analysed to uncover the policy beliefs and preferences of actors. Discourse coalitions are delineated by referring to the Advocacy Coalition Framework (Sabatier, 1998) and using the Discourse Network Analysis (Leifeld and Haunss, 2012) method. The results display an incoherent regime (Fuenfschilling and Truffer, 2014) with divergent belief clusters on core issues in waste management. Yet, some actors holding different beliefs appear to have overlapping interests on secondary issues such as the treatment of biogenic waste or plastics. Although the current political context hinders a system-wide disruptive change, transitions can be initiated at local or regional scale by utilizing the shared interest across different discourse coalitions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coalition contract management as a systems change strategy for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, William W; Montanea, Julie E; Sánchez-Braña, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 provided a unique opportunity for minority community-based organizations (CBOs) to work together to eliminate disparities in HIV disease. A coalition was formed in Broward County to respond to the REACH 2010 program announcement, a university was chosen to coordinate efforts, and contracts were negotiated with CBO partners to develop, implement, and evaluate a community action plan. Contract management provided stability, focus, and a mechanism for coalition partners to measure progress toward achieving project objectives. By emphasizing documentation as well as the delivery of services, however, contract conditions also placed a heavy burden on educational outreach workers, restricted the reimbursable activities of member organizations, and created friction between minority agencies and university staff. Although the coalition met many of its objectives, the introduction and enforcement of a mutually agreed on set of rules and obligations as a way of promoting systems change in Broward County failed to make a lasting impact among community partners. CBOs continued to compete with one another for HIV prevention project funding and stopped collaborating as closely with another when federal support for our REACH 2010 community demonstration project ran out.

  18. 78 FR 20213 - National Cancer Control Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... and women we have lost to the disease, and let us stand with all those facing it today. The Congress... Americans lose their lives to cancer every year. This month, we rededicate ourselves to securing better... efforts to prevent it. Each of us can reduce our risk of developing cancer by maintaining a healthy weight...

  19. Health Behaviors and Associated Sociodemographic Factors in Cervical Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-Cancer Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and monthly household income. The prevalence of current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors (2.68, 23.88, 62.02, and 32.81%, respectively) did not differ significantly from those of matched non-cancer controls. Age (younger), marital status (married), and education (≥college) were associated with lower probabilities of current alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88-0.95; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.78; OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25-0.97, respectively). A monthly household income ≥$2,000, being employed, and self-rated health status (less healthy) were associated with physical inactivity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.99; OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.36-3.42; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, respectively). Both age and number of years since diagnosis were associated with obesity (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08; OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.20-0.72, respectively). The health behaviors of cervical cancer survivors did not differ from those of matched cancer-free controls. As health behaviors are modifiable, identification of cervical cancer survivors who are at risk of an unhealthy lifestyle would allow individual- and population-based intervention programs to more effectively use their limited resources.

  20. Statin use and risk of endometrial cancer: a nationwide registry-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Cecilie D; Verdoodt, Freija; Friis, Søren; Dehlendorff, Christian; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-02-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer. Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (±one month) using risk-set sampling. Ever use of statin was defined as two or more prescriptions on separate dates. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate age-matched (by design) and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for endometrial cancer associated with statin use. The multivariable-adjusted models included parity, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), obesity, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and education. We evaluated whether the association between statin use and endometrial cancer varied with duration and intensity of statin use, type of endometrial cancer or patient characteristics. The study population comprised 5382 endometrial cancer cases and 72 127 population controls. We observed no association between ever use of statins and endometrial cancer risk (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94-1.14). In addition, endometrial cancer risk did not vary substantially with duration or intensity of statin use. Stratification by type of endometrial cancer also yielded neutral ORs. In our nationwide case-control study, we found no association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Dietary inflammatory index and risk of pancreatic cancer in an Italian case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Shivappa, Nitin; Bosetti, Cristina; Zucchetto, Antonella; Serraino, Diego; La Vecchia, Carlo; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that various dietary components may be implicated in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer. However, the possible relationship between diet-related inflammation and the risk of pancreatic cancer has not yet been investigated. We examined the ability of a newly developed literature-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII) to predict the risk of pancreatic cancer in a case–control study conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2008. This included 326 incident cases and 652 c...

  2. Pain and dyspnea control in cancer patients of an urgency setting: nursing intervention results

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Ana Filipa Nunes; Tavares, Ana Patricia Marques; Mendonça, Susana Maria Sobral

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To outline best practices guidelines to control pain and dyspnea of cancer patients in an urgency setting. CONTENTS: PI[C]O question, with resource to EBSCO (Medline with Full Text, CINAHL, Plus with Full Text, British Nursing Index), retrospectively from September 2009 to 2014 and guidelines issued by reference entities: Oncology Nursing Society (2011), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2011; 2014) and Cancer Care Ontario (2010), with a total of 15 ...

  3. Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and cancer risk: a network of case-control studies from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marta; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; Lagiou, Pagona; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    We considered flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in a network of multicentric Italian case-control studies including about 10,000 incident, histologically confirmed cases of selected cancers and over 16,000 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) for the highest vs. the lowest quintile of 6 classes of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Total flavonoids, flavanones, and flavonols were inversely related to oral and laryngeal cancers (ORs, respectively 0.56 and 0.60 for total flavonoids; 0.51 and 0.60 for flavanones; and 0.62 and 0.32 for flavonols). Flavanols were also inversely related to laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.64), whereas flavanones were inversely related to esophageal cancer (OR = 0.38). A reduced risk of colorectal cancer was found for high intake of anthocyanidins (OR = 0.67), flavonols (OR = 0.64), flavones (OR = 0.78), and isoflavones (OR = 0.76). Inverse relations with breast cancer were found for flavones (OR = 0.81) and flavonols (OR = 0.80). Flavonols (OR = 0.63) and isoflavones (OR = 0.51) were inversely associated to ovarian cancer, whereas flavonols (OR = 0.69) and flavones (OR = 0.68) were inversely associated to renal cancer. No association between flavonoids and prostate cancer emerged. We found inverse associations between proanthocyanidins and colorectal cancer. These associations appeared stronger for proanthocyanidins with a higher degree of polymerization (OR = 0.69 for ≥ 10 mers).

  4. Nutrient dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Francesca; Edefonti, Valeria; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Montella, Maurizio; Giacosa, Attilio; Franceschi, Silvia; Negri, Eva; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    The role of diet on colorectal cancer has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns. Data were derived from an Italian case-control study, including 1,225 subjects with cancer of the colon, 728 subjects with rectal cancer, and 4,154 hospital controls. We identified dietary patterns on a selected set of nutrients through principal component factor analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for both cancers were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression. We identified 5 major dietary patterns. Direct associations were observed between the Starch-rich pattern and both cancer of the colon (OR = 1.68) and of the rectum (OR = 1.74). Inverse relationships were found between the Vitamins and fiber pattern and rectal cancer (OR = 0.61), between the Unsaturated fats (animal source) and the Unsaturated fats (vegetable source) and cancer of the colon (OR = 0.80 and OR = 0.79, respectively). No other significant association was found. The Starch-rich pattern is potentially an unfavorable indicator of risk for both colon and rectal cancer, whereas the Vitamins and fiber pattern is associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer and the Unsaturated fats patterns with a reduced risk of colon cancer.

  5. Well-directed inclusion of hematology in African national cancer control plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann; Yao, Atteby J J; Renner, Lorna; Harif, Mhamed; Lam, Catherine G

    2017-07-01

    In the context of a convergent call for noncommunicable disease integration in the global agenda, recognizing cross-cutting needs and opportunities in national strategies across disease fields with shared priorities in low- and middle-income settings can enhance sustainable development approaches. We reviewed publicly available cancer control plans in Africa to evaluate for inclusion of hematology needs and shared service priorities. Pediatric data remain sparse in cancer control plans. While continental Africa represents incredible diversity, recognizing shared priorities and opportunity for collaboration between oncology and hematology services and across age groups may guide prioritized cancer control efforts and reduce programmatic redundancies in resource-limited settings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    about occupational, medical and life style conditions. RESULTS: No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure...

  7. Lung cancer and occupation: A New Zealand cancer registry-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Marine; McLean, David; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Dryson, Evan; Walls, Chris; McKenzie, Fiona; Maule, Milena; Cheng, Soo; Cunningham, Chris; Kromhout, Hans; Blair, Aaron; Pearce, Neil

    2011-02-01

    There are many proven and suspected occupational causes of lung cancer, which will become relatively more important over time, as smoking prevalence decreases. We interviewed 457 cases aged 20-75 years notified to the New Zealand Cancer Registry during 2007-2008, and 792 population controls. We collected information on demographic details, potential confounders, and employment history. Associations were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, smoking, and socio-economic status. Among occupations of a priori interest, elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for sawmill, wood panel and related wood-processing plant operators (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.05-20.29), butchers (OR 8.77, 95% CI 1.06-72.55), rubber and plastics products machine operators (4.27; 1.16-15.66), heavy truck drivers (2.24; 1.19-4.21) and workers in petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (1.80; 1.11-2.90); non-significantly elevated risks were also observed for loggers (4.67; 0.81-27.03), welders and flame-cutters (2.50; 0.86-7.25), pressers (5.74; 0.96-34.42), and electric and electronic equipment assemblers (3.61; 0.96-13.57). Several occupations and industries not of a priori interest also showed increased risks, including nursing associate professionals (5.45; 2.29-12.99), enrolled nurses (7.95; 3.10-20.42), care givers (3.47; 1.40-8.59), plant and machine operators and assemblers (1.61; 1.20-2.16), stationary machine operators and assemblers (1.67; 1.22-2.28), food and related products processing machine operators (1.98; 1.23-3.19), laborers and related elementary service workers (1.45; 1.05-2.00), manufacturing (1.34; 1.02-1.77), car retailing (3.08; 1.36-6.94), and road freight transport (3.02; 1.45-6.27). Certain occupations and industries have increased lung cancer risks in New Zealand, including wood workers, metal workers, meat workers, textile workers and drivers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 54:89-101, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright

  8. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer In US women, other than skin cancer the three most common cancers are: Breast cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer Some cancers are more common in certain parts of the world. For example, in Japan, there are many cases of stomach cancer . But ...

  9. Second Primary Tumors associated with Breast Cancer: Kuwait Cancer Control Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, Salah; Demian, Gerges Attia; Eissa, Heba El-Sayed; Abuzalouf, Sadeq

    2017-09-01

    To review the clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of patients who presented with two or more primary cancers, one of which was breast cancer (BC) and to develop a follow-up program for the high risk patients. Patients who were diagnosed with BC and one or more non breast cancer (NBC) were retrospectively reviewed. Medical files were retrieved and epidemiological as well as clinical data were analyzed. Sixty-two patients were retrieved. BC was the first primary in 26 patients while it was the second in 36 patients. Two were males and 60 were females. The median age was 48 years and the median follow-up was 11.5 years. The median interval between the 1st and 2nd primary was 6 years. The most commonly associated NBCs were colon and thyroid cancers, each accounts for 24% of cases followed by endometrial cancer, 18%; Hodgkin's disease, 6.5%; renal and ovarian neoplasm and NHL, 5% each. Others included prostate, lung, cervical and gastric cancers, soft tissue sarcoma and osteosarcoma. Thyroid cancer was more common as first cancer while endometrial cancer was more as second cancer. All patients who developed BC following Hodgkin's disease had received chest irradiation. Seven patients developed 3rd primary (4 lung cancers, 2 NHL, and 1 AML). Patients who were diagnosed with BC should be screened for colon and endometrial cancer. Similarly, patients received chest irradiation at young age, and those diagnosed with thyroid or colon cancer should be screened for BC. Protocol of surveillance needs to be defined. Genetic counseling should be offered to individuals who have experienced multiple primary cancers particularly those with family history and young age of onset.

  10. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  11. Intensive glucose control and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefansdottir, G.; Zoungas, S.; Chalmers, J.; Kengne, A. P.; Knol, M. J.; Leufkens, H. G. M.; Patel, A.; Woodward, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; De Bruin, M. L.

    Type 2 diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. This study examines the effect of more vs less intensive glucose control on the risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. All 11,140 participants from the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron-MR

  12. Smoking and cervical cancer: pooled analysis of the IARC multi-centric case--control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plummer, M; Herrero, R; Franceschi, S; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Bosch, F.X.; Sanjose, de S; Munoz, N.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has long been suspected to be a risk factor for cervical cancer. However, not all previous studies have properly controlled for the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which has now been established as a virtually necessary cause of cervical cancer. To evaluate the

  13. Intensive glucose control and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansdottir, G; Zoungas, S; Chalmers, J

    2011-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. This study examines the effect of more vs less intensive glucose control on the risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: All 11,140 participants from the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease...

  14. Inhibition of non flux-controlling enzymes deters cancer glycolysis by accumulation of regulatory metabolites of controlling steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Marín-Hernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycolysis provides precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and may contribute to the ATP supply required for the constant and accelerated cellular duplication in cancer cells. In consequence, inhibition of glycolysis has been reiteratively considered as an anti-cancer therapeutic option. In previous studies, kinetic modeling of glycolysis in cancer cells allowed the identification of the main steps that control the glycolytic flux: glucose transporter, hexokinase (HK, hexose phosphate isomerase (HPI and glycogen degradation in human cervix HeLa cancer cells and rat AS-30D ascites hepatocarcinoma. It was also previously experimentally determined that simultaneous inhibition of the non-controlling enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, pyruvate kinase (PYK and enolase (ENO brings about significant decrease in the glycolytic flux of cancer cells and accumulation of intermediate metabolites, mainly fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fru1,6BP and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP, which are inhibitors of HK and HPI, respectively. Here it was found by kinetic modeling that inhibition of cancer glycolysis can be attained by blocking downstream non flux-controlling steps as long as Fru1,6BP and DHAP, regulatory metabolites of flux-controlling enzymes, are accumulated. Furthermore, experimental results and further modeling showed that oxamate and iodoacetate inhibitions of PYK, ENO and glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, but not of LDH and phosphoglycerate kinase, induced accumulation of Fru1,6BP and DHAP in AS-30D hepatoma cells. Indeed, PYK, ENO and GAPDH exerted the highest control on the Fru1,6BP and DHAP concentrations. The high levels of these metabolites inhibited HK and HPI and led to glycolytic flux inhibition, ATP diminution and accumulation of toxic methylglyoxal. Hence, the anticancer effects of downstream glycolytic inhibitors are very likely mediated by this mechanism. In parallel, it was also found that uncompetitive inhibition of

  15. Inhibition of Non-flux-Controlling Enzymes Deters Cancer Glycolysis by Accumulation of Regulatory Metabolites of Controlling Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Hernández, Álvaro; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Del Mazo-Monsalvo, Isis; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Glycolysis provides precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and may contribute to the ATP supply required for the constant and accelerated cellular duplication in cancer cells. In consequence, inhibition of glycolysis has been reiteratively considered as an anti-cancer therapeutic option. In previous studies, kinetic modeling of glycolysis in cancer cells allowed the identification of the main steps that control the glycolytic flux: glucose transporter, hexokinase (HK), hexose phosphate isomerase (HPI), and glycogen degradation in human cervix HeLa cancer cells and rat AS-30D ascites hepatocarcinoma. It was also previously experimentally determined that simultaneous inhibition of the non-controlling enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and enolase (ENO) brings about significant decrease in the glycolytic flux of cancer cells and accumulation of intermediate metabolites, mainly fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fru1,6BP), and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), which are inhibitors of HK and HPI, respectively. Here it was found by kinetic modeling that inhibition of cancer glycolysis can be attained by blocking downstream non flux-controlling steps as long as Fru1,6BP and DHAP, regulatory metabolites of flux-controlling enzymes, are accumulated. Furthermore, experimental results and further modeling showed that oxamate and iodoacetate inhibitions of PYK, ENO, and glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), but not of LDH and phosphoglycerate kinase, induced accumulation of Fru1,6BP and DHAP in AS-30D hepatoma cells. Indeed, PYK, ENO, and GAPDH exerted the highest control on the Fru1,6BP and DHAP concentrations. The high levels of these metabolites inhibited HK and HPI and led to glycolytic flux inhibition, ATP diminution, and accumulation of toxic methylglyoxal. Hence, the anticancer effects of downstream glycolytic inhibitors are very likely mediated by this mechanism. In parallel, it was also found that uncompetitive inhibition of the

  16. Reaching out in many directions: the fight against prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    The National Prostate Cancer Coalition, Washington, D.C., reaches out to men across the country with its travelling screening van. It also reaches a audience through promotions with NASCAR, the National Baseball League, and Spike TV. Its partnerships and lobbying efforts have resulted in this year's unprecedented 500 million dollars federal funding of prostate cancer research.

  17. Control of HPV infection and related cancer through vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam Phuong; Hung, Chien-Fu; Roden, Richard; Wu, T-C

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus, and its associated diseases continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in over 600 million infected individuals. Major progress has been made with preventative vaccines, and clinical data have emerged regarding the efficacy and cross-reactivity of the two FDA approved L1 virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines. However, the cost of the approved vaccines currently limits their widespread use in developing countries which carry the greatest burden of HPV-associated diseases. Furthermore, the licensed preventive HPV vaccines only contain two high-risk types of HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) which can protect only up to 75 % of all cervical cancers. Thus, second generation preventative vaccine candidates hope to address the issues of cost and broaden protection through the use of more multivalent L1-VLPs, vaccine formulations, or alternative antigens such as L1 capsomers, L2 capsid proteins, and chimeric VLPs. Preventative vaccines are crucial to controlling the transmission of HPV, but there are already hundreds of millions of infected individuals who have HPV-associated lesions that are silently progressing toward malignancy. This raises the need for therapeutic HPV vaccines that can trigger T cell killing of established HPV lesions, including HPV-transformed tumor cells. In order to stimulate such antitumor immune responses, therapeutic vaccine candidates deliver HPV antigens in vivo by employing various bacterial, viral, protein, peptide, dendritic cell, and DNA-based vectors. This book chapter will review the commercially available preventive vaccines, present second generation candidates, and discuss the progress of developing therapeutic HPV vaccines.

  18. Long-term quality of life after breast cancer: a French registry-based controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Delphine; Mercier, Mariette; Abeilard, Edwige; Puyraveau, Marc; Danzon, Arlette; Dalstein, Véronique; Pozet, Astrid; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Henry-Amar, Michel; Velten, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Population-based studies on quality of life (QOL) of long-term breast cancer survivors are quite recent and insufficient attention has been paid to the effect of time since diagnosis. We compared long-term QOL of population-based breast cancer survivors 5, 10, and 15 years after diagnosis with that of healthy controls. Breast cancer survivors were randomly selected from three population-based cancer registries (Bas-Rhin, Calvados and Doubs, France) along with healthy controls, stratified for age and place of residence, randomly selected from electoral rolls. Participants completed five self-administered questionnaires: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and a life conditions questionnaire. An analysis of variance was used to compare QOL scores of breast cancer survivors by period (5, 10, or 15 years) of diagnosis with those of controls, adjusted for sociodemographic data and comorbidities. Six hundred and fifty-two cases and 1,188 controls participated in the study. For many QOL scales, scores were significantly different between cancer survivors and controls. A clinically significant difference was evidenced for the fatigue scales, the SF36 physical functioning, role-physical, and role-emotional scales, with more favorable results for controls. Differences decreased with time and 15-year cancer survivors were generally not different from controls. Scores were particularly influenced by age and mean household income. More efforts should be made, specifically during the first 5 to 10 years after diagnosis, to help women with breast cancer to overcome their impairment in QOL.

  19. Directing the senses in contemporary orientations to cancer disease control. Debating symptom research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing changes in orientations to cancer disease control in the Global North, particularly health promoter attempts to identify the early cancerous body. The paper suggests that the emphasis on early diagnosis of cancer aligns ideas on a symptomatic management of the public...... with a process in which ‘what counts as cancer symptoms’ is steadily being subdivided, classified and expanded. This alignment, the paper suggests, is an example of how biomedicine potentially extends its boundaries into everyday forms of embodied, social life by changing the social and moral value placed...

  20. Clever-1/stabilin-1 controls cancer growth and metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karikoski, Marika; Marttila-Ichihara, Fumiko; Elima, Kati; Rantakari, Pia; Hollmén, Maija; Kelkka, Tiina; Gerke, Heidi; Huovinen, Ville; Irjala, Heikki; Holmdahl, Rikard; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    .... Clever-1/Stabilin-1, a multifunctional scavenger and adhesion receptor, is constitutively present on a subset of type II macrophages and lymphatic endothelium, but its functional role in cancer is unknown...

  1. 76 FR 19257 - National Cancer Control Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... every background have been touched by cancer, either through a personal diagnosis or that of a family... from occasional smoking or secondhand smoke, is particularly harmful. Americans striving to quit can...

  2. An urban intergenerational program for cancer control education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J I; Barg, F K; Norman, S; Mccorkle, R

    1997-01-01

    Recognizing the disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality that exist between African Americans and whites, an urban university and its neighborhood community undertook the development of an education program to transfer state-of-the-art cancer prevention, detection, and treatment information from an academic medical center to community residents, including school-age children. An intergenerational, multilevel intervention was developed to: 1) assess the health beliefs of the community, 2) identify, develop, and train an intergenerational group of community residents who would serve as health educators, and 3) promote behavioral change among the target population. Ten community residents were trained as educators. Over the course of two years they conducted cancer education programs that reached 775 adults. During the same period, the school-based educational intervention reached 264 seventh-grade students. Implications for the design and implementation of community-based cancer education programs in this African American community are identified.

  3. Networks in Pursuit of a "Two-Coalition System" in Malaysia: Pakatan Rakyat’s Mobilization of Dissent between Reformasi and the Tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo Boo Teik

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia’s 12th general election, in March 2008, three opposition parties collectively cracked the hegemony of the ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional (BN, or National Front). As the opposition parties formed a coalition called Pakatan Rakyat (PR, or People’s Alliance), a two-coalition system appeared to have taken shape. This essay analyzes how PR reached that electoral outcome by moving from "imagining" to "realizing" dissent. Imagining and realizing dissent are not treated as disparate a...

  4. Networks in Pursuit of a "Two-Coalition System" in Malaysia: Pakatan Rakyat's Mobilization of Dissent between Reformasi and the Tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Boo Teik

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia's 12th general election, in March 2008, three opposition parties collectively cracked the hegemony of the ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional (BN, or National Front). As the opposition parties formed a coalition called Pakatan Rakyat (PR, or People's Alliance), a two-coalition system appeared to have taken shape. This essay analyzes how PR reached that electoral outcome by moving from "imagining" to "realizing" dissent. Imagining and realizing dissent are not treated as disparate a...

  5. Yoga for persistent fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bower, Julienne E; Garet, Deborah; Sternlieb, Beth; Ganz, Patricia A; Irwin, Michael R; Olmstead, Richard; Greendale, Gail

    2012-01-01

    .... The authors conducted a 2-group randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and efficacy of an Iyengar yoga intervention for breast cancer survivors with persistent post-treatment fatigue...

  6. A Case—Control Study of Lung Cancer Nested in a Cohort of European Asphalt Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann Olsson; Hans Kromhout; Michela Agostini; Johnni Hansen; Christina Funch Lassen; Christoffer Johansen; Kristina Kjaerheim; Sverre Langård; Isabelle Stücker; Wolfgang Ahrens; Thomas Behrens; Marja-Liisa Lindbohm; Pirjo Heikkilä; Dick Heederik; Lützen Portengen; Judith Shaham; Gilles Ferro; Frank de Vocht; Igor Burstyn; Paolo Boffetta

    2010-01-01

    Background: We conducted a nested case—control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding...

  7. The Urban Church and Cancer Control: A Source of Social Influence in Minority Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donna T. Davis; Ana Bustamante; C. Perry Brown; Girma Wolde-Tsadik; Edward W. Savage; Xiaoguang Cheng; Letitia Howland

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the efficacy of a church-based model of social influence in improving access to and participation of underserved minority women in a cervical cancer control program...

  8. Children with cancer with different survival perspectives: defensiveness, control strategies, and psychological adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether children with cancer with different survival perspectives differ in their psychological adjustment, defensiveness and their use of cognitive control strategies. Furthermore, the study investigated which variables predict emotional

  9. Joining Forces: Preparing to Fight Coalition Air War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    transitioned to control through the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), which was NATO-led. Veronica M. Kitchen , The Globalization of NATO...in every war, since the Mexican -American Border Wars (1910- 1919), airpower provided by the US Army Signal Corps, the US Army Air Corps, the US Army...Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,1992. Kitchen , Veronica M. The

  10. Coalition Air Warfare in the Korean War 1950-1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    antigravity suits (g-suits) and radar-ranging gunsights. Better cockpit vis- ibility and defrosters, along with a superior control system, also became impor...or missing in action. The end position for communist China can be considered a draw. Flexing their muscles in a show to the world of their new...while forces were being moved from the United States by ship and air to provide more muscle to our limited capabilities. Meanwhile, General MacArthur

  11. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Paul E; Lee, Brittany L; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; St Louis, Jessica; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ferreyra, Mayra; Debiasi, Márcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Touya, Diego; Werutsky, Gustavo; Higgins, Michaela; Fan, Lei; Vasconcelos, Claudia; Cazap, Eduardo; Vallejos, Carlos; Mohar, Alejandro; Knaul, Felicia; Arreola, Hector; Batura, Rekha; Luciani, Silvana; Sullivan, Richard; Finkelstein, Dianne; Simon, Sergio; Barrios, Carlos; Kightlinger, Rebecca; Gelrud, Andres; Bychkovsky, Vladimir; Lopes, Gilberto; Stefani, Stephen; Blaya, Marcelo; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Santos, Franklin Santana; Kaemmerer, Alberto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zorilla, Andres Felipe Cardona; Murillo, Raul; Jeronimo, Jose; Tsu, Vivien; Carvalho, Andre; Gil, Carlos Ferreira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Sgroi, Dennis; Cuello, Mauricio; Fresco, Rodrigo; Reis, Rui Manuel; Masera, Guiseppe; Gabús, Raúl; Ribeiro, Raul; Knust, Renata; Ismael, Gustavo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Roth, Berta; Villa, Luisa; Solares, Argelia Lara; Leon, Marta Ximena; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Hernández, Andrés; Bertolino, Mariela; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Santillana, Sergio; Esteva, Francisco; Fein, Luis; Mano, Max; Gomez, Henry; Hurlbert, Marc; Durstine, Alessandra; Azenha, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pancreatic cancer control: is vitamin D the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sarah; Naseem, Imrana

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by late detection, resistance to therapy, poor prognosis, and an exceptionally high mortality rate. Epidemiology ascribes a chemopreventive role to vitamin D in several cancers including pancreatic cancer. Vitamin D therapy has been ascribed a role previously in tumor inhibition and differentiation in addition to reduction of inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the role of vitamin D in pancreatic cancer prevention or therapy remains elusive to date. Studies have shown a negative correlation between the risk of pancreatic cancer and serum vitamin D levels. It is believed that vitamin D binding to certain conserved sequences called vitamin D response elements in the DNA can alter the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. Recent research has elucidated the role of zinc in carcinogenesis, which in turn is found to be affected by vitamin D supplementation. In the light of numerous new-found roles for vitamin D, we review and evaluate the potential actions of the sunshine vitamin with respect to pancreatic cancer prevention and therapy.

  13. What is the minimum number of patients for quality control of lung cancer management in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Knut; Eide, Geir E; Gulsvik, Amund

    2016-11-01

    There are few data available on the optimal number of lung cancer patients needed to generate and compare estimates of quality between units managing lung cancer. The number of lung cancer patients per management unit varies considerably in Norway, where there are 42 hospitals that treated between 1 and 454 lung cancer patients in 2011. To estimate the differences in quality indicators that are of sufficient importance to change a pulmonary physician's lung cancer management program, and to estimate the size of the patient samples necessary to detect such differences. Twenty-six physicians were asked about the relative differences from a national average of quality indicators that would change their own lung cancer management program. Sample sizes were calculated to give valid estimates of quality of a management unit based on prevalence of quality indicators and minimally important differences (MID). The average MID in quality indicators that would cause a change in management varied from 18% to 24% among 26 chest physicians, depending on the indicator. To generate precise estimates for quality control of lung cancer care in Norway, the number of management units must be reduced. Given the present willingness of chest physicians to change their procedures for management of lung cancer according to the results of quality control indicators, we recommend a maximum of 10 units with a minimum of 200 incident lung cancer patients per year for each management center. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Welding and lung cancer in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Siemiatycki, Jack; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Van Gelder, Rainer; Olsson, Ann; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, H-Erich; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Tardón, Adonina; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Consonni, Dario; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Gustavsson, Per; Marcus, Michael; Fabianova, Eleonora; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Rudnai, Peter; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Mates, Dana; Foretova, Lenka; Forastiere, Francesco; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Boffetta, Paolo; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Several epidemiologic studies have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer among welders. We used the SYNERGY project database to assess welding as a risk factor for developing lung cancer. The database includes data on 15,483 male lung cancer cases and 18,388 male controls from 16 studies in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand conducted between 1985 and 2010. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between regular or occasional welding and lung cancer were estimated, with adjustment for smoking, age, study center, and employment in other occupations associated with lung cancer risk. Overall, 568 cases and 427 controls had ever worked as welders and had an odds ratio of developing lung cancer of 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.67) with the odds ratio increasing for longer duration of welding. In never and light smokers, the odds ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.79). The odds ratios were somewhat higher for squamous and small cell lung cancers than for adenocarcinoma. Another 1,994 cases and 1,930 controls had ever worked in occupations with occasional welding. Work in any of these occupations was associated with some elevation of risk, though not as much as observed in regular welders. Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that welding is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

  15. A case-control study of stomach cancer in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D Nagaraj; Ganesh, Balasubramaniam; Dinshaw, Ketayun A; Mohandas, K Mallath

    2002-06-10

    Stomach cancer incidence rates are much lower in India than elsewhere, but the stomach remains one of the 10 leading sites of cancer in both sexes in most of the metropolitan registries. This is an unmatched case-control study of stomach cancer carried out at Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), Mumbai. Our purpose was to identify the association of tobacco and alcohol use, occupational hazards, diet, consumption of beverages like tea and coffee, the living environment, cooking media and literacy with stomach cancer. Our study included 170 stomach cancer cases and 2,184 hospital controls interviewed during the period 1988-1992. Tobacco chewing, bidi or cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking did not emerge as high risk factors for stomach cancer. Consumption of dry fish at least once a week compared to never or once a every 2 weeks showed a 12-fold excess risk (OR = 12.4, 95% CI 7.0-22.1, p < 0.0001) for stomach cancer among the nonvegetarian food items considered. A protective effect of tea consumption (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03), showing 59% reduction in risk, was identified, which could be of use for possible control and prevention of this cancer. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Tea consumption and the risk of oral cancer incidence: a case-control study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jin-Ye; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Luo, Jian-Feng; Zhong, Lai-Ping; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the relation of tea consumption with the risk of oral cancer incidence. A multicenter case-control study based on hospitalized population was conducted for evaluating the association of tea consumption with oral cancer risk in China. Black tea and green tea were separately analyzed. 723 cases and 857 controls were included. Unconditional multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of oral cancer for tea consumption. The ORs for green tea consumption⩾8g/day compared withconsumption⩾6g/day compared withconsumption was associated with decreased oral cancer risk. The results of this study indicated that green tea consumption may decrease the risk of oral cancer in men especially for those smoking heavily. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cervical cancer control in HIV-infected women: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel G. Ghebre

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial recognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in 1981, an increased burden of cervical cancer was identified among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive women. Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART decreased risks of opportunistic infections and improved overall survival. HIV-infected women are living longer. Introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, cervical cancer screening and early diagnosis provide opportunities to reduce cervical cancer associated mortality. In line with 2030 Sustainable Development Goals to reduce mortality from non-communicable diseases, increased efforts need to focus on high burden countries within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Despite limitations of resources in SSA, opportunities exist to improve cancer control. This article reviews advancements in cervical cancer control in HIV-positive women.

  18. The Relationship between Food Intake and Bladder Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract worldwide and the third most common cancer among Iranian males. Despite the relative high incidence of bladder cancer in Iran, no study has examined the relationship between dietary factors and bladder cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship. Methods: The present case-control study was carried out on fifty-five patients with bladder cancer and including 110 cancer-free patients as controls. Dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. To investigate the relationship between food items and bladder cancer, the subjects were classified according to the tertile of food items. The odds ratio was calculated for each tertile and the first tertile was considered as the reference group. Results: Our findings revealed that among food groups, animal fat (OR=19.76, fat (OR=12.92, junk foods (OR=8.1, organ meat (OR=5.47, processed meat (OR=5.34 and sweets (OR=3.62 were involved in the development of bladder cancer. In bladder carcinogenesis, an inverse association was recorded between consumption of low fat dairy products (OR=0.31, yoghurt (OR =0.14, fish (OR = 0.13, specific fruits (OR=0.13 and the development of bladder cancer. Conclusion: Animal products and sources of saturated fat are associated with an increased in risk of bladder cancer. The protective effect of olive oil, specific fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy fermented was observed to reduce the risk of bladder cancer.

  19. Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    Health Assembly (WHA) passed a resolution on oral health for the first time in 25 years, which also considers oral cancer prevention. The resolution WHA60 A16 URGES Member states--To take steps to ensure that prevention of oral cancer is an integral part of national cancer-control programmes, and to involve oral-health professionals or primary health care personnel with relevant training in oral health in detection, early diagnosis and treatment;--The WHO Global Oral Health Programme will use this statement as the lead for its work for oral cancer control www.who.int/oral_health.

  20. A population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer in Majorca. I. Dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, E; Obrador, A; Stiggelbout, A; Bosch, F X; Mulet, M; Muñoz, N; Kaldor, J

    1990-01-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted between July 1984 and February 1988 in the Spanish island of Majorca; 286 incident colorectal cancer cases, 295 population controls and 203 hospital controls were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire. In a multivariate analysis, an increased risk of colon cancer was found for high consumption of fresh meats (RR = 2.87) while a high consumption of cruciferous vegetables afforded protection (RR = 0.48). For rectal cancer an increased risk was associated with dairy products (RR = 3.08) while a protection was afforded by consumption of cruciferae (RR = 0.50). For colorectal cancer, the cereal food group also showed an increase in risk (RR = 1.92). When cases were compared to hospital controls, the effects of cruciferae in colon and rectum and those of dairy products in rectal cancer remained. The magnitude of the RR estimates was decreased for most comparisons, although in general terms the direction of the associations was the same. In addition, univariate analyses of food groups also suggested significant increases in risk of colorectal cancer for increasing consumption of cereals, potatoes, pastry, eggs and number of meals per day. An indication was found of a reduction in risk for consumers of coffee. An analysis based on risk scores was also conducted and a 4-fold increase in the risk of colorectal cancer and a highly significant statistical trend was found for high consumption of fresh meat, dairy products and cereals combined with low consumption of cruciferae.

  1. Survival of MUTYH-associated polyposis patients with colorectal cancer and matched control colorectal cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Nielsen (Maartje); L.N. van Steenbergen (Liza); N. Jones (Natalie); S. Vogt (Stefanie); H.F. Vasen (Hans); H. Morreau (Hans); S. Aretz (Stefan); J. Sampson (Julian); O.M. Dekkers (Olaf); M.L.G. Janssen-Heijnen (Maryska); F.J. Hes (Frederik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground MUTYH-associated polyposis is a recessively inherited disorder characterized by a lifetime risk of colorectal cancer that is up to 100%. Because specific histological and molecular genetic features of MUTYH-associated polyposis colorectal cancers might influence tumor behavior

  2. Metabolic Plasticity in Cancer Cells: Reconnecting Mitochondrial Function to Cancer Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2015-06-01

    Anomalous increase in glycolytic activity defines one of the key metabolic alterations in cancer cells. A realization of this feature has led to critical advancements in cancer detection techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) as well as a number of therapeutic avenues targeting the key glycolytic steps within a cancer cell. A normal healthy cell's survival relies on a sensitive balance between the primordial glycolysis and a more regulated mitochondrial bioenergetics. The salient difference between these two bioenergetics pathways is that oxygen availability is an obligatory requirement for mitochondrial pathway while glycolysis can function without oxygen. Early observations that some cancer cells up-regulate glycolytic activity even in the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis) led to a hypothesis that such an altered cancer cell metabolism stems from inherent mitochondrial dysfunction. While a general validity of this hypothesis is still being debated, a number of recent research efforts have yielded clarity on the physiological origins of this aerobic glycolysis phenotype in cancer cells. Building on these recent studies, we present a generalized scheme of cancer cell metabolism and propose a novel hypothesis that might rationalize new avenues of cancer intervention.

  3. Does family history of cancer modify the effects of lifestyle risk factors on esophageal cancer? A population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhang, Z.F.; Kampman, E.; Zhou, J.Y.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Gu, X.P.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study on esophageal cancer has been conducted since 2003 in Jiangsu Province, China. The aim of this analysis is to provide further evidence on the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives (FH-FDRs) and the risk of esophageal cancer, and

  4. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreimer, Aimee R.; Brennan, Paul; Kuhs, Krystle A. Lang; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsague, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renee Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larranaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Ramon Quiros, J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The

  5. [Dietary factors and cancer of the colon and rectum in a population based case-control study in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Gao, Y; Ji, B

    1994-10-01

    The study was a population-based case control one, to compare possible difference in the risk factors between colonic and rectal cancer. This study showed that: (1) High intake of pork and saturated fat was an important risk factor for colon cancer, and only slightly related to rectal cancer. (2) Low consumption of vegetables especially cruciferous vegetables, rhizome vegetables, sea weeds, legume vegetables, dietary fiber and some vitamins mainly derived from vegetables, e.g. vitamin c and carotene, was associated with an increased risk for both colonic and rectal cancer, and these factors were closer relationship with rectal cancer than colon cancer. (3) High intake of the fried and pickled foods significantly increase the risk of occurrence of these cancers. (4) The ratio of bowel cancer in first degree relatives of colon cancer cases was 2.9 times of control group (P 0.05) compared with control group.

  6. Improving Depression Care for Adults With Serious Mental Illness in Underresourced Areas: Community Coalitions Versus Technical Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Enrico G; Shaner, Roderick; Tang, Lingqi; Chung, Bowen; Jones, Felica; Whittington, Yolanda; Miranda, Jeanne; Wells, Kenneth B

    2018-02-01

    Community Partners in Care (CPIC) was a group-randomized study of two approaches to implementing expanded collaborative depression care: Community Engagement and Planning (CEP), a coalition approach, and Resources for Services (RS), a technical assistance approach. Collaborative care networks in both arms involved health care and other agencies in five service sectors. This study examined six- and 12-month outcomes for CPIC participants with serious mental illness. This secondary analysis focused on low-income CPIC participants from racial-ethnic minority groups with serious mental illness in underresourced Los Angeles communities (N=504). Serious mental illness was defined as self-reported severe depression (≥20 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-8) at baseline or a lifetime history of bipolar disorder or psychosis. Logistic and Poisson regression with multiple imputation and response weights, controlling for covariates, was used to model intervention effects. Among CPIC participants, 50% had serious mental illness. Among those with serious mental illness, CEP relative to RS reduced the likelihood of poor mental health-related quality of life (OR=.62, 95% CI=.41-.95) but not depression (primary outcomes); reduced the likelihood of having homelessness risk factors and behavioral health hospitalizations; increased the likelihood of mental wellness; reduced specialty mental health medication and counseling visits; and increased faith-based depression visits (each pmental health-related quality of life and some social outcomes for adults with serious mental illness, although no evidence was found for long-term effects in this subsample.

  7. Metabolomics Analyses of Cancer Cells in Controlled Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Avizonis, Daina; St-Pierre, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex and heterogeneous milieu in which cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to fuel their growth. Cancer cell lines grown in vitro using traditional culture methods represent key experimental models to gain a mechanistic understanding of tumor biology. This protocol describes the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess metabolic changes in cancer cells grown under varied levels of oxygen and nutrients that may better mimic the tumor microenvironment. Intracellular metabolite changes, metabolite uptake and release, as well as stable isotope ((13)C) tracer analyses are done in a single experimental setup to provide an integrated understanding of metabolic adaptation. Overall, this chapter describes some essential tools and methods to perform comprehensive metabolomics analyses.

  8. Healthcare costs in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer CT-screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.F.; Siersma, V.; Pedersen, Jesper H.

    2014-01-01

    with the control group. CONCLUSION: Low dose lung cancer CT screening increases healthcare costs compared with no screening; this difference was attributable to the costs of the CT-screening programme. Overall healthcare costs were higher for the true-positive and false-positive groups than for the control group......OBJECTIVES: Low dose computerised tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer can reduce lung-cancer-specific mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation of participants in the Danish lung cancer CT-screening trial (DLCST). MATERIALS AND METHODS......: This registry study was nested in a randomised controlled trial (DLCST). 4104 participants, current or former heavy smokers, aged 50-70 years were randomised to five annual low dose CT scans or usual care during 2004-2010. Total healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation data for both the primary...

  9. Improving cancer pain control with NCCN guideline-based analgesic administration: a patient-centered outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjan, Nora

    2014-09-01

    Improving the control of cancer-related pain (CRP) is a clinical and ethical imperative. Clinical research has documented improved treatment tolerance and survival rates among patients with cancer who have effective pain control. Barriers to CRP control include inadequate patient and physician education. Meta-analyses of patient education studies correlate improvements in CRP control with improved communications with health care providers and the implementation of strategies that assist with adherence to medication schedules. These strategies build patient confidence, allowing better self-management of pain and reduced psychological consequences. For physicians, ample educational resources exist in CRP management. However, in both the inpatient and outpatient settings, compliance with NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Adult Cancer Pain continues to be less than 70%, and more than one-third of patients continue to receive inadequate doses of analgesics. Patient-centered outcomes have become an integral end point in health policy, and the nation's medical training, research, and delivery systems are transforming to a value-based accreditation and reimbursement system. Pain control is a significant patient-centered outcome in cancer care, because pain adversely impacts function and affects all domains of quality of life. Agreement is clear on the value of health care interventions that relieve suffering from cancer pain and restore personal dignity. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  10. Case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in a rural population of Faisalabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Naeem; Malik, Muhammad Akram

    2015-01-01

    The effects of diet on epidemiology of prostate cancer are inconclusive. Therefore a hospital- based, case-control study was conducted in a rural population of Faisalabad, Pakistan, to examine the impact of dietary factors on risk of cancer development. This study was based on 102 confirmed cases of prostate cancer and 204 normal controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for odds ratios to evaluate the relationship between prostate cancer and diet. Consumption of red meat and fat items significantly increased the prostate cancer risk having odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 3.41; 1.46-7.96 and 2.45; 1.17-5.15, respectively. On the other hand, more consumption of vegetables, fluid intake and fruit significantly decreased the prostate cancer risk (odd ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of 0.21; 0.10-0.44, 0.10; 0.05- 0.19 and 0.09; 0.03- 0.23, respectively. The present study supports the hypothesis that frequent consumption of red meat and fat items may increase prostate cancer risk while more intake of fruit, vegetables and fluid intake may protect against prostate cancer in the relatively low risk group in rural Pakistan.

  11. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, B; Saoba, Sushama L; Sarade, Monika N; Pinjari, Suvarna V

    2011-07-01

    In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka), smoking (bidi, cigarette), comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI), family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate 'cancer cases' and 167 'normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1), those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5) and age >55 years (OR = 19.3) had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  12. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  13. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives : The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka, smoking (bidi, cigarette, comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI, family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods : This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ′cancer cases′ and 167 ′normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results : The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1, those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5 and age >55 years (OR = 19.3 had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions : In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  14. An assessment of oral cancer curricula in dental hygiene programmes: implications for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, K K; Kaste, L M; Homsi, K D; LeHew, C W

    2016-11-01

    To assess oral cancer prevention and early detection curricula in Illinois associate-degree dental hygiene programmes and highlight global health applications. An email invitation was sent to each Illinois associate-degree granting dental hygiene programme's oral cancer contact to participate in a survey via a SurveyMonkey™ link to a 21-item questionnaire. Questions elicited background information on each programme and inquired about curriculum and methods used for teaching oral cancer prevention and early detection. Eight of the 12 (67%) programmes responded. Three (37.5%) reported having a specific oral cancer curriculum. Five (62.5%) require students to perform examinations for signs and symptoms of oral cancer at each clinic visit. Variations exist across the programmes in the number of patients each student sees annually and the number of oral cancer examinations each student performs before graduation. Seven programmes (87.5%) conduct early detection screening in community settings. All programmes included risk assessment associated with tobacco. All other risk factors measured were treated inconsistently. Significant differences in training and experience were reported across Illinois dental hygiene programmes. Training is neither standardized nor uniformly comprehensive. Students' preparation for delivering prevention and early detection services to their patients could be strengthened to ensure competence including reflection of risk factors and behaviours in a global context. Regular review of curricular guidelines and programme content would help dental hygienists meet the expectations of the Crete Declaration on Oral Cancer Prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hyperemesis gravidarum and maternal cancer risk, a Scandinavian nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandraas, Kathrine F; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Støer, Nathalie C; Troisi, Rebecca; Stephansson, Olof; Ording, Anne Gulbech; Vangen, Siri; Grotmol, Tom; Vikanes, Åse V

    2015-09-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to influence cancer risk. Several pathological conditions during pregnancy have also been associated with subsequent altered cancer risk in the mother. Hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis) is an early pregnancy condition characterized by severe nausea and vomiting resulting in weight loss and metabolic disturbances. Studies have reported associations between hyperemesis and cancer, but results are inconsistent. In this nested case-control study we linked the population-based medical birth registries and cancer registries in Norway, Sweden and Denmark in order to examine overall cancer risk and risk of specific cancer types in women with a history of hyperemesis, using conditional logistic regression. In total, 168,501 cases of cancer in addition to up to 10 cancer-free controls per case were randomly sampled, matched on year of birth and birth registry (n = 1,721,626). Hyperemesis was defined through the International Classification of Diseases. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Hyperemesis was inversely associated with overall cancer risk with adjusted relative risk (aRR) of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), with cancer in the lungs (aRR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.81), cervix (aRR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.49-0.91) and rectum (aRR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.78). Thyroid cancer was positively associated with hyperemesis (aRR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06-1.99) and risk increased with more than one hyperemetic pregnancy (aRR 1.80, 95% CI: 1.23-2.63). Hormonal factors, in particular human chorionic gonadotropin, are likely to be involved in mediating these effects. This study is the first to systematically address these associations and provides valuable knowledge on potential long-term consequences of hyperemesis. © 2015 UICC.

  16. Cooperation, competition, and coalitions in enzyme-producing microbes: Social evolution and nutrient depolymerization rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Joseph Folse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular enzymes represent a public good for microbial communities, as they break down complex molecules into simple molecules that microbes can take up. These communities are vulnerable to cheating by microbes that do not produce enzymes, but benefit from those produced by others. However, extracellular enzymes are ubiquitous and play an important role in the depolymerization of nutrients. We developed a multi-genotype, multi-nutrient model of a community of exoenzyme-producing microbes, in order to investigate the relationship between diversity, social interactions, and nutrient depolymerization. We focused on coalitions between complementary types of microbes and their implications for spatial pattern formation and nutrient depolymerization. The model included polymers containing carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus, and eight genotypes of bacteria, which produced different subsets of the three enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing these polymers. We allowed social dynamics to emerge from a mechanistic model of enzyme production, action, and diffusion. We found that diversity was maximized at high rates of either diffusion or enzyme production (but not both. Conditions favoring cheating also favored the emergence of coalitions. We characterized the spatial patterns formed by different interactions, showing that same-type cooperation leads to aggregation, but between-type cooperation leads to an interwoven, filamentous pattern. Contrary to expectations based on niche complementarity, we found that nutrient depolymerization declined with increasing diversity due to a negative competitive effect of coalitions on generalist producers, leading to less overall enzyme production. This decline in depolymerization was stronger for non-limiting nutrients in the system. This study shows that social interactions among microbes foraging for complementary resources can influence microbial diversity, microbial spatial distributions, and rates of nutrient

  17. How guiding coalitions promote positive culture change in hospitals: a longitudinal mixed methods interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Brewster, Amanda L; McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika L; Cherlin, Emily; Fosburgh, Heather; Ting, Henry H; Curry, Leslie A

    2017-11-03

    Quality collaboratives are widely endorsed as a potentially effective method for translating and spreading best practices for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care. Nevertheless, hospital success in improving performance through participation in collaboratives varies markedly. We sought to understand what distinguished hospitals that succeeded in shifting culture and reducing 30-day risk-standardised mortality rate (RSMR) after AMI through their participation in the Leadership Saves Lives (LSL) collaborative. We conducted a longitudinal, mixed methods intervention study of 10 hospitals over a 2-year period; data included surveys of 223 individuals (response rates 83%-94% depending on wave) and 393 in-depth interviews with clinical and management staff most engaged with the LSL intervention in the 10 hospitals. We measured change in culture and RSMR, and key aspects of working related to team membership, turnover, level of participation and approaches to conflict management. The six hospitals that experienced substantial culture change and greater reductions in RSMR demonstrated distinctions in: (1) effective inclusion of staff from different disciplines and levels in the organisational hierarchy in the team guiding improvement efforts (referred to as the 'guiding coalition' in each hospital); (2) authentic participation in the work of the guiding coalition; and (3) distinct patterns of managing conflict. Guiding coalition size and turnover were not associated with success (p values>0.05). In the six hospitals that experienced substantial positive culture change, staff indicated that the LSL learnings were already being applied to other improvement efforts. Hospitals that were most successful in a national quality collaborative to shift hospital culture and reduce RSMR showed distinct patterns in membership diversity, authentic participation and capacity for conflict management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  18. Control of Tumor Initiation by NKG2D Naturally Expressed on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells may co-opt the NKG2D lymphocyte receptor to complement the presence of its ligands for autonomous stimulation of oncogenic signaling. Previous studies raise the possibility that cancer cell NKG2D may induce high malignancy traits, but its full oncogenic impact is unknown. Using epithelial ovarian cancer as model setting, we show here that ex vivo NKG2D+ cancer cells have stem-like capacities, and provide formal in vivo evidence linking NKG2D stimulation with the development and maintenance of these functional states. NKG2D+ ovarian cancer cell populations harbor substantially greater capacities for self-renewing in vitro sphere formation and in vivo tumor initiation in immunodeficient (NOD scid gamma mice than NKG2D− controls. Sphere formation and tumor initiation are impaired by NKG2D silencing or ligand blockade using antibodies or a newly designed pan ligand-masking NKG2D multimer. In further support of pathophysiological significance, a prospective study of 47 high-grade serous ovarian cancer cases revealed that the odds of disease recurrence were significantly greater and median progression-free survival rates higher among patients with above and below median NKG2D+ cancer cell frequencies, respectively. Collectively, our results define cancer cell NKG2D as an important regulator of tumor initiation in ovarian cancer and presumably other malignancies and thus challenge current efforts in immunotherapy aimed at enhancing NKG2D function.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides accumulation and breast cancer: A hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.

  20. Case-control study of congenital anomalies in children of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, L; Marrett, L D; Tomkins, D J; Green, B; Sherman, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine whether the offspring of cancer survivors are at an increased risk of congenital anomalies and whether cancer therapy before conception is associated with such an increase. DESIGN--Case-control study using computerised record linkage. SETTING--Ontario, Canada. SUBJECTS--Parents of children born during April 1979 to December 1986 who had a congenital anomaly diagnosed within the first year of life (45,200 mothers and 41,158 fathers) and a matched sample of parents whose children did not have a congenital anomaly (45,200 mothers and 41,158 fathers). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cancer diagnosed in either parent before conception and radiotherapy to the pelvis or abdomen or chemotherapy with an alkylating agent. RESULTS--Among the mothers, 54 cases and 52 controls were identified as having had cancer diagnosed in Ontario (relative risk = 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.5) and among the fathers, 61 cases and 65 controls were identified (0.9, 0.7 to 1.4). No significant associations were found between congenital anomalies in the offspring and any type of cancer treatment in either the mothers or the fathers. CONCLUSIONS--The risk of congenital anomalies among liveborn offspring whose parents have had cancer or been treated for cancer is not higher than that in the general population. PMID:8343744

  1. Diseases preceding colon cancer. A case-control study among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A D; Sonnenberg, A; Wasserman, I H

    1994-11-01

    Patients with regular use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to have a reduced mortality from colon cancer. As NSAID use is associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopic exploration of patients on NSAID may lead to more efficient screening and frequent detection of colon cancer. A case-control study was conducted among 12,304 veterans with a colon cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 1992. Four controls were matched by age, sex, and race to each case. The frequency distributions of previous discharge diagnoses in cases and controls were compared. Arterial embolism and thrombosis, spondylosis, peripheral vascular disease, angina, osteoarthrosis, and ischemic heart disease protected against future development of colon cancer. On the other hand, atrial fibrillation and flutter, as well as phlebitis and thrombophlebitis, were associated an increased occurrence of colon cancer after 5-10 years. The study contrasts diseases that are treated with aspirin with those that are treated with other anticoagulants. Both cause bleeding, but the reduced risk of colon cancer was seen only in conditions treated with aspirin. The difference between the two disease groups from the same VA patient population suggests that chronic use of NSAID truly protects against future development of colon cancer.

  2. 75 FR 17839 - National Cancer Control Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... individuals and families in communities across our Nation, but the future holds untold promise. We continue to... smoking to visit SmokeFree.gov for resources and information. My Administration is committed to supporting... Institutes of Health to develop more effective treatments. While cancer affects people of every background...

  3. Inhibition of Embryonic Genes to Control Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    anticipate that this will be done by the end of next month and then we will hand the information over to our statistician, Dr. Lisa McShane, who is...deacetylase inhibitor in NCCIT cells: involvement of NANOG suppression. Cancer Res 2009; 69: 5716-5725. 45. Ben-Porath I, Thomson MW, Carey VJ, Ge R

  4. Lifelong vegetarianism and breast cancer risk: a large multicentre case control study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathani, Toral; Barnes, Isobel; Ali, Raghib; Arumugham, Rajkumar; Chacko, Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Jivarajani, Parimal; Kannan, Ravi; Loknatha, Dasappa; Malhotra, Hemant; Mathew, Beela S

    2017-01-18

    The lower incidence of breast cancer in Asian populations where the intake of animal products is lower than that of Western populations has led some to suggest that a vegetarian diet might reduce breast cancer risk. Between 2011 and 2014 we conducted a multicentre hospital based case-control study in eight cancer centres in India. Eligible cases were women aged 30-70 years, with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer (ICD10 C50). Controls were frequency matched to the cases by age and region of residence and chosen from the accompanying attendants of the patients with cancer or those patients in the general hospital without cancer. Information about dietary, lifestyle, reproductive and socio-demographic factors were collected using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of breast cancer in relation to lifelong vegetarianism, adjusting for known risk factors for the disease. The study included 2101 cases and 2255 controls. The mean age at recruitment was similar in cases (49.7 years (SE 9.7)) and controls (49.8 years (SE 9.1)). About a quarter of the population were lifelong vegetarians and the rates varied significantly by region. On multivariate analysis, with adjustment for known risk factors for the disease, the risk of breast cancer was not decreased in lifelong vegetarians (OR 1.09 (95% CI 0.93-1.29)). Lifelong exposure to a vegetarian diet appears to have little, if any effect on the risk of breast cancer.

  5. The Evolution of Mercosur Behaving as an International Coalition, 1991-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Antonio Desiderá Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract As is well known, Mercosur was conceived as an economic bloc. However, over time, it has also behaved as an international coalition. This article aims to trace this process in the period 1991 to 2012 via two indicators: the voting behaviour of the four original Mercosur member states in the United Nations General Assembly, and positions adopted on international political issues in the communiques emanating from the bi-annual Mercosur presidential summits. The period under review will be divided into two further periods, namely 1991-2002 and 2003-2012.

  6. Self-Organizing Coalitions for Conflict Evaluation and Resolution in Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio

    2010-01-01

    The recent introduction of carrier aggregation in LTE-Advanced enables new possibilities in designing frequency domain interference reduction and management schemes. These methodologies are of extreme interest in the case of dense and uncoordinated deployments of femtocells. In such scenarios......, dense deployment of cells coupled with the scarcity of frequency resources may lead to a potentially disruptive amount of interference, which severely affects the performance of the system. This contribution presents a novel method inspired by graph and coalitional game theories. The proposed algorithm...

  7. Democracy in Brazil: presidentialism, party coalitions and the decision making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Limongi

    Full Text Available There is no reason to treat the Brazilian political system as singular. Coalitions obey and are governed by party principles. The president, whose institutional power was enhanced by the 1988 Constitution, has a monopoly over legislative initiative, which approximates the Brazilian system to the European parliamentary democracies. Even though it is based upon empirical data, this essay formulates theoretical problems, such as the importance of institutional choices and how these impact on relations between the majority and minority in democratic governments.

  8. Connecting and Reconnecting: Outfitting the Figure of the Cyborg for Transnational Coalition-building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Brophy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts to rehabilitate Donna Haraway’s (1991 figure of the cyborg to increase the possibilities of alliances between transnational feminism and cyborg or technoscience feminism. Haraway’s cyborg offers little impetus for political investment and coalition building. This work develops an optional prosthesis of responseability for the cyborg figuration, one that enables the cyborg to invest locally. This ethic of response-ability is developed via the work of Mary Strine (1989, Adrienne Rich (1984 and Aimee Carillo Rowe (2005. This supplementary ethic grafts a “collectivist conscience” onto the permeable being of the cyborg, encouraging alliance- and coalitionbuilding.

  9. Municipal return to work management in cancer survivors undergoing cancer treatment: a protocol on a controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Labriola, Merete; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Momsen, Anne-Mette H; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2015-07-29

    Cancer survivors are often left on their own to deal with the challenges of resuming work during or after cancer treatment, mainly due to unclear agreements between stakeholders responsible for occupational rehabilitation. Social inequality exists in cancer risk, survival probability and continues with regard to the chance of being able to return to work. The aim is to apply an early, individually tailored occupational rehabilitation intervention to cancer survivors in two municipalities parallel with cancer treatment focusing on enhancing readiness for return to work. In a controlled trial municipal job consultants use acceptance and commitment therapy dialogue and individual-placement-and-support-inspired tools with cancer survivors to engage them in behaviour changes toward readiness for return to work. The workplace is involved in the return to work process. Patients referred to surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy at the Oncology Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark for the diagnoses; breast, colon-rectal, head and neck, thyroid gland, testicular, ovarian or cervix cancer are eligible for the study. Patients must be residents in the municipalities of Silkeborg or Randers, 18-60 years of age and have a permanent or temporary employment (with at least 6 months left of their contract) at inclusion. Patients, for whom the treating physician considers occupational rehabilitation to be unethical, or who are not reading or talking Danish are excluded. The control group has identical inclusion and exclusion criteria except for municipality of residence. Return to work is the primary outcome and is indentified in a social transfer payment register. Effect is assessed as relative cumulative incidences within 52 weeks and will be analysed in generalised linear regression models using the pseudo values method. As a secondary outcome; co-morbidity and socio-economic status is analysed as effect modifiers of the intervention effect on return to work. The

  10. Role of Private Enterprise in Cancer Control in Low to Middle Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwumere E. Nwogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. About 65% of cancer deaths globally occur in low to middle income countries (LMICs where prioritization and allocation of resources to cancer care are often quite poor. In the absence of governmental focus on this problem, public-private partnerships may be an avenue to provide effective cancer control. Methods. This manuscript highlights the establishment of a nongovernmental organization (NGO to stimulate the development of partnerships between oncology professionals, private enterprise, and academic institutions, both locally and internationally. Examples of capacity building, grant support, establishment of collaborative networks, and the development of a facility to provide clinical care are highlighted. Results. Collaborations were established between oncology professionals at academic institutions in the US and Nigeria. Cancer control workshops were conducted in Nigeria with grant support from the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC. A monthly tumor board conference was established at LASUTH in Lagos, and further capacity building is underway with grant support from the United States NCI. An outpatient, privately funded oncology clinic in Lagos has been launched. Conclusion. In LMICs, effective partnership between public and private institutions can lead to tangible strides in cancer control. The use of creative healthcare financing models can also support positive change.

  11. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...... cell lines used. However, the specific activities and cancer versus control comparison differed significantly between the nuclear and mitochondrial compartments. OGG1 activity, as measured by 8-oxodA incision, was up-regulated in cancer cell mitochondria but down-regulated in the nucleus when compared...

  12. Cancer control through principles of systems science, complexity, and chaos theory: a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Ivo P

    2007-06-05

    Cancer is a significant medical and societal problem. This reality arises from the fact that an exponential and an unrestricted cellular growth destabilizes human body as a system. From this perspective, cancer is a manifestation of a system-in-failing.A model of normal and abnormal cell cycle oscillations has been developed incorporating systems science, complexity, and chaos theories. Using this model, cancer expresses a failing subsystem and is characterized by a positive exponential growth taking place in the outer edge of chaos. The overall survival of human body as a system is threatened. This model suggests, however, that cancer's exponential cellular growth and disorganized complexity could be controlled through the process of induction of differentiation of cancer stem cells into cells of low and basic functionality. This concept would imply reorientation of current treatment principles from cellular killing (cyto-toxic therapies) to cellular retraining (cyto-education).

  13. Severe Hallux Valgus With Coalition of the Hallux Sesamoids Treated With Modified Lapidus Procedure: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Toshinori; Suzuki, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    Coalition of the hallux sesamoids is an extremely rare condition. To our knowledge, only 1 case report has been published. We report a case of severe hallux valgus deformities with coalitions of the hallux sesamoids. The coalitions themselves were asymptomatic; however, this severe hallux valgus deformity needed to be surgically treated. The hallux sesamoids in both feet appeared to be fused and heart shaped on anteroposterior radiographs and dumbbell shaped on axial radiographs. It is known that postoperative incomplete reduction of the medial sesamoids can be a risk factor for the recurrence of hallux valgus. The computed tomography scan demonstrated a groove in the bottom of the center of the heart-shaped sesamoid. The flexor hallucis longus tendon was located in the groove. Therefore, a modified Lapidus procedure was performed considering the medial half of the heart-shaped sesamoid as the medial sesamoid. Although delayed union occurred, successful correction of the deformity was achieved. IV.

  14. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zota, Ami R; Aschengrau, Ann; Rudel, Ruthann A; Brody, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  15. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. Methods/Design EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. Discussion The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic

  16. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, R; Polesel, J; Gallus, S; Dal Maso, L; Zucchetto, A; Negri, E; Bosetti, C; Lucenteforte, E; Boz, G; Franceschi, S; Serraino, D; La Vecchia, C

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, pancreatic cancer accounts for approximately 5% of cancer-related deaths. Tobacco smoking is the major established risk factor for this cancer, whereas the role of alcohol consumption is open to debate. Between 1991 and 2008, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study on pancreatic cancer in northern Italy. Cases were 326 patients (median age 63 years) with incident pancreatic cancer admitted to major general hospitals. Controls were 652 patients (median age 63 years) with acute non-neoplastic conditions admitted to the same hospital network of cases. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Pancreatic cancer was associated to current smoking (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.13-2.48), and the risk rose with increasing number of cigarettes/day (OR=2.04; 95% CI: 1.14-3.66 for > or = 20 cigarettes/day). No association emerged for former smokers (OR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.66-1.45). Alcohol consumption was associated to increased pancreatic cancer risk, but ORs were significant only among heavy drinkers (ORs: 2.03 and 3.42 for 21-34 and > or = 35 drinks/week, respectively). Pancreatic cancer risk was 4.3-fold higher in heavy smokers (> or = 20 cigarettes/day) and heavy drinkers (> or = 21 drinks/week) in comparison with never smokers who drunk alcohol drinking are two independent risk factors for pancreatic cancer which may be responsible for approximately one third of these cancers in our population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of serum lipid profiles between normal controls and breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikul Laisupasin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have reported association of plasma/serum lipids and lipoproteins with different cancers. Increase levels of circulating lipids and lipoproteins have been associated with breast cancer risk. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare serum lipid profiles: total-cholesterol (T-CHOL, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C between breast cancer patients and normal participants. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 women in this study were divided into two groups in the period during May 2006-April 2007. Blood samples were collected from 249 patients with early stage breast cancer and 154 normal controls for serum lipid profiles (T-CHOL, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C analysis using Hitachi 717 Autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostic GmbH, Germany. TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C levels in breast cancer group were significantly increased as compared with normal controls group (P < 0.001, whereas HDL-C and T-CHOL levels were not. Results: The results of this study suggest that increased serum lipid profiles may associate with breast cancer risk in Thai women. Further studies to group important factors including, cancer stages, types of cancer, parity, and menopausal status that may affect to lipid profiles in breast cancer patients along with an investigation of new lipid profiles to clarify most lipid factors that may involve in breast cancer development are needed.

  18. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy and epithelial ovarian cancer in the New England Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Murphy, Megan A; Vitonis, Allison F; Cramer, Daniel W; Titus, Linda J; Tworoger, Shelley S; Terry, Kathryn L

    2013-11-15

    Previous studies have observed that tubal ligation and hysterectomy are associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer; however, little is known about whether these associations vary by surgical characteristics, individual characteristics or tumor histology. We used logistic regression to examine tubal ligation, simple hysterectomy and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy in relation to risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the New England Case-Control Study. Our primary analysis included 2,265 cases and 2,333 controls. Overall, tubal ligation was associated with a lower risk of epithelial ovarian cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.97], especially for endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.29-0.69). The inverse association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer risk was stronger for women who had undergone the procedure at the time of last delivery (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.84) rather than at a later time (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.75-1.15). Overall, simple hysterectomy was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.83-1.42), although it was associated with a nonsignificant decreased risk of ovarian cancer among women who underwent the procedure at age 45 or older (RR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.40-1.02) or within the last 10 years (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.38-1.13). Overall, women who had a hysterectomy with a unilateral oophorectomy had significantly lower risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.94). In summary, tubal ligation and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy were inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Additional research is necessary to understand the potential biologic mechanisms by which these procedures may reduce ovarian cancer risk. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  19. A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Goldenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively. Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively. There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002; however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]. Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening.

  20. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. VI. Fish and shellfish consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosetti, C; Kolonel, L; Negri, E; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Maso, LD; Galanti, MR; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Vecchia, CL

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To better understand the role of fish and shellfish on thyroid cancer risk, we systematically re-analyzed the original data from 13 case-control studies conducted in the US, Japan, China, and Europe. Methods: A total of 2497 cases (2023 women, 474 men) and 4337 controls (3268 women, 1069

  1. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal...

  2. A randomized, controlled trial of physician postures when breaking bad news to cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruera, Eduardo; Palmer, J Lynn; Pace, Ellen; Zhang, Karen; Willey, Jie; Strasser, Florian; Bennett, Michael I

    2007-09-01

    Medical training teaches physicians to sit when breaking bad news, though there have been no controlled studies to support this advice. We aimed to establish cancer patients' preference for physician posture when physicians break bad news using a randomized controlled crossover trial in a department of palliative care at a large US cancer center. Referred patients were blind to the hypothesis and watched video sequences of a sitting or standing physician breaking bad news to a cancer patient and 168 of 173 participants (88 female) completed the study. Sitting physicians were preferred and viewed as significantly more compassionate than standing physicians (P posture. In summary, cancer patients, especially females, prefer physicians to sit when breaking bad news and rate physicians who adopt this posture as more compassionate. However, sitting posture alone is unlikely to compensate for poor communication skills and lack of other respectful gestures during a consultation.

  3. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  4. Molecular characterization of the stomach microbiota in patients with gastric cancer and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, J.; Lindberg, M.; Rosenquist, M.; Enroth, H.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2009-01-15

    Persistent infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, can initiate an inflammatory cascade that progresses into atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with reduced capacity for secretion of gastric acid and an increased risk in developing gastric cancer. The role of H. pylori as an initiator of inflammation is evident but the mechanism for development into gastric cancer has not yet been proven. A reduced capacity for gastric acid secretion allows survival and proliferation of other microbes that normally are killed by the acidic environment. It has been postulated that some of these species may be involved in the development of gastric cancer, however their identities are poorly defined. In this study, the gastric microbiota from ten patients with gastric cancer was characterized and compared with five dyspeptic controls using the molecular profiling approach, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in combination with 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. T-RFLP analysis revealed a complex bacterial community in the cancer patients that was not significantly different from the controls. Sequencing of 140 clones revealed 102 phylotypes, with representatives from five bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria). The data revealed a relatively low abundance of H. pylori and showed that the gastric cancer microbiota was instead dominated by different species of the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Prevotella. The respective role of these species in development of gastric cancer remains to be determined.

  5. A case-control study of lung cancer among refinery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamilia, K; Wong, O; Raabe, G K

    1999-12-01

    This case-control study examined the relationship between lung cancer and the work histories of male employees at a large Texas refinery. The study included 112 lung cancer deaths observed between 1946 and 1987 and 490 matched controls. Employment histories were obtained from personnel records, and smoking information was available from medical records. Both stratification methods and conditional logistic regression were used in data analyses. Overall employment in four general job categories (administrative, engineering/laboratory, process, maintenance/mechanical) was not associated with lung cancer mortality. Results by hire period (study do not support the hypothesis that work in maintenance/mechanical jobs increases lung cancer risk. On the basis of analyses in this study, it is unlikely that asbestos exposure contributed to excess lung cancer mortality. Additional analyses were conducted for specific maintenance jobs with potential exposure to asbestos and by duration in jobs with occasional or routine asbestos exposure. No significant increase in lung cancer was found in any subgroup. Furthermore, there was no significant trend toward lung cancer risk in relation to duration of employment in jobs with asbestos exposure.

  6. Dental x-rays and the risk of thyroid cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Anjum; Godward, Sara; Williams, Dillwyn; Siddique, Iqbal; Al-Saleh, Khalid

    2010-05-01

    The thyroid gland is highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis and exposure to high-dose ionising radiation is the only established cause of thyroid cancer. Dental radiography, a common source of low-dose diagnostic radiation exposure in the general population, is often overlooked as a radiation hazard to the gland and may be associated with the risk of thyroid cancer. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has been reported in dentists, dental assistants, and x-ray workers; and exposure to dental x-rays has been associated with an increased risk of meningiomas and salivary tumours. To examine whether exposure to dental x-rays was associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control interview study among 313 patients with thyroid cancer and a similar number of individually matched (year of birth +/- three years, gender, nationality, district of residence) control subjects in Kuwait. Conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for other upper-body x-rays, showed that exposure to dental x-rays was significantly associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1) (p=0.001) with a dose-response pattern (p for trend dental x-rays, particularly multiple exposures, may be associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer; and warrant further study in settings where historical dental x-ray records may be available.

  7. Education Policy and Governance in England under the Coalition Government (2010-15): Academies, the Pupil Premium, and Free Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the governance of school-based and early education in England under the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government (2010-15). It draws on three prominent Coalition policy areas--the academies programme, the pupil premium, and free part-time early education--and focuses on changes to the role played by central government…

  8. Bringing Psychological Science to the Forefront of Educational Policy: Collaborative Efforts of the American Psychological Association's Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Stephen A.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Bassford, Maya; Smulson, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The following article details the work of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (CPSE). First, a brief history of the background and creation of the coalition is described. The article then details the projects, completed and ongoing, of the CPSE. Those projects include a Teacher…

  9. Cigarette smoking and pancreas cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, D T; Dunn, J A; Hoover, R N; Schiffman, M; Lillemoe, K D; Schoenberg, J B; Brown, L M; Greenberg, R S; Hayes, R B; Swanson, G M

    1994-10-19

    Cigarette smoking is the most consistently reported risk factor for pancreas cancer, yet the dose-response relationship in many pancreas cancer studies is weak. Because of the poor prognosis for pancreas cancer, many case-control studies have been based largely on interviews with proxy respondents, who are known to report less reliable information on detailed smoking habits than original subjects. Our purpose was to evaluate cigarette smoking as a risk factor for pancreas cancer based on data obtained only from direct interviews and to estimate the effects of quitting smoking and of switching from nonfiltered to filtered cigarettes on risk. Our objective also was to estimate the contribution of cigarette smoking toward explaining the higher pancreas cancer incidence experienced by black Americans compared with white Americans. A population-based, case-control study of pancreas cancer was conducted during 1986-1989 in Atlanta, Ga., Detroit, Mich., and 10 counties in New Jersey. Direct interviews were successfully completed with 526 case patients and 2153 control subjects aged 30-79 years, making this the largest population-based, case-control study of pancreas cancer to date based only on direct interviews. Cigarette smokers had a significant, 70% increased risk of pancreas cancer compared with the risk in nonsmokers. A significant, positive trend in risk with increasing duration smoked was apparent (P or = 40 years) smokers experiencing a modest 2.1-fold risk. We also observed a negative trend in risk with increasing years quit smoking. Smokers who quit for more than 10 years experienced about a 30% reduction in risk relative to current smokers; quitters of 10 years or less experienced no risk reduction. Switching from nonfiltered to filtered cigarettes did not appear to decrease risk. Compared with nonsmokers, subjects who smoked only filtered cigarettes had a 50% elevated risk and those who smoked only nonfiltered cigarettes had a 40% elevated risk. The

  10. A case-control study of lung cancer nested in a cohort of European asphalt workers.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Olsson; Kromhout, H; Agostini, M.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S; Stucker, I; Ahrens, W; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding were not fully addressed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the contribution of exposure to bitumen, other occupational agents, and tobacco smoking to the risk of lung cancer among asphalt workers. METHODS: Cases were cohort members in Denmark, Finland, France, Ge...

  11. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hextan Y. S. Ngan

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  12. Yoga and self-reported cognitive problems in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Heather M; Jaremka, Lisa M; Bennett, Jeanette M; Peng, Juan; Andridge, Rebecca; Shapiro, Charles; Malarkey, William B; Emery, Charles F; Layman, Rachel; Mrozek, Ewa; Glaser, Ronald; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-08-01

    Cancer survivors often report cognitive problems. Furthermore, decreases in physical activity typically occur over the course of cancer treatment. Although physical activity benefits cognitive function in noncancer populations, evidence linking physical activity to cognitive function in cancer survivors is limited. In our recent randomized controlled trial, breast cancer survivors who received a yoga intervention had lower fatigue and inflammation following the trial compared with a wait list control group. This secondary analysis of the parent trial addressed yoga's impact on cognitive complaints. Posttreatment stage 0-IIIA breast cancer survivors (n = 200) were randomized to a 12-week, twice-weekly Hatha yoga intervention or a wait list control group. Participants reported cognitive complaints using the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Cognitive Problems Scale at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Cognitive complaints did not differ significantly between groups immediately postintervention (p = 0.250). However, at 3-month follow-up, yoga participants' Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Cognitive Problems Scale scores were an average of 23% lower than wait list participants' scores (p = 0.003). These group differences in cognitive complaints remained after controlling for psychological distress, fatigue, and sleep quality. Consistent with the primary results, those who practiced yoga more frequently reported significantly fewer cognitive problems at 3-month follow-up than those who practiced less frequently (p complaints and prompt further research on mind-body and physical activity interventions for improving cancer-related cognitive problems. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Adamsen, Lis; Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina; M?ller, Tom; Herrstedt, J?rn; Kronborg, Dorte; Baadsgaard, Marie T; Vistisen, Kirsten; Midtgaard, Julie; Christiansen, Birgitte; Stage, Maria; Kronborg, Morten T; R?rth, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a multimodal group exercise intervention, as an adjunct to conventional care, on fatigue, physical capacity, general wellbeing, physical activity, and quality of life in patients with cancer who were undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment for advanced disease. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 269 patients with cancer; 73 men, 196 women, mean age 47 years (range 20-65) representing...

  14. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  15. The effectiveness of music in relieving pain in cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Tzu; Good, Marion; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2010-11-01

    To examine effects of sedative music on cancer pain. A randomized controlled trial. Two large medical centers in Kaoshiung City, in southern Taiwan. 126 hospitalized persons with cancer pain. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=62) or a control group (n=64), with computerized minimization, stratifying on gender, pain, and hospital unit. Music choices included folk songs, Buddhist hymns (Taiwanese music), plus harp, and piano (American). The experimental group listened to music for 30 min; the control group rested in bed. Sensation and distress of pain were rated on 100mm VAS before and after the 30-min test. Using MANCOVA, there was significantly less posttest pain in the music versus the control group, pmusic was very helpful for pain. Thirty minutes of music provided 50% relief in 42% of the music group compared to 8% of the controls. The number needed to treat (NNT) to find one with 50% sensation relief was three patients. More patients chose Taiwanese music (71%) than American music (29%), but both were liked and effective. Offering a choice of familiar, culturally appropriate music was a key element of the intervention. Findings extend the Good and Moore theory (1996) to cancer pain. Soft music was safe, effective, and liked by participants. It provided greater relief of cancer pain than analgesics alone. Thus nurses should offer calming, familiar music to supplement analgesic medication for persons with cancer pain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  17. Breast cancer risk and genetic ancestry: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Artagaveytia, Nora; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Barreto, Isabel; Cancela, Paula; Cappetta, Mónica; Egaña, Ana; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Heinzen, Silvina; Hooker, Stanley; Román, Estela; Sans, Mónica; Kittles, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay exhibits one of the highest rates of breast cancer in Latin America, similar to those of developed nations, the reasons for which are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the effect that ancestral background has on breast cancer susceptibility among Uruguayan women. We carried out a case-control study of 328 (164 cases, 164 controls) women enrolled in public hospitals and private clinics across the country. We estimated ancestral proportions using a panel of nuclear and mitochondrial ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and tested their association with breast cancer risk. Nuclear individual ancestry in cases was (mean ± SD) 9.8 ± 7.6% African, 13.2 ± 10.2% Native American and 77.1 ± 13.1% European, and in controls 9.1 ± 7.5% African, 14.7 ± 11.2% Native American and 76.2 ± 14.2% European. There was no evidence of a difference in nuclear or mitochondrial ancestry between cases and controls. However, European mitochondrial haplogroup H was associated with breast cancer (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5). We have not found evidence that overall genetic ancestry differs between breast cancer patients and controls in Uruguay but we detected an association of the disease with a European mitochondrial lineage, which warrants further investigation.

  18. Protein coalitions in a core mammalian biochemical network linked by rapidly evolving proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsoka Sophia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular ATP levels are generated by glucose-stimulated mitochondrial metabolism and determine metabolic responses, such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS from the β-cells of pancreatic islets. We describe an analysis of the evolutionary processes affecting the core enzymes involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mammals. The proteins involved in this system belong to ancient enzymatic pathways: glycolysis, the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Results We identify two sets of proteins, or protein coalitions, in this group of 77 enzymes with distinct evolutionary patterns. Members of the glycolysis, TCA cycle, metabolite transport, pyruvate and NADH shuttles have low rates of protein sequence evolution, as inferred from a human-mouse comparison, and relatively high rates of evolutionary gene duplication. Respiratory chain and glutathione pathway proteins evolve faster, exhibiting lower rates of gene duplication. A small number of proteins in the system evolve significantly faster than co-pathway members and may serve as rapidly evolving adapters, linking groups of co-evolving genes. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the evolution of the involved proteins. We find evidence for two coalitions of proteins and the role of co-adaptation in protein evolution is identified and could be used in future research within a functional context.

  19. Danger signs. Coalition points to causes and consequences of inadequate care of the dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, A; Plutko, L A

    1996-01-01

    Dying patients and their families repeatedly express their need for supports based on compassion and caring, yet healthcare efforts focus on often ineffective technological interventions and procedures. Professional healthcare schools provide little or no formal training in pain and palliative symptom management or in the multidimensional approach to care of the dying. And the pace of change in healthcare leaves little time for communication between the patient, family, and caring team. Physician denial of death and dying has a significant impact on clinical decision making and misleads healthcare administrators about priorities. Even when clinicians want to practice holistic supportive care, they are often unable to because of competing productivity demands and lack of reimbursement. Inappropriate therapies may be initiated to justify continued care in acute and skilled nursing environments. Because healthcare professionals may not inform families about what can be done in the way of supportive care, they may choose to ¿do everything,¿ which often means using inappropriate treatments. Supportive Care of the Dying: A Coalition for Compassionate Care is a unique collaborative effort to help change the culture of dying in healthcare and to help Catholic and other organizations offer appropriate care based on respect for the sanctity of life, regard for human dignity, and a commitment to stewardship. The coalition intends to develop a comprehensive supportive care model built on Catholic values and tradition.

  20. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Aimée R.; Brennan, Paul; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larrañaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The current study sought to evaluate the extent to which HPV16 E6 antibodies are present before diagnosis of anogenital cancers within the same cohort. Methods Four hundred incident anogenital cancers (273 cervical, 24 anal, 67 vulvar, 12 vaginal, and 24 penile cancers) with prediagnostic blood samples (collected on average 3 and 8 years before diagnosis for cervix and noncervix cancers, respectively) and 718 matched controls were included. Plasma was analyzed for antibodies against HPV16 E6 and multiple other HPV proteins and genotypes and evaluated in relation to risk using unconditional logistic regression. Results HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in 29.2% of individuals (seven of 24 individuals) who later developed anal cancer compared with 0.6% of controls (four of 718 controls) who remained cancer free (odds ratio [OR], 75.9; 95% CI, 17.9 to 321). HPV16 E6 seropositivity was less common for cancers of the cervix (3.3%), vagina (8.3%), vulva (1.5%), and penis (8.3%). No associations were seen for non–type 16 HPV E6 antibodies, apart from anti-HPV58 E6 and anal cancer (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 33.1). HPV16 E6 seropositivity tended to increase in blood samples drawn closer in time to cancer diagnosis. Conclusion HPV16 E6 seropositivity is relatively common before diagnosis of anal cancer but rare for other HPV-related anogenital cancers. PMID:25667279

  1. The fear of using tramadol for pain control (tramadolophobia) among Egyptian patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsirafy, Samy A; Saleh, Radfan N; Fawzy, Radwa; Alnagar, Ahmed A; Hammad, Ahmed M; El-Sherief, Wessam; Farag, Dina E; Radwan, Riham H

    2015-01-01

    The fear of using tramadol for pain control (tramadolophobia) by Egyptian patients with cancer is a frequent problem in our practice. This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of and the reasons behind tramadolophobia among Egyptian patients with cancer. A structured interview including open-ended and closed questions. The study included 178 adult patients with cancer from two cancer centers in Cairo and Sharkia, Egypt. The source of information about tramadol was a non-healthcare-related source in 168 (94 percent) patients, mainly the media (50 percent). The believed uses of tramadol were abuse related in 94 (53 percent) patients, stimulant (physical, sexual, and to boost alertness) in 59 (33 percent), and analgesic in 55 (31 percent). Twenty-six (15 percent) patients gave history of tramadol use, largely (69 percent) as a stimulant. In case tramadol was prescribed for pain control, 90 (51 percent) patients refused to take it, 59 (33 percent) patients agreed to take it with concern about addiction, and only 29 (16 percent) patients agreed without concerns. Among those who refused taking tramadol for pain, the mentioned reason of refusal was addiction-related fears in 57 percent. The stigmatization and misconceptions about tramadol may have resulted in tramadolophobia among the majority of Egyptian patients with cancer. This further complicates the barriers to cancer pain control in Egypt. Being the only available World Health Organization step-II analgesic in Egypt, interventions to overcome tramadolophobia should be taken.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Appearance-focused Intervention to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin cancer represents a significant health threat with over 1.3 million diagnoses, 8000 melanoma deaths, and more than $1 billion spent annually for skin cancer healthcare in the US. Despite findings from laboratory, case-control, and prospective studies that indicate a link between youthful indoor tanning (IT) and skin cancer, IT is increasing among US youth. Appearance-focused interventions represent a promising method to counteract these trends. METHODS A total of 430 female indoor tanners were randomized into intervention or no intervention control conditions. Intervention participants received an appearance-focused booklet based on decision-theoretical models of health behavior. Outcome variables included self-reports of IT behavior and intentions, as well as measures of cognitive mediating variables. RESULTS Normative increases in springtime IT rates were significantly lower (ie, over 35%) at 6-month follow-up in intervention versus control participants with similar reductions in future intentions. Mediation analyses revealed 6 cognitive variables (IT attitudes, fashion attitudes, perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and skin damage, subjective norms, and image norms) that significantly mediated change in IT behavior. CONCLUSIONS The appearance-focused intervention demonstrated strong effects on IT behavior and intentions in young indoor tanners. Appearance-focused approaches to skin cancer prevention need to present alternative behaviors as well as alter IT attitudes. Mediational results provide guides for strengthening future appearance-focused interventions directed at behaviors that increase risk of skin cancer. PMID:18937268

  3. Lympho-vascular invasion in BRCA related breast cancer compared to sporadic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wall Elsken

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose to the development of breast cancer, exhibiting a specific histological phenotype. Identification of possible hallmarks of these tumors is important for selecting patients for genetic screening and provides inside in carcinogenetic pathways. Since BRCA1-associated breast cancers have pushing borders that prevent them from easily reaching vessels and are often of the medullary (like type that is known to have a low rate of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI, we hypothesized that absence of LVI could characterize BRCA1 related breast cancer. Methods A population of 68 BRCA1 related invasive breast cancers was evaluated for LVI by an experienced breast pathologist blinded to mutation status, and compared to a control group matched for age, grade and tumor type. Results LVI was present in 25.0% of BRCA1 related cases, compared to 20.6% of controls (P = 0.54, OR = 1.29, CI 0.58-2.78. Conclusion LVI is frequent in BRCA1 germline mutation related breast cancers, but seems to occur as often in sporadic controls matched for age, grade and tumor type. Apparently, these hereditary cancers find their way to the blood and lymph vessels despite their well demarcation and often medullary differentiation.

  4. Assessment of risk factors in laryngeal cancer in India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Preeti; Bahadur, Sudhir; Dwivedi, Sada Nand; Singh, Rajvir; Shukla, Nk

    2005-01-01

    Cancer of the larynx is fourteenth most common cancer in the world. Limited data are available from India on associations with risk factors and hence the present hospital based matched case-control study was conducted. Three hundred and five laryngeal cancer patients and an equal number of healthy controls matched for their age within 2 years, sex and place of residence constituted the study population. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to each individual to elicit information on their socio-demographic profile, food habits and risk factors and dietary consumption patterns. Univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate forward stepwise conditional logistic analysis were performed. In the univariate analysis a lower consumption of roots and tubers green leaf vegetable other vegetables and fruits, and higher consumption of milk, eggs, meat, tea, alcohol , smoking, consumption of betel leaf with tobacco as well as a preference for spicy and fried foods emerged as significant positive variables. After adjusting for education, years of use of alcohol, smoking, chewing of betel leaf with tobacco in the model, low green leafy vegetables and preference for spicy foods were found to be positively related to the risk of laryngeal cancer. There was a significant difference in the dietary consumption patterns of laryngeal cancer patients and controls, indicating a role for nutritional factors in the etiology of laryngeal cancer in the Indian population.

  5. Metallic elements in pulmonary biopsies from lung cancer and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giuseppe; Goldoni, Matteo; Catalani, Simona; Carbognani, Paolo; Poli, Diana; Mozzoni, Paola; Acampa, Olga; Internullo, Eveline; Rusca, Michele; Apostoli, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Occupational/environmental exposure to some metallic elements is a risk factor for the development of lung diseases, including lung cancer. We aimed at investigating the levels of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel and lead in the lung tissue of patients affected by early stage non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A small number of patients without a diagnosis of lung cancer were also included as control group. Lung tissue biopsies were collected from 45 NSCLC patients (both cancerous and unaffected tissues) and 8 control subjects undergoing surgery. Patients were stratified for smoking habits, histopathology and cancer sites. Metallic elements were determined in dry tissue after digestion by means of ICP-MS. Cd, Ni and Pb levels were higher in unaffected than in control tissues (0.52 vs 0.18 microg/g dry, p elements, and particularly Cd, were influenced by smoking habits; Pb levels were higher in squamocellular carcinoma than adenocarcinomas; Ni distributed in the lungs in an inhomogeneous way. This study demonstrates that the unaffected lung tissue is more representative than the cancerous tissue of the pulmonary content of metallic elements. Tobacco smoke is a main factor affecting the concentration levels of Cd, Pb, and to a lesser extent Ni in the lung tissues of NSCLC patients. The role of past environmental-occupational exposures could not be fully elucidated, due to the limited sample size and the retrospective nature of the study.

  6. Tarsal Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the condition and the response to treatment: Oral medications. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, may be helpful in reducing the pain and inflammation. Physical therapy. Physical therapy may include ...

  7. Actor coalitions and implementation in strategic delta planning: Opening the Haringvliet sluices in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermoolen, Myrthe; Hermans, Leon

    2016-04-01

    The sustained development of urbanizing deltas is influenced by natural and societal processes. These processes are characterized by their long time span, in which conflicting interests of different stakeholders have to be reconciled. Reaching consent between actors is a challenge itself, but maintaining this consent throughout different stages of strategic planning - from advocacy and agenda setting to implementation - over these long periods of time is even more difficult. The implementation stage still includes many different actors involved, some of which are different than the ones who agreed before, due to both the long run of the strategic delta planning, and to a shift of tasks and responsibilities. Thus, implementation of strategic plans often features delays, deviations of agreed plans and unintended outcomes. A key question therefore is how coalition dynamics in (pre-)planning stages influence and are influenced by the coalition dynamics during implementation. The different stages in strategic planning are often studied from either a plan formulation or an implementation perspective, but the connection between the two proves an important bottleneck for strategic planning in deltas. For instance, many building with nature solutions are still in their pilot-phase, and their upscaling can profit from lessons concerning past implementation efforts. The proposed contribution will use the case of the management of the Dutch Haringvliet sluices and the decision ('Kierbesluit') in 2000 to put these sluices ajar, to study the link between the different strategic delta planning stages and the role of the formation and change of actor coalitions herein. With the completion of the Haringvliet dam with outlet sluices in 1970, the Haringvliet estuary of the rivers Rhine and Meuse was closed off from the sea, creating a fresh water lake. This was done to make the Dutch Southwest delta safe from flooding, and had positive effects for agricultural water supply and

  8. Assessing the educational and support needs of nursing staff serving older adults: a case study of a community coalition/university partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tam E; Ziemba, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    Given the expected changes in demography and dependent care ratios, communities are preparing for the needs of older populations. Sometimes, communities form coalitions to address health-care needs. This case study evaluates a coalition/university partnership formed to assess the educational and support needs of nursing staff who are taking care of older adults across all service settings in one geographically defined community. A 17-member community-based coalition contracted with researchers from an external university to determine the perceptions of three key stakeholder groups: older adults and their families, all levels of nursing staff, and agency administrators. By applying principles of Participatory Action Research (PAR), this case study presents the challenges faced in the community-based coalition/university research team partnership. This coalition/research partnership is unique, differing from most academic examples of PAR because nursing professionals initiated the partnership. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Living with prostate cancer: randomised controlled trial of a multimodal supportive care intervention for men with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepore Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in developed countries and diagnosis and treatment carries with it substantial morbidity and related unmet supportive care needs. These difficulties may be amplified by physical inactivity and obesity. We propose to apply a multimodal intervention approach that targets both unmet supportive care needs and physical activity. Methods/design A two arm randomised controlled trial will compare usual care to a multimodal supportive care intervention "Living with Prostate Cancer" that will combine self-management with tele-based group peer support. A series of previously validated and reliable self-report measures will be administered to men at four time points: baseline/recruitment (when men are approximately 3-6 months post-diagnosis and at 3, 6, and 12 months after recruitment and intervention commencement. Social constraints, social support, self-efficacy, group cohesion and therapeutic alliance will be included as potential moderators/mediators of intervention effect. Primary outcomes are unmet supportive care needs and physical activity levels. Secondary outcomes are domain-specific and health-related quality of life (QoL; psychological distress; benefit finding; body mass index and waist circumference. Disease variables (e.g. cancer grade, stage will be assessed through medical and cancer registry records. An economic evaluation will be conducted alongside the randomised trial. Discussion This study will address a critical but as yet unanswered research question: to identify a population-based way to reduce unmet supportive care needs; promote regular physical activity; and improve disease-specific and health-related QoL for prostate cancer survivors. The study will also determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Trial Registration ACTRN12611000392965

  10. Association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Rahman

    Full Text Available Evidence is inconsistent regarding alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, although heavy drinking may increase risk.A population-based case-control study was conducted using 345 pancreas cancer cases diagnosed 2011-2012 and 1,285 frequency-matched controls from Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression was used to evaluate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk; data was also stratified by sex and smoking status to assess interaction.Alcohol consumption was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=0.78, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.05 for 1 - 3 drinks/week; age-adjusted odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.17 for 4 - 20 drinks/week, however there was a non-significant increased risk for heavy drinkers consuming ≥ 21 drinks/week (age-adjusted odds ratio=1.35, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.27. Cigarette smoking modified the alcohol-cancer relationship; among current smokers, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with a significantly increased pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=4.04, 95% CI: 1.58, 10.37, whereas this significant association with heavy drinking was not observed among non-smokers (age-adjusted odds ratio=2.01, 95% CI: 0.50, 8.18. Furthermore, light - moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased pancreas cancer risk among current smokers.While alcohol was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, smoking status modified this relationship such that among current smokers, alcohol intake was associated with a greater than two-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small sample sizes within subgroups and correction for multiple comparisons should be considered. These findings should be replicated in larger studies where more precise estimates of risk can be obtained.

  11. Dietary patterns in relation to prostate cancer in Iranian men: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Faezeh; Parizi, Mehdi Kardoust; Jessri, Mahsa; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among males in economically developed countries. Among the several risk factors that have been suggested, only age, ethnicity, diabetes, and family history of prostate cancer are well-established and primary prevention of this disease is limited. Prior studies had shown that dietary intake could be modified to reduce cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based, case- control study to examine the association between dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in Iran. A total of fifty patients with prostate cancer and a hundred controls underwent face-to-face interviews. Factor analysis was used to determine the dietary patterns. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We defined two major dietary patterns in this population: 'western diet'(high in sweets and desserts, organ meat, snacks, tea and coffee, French fries, salt, carbonated drinks, red or processed meat) and 'healthy diet' (high in legumes, fish, dairy products, fruits and fruit juice, vegetables, boiled potatoes ,whole cereal and egg). Both Healthy and western pattern scores were divided into two categories (based on medians). Higher scores on Healthy pattern was marginally significantly related to decreased risk of prostate cancer (above median vs below median, OR =0.4, 95%CI=0.2-1.0). An increased risk of prostate cancer was observed with the higher scores on the Western pattern (above median vs below median, OR=4.0, 95%CI=1.5-11.0). The results of this study suggested that diet might be associated with prostate cancer among Iranian males.

  12. The post hoc use of randomised controlled trials to explore drug associated cancer outcomes: methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansdottir, Gudrun; Zoungas, Sophia; Chalmers, John; Knol, Miriam J; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Woodward, Mark; Patel, Anushka; Grobbee, Diederick E; De Bruin, Marie L

    2013-11-01

    Drug-induced cancer risk is of increasing interest. Both observational studies and data from clinical trials have linked several widely used treatments to cancer. When a signal for a potential drug-cancer association is generated, substantiation is required to assess the impact on public health before proper regulatory action can be taken. This paper aims to discuss challenges of exploring drug-associated cancer outcomes by post-hoc analyses of Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed for other purposes. METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES TO CONSIDER: We set out to perform a post-hoc nested case-control analysis in the ADVANCE trial in order to examine the association between insulin use and cancer. We encountered several methodological challenges that made the results difficult to interpret, including short duration of exposure of interest, lack of power, and correlation between exposure and potential confounders. Considering these challenges, we concluded that using the data would not enlighten the discussion about insulin use and cancer risk and only serve to further complicate any understanding. Therefore, we decided to use our experience to illustrate methodological challenges, which need to be addressed when re-analysing trial data for cancer related outcomes. Substantial amount of information on cancer outcomes is available from RCTs. Hence, making use of such data could save time and spare patients from inclusion in further trials. However, methodological challenges must be addressed to enhance the likelihood of reliable conclusions. Advantages of post-hoc analyses of RCTs include quality of data collected and sometimes randomisation to exposure of interest. Limitations include confounding and sample size, which is fixed to suit the purposes of the trial, insufficient duration of exposure and identification of underlying biological mechanisms relating treatment to cancer to formulate the most appropriate post-hoc study design.

  13. Association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Farah; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cleary, Sean P; Gallinger, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is inconsistent regarding alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, although heavy drinking may increase risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted using 345 pancreas cancer cases diagnosed 2011-2012 and 1,285 frequency-matched controls from Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression was used to evaluate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk; data was also stratified by sex and smoking status to assess interaction. Alcohol consumption was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=0.78, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.05 for 1 - 3 drinks/week; age-adjusted odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.17 for 4 - 20 drinks/week), however there was a non-significant increased risk for heavy drinkers consuming ≥ 21 drinks/week (age-adjusted odds ratio=1.35, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.27). Cigarette smoking modified the alcohol-cancer relationship; among current smokers, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with a significantly increased pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=4.04, 95% CI: 1.58, 10.37), whereas this significant association with heavy drinking was not observed among non-smokers (age-adjusted odds ratio=2.01, 95% CI: 0.50, 8.18). Furthermore, light - moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased pancreas cancer risk among current smokers. While alcohol was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, smoking status modified this relationship such that among current smokers, alcohol intake was associated with a greater than two-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small sample sizes within subgroups and correction for multiple comparisons should be considered. These findings should be replicated in larger studies where more precise estimates of risk can be obtained.

  14. Association between Alcohol Consumption and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Farah; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cleary, Sean P.; Gallinger, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Evidence is inconsistent regarding alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, although heavy drinking may increase risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted using 345 pancreas cancer cases diagnosed 2011–2012 and 1,285 frequency-matched controls from Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression was used to evaluate alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk; data was also stratified by sex and smoking status to assess interaction. Results Alcohol consumption was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=0.78, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.05 for 1 - 3 drinks/week; age-adjusted odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.17 for 4 - 20 drinks/week), however there was a non-significant increased risk for heavy drinkers consuming ≥21 drinks/week (age-adjusted odds ratio=1.35, 95% CI: 0.81, 2.27). Cigarette smoking modified the alcohol-cancer relationship; among current smokers, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with a significantly increased pancreatic cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio=4.04, 95% CI: 1.58, 10.37), whereas this significant association with heavy drinking was not observed among non-smokers (age-adjusted odds ratio=2.01, 95% CI: 0.50, 8.18). Furthermore, light – moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased pancreas cancer risk among current smokers. Conclusions While alcohol was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, smoking status modified this relationship such that among current smokers, alcohol intake was associated with a greater than two-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small sample sizes within subgroups and correction for multiple comparisons should be considered. These findings should be replicated in larger studies where more precise estimates of risk can be obtained. PMID:25856529

  15. The Effect of Smoking and Opium on Bladder Cancer in Yazd Province: A Case - Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bladder cancer is regarded as the most common urinary malignancy in the world. As other cancers, its incidence has increased in recent years. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between smoking and opium and bladder cancer in residents of Yazd province. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 patients with bladder cancer and 200 matched healthy individuals in Yazd province. Research data was gathered through interview and administration of a researcher-made questionnaire.  Furthermore, chi-square and regression tests were carried out with SPSS software (version 18. Results: The mean and standard deviation of age in case and control groups were reported to be 61.54 ± 13.61 and 61.45 ± 13.3 respectively. Education level, type of oil consumed, weekly frequency of smoking and fried foods, white meat, red meat consumption involve the predictive factors for bladder cancer; as consumption of hydrogenated fats, animal fats, fried foods more than 4 times per week and red meat had (OR=1.31;95% CL,0.63-2.71, (OR= 6.32;95% CL,2.03-19.8, (OR=2.86;95% CL,1.2-6.8 and (OR=51.18;95% CL,14.78-177.03 times greater risk for bladder cancer respectively and also low education level. White meat intake had a protective effect. Moreover, in line with increasing number of cigarettes per day, the risk of bladder cancer increased. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that smoking and opium are risk factors of bladder cancer. Thus, appropriate training and intervention program need to be taken into account in order to prevent the cancer.

  16. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  17. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, D T

    2001-01-01

    The etiology of pancreatic cancer is poorly understood, partly because of the inconsistency of findings among case-control studies of pancreatic cancer. Because of the unfavorable prognosis for pancreatic cancer, many case-control studies have been based largely on interviews with next of kin, who are known to report less reliable information on potential risk factors than original respondents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of speculative risk factors such as dietary/nutritional factors and alcohol drinking, as well as those of established risk factors such as cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, and family history of pancreatic cancer, on pancreatic cancer risk based solely on direct interviews. This investigation was a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer diagnosed in Atlanta (GA), Detroit (MI), and ten New Jersey counties from August 1986 through April 1989. Direct interviews were conducted with 526 incident cases and 2,153 population controls. This study revealed a significant interaction between body mass index and caloric intake that was consistent by both race and gender. Subjects with elevated body mass index and caloric intake had increased risk, whereas those with elevated values for one of these factors but not the other experienced no increased risk. This finding suggests that energy balance may play a major role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, as well as a possible complication of the tumor. Our data are consistent with a key role for hyperinsulinemia in pancreatic carcinogenesis, particularly among non-diabetics with an elevated body mass index. A three-fold risk of pancreatic cancer among first-degree relatives of affected individuals was apparent. An increased risk also was associated with a family history of colon, endometrial, ovary, and breast cancer, suggesting a possible link to hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer. Our findings support a

  18. Subfertility and Risk of Testicular Cancer in the EPSAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Grasso

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that subfertility and testicular cancer share genetic and environmental risk factors. We studied both subfertility and the strongest known testicular cancer susceptibility gene, the c-KIT ligand (KITLG, whose pathway is involved in spermatogenesis.The EPSAM case-control study is comprised of testicular cancer patients from the Province of Turin, Italy, diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. The present analysis included 245 cases and 436 controls from EPSAM, who were aged 20 years or older at diagnosis/recruitment. The EPSAM questionnaire collected information on factors such as number of children, age at first attempt to conceive, duration of attempt to conceive, use of assisted reproduction techniques, physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility, number of siblings, and self-reported cryptorchidism. Genotyping of the KITLG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs995030 was performed on the saliva samples of 202 cases and 329 controls.Testicular cancer was associated with the number of children fathered 5 years before diagnosis (odds ratio (OR per additional child: 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.58-1.04 and sibship size (OR per additional sibling: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.88. When considering the reproductive history until 1 year before diagnosis, attempting to conceive for at least 12 months or fathering a child using assisted reproduction techniques was not associated with the risk of testicular cancer, nor was age at first attempt to conceive or physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility. The SNP rs995030 was strongly associated with risk of testicular cancer (per allele OR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26-2.64, but it did not modify the association between number of children and the risk of testicular cancer.This study supports the repeatedly reported inverse association between number of children and risk of testicular cancer, but it does not find evidence of an association for other indicators of subfertility.

  19. Psychosocial consequences in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer screening trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Rasmussen, Jakob; Siersma, V.; H. Pedersen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the psychosocial consequences in the Danish lung cancer screening trial (DLCST)and compare those between the computed tomography (CT) group and the control group. Materials and methods: This study was a single centre randomised controlled trial with five annual screening...... rounds. Healthy current or former heavy smokers aged 50–70 years (men and women) were randomised 1:1 to a CT group and a control group. Heavy smokers were defined by having smoked ≥20pack years and former smokers by being abstinent ≤10 years. Both groups were invited annually to the screening clinic...... to complete the validated lung-cancer-specific questionnaire consequences of screening lung cancer (COS-LC). The CT group was also offered a low dose CT scan of the lungs. The COS-LC measures nine scales with psychosocial properties: Anxiety, Behaviour, Dejection, Negative impact on sleep, Self-blame, Focus...

  20. Mortality of iron foundry workers. III. Lung cancer case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelkovich, D A; Shy, C M; Brown, M H; Janszen, D B; Levine, R J; Richardson, R B

    1994-12-01

    A nested case-control study was undertaken to identify the determinants of lung cancer mortality in a cohort of 8147 foundry men among whom an excess of lung cancer deaths was previously observed. The present study consisted of all lung cancer deaths (N = 220) that occurred within this cohort between 1950 and 1989. both living and dead controls, matched on race and attained age, were selected in the ratio of 10:1 (N = 2200) by means of the incidence density sampling procedure. All cases and two controls per case, randomly selected from each case's 10 controls, were included in a smoking history survey. Basic smoking history information was obtained for about 71% of these study subjects. For the purpose of this study, formaldehyde exposure levels were categorized as high, medium, low, and none. Airborne silica exposure was categorized only as high, medium, and low levels, because all foundry workers were known to be exposed to silica. Conditional logistic regression analyses indicated that cigarette smoking was a strong predictor of lung cancer mortality in this cohort. Neither exposure to formaldehyde nor silica exposure level, nor employment in any of the six major work areas within the foundry, showed an association with lung cancer.

  1. Case-controlled study of the epidemiological risk factors for breast cancer in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebamowo, C A; Adekunle, O O

    1999-05-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, more rapidly in societies that hitherto enjoyed a low incidence of the disease, such as most African countries. Most of the epidemiological data on breast cancer from Africa have been retrospective studies with propensity for bias. This was a case-controlled study of 250 consecutive patients with breast cancer diagnosed between April 1992 and December 1995. An age- and sex-matched control group of patients with non-oncological and non-endocrine diseases was compared. The peak age incidence of breast cancer in the sample studied was 43 years. There was a statistically significant difference in the height and weight of the patients compared with the controls. Patients also tended to be older at first pregnancy and at first lactation, and had a higher mean number of pregnancies. The patients also tended to be of an early birth order, to have lactated less often, to have used contraceptives and to have abused alcohol compared with the controls. The incidence of breast cancer in this environment is increasing. This is partly a result of the changing demographic profile, acquisition of 'western' lifestyle, and the changing socioeconomic profile of the country.

  2. Flavonoid intake and breast cancer risk: a case--control study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J; Lagiou, P; Samoli, E; Lagiou, A; Katsouyanni, K; La Vecchia, C; Dwyer, J; Trichopoulos, D

    2003-10-06

    Flavonoids have been investigated for possible inverse associations with various chronic degenerative diseases, but there are no epidemiologic data concerning a possible association between several of the main flavonoid categories and breast cancer risk. We have applied recently published data on the flavonoid content of several foods and beverages on dietary information collected in the context of a large case-control study of 820 women with breast cancer and 1548 control women, conducted in Greece. We found a strong, statistically significant inverse association of flavone intake with breast cancer. The odds ratio for an increment equal to one standard deviation of daily flavone intake (i.e. 0.5 mg day(-1)) was 0.87, with 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.97. The association persisted after controlling for fruit and vegetable consumption, or for other flavonoid intake. This inverse association is compatible with and may explain the reported inverse association of breast cancer with consumption of vegetables, particularly leafy vegetables. After controlling for dietary confounding, there was no association of breast cancer risk with flavanones, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanidins or isoflavones.

  3. Results of a randomized controlled trial to increase cervical cancer screening among rural Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Beti; Carosso, Elizabeth A; Jhingan, Esther; Wang, Lei; Holte, Sarah E; Byrd, Theresa L; Benavides, Maria C; Lopez, Cathy; Martinez-Gutierrez, Javiera; Ibarra, Genoveva; Gonzalez, Virginia J; Gonzalez, Nora E; Duggan, Catherine R

    2017-02-15

    Latinas have the highest rates of cervical cancer in the United States and the second highest rate of cervical cancer mortality. One factor in the disparity is the relatively low rate of screening for cervical cancer in this population. Eligible women who were out of adherence with cervical cancer screening (>3 years since their last Papanicolaou [Pap] test) were identified via medical record review by a federally qualified local health center. The effects of a low-intensity intervention (video delivered to participants' homes; n = 150) and a high-intensity intervention (video plus a home-based educational session; n = 146) on cervical cancer screening uptake in comparison with a control arm (usual care; n = 147) were investigated. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the interventions was conducted: all intervention costs were calculated, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was computed. Finally, women with positive Pap tests were provided navigation by a community health educator to ensure that they received follow-up care. A total of 443 Latinas participated. Seven months after randomization, significantly more women in the high-intensity arm received a Pap test (53.4%) in comparison with the low-intensity arm (38.7%; P cancer; these women received navigation for follow-up care. A culturally appropriate, in-home, promotora-led educational intervention was successful in increasing cervical cancer screening among Latinas. Cancer 2017;123:666-674. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Hypnosis in breast cancer care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Paul, Anna; Langhorst, Jost; Kümmel, Sherko; Dobos, Gustav J

    2015-01-01

    Many breast cancer patients and survivors experience pain and emotional stress related to their disease, its diagnostic procedures, or treatment. Hypnosis has long been used for the treatment of such symptoms. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of hypnosis in women with breast cancer, breast cancer survivors, and in women undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and CAMBASE were screened through February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of hypnosis in women with breast cancer or undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. RCTs on postmenopausal women without a history of breast cancer were also eligible. Primary outcomes were pain, distress, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and hot flashes. Safety was defined as secondary outcome measure. Risk of bias was assessed by 2 reviewers independently using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Thirteen RCTs with 1357 patients were included. In women undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy (3 RCTs), hypnosis positively influenced pain and distress; 1 RCT on breast cancer surgery found effects of hypnosis on pain, distress, fatigue, and nausea. For women undergoing radiotherapy (3 RCTs), hypnosis combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy improved distress and fatigue. In 3 RCTs on women with and without a history of breast cancer experiencing hot flashes, hypnosis improved hot flashes and distress. Three RCTs on women with metastatic breast cancer found effects on pain and distress. This systematic review found sparse but promising evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in breast cancer care. While more research is needed to underpin these results, hypnosis can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the management of breast cancer-related symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Pathways to policy: Lessons learned in multisectoral collaboration for physical activity and built environment policy development from the Coalitions Linking Action and Science for Prevention (CLASP) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Christopher E; Mowat, David L; Keen, Deb

    2017-06-16

    The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer funded 12 large-scale knowledge to action cancer and chronic disease prevention projects between 2009 and 2016 through the Coalitions Linking Action and Science for Prevention (CLASP) initiative. Two projects, Healthy Canada by Design (HCBD) and Children's Mobility, Health and Happiness (CMHH), developed policies to address physical activity and the built environment through a multisectoral approach. A qualitative analysis involving a review of 183 knowledge products and 8 key informant interviews was conducted to understand what policy changes occurred, and the underlying critical success factors, through these projects. Both projects worked at the local level to change physical activity and built environment policy in 203 sites, including municipalities and schools. Both projects brought multisectoral expertise (e.g., public health, land use planning, transportation engineering, education, etc.) together to inform the development of local healthy public policy in the areas of land use, transportation and school travel planning. Through the qualitative analysis of the knowledge products and key informant interviews, 163 policies were attributed to HCBD and CMHH work. Fourteen "pathways to policy" were identified as critical success factors facilitating and accelerating the development and implementation of physical activity and built environment policy. Of the 14 pathways to policy, 8 had a focus on multisectoral collaboration. The lessons learned from the CLASP experience could support enhanced multisectoral collaborations to accelerate the development and implementation of physical activity and built environment policy in new jurisdictions across Canada and internationally.

  6. Research on Skin Cancer-Related Behaviors and Outcomes in the NIH Grant Portfolio, 2000-2014: Skin Cancer Intervention Across the Cancer Control Continuum (SCI-3C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Frank M; Dwyer, Laura A; Tesauro, Gina; Taber, Jennifer M; Norton, Wynne E; Hartman, Anne M; Geller, Alan C

    2017-05-01

    The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer broadly identified research gaps, but specific objectives are needed to further behavioral intervention research. To review National Institute of Health (NIH) grants targeting skin cancer-related behaviors and relevant outcomes. A portfolio analysis of the title, abstract, specific aims, and research plans of identified grant applications from 2000 to 2014 targeting skin cancer-related behaviors or testing behavioral intervention effects on cancer-relevant outcomes along the cancer continuum. Funding trends were compared along the cancer control continuum, with respect to investigator demographics and use of theory, technology, policy, and changes to environmental surroundings (built environment). A total of 112 submitted applications met inclusion criteria; of these, 40 (35.7%) were funded, and 31 of the 40 were interventions. Comparing the 40 funded grants with the 72 unfunded grants, the overall success rates did not differ significantly between male (33.3%) and female (37.3%) investigators, nor did the frequency of R01 awards (36.7% and 28.1%, respectively). Among intervention awards, most (24 of 31) addressed prevention. Fewer awards targeted detection alone or in conjunction with prevention (3) or cancer survivorship (4), and no grant addressed emotional sequelae or adherence behavior related to diagnosis or treatment. Fewer than half of funded grants aimed for clinically related targets (eg, sunburn reduction). Use of theory and technology occurred in more than 75% of grants. However, the full capability of proposed technology was infrequently used, and rarely did constructs of the proposed behavior change theory clearly and comprehensively drive the intervention approach. Policy or environmental manipulation was present in all dissemination grants but was rarely used elsewhere, and 19.4% included policy implementation and 25.8% proposed changes in built environment. Grant success rate in skin

  7. Confidence and uncertainty long after initial treatment for early prostate cancer: survivors' views of cancer control and the treatment decisions they made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jack A; Talcott, James A

    2006-09-20

    The many years most men diagnosed with early prostate cancer live after diagnosis allow evolving assessments of their cancer control and their treatment choices, but little is known of these outcomes or the factors that influence them. We surveyed an established, prospective cohort that had initiated treatment for early prostate cancer 4 to 8 years previously. We assessed perceived cancer control, quality of treatment decisions, and other domains of quality of life, along with treatment-related urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunction. Most men reported high confidence in cancer control and their treatment decisions, but many reported misgivings about one or both. The diagnostic, treatment, and quality-of-life factors associated with these two outcomes were distinct. Perceived cancer control was lower among those with adverse medical factors: higher pretreatment Gleason scores, subsequent rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and secondary androgen ablation therapy. Confidence in treatment decisions was unrelated to these factors and was higher in men who opted for radical prostatectomy or brachytherapy, reported close attention to current PSA, had high masculine self-esteem and little distress from sexual dysfunction, and were married. Although perceptions of cancer control and the quality of their treatment decisions are linked, men can distinguish between these two outcomes. They incorporate objective indicators of high risk and adverse outcomes when assessing their cancer control; confidence in treatment decisions represents a more complex psychosocial adjustment to the persistent uncertainty that originates with their diagnosis.

  8. Association between obesity and local control of advanced rectal cancer after combined surgery and radiotherapy

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    Choi, Yun Seon; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Ahn, Ki Jung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Han [Dept. of Molecular Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The association between metabolism and cancer has been recently emphasized. This study aimed to find the prognostic significance of obesity in advanced stage rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 111 patients who were treated with combined surgery and RT for clinical stage 2–3 (T3 or N+) rectal cancer between 2008 and 2014. The prognostic significance of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m{sup 2}) in local control was evaluated. The median follow-up was 31.2 months (range, 4.1 to 85.7 months). Twenty-five patients (22.5%) were classified as obese. Treatment failure occurred in 33 patients (29.7%), including local failures in 13 patients (11.7%), regional lymph node failures in 5, and distant metastases in 24. The 3-year local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 88.7%, 73.6%, and 87.7%, respectively. Obesity (n = 25) significantly reduced the local control rate (p = 0.045; 3-year local control, 76.2%), especially in women (n = 37, p = 0.021). Segregation of local control was best achieved by BMI of 25.6 kg/m{sup 2} as a cutoff value. Obese rectal cancer patients showed poor local control after combined surgery and RT. More effective local treatment strategies for obese patients are warranted.

  9. Opportunity for collaboration: a conceptual model of success in tobacco control and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Frances A; Schmitt, Carol L; Rosas, Scott R

    2012-01-01

    Collaborations between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs can leverage scarce resources to address noncommunicable diseases globally, but barriers to cooperation and actual collaboration are substantial. To foster collaboration between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs, the Global Health Partnership conducted research to identify similarities and differences in how the 2 programs viewed program success. Using concept mapping, cancer prevention and tobacco control experts generated statements describing the components of a successful cancer prevention or tobacco control program and 33 participants sorted and rated the final 99 statements. Multidimensional scaling analysis with a 2-dimensional solution was used to identify an 8-cluster conceptual map of program success. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients for all 99 statements to compare the item-level ratings of both groups and used t tests to compare the mean importance of ratings assigned to each cluster. Eight major clusters of success were identified: 1) advocacy and persuasion, 2) building sustainability, 3) partnerships, 4) readiness and support, 5) program management fundamentals, 6) monitoring and evaluation, 7) utilization of evidence, and 8) implementation. We found no significant difference between the maps created by the 2 groups and only 1 mean difference for the importance ratings for 1 of the clusters: cancer prevention experts rated partnerships as more important to program success than did tobacco control experts. Our findings are consistent with those of research documenting the necessary components of successful programs and the similarities between cancer prevention and tobacco control. Both programs value the same strategies to address a common risk factor: tobacco use. Identifying common ground between these 2 research and practice communities can benefit future collaborations at the local, state, tribal, national, and international levels, and inform the

  10. Altered mitochondrial quality control signaling in muscle of old gastric cancer patients with cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzetti, Emanuele; Lorenzi, Maria; Landi, Francesco; Picca, Anna; Rosa, Fausto; Tanganelli, Fabiana; Galli, Marco; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista; Pacelli, Fabio; Cesari, Matteo; Bernabei, Roberto; Calvani, Riccardo; Bossola, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the loss of muscle featuring both aging and cancer cachexia (CC). Whether mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is altered in skeletal myocytes of old patients with CC is unclear. The present investigation therefore sought to preliminarily characterize MQC pathways in muscle of old gastric cancer patients with cachexia. The study followed a case-control cross-sectional design. Intraoperative biopsies of the rectus abdominis muscle were obtained from 18 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (nine with CC and nine non-cachectic) and nine controls, and assayed for the expression of a set of MQC mediators. The mitofusin 2 expression was reduced in cancer patients compared with controls, independent of CC. Fission protein 1 was instead up-regulated in CC patients relative to the other groups. The mitophagy regulators PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and Parkin were both down-regulated in cancer patients compared with controls. The ratio between the protein content of the lipidated and non-lipidated forms of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B was lower in CC patients relative to controls and non-cachectic cancer patients. Finally, the expression of autophagy-associated protein 7, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A was unvarying among groups. Collectively, our findings indicate that, in old patients with gastric cancer, cachexia is associated with derangements of the muscular MQC axis at several checkpoints: mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial tagging for disposal, and mitophagy signaling. Further investigations are needed to corroborate these preliminary findings and determine whether MQC pathways may become target for future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive bias modification to reduce fear of breast cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Corner, Geoffrey W; Slivjak, Elizabeth T; Roberts, Kailey E; Li, Yuelin; Breitbart, William; Lacey, Stephanie; Tuman, Malwina; DuHamel, Katherine N; Blinder, Victoria S; Beard, Courtney

    2017-04-15

    The most common, persistent concern among survivors of breast cancer is the fear that their disease will return, yet to the authors' knowledge, few interventions targeting fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) have been developed to date. The current pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a home-delivered cognitive bias modification intervention to reduce FCR. The intervention, called Attention and Interpretation Modification for Fear of Breast Cancer Recurrence (AIM-FBCR), targeted 2 types of cognitive biases (ie, attention and interpretation biases). A total of 110 survivors of breast cancer were randomized to receive 8 sessions of 1 of 2 versions of AIM-FBCR or a control condition program. Computer-based assessments of cognitive biases and a self-report measure of FCR were administered before the intervention, after the intervention, and 3 months after the intervention. Improvements in health worries (P = .019) and interpretation biases (rates of threat endorsement [Pcancer. Future research should attempt to replicate these findings in a larger-scale trial using a more sophisticated, user-friendly program and additional measures of improvement in more diverse samples. Cancer 2017;123:1424-1433. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. A Case Control Study of Lung Cancer Among Workers in Dagang Oil Field, Tianjin, China

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    Yaguang FAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective To investigate the risk factors of lung cancer among the employees who had worked in Dagang oil field, Tianjin, China. Methods A matched case control study was conducted to analyse the association between some exposures and lung cancer risk by univariate and multiple Logistic regression method. ResultsAccording to the results from univariate and multiple analysis, smoking and previous lung disease increase lung cancer risk with adjusted OR of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.18-1.94 and 3.37 (95%CI: 1.88-7.16 respectively, while the adjusted OR for occupational chemical toxic substance and dust exposure is 0.73 (95%CI: 0.69-1.30 and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.62-1.15 respectively, and there is no significant association between family history of cancer and lung cancer risk in this study.Conclusion Smoking and previous lung disease are the independent risk factors for lung cancer among workers in Dagang oil field, yet due to some potential epidemiological bias, the association between occupational exposure and lung cancer needs further investigation.

  13. The expression of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in testicular cancer: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapouri, Farnaz; Saeidi, Shaghayegh; Ashrafi Kakhki, Sara; Pouyan, Omid; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2013-11-01

    It has been suggested that malfunction of immune system may causes testicular cancer. Recently, our understanding of innate immune system has been expanded, by discovery of "Toll-Like Receptors" (TLRs). Some studies have shown that polymorphisms of TLR2 and 4 may affect on the risk of cancer. Also, the role of TLRs 3 and 9 have been shown in apoptosis and metastasis of cancer cells in animal models. Little information is available about the influence of innate immunity on testicular malignancy. Therefore, expression of TLRs 2, 3, 4 and 9 as main components of innate immunity has been investigated in this study. In this case control study, TLRs gene expression was examined by RT-PCR in normal testis and testicular cancer tissues. Real time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis was used to compare the relative expression of TLRs between the samples. mRNAs of TLR 2, 3, 4 and 9 were expressed in all normal and cancer samples. Q-PCR reveals that cancer samples had stronger expression of these genes compared with normal ones. It seems that the different TLRs expression in testicular cancer cells may contribute to extensive signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis.

  14. Induced abortion and breast cancer: results from a population-based case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  15. Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in women: a case-control study in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, A; Barnadas, A; Pallares, C; Martinez, I; Fabregat, X; Rosello, J; Estape, J; Planas, J; Gonzalez, C A

    1994-10-15

    A case-control study on lung cancer and the habit of cigarette smoking was carried out in Barcelona (Spain). Cases were 103 women newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer in 10 hospitals from the study area. Histologic confirmation was given in 101 cases, of which 53 were adenocarcinoma, 19 squamous-cell carcinoma, 9 small-cell carcinoma and 20 other types. Two controls per case were selected, matched by age, residence and hospital. Compared with the never-smokers, the odds ratios (OR), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), were 1.61 (0.4 to 6.9) for ex-smokers and 3.61 (1.6 to 8.3) for current smokers. The risk of lung cancer showed a good dose-response relationship with duration of the habit, average number of cigarettes smoked daily and cumulative cigarette consumption. The risk of lung cancer increased by 62% for each 10 pack-years. Depth of inhalation also showed a remarkable effect, independently of the intensity of the habit. Although mortality and incidence rates of lung cancer among women in Spain are lower than in other developed countries, the risk of lung cancer is that which would be expected according to the pattern of the smoking habit in Spanish women.

  16. Mindfulness practice reduces cortisol blunting during chemotherapy: A randomized controlled study of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; Peng, Cheng; Sleight, Alix G; Nguyen, Nathalie; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Figueiredo, Jane C

    2017-08-15

    The objective of this randomized clinical experiment was to test the influence of a mindfulness meditation practice, when delivered during 1 session of active chemotherapy administration, on the acute salivary cortisol response as a marker of neuroendocrine system activity in cancer patients. A mindfulness, attention-control, or resting exposure was assigned to 57 English- or Spanish-speaking colorectal cancer patients at 1 county oncology clinic and 1 university oncology clinic at the start of chemotherapy. Saliva samples were collected at the start of chemotherapy and at subsequent 20-minute intervals during the first 60 minutes of chemotherapy (4 samples in all). Self-reporting on biobehavioral assessments after chemotherapy included distress, fatigue, and mindfulness. An area-under-the-curve analysis (AUC) showed a relative increase in cortisol reactivity in the mindfulness group after adjustments for biological and clinical measures (β = 123.21; P = .03). More than twice as many patients in the mindfulness group versus the controls displayed a cortisol rise from the baseline to 20 minutes (69% vs 34%; P = .02). AUC values were uncorrelated with biobehavioral measure scores, although mindfulness scores were inversely correlated with fatigue (r = -0.46; P mindfulness practice during chemotherapy can reduce the blunting of neuroendocrine profiles typically observed in cancer patients. Implications include support for the use of mindfulness practice in integrative oncology. Cancer 2017;123:3088-96. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Lung cancer and occupation in nonsmokers: a multicenter case-control study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Ariana; Mannetje, Andrea't; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Cassidy, Adrian; Janout, Vladimir; Travier, Noemie; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause for lung cancer worldwide, making it difficult to examine the carcinogenic role of other risk factors because of possible confounding by smoking. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between lung cancer and occupation independent of smoking. A case-control study of lung cancer was carried out between March 1998 and January 2002 in 16 centers from 7 European countries, including 223 never-smoking cases and 1039 controls. Information on lifestyle and occupation was obtained through detailed questionnaires. Job and industries were classified as entailing exposure to known or suspected carcinogens; in addition, expert assessment provided exposure estimates to specific agents. The odds ratio of lung cancer among women employed for more than 12 years in suspected high-risk occupations was 1.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.63-4.85). A comparable increase in risk was not detected for employment in established high-risk occupations or among men. Increased risk of lung cancer was suggested among individuals exposed to nonferrous metal dust and fumes, crystalline silica, and organic solvents. Occupations were found to play a limited role in lung cancer risk among never-smokers. Jobs entailing exposure to suspected lung carcinogens should receive priority in future studies among women. Nonferrous metal dust and fumes and silica may exert a carcinogenic effect independently from smoking.

  18. Dietary inflammatory index and ovarian cancer risk in a New Jersey case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Paddock, Lisa E; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Olson, Sara H; Bandera, Elisa V

    2018-02-01

    Diet may influence the development of ovarian cancer. Although it has been shown that inflammation plays an important etiologic role in ovarian carcinogenesis, little is known about the influence of the inflammatory potential of food consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a proinflammatory diet, as indicated by a high dietary inflammatory index (DII ® ) score, on ovarian cancer risk, in a New Jersey population. Data from a case-control study conducted in New Jersey were used to estimate the relation between DII score and the risk for ovarian cancer. The study consisted of 205 cases with incident, histologically confirmed ovarian cancer, and 390 controls identified by random-digit dialing, based on Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service lists, and area sampling. Computation of the DII was based on the intake of selected dietary factors assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential covariates. Although there was no significant association observed in pre- and perimenopausal women, a significant association was observed between the most proinflammatory DII scores and ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women (OR Quartile4 vs1 , 1.89; 95% CI, 1.02-3.52; P trend  = 0.03). Findings from the present study suggested that a proinflammatory diet may increase risk for ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women, and warrants further study to confirm this association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Massa, Ana E; Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Menacho-Miguel, José Antonio; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio

    2014-08-04

    The smoke fume, principal factor in the development of lung cancer, causes the expression of certain cytokines, including interleukin 4, 6, 8 and 10, which may act by inhibiting apoptosis and interfere cellular repair mechanisms and angiogenesis. To determine the possible relationship between gene polymorphisms of these cytokines and lung cancer. To achieve this objective we designed a case-control study, which included 400 patients who had come to the consultation for rapid diagnosis of lung cancer at the Pneumology Department, University Hospital of Salamanca, and whose main criterion exclusion was the lack of active contact with smoke fume. Patients were divided into 2 groups, each consisting of 200 patients: cases (patients diagnosed with lung cancer) and controls (patients without lung cancer). A percentage of 62.8 of men were former smokers at diagnosis compared with 55.5% of women, although the former still had a greater cumulative consumption. Squamous cell carcinoma predominated in diagnosis (48.9% of patients) and more than half were in advanced stages (28.5% in stage iiiB and 25.5% in stage iv). No statistical significance was observed by linking the existence of tumor to the prevalence of any of the analyzed polymorphisms. Polymorphisms in the study did not modify the risk of developing lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in cancer information-seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness between cancer survivors and healthy controls: a national, population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Abbey R; Lykins, Emily L B; Gochett, Celestine G; Brechting, Emily H; Graue, Lili O; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions. We examined data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information-seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey. The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information, but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information-seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups. Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information-seeking preferences and experience. However, awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer.