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  1. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  2. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  3. A Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference abstract describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violatioas.The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean end peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  4. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  5. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May- September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  6. Developing Empirical Lightning Cessation Forecast Guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses the 45th Weather Squadron's (45WS) need for improved guidance regarding lightning cessation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC's Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network was the primary observational tool to investigate both cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning. Five statistical and empirical schemes were created from LDAR, sounding, and radar parameters derived from 116 storms. Four of the five schemes were unsuitable for operational use since lightning advisories would be canceled prematurely, leading to safety risks to personnel. These include a correlation and regression tree analysis, three variants of multiple linear regression, event time trending, and the time delay between the greatest height of the maximum dBZ value to the last flash. These schemes failed to adequately forecast the maximum interval, the greatest time between any two flashes in the storm. The majority of storms had a maximum interval less than 10 min, which biased the schemes toward small values. Success was achieved with the percentile method (PM) by separating the maximum interval into percentiles for the 100 dependent storms.

  7. Developing a Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, WInifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  8. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  9. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations.The tool includes climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  10. Peak Wind Forecasts for the Launch-Critical Wind Towers on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2011-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds arc an important forecast clement for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to update the statistics in the current peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool includes onshore and offshore flow climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  11. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  12. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  13. Analysis of bathymetric surveys to identify coastal vulnerabilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hansen, Mark E.

    2015-10-07

    Cape Canaveral, Florida, is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline. The region includes Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, and a large portion of Canaveral National Seashore. The actual promontory of the modern Cape falls within the jurisdictional boundaries of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Erosion hazards result from winter and tropical storms, changes in sand resources, sediment budgets, and sea-level rise. Previous work by the USGS has focused on the vulnerability of the dunes to storms, where updated bathymetry and topography have been used for modeling efforts. Existing research indicates that submerged shoals, ridges, and sandbars affect patterns of wave refraction and height, coastal currents, and control sediment transport. These seabed anomalies indicate the availability and movement of sand within the nearshore environment, which may be directly related to the stability of the Cape Canaveral shoreline. Understanding the complex dynamics of the offshore bathymetry and associated sediment pathways can help identify current and future erosion vulnerabilities due to short-term (for example, hurricane and other extreme storms) and long-term (for example, sea-level rise) hazards.

  14. Air Force neutron dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 1000 Air Force personnel are monitored for neutron radiation resulting from various sources at more than thirty worldwide locations. Neutron radiation spanning several orders of magnitude in energy is encountered. The Air Force currently uses albedo thermoluminescent neutron dosimeters for personnel monitoring. The energy dependence of the albedo neutron dosimeter is a current problem and the development of site specific correction factors is ongoing. A summary of data on the energy dependence is presented as well as efforts to develop algorithms for the dosimeter. An overview of current Air Force neutron dosimetry users and needs is also presented

  15. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  16. US Air Force Base Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  17. 33 CFR 334.590 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... These signals will be in the form of a large red ball and a red flashing high intensity beacon. One... of the danger zone. An amber rotating beacon and warning sign will be erected on the north side...

  18. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasting for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred C.

    2010-01-01

    The AMU created new logistic regression equations in an effort to increase the skill of the Objective Lightning Forecast Tool developed in Phase II (Lambert 2007). One equation was created for each of five sub-seasons based on the daily lightning climatology instead of by month as was done in Phase II. The assumption was that these equations would capture the physical attributes that contribute to thunderstorm formation more so than monthly equations. However, the SS values in Section 5.3.2 showed that the Phase III equations had worse skill than the Phase II equations and, therefore, will not be transitioned into operations. The current Objective Lightning Forecast Tool developed in Phase II will continue to be used operationally in MIDDS. Three warm seasons were added to the Phase II dataset to increase the POR from 17 to 20 years (1989-2008), and data for October were included since the daily climatology showed lightning occurrence extending into that month. None of the three methods tested to determine the start of the subseason in each individual year were able to discern the start dates with consistent accuracy. Therefore, the start dates were determined by the daily climatology shown in Figure 10 and were the same in every year. The procedures used to create the predictors and develop the equations were identical to those in Phase II. The equations were made up of one to three predictors. TI and the flow regime probabilities were the top predictors followed by 1-day persistence, then VT and Ll. Each equation outperformed four other forecast methods by 7-57% using the verification dataset, but the new equations were outperformed by the Phase II equations in every sub-season. The reason for the degradation may be due to the fact that the same sub-season start dates were used in every year. It is likely there was overlap of sub-season days at the beginning and end of each defined sub-season in each individual year, which could very well affect equation performance.

  19. Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manobianco, John; Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze.For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers.MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

  20. Radar Scan Strategies for the Patrick Air Force Base Weather Surveillance Radar, Model-74C, Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, David

    2008-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) is replacing the Weather Surveillance Radar, Model 74C (WSR-74C) at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB), with a Doppler, dual polarization radar, the Radtec 43/250. A new scan strategy is needed for the Radtec 43/250, to provide high vertical resolution data over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) launch pads, while taking advantage of the new radar's advanced capabilities for detecting severe weather phenomena associated with convection within the 45 WS area of responsibility. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed several scan strategies customized for the operational needs of the 45 WS. The AMU also developed a plan for evaluating the scan strategies in the period prior to operational acceptance, currently scheduled for November 2008.

  1. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Magnetometer Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This file is comprised of the variation one minute values of the geomagnetic components X, Y and Z. These data were calculated by the Air Force Geophysics...

  2. US Air Force Data Processing Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data Processing Reference manual for United States Air Force surface stations, circa 1960s. TDF-13 stands for Tape Deck Format number 13, the format in which the...

  3. Applied Meteorology Unit - Operational Contributions to Spaceport Canaveral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Roeder, William P.; Lafosse, Richard A.; Sharp, David W.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development, evaluation and transition services to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the National Space Program. It is established under a Memorandum of Understanding among NASA, the Air Force and the National .Weather Service (NWS). The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by ENSCO, Inc. through a competitively awarded NASA contract. The primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL; the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX; and the NWS office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB). This paper will briefly review the AMU's history and describe the three processes through which its work is assigned. Since its inception in 1991 the AMU has completed 72 projects, all of which are listed at the end of this paper. At least one project that highlights each of the three tasking processes will be briefly reviewed. Some of the projects that have been especially beneficial to the space program will also be discussed in more detail, as will projects that developed significant new techniques or science in applied meteorology.

  4. 77 FR 55465 - US Air Force Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Department of the Air Force US Air Force Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate, Rome, New York, Department of the Air Force, DOD. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Issue... Research Laboratory, Office of the Staff Judge Advocate, AFRL/RIJ, 26 Electronic Parkway, Rome, New...

  5. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Peak wind speed is important element in 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS). Forecasts issued for planning operations at KSC/CCAFS. 45 WS wind advisories issued for wind gusts greater than or equal to 25 kt. 35 kt and 50 kt from surface to 300 ft. AMU developed cool-season (Oct - Apr) tool to help 45 WS forecast: daily peak wind speed, 5-minute average speed at time of peak wind, and probability peak speed greater than or equal to 25 kt, 35 kt, 50 kt. AMU tool also forecasts daily average wind speed from 30 ft to 60 ft. Phase I and II tools delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). Phase II tool also delivered as Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) GUI. Phase I and II forecast methods were compared to climatology, 45 WS wind advisories and North American Mesoscale model (MesoNAM) forecasts in a verification data set.

  6. AIR FORCE1鸟巢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    虽然ADIDAS成为了北京奥运会的官方赞助商,但身为其竞争对手的NIKE也不会轻易放弃奥运会这个巨大的商业契机,在近期网络上公布的一组最新的AIR FORCE 1 SAMPLE图片中我们就看到了和北京奥运会相关的几个新配色。

  7. History of Turkish Air Force Aviation School and the Process of Transition to Air Force Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman YALÇIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish aviation has started as a military entity. The foundation of ‘’Tayyare Komisyonu’’ (Airplane Comission in June 1, 1911 has been accepted as the official starting point. The organization of aviation includes pilot training, airplane supply, fondation of aviation school, establishment of combatant units, and building the air vehicles with local and national endeavour. Later, air defense systems, meteorology, training observers, machine specialist and technicians has gained importance as well. Turkish aviation has been built upon the ruins of the last wars of Ottoman Empire. After the invasion of the British and the French, Ottoman aviators moved to Maltepe and then to various parts of Anatolia eventually. During the Independence War, aviation school was founded in Eskişehir, moved to Adana, Konya, and came back to Adana again. After the Greek forces were expelled from Anatolia via İzmir, aviation school was moved to İzmir. In 1925, it was brought back to Eskişehir on October 1, 1951. After WWII, the duration of training in order to be a pilot was six years. In 1929, aviation school turned out to be an academic institution as well. On October 1, 1951, Air Force Academy was established in Eskişehir. Due to high sound of jet air planes, the academy was moved to İzmir in 1954. Education and training were restructured there and the quality was raised. In 1967, Air Force Academy was moved back to Yeşilköy where Turkish aviation was born some 47 years ago. Due to academic diversity and rich culture heritage, a productive period has started in Istanbul. Air Force Academy has been an institution offering BA level education since 2001 whose process goes back to 1990s. Around 90 civilian and 50 military academicians conduct education and research per year. Military training including Yalova encampment site, affective domain training, and sports activities are also conducted as well. With a 103 years history and around 16.000 graduates

  8. Air Force geographic information and analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henney, D.A.; Jansing, D.S.; Durfee, R.C.; Margle, S.M.; Till, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer-based geographic information and analysis system (GIAS) was developed to assist Air Force planners with environmental analysis, natural resources management, and facility and land-use planning. The system processes raster image data, topological data structures, and geometric or vector data similar to that produced by computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems, integrating the data where appropriate. Data types included Landsat imagery, scanned images of base maps, digitized point and chain features, topographic elevation data, USGS stream course data, highway networks, railroad networks, and land use/land cover information from USGS interpreted aerial photography. The system is also being developed to provide an integrated display and analysis capability with base maps and facility data bases prepared on CADD systems. 3 refs.

  9. Forecast skill of a high-resolution real-time mesoscale model designed for weather support of operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.; Manobianco, John

    1994-01-01

    NASA funded Mesoscale Environmental Simulations and Operations (MESO), Inc. to develop a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). The model has been modified specifically for short-range forecasting in the vicinity of KSC/CCAS. To accomplish this, the model domain has been limited to increase the number of horizontal grid points (and therefore grid resolution) and the model' s treatment of precipitation, radiation, and surface hydrology physics has been enhanced to predict convection forced by local variations in surface heat, moisture fluxes, and cloud shading. The objective of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of MASS including the real-time initialization and configuration for running the data pre-processor and model, and (2) to summarize the preliminary evaluation of the model's forecasts of temperature, moisture, and wind at selected rawinsonde station locations during February 1994 and July 1994. MASS is a hydrostatic, three-dimensional modeling system which includes schemes to represent planetary boundary layer processes, surface energy and moisture budgets, free atmospheric long and short wave radiation, cloud microphysics, and sub-grid scale moist convection.

  10. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  11. Hypertension in Indonesian air force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the association between aircraft noise and blood pressure.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Aviation and Aerospace Health (LAKESPRA from 2003 – 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, total flight hours, type of aircraft, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels, waist circumference, height and weight (Body Mass Index, and blood pressure.Results: There were 549 pilots, 49 were found to be hypertensive, with SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Helicopters pilots were at an almost 2 fold risk of hypertension compared to pilots of the fixed wing aircrafts. Pilots with more than 1400 hours of flight had more than 2 fold risk of being hypertensive compared to those with 1400 flight hours or less.Conclusion: The type of aircraft, which is related to the noise generated, may be a risk factor for developing hypertension in pilots. Increased total flight hours also increased the risk of hypertension. (Med J Indones 2012;21:38-43Keywords: Aircraft noise, hypertension, pilots

  12. 76 FR 57026 - Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Force Research Laboratory overview focusing on the Air Force Science and Technology plan emphasizing... Department of the Air Force Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Under...

  13. 78 FR 18326 - U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... outbriefs, as well as discussion of the SAB's review of Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) science and... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under...

  14. 76 FR 78906 - U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Oxygen Generation Study; review of the recently completed SAB Air Force Research Laboratory science and... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY Department of the Air Force, U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. ACTION Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Under...

  15. 77 FR 73026 - U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... study outbriefs, as well as discussion of the SAB's review of Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, Department of the Air Force, DOT. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Under...

  16. 77 FR 33202 - Department of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ..., Massachusetts 01887, a partially exclusive license, the exclusive portion limited to the field of cyber security... amended; the Department of the Air Force announces its intention to grant SCADA Security Innovation,...

  17. 78 FR 78944 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... of Air Force history since 1947. 2. Accounting for the socio-cultural dimensions of force structure...-cultures within the Air Force. 3:10 p.m.--Shaping and Sizing the Force 1. How to institutionalize the...

  18. 76 FR 71333 - U.S. Air Force Academy Board of Visitors Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... perspective on Diversity; the Air Force Academy Athletic Corporation; Air Force Academy fiscal issues; and the... with the approval of the DFO and Chairperson. For the benefit of the public, rosters that list the... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Academy Board of Visitors Notice of Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Air...

  19. 75 FR 81591 - U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Force Research Laboratory Science and Technology FY11 Review. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b, as amended, and... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under...

  20. MEASUREMENT OF ADHESION FORCES IN AIR WITH THE VIBRATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siegfried; Ripperger; Konrad; Hein

    2005-01-01

    The vibration method represents a practical method for the measurement of adhesion forces and adhesion force distributions. This method causes sinusoidally altemating stresses and yields detachment and contact forces between particles and substrate of the same order of magnitude. Alternating contact forces of the vibration method can cause an adhesion force intensification through flattening of asperities. The measuring principle of the vibration method and the analysis of experimental results are described in the article. Normal adhesion forces (pull-off forces) are measured using the vibration method and the colloidal probe technique. The results of both methods show good agreement for small particle sizes. The influence of the detachment force direction is shown by comparing tangential and normal adhesion forces measured using particle reentrainment in a turbulent air flow and the vibration method, respectively. The surface roughness of the substrate and the relative humidity are shown to significantly influence the measured adhesion forces. For the calculation of the adhesion forces, an approach by Rabinovich was combined with approximations of plastic micro asperity flattening. The Rabinovich approach accounts for roughness effects on the van der Waals force by incorporating the rms roughness of the interacting surfaces. rms-values of the particles and substrates were measured with atomic force microscopy at different scanning areas.

  1. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  2. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry air and air/water vapor mixtures in the same forced convection cooling test rig (jet array impingement configurations) with mass ratios of water vapor to air up to 0.23. The primary objective was to verify by direct experiment that selected existing methods for evaluation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of air/water vapor mixtures could be used with confidence to predict heat transfer coefficients for such mixtures using as a basis heat transfer data for dry air only. The property evaluation methods deemed most appropriate require as a basis a measured property value at one mixture composition in addition to the property values for the pure components.

  3. Innovating to integrate the intangibles into the learning Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Benjamin T; Weigel, Fred K; Overstreet, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    United States federal law and other regulations require the US military services to provide professional military education to their forces. Meeting that requirement will become increasingly difficult with the absence of a federal government budget, significant cuts to defense spending, and expected future cuts to both defense spending and manpower. Additionally, the operations tempo remains high despite the withdrawal of troops from Iraq and the planned withdrawal from Afghanistan. The resulting time and budget constraints will likely make it more difficult for the services to provide every member with the opportunity to compete for positions in coveted in-residence professional military education programs. Thus, the Air Force is considering a new lifetime learning approach to professional military education. As the Air Force seeks to develop its new paradigm, we must understand what benefits of the current system should be retained and what drawbacks should be allayed. Unfortunately, there is little research in this area. We content analyze data collected from Air Force officers attending in-residence professional military education, synthesize our findings with education and technology literature, and suggest innovative technologies that can maximize the intangible benefits and minimize the drawbacks of professional military education. The blended approach we present can create a richer, more meaningful learning experience for the service member, while simultaneously lowering the cost per member and providing greater opportunity to attend in-residence professional military education. PMID:24488877

  4. Innovating to integrate the intangibles into the learning Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Benjamin T; Weigel, Fred K; Overstreet, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    United States federal law and other regulations require the US military services to provide professional military education to their forces. Meeting that requirement will become increasingly difficult with the absence of a federal government budget, significant cuts to defense spending, and expected future cuts to both defense spending and manpower. Additionally, the operations tempo remains high despite the withdrawal of troops from Iraq and the planned withdrawal from Afghanistan. The resulting time and budget constraints will likely make it more difficult for the services to provide every member with the opportunity to compete for positions in coveted in-residence professional military education programs. Thus, the Air Force is considering a new lifetime learning approach to professional military education. As the Air Force seeks to develop its new paradigm, we must understand what benefits of the current system should be retained and what drawbacks should be allayed. Unfortunately, there is little research in this area. We content analyze data collected from Air Force officers attending in-residence professional military education, synthesize our findings with education and technology literature, and suggest innovative technologies that can maximize the intangible benefits and minimize the drawbacks of professional military education. The blended approach we present can create a richer, more meaningful learning experience for the service member, while simultaneously lowering the cost per member and providing greater opportunity to attend in-residence professional military education.

  5. Arnold family in acoustically forced air bubble formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied an integrate-and-fire model with sinusoidal baseline and constant threshold to describe air bubble formation periodically forced by a sound wave. The model is a deterministic one-dimensional system that predicts the instant of a bubble detachment as a function of the previous one and it is able to reproduce long time behavior with great similarity. The changes in the dynamics as the air flow rate varies can be predicted by a curve in the parameter space of the so called Arnold family of circle maps.

  6. Plastic media blasting activities at Hill Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    Hill Air Force Base in Utah developed plastic media blasting (PMB) paint removal process for removing paint from Air Force aircraft. The development of the process involved extensive testing of various abrasives and subsequent parameters to end up with an approved production process. Hill AFB has been using PMB in a production mode since 1985, and completely discontinued chemical stripping of airframes in 1989. We have recently installed and began operating a fully automated PMB facility that utilizes two nine-axis robots to strip an aircraft. This system has enabled us to further reduce the manhours required to strip an aircraft, and also allowed us to remove the employee from the blasting atmosphere into a control room. We have, and will continue to realize, significant environmental and economic savings by using PMB. Hill is also actively involved with the development of future paint stripping technologies.

  7. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  8. Reassessing the Air Force's Selective Re-Enlistment Bonus Program

    OpenAIRE

    Dedrick, Chandria Y.

    2010-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The objective of this MBA project is to reassess the Air Force's current Selective Reenlistment Bonus Program and provide a possible alternative for the compensation calculation. To find that alternative method of calculation, the goal of this project was to create an experiment using a second priced sealed bid auction. The experiment would provide an insight to truth revealing compensation requests for future job continuation. This essential tool will allow th...

  9. Geothermal-resource verification for Air Force bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, P.R. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes the various types of geothermal energy reviews some legal uncertainties of the resource and then describes a methodology to evaluate geothermal resources for applications to US Air Force bases. Estimates suggest that exploration costs will be $50,000 to $300,000, which, if favorable, would lead to drilling a $500,000 exploration well. Successful identification and development of a geothermal resource could provide all base, fixed system needs with an inexpensive, renewable energy source.

  10. Steady Thermal Field Simulation of Forced Air-cooled Column-type Air-core Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Qiu; LI Zhenbiao; YIN Xiaogen; YUAN Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the steady thermal field of the column-type air-core reactor,and further analyzing its distribution regularity,will help optimizing reactor design as well as improving its quality.The operation mechanism and inner insulation structure of a novel current limiting column-type air-core reactor is introduced in this paper.The finite element model of five encapsulation forced air-cooled column type air-core reactor is constructed using Fluent.Most importantly,this paper present a new method that,the steady thermal field of reactor working under forced air-cooled condition is simulated without arbitrarily defining the convection heat transfer coefficient for the initial condition; The result of the thermal field distribution shows that,the maximum steady temperature rise of forced air-cooled columntype air-core reactor happens approximately 5% to its top.The law of temperature distribution indicates:In the 1/3part of the reactor to its bottom,the temperature will rise rapidly to the increasing of height,yet the gradient rate is gradually decreasing; In the 5 % part of the reactor to its top,the temperature will drop rapidly to the increasing of height; In the part between,the temperature will rise slowly to the increasing of height.The conclusion draws that more thermal withstand capacity should be considered at the 5 % part of the reactor to its top to achieve optimal design solution.

  11. Deployment stressors and outcomes among Air Force chaplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Hannah C; Conoscenti, Lauren M; Tillery, John F; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Litz, Brett T

    2011-06-01

    Military chaplains are invaluable caregiver resources for service members. Little is known about how chaplains respond to the challenge of providing spiritual counsel in a warzone. In this exploratory study, 183 previously deployed Air Force chaplains completed an online survey assessing operational and counseling stress exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, compassion fatigue, and posttraumatic growth. Despite reporting exposure to stressful counseling experiences, Air Force chaplains did not endorse high compassion fatigue. Rather, chaplains experienced positive psychological growth following exposure to stressful counseling experiences. However, 7.7% of Air Force chaplains reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms, suggesting that they are not immune to deployment-related mental health problems. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that counseling stress exposure predicted compassion fatigue (β = .20) and posttraumatic growth (β = .24), suggesting that caretaking in theatre is stressful enough to spur positive psychological growth in chaplains. Consistent with findings from previous studies, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that operational stress exposure predicted PTSD symptom severity (β = .33) while controlling for demographic variables. PMID:21567477

  12. 75 FR 44214 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to...

  13. 77 FR 1913 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet...

  14. Response of air stagnation frequency to anthropogenically enhanced radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Daniel E; Harshvardhan; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2012-01-01

    Stagnant atmospheric conditions can lead to hazardous air quality by allowing ozone and particulate matter to accumulate and persist in the near-surface environment. By changing atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns, global warming could alter the meteorological factors that regulate air stagnation frequency. We analyze the response of the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) Air Stagnation Index (ASI) to anthropogenically enhanced radiative forcing using global climate model projections of late-21(st) century climate change (SRES A1B scenario). Our results indicate that the atmospheric conditions over the highly populated, highly industrialized regions of the eastern United States, Mediterranean Europe, and eastern China are particularly sensitive to global warming, with the occurrence of stagnant conditions projected to increase 12-to-25% relative to late-20(th) century stagnation frequencies (3-18+ days/year). Changes in the position/strength of the polar jet, in the occurrence of light surface winds, and in the number of precipitation-free days all contribute to more frequent late-21(st) century air mass stagnation over these high-population regions. In addition, we find substantial inter-model spread in the simulated response of stagnation conditions over some regions using either native or bias corrected global climate model simulations, suggesting that changes in the atmospheric circulation and/or the distribution of precipitation represent important sources of uncertainty in the response of air quality to global warming. PMID:23284587

  15. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... came from another Air Force element, or release of the requested records would affect another Air Force..., or are classified up to the SECRET level, send them separately to AFLSA/JACL, 1501 Wilson...

  16. 78 FR 53133 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... representatives from the Michigan Governor's office, local U.S. Air Force and Michigan National Guard leadership... Air Force, taking advantage of the unique strengths and capabilities of each; (c) ensures that...

  17. 78 FR 40730 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... defense think tanks, U.S. Air Force leadership, and the Congressional Budget Office have been asked to... balance between the regular and reserve components of the Air Force, taking advantage of the...

  18. 78 FR 32241 - U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for Space, Department of the Air Force, DOD..., Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for Space, seeks industry views and perspectives...

  19. 77 FR 24480 - U.S. Air Force Academy Board of Visitors Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Academy Board of Visitors Notice of Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Air Force....S.C. 9355 and 41 CFR 102-3.150, the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA) Board of Visitors (BoV) will hold... Brief; a USAFA Diversity Budget Update; and a Subcommittee Out-brief. In accordance with 5 U.S.C....

  20. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report

  1. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report.

  2. 76 FR 27003 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue... Updates D. Federal Travel Regulations E. Air Quality Issues/Concerns from Previous Task Force...

  3. 78 FR 10127 - Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force. SUMMARY... term on the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) which was established by the...

  4. Evaluating Cadet Leadership Positions at the U.S. Air Force Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force relies on effective leadership to complete its mission. The U.S. Air Force Academy exists to develop leaders of character for the Air Force through a four-year program. Part of this program involves cadets participating in leadership positions. By exploring nine types of cadet leadership positions, this dissertation aims to…

  5. 32 CFR 865.5 - Decision of the Secretary of the Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of the Secretary of the Air Force. 865.5 Section 865.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Board for Correction of Military...

  6. 77 FR 52316 - U.S. Air Force Academy Board of Visitors; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Academy Board of Visitors; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Air Force Academy Board of Visitors, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with 10 U.S.C. 9355... Diversity in the Dean's Faculty brief. In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552b, as amended, and 41 CFR...

  7. Brazilian Air Force aircraft structural integrity program: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto W. S. Mello Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the activities developed by the Structural Integrity Group at the Institute of Aeronautics and Space - IAE, Brazil, as well as the status of ongoing work related to the life extension program for aircraft operated by the Brazilian Air Force BAF. The first BAF-operated airplane to undergo a DTA-based life extension was the F-5 fighter, in the mid 1990s. From 1998 to 2001, BAF worked on a life extension project for the BAF AT- 26 Xavante trainer. All analysis and tests were performed at IAE. The fatigue critical locations (FCLs were presumed based upon structural design and maintenance data and also from exchange of technical information with other users of the airplane around the world. Following that work, BAF started in 2002 the extension of the operational life of the BAF T-25 “Universal”. The T-25 is the basic training airplane used by AFA - The Brazilian Air Force Academy. This airplane was also designed under the “safe-life” concept. As the T-25 fleet approached its service life limit, the Brazilian Air Force was questioning whether it could be kept in flight safely. The answer came through an extensive Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA program, briefly described in this paper. The current work on aircraft structural integrity is being performed for the BAF F-5 E/F that underwent an avionics and weapons system upgrade. Along with the increase in weight, new configurations and mission profiles were established. Again, a DTA program was proposed to be carried out in order to establish the reliability of the upgraded F-5 fleet. As a result of all the work described, the BAF has not reported any accident due to structural failure on aircraft submitted to Damage Tolerance Analysis.

  8. Ejection experience in Serbian air force, 1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ejection injuries are the problem for air forces. The present risk for injuries is still too high, approximately 30-50%. This study was an effort to determine factors responsible for and contributing to injuries in the Serbian Air Force (SAF in the last two decades. Methods. All ejection cases in the SAF between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed. The collected data were: aircraft type, ejection seat generation, pilots ´ age and experience, causes of ejection, aeronautical parameters, the condition of aircraft control and types of injuries. For ease of comparison the U.S. Air Force Safety Regulation was used to define of major injuries: hospitalization for 5 days or more, loss of consciousness for over 5 min, bone fracture, joint dislocation, injury to any internal organ, any third-degree burn, or second-degree burn over 5% of the body surface area. Results. There were 52 ejections (51 pilots and 1 mechanic on 44 airplanes. The ejected persons were from 22 to 46 years, average 32 years. Major injuries were present in 25.49% cases. Of all the ejected pilots 9.61% had fractures of thoracic spine, 11.53% fractures of legs, 3.48% fractures of arms. Of all major injuries, fractures of thoracic spine were 38.46%. None of the pilots had experienced ejection previously. Conclusion. Our results suggest to obligatory take preventive measures: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan must be included in the standard pilot selection procedure and procedure after ejection. Physical conditioning of pilots has to be improved. Training on ejection trainer has to be accomplished, too.

  9. Noise impacts from professional dog grooming forced-air dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. Scheifele; Johnson, Michael T.; Byrne, David C.; Clark, John G.; Ashley Vandlik; Kretschmer, Laura W.; Kristine E Sonstrom

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the sound output of four commonly used brands of forced-air dryers used by dog groomers in the United States. Many dog groomers have questions about the effect of this exposure on their hearing, as well as on the hearing of the dogs that are being groomed. Readings taken from each dryer at 1 meter (the likely distance of the dryer from the groomer and the dog) showed average levels ranging from 105.5 to 108.3 dB SPL or 94.8 to 108.0 dBA. Using the 90 dBA cri...

  10. Why social network analysis is important to Air Force applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havig, Paul R.; McIntire, John P.; Geiselman, Eric; Mohd-Zaid, Fairul

    2012-06-01

    Social network analysis is a powerful tool used to help analysts discover relationships amongst groups of people as well as individuals. It is the mathematics behind such social networks as Facebook and MySpace. These networks alone cause a huge amount of data to be generated and the issue is only compounded once one adds in other electronic media such as e-mails and twitter. In this paper we outline the basics of social network analysis and how it may be used in current and future Air Force applications.

  11. Brazilian Air Force aircraft structural integrity program: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto W. S. Mello Junior; Abílio Neves Garcia; Ribeiro Fabrício N.; Daniel Ferreira V. Mattos

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities developed by the Structural Integrity Group at the Institute of Aeronautics and Space - IAE, Brazil, as well as the status of ongoing work related to the life extension program for aircraft operated by the Brazilian Air Force BAF. The first BAF-operated airplane to undergo a DTA-based life extension was the F-5 fighter, in the mid 1990s. From 1998 to 2001, BAF worked on a life extension project for the BAF AT- 26 Xavante trainer. All analysis ...

  12. 75 FR 45091 - Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture... the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) and requests nominations for qualified persons to... Chief of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) will establish a task force to...

  13. Hazardous waste: Siting of storage facility at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report provides information on whether the hazardous waste storage facility at Kelly Air Force Base meets Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, state, and Air Force siting requirements; on whether the Air Force or the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office selected the best site available to protect the public and to preserve good public relations with the community; on whether the Air Force, Kelly Air Force Base, or the Defense Logistics Agency adjusted siting standards as a result of the adverse publicity the hazardous waste facility has generated; and on whether Kelly Air Force Base is revising its hazardous waste management organization so that it is similar to the organizations at Tinker and McClellan Air Force Bases.

  14. 2010 Cape Canaveral, Florida Single-beam Bathymetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetric surveys were conducted on July 27-29, 2010 along 37 cross-shore transects offshore from Cape Canaveral, Fla. The transects were spaced 500...

  15. Rome Air Development Center Air Force technical objective document fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This TOD describes the RADC technical programs in support of the Air Force Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) mission. The technical objectives have been aligned with the VANGUARD mission areas of Command, Control, and Communications (C3), Reconnaissance and Intelligence, Strategic Systems (Defense) and Technology as a means of focusing the RADC support of VANGUARD. This document is prepared to provide industry and universities with the midterm technical objectives in these areas.

  16. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Air Force facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program is an initiative within the US Air Force to acquire and validate advanced technologies that could be used to sustain superior capabilities in the area or space nuclear propulsion. The SNTP Program has a specific objective of demonstrating the feasibility of the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The term PIPET refers to a project within the SNTP Program responsible for the design, development, construction, and operation of a test reactor facility, including all support systems, that is intended to resolve program technology issues and test goals. A nuclear test facility has been designed that meets SNTP Facility requirements. The design approach taken to meet SNTP requirements has resulted in a nuclear test facility that should encompass a wide range of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) test requirements that may be generated within other programs. The SNTP PIPET project is actively working with DOE and NASA to assess this possibility.

  17. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... review will require policy determinations from different Air Force elements; records describe law... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents. 806.27 Section 806.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...

  18. 77 FR 41165 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY... Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on critical... for Task Force Anaerobic Digester Technologies Odor Management Technologies Committee Updates E....

  19. Small Satellites and the DARPA/Air Force Falcon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, David J.; Walker, Steven H.; Sackheim, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    The FALCON ((Force Application and Launch from CONUS) program is a technology demonstration effort with three major components: a Small Launch Vehicle (SLV), a Common Aero Vehicle (CAV), and a Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV). Sponsored by DARPA and executed jointly by the United States Air Force and DARPA with NASA participation, the objectives are to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable both near-term and far-term capability to execute time-critical, global reach missions. The focus of this paper is on the SLV as it relates to small satellites and the implications of lower cost to orbit for small satellites. The target recurring cost for placing 1000 pounds payloads into a circular reference orbit of 28.5 degrees at 100 nautical miles is $5,000,000 per launch. This includes range costs but not the payload or payload integration costs. In addition to the nominal 1000 pounds to LEO, FALCON is seeking delivery of a range of orbital payloads from 220 pounds to 2200 pounds to the reference orbit. Once placed on alert status, the SLV must be capable of launch within 24 hours.

  20. Laryngeal Cuff Force Application Modeling During Air Medical Evacuation Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, David; Eisenbrey, Arthur B; Pettengill, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Endotracheal tubes are intended to protect the airway and assist with mechanical ventilation in sedated patients. The blood vessels of the tracheal mucosa can be compressed by high tracheal tube cuff pressures (> 30 cm H2O), leading to reduced mucosal blood flow with resulting ischemia and morbidity. Previous research showed a direct correlation between aircraft pressure altitude and the pressure reading from the tracheal cuff, with resulting pressures > 80 cm H2O at 10,000 ft. Standard practice is to periodically remove air from the cuff during ascent based on assumed increased pressure on the adjacent tracheal mucosa. Using a vacuum chamber and a direct reading micropressure sensor in a 22-mm-diameter semirigid tube, we assessed the direct force applied by the tracheal cuff against the laryngeal tube analog. Standard tracheal cuffs showed direct force/pressure relationships when properly inflated to 20 cm H2O but much less than reported in the literature. Current literature reports values of 55 to 150 cm H2O at 5,000 ft, whereas we report 23 to 25 cm H2O. Our data indicate that a properly inflated cuff does not exceed the critical pressure of 30 cm H2O until the altitude exceeds 8,000 ft. Thus, the standard practice of deflating the laryngeal cuff on ascent should be reconsidered because it may be counterproductive to patient safety. PMID:27637439

  1. Starfleet Deferred: Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziarnick, B.

    Project Orion, the Cold War American program (1957-1965) studying nuclear pulse propulsion for space applications, has long interested space enthusiasts for what it was and what it might have been, but it has long been believed that neither the United States government nor the US Air Force took the program very seriously. However, recently declassified US Air Force documents shed more light on the classified history of Project Orion. Far from being ignored by Air Force leadership, through the efforts of the Strategic Air Command, Air Force leaders like General Curtis LeMay were convinced that Project Orion should be funded as a major weapons system. The high water mark of Project Orion was the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal by the Air Force Chief of Staff to devote almost twenty percent of the Air Force space budget from 1962-1967 to Orion development before the program was cancelled by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force under pressure from the Department of Defense. This paper details the history of Project Orion in the 1962 Air Force Space Program proposal, and concludes with a few lessons learned for use by modern interstellar advocates.

  2. 78 FR 68826 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... accounting for the socio-cultural dimensions of force structure issues ranging from the fundamental relationship of the American people to their military and to sub-cultures within the Air Force. --How...

  3. Sitewide feasibility study Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Lanigan, D.C.; Josephson, G.B.; Bagaasen, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    The Sitewide Feasibility Study (FS) is required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for Eielson Air Force Base (AFB). It is based on findings presented in the Sitewide Remedial Investigation (RI) Report (USAF 1995a), and the Sitewide Baseline Risk Assessment (BLRA) Report (USAF 1995b). Under the FFA, 64 potential source areas were placed in one of six operable units, based on similar contaminant and environmental characteristics, or were included for evaluation under a Source Evaluation Report (SER). The sitewide RI was directed at contamination that was not confined to an operable unit (OU) or SER source area. The objectives of the sitewide RI were to: Provide information about site characteristics to support individual OU RI/FS efforts and the sitewide RI/FS, including site hydrogeology and determination of background soil and groundwater characteristics; identify and characterize contamination that is not confined or attributable to a specific source area through sitewide monitoring of groundwater and surface water; evaluate cumulative risks to human health and the environment from contamination on a sitewide basis; and provide a mechanism for continued cohesive sitewide monitoring.

  4. 75 FR 48929 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY...; (919) 541-5400. The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to continue discussions on... Register of July 28, 2010, Notice of a Meeting (75 FR 44214). This document corrects the location of...

  5. Personal Value Systems and Career Objectives of Men vis-a-vis Women Air Force Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Charles W.

    Basic objectives of this research were to compare the personal values and career objectives of Air Force women to Air Force men. The research used a personal values questionnaire to establish which values and objectives were most likely to be translated into behavior. Values and objectives of 307 women officers and a control sample of 323 men were…

  6. The Air Force Officer Qualifying Test: Validity, Fairness, and Bias. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Chaitra M.; Sims, Carra S.; Wong, Eunice C.

    2010-01-01

    The Air Force has long recognized the importance of selecting the most qualified officers possible. For more than 60 years, it has relied on the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) as one measure of those qualifications. A variety of concerns have been raised about whether the AFOQT is biased, too expensive, or even valid for predicting…

  7. Air Force Institute of Technology, Civil Engineering School: Environmental Protection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. School of Engineering.

    This document contains information assembled by the Civil Engineering School to meet the initial requirements of NEPA 1969 and Executive Orders which required the Air Force to implement an effective environmental protection program. This course presents the various aspects of Air Force environmental protection problems which military personnel…

  8. 75 FR 22560 - Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Charter... that it is renewing the charter for the U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Advisory Committee...

  9. 78 FR 75334 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... advantages and disadvantages of contending approaches to the future structure of the U.S. Air Force; (2... emerging findings, and a more credible basis for their recommendations. Three teams will be formed and each... National Guard. One team will be instructed to develop a future U.S. Air Force with 65% Active...

  10. 78 FR 17185 - U.S. Air Force Space Command Notice of Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ..._Plan_Comments.pdf ) consistent with the GPS public ICWG process. Any military or civil users who..., Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: GPS Test Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notification is to inform users of an upcoming event related to the GPS satellite constellation. U.S. Air Force...

  11. 32 CFR 644.415 - Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army military and Air Force lands-$50,000 limitation. 644.415 Section 644.415 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Interests § 644.415 Army military and Air Force lands—$50,000 limitation. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2672 authorizes...

  12. 78 FR 61343 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... of the Secretary Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force AGENCY... Commission on the Structure of the Air Force (``the Commission'') will take place. DATES: Date of Open..., Crystal City, VA 22202. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Marcia Moore, Designated Federal...

  13. 78 FR 58525 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... of the Secretary Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force AGENCY... closed meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force (``the Commission'') will..., September 26, 2013, from 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: 2521 South Clark Street, Suite 525, Crystal...

  14. 78 FR 37798 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... of the Secretary Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force AGENCY... National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force (``the Commission'') will take place. DATES: Date of...:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: 2521 South Clark Street, Suite 525, Crystal City, VA 22202. FOR...

  15. 78 FR 36751 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... of the Secretary Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force AGENCY... National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force (``the Commission'') will take place. DATES: Date of... 5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: 2521 South Clark Street, Suite 200, Crystal City, VA 22202. FOR...

  16. 78 FR 32634 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... of the Secretary Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force AGENCY... the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force (``the Commission''), to include a closed... Street, Suite 525, Crystal City, VA 22202. Address of Open Meeting: Rayburn House Office Building,...

  17. Annotated Bibliography of the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory Technical Reports--1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Esther M., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography presents a listing of technical reports (1976) dealing with personnel and training research conducted by the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, an institution charged with the planning and execution of United States Air Force exploratory and advanced development programs for selection, motivation, training,…

  18. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Iain S.

    2010-01-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the developm...

  19. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although bat-strike reports indicated damage to USAF aircraft, cumulative damage for 1997 through 2007 totaled >$825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  20. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  1. Reliable Force Predictions for a Flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicle : A "Vortex-lift" Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielicke, W.; Kesel, A. B.; Stamhuis, Eize

    2011-01-01

    Vertical and horizontal force of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle (MAV) has been measured in slow-speed forward flight using a force balance. Detailed information on kinematics was used to estimate forces using a blade-element analysis. Input variables for this analysis are lift and drag coefficien

  2. Archive of bathymetry data collected at Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mark E.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Klipp, Emily S.

    2015-10-07

    Remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of the sea floor, acquired by boat- and aircraft-based survey systems, were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida, for the area at Cape Canaveral.

  3. Vandenberg Air Force Base Upper Level Wind Launch Weather Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman III ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The maximum wind speed and 1000-ft shear values for each sounding in each subseason were determined. To accurately calculate the PoV, the AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum shear datasets. Ultimately it was discovered that the maximum wind speeds follow a Gaussian distribution while the maximum shear values follow a lognormal distribution. These results were applied when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition to the requirements outlined in the original task plan, the AMU also included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on day of launch. The interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for this project was developed in

  4. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  5. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  6. Treatment of Radioactive Liquid Waste by the Forced-Air Circulation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taekuk; Kang, Ilsik; Shon, Jongsik; Ryu, Younggerl; Jang, Wonhyuk; Bae, Sangmin; Ji, Youngyong; Hong, Daeseok; Kwak, Kyungkil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The evaporation rate is the difference between air speed and vapor pressure. The difference in vapor pressure confirms the relationship between air humidity and liquid temperature. This study showed that the evaporation rate increased, and that when the humidity of air inflow is low, the speed of the air, temperature, and flux of the liquid waste also increases. As to the relative humidity of the supplied air, the evaporation rate increases as the relative humidity decreases. Data were collected for humidity, temperature, and air velocity according to Dalton's evaporation equation. This facility is a natural evaporation type with a forced exhaust having a vertical array of cloth as an evaporation bank. Synthetic textile was used as an evaporation medium with a forced air circulation system that brought air from the outside. In this system, liquid effluent flows down the vertical array, having a total area of 11,250m{sup 2}. The intake of outdoor air through the air filter arises and flows into the bottom of the vertical array through exhaust fans at the top of the facility, contacting with the liquid stream counter currently, we investigated the influence of climate condition on the amount of evaporation in a Forced-Air Circulation System. We determined the range of atmospheric conditions using regional atmospheric data for the optimum operation of the facility.

  7. Treatment of Radioactive Liquid Waste by the Forced-Air Circulation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaporation rate is the difference between air speed and vapor pressure. The difference in vapor pressure confirms the relationship between air humidity and liquid temperature. This study showed that the evaporation rate increased, and that when the humidity of air inflow is low, the speed of the air, temperature, and flux of the liquid waste also increases. As to the relative humidity of the supplied air, the evaporation rate increases as the relative humidity decreases. Data were collected for humidity, temperature, and air velocity according to Dalton's evaporation equation. This facility is a natural evaporation type with a forced exhaust having a vertical array of cloth as an evaporation bank. Synthetic textile was used as an evaporation medium with a forced air circulation system that brought air from the outside. In this system, liquid effluent flows down the vertical array, having a total area of 11,250m2. The intake of outdoor air through the air filter arises and flows into the bottom of the vertical array through exhaust fans at the top of the facility, contacting with the liquid stream counter currently, we investigated the influence of climate condition on the amount of evaporation in a Forced-Air Circulation System. We determined the range of atmospheric conditions using regional atmospheric data for the optimum operation of the facility

  8. Report of Findings: Cold Bay Air Force Station (Grant Point) military contaminants: Fiscal year 1988 collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes our contaminants investigation at the abandoned Cold Bay Air Force Station (Station), located on the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge at...

  9. 77 FR 51526 - U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... technology solution partnerships; and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance needs for contested... FY13 Board schedule; the Air Force's science and technology needs with respect to space operations; Department of the Army acquisition and technology practices and lessons learned; latest perspectives...

  10. 76 FR 22083 - U.S. Air Force Academy Board of Visitors Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Diversity; an Ethics briefing; and Air Force Academy fiscal issues in relation to the reduction of.... Supporting documentation may also be included as needed to establish the appropriate historical context...

  11. Air Force funded researcher engineers enzymes to advance the hydrogen economy

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Y. H. Percival Zhang, assistant professor of biological systems engineering at Virginia Tech, has received an Air Force Young Investigator award to advance development of an onboard process to convert a cellulosic material into hydrogen to power fuel cell vehicles.

  12. 2008 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Eglin Air Force Base, Walton County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the summer of 2008, the Northwest Florida Water Management District collected lidar data over a portion of Walton County, FL (Eglin Air force Base) to support...

  13. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  14. 78 FR 59343 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Guard leadership who have been asked to testify and address the evaluation factors under consideration... components of the Air Force, taking advantage of the unique strengths and capabilities of each; (c)...

  15. AIR FORCE1不完全手册VOL.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    恰逢AIR FORCE1 25周年之际,鞋帮带您回顾25年间AIR FORCE1的点点滴滴。在这里,汇集了数百双25年来的经典鞋款,在今后的三期里,我们将会为您悉数呈现。

  16. Artificial Intelligence Research Capabilities of the Air Force Institute of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Robert; Cross, Stephen

    1985-01-01

    The Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) provides master's degree education to Air Force and Army Officers in various engineering fields It is in a unique position to educate and perform research in the area of applications of artificial intelligence to military problems. Its two AI faculty members are the only military officers with PhD's in Artificial Intelligence. In the past two years, the artificial intelligence Laboratory of AFIT has become a major focal point for AI research and ap...

  17. Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Force of Dry-Type Air-Core Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZhi-gang; GENGYing-san; WANGJian-hua

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled magnetic-circuit method for computing the magnetic force of air-core reactor under short-time current. The current and the magnetic flux density are computed first and then the magnetic force is obtained. Thus, the dynamic stability performance of air-core reactor can be analyzed at the design stage to reduce experimental cost and shorten the lead-time of product development.

  18. Identification of Chlorinated Solvent Sources in the Indoor Air of Private Residences around Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Andrew Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Volatile chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2 dichloroethane (1,2 DCA), and perchloroethylene (PCE) have been identified in the indoor air of residences located near Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah. These vapors can originate from either volatilization of contaminates from shallow contaminated groundwater and transport into residences or from sources within the residence. The focus of the thesis was the development of a testing strategy for determining sources of TCE, 1,2...

  19. The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Aardenne, J. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Colette, A. [INERIS (France); Degraeuwe, B.; de Vlieger, I. [VITO (Belgium); Hammingh, P. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Netherlands); Viana, M. [CSIC (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    This EEA Technical report provides an overview on the state of knowledge on the impact of international shipping in European waters to air quality and climate change. Based on literature review and model assessment studies information is provided on past and future emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, monitoring of ship emissions, emission mitigation policies and impact on European air quality and radiative forcing. (Author)

  20. Study on forced air convection cooling for electronic assemblies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The slotted fin concept was employed to improve the air cooling performance of plate-fin in heat sinks.Numerical simulations of laminar heat transfer and flow pressure drop were conducted for the integral plate fin,discrete plate fin and discrete slotted fin heat sinks.It is found that the performance of the discrete plate fin is better than that of the integral continuum plate fin and the performance of slotted fin is better than that of the discrete plate fin at the same pumping power of the fan.A new type of heat sink characterized by discrete and slotted fin surfaces with thinner fins and smaller spaces between fins is then proposed.Preliminary computation shows that this type of heat sink may be useful for the next generation of higher thermal load CPUs.The limit of cooling capacity for air-cooling techniques was also addressed.

  1. AIR FORCE 1二十五周年庆典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    继AIDAS SUPERSTAR 35TH之后,NIKE AIR FORCE1 25周年对于体育潮流界来说是不能忽视的重要事件!以NIKE传奇设计师Bruce Kilgore为核心的创作团队也致力让NIKE AIR FORCE1在25周年之际让它更加放射光芒!NIKE AIR FORCE1 25周年不仅包含了纪念意义,也包含了NIKE对于业界的野心和期望。随后发表的一系列NIKE AF1 25周年别注将代表NIKE最高级设计和制作工艺。据悉,之后每款NIKE AIR FORCE别注都将拍摄特别短片!

  2. Avon Park Air Force Range project: distribution and abundance of sensitive wildlife species at Avone Park Force Range

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Richard; Maehr, David; Kinlaw, Alton; O'Brien, Christopher; Owen, Richard D.

    1998-01-01

    Executive Summary. We surveyed for seven species ofsensitve wildlife (Florida gopher frogs, gopher tortoise, eastern indigo snake, eastern diamondback rattlesnake, Florida mouse, Florida roundtail muskrat, Sherman's fox squirrel) between October 1996 and May 1998 at Avon Park Air Force Range (APR). The presence of 87 other species ofamphibians, reptiles, and mammals also were detected. Selected species ofbirds were noted, particularly if they were found dead on APR roads. We re...

  3. The Air Force Air Program and Information Management System (APIMS): A flexible tool for managing your Title V Operating Permits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, A.A.; Gordon, S.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Air Force Command Core System (CCS) is an integrated, activity-based risk management system designed to support the information needs of Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) professionals. These professionals are responsible for managing a complex and often dynamic set of requirements, and therefore, have a need for an information system that can readily be customized to meet their specific needs. This dynamic environment also drives the need for flexibility in the system. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) is a module within CCS designed to not only manage permit compliance and emission inventories, but also support the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements related to air quality issues. This paper will describe the underlying foundation of CCS, the information linkages within the database, and then summarize the functionality available within the APIMS module to support the Air Quality Managers' information needs, placing emphasis on the flexibility the system provides to manage Title V Operating Permits.

  4. Improving environmental noise suppression for micronewton force sensing based on electrostatic by injecting air damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yelong; Song, Le; Hu, Gang; Zhao, Meirong; Tian, Yanling; Zhang, Zihui; Fang, Fengzhou

    2014-05-01

    A micro/nano force can be traced to the International System of Units by means of an electrostatic force balance weight system. However, the micro/nano force measurement system is susceptible to environmental disturbances. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the effect of environmental disturbances and obtain high resolution and fast response. In this paper, we introduce a combination of air damping and inherent damping from the internal molecular friction of spring suspension. This will optimize system stability and improve environmental noise suppression. Results from the air damping model show that the damping ratio increases from 0.0005 to 0.1, which improves the vibration resistance. We found that the system with air damping has the advantages of fast response and low scatter. PMID:24880403

  5. Using PHM to measure equipment usable life on the Air Force's next generation reusable space booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdel, A.

    The U.S. Air Force procures many launch vehicles and launch vehicle services to place their satellites at their desired location in space. The equipment on-board these satellite and launch vehicle often suffer from premature failures that result in the total loss of the satellite or a shortened mission life sometimes requiring the purchase of a replacement satellite and launch vehicle. The Air Force uses its EELV to launch its high priority satellites. Due to a rise in the cost of purchasing a launch using the Air Force's EELV from 72M in 1997 to as high as 475M per launch today, the Air Force is working to replace the EELV with a reusable space booster (RSB). The RSB will be similar in design and operations to the recently cancelled NASA reusable space booster known as the Space Shuttle. If the Air Force uses the same process that procures the EELV and other launch vehicles and satellites, the RSB will also suffer from premature equipment failures thus putting the payloads at a similar high risk of mission failure. The RSB is expected to lower each launch cost by 50% compared to the EELV. The development of the RSB offers the Air Force an opportunity to use a new reliability paradigm that includes a prognostic and health management program and a condition-based maintenance program. These both require using intelligent, decision making self-prognostic equipment The prognostic and health management program and its condition-based maintenance program allows increases in RSB equipment usable life, lower logistics and maintenance costs, while increasing safety and mission assurance. The PHM removes many decisions from personnel that, in the past resulted in catastrophic failures and loss of life. Adding intelligent, decision-making self-prognostic equipment to the RSB will further decrease launch costs while decreasing risk and increasing safety and mission assurance.

  6. Changing the balance of power – Worldwide air force`s capability turbulences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel NEČAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In past Century, the air power had undergone a significant journey. In its humble beginnings during WWI an airplane proved itself a perspective and highly capable new weapon. WWII demonstrated the importance of air superiority for waging a global warfare. The Cold War mastered technologies enabling air power to be not only a weapon a mass destruction but also a surgical tool. On one hand, an aircraft has become a state of art technology, yet on the other hand a cost for its development, procurement, and servicing grew into an astronomic levels. Therefore, since mid 1970s there have been trends to shift airpower from quantity into quality, which has gained a new moment with the end of the Cold War. Starting with the first Gulf War, in past two decades demonstrated a growing importance of a multirole fighter aircraft that is able to carry out a full specter of missions for minimal costs. When analyzing five most potent airpowers of the 21st century, we can witness that this is the trend is on and it will surely continue in future.

  7. Nike Air Force 1 Hi Hyperfuse Prm完美整合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铁铁

    2011-01-01

    耐克(Nike)推出新款Nike Air Force 1 Hi Hyperfuse Prm运动鞋,将三种不同的材料融于一体,达到轻盈、透气的运动效果。同时将外在的色彩与内在的优越相结合,以崭新的运动美感整合NIKE Air Force 1的招牌鞋型,

  8. Force measurements in positive unipolar wire-to-plane corona discharges in air

    CERN Document Server

    de Haan, V O

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of force generated by a positive unipolar wire-to-plane corona discharge in air are compared with numerical simulations. The generated force does not depend on the ion or electron mobilities, preventing the influence of uncertainty and variation of these parameters. A method is described to simulate the voltage and charge distribution for a wire-to-plane set-up. This method enables the determination of the transition between unipolar and bipolar discharges. In the experimental set-up breakdown electric field of air reduces with increasing discharge current.

  9. Mortality From Fungal Diseases in the US Air Force From 1970 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugblenu, Richard K; Reeves, Will K

    2016-01-01

    We review a unique set of documents, death certificates, catalogued in the US Air Force Mortality Registry, which tracks deaths for current and retired Air Force service members. We screened the records for all deaths caused by fungal diseases between 1970 and 2013. There were 216 deaths caused by a variety of diseases such as aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, mucormycosis, pneumocystosis, sporotrichosis, and zygomycosis. The single most common identified cause of death was opportunistic candidiasis. Of the total 216 deaths, only 7 were active duty or active reserve personnel. PMID:27613208

  10. Gunship Diplomacy : carrier based close air support for joint expeditionary forces

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel, Taylor C.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines whether current and future strategy, doctrine, and programmed systems are suitable to perform fire support and specifically, close air support (CAS)and close air support/troops-in-contact (CAS/TIC) missions for joint expeditionary warfare. Naval forces will provide the "enabling" power for this new come-as-you-are environment. To offset reductions in organic fire support, more frequent and sustained application of CAS and CAS/TIC will be required by joint expeditionary f...

  11. Developing a model for assigning senior officers in the Brazilian Air Force

    OpenAIRE

    Gentil Toneli, Arthur A.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Brazilian Air Force faces a huge challenge in the assignment process. While aviators outnumber any other community, there are few jobs related to aviation available for senior officers. As a consequence, when junior aviators who invested their time improving their skills in air operations are promoted to senior ranks, they must be assigned to managerial positions in areas they don’t master. The problem becomes worse in the absence ...

  12. 76 FR 51395 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP), Canaveral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... National Park Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP... Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP), Canaveral National... 1969 the NPS announces the availability of a DEIS/GMP for Canaveral National Seashore, Florida....

  13. 33 CFR 80.727 - Cape Canaveral, FL to Miami Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Canaveral, FL to Miami Beach, FL. 80.727 Section 80.727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., FL to Miami Beach, FL. (a) A line drawn across the seaward extremity of the Port Canaveral...

  14. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the trichloroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were inst...

  15. U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research awards physics professor

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Giti Khodaparast of Blacksburg, assistant professor of physics in the College of Science at Virginia Tech, has been awarded $329,831 by the U.S. Air Force to study coherent phenomena and develop concepts for new device functionality using ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  16. 76 FR 18537 - U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... subject of this notice. Due to internal DoD difficulties, beyond the control of the U.S. Air Force... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... 41 CFR 102-3.150(a). Accordingly, the Advisory Committee Management Officer for the Department...

  17. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  18. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560...

  19. Cognitive and Teaching Style Preferences of Officers Attending the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Instructor Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraska, Marie; Harris, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cognitive style and teaching style preferences of instructors enrolled in the Reserve Officer Training Corps instructor course at the Academic Instructor School at Maxwell Air Force base. Sixty-five cases were examined for two research questions: (1) To what extent is there…

  20. The Costs and Consequences of Quality at the Air Force Academy: A Professor's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David B.

    1994-01-01

    A professor at the Air Force Academy (Colorado) recounts that institution's 3 years of experience with total quality concepts. The model that guided initial quality education and training activities is described and evidence of progress reported. He concludes that the right kind of investment in quality is well worth the cost. (DB)

  1. Presentation to the Atomic Energy Commission and the Air Force, June 14, 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1962-10-01

    This volume contains the charts and backup material presented to the Atomic Energy Commission and Air Force on June 14, 1962 concerning General Electric's Nuclear Materials and Propulsion Operation (formerly the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Department), during its work on the development of a nuclear power plant for manned aircraft.

  2. FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING COMMODITIES AND ELECTRICITY FOR SPACE SHUTTLE OPERATIONS AT VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a preliminary screening study of the technical and economic feasibility of the on-site production of commodities (liquid propellant and gases) and electricity to support space shuttle launch activities at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). Both commerci...

  3. Engineering professor wins $100,000 Air Force Young Investigator Award

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research has awarded Shashank Priya, associate professor of mechanical engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, a $100,000, three-year renewable grant to conduct basic research in the area of high-frequency electronic components, titled Domain Engineered Magnetoelectric Thin Films for High Sensitivity Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors.

  4. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  5. 78 FR 70540 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... (``the Commission'') (78 FR 68826-68828, November 15, 2013). DATES: Dates of Closed Meeting, including... extend to accounting for the socio-cultural dimensions of force structure issues ranging from the fundamental relationship of the American people to their military and to sub-cultures within the Air...

  6. 78 FR 68425 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Street, Suite 525, Crystal City, VA 22202 and a secure video teleconferencing line. FOR FURTHER... structure of the Air Force. This discussion will be organized into three categories. The ``Away Game,'' will.... Commissioners will also explore the implications of rising demands and expectations for the ``Home Game''...

  7. Height anomalies in tappingmode atomic force microscopy in air caused by adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van S. John T.; Werf, van der Kees O.; Grooth, de Bart G.; Hulst, van Niek F.; Greve, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Height anomalies in tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air are shown to be caused by adhesion. Depending o­n the damping of the oscillation the height of a sticking surface is reduced compared to less sticking surfaces. It is shown that the height artefacts result from a modulation of osc

  8. Annotated Bibliography of the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory Technical Reports--1979. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Esther M.

    This annotated bibliography presents summaries of 81 reports on personnel and training research conducted by the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL). Topics addressed include electronics, aeronautics, computers, mathematics, and operational research, as they relate to the selection, motivation, training, retention, education, utilization,…

  9. Contact resonance atomic force microscopy imaging in air and water using photothermal excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Gannepalli, Anil; Proksch, Roger, E-mail: Roger.Proksch@oxinst.com [Asylum Research, an Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) is a leading atomic force microscopy technique for measuring viscoelastic nano-mechanical properties. Conventional piezo-excited CR-FM measurements have been limited to imaging in air, since the “forest of peaks” frequency response associated with acoustic excitation methods effectively masks the true cantilever resonance. Using photothermal excitation results in clean contact, resonance spectra that closely match the ideal frequency response of the cantilever, allowing unambiguous and simple resonance frequency and quality factor measurements in air and liquids alike. This extends the capabilities of CR-FM to biologically relevant and other soft samples in liquid environments. We demonstrate CR-FM in air and water on both stiff silicon/titanium samples and softer polystyrene-polyethylene-polypropylene polymer samples with the quantitative moduli having very good agreement between expected and measured values.

  10. Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

  11. Cleansing orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing: effects on frictional force and degree of debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Brisa dos Santos; Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Dias, Carmen Gilda Barroso Tavares; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Debris buildup on the bracket-wire interface can influence friction. Cleansing brackets with air-powder polishing can affect this process. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional force and amount of debris remaining on orthodontic brackets subjected to prophylaxis with air-powder polishing. Methods: Frictional force and debris buildup on the surface of 28 premolar brackets were evaluated after orthodontic treatment. In one hemiarch, each bracket was subjected to air-powder polishing (n = 14) for five seconds, while the contralateral hemiarch (n = 14) served as control. Mechanical friction tests were performed and images of the polished bracket surfaces and control surfaces were examined. Wilcoxon test was applied for comparative analysis between hemiarches at p < 0.05. Results: Brackets that had been cleaned with air-powder polishing showed lower friction (median = 1.27 N) when compared to the control surfaces (median = 4.52 N) (p < 0.01). Image analysis showed that the control group exhibited greater debris buildup (median = 2.0) compared with the group that received prophylaxis with air-powder polishing (median = 0.5) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Cleansing orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing significantly reduces debris buildup on the bracket surface while decreasing friction levels observed during sliding mechanics. PMID:27653265

  12. The impact of diurnal variations of air traffic on contrail radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stuber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined high resolution aircraft flight data from the EU Fifth Framework Programme project AERO2k with analysis data from the ECMWF's integrated forecast system to calculate diurnally resolved 3-D contrail cover. We scaled the contrail cover in order to match observational data for the Bakan area (eastern-Atlantic/western-Europe.

    We found that less than 40% of the global distance travelled by aircraft is due to flights during local night time. Yet, due to the cancellation of shortwave and longwave effects during daytime, night time flights contribute a disproportional 60% to the global annual mean forcing. Under clear sky conditions the night flights contribute even more disproportionally at 76%. There are pronounced regional variations in night flying and the associated radiative forcing. Over parts of the North Atlantic flight corridor 75% of air traffic and 84% of the forcing occurs during local night, whereas only 35% of flights are during local night in South-East Asia, yet these contribute 68% of the radiative forcing. In general, regions with a significant local contrail radiative forcing are also regions for which night time flights amount to less than half of the daily total of flights. Therefore, neglecting diurnal variations in air traffic/contrail cover by assuming a diurnal mean contrail cover can over-estimate the global mean radiative forcing by up to 30%.

  13. Design guidelines for the forced-air cooling process of strawberries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrua, M.J.; Singh, R.P. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The complex structure of the package systems currently used by the strawberry industry has prevented an efficient design of the forced-air cooling process. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which different design parameters affect the rate and uniformity of cooling, using a previously validated computational fluid dynamics model. The results indicated that the vent area has a significant effect on the cooling rate, but not on its uniformity. A design that reduces bypassing will not necessarily increase the cooling rate, because there is less bypass air to cool down the air exiting from each clamshell, so that the air entering the next clamshell becomes warmer. Periodic airflow reversal improves the rate and homogeneity of the cooling process. (author)

  14. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a) The... meanderings of the shore to the point of beginning. (b) The regulations. (1) The fact that aerial...

  15. Air microjet system for non-contact force application and the actuation of micro-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a non-contact technique to apply calibrated and localized forces in the micro-Newton to milli-Newton range using an air microjet. An electromagnetically actuated diaphragm controlled by a signal generator is used to generate the air microjet. With a nozzle diameter of 150 μm, the microjet diameter was maintained to a maximum of 1 mm at a distance of 5 mm from the nozzle. The force generated by the microjet was measured using a commercial force sensor to determine the velocity profile of the jet. Axial flow velocities of up to 25 m s−1 were obtained at distances as long as 6 mm. The microjet exerted a force up to 1 μN on a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micropillar (50 μm in diameter, 157 μm in height) and 415 μN on a PDMS membrane (3 mm in diameter, 28 μm thick). We also demonstrate that from a distance of 6 mm our microjet can exert a peak pressure of 187 Pa with a total force of about 84 μN on a flat surface with 8 V operating voltage. Out of the cleanroom fabrication and robust design make this system cost effective and durable. (technical note)

  16. Air microjet system for non-contact force application and the actuation of micro-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, S. M.; Venkataraman, V.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a non-contact technique to apply calibrated and localized forces in the micro-Newton to milli-Newton range using an air microjet. An electromagnetically actuated diaphragm controlled by a signal generator is used to generate the air microjet. With a nozzle diameter of 150 μm, the microjet diameter was maintained to a maximum of 1 mm at a distance of 5 mm from the nozzle. The force generated by the microjet was measured using a commercial force sensor to determine the velocity profile of the jet. Axial flow velocities of up to 25 m s-1 were obtained at distances as long as 6 mm. The microjet exerted a force up to 1 μN on a poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micropillar (50 μm in diameter, 157 μm in height) and 415 μN on a PDMS membrane (3 mm in diameter, 28 μm thick). We also demonstrate that from a distance of 6 mm our microjet can exert a peak pressure of 187 Pa with a total force of about 84 μN on a flat surface with 8 V operating voltage. Out of the cleanroom fabrication and robust design make this system cost effective and durable.

  17. Forced Convective Air Cooling from Electronic Component Arrays in a Parallel Plate Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Y.Cai; Y.P.Gan; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses air forced convection heat transfer from inline protruding elements arranged in eight rows.The streamwise and spanwise spacings between elements were varied using a splitter plate that can be positioned at three different modular configurations.A set of empirical formulas was presented to correlate the experimental data for the design of air cooling systems.Arrays of componets with one odd-size module have been tested also.Experimental results show that blocks near the entrance and behind the odd-size module have improved performance compared with uniform arrangements.Accordingly,temperature sensitive components are suggested to be arranged in these locations.

  18. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  19. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  20. Job satisfaction for male and female U.S. Air Force officers

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Espen

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and gender by examining factors considered to be determinants of job satisfaction among junior U.S. Air Force officers. The data used in this research were from the 1985 DoD Survey of Officers and Enlisted Personnel. Bivariate analysis, factor analysis and regression analysis were performed to determine the effect of gender on those factors considered to ...

  1. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Dent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  2. Measuring the Removal of Trichloroethylene from Phytoremediation Sites at Travis and Fairchild Air Force Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Heather A

    2011-01-01

    Past use of trichloroethylene (TCE) as a degreasing solvent for aircraft maintenance has resulted in widespread groundwater contamination at Air Force Bases around the world. Travis AFB in California and Fairchild AFB in Washington are evaluating phytoremediation as a treatment option, since trees have been reported to take up dissolved TCE from shallow groundwater and volatilize it to the atmosphere while enhancing the volatilization of TCE from surrounding soil. Previous studies generally...

  3. Geothermal exploration program, Hill Air Force Base, Davis and Weber Counties, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, W.E.; Chapman, D.S.; Foley, D.; Capuano, R.M.; Cole, D.; Sibbett, B.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-03-01

    Results obtained from a program designed to locate a low- or moderate-temperature geothermal resource that might exist beneath Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Ogden, Utah are discussed. A phased exploration program was conducted at Hill AFB. Published geological, geochemical, and geophysical reports on the area were examined, regional exploration was conducted, and two thermal gradient holes were drilled. This program demonstrated that thermal waters are not present in the shallow subsurface at this site. (MHR)

  4. Investigation of heat exchanger inclination in forced-draught air-cooled heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, I.J.; Spence, S.W.T.; Spratt, G.R.; Early, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of inclining the heat exchanger relative to the fan in a forced draught air-cooled heat exchanger. Since inclination increases plenum depth, the effect of inclination is also compared with increasing plenum depth without inclination. The experimental study shows that inclination improves thermal performance by only 0.5%, when compared with a baseline non-inclined case with a shallow plenum. Similarly, increasing plenum depth without incl...

  5. Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

  6. Orbital debris detection program highlights from the Air Force Maui Optical Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchard, Jeff E.; Kervin, Paul W.; Africano, John L.; Kuo, Shiao D.; Medrano, Robert S.; Lambert, John V.

    1994-06-01

    The Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) conducted searches, measurements, and analyses of the orbital debris environment for the Air Force Space Command and the Phillips Laboratory since May 1991 in support of the Air Force Orbital Debris Measurements Program. The objective of this program was to detect orbiting low earth objects not currently in the United States Space Command Space Surveillance Center catalog. Once objects were detected, further objectives were to track, catalog, and maintain those objects locally, to determine statistics on detected objects, and perform relevant analyses. AMOS has developed a prototype surveillance system for the detection and tracking of orbital debris. In addition to this surveillance activity, AMOS has also automated the post-processing videotape streak detection process and is automating the analysis process. Both the optical tracking of orbital debris and the automatic streak detection process were thought to be virtually impossible only a few years ago. The AMOS program employed wide field of view optical telescopes using the Maui Groundbased Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance site and AMOS narrow field of view tracking telescopes, both located at the Maui Space Surveillance Site.

  7. Innovative pollution prevention program at Air Force owned Raytheon operated facility incorporating Russian technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, J.H.; Cepeda-Calderon, S.

    1999-07-01

    Air Force Plant 44 in Tucson, Arizona is owned by the Air Force and operated by Raytheon Missile Systems Company. A joint Air Force/Raytheon Pollution Prevention Team operates at AFP 44 with the ultimate goal to minimize or eliminate the use of hazardous substances. The team works together to uncover new technologies and methods that will replace chemicals used in the plant's missile manufacturing facilities. The program maximizes pollution prevention by first eliminating hazardous material use, then chemical recycling, next hazardous waste reduction and finally wastewater treatment and recycling. From fiscal years 1994 through 1997, nine pollution prevention projects have been implemented, totaling $2.6 million, with a payback averaging less than two years. A unique wastewater treatment method has been demonstrated as part of this program. This is electroflotation, a Russian technology which removes dispersed particles from liquid with gas bubbles obtained during water electrolysis. A unit was built in the US which successfully removed organic emulsions from wastewater. Operational units are planned for the removal of waste from waterfall paint booths. The pollution prevention joint team continues to be very active with two projects underway in FY 98 and two more funded for FY 99.

  8. FORCED-AIR WARMING AND FLUID WARMING MINIMIZE CORE HYPOTHERMIA DURING ABDOMINAL SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhao; Ai-lun Luo; Li Xu; Yu-guang Huang

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of intraoperative combined forced-air warming and fluid warming system on patient's core temperature, blood loss, transfusion demand, extubation time, and incidence of postoperative shivering.Methods Forty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ and Ⅱ, aged 18-70 years, scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to receive intraoperative warming from a forced-air blanket and fluid warming system or conventional cotton blanket, 20 in each group. The core temperature was recorded every 20 minutes during the operation, as well as the blood loss, blood transfusion, extubation time, and incidence of postoperative shivering.Results The core temperature at the end of the surgery in the wanning group was significantly different from that in the control group (36.4±0.4C vs. 35.3±0.5°C, P<0.001). Application of intraoperative warming significantly shortened the time between the end of the surgery and extubation (P<0.01). Postoperative shivering occurred in 30% of the patients in the control group compared to no patient in the warming group (P <0.01).Conclusion Active warming with air-forced blanket and fluid warming system provides sufficient heat to prevent hypothermia during abdominal surgery.

  9. Cancer in US Air Force veterans not involved with spraying herbicides during the Vietnam War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavuk, M. [SpecPro, Inc. (United States); Michalek, J.; Ketchum, N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, San Antonio, TX (United States); Akhtar, F. [The START Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year prospective study examining the health, mortality and reproductive outcomes in US Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand who sprayed herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. Comparison veterans flew or serviced C-130 transport aircraft in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the same time period but did not spray herbicides. They were stationed mostly in Taiwan, the Philippines, Guam, Japan, and Thailand and spent on average less than 30% of their SEA service in Vietnam. Comparison veterans also spent approximately 30% more time in SEA than Ranch Hand veterans. No increases in Ranch Hand cancer mortality and morbidity were found in earlier investigations, but a recent study contrasting cancer rates in Air Force veterans and in the general US (white male) population reported increases in cancer at all SEER sites, prostate cancer and melanoma in Ranch Hand veterans and cancer at all SEER sites and prostate cancer in Comparison veterans. Associations between dioxin exposure category and cancer were found after restriction to Ranch Hand veterans who served in SEA no more than 2 years and to those who spent all of their SEA service in Vietnam. Overall cancer incidence in the general population in countries of SEA is about half of that in the United States, but cancers of the oral cavity/nasopharynx and liver are more prevalent in this region. Here we examine in more detail whether years served in SEA had any effect on the risk of cancer among Comparison veterans.

  10. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  11. Modeling the forced-air cooling process of fresh strawberry packages, Part I: Numerical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrua, M.J.; Singh, R.P. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    A numerical analysis of the forced-air cooling process of retail packages of strawberries was performed by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy within the system. The results showed that the heterogeneity of the cooling process is largely influenced by the structure and design of the packaging system (individual clamshell packages and trays). On average 75 {+-} 2% of the total airflow forced through the system bypassed the clamshells, and 46 {+-} 5% of the flow rate forced through clamshells bypassed the strawberries. After 1 h of cooling, the average-fruit-temperature per clamshell ranged from 2.4 C to 8.3 C between the first and last clamshells along the main flow direction. Within these clamshells, the maximum differences in the volume-average temperature of individual fruits reached 3.5 C and 5.1 C, respectively. The results show the potential use of this numerical approach as a design tool to optimize the forced-air cooling process of horticultural products. (author)

  12. CFD model of air movement in ventilated façade: comparison between natural and forced air flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora Pérez, Gonzalo López Patiño, P. Amparo López Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling of ventilated façade. Ventilated façades are normal façade but it has an extra channel between the concrete wall and the (double skin façade. Several studies found in the literature are carried out with CFD simulations about the behavior of the thermodynamic phenomena of the double skin façades systems. These studies conclude that the presence of the air gap in the ventilated façade affects the temperature in the building skin, causing a cooling effect, at least in low-rise buildings. One of the most important factors affecting the thermal effects of ventilated façades is the wind velocity. In this contribution, a CFD analysis applied on two different velocity assumptions for air movement in the air gap of a ventilated façade is presented. A comparison is proposed considering natural wind induced velocity with forced fan induced velocity in the gap. Finally, comparing temperatures in the building skin, the differences between both solutions are described determining that, related to the considered boundary conditions, there is a maximum height in which the thermal effect of the induced flow is significantly observed.

  13. Potentiometric surfaces of the Arnold Engineering Development Complex Area, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, May and September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Connor J.; Robinson, John A.

    2016-01-29

    Arnold Air Force Base occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The primary mission of Arnold Air Force Base is to provide risk-reduction information in the development of aerospace products through test and evaluation. This mission is achieved in part through test facilities at Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC), which occupies about 4,000 acres in the center of Arnold Air Force Base. Arnold Air Force Base is underlain by gravel and limestone aquifers, the most productive of which is the Manchester aquifer. Several volatile organic compounds, primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in the groundwater at Arnold Air Force Base. In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Arnold Air Force Base, completed a study of groundwater flow focused on the Arnold Engineering Development Complex area. The Arnold Engineering Development Complex area is of particular concern because within this area (1) chlorinated solvents have been identified in the groundwater, (2) the aquifers are dewatered around below-grade test facilities, and (3) there is a regional groundwater divide.

  14. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  15. Color coded bathmetry map of Cape Canaveral, Florida, derived from boat based sounding data (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  16. Lidar Bathymetry Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  17. 77 FR 64493 - Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Department of the Air Force Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202 and Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 1000.20 AGENCY: The United States Air Force, DOD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 401, Public Law 95-202 and DoD...

  18. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  19. The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular mortality in US Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavuk, M. [SpecPro, Inc. (United States); Michalek, J.; Jackson Jr., W.; Ketchum, N. [Air Force Research Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors such as disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, obesity and visceral adiposity, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and a systemic pro-inflammatory state. Its subsequent association with development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes makes it a major health care issue. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States is roughly 25% for adults over 20 and up to 40% for those over 60 years old. Although the estimates on the prevalence differ and various criteria have been used in classification of metabolic syndrome, few seem to disagree that it has reached epidemic proportions. Two major definitions have been proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III). The exact definition of the syndrome and the importance of individual components in the etiology of the syndrome are still under intense investigation. The Air Force Health Study is a 25-year prospective study examining the health, mortality and reproductive outcomes in US Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand who sprayed herbicides, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) - contaminated Agent Orange, in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. Veterans who flew or serviced C-130 transport aircraft in Southeast Asia during the same time period but did not spray herbicides served as comparisons. In this study we examined whether the NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome in Air Force veterans who attended the 1982 baseline examination was associated with their subsequent cardiovascular and any-cause mortality and whether exposure to herbicides had any effect on this association.

  20. Business process reengineering in the inventory management to improve aircraft maintenance operations in the Indonesian Air Force

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Martinus Bram.

    2006-01-01

    The Indonesian Air Force has utilized computers in its administration as early as 1990. The computers, however, have not yet been optimized to support inventory management in aircraft maintenance operations, especially for the helicopter fleet. The processes for materials procurement to support the maintenance operations still rely heavily on the services of intermediaries'. Even though the Air Force has already adopted the Automatic Logistic Management System (ALMS), this has several weaknes...

  1. (?) The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory: Aeronomy, aerospace instrumentation, space physics, meteorology, terrestrial sciences and optical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, A. B.

    1982-04-01

    Contents: The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory; Aeronomy Division--Upper Atmosphere Composition, Middle Atmosphere Effects, Atmospheric UV Radiation, Satellite Accelerometer Density Measurement, Theoretical Density Studies, Chemical Transport Models, Turbulence and Forcing Functions, Atmospheric Ion Chemistry, Energy Budget Campaign, Kwajalein Reference Atmospheres, 1979, Satellite Studies of the Neutral Atmosphere, Satellite Studies of the Ionosphere, Aerospace Instrumentation Division--Sounding Rocket Program, Satellite Support, Rocket and Satellite Instrumentation; Space Physics Division--Solar Research, Solar Radio Research, Environmental Effects on Space Systems, Solar Proton Event Studies, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, Ionospheric Effects Research, Spacecraft Charging Technology; Meteorology Division--Cloud Physics, Ground-Based Remote-Sensing Techniques, Mesoscale Observing and Forecasting, Design Climatology, Aircraft Icing Program, Atmospheric Dynamics; Terrestrial Sciences Division--Geodesy and Gravity, Geokinetics; Optical Physics Division--Atmospheric Transmission, Remote Sensing, INfrared Background; and Appendices.

  2. Simplified model for a ventilated glass window under forced air flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, K.A.R. [Depto. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos-FEM-UNICAMP CP: 6122 CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Henriquez, J.R. [Depto. de Eng. Mecanica-DEMEC, UFPE Av. Academico Helio Ramos, S/N CEP 50740-530, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a study on a ventilated window composed of two glass sheets separated by a spacing through which air is forced to flow. The proposed model is one dimensional and unsteady based upon global energy balance over the glass sheets and the flowing fluid. The external glass sheet of the cavity is subjected to variable heat flow due to the solar radiation as well as variable external ambient temperature. The exchange of radiation energy (infrared radiation) between the glass sheets is also included in the formulation. Effects of the spacing between the glass sheets, variation of the forced mass flow rate on the total heat gain and the shading coefficients are investigated. The results show that the effect of the increase of the mass flow rate is found to reduce the mean solar heat gain and the shading coefficients while the increase of the fluid entry temperature is found to deteriorate the window thermal performance. (author)

  3. Simplified model for a ventilated glass window under forced air flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study on a ventilated window composed of two glass sheets separated by a spacing through which air is forced to flow. The proposed model is one dimensional and unsteady based upon global energy balance over the glass sheets and the flowing fluid. The external glass sheet of the cavity is subjected to variable heat flow due to the solar radiation as well as variable external ambient temperature. The exchange of radiation energy (infrared radiation) between the glass sheets is also included in the formulation. Effects of the spacing between the glass sheets, variation of the forced mass flow rate on the total heat gain and the shading coefficients are investigated. The results show that the effect of the increase of the mass flow rate is found to reduce the mean solar heat gain and the shading coefficients while the increase of the fluid entry temperature is found to deteriorate the window thermal performance

  4. Learning Styles of Pilots Currently Qualified in United States Air Force Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.

  5. Disqualifying Medical Conditions of Flying Personnel in Chinese Army and Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-wei Wang; Shu-xuan Xu; Xian-rong Xu; Tong-xin Chen

    2008-01-01

    @@ After inpatient aircrews of Chinese Army and Air Force are treated at local hospitals,their health status will be evaluated.If it is aeronantieally adaptable,the conclusion would be flying qualification;if it may impact the flight safety or the flight environment may aggravate the illness,the conclusion would be flight suspension,and then the patient should be forwarded from local hospital to our hospital.After detailed examination,if the conditions of flying personnel are considered not qualified for flight,the conclusion of flying disqualification should be made finally.

  6. Counterflow flames of air and methane, propane and ethylene, with and without periodic forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luff, D.; Korusoy, E.; Lindstedt, P.; Whitelaw, J.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thermofluids Section, Imperial College, SW7 2BX, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-01

    The extinction of forced and unforced turbulent premixed counterflow flames has been quantified with lean mixtures of air and each of methane, propane and ethylene. Symmetric flames were produced with two streams of equal equivalence ratios between 0.6 and 1.0, and nozzle separations from 0.2 to 2.5 D, while acoustic drivers were used to force the flow at discrete frequencies. Photographs confirmed visual observation of unforced twin flames and their merging with increasing strain rate into one reaction zone at the stagnation plane before extinction. Propane flames merged at velocities closer to the extinction limit. At separations less than 0.4 D local quenching and extinction and relight occurred at equivalence ratios less than 0.7, independent of fuel type. Unforced extinction times were determined by igniting mixtures with equivalence ratios of 0.6 to 0.9 and bulk velocities above the extinction limit, and observing the extinction process with high-speed video: they were found to increase quasi-exponentially with reduction in strain rate, and were strongly dependent on equivalence ratio and fuel type. Forced extinction times also increased with decrease in strain rate and with reduction in forcing amplitude and instantaneous strain rates greater than the unforced limit were observed. Ethylene flames were more sensitive to the cyclic weakening with more rapid temperature decay rates and shorter extinction times. (orig.)

  7. Report from ILEWG and Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    We shall report on the ILEWG charter, goals and activities, on ICEUM "lunar declarations" and follow-up activities, with focus on societal questions, and the Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008. ILEWG charter: ILEWG , the International Lunar Exploration Working Group is a public forum created in 1994, sponsored by the world's space agencies to support "international cooperation towards a world strategy for the exploration and utilization of the Moon - our natural satellite". The charter of ILEWG is: - To develop an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon - To establish a forum and mechanisms for the communication and coordination of activities - To implement international coordination and cooperation - In order to facilitate communication among all interested parties ILEWG agrees to establish an electronic communication network for exchange of science, technology and programmatic information related to lunar activities ILEWG meets regularly, at least, once a year, and leads the organization of an International Conference in order to discuss the state of lunar exploration. Formal reports are given at COSPAR meetings and to space agencies. ILEWG is sponsored by the world's space agencies and is intended to serve three relevant groups: - actual members of the ILEWG, ie delegates and repre-sentatives of the participating Space Agencies and organizations - allowing them to discuss and possibly harmonize their draft concepts and plans - team members of the relevant space projects - allowing them to coordinate their internal work according to the guidelines provided by the Charter of the ILEWG - members of the general public and of the Lunar Explorer's Society who are interested and wish to be informed on the progress of the Moon projects and possibly contribute their own ideas ILEWG activities and working groups: ILEWG task groups include science, technology, human aspects, socio-economics, young explorers and outreach, programmatics, roadmaps and

  8. Automation&Characterization of US Air Force Bench Top Wind Tunnels - Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.E.

    2006-03-23

    The United States Air Force Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratories (PMEL) calibrate over 1,000 anemometer probes per year. To facilitate a more efficient calibration process for probe-style anemometers, the Air Force Metrology and Calibration Program underwent an effort to modernize the existing PMEL bench top wind tunnels. Through a joint effort with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the performance of PMEL wind tunnels was improved. The improvement consisted of new high accuracy sensors, automatic data acquisition, and a software-driven calibration process. As part of the wind tunnel upgrades, an uncertainty analysis was completed, laser Doppler velocimeter profiling was conducted to characterize the velocities at probe locations in the wind tunnel, and pitot tube calibrations of the wind tunnel were verified. The bench top wind tunnel accuracy and repeatability has been measured for nine prototype wind tunnel systems and valuable field experience has been gained with these wind tunnels at the PMELs. This report describes the requirements for the wind tunnel improvements along with actual implementation strategies and details. Lessons-learned from the automation, the velocity profiling, and the software-driven calibration process will also be discussed.

  9. Fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-15

    The fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation surveys were completed October 3-7, 1994, at Norton Air Force Base (AFB), California. Two biologists from CDM Federal Programs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regional biologist and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) lead biologist conducted the surveys. A habitat assessment of three Installation Restoration Project (IRP) sites at Norton Air Force Base was also completed during the fall survey period. The IRP sites include: Landfill No. 2 (Site 2); the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) area; and Former Fire Training Area No. 1 (Site 5). The assessments were designed to qualitatively characterize the sites of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and provide information for Remedial Design/Remedial Action activities. A Reference Area (Santa Ana River Wash) and the base urban areas were also characterized. The reference area assessment was performed to provide a baseline for comparison with the IRP site habitats. The fall 1994 survey is the second of up to four surveys that may be completed. In order to develop a complete understanding of all plant and animal species using the base, these surveys were planned to be conducted over four seasons. Species composition can vary widely during the course of a year in Southern California, and therefore, seasonal surveys will provide the most complete and reliable data to address changes in habitat structure and wildlife use of the site. Subsequent surveys will focus on seasonal wildlife observations and a spring vegetation survey.

  10. Nike Air Force 1 Low LeBron MVP Customs最有价值定制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    这不是一双官方发布的鞋款,这是一双由球鞋爱好者自行定制的Air Force 1。也许很多人已经得知Nike将要发布MVP版本的Zoom Lebron Six,但是这双Custom的Air Force1 LeBron MVP呢?首先在颜色上,设计者选择了骑士第二客场的红蓝黄配色.前掌外侧用詹姆斯经典的“洒粉”动作与MVP字样结合的图案.后部是繁杂的数字以表现詹姆斯在本赛季的各项惊人数据,鞋舌处还有詹姆斯的皇冠图案与MVP字样组合而成的独特Logo。虽然詹

  11. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  12. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  13. Sonic booms produced by US Air Force and US Navy aircraft: Measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. A.; Downing, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    A sonic measurement program was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base. Sonic boom signatures, produced by F-4, F-14, F-15, F-16, F-18, F-111, SR-71, and T-38 aircraft, were obtained under the flight track and at various lateral sites which were located up to 18 miles off-track. Thirteen monitors developed by Det 1 AL/BBE were used to collect full sonic boom waveforms, and nine modified dosimeters were used to collect supplemental peak overpressures and the C-weighted Sound Exposure Levels (CSEL) for 43 near steady supersonic flights of the above United States Air Force and United States Navy aircraft. This report describes the measured database (BOOMFILE) that contains sonic boom signatures and overpressures, aircraft tracking, and local weather data. These measured data highlight the major influences on sonic boom propagation and generation. The data from this study show that a constant offset of 26 from the peak overpressure expressed in dB gives a good estimate of the CSEL of a sonic boom.

  14. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT

  15. Groundwater level and nitrate concentration trends on Mountain Home Air Force Base, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain Home Air Force Base in southwestern Idaho draws most of its drinking water from the regional aquifer. The base is located within the State of Idaho's Mountain Home Groundwater Management Area and is adjacent to the State's Cinder Cone Butte Critical Groundwater Area. Both areas were established by the Idaho Department of Water Resources in the early 1980s because of declining water levels in the regional aquifer. The base also is listed by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality as a nitrate priority area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, began monitoring wells on the base in 1985, and currently monitors 25 wells for water levels and 17 wells for water quality, primarily nutrients. This report provides a summary of water-level and nitrate concentration data collected primarily between 2001 and 2013 and examines trends in those data. A Regional Kendall Test was run to combine results from all wells to determine an overall regional trend in water level. Groundwater levels declined at an average rate of about 1.08 feet per year. Nitrate concentration trends show that 3 wells (18 percent) are increasing in nitrate concentration trend, 3 wells (18 percent) show a decreasing nitrate concentration trend, and 11 wells (64 percent) show no nitrate concentration trend. Six wells (35 percent) currently exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant limit of 10 milligrams per liter for nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate, measured as nitrogen).

  16. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L. [and others

    1994-06-01

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT.

  17. How realistic are air quality hindcasts driven by forcings from climate model simulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lacressonnière

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Predicting how European air quality could evolve over the next decades in the context of changing climate requires the use of climate models to produce results that can be averaged in a climatologically and statistically sound manner. This is a very different approach from the one that is generally used for air quality hindcasts for the present period; analysed meteorological fields are used to represent specifically each date and hour. Differences arise both from the fact that a climate model run results in a pure model output, with no influence from observations (which are useful to correct for a range of errors, and that in a "climate" set-up, simulations on a given day, month or even season cannot be related to any specific period of time (but can just be interpreted in a climatological sense. Hence, although an air quality model can be thoroughly validated in a "realistic" set-up using analysed meteorological fields, the question remains of how far its outputs can be interpreted in a "climate" set-up. For this purpose, we focus on Europe and on the current decade using three 5-yr simulations performed with the multiscale chemistry-transport model MOCAGE and use meteorological forcings either from operational meteorological analyses or from climate simulations. We investigate how statistical skill indicators compare in the different simulations, discriminating also the effects of meteorology on atmospheric fields (winds, temperature, humidity, pressure, etc. and on the dependent emissions and deposition processes (volatile organic compound emissions, deposition velocities, etc.. Our results show in particular how differing boundary layer heights and deposition velocities affect horizontal and vertical distributions of species. When the model is driven by operational analyses, the simulation accurately reproduces the observed values of O3, NOx, SO2 and, with some bias that can be explained by the set-up, PM

  18. How realistic are air quality hindcasts driven by forcings from climate model simulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lacressonnière

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting how European air quality could evolve over the next decades in the context of changing climate requires the use of climate models to produce results that can be averaged in a climatologically and statistically sound manner. This is a very different approach from the one that is generally used for air quality hindcasts for the present period: analysed meteorological fields are used to represent specifically each date and hour. Differences arise both from the fact that a climate model run is a pure model output, with no influence from observations (which are useful to correct for a range of errors, and that in a "climate" set-up, simulations on a given day, month or even season cannot be related to any specific period of time (but can just be interpreted in a climatological sense. Hence, although an air quality model can be thoroughly validated in a "realistic" set-up using analysed meteorological fields, the question remains of how far its outputs can be interpreted in a "climate" set-up. For this purpose, we focus on Europe and on the current decade using three 6-yr simulations performed with the multiscale chemistry-transport model MOCAGE and use meteorological forcings either from operational meteorological analyses or from climate simulations. We investigate how statistical skill indicators compare in the different simulations, discriminating also the effects of meteorology on atmospheric fields (winds, temperature, humidity, pressure ldots and on the dependent emissions and deposition processes (volatile organic compound emissions, deposition velocities . . .. Our results show in particular how differing boundary layer heights and deposition velocities affect horizontal and vertical distributions of species. When the model is driven by operational analyses, the simulation accurately reproduces the observed values of O3, NOx, SO2 and, with some bias that can be explained by the set-up, PM10

  19. Demonstration of Security Benefits of Renewable Generation at FE Warren Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report detailing field demonstration of security benefits of renewable generation at FE Warren Air Force Base. The 2006 National Defense Appropriations Act directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to coordinate the testing of a wind turbine (new to the U.S. market) at an Air Force installation as a follow on to analyses conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laborabory (PNNL) as part of the 2005 DOD Renewable Assessment. The earlier study simulated the performance of renewable power produced from wind turbines, solar photovoltaics and geothermal energy as part of a Base-wide energy security solution. The simulation concluded that integration of renewable generating resources with emergency generators, typically diesel-fired, could significantly enhance energy security and extend power supplies during prolonged commercial grid power outages. A simulation is insufficient to convince skeptics of the reliability of renewable resources, especially those that produce power only intermittently, like wind and solar. Therefore, Congress requested a field demonstration be performed using a wind turbine because wind power is the most erratic of all renewable resources. Following this direction, the Air Force identified a site for the wind turbine demonstration and contracted with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and PNNL to conduct the demonstration and implement other provisions in the appropriation bill. INL identified a wind turbine that met the legislative requirements (the Gamesa G-80), and with the support of PNNL and the Air Force, selected FE Warren Air Force Base for the demonstration. FE Warren has an excellent wind resource and was already a host to two wind turbines and could accommodate a third. The G-80 is rated at 2 MWs versus the two existing 660 kW turbines, consequently wind production would more than double. Procurement, siting, and acceptance testing of the new turbine was completed in early 2010. The field test was conducted in late April 2010

  20. An overview of the Noncyanide Metal Stripper program conducted at Kelly Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyle, M.D.; Cowan, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Noncyanide Metal Stripper Program was a waste minimization effort aimed at identifying and testing suitable noncyanide stripping solutions that could replace the cyanide stripping solutions found in the United States Air Force (USAF) Air Logistics Centers (ALC). The program started with laboratory testing of commercial stripping solutions. The performance of these solutions was compared with the cyanide process solutions C-101 and C-106 targeted for replacement. Plate metal stripping rate, basis metal corrosion, and compatibility with masking materials and biodegradability were all used to determine the performance of each product. Those products that passed the acceptance criteria were field tested using 25 to 50-gallon solutions to determine optimum operating conditions, stripper maintenance requirements, and maximum solution loading and longevity. The program included investigating any adverse effects these new products might have on existing chemical and biological waste treatment processes. All cyanide stripping solutions at the San Antonio Air Logistics Command Center have been successfully replaced with commercial noncyanide products. Generally, these replacements were less toxic and generated less waste and had longer lifetimes than their cyanide counterparts.

  1. Perspective on One Decade of Laser Propulsion Research at Air Force Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, C. William

    2008-04-01

    The Air Force Laser Propulsion Program spanned nearly 10-years and included about 35-weeks of experimental research with the Pulsed Laser Vulnerability Test System of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, WSMR/HELSTF/PLVTS. PLVTS is a pulsed CO2 laser that produces up to 10 kW of power in ˜10 cm2 spot at wavelength of 10.6 microns. The laser is capable of a pulse repetition rate up to 25 Hz, with pulse durations of about 20 microseconds. During the program basic research was conducted on the production of propulsion thrust from laser energy through heating of air and ablation of various candidate rocket propellant fuels. Flight tests with an ablation fuel (Delrin) and air were accomplished with a model Laser Lightcraft vehicle that was optimized for propulsion by the PLVTS at its maximum power output, 10 kW at 25 Hz, 400 J/pulse. Altitudes exceeding 200-feet were achieved with ablation fuels. The most recent contributions to the technology included development of a mini-thruster standard for testing of chemically enhanced fuels and theoretical calculations on the performance of formulations containing ammonium nitrate and Delrin. Results of these calculations will also be reported here.

  2. Asian Dust particles impacts on air quality and radiative forcing over Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asian Dust particles originated from the deserts and loess areas of the Asian continent are often transported over Korea, Japan, and the North Pacific Ocean during spring season. Major air mass pathway of Asian dust storm to Korea is from either north-western Chinese desert regions or north-eastern Chinese sandy areas. The local atmospheric environment condition in Korea is greatly impacted by Asian dust particles transported by prevailing westerly wind. Since these Asian dust particles pass through heavily populated urban and industrial areas in China before it reach Korean peninsular, their physical, chemical and optical properties vary depending on the atmospheric conditions and air mass pathway characteristics. An integrated system approach has been adopted at the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosols utilizing various in-situ and optical remote sensing methods, which include a multi-channel Raman LIDAR system, sunphotometer, satellite, and in-situ instruments. Results from recent studies on impacts of Asian dust particles on local air quality and radiative forcing over Korea are summarized here.

  3. Influence of future air pollution mitigation strategies on total aerosol radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kloster

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We apply different aerosol and aerosol precursor emission scenarios reflecting possible future control strategies for air pollution in the ECHAM5-HAM model, and simulate the resulting effect on the Earth's radiation budget. We use two opposing future mitigation strategies for the year 2030: one in which emission reduction legislation decided in countries throughout the world are effectively implemented (current legislation; CLE 2030 and one in which all technical options for emission reductions are being implemented independent of their cost (maximum feasible reduction; MFR 2030.

    We consider the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols. The total anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation between 2000 and pre-industrial times amounts to −2.05 W/m2. In the future this negative global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing will only slightly change (+0.02 W/m2 under the "current legislation" scenario. Regionally, the effects are much larger: e.g. over Eastern Europe radiative forcing would increase by +1.50 W/m2 because of successful aerosol reduction policies, whereas over South Asia it would decrease by −1.10 W/m2 because of further growth of emissions. A "maximum feasible reduction" of aerosols and their precursors would lead to an increase of the global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing by +1.13 W/m2. Hence, in the latter case, the present day negative anthropogenic aerosol forcing cloud be more than halved by 2030 because of aerosol reduction policies and climate change thereafter will be to a larger extend be controlled by greenhouse gas emissions.

    We combined these two opposing future mitigation strategies for a number of experiments focusing on different sectors and regions. In addition, we performed sensitivity studies to estimate the importance of future changes in

  4. Air quality and radiative forcing impacts of anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions from ten world regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Fry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs influence air quality and global climate change through their effects on secondary air pollutants and climate forcers. Here we simulate the air quality and radiative forcing (RF impacts of changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate from halving anthropogenic NMVOC emissions globally and from 10 regions individually, using a global chemical transport model and a standalone radiative transfer model. Halving global NMVOC emissions decreases global annual average tropospheric methane and ozone by 36.6 ppbv and 3.3 Tg, respectively, and surface ozone by 0.67 ppbv. All regional reductions slow the production of PAN, resulting in regional to intercontinental PAN decreases and regional NOx increases. These NOx increases drive tropospheric ozone increases nearby or downwind of source regions in the Southern Hemisphere (South America, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Australia. Some regions' NMVOC emissions contribute importantly to air pollution in other regions, such as East Asia, Middle East, and Europe, whose impact on US surface ozone is 43%, 34%, and 34% of North America's impact. Global and regional NMVOC reductions produce widespread negative net RFs (cooling across both hemispheres from tropospheric ozone and methane decreases, and regional warming and cooling from changes in tropospheric ozone and sulfate (via several oxidation pathways. The total global net RF for NMVOCs is estimated as 0.0277 W m−2 (~1.8% of CO2 RF since the preindustrial. The 100 yr and 20 yr global warming potentials (GWP100, GWP20 are 2.36 and 5.83 for the global reduction, and 0.079 to 6.05 and −1.13 to 18.9 among the 10 regions. The NMVOC RF and GWP estimates are generally lower than previously modeled estimates, due to differences among models in ozone, methane, and sulfate sensitivities, and the climate forcings included in each estimate. Accounting for a~fuller set of RF contributions may change the relative magnitude of each

  5. Model of Air Force Logistics War Fighting Experimentation%空军后勤作战实验模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗龙强; 罗兴永; 温继海

    2016-01-01

    为提高空军后勤作战实验模型构建的质量和效益,构建一种空军后勤作战实验5层结构模型体系。在深入分析空军后勤系统的基础上,通过分析空军后勤作战实验模型体系的构建要求,运用UML建立了飞行保障指挥控制模型。分析结果表明:该5层结构模型体系基本厘清了空军后勤作战实验模型构建需求,为模型构建工作提供了一个基本的架构。%In order to improve the quality and efficiency of model of air force logistics war fighting experimentation, establish a five-level architecture model system of air force logistics. By penetratingly analyzing the air force logistics system, through analyze air construction requirement force logistics war fighting experimentation model system, use UML to establish flight protection command control model. The analysis results show that, the five-level architecture model system meets the establishment requirement of air force logistics war fighting experimentation, and provides a basic architecture for the model establishment.

  6. 1995 Area 1 bird survey/Zone 1, Operable Unit 2, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Robins Air Force Base is located in Warner Robins, Georgia, approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. As part of the Baseline Investigation (CDM Federal 1994) a two day bird survey was conducted by M. C. Wade (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and B.A. Beatty (CDM Federal Programs) in May 1995. The subject area of investigation includes the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, and the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two ponds). This is known as Area 1. The Area 1 wetlands include bottomland hardwood forest, stream, and pond habitats. The objectives of this survey were to document bird species using the Area I wetlands and to see if the change in hydrology (due to the installation of the Sewage Treatment Plant effluent diversion and stormwater runon control systems) has resulted in changes at Area 1 since the previous survey of May 1992 (CDM Federal 1994).

  7. An analysis of post-traumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William

    2014-06-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed.

  8. An analysis of post-traumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William

    2014-06-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed. PMID:24907535

  9. Air Force School of Health Care Science's quality of life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R D; Buckingham, R S; Chitwood, J L; Carlsen, J S

    1998-01-01

    This was an empirically based assessment of non-prior service students' quality of life in the Air Force's School of Health Care Sciences. Analysis provided five results: (1) The overall quality of life at the school was good. (2) The variables accounting for student unhappiness were dormitory unsuitability and the students not being in their top-three career choices. (3) Structural changes were required at the dormitories. (4) The desire to succeed and how to achieve that success were the most important interests for students. (5) Loved ones and student independence were the greatest indicators of motivation. The findings resulted in three immediate corrections and two long-term recommendations to improve students' quality of life. The two long-term recommendations were to have an educational psychologist intervene when students are having significant learning problems, and to alter the selection process for recruiting. Both immediate corrections and long-term recommendations are useful for sister services. PMID:9465569

  10. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  11. FIRE, FLOOD AND ICE: SEARCH AND RESCUE MISSIONS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindelwa Simphiwe Mnyandu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Between the end of 1999 and the early months of the year 2000, the south western parts of South Africa (SA were subjected to raging infernos that saw a lot of commercial wine farms as well as tourist spots almost irreparably ravaged. With volunteers and rescue personnel still gasping for fresh breath another disaster, in the form of torrential rains, struck the impoverished country of Mozambique and the north western parts of SA. The attendant floods did not only cripple agriculture but also drowned people and livestock alike. With them, also came the first "treebirth" in this new millennium (if not in the history of mankind. In both catastrophes, the men and women of the South African Air Force (SAAF, as well as thousands of other volunteers, worked tirelessly and unselfishly in efforts to save endangered lives and property and to bring a sense of normality in otherwise tragic circumstances.

  12. Experimental investigation on steam condensation in the presence of air and helium: forced convection conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucci, M., E-mail: matteo.bucci@cea.fr [Univ. of Pisa, DIMNP, Pisa (Italy); CEA Saclay, CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S/SFME/LETR (France); Ambrosini, W.; Forgione, N. [Univ. of Pisa, DIMNP, Pisa (Italy); Lioce, D [Univ. of Pisa, DIMNP, Pisa (Italy); Westinghouse Electric Belguim, Nivelles (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the results obtained from recent experimental investigations devoted to the study of steam condensation in the presence of air and a light noncondensable gas. The experiments are intended to provide data for the validation of engineering models and CFD codes. The original experimental data herein discussed focus on forced convection turbulent boundary layer conditions and involve atmospheric pressure, different conditions for mixture velocity (from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s), mixture composition (form 0 to 75 per cent of the light species in the overall amount of noncondensable gases) and two nominal electrical power supply of the steam generator. The experimental data are qualified against correlations based on the heat and mass transfer analogy and to the predictions obtained by an in house condensation model implemented in a commercial CFD code. (author)

  13. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater

  14. Back pain and its consequences among Polish Air Force pilots flying high performance aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Truszczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Back pain in Air Force fast jet pilots has been studied by several air forces and found to be relatively common. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and degree of the pain intensity in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, subjective risk factors and their effect on the pilots' performance while flying high maneuver aircrafts and the consequences for cognitive deficiencies. Material and Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective, anonymous questionnaire survey, collecting data on the age, aircraft type, flying hours, pain characteristics, physical activity, etc. The study was participated by 94 pilots aged 28-45 years (mean age: 35.9±3.3 years, actively flying fast jet aircrafts Su-22, Mig-29 and F-16. The estimates regarding the level of the subjective back pain were established using visual analogue scales (VAS. Results: The values of the Cochran and Cox T-test for heterogeneous variances are as follows: for the total number of flying hours: F = 2.53, p = 0.0145, for the pilot's age: F = 3.15, p = 0.003, and for the BMI factor F = 2.73, p = 0.008. Conclusions: Our questionnaire survey showed a significant problem regarding spinal conditions in high performance aircraft pilots. The determination of the risk factors may lead to solving this problem and help eliminate the effect of the unfavorable environment on piloting jet aircrafts. Experiencing back pain during the flight might influence the mission performance and flight safety. The costs of pilots education are enormous and inability to fly, or even disability, leads to considerable economic loss. More research on specific prevention strategies is warranted in order to improve the in-flight working environment of fighter pilots.

  15. Overview of the Diagnostic Cloud Forecast Model at the Air Force Weather Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) is responsible for running and maintaining the Diagnostic Cloud Forecast (DCF) model to support DoD missions and those of their external partners. The DCF model generates three-dimensional cloud forecasts for global and regional domains at various resolutions. Regional domains are chosen based on Air Force mission needs. DCF is purely a statistical model that can be appended to any numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. Operationally, AFWA runs the DCF model deterministically using GFS data from NCEP and WRF data that are created in-house. In addition, AFWA also runs an ensemble version of the DCF model using the Mesoscale Ensemble Prediction System (MEPS). The deterministic DCF uses predictor variables from the WRF or GFS models, depending on whether the domain is regional or global, and statistically relates them to observed cloud cover from the World-Wide Merged Cloud Analysis (WWMCA). The forecast process of the model uses an ordinal logistic regression to predict membership in one of 101 groups (every 1% from 0-100%). The predicted group membership then is translated into a cloud amount. This is performed on 21 pressure levels ranging from 1000 hPa to 100 hPa. Cloud amount forecasts on these 21 levels are used along with the NWP geopotential height forecasts to estimate the base and top heights of cloud layers in the vertical. DCF also includes routines to estimate the amount and type of cloud within each layer. Forecasts of total cloud amount are verified using the WWMCA, as well as independent sources of cloud data. This presentation will include an overview of the DCF model and its use at AFWA. Results will be presented to show that DCF adds value over the raw cloud forecasts from NWP models. Ideas for future work also will be addressed.

  16. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  17. A nanonewton force facility and a novel method for measurements of the air and vacuum permittivity at zero frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, Vladimir

    2009-08-01

    A nanonewton force facility, based on a disk-pendulum with electrostatic stiffness reduction and electrostatic force compensation, for the measurement of horizontal forces in the range below 1 µN, is presented. It consists of a measuring system and an identical reference system. Recent experiments with the nanonewton force facility have achieved agreement between an electrostatic force and a gravitational force of 80 nN with an uncertainty of less than 3%. A novel method for measurements of the air (vacuum) permittivity at zero frequencies by means of the nanonewton force facility is presented. First measurements in air show a permittivity of the air ɛ ≈ 8.71 × 10-12 F m-1 with an uncertainty of 3%. From a theoretical analysis, it follows that this method can be used for the measurement of the vacuum permittivity ɛ0 at zero frequencies with a relative uncertainty of about 10-5. The precise measurement of the vacuum permittivity ɛ0 for an electrostatic field would be another test for the correctness of Maxwell's equations.

  18. 78 FR 9038 - Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Department of the Air Force Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Acceptance of Group Application Under Public Law 95-202 and Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 1000.20: U.S. and Foreign Employees of Air America, Inc. Under the provisions of Section 401, Public Law 95-202 and DoD Directive 1000.20,...

  19. Application of the biological forced air soil treatment (BIOFAST trademark) technology to diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A subsurface Biological Forced Air Soil Treatment (BIOFAST trademark) system was constructed at the Yellow Freight System, Inc. (Yellow Freight) New Haven facility in Connecticut as a means of expediting the remediation of soils impacted by a diesel fuel release. Prior to beginning construction activities the soils were evaluated for the feasibility of bioremediation based on soil characteristics including contaminant degrading bacteria, moisture content, and pH. Based on results of stimulant tests with oxygen and nutrients, the addition of fertilizer during the construction of the cell was recommended. Following the removal of underground storage tanks, the bioremediation cell was constructed by lining the enlarged excavation with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and backfilling alternating layers of nutrient-laden soil and pea gravel. Passive and active soil vapor extraction (SVE) piping was included in the gravel layers and connected to a blower and vapor treatment unit, operated intermittently to supply oxygen to the subsurface cell. Operating data have indicated that the bacteria are generating elevated levels of CO2, and the SVE unit is evacuating the accumulated CO2 from the soils and replacing it with fresh air. These data suggest that the bioremediation process is active in the soils. Soil samples collected from within the soil pit subsequent to installation and again after 10 months of operation indicate that TPH concentrations have decreased by as much as 50%

  20. NASA/Air Force/Environmental Protection Agency Interagency Depainting Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    1998-01-01

    Many popular and widely used paint stripping products have traditionally contained methylene chloride as their main active ingredient. However, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has critically curved the allowable use of methylene chloride under the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants regulating Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities . Compliance with this rule was mandatory by September 1998 for affected facilities. An effort is underway to identify and evaluate alternative depainting technologies emphasizing those believed both effective and environmentally benign. On behalf of the EPA and in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is conducting a technical assessment of several alternative technologies ( i.e. : chemical stripping, two CO2 blasting processes, CO2 xenon lamp coating removal, CO2 Laser stripping, plastic media blasting, sodium bicarbonate wet stripping, high pressure water stripping, and wheat starch blasting). These depainting processes represent five removal method categories, namely abrasive, impact, cryogenic, thermal, and/or molecular bonding dissociation. This paper discusses the test plan and parameters for this interagency study. Several thicknesses of clad and non-clad aluminum substrates were used to prepare test specimens. Each depainting process has been assigned a specimen lot, all of which have completed three to five stripping cycles. Numerous metallurgical evaluations are underway to assess the impact of these alternative depainting processes upon the structural integrity of the substrate.

  1. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  2. A method for calculation of forces acting on air cooled gas turbine blades based on the aerodynamic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vojin R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the mathematical model and the procedure for calculation of the resultant force acting on the air cooled gas turbine blade(s based on the aerodynamic theory and computation of the circulation around the blade profile. In the conducted analysis was examined the influence of the cooling air mass flow expressed through the cooling air flow parameter λc, as well as, the values of the inlet and outlet angles β1 and β2, on the magnitude of the tangential and axial forces. The procedure and analysis were exemplified by the calculation of the tangential and axial forces magnitudes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Development and building the demonstrative facility for combined heat and power with gasification

  3. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  4. Indoor Air Quality In Maine Schools: Report of the Task Force To Examine the Establishment and Implementation of State Standards for Indoor Air Quality in Maine Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Judith

    Asserting that in Maine and across the nation, school buildings are becoming increasingly plagued with indoor air quality (IAQ) problems which contribute to a variety of illnesses in children and adults, this report from a Maine state legislative task force identifies appropriate policies and identifies actions necessary for the prevention and…

  5. Effects of forced convection of heated air on insensible water loss and heat loss in preterm infants in incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okken, A; Blijham, C; Franz, W; Bohn, E

    1982-07-01

    To assess the effect of forced convection of heated air exchange in preterm infants in conventional incubators, we measured insensible water loss and total heat loss in preterm infants in a conventional forced convection incubator (air velocity 15 to 25 cm/second) and in a specially constructed still-air incubator (air velocity 0 to 2 cm/second) at equal operative temperature and humidity. Under the forced conditions, insensible water loss in the preterm infants increased by a mean 52% from 1.04 +/- 0.24 (mean +/- SD) to 1.58 +/- 0.51 ml/kg/hour (P less than 0.001). The ensuing increase in evaporative heat loss was partly reflected in the small but significant increase in total heat loss from 1.65 +/- 0.47 to 1.80 +/- 0.44 kcal/kg/hour (P less than 0.02). In the forced convection incubator, the increased evaporative heat loss in preterm infants was apparently partly compensated by a decreased nonevaporative heat loss. If reduction of insensible water loss is required, preterm infants should not be subjected to forced convection in incubators.

  6. Air Force Technical Objective Document (TOD) C(3)I (command, control, communications and intelligence) - fiscal year 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, C. P.

    1983-12-01

    This TOD describes the technical programs of the Rome Air Development Center in support of the Air Force Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) mission. The technical objectives have been aligned with the VANGUARD mission areas of Command, Control, and Communications (C3), Reconnaissance and Intelligence, Strategic Systems (Defense), and Technology as a means of focusing the RADC support of VANGUARD. This document is prepared to provide industry and universities with the midterm technical objectives in these areas.

  7. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  8. Scanning force microscopy at the air-water interface of an air bubble coated with pulmonary surfactant.

    OpenAIRE

    Knebel, D; Sieber, M; Reichelt, R.; Galla, H-J; Amrein, M

    2002-01-01

    To study the structure-function relationship of pulmonary surfactant under conditions close to nature, molecular films of a model system consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, and surfactant-associated protein C were prepared at the air-water interface of air bubbles about the size of human alveoli (diameter of 100 microm). The high mechanical stability as well as the absence of substantial film flow, inherent to small air bubbles, allowed for scanning ...

  9. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-15

    This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.

  10. 33 CFR 80.723 - Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amelia Island, FL to Cape... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.723 Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to...

  11. Mortality of Air Force veterans exposed to herbicides during the Vietnam War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchum, N.; Michalek, J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The long-term effects of herbicide exposure on human health are not fully known and remain controversial. Herbicides were used by US forces for defoliation and crop destruction during the Vietnam War. The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), the contaminant found in Agent Orange and other herbicides sprayed during the war, continue to be of concern more than thirty years after the war. Studies of the post-service mortality experience of Vietnam veterans have given mixed results. The US Army Chemical Corps Study1 reported an increased risk of death due to digestive diseases and a non-significant increase in the risk of death from cancer. A study of Australian Army veterans reported an increased risk of death due to digestive diseases but no increases due to cancer. However, a study of women veterans3 found an increased risk of death due to pancreatic cancer and a study of Vietnam veterans from Michigan6 reported an excess of deaths due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The Air Force Health Study is a prospective epidemiological study of the health, mortality and reproductive outcomes of veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerially spraying herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. The study, now in its 22{sup nd} year, began in 1982 and will conclude in 2006. Here we update our second report by summarizing current all-cause and cause-specific post-service mortality in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.

  12. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT (CD-ROM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the tricWoroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were insta...

  13. Victim, Perpetrator, Family, and Incident Characteristics of 32 Infant Maltreatment Deaths in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Albert L.; Nelson, John P.; Hymel, Kent P.; Colby, Donald R.; Lucas, D. R.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Milner, Joel S.

    1998-01-01

    Using a multidisciplinary approach, victim, perpetrator, family, and incident variables in 32 cases of infanticide in U.S. Air Force families were examined. Findings were that 55% percent of infant-victims had physical trauma before the fatal incident, indicating physical abuse. The caretaker-perpetrator was usually male (84%), the biological…

  14. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    .... Review Under Executive Order 12866. The proposed rule is issued with respect to a military function of... Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force... heighten security measures is anticipated. (3) Permanent Restricted Areas. (i) Military Point....

  15. Smart Warriors: A Rationale for Educating Air Force Academy Cadets in the History of Science, Technology, and Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astore, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Identifies enhancing the judgments of cadets through education at a military institution like the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) as a crucial pedagogical issue facing instructors of History of Science and Technology (HST). Discusses the experience of helping cadets to meet such challenges in learning HST in the context of professional…

  16. Job Enrichment: Evaluation with Implications for Air Force Job Redesign. Interim Report, 1 January 1975-30 April 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Thomas W.; Zumbro, Patrick A.

    The main text of this report consists of a review and evaluation of job enrichment as an approach to job redesign, with implications for Air Force research and application. In addition, two appendixes are included: the first, a supplemental historical discussion; the second, a ninety-six-item annotated bibliography. Specific objectives are to…

  17. Net radiative forcing and air quality responses to regional CO emission reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Fry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO emissions influence global and regional air quality and global climate change by affecting atmospheric oxidants and secondary species. We simulate the influence of halving anthropogenic CO emissions globally and individually from 10 regions on surface and tropospheric ozone, methane, and aerosol concentrations using a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4 for the year 2005. Net radiative forcing (RF is then estimated using the GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory standalone radiative transfer model. We estimate that halving global CO emissions decreases global annual average concentrations of surface ozone by 0.45 ppbv, tropospheric methane by 73 ppbv, and global annual net RF by 36.1 mW m−2, nearly equal to the sum of changes from the 10 regional reductions. Global annual net RF per unit change in emissions and the 100 yr global warming potential (GWP100 are estimated as −0.124 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.34, respectively, for the global CO reduction, and ranging from −0.115 to −0.131 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.26 to 1.44 across 10 regions, with the greatest sensitivities for regions in the tropics. The net RF distributions show widespread cooling corresponding to the O3 and CH4 decreases, and localized positive and negative net RFs due to changes in aerosols. The strongest annual net RF impacts occur within the tropics (28° S–28° N followed by the northern midlatitudes (28° N–60° N, independent of reduction region, while the greatest changes in surface CO and ozone concentrations occur within the reduction region. Some regional reductions strongly influence the air quality in other regions, such as East Asia, which has an impact on US surface ozone that is 93% of that from North America. Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction region. The small variation in CO GWPs among world regions suggests that future international

  18. Net radiative forcing and air quality responses to regional CO emission reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Fry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO emissions influence global and regional air quality and global climate change by affecting atmospheric oxidants and secondary species. We simulate the influence of halving anthropogenic CO emissions globally and individually from 10 regions on surface and tropospheric ozone, methane, and aerosol concentrations using a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4 for the year 2005. Net radiative forcing (RF is then estimated using the GFDL standalone radiative transfer model. We estimate that halving global CO emissions decreases global annual average concentrations of surface ozone by 0.45 ppbv, tropospheric methane by 73 ppbv, and global annual net RF by 36.1 mW m−2, nearly equal to the sum of changes from the 10 regional reductions. Global annual net RF per unit change in emissions and the 100-yr global warming potential (GWP100 are estimated as −0.124 mW m−2 (Tg CO yr−1−1 and 1.34, respectively, for the global CO reduction, and ranging from −0.115 to −0.131 mW m−2 (Tg CO yr−1−1 and 1.26 to 1.44 across 10 regions, with the greatest sensitivities for regions in the tropics. The net RF distributions show widespread cooling corresponding to the O3 and CH4 decreases, and localized positive and negative net RFs due to changes in aerosols. The strongest annual net RF impacts occur within the tropics (28° S–28° N followed by the northern mid-latitudes (28° N–60° N, independent of reduction region, while the greatest changes in surface CO and ozone concentrations occur within the reduction region. Some regional reductions strongly influence the air quality in other regions, such as East Asia, which has an impact on US surface ozone that is 93% of that from North America. Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction region

  19. Geophysical characterization of fractured bedrock at Site 8, former Pease Air Force Base, Newington, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Degnan, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Borehole-geophysical logs collected from eight wells and direct-current resistivity data from three survey lines were analyzed to characterize the fractured bedrock and identify transmissive fractures beneath the former Pease Air Force Base, Newington, N.H. The following logs were used: caliper, fluid temperature and conductivity, natural gamma radiation, electromagnetic conductivity, optical and acoustic televiewer, and heat-pulse flowmeter. The logs indicate several foliation and fracture trends in the bedrock. Two fracture-correlated lineaments trending 28? and 29?, identified with low-altitude aerial photography, are coincident with the dominant structural trend. The eight boreholes logged at Site 8 generally have few fractures and have yields ranging from 0 to 40 gallons per minute. The fractures that probably resulted in high well yields (20?40 gallons per minute) strike northeast-southwest or by the right hand rule, have an orientation of 215?, 47?, and 51?. Two-dimensional direct-current resistivity methods were used to collect detailed subsurface information about the overburden, bedrock-fracture zone depths, and apparent-dip directions. Analysis of data inversions from data collected with dipole-dipole and Schlumberger arrays indicated electrically conductive zones in the bedrock that are probably caused by fractured rock. These zones are coincident with extensions of fracture-correlated lineaments. The fracture-correlated lineaments and geophysical-survey results indicate a possible northeast-southwest anisotropy to the fractured rock.

  20. Remediation of the low-level radioactive waste burial site at Williams Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Force initiated a contract to develop and prepare detailed work plans for the removal of five concrete cylinders and associated field activities at site RW-11 at Williams AFB. Cylinders were believed to contain low-level radioactive waste including radium-luminous painted dials and radium-bearing parts. Although the general location of the cylinders was known, the exact configuration and contents of the cylinders was unknown. Plans included site preparation, excavation, monitoring, packaging, disposal, closure, and health and safety. The Health and Safety Plan was developed based on the premise that Radium 226 was the primary isotope of concern. The primary health hazard for workers and the public associated with site excavation was inhalation of airborne radioactive dust. Contingency plans were prepared in the event any radiation activity was detected above background levels or other radioactive isotopes were detected at the site. Criteria used to determine whether the site posed a threat to human health or the environment was based on an action level of 10 millirem Total Effective Dose Equivalent. Williams AFB is a closed installation that was placed on the Superfund National Priorities List. This paper discusses the plans what were developed to remove the buried waste, the execution of the plans, and closure of the site RW-11

  1. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Joseph G.; Crawford, Winifred; Lafosse, Richard; Hoeth, Brian; Burns, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    The peak winds near the surface are an important forecast element for space shuttle landings. As defined in the Flight Rules (FR), there are peak wind thresholds that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the shuttle during landing operations. The National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) is responsible for weather forecasts for all shuttle landings, and is required to issue surface average and 10-minute peak wind speed forecasts. They indicate peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast. To alleviate the difficulty in making such wind forecasts, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a PC-based graphical user interface (GUI) for displaying peak wind climatology and probabilities of exceeding peak wind thresholds for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC; Lambert 2003). However, the shuttle occasionally may land at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in southern California when weather conditions at KSC in Florida are not acceptable, so SMG forecasters requested a similar tool be developed for EAFB.

  2. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size

  3. Air Force Research Laboratory Spacecraft Cryocooler Endurance Evaluation Facility Closing Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J.; Martin, K. W.; Fraser, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Spacecraft Component Thermal Research Group has been devoted to evaluating lifetime performance of space cryocooler technology for over twenty years. Long-life data is essential for confirming design lifetimes for space cryocoolers. Continuous operation in a simulated space environment is the only accepted method to test for degradation. AFRL has provided raw data and detailed evaluations to cryocooler developers for advancing the technology, correcting discovered deficiencies, and improving cryocooler designs. At AFRL, units of varying design and refrigeration cycles were instrumented in state-of-the-art experiment stands to provide spacelike conditions and were equipped with software data acquisition to track critical cryocooler operating parameters. This data allowed an assessment of the technology's ability to meet the desired lifetime and documented any long-term changes in performance. This paper will outline a final report of the various flight cryocoolers tested in our laboratory. The data summarized includes the seven cryocoolers tested during 2014-2015. These seven coolers have a combined total of 433,326 hours (49.5 years) of operation.

  4. In situ radiological surveying at the Double Tracks site, Nellis Air Force Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedhauser, S.R.; Tipton, W.J.

    1996-04-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the Double Tracks site on the Nellis Air Force Range just east of Goldfield, Nevada, during the periods of April 10-13 and June 5-9, 1995. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This site includes the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The main purpose of the first expedition was to assess several new techniques for characterizing sites with dispersed plutonium. The two purposes of the second expedition were to characterize the distribution of transuranic contamination (primarily plutonium) at the site by measuring the gamma rays from americium-241 and to assess the performance of the two new detector platforms. Both of the new platforms performed well, and the characterization of the americium-241 activity at the site was completed. Several plots compare these ground-based system measurements and the 1993 aerial data. The agreement is good considering the systems are characterized and calibrated through independent means. During the April expedition, several methods for measuring the depth distribution of americium-241 in the field were conducted as a way of quickly and reliably obtaining depth profiles without the need to wait for laboratory analysis. Two of the methods were not very effective, but the results of the third method appear very promising.

  5. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  6. Soil erosion and causative factors at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Joel B.

    1988-01-01

    Areas of significant soil erosion and unvegetated road cuts were identified and mapped for Vandenberg Air Force Base. One hundred forty-two eroded areas (most greater than 1.2 ha) and 51 road cuts were identified from recent color infrared aerial photography and ground truthed to determine the severity and causes of erosion. Comparison of the present eroded condition of soils (as shown in the 1986 photography) with that in historical aerial photography indicates that most erosion on the base took place prior to 1928. However, at several sites accelerated rates of erosion and sedimentation may be occurring as soils and parent materials are eroded vertically. The most conspicuous erosion is in the northern part of the base, where severe gully, sheet, and mass movement erosion have occurred in soils and in various sedimentary rocks. Past cultivation practices, compounded by highly erodible soils prone to subsurface piping, are probably the main causes. Improper range management practices following cultivation may have also increased runoff and erosion. Aerial photography from 1986 shows that no appreciable headward erosion or gully sidewall collapse have occurred in this area since 1928.

  7. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  8. Direct numerical simulation of liquid sodium droplet combustion in forced convection air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of sodium leakage in liquid metal fast breeder reactor, the liquid sodium comes out in droplet form from a pipe accompanied with ignition and combustion Combustion heat and reaction products might affect integrity of steel liners in piping rooms. A direct numerical simulation code, COMET, is developed to simulate the combustion of a liquid sodium droplet. The extended MAC method coupled with a higher-order upwind scheme is used to calculate reacting compressible flow. Multicomponent counter diffusion of chemical species, mass and energy transfer by sodium evaporation, and heat transfer by radiation and thermal conductivity are calculated coupling with the flow. Chemical reaction of sodium, oxygen and water vapor is calculated by using the equation-solving methods of equilibrium constants. Thermodynamic properties of the mixed gas are evaluated based on the molecular transport theories. By using COMET, the single droplet combustion of liquid sodium in forced convection air flow is numerically simulated. Spatial distributions such as combustion heat, temperature, pressure, and chemical species behaviors such as formation, decomposition and transport are analyzed and discussed. The change of the droplet diameter agrees closely with the d-square law that has been experimentally observed and theoretically derived. (author)

  9. Status of Obesity in Terms of Body Mass Index among Indian Air Force Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Robert Varte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper investigates the prevalence of obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2 among five geographical groups of Indian Air Force personnel of different age. Purpose of study: To observe the status of obesity among IAF and see whether there is age-wise and regional difference in obesity among the different geographical groups. Results: Gradual increase in mean BMI is seen as age of the population increases. There is an overall marked increase in BMI level among all the three age groups for all the other four zones. F-ratio test of normal range BMI does show significant difference among the zones. There is a statistically significant difference in normal BMI (18.5–24.9 wt/ht2 among all the age groups (F-ratio=11.561, p < 0.05. BMI correlated positively with age in the 20-25 age groups (r = 0.119, p= 0.000 and 26-30 age groups (r = 0.075, p= 0.009 respectively, but BMI did not show any statistically significant correlation with age in the 31-35 age group. Observations: A marked increase in overweight and pre-obese prevalence is seen both age and region wise in the IAF personnel if the Asian BMI cut off levels are applied

  10. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours. AFWA recognizes the importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization for land surface modeling and is developing standard methods, software, and metrics to verify and/or validate LIS output products. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at AFWA, the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) -- a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community -- and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), have been adapted to operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities.

  11. Development and calibration of an air-floating six-axis force measurement platform using self-calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Wang, Xiaomeng; Li, Chengwei; Yi, Jiajing; Lu, Rongsheng; Tao, Jiayue

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the design, working principle, as well as calibration of an air-floating six-axis force measurement platform, where the floating plate and nozzles were connected without contact, preventing inter-dimensional coupling and increasing precision significantly. The measurement repeatability error of the force size in the platform is less than 0.2% full scale (FS), which is significantly better than the precision of 1% FS in the six-axis force sensors on the current market. We overcame the difficulties of weight loading device in high-precision calibration by proposing a self-calibration method based on the floating plate gravity and met the calibration precision requirement of 0.02% FS. This study has general implications for the development and calibration of high-precision multi-axis force sensors. In particular, the air-floating six-axis force measurement platform could be applied to the calibration of some special sensors such as flexible tactile sensors and may be used as a micro-nano mechanical assembly platform for real-time assembly force testing.

  12. AFWL (Air Force Weapons Laboratory) HULL (Hydrodynamics Unlimited) calculations of air blast over a dam slope. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, M.A.; Needham, C.E.; Stucker, M.; Chambers, B.S.; Ganong, G.P.

    1976-10-01

    This laboratory performed Hydrodynamics Unlimited (HULL) calculations of the air blast over a dam for two yields and two pressure regions. A 5th calculation included a rigid blockhouse at the foot of the dam. Although the shielding effect of the dam reduced the incident blast wave overpressure, reflection of the shock from the valley floor raised the peak overpressure up to at least 40% of the free air value. In almost every case, the overpressure impulses near the foot of the dam were greater than or equal to free air values. The rigid blockhouse experienced the most severe overpressure environments. The assumption of a 50-psi hard blockhouse is reasonable. During collapse of the blockhouse, it appears to be rigid to the air flow, since it responds slowly to the rapid air blast. Although there may be other reasons to detonate the weapon on the surface of the reservoir, the best way to destroy the blockhouse and any related structures with air blast, probably would be to detonate the device downstream of the blockhouse.

  13. Analytical model for estimating drag forces on rigid submerged structures caused by LOCA and safety relief valve ramshead air discharges. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    Basic information is presented for estimating drag forces on rigid structural members submerged in a pressure suppression pool, caused by either the air discharge from a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), or the air bubble oscillation following safey relief valve ramshead discharge. Methods are described for estimating acceleration (unsteady) and standard (velocity-squared) drag force components for a variety of structural geometries.

  14. A hybrid thermal management system for lithium ion batteries combining phase change materials with forced-air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heat accumulation in PCM causes failures of passive thermal management systems. • The introduction of forced air convection improves the reliability of PCMs. • Temperature distribution in the hybrid system remains uniform. • Active cooling and PCMs play separate roles in battery thermal management. • Numerical results agree with experiment data and give theoretic insights. - Abstract: Passive thermal management systems using phase change materials (PCMs) provides an effective solution to the overheating of lithium ion batteries. But this study shows heat accumulation in PCMs caused by the inefficient cooling of air natural convection leads to thermal management system failures: The temperature in a battery pack operating continuously outranges the safety limit of 60 °C after two cycles with discharge rate of 1.5 C and 2 C. Here a hybrid system that integrates PCMs with forced air convection is presented. This combined system successfully prevents heat accumulation and maintains the maximum temperature under 50 °C in all cycles. Study on airspeed effects reveals that thermo-physical properties of PCMs dictate the maximum temperature rise and temperature uniformity in the battery pack, while forced air convection plays a critical role in recovering thermal energy storage capacity of PCMs. A numerical study is also carried out and validated with experiment data, which gives theoretic insights on thermo-physical changes in this hybrid battery thermal management system

  15. Aircraft vibration and other factors related to high systolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2013-05-01

    Indonesian Air Force pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health Aviation and Aerospace (LAKESPRA from 2003 – 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, total flight hours, type of aircraft, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels, waist circumference, height and weight (Body Mass Index, and blood pressure.Results: Of 336 pilots, there were 16 with systolic pressure  140 mmHg. The pilot who had high vibration than low vibration had 2.8-fold to be high systolic blood pressure [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.83; 95%confidence interval (CI =1.16-22.04. In term of average flight hours, those who had average flight hours of 300-622 hours per year compared to 29-299 hours per year had 5-fold increased risk to be high systolic blood pressure (ORa = 5.05; 95% CI =1.16-22.04]. Furthermore, those who had high than normal resting pulse rate had 2.4 times to be high systolic blood pressure (ORa = 2.37; 95 CI =0.81-6.97; P = 0.115.Conclusion:High aircraft vibration, high average flight hours per year, and high resting pulse rate increase risk high systolic blood pressure in air force pilots.Keywords: systolic blood pressure, aircraft vibration, resting pulse rate, pilots

  16. Alcohol issues prior to training in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefinko, Karen J; Klesges, Robert C; Bursac, Zoran; Little, Melissa A; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann; Talcott, Gerald W

    2016-07-01

    The negative impact of alcohol is a significant concern to the US military given the costs associated with alcohol-related offenses. Despite considerable research in active duty personnel, relatively little is known about the current extent of alcohol use among incoming recruits. We examined the history of alcohol use and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption among recruits entering the United States Air Force (USAF; N=50,549) over the span of 4 years (2010-2014). Across all years, drinking rates reflected national average trends for those aged 18-24 (NIDA, 2014). However, when abstainers were excluded, those under 21 (n=10,568) reported an average of 18.4 drinks per week, whereas those age 21 and over (n=14,188) reported an average of 14.1 drinks per week, suggesting that for those who drink, those under 21 are exhibiting more risky drinking rates. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Task (AUDIT) scores for drinkers reflected these same trends. For those under 21, 58% scored in risk categories of 2 or higher (risky drinking warranting attention), compared with 40% for those age 21 and over. These scores indicate that for recruits in the USAF, approximately half report alcohol use immediately prior to basic training, resulting in the inheritance of these potential alcohol related issues for those conducting training of these recruits. Based upon these numbers, brief alcohol interventions could have a potential positive impact on individuals in their initial training stages of the USAF to prevent these baseline issues from resulting in problems later in their military careers. PMID:26945450

  17. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  18. Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Bob; Palmiter, Larry S.; Siegel, Jeff

    1994-07-26

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems. This is the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes. Only six homes were included in this study because of budgetary constraints; therefore this is not a representative sample. These investigations do provide some useful information on the heating efficiency of these homes. Useful comparisons can be drawn between these study homes and site-built heating efficiencies measured with a similar protocol. The protocol used to test these homes is very similar to another Ecotope protocol used in the study conducted in 1992 and 1993 for the Bonneville Power Administration to test the heating efficiency of 24 homes. This protocol combined real-time power measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during co-heat periods. Accessory data such as house and duct tightness measurements and tracer gas measurements were used to describe these homes and their heating system efficiency. Ensuring that manufactured housing is constructed in an energy and resource efficient manner is of increasing concern to manufactured home builders and consumers. No comparable work has been done to measure the heating system efficiency of MCS manufactured homes, although some co-heat tests have been performed on manufactured homes heated with natural gas to validate HUD thermal standards. It is expected that later in 1994 more research of this kind will be conducted, and perhaps a less costly and less time-consuming method for testing efficiencies will be develops.

  19. Geologic investigation :an update of subsurface geology on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hart, Dirk (GRAM, Inc.)

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a revised geologic model of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) incorporating the geological and geophysical data produced since the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project (SWHC) of 1994 and 1995. Although this report has certain stand-alone characteristics, it is intended to complement the previous work and to serve as a status report as of late 2002. In the eastern portion of KAFB (Lurance Canyon and the Hubbell bench), of primary interest is the elevation to which bedrock is buried under a thin cap of alluvium. Elevation maps of the bedrock top reveal the paleodrainage that allows for the interpretation of the area's erosional history. The western portion of KAFB consists of the eastern part of the Albuquerque basin where bedrock is deeply buried under Santa Fe Group alluvium. In this area, the configuration of the down-to-the-west, basin-bounding Sandia and West Sandia faults is of primary interest. New geological and geophysical data and the reinterpretation of old data help to redefine the location and magnitude of these elements. Additional interests in this area are the internal stratigraphy and structure of the Santa Fe Group. Recent data collected from new monitoring wells in the area have led to a geologic characterization of the perched Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater system and have refined the known limits of the Ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments within the Santa Fe Group. Both the reinterpretation of the existing data and a review of the regional geology have shown that a segment of the boundary between the eastern and western portions of KAFB is a complicated early Tertiary (Laramide) wrench-fault system, the Tijeras/Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area/Hubbell Spring system. A portion of this fault zone is occupied by a coeval ''pull-apart'' basin filled with early Tertiary conglomerates, whose exposures form the ''Travertine Hills''.

  20. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  1. Prevalence of permanent threshold shifts in the United States Air Force hearing conservation program by career field, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd Soderlund, Laurel; McKenna, Elizabeth A; Tastad, Katie; Paul, Marika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes in hearing, using the permanent threshold shift metric, among United States Air Force servicemembers, including active duty, Reserve and Air National Guard components, for demographics, job categories, and career fields. In the United States Air Force, only servicemembers who are occupationally exposed routinely to hazardous noise are monitored. Audiogram records and demographic variables were analyzed for servicemembers from 2005-2011 using data from the Department of Defense system that captures occupational hearing tests worldwide. Results suggest that occupational hearing loss was larger in males than females, in officers than enlisted populations, and in Reserve and Air National Guard than in active duty. Compared to similar civilian career fields, active duty has lower prevalence rates for occupational hearing loss overall, although Reserve and Air National Guard prevalence rates were more similar to the civilian reported rates. The proportion of personnel with permanent threshold shifts varied between 4.6-16.7% within active duty career fields, which includes 76% of the population for study timeframe. Permanent threshold shift was larger in small job categories, and in jobs that are not considered exposed to hazardous noise routinely which is comparative with results from civilian data analysis of occupational hearing loss. Further investigation into testing practices for Air Force specific groups, use of the system for nonoccupational hearing testing, and challenges to follow-up compliance is warranted. Increased surveillance procedures for occupational hearing loss are needed to address concerns on the prevalence of servicemember hearing loss, the role of recreational and lifestyle factors to contribute the high reported hearing loss prevalence of veterans compared to nonveterans. PMID:26720128

  2. Thermal investigation of lithium-ion battery module with different cell arrangement structures and forced air-cooling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional CFD model with forced air cooling are developed for battery modules. • Impact of different air cooling strategies on module thermal characteristics are investigated. • Impact of different model structures on module thermal responses are investigated. • Effect of inter-cell spacing on cell thermal characteristics are also studied. • The optimal battery module structure and air cooling strategy is recommended. - Abstract: Thermal management needs to be carefully considered in the lithium-ion battery module design to guarantee the temperature of batteries in operation within a narrow optimal range. This article firstly explores the thermal performance of battery module under different cell arrangement structures, which includes: 1 × 24, 3 × 8 and 5 × 5 arrays rectangular arrangement, 19 cells hexagonal arrangement and 28 cells circular arrangement. In addition, air-cooling strategies are also investigated by installing the fans in the different locations of the battery module to improve the temperature uniformity. Factors that influence the cooling capability of forced air cooling are discussed based on the simulations. The three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and lumped model of single cell have been applied in the simulation. The temperature distributions of batteries are quantitatively described based on different module patterns, fan locations as well as inter-cell distance, and the conclusions are arrived as follows: when the fan locates on top of the module, the best cooling performance is achieved; the most desired structure with forced air cooling is cubic arrangement concerning the cooling effect and cost, while hexagonal structure is optimal when focus on the space utilization of battery module. Besides, the optimized inter-cell distance in battery module structure has been recommended

  3. An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K

    2003-07-07

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentration of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The

  4. 77 FR 5781 - Record of Decision for the Air Space Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ..., South Carolina Final Environmental Impact Statement ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Record of... through a NOA in the Federal Register (Volume 75, Number 122, Page 36386) with a wait period that ended on... Force actions analyzed in the Final EIS. Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the...

  5. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI ASCII GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  6. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline, and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  7. Public Outreach From the Physics Department at the Air Force Academy: Engaging the Faculty as Scientists and Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, D. J.; Kutche, C.

    2001-05-01

    The Air Force Academy serves a specialized function as a developer of military officers preparing to lead the nation's air and space forces. Within the Academy, the Physics department focuses on providing a breadth of integrated knowledge in physics and meteorology. To that end technical competency and scientific literacy of both incoming and outgoing students is a significant issue. Despite limited outreach resources, the Physics faculty and staff are very active in K-12 science education and in enhancing general science literacy via public outreach to the community. The department supports more than 1500 public outreach contacts per year. Teachers at all levels are involved in a variety of interactions: one-on-one mentoring, class-to-class pairings of elementary and college physics students, motivational "Physics is Phun" school visits, and numerous activities on the Academy grounds. In this presentation we will discuss the breadth of outreach activities and how they relate the research emphasis areas of the Academy's Physics Department.

  8. Modeling the forced-air cooling process of fresh strawberry packages, Part II: Experimental validation of the flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrua, M.J.; Singh, R.P. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this study was to validate a previously developed mathematical model for predicting the airflow behavior within individual packages of strawberries (clamshells) during forced-air cooling applications. The model was validated by using a non-intrusive flow measurement technique (PIV). The use of PIV required the development of a simplified transparent system that reproduces the packaging structure of typical retail clamshells. The validation was achieved by comparing the velocity field predicted by the model within this system against experimental data. The model not only predicted the main flow features, but also the location of steep acceleration within the packed structure voids. This work shows that, assuming that the momentum transport can be decoupled from the transport of energy and mass during forced-air cooling applications, the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations can accurately predict the airflow within individual clamshells of strawberries. (author)

  9. Modeling the forced-air cooling process of fresh strawberry packages, Part III: Experimental validation of the energy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrua, M.J.; Singh, R.P. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this study was to validate a mathematical model previously developed for predicting the cooling rate of individual packages of strawberries (clamshells) during an industrial forced-air cooling application. The differences between the predicted and experimental profiles of the average-fruit temperature per clamshell were less than 0.7 C (within the limits of the experimental uncertainty). The 7/8th cooling time of individual clamshells was predicted within less than 3% of the experimental value. In addition, the local performance of the model and its capability to predict the strawberry moisture loss were qualitatively analyzed. The moisture loss was predicted between 73% and 88% of the experimental value. The predicted temperature profile of individual fruits and airflow within clamshells followed the general trends experimentally determined. Finally, the results corroborated that the transport phenomena during force-air cooling applications can be modeled by decoupling the momentum transport from the transport of energy and mass. (author)

  10. Survey Data Report: Cape Canaveral, March-July, 1988 Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, James T.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a bathymetric surveying program carried out on the beach and nearshore region about 1 km to the north of the Port Canaveral inlet. The survey data covers a period between March 16 and July 21, 1988. The data was collected in support of a field study on directional wave measurement and Bragg reflection from artificial, shore-parallel bars, performed during June-July, 1988. The topography at the experiment site was generally monotonic in the...

  11. Effects of war exposure on Air Force personnel’s mental health, job burnout and other organizational related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokur, Amiram D.; Pierce, Penny F.; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal data from a stratified representative sample of U.S. Air Force personnel (N = 1009) deployed to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations were analyzed in this study. Using structural equation models, we examined the effects of war exposure on traumatic experiences, Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms, resource loss, and on subsequent functioning, perceived health, and on job and organizationally relevant outcomes. The job and organizational outcomes included job burnou...

  12. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. PMID:20088030

  13. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  14. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in an air force base in Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolokotronis Theodoros

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the 20th September 2005, soldiers and staff at the Air Force base in Western Greece experienced an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. The purpose of this study was to identify the agent and the source of the outbreak in order to develop control measures and to avoid similar outbreaks in the future. Methods A case-control analytical approach was employed with 100 randomly selected cases and 66 controls. Patients completed standardized questionnaires, odds ratios were calculated and statistical significance was determined using χ2 test. In addition, to identify the source of the infection, we performed bacteriological examination of food samples (included raw beef, cooked minced meat, grated cheese and grated cheese in sealed package collected from the cuisine of the military unit. Results More than 600 out of the 1,050 individuals who ate lunch that day, became ill. The overall attack rate, as the military doctor of the unit estimated it, was at least 60%. The overall odds ratio of gastroenteritis among those who had lunch was 370 (95% CI: 48–7700 as compared to those who didn't eat lunch. Among the symptoms the most prominent were watery diarrhoea (96% and abdominal pain (73%. The mean incubation period was 9 h and the median duration of the symptoms was 21 h. In the bacteriological examination, Staphylococcus aureus was detected in a sample of raw beef (2,000 cfu per g and in two samples of grated cheese; leftover cheese from lunch (7,800 cfu per g and an unopened package purchased from the market (3,000 cfu per g. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the aetiological agent of this outbreak was S. aureus. The food vehicle was the grated cheese, which was mixed with the beef and served for lunch in the military unit. This outbreak highlights the capacity of enterotoxin-producing bacteria to cause short term, moderately-severe illness in a young and healthy population. It underscores the need for proper

  15. Virtual prototype interface for the Air Force Manned SpacePlane project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Lewis, John; Johnson, Troy D.

    1998-08-01

    The advent of requirements for worldwide deployment of space assets in support of Air Force operational missions has resulted in the need for a Manned SpacePlane (MSP) that can perform these missions with minimal preflight preparation and little, if any, in-orbit support from a mission control center. Because successful mission accomplishment will depend almost completely upon the MSP crew and the on-board capabilities of the spaceplane, the MSP user interface is a crucial component of successful mission accomplishment. In recognition of this fact, the USAF Phillips Laboratory in conjunction with USAF Space Command initiated the Virtual SpacePlane (VSP) project. To function effectively as an MSP interface development platform, the VSP must demonstrate the capability to simulate anticipated MSP missions and portray the MSP in operation throughout its entire flight regime, from takeoff through space operations and on to recovery via a horizontal landing at an airfield. Therefore, we architected, designed, and implemented a complete VSP that can be used to simulate anticipated Manned SpacePlane missions. The primary objective of the VSP is to be a virtual prototype for user interface design and development, the VSP software architecture and design facilities uncovering, refining and validating MSP user interface requirements. The Virtual SpacePlane reuses software components developed for the Virtual Cockpit and Solar System Modeler (SM) distributed virtual environment (DVE) applications, the Common Object Database (CODB) architecture, and Information Pod (Pod) interface tools developed in our labs. The Virtual Cockpit and Solar System Modeler supplied baseline interface components and tools, 3D graphical models, vehicle motion dynamics models, and DVE communication capabilities. Because we knew that the VSP's requirements would expand and evolve over the life of the project, we use the CODB architecture to facilitate our use of Rapid Evolutionary and Exploratory

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Double Tracks Radiological Safety Area (DTRSA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of a single Corrective Action Site, 71-23-001-71DT. The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel and animals from the Double Tracks Test. Double Tracks was one of four storage-transportation tests. The Double Tracks test was conducted in Stonewall Flat, approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) east of Goldfield, Nevada, on the Nellis Air Force Range. The Double Tracks Test used a single device containing plutonium and depleted uranium and was designed to investigate the characteristics of plutonium-bearing particulate material formed by the non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear weapon. All facilities associated with the DTRSA operation were removed. Based on available information, the areas of concern at the DTRSA consisted of a decon facility (vehicle decon pad and decon sump) in the southern half of the DTRSA, and a burial pit and former loading/unloading area located in the northern half of the DTRSA. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation, radiological field screening detected elevated gamma and alpha readings on excavated plastic debris. Swipe surveys taken on the plastic debris detected removable alpha. No contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels in soil samples. The debris excavated during the corrective action investigation was not characterized. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Field activities began on May 1, 2000, and ended on May 10, 2000. Soil that was associated with the radiologically contaminated man-made debris was placed into B-25 bins, moved to the designated waste management area where it was scanned, and hauled off

  17. Control of cooling processes with forced-air aimed at efficiency energetic and the cooling time of horticultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Carlos Teles Ribeiro da; Mederos, Barbara Janet Teruel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The application of cooling technologies for the conservation of horticultural products is one of the stages the Cold Chain. In Brazil particularly, as a country with tropical climate with average high temperature almost all year, the application of these technologies is very important because the shelf-life of fresh horticultural products, with quality that the market demands, is directly related to temperature. In particular, the systems of forced air cooling operate according to the flow of air predetermined in the project according to the quantity of product to cool. When actual conditions differ from considerations of the project, as to the quantity of product, a situation very common in agricultural properties and packing houses, the fan will continue providing the nominal flow rate, causing alteration of the cost-benefit relation of process. This project aims at the development of a micro-processing equipment (output current of 4 to 20 mA) to control the rotational speed of the motor of the fan systems, air forced through an inverter of frequency. The objective is development of a Man-Machine Interface, based on an algorithm, which, through the introduction of mass product data and the automatic acquisition of data from temperature of the product and the camera, is calculated the cooling time. The rotation of the engine fan will be amended automatically, to maintain air flow with a proper cost-benefit, in connection with the reduction of cooling time, energy consumption, for the increasing the shelf life of products. (author)

  18. Phase relationships between orbital forcing and the composition of air trapped in Antarctic ice cores

    OpenAIRE

    Bazin, Lucie; Landais, Amaelle; Capron, Emilie; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Ritz, Catherine; Picard, Ghislain; Jouzel, Jean; Dumont, Marie; Leuenberger, Markus; Prié, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Orbital tuning is central for ice core chronologies beyond annual layer counting, available back to 60 ka (i.e. thousands of years before 1950) for Greenland ice cores. While several complementary orbital tuning tools have recently been developed using δ18Oatm, δO2⁄N2 and air content with different orbital targets, quantifying their uncertainties remains a challenge. Indeed, the exact processes linking variations of these parameters, measured in the air trapped in ice,...

  19. Phase relationships between orbital forcing and the composition of air trapped in Antarctic ice cores

    OpenAIRE

    Bazin, Lucie; Landais, Amaelle; Capron, Emilie; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Ritz, Catherine; Picard, Ghislain; Jouzel, Jean; Dumont, Marie; Leuenberger, Markus; Prié, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Orbital tuning is central for ice core chronologies beyond annual layer counting, available back to 60 ka (i.e. thousands of years before 1950) for Greenland ice cores. While several complementary orbital tuning tools have recently been developed using δ¹⁸Oatm, δO₂⁄N₂ and air content with different orbital targets, quantifying their uncertainties remains a challenge. Indeed, the exact processes linking variations of these parameters, measured in the air trapped in ice, to their orbital target...

  20. Delta XTE Spacecraft Solar Panel Deployment, Hangar AO at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The footage shows technicians in the clean room checking and adjusting the deployment mechanism of the solar panel for XTE spacecraft. Other scenes show several technicians making adjustments to software for deployment of the solar panels.

  1. Quantifying the Removal of Trichloroethylene via Phytoremediation a Hill Air Force Base, Utah Operational Unit 2 Using Recent and Historical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, J. Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a carcinogenic, chlorinated volatile organic compound that was commonly used as a degreasing solvent for aircraft maintenance at many US Air Force bases. Past improper disposal of TCE has resulted in contaminated groundwater at many of these facilities. Phytoremediation, defined as the use of plants and their associated microorganisms to stabilize or remove contamination, has been implemented as part of a TCE groundwater cleanup at Travis Air Force base near Sacrame...

  2. Analysis of Aerosol Radiative Forcing over Beijing under Different Air Quality Conditions Using Ground-Based Sun-Photometers between 2013 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Lei Yan; Nan Ding; Mengdie Xie; Ming Lu; Fan Zhang; Yongxu Duan; Shuo Zong

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol particles can strongly affect both air quality and the radiation budget of the atmosphere. Above Beijing, the capital city of China, large amounts of aerosols within the atmospheric column have caused the deterioration of local air quality and have influenced radiative forcings at both the top and the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA and TOA). Observations of aerosol radiative forcing and its efficiency have been made using two sun-photometers in urban Beijing between 2013 and 2015, and ...

  3. Improving the Electrical Parameters of a Photovoltaic Panel by Means of an Induced or Forced Air Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazón-Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main priority in photovoltaic (PV panels is the production of electricity. The transformation of solar energy into electricity depends on the operating temperature in such a way that the performance increases with the decreasing temperatures. In the existing literature, different cooling techniques can be found. The purpose of most of them is to use air or water as thermal energy carriers. This work is focused on the use of air as a working fluid whose movement is either induced by natural convection or forced by means of a fan. The aim of this study is to characterise the electrical behaviour of the solar panels in order to improve the design of photovoltaic installations placed in roof applications ensuring low operating temperatures which will correct and reverse the effects produced on efficiency by high temperature. To do this, a test installation has been constructed at the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena in Spain. In this paper, the results of the tests carried out on two identical solar panels are included. One of them has been modified and mounted on different channels through which air flows. The different studies conducted show the effects of the air channel cross-section, the air velocity, and the panel temperature on the electrical parameters of the solar panels, such as the voltage, current, power, and performance. The results conclude that the air space between the photovoltaic panels and a steel roof must be high enough to allow the panel to be cooled and consequently to achieve higher efficiency.

  4. Technical and economic assessment for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic assessment of available alternatives for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470 at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Each alternative was screened on the basis of technical feasibility, environmental impact, economics, and fulfillment of the IRP goals. Four alternatives for study are: establishing a special operations and maintenance program; enclosure; encapsulation with sealants; and removal, disposal, and replacement. Each of these alternatives was assessed for capability to control the release of asbestos fibers within Facility 20470. Alternatives 1 and 4 were determined to be acceptable, while Alternatives 2 and 3 were found to be unacceptable. 2 refs., 6 figs

  5. Evaluation of bacterial contamination on surgical drapes following use of the Bair Hugger(®) forced air warming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Lindsay L; Hauptman, Joe G; Greco, Justin J; Mehler, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    This pilot study determined the rate of bacterial contamination on surgical drapes of small animal patients warmed intra-operatively with the Bair Hugger(®) forced air warming system compared to a control method. Surgical drapes of 100 patients undergoing clean surgical procedures were swabbed with aerobic culturettes at the beginning and end of surgery. Samples were cultured on Trypticase soy agar. Contamination of the surgical drapes was identified in 6/98 cases (6.1%). There was no significant difference in the number of contaminated surgical drapes between the Bair Hugger(®) and control groups (P = 0.47).

  6. Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command guidance manual for hazardous waste minimization (PACER REDUCE): Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides guidance for the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) Waste Minimization Program, called PACER REDUCE, and applies to all AFLC installations and personel who are responsible for implementing and monitoring activities relating to PACER REDUCE. This guidance for waste minimization provides management and technical approaches for assessing potential waste reduction techniques and for making informed decisions concerning industrial process and waste stream management. Such actions will assist in achieving regulatory compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 as updated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. 37 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs

  7. 76 FR 75453 - Restricted Areas and Danger Zones at Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    .... The proposed regulations were published in the December 28, 2009, issue of the Federal Register (74 FR... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Restricted Areas and Danger Zones at Eglin Air...: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) is amending its restricted area/danger zone regulations...

  8. Hydrogeology of the area near the J4 test cell, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force operates a major aerospace systems testing facility at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Coffee County, Tennessee. Dewatering operations at one of the test facilities, the J4 test cell, has affected the local ground-water hydrology. The J4 test cell is approximately 100 feet in diameter, extends approximately 250 feet below land surface, and penetrates several aquifers. Ground water is pumped continuously from around the test cell to keep the cell structurally intact. Because of the test cell's depth, dewatering has depressed water levels in the aquifers surrounding the site. The depressions that have developed exhibit anisotropy that is controlled by zones of high permeability in the aquifers. Additionally, contaminants - predominately volatile organic compounds - are present in the ground-water discharge from the test cell and in ground water at several other Installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites within the AEDC facility. The dewatering activities at J4 are drawing these contaminants from the nearby sites. The effects of dewatering at the J4 test cell were investigated by studying the lithologic and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifers, investigating the anisotropy and zones of secondary permeability using geophysical techniques, mapping the potentiometric surfaces of the underlying aquifers, and developing a conceptual model of the ground-water-flow system local to the test cell. Contour maps of the potentiometric surfaces in the shallow, Manchester, and Fort Payne aquifers (collectively, part of the Highland Rim aquifer system) show anisotropic water-level depressions centered on the J4 test cell. This anisotropy is the result of features of high permeability such as chert-gravel zones in the regolith and fractures, joints, and bedding planes in the bedrock. The presence of these features of high permeability in the Manchester aquifer results in complex flow patterns in the Highland Rim aquifers near the J4 test cell

  9. Threatened and Endangered Species Survey for Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Larson, Vickie L.; Hall, Patrice; Hensley, Melissa A.

    1997-01-01

    A review of previous environmental work conducted at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) indicated that several threatened, endangered, or species of special concern occurred or had the potential to occur there. This study was implemented to collect more information on protected species at PAFB. A map of landcover types was prepared for PAFB using aerial photography, groundtruthing, and a geographic information system (GIS). Herbaceous vegetation was the most common vegetation type. The second most abundant vegetation type was disturbed shrubs/exotics. The beach and associated dune vegetation comprised 3.2% of the land area, but was the most extensive natural community within PAFB. A few isolated mangrove communities exist along the Banana River. Seventy-seven species of vascular plants occurred on the dunes, including four species listed by state agencies: spider lily (Hymenocallis latifolia), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia stricta), beach star (Remirea maritima), and inkberry (Scaevola plumien). Surveys of other habitats revealed eighty-four species of vascular plants including two state-listed species: spider lily and prickly pear cactus. Many of these areas are dominated by invasive, exotic species, particularly Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), and native species of open or disturbed sites such as camphorweed (Heterotheca subaxillaris) and beardgrass (Andropogon spp.). Due to the isolation of PAFB from other natural areas, most exotic plant populations on the base are not an immediate threat to intact native plant communities. Dune habitat was surveyed for the southeastem beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris) by quarterly trapping along eight 100 m transects. No beach mice were found. The limited extent of dune habitat, its fragmented condition, and the isolation of PAFB from extant populations of the beach mouse probably accounts for its absence. Surveys of birds on PAFB found an avifauna

  10. The South African Air Force, 1920–2012: A Review of its History and an Indication of its Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wessels

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a South African Aviation Corps existed for a few months in 1915, and although several South Africans saw action in World War I as members of Britain’s Royal Flying Corps, the history of the South African Air Force (SAAF – the world’s second oldest air force – strictly speaking only dates back to 1 February 1920.  In this article, a review is provided of the history of the SAAF, with specific reference to its operational deployments in the 1920s; the difficult years of the great depression and its aftermath and impact on the SAAF; the very important role played by the SAAF in the course of World War II (for example in patrolling South Africa’s coastal waters, and in taking part in the campaigns in East Africa and Abyssinia, as well as in North Africa, Madagascar, Italy, over the Mediterranean and in the Balkans; the post-war rationalisation; its small but important role in the Korean War; the acquisition of a large number of modern aircraft and helicopters from the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s; the impact that sanctions had on the SAAF; the SAAF’s role in Northern Namibia and in Angola during the war years, 1966–1989, and the SAAF in post-apartheid South Africa.  Throughout the article, historiographical matters are mentioned by means of references – either in the text or in footnotes – to the most important available sources.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ITLV

    1999-07-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 71-23-001-71DT, within CAU 486. Corrective Action Unit 486 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71 North, west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR, located in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 140 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 5 mi southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2).

  12. Symptoms of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in United States Air Force "drone" operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Prince, Lillian; Goodman, Tanya; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie N; Thompson, William

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study is to repeat a survey administered in 2010 to assess for changes in mental health among United States Air Force aircrew operating Predator/Reaper remotely piloted aircraft, also commonly referred to as "drones." Participants were assessed for self-reported sources of occupational stress, levels of clinical distress using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. A total of 1,094 aircrew responded to the web-based survey composed of the commercially available standardized instruments mentioned above. The survey also contained nonstandardized items asking participants to report the main sources of their occupational stress, as well as questions addressing demographics and work-related characteristics. The estimated response rate to the survey was 49%. Study results reveal the most problematic self-reported stressors are operational: low manning, extra duties/administrative tasks, rotating shift work, and long hours. The results also reveal 10.72% of operators self-reported experiencing high levels of distress and 1.57% reported high levels of PTSD symptomology. The results are lower than findings from the 2010 survey and from soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Implications of the study and recommendations for United States Air Force line leadership and mental health providers are discussed.

  13. Symptoms of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in United States Air Force "drone" operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Prince, Lillian; Goodman, Tanya; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie N; Thompson, William

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study is to repeat a survey administered in 2010 to assess for changes in mental health among United States Air Force aircrew operating Predator/Reaper remotely piloted aircraft, also commonly referred to as "drones." Participants were assessed for self-reported sources of occupational stress, levels of clinical distress using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. A total of 1,094 aircrew responded to the web-based survey composed of the commercially available standardized instruments mentioned above. The survey also contained nonstandardized items asking participants to report the main sources of their occupational stress, as well as questions addressing demographics and work-related characteristics. The estimated response rate to the survey was 49%. Study results reveal the most problematic self-reported stressors are operational: low manning, extra duties/administrative tasks, rotating shift work, and long hours. The results also reveal 10.72% of operators self-reported experiencing high levels of distress and 1.57% reported high levels of PTSD symptomology. The results are lower than findings from the 2010 survey and from soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Implications of the study and recommendations for United States Air Force line leadership and mental health providers are discussed. PMID:25102551

  14. Numerical investigation of forced ignition in laminar counterflow non-premixed methane-air flames

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, E. S.; Mastorakos, E

    2007-01-01

    Simulations of forced ignition of non-premixed laminar counterflow flames are used to study the effect of strain rate on ignition success. A one dimensional calculation is performed, using detailed methane chemical kinetics and treating the spark as an instantaneous heat release in an inert mixing layer. Ignition success depends on the mixture composition at the spark location, resulting in lean and rich ignitability limits for a given spark that can be different from the fuel's static flamma...

  15. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  16. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  17. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980's at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments

  18. Research on the changes of the tidal force and the air temperature in the atmosphere of Lushan (China Ms7.0 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Weiyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cycle process of the tidal force of celestial body for Lushan M7.0 earthquake, occurred in Lushan county of Sichuan, China on April 20, 2013 was calculated. The earthquake occurred at the lowest point phase. It indicated that the type of seismogenic fault that the tide force acted on belonged to the thrust fault. According to the tidal cycle, the abnormal air temperature change was analyzed based on NCEP satellite data around the whole China before and after the earthquake. The result showed that the air temperature changed evidently with the tide force changing. In temporal, the change went through: initial air temperature rise → strength→ reaching abnormal peak→ gradually decline; in spatial, the abnormal area winded its way along the margin of the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and went through: scattered→ conversion→ scattered procession. The procession was similar to the change procession of a rock breaking under the stress loading. This shows that the stress change of rock may cause the air temperature change in the atmosphere before and after earthquake. It indicated that the tidal force of celestial body could trigger the earthquake, when the tectonic stress reaches its critical broken point and the air temperature anomaly was proportional to the seismic tectonic stress change. It was useful to combine air temperature and tidal force in earthquake precursory.

  19. Air-coupled acoustic radiation force for non-contact generation of broadband mechanical waves in soft media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroziński, Łukasz; Pelivanov, Ivan; Song, Shaozhen; Yoon, Soon Joon; Li, David; Gao, Liang; Shen, Tueng T.; Wang, Ruikang K.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    A non-contact method for efficient, non-invasive excitation of mechanical waves in soft media is proposed, in which we focus an ultrasound (US) signal through air onto the surface of a medium under study. The US wave reflected from the air/medium interface provides radiation force to the medium surface that launches a transient mechanical wave in the transverse (lateral) direction. The type of mechanical wave is determined by boundary conditions. To prove this concept, a home-made 1 MHz piezo-ceramic transducer with a matching layer to air sends a chirped US signal centered at 1 MHz to a 1.6 mm thick gelatin phantom mimicking soft biological tissue. A phase-sensitive (PhS)-optical coherence tomography system is used to track/image the mechanical wave. The reconstructed transient displacement of the mechanical wave in space and time demonstrates highly efficient generation, thus offering great promise for non-contact, non-invasive characterization of soft media, in general, and for elasticity measurements in delicate soft tissues and organs in bio-medicine, in particular.

  20. The effect of electrostatic force on air filtration by polypropylene filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the effect of irradiation with 60Co on the efficiency and strength of the polypropylene filter media is mainly researched. The charge density of polypropylene fibre is evaluated by radiation discharge method. Based on isolated cylinder model, the efficiency of the polypropylene filter media, which takes account of the effect of impaction, interception, diffusion and electrostatic, is calculated. A better agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results is obtained. The results indicate that electrostatic force is the most important factor in solid aerosol filtration of the polypropylene filter media

  1. Complejo religioso de la Academia de las U.S. Air Force, en Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Arquitectos

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available The building houses the following. A protestant chapel seating 900 persons; a catholic chapel with room for 500 faithful; a Jewish church with seating accommodation for 100; and also a series of accessory facilities. These include choirs, vestries, sacristies, a baptistery for the catholic chapel, and a small lateral chapel—connected to the catholic church—in memory of our Lady of the Air. In addition to the fine ambientation, achieved by the use of suitable modem materials, this symbolical construction is praiseworthy because of the success of the architects in dealing with the dynamic interplay of masses and powerful colouring.El edificio construido aloja: un templo protestante con asientos para 900 personas; una capilla católica con capacidad para 500 fieles, y una sinagoga para 100 fieles sentados; así como una serie de dependencias anexas: coros, vestuarios, sacristías, un baptisterio para la capilla católica, etc., y una pequeña capilla lateral—en conexión con la capilla católica—para Nuestra Señora del Aire. Además de la ambientación conseguida utilizando materiales actuales, este edificio simbólico destaca por la habilidad y acierto con que los arquitectos han jugado con: la dinámica de la forma y la energía del color.

  2. [Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguid, A

    1997-04-01

    Data from the 1991 Argentine census indicate that migrants from neighboring countries at that date were maintaining patterns of entry into the labor force of Buenos Aires consistent with past tendencies. Migrants tended to be employed in less skilled manufacturing industries, construction, commerce, and domestic work, often filling positions rejected by the native population because of low wages and poor working conditions. Profound changes in the Argentine economy since 1991 have included rising unemployment and underemployment and a loss of productive jobs in industry and construction. A comparison of the occupational structure of migrants from neighboring countries and of the total population for the years 1980, 1991, and 1996 demonstrates that important changes in sectorial employment have occurred among both the native and immigrant populations, with the immigrant population increasingly relegated to ever smaller sectors of the labor market offering less attractive employment. Nearly half of the 841,697 persons immigrating in 1991 from countries bordering Argentina settled in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region, comprising 42.8% of foreigners in the metropolitan area and 3.7% of the total regional population. Of the population from border countries residing in Buenos Aires, 43% are Paraguayan, 28% Uruguayan, 15% Bolivian, 12% Chilean, and 2% Brazilian. The unemployment rate in Buenos Aires fluctuated between 4% and 6% during 1974-92, but it rose to 10.6% in 1993 and then to 18% in 1996. The underemployment rate rose from 4.6% in 1983 to 8.2% in 1993 and 12.6% in 1996. PMID:12321683

  3. Exposures to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate during polyurethane spray painting in the U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, G N; England, E C

    2000-09-01

    1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) exposures were measured during polyurethane enamel spray painting at four Air Force bases. Breathing zone samples were collected for HDI monomer and polyisocyanates (oligomers) using three sampling methods: NIOSH Method 5521, the Iso-Chek sampler, and the total aerosol mass method (TAMM). Exposures to HDI monomer are low when compared to current occupational exposure limits; the highest 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) exposure found was 3.5 micrograms/m3, below the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 34 micrograms/m3. HDI oligomer levels were higher; mean task exposures indicated by either the Iso-Chek sampler or TAMM are above the Oregon ceiling limit of 1 mg/m3. Eight-hour TWA exposures, however, were much lower, with only one exceeding the Oregon standard of 0.5 mg/m3. Poor worker practices commonly observed during this study included: standing in downwind positions so paint overspray passed through breathing zones; spraying toward other painters; and using excessive paint spray gun air cap pressures. Workers should stand in upwind orientation relative to the aircraft being painted, causing overspray to move away from the painter's breathing zone; adjust their position to prevent spraying other painters or limit paint application to one worker at a time; and use air cap pressure gauges prior to spraying to limit spray gun air cap pressures and reduce paint overspray generation rates. These improved techniques will result in reduced worker exposures to isocyanates. PMID:10983405

  4. Insulin sensitivity and serum TCDD in Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides during the Vietnam war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, P.; Said, S. [Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (United States); Jackson, W. Jr; Michalek, J. [Air Force Research Lab., San Antonio (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Between 1961 and 1971, the United States Air Force sprayed 12 million gallons of the defoliant ''Agent Orange'' on 3.6 million acres of Vietnam. Agent Orange was a 1:1 mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5- trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was a contaminant of the defoliant, from less than 0.05 to almost 50 parts per million. Numerous Vietnam veterans were exposed to TCDD when Agent Orange and other TCDD-contaminated herbicides were sprayed in large quantities in Vietnam and TCDD has been found at many toxic waste disposal sites in the United States. Some of the highest exposure to TCDD occurred in members of Operation Ranch Hand, the Air Force unit responsible for spraying herbicides from fix-wing aircraft in Vietnam. The Air Force Health Study (AFHS), an epidemiological study of Ranch Hand veterans, was launched in 1980 to address veteran concerns regarding Agent Orange exposure. A link between TCDD and diabetes has been demonstrated in several studies. Among the Ranch Hand veterans with high blood levels of TCDD, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes and a decrease in the age at which diabetes was diagnosed. In a study from Seveso, Italy, where 45,000 people had varying levels of exposure to TCDD, there were significant increases in mortality from coronary artery disease and diabetes. Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between blood TCDD levels and hyperinsulinemia. The data suggest that non-diabetic individuals exposed to TCDD have an increased risk of insulin-resistance, being able to maintain normal blood glucose levels but only because of very high concentrations of insulin. As a result of available evidence, public policy decisions have been made, such as a decision by the Veterans Administration that diabetes is a service-connected condition in Agent Orange-exposed Vietnam veterans. Here we study the relation between TCDD insulin sensitivity

  5. Laminar Forced Convection Heat and Mass Transfer of Humid Air across a Vertical Plate with Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 李俊明

    2011-01-01

    Condensation of humid air along a vertical plate was numerically investigated, with the mathematical model built on the full boundary layer equations and the film-wise condensation assumption. The velocity, heat and mass transfer characteristics at the gas-liquid interface were numerical analyzed and the results indicated that it was not reasonable to neglect the condensate film from the point of its thickness only. The condensate film thickness, interface temperature drop and the interface tangential velocity affect the physical fields weakly. However, the subcooling and the interface normal velocity were important factors to be considered before the simplification was made. For higher wall temperature, the advective mass transfer contributed much to the total mass transfer. Therefore, the boundary conditions were the key to judge the rationality of neglecting the condensate film for numerical solutions. The numerical results were checked by comparing with experiments and correlations.

  6. ANALYSIS OF LAMINAR FORCED CONVECTION OF AIR FOR CROSSFLOW OVER TWO STAGGERED FLAT TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahseen A. Tahseen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the numerical simulation of steady heat transfer and fluid flow over a bank of flat tubes in staggered configurations for determining the constant surface temperature is presented. The results are attained using the finite volume method (FVM and body fitted coordinates (BFC technique. Transverse ratios (ST/Ds of the pitch to small diameter of 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 are also considered. The Reynolds numbers used are 10, 20, 60, 80 and 100, and the Prandtl number is taken as 0.7. The isothermal line, streamline and average Nusselt number were analyzed in this paper. It was found that the strength of the heat transfer between the surface of the tubes and the air flow increases with increasing Reynolds number and increasing pitch-to-diameter ratios. Also, the effect of the Reynolds number clear for the isothermal line, streamline and the average Nusselt number.

  7. Booba x Nike 1World Air Force 1很前卫、很嘻哈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    继法国音乐人Busy P与Nike合作了Busy P x Nike NSW air foroe1之后,又一名法国说唱歌手Booba被选定为Nike 1World计划的18个参与者之一。鞋面采用了premium红色皮革,这是Booba最喜欢的颜色。细节包括了鞋舌上的09字样(代表了明年Booba即将发行的专辑),鞋面上精美的tattoo print。透明的鞋底中印有Booba的祖国塞内加尔的国旗图案。

  8. Femtosecond laser irradiation of indium phosphide in air: Raman spectroscopic and atomic force microscopic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonse, J.; Wrobel, J.M.; Brzezinka, K.-W.; Esser, N.; Kautek, W

    2002-12-30

    Surface modification and ablation of crystalline indium phosphide was performed with single and double 130 fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser. The morphological features resulting from laser processing, have been investigated by means of micro Raman spectroscopy as well as by optical, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. The studies indicate amorphous, ablated and recrystallized zones on the processed surface. In the single-pulse irradiation experimentsveral different threshold fluences could be assigned to the processes of melting, ablation and polycrystalline resolidification. Residual stress has been detected within the irradiated areas. Double-pulse exposure experiments have been analyzed in order to clarify the effect of cumulative damage in the ablation process of indium phosphide.

  9. Multi-frequency tapping-mode atomic force microscopy beyond three eigenmodes in ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago D. Solares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an exploratory study of multimodal tapping-mode atomic force microscopy driving more than three cantilever eigenmodes. We present tetramodal (4-eigenmode imaging experiments conducted on a thin polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE film and computational simulations of pentamodal (5-eigenmode cantilever dynamics and spectroscopy, focusing on the case of large amplitude ratios between the fundamental eigenmode and the higher eigenmodes. We discuss the dynamic complexities of the tip response in time and frequency space, as well as the average amplitude and phase response. We also illustrate typical images and spectroscopy curves and provide a very brief description of the observed contrast. Overall, our findings are promising in that they help to open the door to increasing sophistication and greater versatility in multi-frequency AFM through the incorporation of a larger number of driven eigenmodes, and in highlighting specific future research opportunities.

  10. Solar Cycle and Anthropogenic Forcing of Surface-Air Temperature at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of 10-yr moving average (yma) values of Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland) surface-air temperatures with selected solar cycle indices (sunspot number (SSN) and the Aa geomagnetic index (Aa)), sea-surface temperatures in the Nino 3.4 region, and Mauna Loa carbon dioxide (CO2) (MLCO2) atmospheric concentration measurements reveals a strong correlation (r = 0.686) between the Armagh temperatures and Aa, especially, prior to about 1980 (r = 0.762 over the interval of 1873-1980). For the more recent interval 1963-2003, the strongest correlation (r = 0.877) is between Armagh temperatures and MLCO2 measurements. A bivariate fit using both Aa and Mauna Loa values results in a very strong fit (r = 0.948) for the interval 1963-2003, and a trivariate fit using Aa, SSN, and Mauna Loa values results in a slightly stronger fit (r = 0.952). Atmospheric CO2 concentration now appears to be the stronger driver of Armagh surface-air temperatures. An increase of 2 C above the long-term mean (9.2 C) at Armagh seems inevitable unless unabated increases in anthropogenic atmospheric gases can be curtailed. The present growth in 10-yma Armagh temperatures is about 0.05 C per yr since 1982. The present growth in MLCO2 is about 0.002 ppmv, based on an exponential fit using 10-yma values, although the growth appears to be steepening, thus, increasing the likelihood of deleterious effects attributed to global warming.

  11. Numerical analysis of the in-well vapor-stripping system demonstration at Edwards Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.D.; Gilmore, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    Numerical simulations, with the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator, were applied to the field demonstration of an in-well vapor-stripping system at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), near Mojave, California. The demonstration field site on the Edwards AFB was previously contaminated from traversing groundwater that was contained a varied composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which primarily includes trichloroethylene (TCE). Contaminant TCE originated from surface basin that had been used to collect runoff during the cleaning of experimental rocket powered planes in the 1960s and 1970s. This report documents those simulations and associated numerical analyses. A companion report documents the in- well vapor-stripping demonstration from a field perspective.

  12. Post-hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance and the efficacy of Air Force aerial applications for mosquito control in east Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Walker, Wes W; Sanders, David M

    2008-06-01

    Post-Hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance was carried out in 4 east Texas counties to determine mosquito abundance, species composition, and need for mosquito control. Subsequently, aerial applications of naled (Dibrom) for mosquito control were made by the Air Force Aerial Spray Flight, while continued surveillance documented the efficacy of the applications. Psorophora columbiae was the predominant species in landing counts. Twenty-two mosquito species were represented in light trap collections with Aedes atlanitcus/tormentor, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. vexans, and Ps. columbiae making up 91% of the total. A total of 102,001 ha (252,052 acres) were aerially treated based on high mosquito abundance, exposure of first responders and residents to nuisance biting, and local interruption of electric utilities. A significant 90% decline in mosquito abundance was observed posttreatment. PMID:18666545

  13. Fluid intellingence and spatial reasoning as predictors of pilot training performance in the South African Air Force (SAAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François de Kock

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Pilot selection is a form of high-stakes selection due to the massive costs of training, high trainee ability requirements and costly repercussions of poor selection decisions. This criterion-related validation study investigated the predictive ability of fluid intelligence and spatial reasoning in predicting three criteria of pilot training performance, using an accumulated sample of South African Air Force pilots (N = 108. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses with training grade achieved as criterion were performed for each of the phases of training, namely practical flight training, ground school training, and officers’ formative training. Multiple correlations of 0.35 (p < 0.01, 0.20 (p > 0.05 and 0.23 (p > 0.05 were obtained for flight, ground school and formative training results, respectively. Spatial ability had incremental validity over fluid intelligence for predicting flight training performance.

  14. Phase relationships between orbital forcing and the composition of air trapped in Antarctic ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bazin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Orbital tuning is central for ice core chronologies beyond annual layer counting, available back to 60 ka (i.e. thousand of years before 1950 for Greenland ice cores. While several complementary orbital tuning tools have recently been developed using δ18Oatm, δO2/N2 and air content with different orbital targets, quantifying their uncertainties remains a challenge. Indeed, the exact processes linking variations of these parameters, measured in the air trapped in ice, to their orbital targets are not yet fully understood. Here, we provide new series of δO2/N2 and δ18Oatm data encompassing Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS 5 (between 100–160 ka and the oldest part (380–800 ka of the East Antarctic EPICA Dome C (EDC ice core. For the first time, the measurements over MIS 5 allow an inter-comparison of δO2/N2 and δ18Oatm records from three East Antarctic ice core sites (EDC, Vostok and Dome F. This comparison highlights a site-specific relationship between δO2/N2 and its local summer solstice insolation. Such a relationship increases the uncertainty associated with the use of δO2/N2 as a tool for orbital tuning. Combining records of δ18Oatm and δO2/N2 from Vostok and EDC, we evidence a loss of orbital signature for these two parameters during periods of minimum eccentricity (∼400, ∼720–800 ka. Our dataset reveals a time-varying lag between δO2/N2 and δ18Oatm over the last 800 ka that we interpret as variations of the lag between δ18Oatm and precession. Large lags of ∼5 ka are identified during Terminations I and II, associated with strong Heinrich events. On the opposite, minimal lags (∼1–2 ka are identified during four periods characterized by high eccentricity, intermediate ice volume and no Heinrich events (MIS 6–7, the end of MIS 9, MIS 15 and MIS 17. We therefore suggest that the occurrence of Heinrich events influences the response of δ18Oatm to precession.

  15. Stationary rotary force waves on the liquid-air core interface of a swirl atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, J. J.; Cooper, D.; Yule, A. J.; Nasr, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    A one-dimensional wave equation, applicable to the waves on the surface of the air-core of a swirl atomizer is derived analytically, by analogy to the similar one-dimensional wave equation derivation for shallow-water gravity waves. In addition an analogy to the flow of water over a weir is used to produce an analytical derivation of the flow over the lip of the outlet of a swirl atomizer using the principle of maximum flow. The principle of maximum flow is substantiated by reference to continuity of the discharge in the direction of streaming. For shallow-water gravity waves, the phase velocity is the same expression as for the critical velocity over the weir. Similarly, in the present work, the wave phase velocity on the surface of the air-core is shown to be the same expression as for the critical velocity for the flow at the outlet. In addition, this wave phase velocity is shown to be the square root of the product of the radial acceleration and the liquid thickness, as analogous with the wave phase velocity for shallow water gravity waves, which is the square root of the product of the acceleration due to gravity and the water depth. The work revisits the weirs and flumes work of Binnie et al. but using a different methodology. The results corroborate with the work of Binnie. High speed video, Laser Doppler Anemometry and deflected laser beam experimental work has been carried out on an oversize Perspex (Plexiglas) swirl atomizer. Three distinctive types of waves were detected: helical striations, low amplitude random ripples and low frequency stationary waves. It is the latter wave type that is considered further in this article. The experimentally observed waves appear to be stationary upon the axially moving flow. The mathematical analysis allows for the possibility of a negative value for the phase velocity expression. Therefore the critical velocity and the wave phase velocity do indeed lead to stationary waves in the atomizer. A quantitative comparison

  16. Achieving realistic performance and decison-making capabilities in computer-generated air forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Zurita, Vincent B.; Benslay, James L., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    For a computer-generated force (CGF) system to be useful in training environments, it must be able to operate at multiple skill levels, exhibit competency at assigned missions, and comply with current doctrine. Because of the rapid rate of change in distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and the expanding set of performance objectives for any computer- generated force, the system must also be modifiable at reasonable cost and incorporate mechanisms for learning. Therefore, CGF applications must have adaptable decision mechanisms and behaviors and perform automated incorporation of past reasoning and experience into its decision process. The CGF must also possess multiple skill levels for classes of entities, gracefully degrade its reasoning capability in response to system stress, possess an expandable modular knowledge structure, and perform adaptive mission planning. Furthermore, correctly performing individual entity behaviors is not sufficient. Issues related to complex inter-entity behavioral interactions, such as the need to maintain formation and share information, must also be considered. The CGF must also be able to acceptably respond to unforeseen circumstances and be able to make decisions in spite of uncertain information. Because of the need for increased complexity in the virtual battlespace, the CGF should exhibit complex, realistic behavior patterns within the battlespace. To achieve these necessary capabilities, an extensible software architecture, an expandable knowledge base, and an adaptable decision making mechanism are required. Our lab has addressed these issues in detail. The resulting DIS-compliant system is called the automated wingman (AW). The AW is based on fuzzy logic, the common object database (CODB) software architecture, and a hierarchical knowledge structure. We describe the techniques we used to enable us to make progress toward a CGF entity that satisfies the requirements presented above. We present our design and

  17. 33 CFR 165.775 - Safety Zone; Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville; Offshore Cape Canaveral, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville; Offshore Cape Canaveral, Florida. 165.775 Section 165.775 Navigation and Navigable... Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.775 Safety Zone; Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville; Offshore...

  18. The impact of a forced reduction in traffic volumes on urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Middle East military conflict of summer 2006 resulted in a few weeks in which the city of Haifa, Israel, and its environs experienced very profound variations in the commercial and personal activities. Large industrial plants continued almost normal operations but activities of small scale industry, shopping, and personal commuting were drastically reduced, leading to a dramatic decrease in the commercial and personal traffic volumes. This period of reduced activity serves as a real life experiment for assessment and demonstration of the impact that human activity, and mainly road traffic, may have on the air pollution levels in a bustling middle-sized city. The analysis is made especially sharp and reliable due to the abruptness of the beginning and the end of the reduced activity period, its length, and the stable summer meteorological conditions in the eastern Mediterranean region. The reduced traffic volumes resulted in lowered levels of NO2, hydrocarbons and particulate matter. The decrease in these pollutants' mean concentration was significantly larger than the reduction in the mean traffic volume. Slightly higher mean O3 concentrations were observed during the reduced traffic period. (author)

  19. Species biology and potential for controlling four exotic plants (Ammophila arenaria, Carpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata and Gasoul crystallinum) on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Invasive exotic plants can displace native flora and modify community and ecosystem structure and function. Ammophila arenaria, Corpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata, and Gasoul crystallinum are invasive plants present on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, designated for study by the Environmental Task Force because of the perceived threat they represent to the native flora. Each plant's native habitat, how they came to be at Vandenberg, their propagation, and how they can be controlled is discussed.

  20. Resfriamento de banana-prata com ar forçado Forced-air cooling of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÁRBARA TERUEL

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as curvas de resfriamento de banana-prata (Musa balbisiana Colla e os valores do tempo de meio e sete oitavos de resfriamento, partindo do cálculo da Taxa Adimensional de Temperatura. Os frutos foram resfriados num sistema com ar forçado a 7ºC, umidade relativa de 87,6±3,8%, e velocidade do ar entre 1 e 0,2 m/s. Aplicou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, usando um esquema fatorial 2x2 (dois fluxos de ar (fatores e duas embalagens (níveis, para um nível de significância de 10%. Os fluxos de ar foram 1.933 a 1.160 m³/h, e as embalagens se diferenciaram pela porcentagem de área de abertura disponível para a ventilação (40 e 3,2%. Foi constatada uma diferença significativa no tempo de resfriamento, tanto quando aplicadas as duas taxas de ar como quando usadas as duas embalagens. O menor tempo de resfriamento foi atingido no tratamento que combinou a maior taxa de ar (1.933 m³/h com a embalagem de maior área de aberturas (40%. O maior tempo de resfriamento foi atingido no tratamento que combinou a menor taxa de ar (1160 m³/h com a embalagem de 3,2% de área efetiva de abertura. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o tempo de resfriamento depende, em grande medida, da taxa de ar e do tipo de embalagem usada. O tempo de resfriamento variou em média entre 117 a 555 min, dependendo do tratamento aplicado. Não se constatou diferença significativa nas perdas de massa entre os diferentes tratamentos.This work presents the cooling curves for bananas Prata, (Musa balbisiana Colla, and determinates half-cooling and seven-eight cooling times and the cooling rate. Bananas were kept in a cold room with a forced-air system at 7ºC and RH = 87.6±3.8%. The experiment was conducted in a 2x2 factorial design, to test the effects of two flow rates (factors of air passing through the product, and two types of boxes (levels. The statistical analysis was performed at p<0.10. The air flow rates were 1933

  1. 基于VR-Force的协同空战效能评估研究%Evaluation effectiveness of cooperate air combat based on VR-Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左家亮; 杨任农; 寇雅楠; 张滢

    2011-01-01

    In the air combat, through integrating the main factor of the entity in the combat, and evaluating the hit probability of the entity in theory. On the assign task of the air combat based on the VR-Force develop environment is researched. According to the plan of the task, after edit campaign plan for every entity in the air combat, simulation experiment is done according the air combat plan in VR-Force, evaluate the efficiency of the air combat plan. At last, through comparing the result of the simulation, the value and meaning of the scientific and reasonable task assign plan in the air to air combat is illuminated.%在空战对抗中,通过综合参战实体各项战技指标,从理论上拟合单个实体对对方的杀伤概率.基于VR-Force开发环境,进行协同空战任务分配研究.根据任务分配方案,对每个参战实体制定对应的作战计划,按此方案制作作战想定,进行战场推演,实现效能评估.实验仿真结果与理论推导说明了科学合理的任务分配方案在协同空战中的作用和意义.

  2. An Examination of Some Behavioral Correlates of Air Force Undergraduate Pilot Training through the Use of the Porter and Lawler Performance/Satisfaction Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, David P.

    The study tested the applicability of portions of the Porter and Lawler model in a cognitive training environment and examined the relationships among some behavioral variables in Air Force Undergraduate Pilot Training. The variables analyzed were the Maslow need hierarchy, effort, abilities, role perceptions, performance, satisfaction and the…

  3. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  4. Effects of Urban Land Forcing on Local and Downwind Air Quality, a Case Study for East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, T.; Liu, J.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban land surfaces are distinct from natural surfaces as their unique radiative, thermal, hydrologic and aerodynamic properties. In this study, we have investigated the response of a range of meteorological and air quality indicators to urban land expansion based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem). Specifically, we simulate the climate and air quality impacts of four hypothetical urbanization scenarios during the month of July from 2008 to 2012 over eastern China, a region experiencing the fastest urbanization. We find that as urban land expanses, though emissions are held constant, concentrations of CO, elemental carbon (EC), and PM2.5 tend to decrease near the surface (below ~500 m), but increase at higher altitudes (1-3 km), resulting in a reduced vertical concentration gradient. On the contrary, the O3 burden averaged over all newly urbanized grid cells consistently increases from the surface to a height of about 4 km. The responses of pollutant concentrations to the spatial extent of urbanization are linear near the surface, but nonlinear (or intensified) at higher altitudes. The perturbations in boundary layer height, 2-m temperature and 2-m relative humidity also increase linearly with the spatial extent of urban land expansion (R2 >0.96). Our work indicates that as large tracts of new urban land emerge, the influence of urban expansion on meteorology and air pollution would be significantly amplified. An improved integrated process rate (IPR) analysis scheme is implemented in WRF/Chem to investigate the non-negligible and unique role of urban land forcing in impacting the advection, turbulent mixing, and dry/wet removal of pollutants. IPR indicates that, for primary pollutants, the enhanced sink (source) caused by turbulent mixing and vertical advection in the lower (upper) atmosphere could be a key factor in changes to simulated vertical profiles. The evolution of secondary pollutants is further largely

  5. Causality of global warming seen from observations: a scale analysis of driving force of the surface air temperature time series in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peicai; Wang, Geli; Zhang, Feng; Zhou, Xiuji

    2016-05-01

    By using the slow feature analysis, we reconstructed the driving force for an observed monthly surface air temperature anomaly time series in the northern hemisphere. Wavelet transformation technique was then used to analyze the scale structure of the derived driving force and its causal relationship with global warming. Results showed that the driving force for the analyzed temperature climate system included two independent degrees of freedom which respectively represented the effects of 22-year solar cycle and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on the climate. More importantly, the driving force is modulated in amplitude by signals with much longer time periods. The modulation controls the energy input to the climate system and its effect on the global warming is decisive. In addition, through analyzing phase transitions from zero to extremes of the modulating signals, we provide a projection for the future trend of the surface air temperature. In specific, in the next 45-65 years, the driving force will continue to rise which will drive the air temperature even warmer. This is a long term natural trend determined by the modulating amplitude signals, but not directly related to human activity.

  6. Water-surface elevations of wetlands and nearby wells at Arnold Air Force Base, near Manchester, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, W.J.; League, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Surface-water stage, ground-water elevations, rainfall, and streamflow were monitored at or near four wetland sites at Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee. Two of the wetland sites (Sinking Pond and Westall Swamp) included sinkholes with internal relief greater than 7 feet. The other two wetlands (Tupelo Swamp and Goose Pond) were shallow depressions with less than 5 feet internal relief. Stage rose and fell abruptly in the two sinkhole wetlands. Water depths ranged from 0 to 11.4 feet in Sinking Pond and from 0 to 8.5 feet in Westall Swamp. Water levels in wells adjacent to the sinkhole wetlands also rose and fell abruptly. The two shallow depressions filled and drained more gradually and remained flooded longer than the sinkhole wetlands. The maximum recorded water depths were 3.5 feet in Tupelo Swamp and 2.3 feet in Goose Pond. Water levels in nearby wells remained lower than surface-water elevations in the shallow depressions throughout the study period.

  7. US Air Force Space Weather Products Rapid Prototyping Efforts - Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects and Meteor Effects Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2001-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) has joined efforts with the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC Det 11/CIT) to rapidly transition space weather research into prototype, operational, system-impact products. These Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) products are used to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. A summary of RPC activity is provided. Emphasis will be placed on current products under development, to include Solar Radio Background/Burst Effects (SoRBE) and Meteor Effects (ME) products. These will be added to real-time operations in the near future. SoRBE specifies the detrimental interference effects of background and event-level solar radio output on radar observations and satellite communications. ME will provide general meteor shower "nowcast" and forecast information, along with more specific meteor and meteor shower impact, radar clutter, and bolide (exploding meteor) effects. A brief overview of recently delivered products: Radar Auroral Clutter, Satellite Scintillation, HF Illumination, and GPS Single-Frequency Error Maps will also be provided.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of exposure to organic solvents and hazardous noise among US Air Force Reserve personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Hughes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss affects many workers including those in the military and may be caused by noise, medications, and chemicals. Exposures to some chemicals may lead to an increase in the incidence of hearing loss when combined with hazardous noise. This retrospective study evaluated the risk for hearing loss among Air Force Reserve personnel exposed to occupational noise with and without exposures to toluene, styrene, xylene, benzene, and JP-8 (jet fuel. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were determined using logistic and linear regression. Stratified analysis was used to evaluate potential interaction between solvent and noise exposure. The majority of the subjects were male (94.6% and 35 years or older on the date of their first study audiogram (66%. Followed for an average of 3.2 years, 9.2% of the study subjects had hearing loss in at least one ear. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 per year of age and each year of follow-up time (OR = 1.23 were significantly associated with hearing loss. Low and moderate solvent exposures were not associated with hearing loss. Linear regression demonstrated that hearing loss was significantly associated with age at first study audiogram, length of follow-up time, and exposure to noise. Hearing decreased by 0.04 decibels for every decibel increase in noise level or by almost half a decibel (0.4 dB for every 10 decibel increase in noise level.

  9. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles.

  10. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  11. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.M. [4115 Allen Dr., Kingsville, TX (United States); Knight, P.J. [Marron and Associates, Inc., Corrales, NM (United States)

    1994-05-25

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  12. Hot methanol extraction for the analysis of volatile organic chemicals in subsurface core samples from Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, W.P.; Xia, G.; Durfee, D.P.; Wilson, R.D.; Brown, M.J.; Mackay, D.M.

    1997-06-01

    The evaluation of contaminant concentrations in ground water and soil is an essential aspect of most hazardous waste remedial investigations. This paper describes methods applied toward obtaining, preserving, and analyzing subsurface samples for the determination of VOC concentration in the saturated region of an unconfined coastal plain aquifer at Dover Air Force Base (DAFB), Delaware. The described protocol involved headspace-free subsampling of cores, field preservation of subsamples in methanol, and overnight extraction of the VOCs at elevated temperature (70 C). Methanol-extracted compounds were subsequently transferred to hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography. The method was found to achieve quantitative extraction from the aquifer sands in a single step, although extraction from fine-grained and more strongly sorbing aquitard samples required multiple methanol extractions to achieve comparable recovery. An extensive set of DAFB results is presented as an indication of how these methods can be applied toward characterizing field-scale contamination with a high degree of resolution and accuracy.

  13. Performance evaluation of direct forced-air total solids and Kjeldahl total nitrogen methods: 1990 through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Barbano, D M; Healy, P A; Fleming, J R

    1997-01-01

    Results from collaborative studies of the performance of the direct forced-air oven-drying method for determination of milk total solids content (AOAC Method 990.20) and the Kjeldahl total nitrogen method for determination of milk total nitrogen content (AOAC Method 991.20) were published in 1989 and 1990, respectively. Method performance was characterized by using the harmonized ISO/IU-PAC/AOAC guidelines for method validation, and the methods now have final action status. During 1990 through 1995, the split sample collaborative study format was used to monitor the performance of these methods as part of a multilaboratory quality assurance program. Seven blind duplicate milk materials were sent from a central laboratory once every 2 months to participating laboratories. Data were analyzed with the same statistical procedures used in the original collaborative studies. Compared with the original collaborative study, the repeatability and reproducibility of the oven-drying method improved over time. For the Kjeldahl total nitrogen method, within-laboratory repeatability improved slightly, whereas between-laboratory reproducibility was similar to but not always as good as in the original study. The results demonstrate that the statistical protocol for collaborative studies can be used effectively as the basis for a multilaboratory quality assurance program and that the method performance achieved in a collaborative study can be maintained and even improved with time.

  14. Efficacy of aerial spray applications using fuselage booms on Air Force C-130H aircraft against mosquitoes and biting midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Wojcik, George M; De Szalay, Ferenc A

    2009-12-01

    The effectiveness of a novel fuselage boom configuration was tested with flat-fan nozzles on U.S. Air Force C-130H aircraft to create ultra-low volume sprays to control mosquitoes (Culicidae) and biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). The mortality of mosquitoes and biting midges in bioassay cages and natural populations, using the organophosphate adulticide, naled, was measured. Mosquitoes in bioassay cages had 100% mortality at 639 m downwind in all single-pass spray trials, and most trials had >90% mortality up to 1491 m downwind. Mosquito mortality was negatively correlated with distance from the spray release point (r2 = 0.38, P 90%). In wide-area operational applications, numbers of mosquitoes from natural populations 1 wk postspray were 83% (range 55%-95%), lower than prespray numbers (P < 0.05). Biting midge numbers were reduced by 86% (range 53%-97%) on average (P = 0.051) after 7 days. The results of these field trials indicate that the fuselage boom configuration on C-130H aircraft are an effective method to conduct large-scale aerial sprays during military operations and public health emergencies. PMID:20099594

  15. Reassessment of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in United States Air Force Distributed Common Ground System operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Lillian; Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Goodman, Tanya; Cowper, Sara; Thompson, William

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess for the main sources of occupational stress, as well as self-reported symptoms of distress and post-traumatic stress disorder among U.S. Air Force (USAF) Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) intelligence exploitation and support personnel. DCGS intelligence operators (n=1091) and nonintelligence personnel (n = 447) assigned to a USAF Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Wing responded to the web-based survey. The overall survey response rate was 31%. Study results revealed the most problematic stressors among DCGS intelligence personnel included high workload, low manning, as well as organizational leadership and shift work issues. Results also revealed 14.35% of DCGS intelligence operators' self-reported high levels of psychological distress (twice the rate of DCGS nonintelligence support personnel). Furthermore, 2.0% to 2.5% self-reported high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, with no significant difference between groups. The implications of these findings are discussed along with recommendations for USAF medical and mental health providers, as well as operational leadership. PMID:25747649

  16. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles. PMID:23550927

  17. Update: Exertional hyponatremia, active component, U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    From 2000 through 2015, there were 1,542 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component members of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. Annual incidence rates rose sharply from 2008 through 2010 but then decreased by more than 50% from 2010 through 2013. In 2015, the number of cases (n=116) increased by approximately 20% from the previous year. The recent increase in rates overall reflects increased rates in the Army and the Marine Corps. Relative to their respective counterparts, crude incidence rates of exertional hyponatremia for the entire 16-year surveillance period were higher among females, those in the youngest age group, Marines, and recruit trainees. Service members (particularly recruit trainees) and their supervisors must be vigilant for early signs of heat-related illnesses and must be knowledgeable of the dangers of excessive water consumption and the prescribed limits for water intake during prolonged physical activity (e.g., field training exercises, personal fitness training, recreational activities) in hot, humid weather. PMID:27030930

  18. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  19. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-10-01

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements. PMID:26292289

  20. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-08-20

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements.

  1. Sila kojom vazduh pritiska pokretnu ploču/Force of the air pressure on a moving plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Ivanovich Gretchihin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu je razrađena matematički model gasodinamičkog opstrujavanja ravne ploče pri njenom kretanju sa pozitivnim i negativnim napadnim uglom. Pokazano je da pri malim brzinama kretanja, silu uzgona i čeoni otpor određuje gasodinamički tok vazduha u izlaznoj oblasti opstrujavanja, a pri brzinama kretanja koje su bliske brzini zvuka odlučujuću ulogu vrši uzajamno udarno dejstvo ploče sa molekulima okružujuće sredine u ulaznoj oblasti opstrujavanja. Otcepljena struja iza ploče se ne pojavljuje pri malim brzinama kretanja. Određeni su uslovi kada čeoni otpor i sila uzgona ploče menjaju znak. / (ruski Razrabotana matematičeskaja model' gazodinamičeskogo obtekanija ploskoj plastiny pri ee dviženii s položitel'nym i otricatel'nym uglom ataki. Pokazano, čto pri malyh skorostjah dviženija plastiny pod''emnaja sila i lobovoe soprotivlenie opredeljajutsja gazodinamikoj tečenija vozduha v tyl'noj oblasti, a pri skorostjah dviženija blizkih k skorosti zvuka rešajuščuju rol' vypolnjaet udarnoe vzaimodejstvie plastiny s molekulami okružajuščej sredy v perednej oblasti. Sryvnoe tečenie za plastinoj pri malyh skorostjah dviženija ne voznikaet. Opredeleny uslovija, kogda lobovoe soprotivlenie i pod''emnaja sila plastiny izmenjaet znak. / This paper developed a mathematical model of gas dynamic fluid flow for a flat plate during its movement with positive and negative angles of attack. It is shown that at low velocities, the lifting force and the frontal resistance are determined by gasdynamic air flow in the fluid flow exit areawhile at velocities close to the speed of sound the decisive role is played by a mutualeffect of the pplate coliding with molecules of the surrounding environment in the fluid flow incidence field. The airflow behind the plate does not appear at low velocities. The conditions when the frontal resistance and the lifting force change the sign are determined.

  2. The Air Force Academy’s Falcon Telescope Network: An Educational and Research Network for K-12 and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Francis; Tippets, Roger; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Polsgrove, Daniel; Gresham, Kimberlee; Barnaby, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. The diversity of the users implies a wide variety of observing interests, and thus the FTN collects images on diverse objects, including satellites, galactic and extragalactic objects, and objects popular for education and public outreach. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA. USAFA cadets use the FTN to continue a tradition of satellite characterization and astronomical research; this tradition is the model used for designing the network to serve undergraduate research needs. Additionally, cadets have led the development of the FTN by investigating observation priority schemes and conducting a 'day-in-the-life' study of the FTN in regards to satellite observations. With respect to K-12 outreach, cadets have provided feedback to K-12 students and teachers through evaluation of first-light proposals. In this paper, we present the current status of the network and results from student participation in the project.

  3. High intensity interior aircraft noise increases the risk of high diastolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the effects of aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, and other factors on the risk of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP in Indonesian Air Force pilots.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using data extracted from annual medical check-ups indoctrination aerophysiologic training records at the Saryanto Aviation and Aerospace Health Institute (LAKESPRA in Jakarta from January 2003 – September 2008. For analysis of DBP: the case group with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg were compared with contral group with DBP < 79 mmHG. One case matched to 12 controls.Results: Out of 567 pilots, 544 (95.9% had complete medical records. For this analysis there were 40 cases of high DBP and 480 controls for DBP. Pilots exposed to aircraft noise 90-95 dB rather than 70-80 dB had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.70; 95% confi dence interval (CI = 1.05-6.97]. Pilots with resting pulse rates of ≥ 81/minute rather than ≤ 80/minute had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.26-5.61. In terms of total fl ight hours, pilots who had 1401-11125 hours rather than 147-1400 hours had a 3.2-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.01-10.03.Conclusion: High interior aircraft noise, high total flight hours,  and high resting pulse rate, increased risk for high DBP. Self assessment of resting pulse rate can be used to control the risk of high DBP. (Med J Indones 2009; 276: 276-82Keywords: diastolic blood pressure, aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, military pilots

  4. Results of the fire training facility siting investigation at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Tucson, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, D.A.; Smuin, D.R.; Williams, J.K.

    1988-05-01

    An investigative drilling and sampling survey at the site of a proposed Fire Training Facility (FTF) at Davis--Monthan Air Force Base, Tuscon, Arizona, was conducted. The objectives of this survey were to provide environmental/chemical information and geotechnical characteristics of the site from soil samples collected at the proposed site, to determine the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in these samples, and to make an assessment of survey data to determine if the proposed FTF site is environmentally and geotechnically suitable. Results of the chemical analyses indicate the presence of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbons directly related to the former fire training burn pits. Although one of the samples was found to have a relatively high concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons (9300 ..mu..g/g), the contamination was limited in vertical extent, and the location of the bore hole was approximately 61 m (200 ft) downgradient from any construction planned for the proposed FTF site. All chemical analyses performed on bore hole samples for VOCs were found to be at or below detection limits. This indicates that no significant subsurface concentrations of hazardous wastes are present at the site of the planned FTF. The geotechnical investigation performed by The Earth Technology Corporation provided several recommendations for construction of the FTF, but presents no data to indicate that the site planned for the proposed FTF is geotechnically unsuitable. The results of this siting investigation support the location of the new FTF in close proximity to the present fire training area as planned. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Assessment of the forced air-cooling performance for cylindrical lithium-ion battery packs: A comparative analysis between aligned and staggered cell arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An appropriate cell arrangement plays significant role to design a highly efficient cooling system for the lithium-ion battery pack. This paper performs a comparative analysis of thermal performances on different arrangements of cylindrical cells for a LiFePO4 battery pack. A thermal model for the battery pack is developed and is solved in couple with the governing equations of fluid flow in the numerical simulations. The experiments for model validation are conducted on a single cell of the battery pack with forced-air cooling system. The effects of longitudinal and transverse spacing on the cooling performances are analyzed for the battery pack with the aligned and the staggered arrays. Under a specified flow rate of cooling air, the maximum temperature rise is proportional to the longitudinal interval for the staggered arrays, while it is in inverse for the aligned arrangement. Increasing the transverse interval leads to the increase of the battery temperature rise for both aligned and staggered arrangements. By trade-off the design requirements (maximum temperature rise, temperature uniformity, power requirement and cooling index), an appropriate solution in term of the optimal combination of the longitudinal interval, transverse interval, and air inlet width is obtained for the aligned arrangement. - Highlights: • Forced air-cooling performance for cylindrical lithium-ion battery is evaluated. • Thermal performances for aligned and staggered cell arrangements are compared. • Geometric optimization is investigated for the battery air-cooling system

  6. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  7. Social Security, Cash Payments and Awards to Servicemen of the Red Army Air Force in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Abramov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the historical and sociological material presented materials about the Soviet state measures during the Great Patriotic War for the implementation of social policy in respect of the military air force of the Red Army, expressed in monetary incentives, rewards and social guarantees. The author notes that the implementation of social management practices at each stage of warfare timely adjustments depending on acquired combat experience and the strategic objectives of war. Existing wartime monetary awards system and social guarantees in respect of the personnel of the Red Army Air Force was not a major, but significant moral incentive for both pilots, as for representatives of other arms and services.

  8. Materiel Command and the Materiality of Commands: An Historical Examination of the US Air Force, Control Data Corporation, and the Advanced Logistics System

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s the US Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) engaged in an unparalleled, real-time computer networking project to manage all its logistics (location, inventory, maintenance, and transportation of personnel, aircraft, weapons, components, spare parts, etc.), the Advanced Logistics System (ALS). The $250 million ALS project was substantially larger in size and cost than earlier real-time computer networking projects (including SAGE programming and SABRE), but it has received virt...

  9. Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhan Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP. To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US Air Force Medical Service (AFMS that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT structure. Conclusions: The

  10. Treatment of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater Using Highly-Selective, Regenerable Anion-Exchange Resins at Edwards Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, B.

    2003-05-30

    Selective ion exchange is one of the most effective treatment technologies for removing low levels of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) from contaminated water because of its high efficiency without adverse impacts on the water quality caused by adding or removing any chemicals or nutrients. This report summarizes both the laboratory and a field pilot-scale studies to determine the ability and efficiency of the bifunctional synthetic resins to remove ClO{sub 4}{sup -} from the contaminated groundwater at the Edwards Air Force Base in California. Regeneration of the resins after groundwater treatment was also evaluated using the FeCl{sub 3}-HCl regeneration technique recently developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. On the basis of this study, the bifunctional resin, D-3696 was found to be highly selective toward ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and performed much better than one of the best commercial nitrate-selective resins (Purolite A-520E) and more than an order of magnitude better than the Purolite A-500 resin (with a relatively low selectivity). At an influent concentration of {approx} 450 {micro}g/L ClO{sub 4}{sup -} in groundwater, the bifunctional resin bed treated {approx} 40,000 empty bed volumes of groundwater before a significant breakthrough of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} occurred. The presence of relatively high concentrations of chloride and sulfate in site groundwater did not appear to affect the ability of the bifunctional resin to remove ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. However, the presence of high iron or iron oxyhydroxides and/or biomass in groundwater caused a significant fouling of the resin beds and greatly influenced the effectiveness in regenerating the resins sorbed with ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. Under such circumstances, a prefilter ({approx} 0.5-1 {micro}m) was found to be necessary to remove these particulates and to reduce the risk of fouling of the resin beds. Without significant fouling, the resin bed could be effectively regenerated by the FeCl{sub 3} displacement technique

  11. Results of the basewide monitoring program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1993-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, C.W.; Cunningham, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data were collected at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio, as part of Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP) that began in 1992. The BMP was designed as a long-term project to character ground-water and surface-water quality (including streambed sediments), describe water-quality changes as water enters, flows across, and exits the Base, and investigate the effects of activities at WPAFB on regional water quality. Ground water, surface ware, and streambed sediment were sampled in four rounds between August 1993 and September 1994 to provide the analytical data needed to address the objectives of the BMP. Surface-water-sampling rounds were designed to include most of the seasonal hydrologic conditions encountered in southwestern Ohio, including baseflow conditions and spring runoff. Ground-water-sampling rounds were scheduled for times of recession and recharfe. Ground-water data were used to construct water-table, potentiometric, and vertical gradient maps of the WPAFB area. Water levels have not changed significantly since 1987, but the effects of pumping on and near the Base can have a marked effect on water levels in localized areas. Ground-ware gradients generally were downward throughout Area B (the southwestern third of the Base) and in the eastern third of Areas A and C (the northeastern two-thirds of the Base), and were upward in the vicinity of Mad River. Stream-discharge measurements verified these gradients. Many of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) exceedances of inorganic constituents in ground water were associated with water from the bedrock. Exceedances of concentrations of chromium and nickel were found consistently in five wells completed in the glacial aquifer beneath the Base. Five organic compounds [trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), vinyl chloride, benzene, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] were detected at concentrations that exceeded MCLs; all of the TCE

  12. The US Air Force medical service system%美国空军的医疗保障体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余志斌

    2016-01-01

    借鉴与学习美国空军医疗保障体系与先进理念,以及稳定航空军医队伍的有效手段.主要引用美国空军两个网络资料,文献4篇,军标1个.这些资料表明,美国空军高层已形成共识——良好的医疗服务是飞行安全与战斗力的重要保障.因此,每年预算庞大的经费,以维持75个医疗中心、医院、诊所或医疗站的专一而高效地运转.而军事人员通用医疗保险制度(TRICARE)使三军人员就近就诊,大幅节省费用.全球搜救、空运医疗服务系统和分级健康维护与治疗,构成完备的医疗保障体系.航空军医则是保障空军全体官兵健康的重要前哨,通过分级培训与较高待遇,使航空军医在专业与生活水平两方面均能不断提升,有效地稳定了这支队伍.美国TRICARE制度可以借鉴,稳定航空军医队伍的手段值得学习.%To analyze the United State Air Force (USAF) medical service system in order to obtain core concepts and methods to maintain high level and active flight surgeon team. Data from 4 articles, 1 military standard and 2 websites were cited. The data indicated that the USAF leadership had a consensus: good medical service was an important guarantee for flight safety and fighting capacity. Therefore, the 75 medical centers, hospitals, clinics or stations were maintained by a huge annual budget of funds. TRICARE medical insurance program provided the military personnel with the nearest medication to save substantial cost. Global search and rescue, aeromedical evacuation and grading healthcare constitute a comprehensive medical insurance system. The flight surgeon was as an outpost for healthcare of all the officers and airmen. The higher annual salary and grading professional training can effectively stabilize and improve the flight surgeon team. The medical insurance program serving uniformed military members should be followed as an example. The means of maintaining flight surgeon team was worth

  13. Characterisation of tissue factor-bearing extracellular vesicles with AFM: comparison of air-tapping-mode AFM and liquid Peak Force AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hardij

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are shed from cells and carry markers of the parent cells. Vesicles derived from cancer cells reach the bloodstream and locally influence important physiological processes. It has been previously shown that procoagulant vesicles are circulating in patients’ fluids. These EVs are therefore considered as promising biomarkers for the thrombotic risk. Because of their small size, classical methods such as flow cytometry suffer from limitation for their characterisation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM has been proposed as a promising complementary method for the characterisation of EVs. Objectives: The objectives of this study are: (a to develop and validate AFM with specific antibodies (anti-TF and (b to compare air and liquid modes for EVs’ size and number determination as potential biomarkers of the prothrombotic risk. Methods: AFM multimode nanoscope III was used for air tapping mode (TM. AFM catalyst was used for liquid Peak Force Tapping (PFT mode. Vesicles are generated according to Davila et al.'s protocol. Substrates are coated with various concentrations of antibodies, thanks to ethanolamine and glutaraldehyde. Results: Vesicles were immobilised on antibody-coated surfaces to select tissue factor (TF-positive vesicles. The size range of vesicles observed in liquid PFT mode is 6–10 times higher than in air mode. This corresponds to the data found in the literature. Conclusion: We recommend liquid PFT mode to analyse vesicles on 5 µg/ml antibody-coated substrates.

  14. 外军飞行人员夜视训练发展%Night vision training in foreign air forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铨; 周晴霖; 秦志峰; 郑媛憬

    2013-01-01

    night vision training in future.Conclusions Foreign air forces have established systemic night vision ground and flight trainings,and their positive effectiveness has been proved both in practice and in combat.Night vision/night vision goggle training calls for the integration of aeromedical training system that featured with institutionalization and systematization.It will benefit to flying personnel transition and qualification when higher flight performance demands asked.The training quality also relies on the advantages of training research and professional's participation.%目的 夜视装备研发并应用于战场环境已经有几十年的历史,其应用领域也扩展到飞行任务中.随之而来的是夜视装备或夜视镜相关的飞行事故,如空间定向障碍事故,因飞行人员色觉和视野受到限制而明显增加.与佩戴夜视镜相关的夜视训练应运而生,并在战争冲突中发挥效能.北约国家已经建立夜视训练体系,并按标准化协议执行.文章在回顾夜视装备及其训练发展的基础上介绍了夜视训练体系,并为我国建立夜视训练体系提出建议. 资料来源与选择 有关夜视和夜视装备训练的研究论文、综述、研讨会报告和机构报告. 资料引用 国外相关文献30篇. 资料综合 北约国家的夜视训练面向固定翼和旋翼飞机的飞行人员,并按照标准化协议实施初训、复训的训练制度.课堂学习和实践构成训练的基本模式,模拟器训练和飞行训练则是训练的高级形式,更贴近实际飞行任务.战斗机飞行员的夜视训练也在局部战争冲突中得以显现,并形成系统化的训练方法.训练使佩戴夜视镜的飞行员在战斗飞行中,如对地攻击中,能够保持足够的观察能力.夜视训练不仅以保持飞行人员的视觉能力和飞行安全为目的,而且需要达到提高作战效能和完成任务的最终目标.所以,综合训练或面向任务训练成

  15. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  16. Investigating the Geomorphic Behavior of the Cape Canaveral Coast Through High-Resolution Beach Monitoring, Sediment Analysis, Oceanographic Observations, and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. N.; Jaeger, J. M.; MacKenzie, R. A.; Kline, S. W.; Maibauer, B. J.; Plant, N. G.; Gravens, M. B.; Pierro, T. P.; Shaffer, J.

    2011-12-01

    The salient of Cape Canaveral interrupts a relatively straight, sandy, passive margin coastline that extends nearly 400 km from the St. Johns River mouth to the St. Lucie Inlet along the Florida Atlantic coast. OSL dating indicates that the modern cape has been prograding rapidly since the LGM and subtle topographic features, inland from the modern cape, suggest that this salient has persisted over several sea level cycles since the early Pleistocene. Dynamic shoreline change over the past decade at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is threatening critical NASA infrastructure and has prompted officials to develop a mitigation strategy through a partnership among researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, private coastal engineering firms, and the University of Florida. Since May 2009, the research team has assembled data on decadal to event-scale shoreline change (dGPS), beach and nearshore morphodynamics (dGPS and Argus), beach sedimentary character (grain size analysis), wave climate and transformation (ADCP), and inner shelf bathymetry (Echo Sounding) in an effort to assess dune vulnerability and flooding risk. In addition, SWAN numerical modeling simulations offer insight into the influence of irregular bathymetry (cape-associated shoals) on the alteration of spatial patterns of wave energy flux during a decadal shift in deep-water wave climate. Beach-fx, modeling of cross-shore profile evolution is being applied to evaluate the performance of alternative protective measures, estimate project costs, and examine ecological influences of the proposed alternative protective measures. By combining contemporaneous data of coastal geomorphic and sedimentary response to wave forcing with numerical model results that explore a range of climate scenarios, we aim to develop a useful understanding of the coastal geomorphic behavior at KSC that can be used to make a mitigation recommendation.

  17. 纳米颗粒物在空气中的阻力特性研究%Investigation of drag force on nanoparticles in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗爽; 焦可歆; 刘志宇; 梁深; 戚朋飞; 王军; 夏国栋

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the drag force of a spherical nanoparticle in air,where by the particle is in the free molecule and the van der Waals interaction between the particle and gas molecule has to be taken into account.Within the framework of gas kinetic theory,the drag force of a nanoparticle in air is derived in two limiting collision models,namely,specular and diffuse scat-tering.The effects of air temperature,particle size and material of particles on the drag force for a particle moving in air are stud-ied based on the drag force formulation.It is found that the drag force decreases with increasing air temperature.For particles with radius less than 30 nm,the influence of the van der Waals interaction cannot be neglected.The rigid body collision model employed in previous papers can lead to large errors for nanosized particles,because the drag force is reported to be independent of the particle material upon the rigid body collision between the gas molecule and particle,which is inconsistent with the experi-mental results.If the van der Waals interaction is involved into the collision model,the drag force is found to depend on the mate-rial of the nanoparticle.%对于空气中的纳米颗粒,其动力学行为属于自由分子区,并且在阻力计算中需要考虑气体分子与颗粒之间的范德瓦尔斯力。基于气体动力学理论推导得到了纳米颗粒在二元混合气体中所受阻力的计算式。在此基础上,分析了纳米颗粒在空气中所受阻力与空气温度、颗粒粒径、颗粒物质种类等因素的依赖关系。研究发现:纳米颗粒所受空气阻力随温度升高而减小;在颗粒粒径小于30 nm 时,范德瓦尔斯力的作用不能忽略,经典的刚体碰撞模型不再成立;由于势参数的不同,对于不同物质种类的颗粒,其阻力差异比较明显。分析结果表明,提出的计算公式与实验结果吻合较好,而采用经典的 Stokes-Cunningham 公式

  18. Analysis on the Core Values of American Air Force%试析美国空军核心价值观的培育及其特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀玲

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the connotation, cuhi core values. American Air Force accentuate the cultivation vation and of soldiers' characteristics of American Air Force's personal morality and character, pay attention to infiltrating the core values into their routine work and daily life, and making them become their personal habits.%通过分析美国空军核心价值观的内涵和培育,阐述其注重军人个人道德品质和品格培养,将核心价值观的理念渗透到日常工作和生活中,使之内化为个人习惯的特点。

  19. Engineering correlations of variable-property effects on laminar forced convection mass transfer for dilute vapor species and small particles in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple engineering correlation scheme is developed to predict the variable property effects on dilute species laminar forced convection mass transfer applicable to all vapor molecules or Brownian diffusing small particle, covering the surface to mainstream temperature ratio of 0.25 T sub W/T sub e 4. The accuracy of the correlation is checked against rigorous numerical forced convection laminar boundary layer calculations of flat plate and stagnation point flows of air containing trace species of Na, NaCl, NaOH, Na2SO4, K, KCl, KOH, or K2SO4 vapor species or their clusters. For the cases reported here the correlation had an average absolute error of only 1 percent (maximum 13 percent) as compared to an average absolute error of 18 percent (maximum 54 percent) one would have made by using the constant-property results.

  20. Time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, January 1991 through September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, a monitoring program was implemented to collect time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The data presented in this report were collected from 18 piezometers, 3 extensometers, 1 barometer, and 1 rain gage from January 1991 through September 1993. The piezometers and extensometers are at eight sites in the study area. This report discusses the ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction monitoring networks, and presents the recorded data in graphs. The data reported are available in the data base of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  1. Influence of grid resolution and meteorological forcing on simulated European air quality: A sensitivity study with the modeling system COSMO-MUSCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Ralf; Schröder, Wolfram; Schrödner, Roland; Renner, Eberhard

    2012-06-01

    Model evaluation studies are essential for determining model performance as well as assessing model deficiencies, and are the focus of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). The chemistry-transport model system COSMO-MUSCAT participates in this initiative. In this paper the robustness and variability of the model results against changes in the model setup are analyzed. Special focus is given to the formation of secondary particulate matter and the ability to reproduce unusually high levels of PM10 in Central Europe caused by long-range transported smoke of fires in western Russia. Seven different model configurations are investigated in this study. The COSMO-MUSCAT results are evaluated in comparison with ground-based measurements in Central Europe. The analysis is performed for two selected periods in April/May 2006 and October 2006 which are characterized by elevated concentrations of PM. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the results is studied against the used grid resolution and the meteorological forcing. Here, COSMO-MUSCAT is applied with different horizontal grid sizes and, alternatively, forced by reanalysis data with finer resolution. The use of finer grid resolutions in COSMO-MUSCAT has direct consequences on the meteorological forcing as well as on the calculated emission and deposition rates. The presented results suggest a large impact of the meteorological effects on the PM concentrations. The more accurate spatial appointment of the emissions and deposition fluxes seems to be of little consequence compared to the meteorological forcing.

  2. Rozwój technologiczny samolotów myśliwskich, a ich taktyka w Royal Air Force oraz US Army Air Force na zachodnioeuropejskim tetrze działań operacyjnych podczas II wojny światowej w latach 1939 – 1944

    OpenAIRE

    Bronder, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Wydział Historyczny: Instytut Historii Podczas II WW na Zachodnioeuropejskim Teatrze Działań Operacyjnych (dalej ZTDO) miały miejsce ważne alianckie zwycięstwa w powietrzu, a to dzięki połączeniu technologii i taktyki samolotów myśliwskich. Do dobrze zbadanych należą tutaj bitwa o Anglię oraz myśliwce Spitfire lub P-51 Mustang, które były podstawą tych zwycięstw. Nieco zaniedbane pozostają zagadnienia dotyczące w jaki sposób U.S. Army Air Force (dalej USAAF) i Royal Air Force (dalej R...

  3. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Andersen Air Force Base, Operable Unit 3 (MARBO Annex), Yigo, Guam, June 16, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This decision document, a Record of Decision (ROD), presents the selected remedial actions for soil and groundwater at the Marianas/Bonnis Command (MARBO) Annex Operable Unit (OU) at Andersen Air Force Base (AFB), Guam. No risk was found at Waste Pile 5 and the War Dog Borrow Pit, so no further action is planned for these two sites. Current risks associated with soil exceed acceptable risk levels at Waste Pile 6, Waste Pile 7, Landfill 29, and the MARBO Laundry. Based on alternatives evaluated in the OU 3 Focused FS the US Air Force, the USEPA, and Guam have selected Soil Removal (Alternative OU3-D) as the remedy for three of the sites, and Soil Cover (Alternative OU3-C) for one of the sites. Based on alternatives evaluated in the OU-2 Focused FS, the USAF, the USEPA, and the Guam EPA have selected Natural Attenuation with Wellhead Treatment (Alternative G-2) as the remedy for the TCE and PCE contaminated groundwater beneath the MARBO Annex.

  5. A review on the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the air-cooled heat exchangers in forced convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ankur Kumar; Jyeshtharaj B Joshi; Arun K Nayak; Pallippattu K Vijayan

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on the experimental investigations and the numerical simulations performed to analyze the thermal-hydraulic performance of the air-cooled heat exchangers. The air-cooled heat exchangers mostly consist of the finned-tube bundles. The primary role of the extended surfaces (fins) is to provide more heat transfer area to enhance the rate of heat transfer on the air side. The secondary role of the fins is to generate vortices, which help in enhancing the mixing and the heat transfer coefficient. In this study, the annular and plate fins are considered, the annular fins are further divided into four categories: (1) plane annular fins, (2) serrated fins, (3) crimped spiral fins, (4) perforated fins, and similarly for the plate fins, the fin types are: (1) plain plate fins, (2) wavy plate fins, (3) plate fins with DWP, and (4) slit and strip fins. In Section 4, the performance of the various types of fins is presented with respect to the parameters: (1) Reynolds number, (2) fin pitch, (3) fin height, (4) fin thickness, (5) tube diameter, (6) tube pitch, (7) tube type, (8) number of tube rows, and (9) effect of dehumidifying conditions. In Section 5, the conclusions and the recommendations for the future work have been given.

  6. The Chinese Air Force fighter ace Liu Zhe-sheng%抗战中国空军王牌飞行员柳哲生小传

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕天石

    2013-01-01

    During the Anti Japanese War, the Chinese Air Force outstanding pilots in China was tenacious resistance. This thesis selects a Chinese Air Force fighter ace Liu Zhe-sheng during the war of resistance against Japan as the representative, research from the aspects of his life story, mainly described his hero's air war career, lays out the war of resistance against Japan Ace Combat trajectory, reproduce the precious historical aerial battlefield is extremely important in Anti Japanese War this period of history, every Chinese should bear in mind the suffering and glory.%在抗日战争中,中国空军的优秀飞行员们在神州大地每一片天空进行了顽强抵抗。本文选取了抗战时期的一位中国空军王牌飞行员柳哲生为代表,从多方面研究了他一生的传奇经历,主要记述了他英雄般的空中抗战生涯,勾画出一名抗日战争时期王牌飞行员的战斗轨迹,再现了抗日战中极其重要的空中战场的珍贵历史,这段历史是每个中华儿女都应该牢记的苦难与光荣。

  7. Reconstruction of Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion spectrum based on noise obtained from an air-jet forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Larose, Eric; Campillo, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The time-domain cross-correlation of incoherent and random noise recorded by a series of passive sensors contains the impulse response of the medium between these sensors. By using noise generated by a can of compressed air sprayed on the surface of a plexiglass plate, we are able to reconstruct not only the time of flight but the whole waveforms between the sensors. From the reconstruction of the direct $A_0$ and $S_0$ waves, we derive the dispersion curves of the flexural waves, thus estimating the mechanical properties of the material without a conventional electromechanical source. The dense array of receivers employed here allow a precise frequency-wavenumber study of flexural waves, along with a thorough evaluation of the rate of convergence of the correlation with respect to the record length, the frequency, and the distance between the receivers. The reconstruction of the actual amplitude and attenuation of the impulse response is also addressed in this paper.

  8. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman Ill Ballistic Missiles At Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) analyze VAFB sounding data to determine the probability of violating (PoV) upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. The AMU suggested also including forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh (RAP) model. This would provide further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast on launch day.

  9. Experimental synergy combining lidar measurements so as to optically characterize aerosols: applications to air quality and radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work carried out in this study is devoted to a better understanding of the evolution of aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties for urban pollution aerosols, dust and biomass burning particles. It mainly concerns the complex refractive index and the single-scattering albedo. Such a characterisation is indeed necessary so as to fulfil the requirements of scientific and societal air quality and global climate evolution questions. Our study is based on a synergy between different measurements platforms: ground-based or airborne measurements, together with active and passive remote sensing observations. Lidar in particular turns out to be an essential tool in order to assess horizontal and vertical variability of aerosol micro-physical and optical properties in the atmospheric boundary layer, but also in the residual layer, as well as in layers transported from the boundary layer to the free troposphere. The original methodology we developed highlights the importance of the geographical origin, the impact of aging and dynamical processes in the evolution of structural, optical and hygroscopic aerosol features. The related accurate determination of the properties in each aerosol layer is required for radiative fluxes and heating rates calculations in the atmospheric column. The radiative impact of both dust particles and biomass burning aerosols observed over the region of Niamey (Niger) was thus assessed during the dry season. These results reveal the need of a better characterisation of those significant aerosol properties for each layer in models. (author)

  10. Electrohydrodynamic force produced by a wire-to-cylinder dc corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Eric; Benard, Nicolas; Lan-Sun-Luk, Jean-Daniel; Chabriat, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Wire-to-cylinder corona discharges are studied to better understand the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) phenomena that govern the performances of electric propulsion systems. First, theory associated with EHD thrusters is presented in order to be compared with experimental results. Secondly, direct thrust measurements are carried out to optimize the electrical and geometrical parameters of such devices. The main results are as follows: (1) the discharge current I is proportional to the square root of the grounded electrode diameter and to 1/d2 where d is the electrode gap; (2) for d ⩽ 20 mm, the mobility of negative ions is higher than that of positive ions while the mobility of both ions is equal for higher gaps; (3) therefore, for gap ⩾30 mm, positive and negative coronas results in the same current-to-thrust conversion; (4) the current-to-thrust conversion is equal to 33 N A-1 per centimetre of gap, and it is proportional to the gap; (5) the thruster effectiveness θ increases with \\sqrt d , decreases with the square root of thrust and reaches about 15 N kW-1 for d = 40 mm (6) the force computed from experimental velocity profiles is overestimated compared with the values measured with a balance, showing that this method cannot be used for thrust determination.

  11. Future ozone air quality and radiative forcing over China owing to future changes in emissions under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Liao, Hong

    2016-02-01

    We apply the nested grid version of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to assess 2000-2050 changes in O3 air quality and associated radiative forcing in China owing to future changes in emissions under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Changes in surface layer O3 concentrations, numbers of O3 exceedance days (days with maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) O3 exceeding 74.7 ppbv), and tropospheric O3 radiative forcing (RF) are simulated for 2000-2050. Over China, RCP8.5 is the worst scenario for near future (2020-2030) and RCP6.0 is the worst scenario over 2040-2050; the maximum increases in annual mean surface layer O3 concentrations of 6-12 ppbv relative to present day (year 2000) are found over southern China in 2020 and 2030 under RCP8.5 and in 2040 and 2050 under RCP6.0. The numbers of MDA8 O3 exceedance days are simulated to be 10, 0, 0, and 2 days over Beijing-Tianjin-Tanggu (BTT), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Sichuan Basin (SCB), respectively, in the present day (year 2000). No exceedance days are simulated in year 2050 for all the four regions under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, but extremely high numbers of exceedance days are found in 2050 under RCP6.0 (with 102, 75, 57, and 179 days in BTT, YRD, PRD, and SCB, respectively) and in 2030 under RCP8.5 (with 94, 60, 34, and 162 days in BTT, YRD, PRD, and SCB, respectively). The tropospheric O3 RF in 2050 relative to 2000 averaged over eastern China (18°-45°N, 95°-125°E) is simulated to be -0.11, 0.0, 0.01, and 0.14 W m-2 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5, respectively. When we consider both the health and climate impacts of tropospheric O3 over China in 2050, RCP2.6 is a significantly improving scenario for both air quality and climate, RCP4.5 is a significantly improving scenario for air quality but has small consequences for climate, RCP6.0 is a significantly worsening scenario for air quality

  12. An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

    2006-03-10

    Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

  13. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will lead to a dramatic increase in damage from forest fires in Europe by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region, the average annual area affected by forest fires has quadrupled since the 1960s (WWF, 2012). The number of forest fires is also on the increase in Central and Northern Europe. The Austrian forest fire database shows a total of 584 fires for the period 2012 to 2014, while even large areas of Sweden were hit by forest fires in August 2014, which were brought under control only after two weeks of intense fire-fighting efforts supported by European civil protection modules. Based on these facts, the improvements in forest fire control are a major international issue in the quest to protect human lives and resources as well as to reduce the negative environmental impact of these fires to a minimum. Within this paper the development of a multi-functional airborne management support system within the frame of the Austrian national safety and security research programme (KIRAS) is described. The main goal of the developments is to assist crisis management tasks of civil emergency teams and armed forces in disaster management by providing multi spectral, near real-time airborne image data products. As time, flexibility and reliability as well as objective information are crucial aspects in emergency management, the used components are tailored to meet these requirements. An airborne multi-functional management support system was developed as part of the national funded project AIRWATCH, which enables real-time monitoring of natural disasters based on optical and thermal images. Airborne image acquisition, a broadband line of sight downlink and near real-time processing solutions allow the generation of an up-to-date geo-referenced situation map. Furthermore, this paper presents ongoing developments for innovative extensions and research activities designed to optimize command operations in national and international fire

  14. A study of the cognitive and affective impact of the Cockpit Physics curriculum on students at the United States Air Force Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Heidi Mauk

    The standard introductory college physics course has remained stagnant for over thirty years. Course texts have had few significant revisions, and the course has typically been taught in a lecture, laboratory, and recitation format. Studies show, however, that the majority of students do not learn physics well in this environment. Cockpit Physics at the United States Air Force Academy is an innovative computer-centered introductory physics course which abandons the traditional lecture-lab format in an effort to improve the standard introductory course. Cockpit Physics uses small cooperative learning groups, the computer as an integrated learning tool, and the context of flight and Air Force applications. The purpose of this study was a control group comparison to determine if an interactive student-centered environment provides the social context and community for learning needed by students who do not traditionally purse a career in science. In light of the under-representation of women in physics, this study examines whether Cockpit Physics results in a more positive attitude toward physics for female students. Considered also are the experiences of the instructors. To address these issues research questions related to student attitudes and academic performance were formulated. Answers to the attitudinal questions were sought with survey instruments, classroom observations, analysis of journals and individual interviews. Student learning of physics was assessed through class examinations and an inventory widely used in the physics community. A comparison is made to similar innovative curricula at other universities. This study concludes that Cockpit Physics provided more peer interaction and a more hands-on environment for learning than the control classes but provided less one-on-one student teacher interaction. This lack of interaction with the teacher was a significant source of frustration for nontraditional students. Female students in particular struggled

  15. Comparison between predicted duct effectiveness from proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P and measured field data for residential forced air cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Jeffrey A.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.; Walker, Iain S.

    2002-04-01

    The proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P ''Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems'' (ASHRAE 2002) has recently completed its second public review. As part of the standard development process, this study compares the forced air distribution system ratings provided by the public review draft of Standard 152P to measured field results. 58 field tests were performed on cooling systems in 11 homes in the summers of 1998 and 1999. Seven of these houses had standard attics with insulation on the attic floor and a well-vented attic space. The other four houses had unvented attics where the insulation is placed directly under the roof deck and the attic space is not deliberately vented. Each house was tested under a range of summer weather conditions at each particular site, and in some cases the amount of duct leakage was intentionally varied. The comparison between 152P predicted efficiencies and the measured results includes evaluation of the effects of weather, duct location, thermal conditions, duct leakage, and system capacity. The results showed that the difference between measured delivery effectiveness and that calculated using proposed Standard 152P is about 5 percentage points if weather data, duct leakage and air handler flow are well known. However, the accuracy of the standard is strongly dependent on having good measurements of duct leakage and system airflow. Given that the uncertainty in the measured delivery effectiveness is typically also about 5 percentage points, the Standard 152P results are acceptably close to the measured data.

  16. A Novel Method for Quantifying the Inhaled Dose of Air Pollutants Based on Heart Rate, Breathing Rate and Forced Vital Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Roby; Hayat, Matthew J.; Barton, Jerusha; Lopukhin, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the interaction of physical activity and air pollution exposure, it is important to quantify the change in ventilation rate incurred by activity. In this paper, we describe a method for estimating ventilation using easily-measured variables such as heart rate (HR), breathing rate (fB), and forced vital capacity (FVC). We recruited healthy adolescents to use a treadmill while we continuously measured HR, fB, and the tidal volume (VT) of each breath. Participants began at rest then walked and ran at increasing speed until HR was 160–180 beats per minute followed by a cool down period. The novel feature of this method is that minute ventilation (V˙E) was normalized by FVC. We used general linear mixed models with a random effect for subject and identified nine potential predictor variables that influence either V˙E or FVC. We assessed predictive performance with a five-fold cross-validation procedure. We used a brute force selection process to identify the best performing models based on cross-validation percent error, the Akaike Information Criterion and the p-value of parameter estimates. We found a two-predictor model including HR and fB to have the best predictive performance (V˙E/FVC = -4.247+0.0595HR+0.226fB, mean percent error = 8.1±29%); however, given the ubiquity of HR measurements, a one-predictor model including HR may also be useful (V˙E/FVC = -3.859+0.101HR, mean percent error = 11.3±36%). PMID:26809066

  17. New Changes of Fire Tactics in Air Defense Forces Group Missile for Equipment Authorization%编配某型导弹的防空兵群火力运用新变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁芳; 王巨海; 韩校粉

    2013-01-01

    某新型地空导弹列装部队,给部队作战能力提升带来革命性变化,结合新型导弹的作战优势,阐述了防空兵群火力运用新变化,进一步提出了提高防空兵群火力运用效能的对策。%íí Ground-to-air Missile incorporated in army, this brings large affects for the advancing of operational capability in army. Based the campaign superiority of new Missile,it expatiates the new changes of fire tactics of Air Defense Forces Group and brought forward more countermeasures to advance the efficiency of fire tactics of Air Defense Forces Group.

  18. The Impact of Environment and Occupation on the Health and Safety of Active Duty Air Force Members: Database Development and De-Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, Roger; Eaton, Melinda; Mayes, Ryan; Pierce, Lamar; Knight, Andrew; Genovesi, Paul; Escobar, James; Mychalczuk, George; Selent, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Preparing data for medical research can be challenging, detail oriented, and time consuming. Transcription errors, missing or nonsensical data, and records not applicable to the study population may hamper progress and, if unaddressed, can lead to erroneous conclusions. In addition, study data may be housed in multiple disparate databases and complex formats. Merging methods may be incomplete to obtain temporally synchronized data elements. We created a comprehensive database to explore the general hypothesis that environmental and occupational factors influence health outcomes and risk-taking behavior among active duty Air Force personnel. Several databases containing demographics, medical records, health survey responses, and safety incident reports were cleaned, validated, and linked to form a comprehensive, relational database. The final step involved removing and transforming personally identifiable information to form a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant limited database. Initial data consisted of over 62.8 million records containing 221 variables. When completed, approximately 23.9 million clean and valid records with 214 variables remained. With a clean, robust database, future analysis aims to identify high-risk career fields for targeted interventions or uncover potential protective factors in low-risk career fields. PMID:27483519

  19. Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. Freemont: Part II. Determination of quality parameters during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cauliflower heads, which were precooled using four different methods including vacuum, forced-air, and high and low flow hydro precooling, were stored under controlled atmosphere and room conditions. Controlled atmosphere conditions (CA were as follows: 1°C temperature, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and 0:21 [(%CO2:%O2 – (0:21 control] atmosphere composition. Room conditions (RC were: 22±1°C temperature and 55-60% humidity. Various quality parameters of the cauliflower heads were assessed during storage (days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 under controlled atmosphere and room conditions (days 0, 5, and 10. During storage, weight loss, deterioration rate, overall sensory quality score, hardness, and colour (L, a, b, C and α were evaluated. In the present study, the strength and quality parameters of cauliflower under CA and RC conditions were obtained. Vacuum precooling was found to be most suitable method before cauliflower was submitted to cold storage and sent to market. Furthermore, the storage of cauliflower without precooling resulted in a significant decrease in quality parameters.

  20. Experience of the air medical evacuation team of Serbian armed forces in the united nations mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo - deployment stress and psychological adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joković Danilo B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Wars of the nineties in former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda imposed new tasks to the United Nations (UN forces, such as providing humanitarian aid, protection of civilians, peacekeeping, and in many instances providing armed enforcement of peace. The aim of this study was an observational analysis of Serbian participation in the UNs Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with the emphasis on stress and coping techniques. Methods. Serbian contribution in this mission dates back to April 2003 till the present days with a military contingent consisting of six members as a part of Air Medical Evacuation Team. The observed stressogenous factors acted before arrival to the mission area and in the mission area. In this paper we analysed ways to overcome them. Results. The productive ways of overwhelming stress used in this mission were: honesty and openness in interpersonal communications, dedication to work, maintaining discipline and order, strict following of appropriate regime of work, diet, rest and recreation; regular communication with family and organizing and participation in various social, cultural and sports manifestations. Conclusion. This analysis indicates that out of all the observed factors, the most important is appropriate selection of personnel.

  1. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  2. Hydrophobic Forces in Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Pazhianur, Rajesh R

    1999-01-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used to conduct force measurements to better understand the role of hydrophobic forces in flotation. The force measurements were conducted between a flat mineral substrate and a hydrophobic glass sphere in aqueous solutions. It is assumed that the hydrophobic glass sphere may simulate the behavior of air bubbles during flotation. The results may provide information relevant to the bubble-particle interactions occurring during flotation. The glass ...

  3. Control system for forced-air cooling of horticultural products Sistema de controle para o resfriamento com ar forçado de produtos hortícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. T. R. da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a study of the implementation of a classical controller using a tuning method referred to as IMC (Internal Model Control and aimed at the reduction of electrical energy consumption by the appropriate relation between energy consumption and the cooling time with forced air. The supervisory system installed was able to manipulate the variable of frequency of the signal power of the exhaust fan engine (forced air module, to accelerate or decelerate the loss of heat from the product to be cooled by airflow variation that passes through the mass of the produce. The results demonstrated a reduction in energy consumption from 64% and an increase of only 8% in the cooling time to the system using PI/IMC (Proportional - Integral with IMC tuning method compared with the system in its operating nominal condition. This PI/IMC control may be implemented directly in a frequency converter, without the need to purchase a computer or PLC (programmable logic controller to run the dedicated application, increasing its economical viability.Este trabalho consiste no estudo da implementação de um controlador clássico utilizando o método de sintonia denominado por Controle de Modelo Interno, visando à redução do consumo de energia elétrica que decorra na adequada relação entre este consumo e o tempo de resfriamento do processo de resfriamento com ar forçado de produtos hortícolas. Para isto, o sistema supervisório instalado manipulou a variável de frequência do sinal de alimentação do motor de indução trifásico do exaustor (módulo de ar forçado, para acelerar ou desacelerar a perda de calor do produto a ser resfriado por intermédio da variação da vazão de ar que perpassava a massa deste produto. Obteve-se como resultado uma redução no consumo de energia elétrica de 64% e um acréscimo de apenas 8% no tempo de resfriamento para o sistema utilizando um controle proporcional e integral associado ao método de sintonia promovido

  4. Use of Borehole-Radar Methods to Monitor a Steam-Enhanced Remediation Pilot Study at a Quarry at the Former Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Colette; Joesten, Peter K.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2007-01-01

    Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography surveys were used in conjunction with conventional borehole-geophysical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of borehole-radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through fractured bedrock. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), conducted surveys in an abandoned limestone quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base during a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation (SER) pilot project conducted by the USEPA, the U.S. Air Force, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection to study the viability of SER to remediate non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in fractured bedrock. Numerical modeling and field experiments indicate that borehole-radar methods have the potential to monitor the presence of steam and to measure large temperature changes in the limestone matrix during SER operations. Based on modeling results, the replacement of water by steam in fractures should produce a decrease in radar reflectivity (amplitude of the reflected wave) by a factor of 10 and a change in reflection polarity. In addition, heating the limestone matrix should increase the bulk electrical conductivity and decrease the bulk dielectric permittivity. These changes result in an increase in radar attenuation and an increase in radar-wave propagation velocity, respectively. Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography data were collected in two boreholes using 100-megahertz antennas before the start of steam injection, about 10 days after the steam injection began, and 2 months later, near the end of the injection. Fluid temperature logs show that the temperature of the fluid in the boreholes increased by 10?C (degrees Celsius) in one borehole and 40?C in the other; maximum temperatures were measured near the bottom of the boreholes. The results of the numerical modeling were used to interpret the borehole-radar data. Analyses of the

  5. Design and Development of Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator-based Eye Safe Laser Operating at 20 Hz without Forced Air Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Bhardwaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the design and development of an electro-optically Q-switched diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with intracavity optical parametric oscillator, generating ~ 5 ns laser pulses of ~8 mJ energy at eye safe wavelength of 1534 nm. A Z-shaped laser resonator has been designed with porro prism end reflector in Q-switch arm containing RTP Q-Switch and a suitably oriented waveplate. The gain arm consists of a Ø3 x 72 mm Nd: YAG laser rod, pumped from one side by 3 x 5 bar laser diode array stack emitting total optical peak power of 740 W at 804 nm at 38 °C. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs have been employed to maintain the optimum temperature of laser diode arrays and the combined heat load from the pump chamber and TECs is distributed over the system base plate with embedded heat pipes. Such cooling mechanism has eliminated the requirement of fins and fans in the laser system. Eye safe radiation is out-coupled through intra cavity KTA OPO (5 x 5 x 20 mm3 placed in the gain arm. Laser was operated at 20 Hz for several duty cycles of 10 min on and 10 min off and output energy remained stable within ±0.5 mJ without any forced air/liquid cooling.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.599-605, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5759

  6. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: II—Model validation, and impacts on air quality and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Mitchell, Ross M.; (Mick) Meyer, C. P.; Qin, Yi; Campbell, Susan; Gras, John L.; Parry, David

    This two-part series investigates the emission and transport of biomass burning aerosol (or particulate matter) across the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. In Part I, Meyer et al. [2008. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: I—Modelling the distribution of hourly emissions. Atmospheric Environment, in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.089.] used a fuel load distribution coupled with a satellite-derived imagery of fire scars and hotspots and the diurnal variation of a fire danger index to estimate hourly emission rates of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5) for the dry season April-November 2004 at a spatial resolution of 1 km×1 km. In the present paper, these emission rates are used in TAPM, a three-dimensional meteorological and air pollution model, and the modelled PM 2.5 concentrations and aerosol optical depths are compared with satellite and ground-based measurements. This exercise also seeks to fine-tune and validate the emission calculation methodology, a process through which it is found that cases with hotspots without any corresponding fire scars (e.g. in mountainous terrain), which were initially ignored, need to be included to improve the accuracy of model predictions. Overall, the model is able to describe the measurements satisfactorily, considering the issues associated with the model resolution, emission uncertainty, and modelled meteorology. The model hindcasts numerous exceedences of the advisory maximum PM 2.5 exposure limit across the study region, with large areas in excess of 30 exceedences during the study period. Estimated mean top of atmosphere direct radiative forcing due to aerosol shows a seasonal mean of -1.8 W m -2 with a region of strong enhancement over the western portion of the Top End.

  7. 场站油料库存控制策略仿真研究%Research on simulation of fuel inventory control strategy about air-force base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丰; 邢清华; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    It is a stochastic inventory control system with sequential demand for the fuel inventory control system in aviation station,the indexes of evaluating the strategy of inventory control and its calculation methods arc provided.The simulation model about the inventory control of air force base based on(Q,s) is established. The better inventory control strategy is built by using the OptQuest optimization toolbox integrated in the Arena at some scopes of initialization about the best inventory control strategy by an example. The simulation results prove that the inventory control strategy given by the simulation model is more feasible and scientific than the current system.%针对场站油料库存控制系统是一个需求为连续的随机库存控制系统,给出了评价其库存控制策略优劣的评价指标及其量化方法;基于仿真软件Arena,建立了基于(Q,s)存储策略的场站油料库存控制仿真模型.通过一个实例,利用Arena中集成的OptQuest优化工具箱搜索在最优库存控制策略初始值一定范围内的较优库存控制策略.结果表明,将所建立的仿真模型应用于场站油料库存控制,得出的控制策略比现行的更科学可行.

  8. 高空运动落地后对膝盖的冲击力学分析%Analysis of Knee Motion Force Parameters After Air Sport Landfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斌

    2015-01-01

    传统方法构建的高空运动落体后对膝盖的冲击力学分析模型只能求解局部的膝关节受力和发力参数,对膝盖及下肢的各个关节驱动作用和受力冲击运动势能等参数求解建模困难.提出一种基于七连杆驱动结构的高空运动落体后的冲击动力学分析模型.构建人体在高空落地后的下肢膝盖的运动链数学模型,分析落地冲击对膝盖的运动链位姿变换关系,采用7连杆驱动结构对人体高空落地后的下肢进行7连杆结构分解,采用Lagrange动力学方程实现对冲击力学参数的全局分析,得出优化解向量.仿真结果表明,采用该受力分析模型,对膝盖冲击力的受力分析逼近于理论值,计算精度较高,性能优越,为体育训练和运动医疗提供准确的数据基础.%The impact of knee mechanics analysis model of high altitude exercise fall, driving torque and dynamic parame-ters of human lower limb joints, provides the model and the data base for the guidance of scientific sports training and sports medicine. Impact mechanics of knee motion analysis of high altitude falling after the traditional method of the knee joint model can solve the local force and force parameters of each joint, knee and lower limb function and the driving force of impact energy parameters modeling difficulty movement. An analysis model of driving air sports fall based on the struc-ture of the seven link rear impact dynamics is proposed. Construction at high altitude after landing leg knee motion of hu-man body even mathematical model, analysis the impact of the kinematic chain knee pose transformation relations, the 7 connecting rod to drive the structure of the human body at high altitude after the fall of the lower limb was decomposed 7 connecting rod structure, the dynamic equation of Lagrange to achieve the overall impact of mechanical parameters analy-sis, obtains the optimization solution vector. Simulation results show that the stress

  9. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman III Ballistic Missiles at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum wind shear datasets and applied this information when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition, the AMU included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on the day of launch. The AMU developed an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic for Applications. The GUI displays the critical sounding data easily and quickly for LWOs on day of launch. This tool will replace the existing one used by the 30 OSSWF, assist the LWOs in determining the probability of exceeding specific wind threshold values, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast for

  10. Analysis on the Air Force pilots' response when flight illusion occurred%空军飞行员飞行错觉后反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄炜; 吕汽兵; 季思菊; 张刚林; 黄佳怡

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Air Force pilots' response to the flight illusion for finding countermeasures. Methods A questionnaire entitled" the level scale of flight illusion" was inquired from 1275 pilots. Results The incidence of flight illusion was 91. 5% by analyzing 1221applicable replies. Among which even 8. 1% pilots could not overcome the illusions by observing instruments. 32.7% pilots reported illusion caused difficulties on aircraft control while 6.9% and 1.4% pilots respectively showed unawareness of illusion and lost the awareness of environment when illusion happened. 56. 6% pilots appeared discomfort. Fighter and attacker pilots showed stronger response than the other type of aircrafts' (P<0.05). Conclusions Pilot's negative responses to flight illusions have effectively influenced flight safety. It is suggested to build up corresponding training system to control the pilot's negative response to flight illusions.%目的 掌握现阶段空军飞行员发生飞行错觉后反应状况,以期制定相应对策. 方法 运用"飞行错觉水平量表"对来院疗养的1275名空军飞行员进行飞行错觉问卷调查. 结果 有效量表1221份,飞行错觉总发生率为91.5%,发生错觉后看仪表不能克服的占8.1%,发生错觉后影响操纵的占32.7%,发生了错觉不知道的占6.9%,发生错觉后不能识别周围环境的占1.4%,出现不适症状的占56.6%.歼击机、强击机飞行员飞行错觉后的反应水平明显高于其他机种(P<0.05).结论 空军飞行员飞行错觉后反应影响飞行安全,急待建立飞行错觉系统训练体系,减少飞行错觉后反应发生,降低飞行错觉反应水平.

  11. Potentiometric surfaces, summer 2013 and winter 2015, and select hydrographs for the Southern High Plains aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Jake

    2016-04-07

    Cannon Air Force Base (Cannon AFB) is located in the High Plains physiographic region of east-central New Mexico, about 5 miles west of Clovis, New Mexico. The area surrounding Cannon AFB is primarily used for agriculture, including irrigated cropland and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal source of water for Cannon AFB, for the nearby town of Clovis, and for local agriculture and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer in the vicinity of Cannon AFB consists of three subsurface geological formations: the Chinle Formation of Triassic age, the Ogallala Formation of Tertiary age, and the Blackwater Draw Formation of Quaternary age. The Ogallala Formation is the main water-yielding formation of the Southern High Plains aquifer. Groundwater-supplied, center-pivot irrigation dominates pumping from the Southern High Plains aquifer in the area surrounding Cannon AFB, where the irrigation season typically extends from early March through October. The U.S. Geological Survey has been monitoring groundwater levels in the vicinity of Cannon AFB since 1954 and has developed general potentiometric-surface maps that show groundwater flow from northwest to southeast in the study area. While previous potentiometric-surface maps show the general direction of groundwater flow, a denser well network is needed to show details of groundwater flow at a local scale. Groundwater levels were measured in 93 wells during summer 2013 and 100 wells during winter 2015.The summer and winter potentiometric-surface maps display the presence of what is interpreted to be a groundwater trough trending from the northwest to the southeast through the study area. This groundwater trough may be the hydraulic expression of a Tertiary-age paleochannel. Groundwater north of the trough flows in a southerly direction into the trough, and groundwater south of the trough flows in an easterly direction into the trough.During the 18-month period between summer 2013 and winter 2015, changes

  12. Processo de congelamento em túnel portátil com convecção forçada por exaustão e insuflação para paletes Freezing process evaluation using a portable forced air system with air evacuation and air blowing in pallets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Fernandes Barbin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propôs a montagem experimental de um túnel portátil de congelamento por ar forçado composto por um ventilador que produz uma região de alta ou baixa pressão em um palete com produto, onde se pode avaliar o processo com a utilização de insuflação, exaustão de ar e uma combinação mista destes dois processos. O equipamento foi alocado no interior de uma câmara de estocagem de produtos congelados, buscando-se melhorar a distribuição do ar, potencializando-se a troca térmica entre o ar e o produto. Durante o congelamento, foram comparados os processos e analisada a transferência de calor entre o ar de resfriamento e o produto em diferentes posições e camadas do palete, bem como a distribuição do ar de resfriamento em circulação ao redor do produto. O processo de exaustão apresentou uma redução de 14% do tempo para o congelamento em relação à insuflação e 10% em relação ao misto.The objective of this work is to build an experimental portable forced-air freezing tunnel which creates a low or high pressure region surrounding the product. Comparative studies with air exhausting and blowing were conducted. The tunnel was built and placed inside a freezing product storage chamber, and the objective was to improve the air circulation and the thermal distribution between the product and cold air for a sample batch left inside the chamber. A heat transfer analysis comparing the process and the air distribution around the product was performed. The air evacuation process reduced up to 14% of the freezing time in relation to the blowing system and 10% in relation to the mixed system.

  13. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Ledenyov, Oleg P

    2013-01-01

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

  14. A Graphical Method for Estimation of Barometric Efficiency from Continuous Data - Concepts and Application to a Site in the Piedmont, Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Gerard J.

    2007-01-01

    A graphical method that uses continuous water-level and barometric-pressure data was developed to estimate barometric efficiency. A plot of nearly continuous water level (on the y-axis), as a function of nearly continuous barometric pressure (on the x-axis), will plot as a line curved into a series of connected elliptical loops. Each loop represents a barometric-pressure fluctuation. The negative of the slope of the major axis of an elliptical loop will be the ratio of water-level change to barometric-pressure change, which is the sum of the barometric efficiency plus the error. The negative of the slope of the preferred orientation of many elliptical loops is an estimate of the barometric efficiency. The slope of the preferred orientation of many elliptical loops is approximately the median of the slopes of the major axes of the elliptical loops. If water-level change that is not caused by barometric-pressure change does not correlate with barometric-pressure change, the probability that the error will be greater than zero will be the same as the probability that it will be less than zero. As a result, the negative of the median of the slopes for many loops will be close to the barometric efficiency. The graphical method provided a rapid assessment of whether a well was affected by barometric-pressure change and also provided a rapid estimate of barometric efficiency. The graphical method was used to assess which wells at Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia, had water levels affected by barometric-pressure changes during a 2003 constant-discharge aquifer test. The graphical method was also used to estimate barometric efficiency. Barometric-efficiency estimates from the graphical method were compared to those of four other methods: average of ratios, median of ratios, Clark, and slope. The two methods (the graphical and median-of-ratios methods) that used the median values of water-level change divided by barometric-pressure change appeared to be most resistant to

  15. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garland

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a regional background site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the "Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta" intensive campaign (PRIDE-PRD2006, covering the period of 1–30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10 were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively.

    Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ±standard deviation, the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm−1 (450 nm, 151±103 Mm−1 (550 nm and 104±72 Mm−1 (700 nm and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm−1 (532 nm. The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance of, as well as strong sources of light absorbing carbon (LAC. The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic. The daytime average single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more

  16. Aquifer-System Compaction and Land Subsidence: Measurements, Analyses, and Simulations-the Holly Site, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Galloway, Devin L.

    2000-01-01

    Land subsidence resulting from ground-water-level declines has long been recognized as a problem in Antelope Valley, California. At Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), ground-water extractions have caused more than 150 feet of water-level decline, resulting in nearly 4 feet of subsidence. Differential land subsidence has caused sinklike depressions and earth fissures and has accelerated erosion of the playa lakebed surface of Rogers Lake at EAFB, adversely affecting the runways on the lakebed which are used for landing aircraft such as the space shuttles. Since 1990, about 0.4 foot of aquifer-system compaction has been measured at a deep (840 feet) borehole extensometer (Holly site) at EAFB. More than 7 years of paired ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction measurements made at the Holly site were analyzed for this study. Annually, seasonal water-level fluctuations correspond to steplike variations in aquifer-system compaction; summer water-level drawdowns are associated with larger rates of compaction, and winter water-level recoveries are associated with smaller rates of compaction. The absence of aquifer-system expansion during recovery is consistent with the delayed drainage and resultant delayed, or residual, compaction of thick aquitards. A numerical one-dimensional MODFLOW model of aquitard drainage was used to refine estimates of aquifer-system hydraulic parameters that control compaction and to predict potential future compaction at the Holly site. The analyses and simulations of aquifer-system compaction are based on established theories of aquitard drainage. Historical ground-water-level and land-subsidence data collected near the Holly site were used to constrain simulations of aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence at the site for the period 1908?90, and ground-water-level and aquifer- system compaction measurements collected at the Holly site were used to constrain the model for the period 1990?97. Model results indicate that two thick

  17. 驻高原与驻平原空军官兵口腔健康现状调查%Oral Health Status of Air Force Personnel on Plateau and on Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘建祯; 冯帆; 周兴田; 何漪; 陈成; 张文

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral health statue of air force personnel on plateau and on plain so as to provide reference guidance for the prevention and treatment of oral diseases of air force personnel on plateau. Methods An investigation of oral health, in-cluding the occurrence of dental caries, dental calculus, gingivitis and periodontitis, was made in 990 air force personnel on plateau of an average altitude of 3900m (plateau group) and in 910 air force personnel on plain of an average altitude of 500 (plain group). Results The occurrence of oral diseases in personnel in plateau group was higher than that in personnel in plain group and it increased with the time going of station on plateau;the occurrence of dental caries, dental calculus, gingivitis and periodontitis in plateau group was higher than that in plain group (P<0.05). Conclusions The occurrence of oral diseases in air force personnel on plateau is higher than that in air force personnel on plain;it is important to strengthen the education of oral health in the personnel on plateau and to improve their medi-cal and health facilities so as to decrease the disease occurrence and to promote the battle effectiveness.%目的调查对比驻高原与驻平原空军官兵口腔健康状况,为驻高原空军官兵口腔疾病防治提供参考依据。方法对驻高原(平均海拔3900m)空军某部官兵990人(高原组)和驻平原(平均海拔500m)空军某部官兵910人(平原组)进行口腔健康调查。调查内容包括龋病、牙结石、牙龈炎和牙周炎发病情况。结果高原组官兵较平原组官兵口腔疾病发生率高,且驻高原时间越长,口腔患病率越高;高原组患龋病率、牙结石检出率、牙龈炎和牙周炎患病率均高于平原组(Ρ<0.05)。结论驻高原空军官兵口腔疾病患病率较平原官兵高,加强对高原官兵口腔卫生宣传教育,改善高原医疗卫生条件和环境对降低高原官兵口腔

  18. Enlightenment to Chinese Air Force of USAF medical selection standard system of flying cadets%美国空军飞行学员医学选拔标准体系及其对我军的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志康; 张凌; 王广云; 孙金杰; 夏青; 刘伟; 吉保民; 马中立

    2016-01-01

    系统了解美国空军飞行学员医学选拔标准情况,全面总结美国空军飞行学员医学选拔标准体系和内容,为我军飞行学员医学选拔标准修订和执行提供参考依据.系统分析美国空军4个飞行学员相关医学选拔标准,对照我军飞行学员医学选拔标准,提出美国空军飞行学员医学选拔标准及持续改进的特点内容,归纳我军飞行学员医学选拔优势和需要改进的主要内容.美国空军飞行学员医学选拔标准体系由《国防部指令》《空军体格检查和标准》《空军医学标准指导》《空军特许飞行指南》4个相互引用、相互补充的标准共同构成,具体指标的制订依据来源于航空医学要求和军事训练需要,修改频率很快,整体上更加突出功能需求,与我军飞行学员医学选拔标准相比体系更完善,形态要求更低、功能评价技术更为先进,放飞和停飞依据更为充分.参照美军标准制订的原则和依据开展相应的科学研究,对眼科、外科等生源影响较大、飞行影响较小的一些标准进行针对性修改,完善相关医学选拔技术手段,对扩大招飞优质生源、提升招飞整体质量具有重要意义.%To review the American medical standards of recruiting student pilots, and summarise the features procedures, requirements, and medical standards for medical examinations given by the American Air Force, offer evidence to revise Chinese Air force medical standards of recruiting student pilots. By metrieving literature in this field from medical bibliographic database and foreign military official websites, four published reports and network information were cited, compared with the Chinese Air force medical standards, to find out the differences between the two standards. The American medical standards include Department of Defense Instruction, Air Force Medical Examination and Standards, Air Force Medical Standards Directory, and Air Force Waiver Guide

  19. Correlation of Forced-convection Heat-transfer Data for Air Flowing in Smooth Platinum Tube with Long-approach Entrance at High Surface and Inlet-air Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmon, Leland G; Sams, Eldon W

    1950-01-01

    A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with air in an electrically heated platinum tube with long-approach entrance, inside diameter of 0.525 inch, and effective heat-transfer length of 24 inches over ranges of Reynolds number up to 320,000, average inside-tube-wall temperature up to 3053 degrees R, and inlet-air temperature up to 1165 degrees R. Correlation of data by the conventional Nusselt relation resulted in separation of data with tube-wall temperature. Good correlation was obtained, however, by use of a modified Reynolds number.

  20. The Implementation and Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) at Cape Canaveral Air Station/Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Tremback, Craig J.; Lyons, Walter A.

    1996-01-01

    The Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) is a system which combines the mesoscale meteorological prediction model RAMS with the diffusion models REEDM and HYPACT. Operators use a graphical user interface to run the models for emergency response and toxic hazard planning at CCAS/KCS. The Applied Meteorology Unit has been evaluating the ERDAS meteorological and diffusion models and obtained the following results: (1) RAMS adequately predicts the occurrence of the daily sea breeze during non-cloudy conditions for several cases. (2) RAMS shows a tendency to predict the sea breeze to occur slightly earlier and to move it further inland than observed. The sea breeze predictions could most likely be improved by better parameterizing the soil moisture and/or sea surface temperatures. (3) The HYPACT/REEDM/RAMS models accurately predict launch plume locations when RAMS winds are accurate and when the correct plume layer is modeled. (4) HYPACT does not adequately handle plume buoyancy for heated plumes since all plumes are presently treated as passive tracers. Enhancements should be incorporated into the ERDAS as it moves toward being a fully operational system and as computer workstations continue to increase in power and decrease in cost. These enhancements include the following: activate RAMS moisture physics; use finer RAMS grid resolution; add RAMS input parameters (e.g. soil moisture, radar, and/or satellite data); automate data quality control; implement four-dimensional data assimilation; modify HYPACT plume rise and deposition physics; and add cumulative dosage calculations in HYPACT.

  1. Etude numérique de la convection forcée turbulente dans un capteur solaire à air à double passe

    OpenAIRE

    ABDERRAHIM, Asma

    2012-01-01

    On présente dans ce mémoire une étude numérique du comportement dynamique et thermique d’un écoulement d’air turbulent dans un capteur solaire à air à double passe. Les équations gouvernantes, basées sur le modèle k- SST sont résolues par la méthode des volumes finis à l’aide de l’algorithme SIMPLE. Les profils de vitesse axiale et les champs de vitesse et de température ainsi que le coefficient de friction et la distribution du nombre de Nusselt sont présentés....

  2. User guide for the Air Force Base Automotive Transportation Simulation Model - BATS. Volume 2. Documentation. Final report Jun 78-Sep 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandys, R.

    1979-09-01

    The Base Automotive Transportation Simulation (BATS) Model is a transportation planning and traffic flow model designed to simulate traffic volumes and flows on an air base. The principal model inputs are a road network, land use zones, demographic varibles, and gate counts. The land use zones and demographic variables are used to assign volumes to the road network, and these volumes are calibrated using the gate counts. The flow characteristics on each road in the network are simulated using the volumes assigned. Average speed and volumes are the results of the model and these may be directly input to the Air Quality Assessment Model (AQAM) to estimate pollutant emissions and dispersion from traffic sources. A volume flow plot of the network is an optional output of the model.

  3. 创伤事件及家庭功能对空军飞行员心理健康的影响%Impact of Traumatic Incidents and Family Functions on Mental Health in Air-force Pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白菁; 汪永光; 胡珊; 李娜; 马香琰; 邹惠娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of traumatic incidents and family functions on mental health of air-force pilots. Methods Totally 342 air-force pilots were enrolled using convenience sampling method. A multivariate analysis was conducted with the dependent variable of post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) ,and the score of 20-item self-report questionnaire(SRQ-20)and with the independent variables of the frequencies of objective reaction to traumatic events,frequencies of subjective reaction to traumatic events and family functioning assessment. Results The total number of subjective experience of traumatic events and emotional response factors, emotional intervention factors and general functional factors were positively associated with the PTSS positive screening. Frequencies of subjective reaction to traumatic incidents, emotional intervention factors and general functional factors were positively associated with the SRQ-20 positive screening. Conclusion For air-force pilots, the competency to properly deal with the traumatic events is crucial in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. For air-force pilots,timely intervention,strengthened family functions after the traumatic events and improved mental health for the families play an vital role in promoting the mental health of air-force pilot.%目的 探讨创伤事件及家庭功能对空军飞行员心理健康的影响.方法 采用便利抽样的方法选取342名空军飞行员进行问卷调查,以创伤后应激障碍症状(post-traumatic stress symptomatology,PTSS)及心理健康自评问卷(20-item self-report questionnaire,SRQ-20)得分为因变量,客观经历创伤事件总数、主观经历创伤事件总数和家庭功能评定为自变量,进行多因素分析.结果 PTSS筛查阳性的影响因素有主观经历创伤事件总数及家庭功能中的情感反应因子、情感介入因子、总的功能因子,SRQ-20筛查阳性的影响因素有主观经历创伤事件总数

  4. Savinase action on bovine serum albumin (BSA) monolayers demonstrated with measurements at the air-water interface and liquid Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balashev, Konstantin; Callisen, Thomas H; Svendsen, Allan;

    2011-01-01

    We studied the enzymatic action of Savinase on bovine serum albumin (BSA) organized in a monolayer spread at the air/water interface or adsorbed at the mica surface. We carried out two types of experiments. In the first one we followed the degradation of the protein monolayer by measuring...... the surface pressure and surface area decrease versus time. In the second approach we applied AFM imaging of the supported BSA monolayers adsorbed on mica solid supports and extracted information for the enzyme action by analyzing the obtained images of the surface topography in the course of enzyme action...

  5. Comparative study of intestinal flora in students from air force school before and after flight training%航校空军学员飞行训练前后肠道菌群的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仕英; 张海谱; 王缚鲲; 季雯; 朱庆尧

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨飞行训练对航校空军学员肠道菌群的影响.方法 通过微生态学方法对120名航校空军学员飞行前后肠道菌群中9种细菌进行定性定量分析,并与30名地勤人员进行对比研究,结合多种因素的填表调查分析各种因素对航校学员肠道菌群的影响.结果 双歧杆菌属航校学员训练后为(7.38±1.54)Log10×CFU/g,训练前为(8.92±1.86) Log10×CFU/g,地勤组为(9.51±2.44)Log10×CFU/g,航校空军学员训练后消化球菌属与训练前及地勤组相比,显著下降(P<0.05),肠球菌属、拟杆菌属数量显著上升(肠球菌属P<0.01;拟杆菌属P<0.05);其他菌差异无统计学意义;精神紧张的学员与精神放松的学员相比,双歧杆菌属、肠球菌属、消化球菌属、拟杆菌属的数量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);腹部胀气显著的学员与胀气不明显的学员相比,双歧杆菌属、肠球菌属、消化球菌属数量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 饮食是造成空军飞行学员员肠道菌群变化的原因之一,而精神状态、腹部胀气情况也是肠道菌群失调的重要原因.%OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of air force flight training on the intestinal flora of the air force school students. METHODS Qualitative and quantitative analysis of 9 species of bacteria in the intestinal flora from 120 air force school students was performed with micro-ecological method before and after the flight training, totally 30 ground staff were selected for control study. A variety of factors for intestinal flora from air force school students were analyzed through filling out the questionnaire for various factors. RESULTS Bifidobacterium in air force school students before and after the flight training were (7. 38 ± 1. 54) Log10 × CFU/g and (8. 92 ±1. 86) Log10×CFU/g, respectively, the ground staff (9. 51 ± 2. 44) LoglO X CFU/g, Peptococcus in air force school students before and after the flight training

  6. Design Features of the Separate Effect Test Facility for a Forced-Draft Sodium-to-Air Heat Exchanger (FHX) with Helical Finned Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungmo; Eoh, Jaehyuk; Ko, Yung Joo; Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is one of the most promising options to pursue these purposes, and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is currently developing a PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) with a pool-type reactor vessel. Among the many components in an SFR, a decay heat removal system (DHRS) is very important for a safety of nuclear power plants. The PGSFR adopted two different kinds of DHRS: an active and passive DHRS, and the decay heat from the primary sodium pool is moved to the two kinds of sodium-to-air heat exchangers as ultimate heat sinks through sodium-to-sodium decay heat exchangers (DHX). To verify the cooling performances and thermal-hydraulic characteristics of this type of heat exchanger, a separate effect sodium test facility named as SELFA (Sodium thermal-hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air heat exchanger) is being developed. The purposes of SELFA are verification and validation of the design code for FHX. For this, scales and configurations of SELFA are carefully defined as similarity with the FHX in the PGSFR. In this paper, we propose the key design features of SELFA including the model FHX (M-FHX) unit. To verify and validate a design code of the FHX in PGSFR, a separate effect test facility called as SELFA has being developed in KAERI.

  7. 空军飞行员总体幸福感及其影响因素的调查研究%Research on the general well-being and its influencing factors in air-force pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白菁; 胡珊; 李娜; 马香琰; 邹惠娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the general well-being and its influencing factors in air-force pilots.Methods General Well-Being scale (GWB),Family Assessment Device (FAD) and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) were used to investigate 342 air-force pilots of their general well-being and job burnout,and the correlation was analyzed.Results The scores of affective responsiveness factor (t =2.96,P < 0.01) and general functioning in FAD (t =3.24,P < 0.01) were positively associated with the total scores of GWB.The scores of emotional exhaustion factor (t =-6.42,P < 0.01),low sense of personal accomplishment factor (t =-2.16,P =0.03),and cynicism factor (t =-2.96,P < 0.01) of MBI-GS were negatively associated with the total scores of GWB.Conclusions Promoting family functioning and alleviating job burnout is a useful way to improve general well-being in army air-force pilots.%目的 探讨空军飞行员总体幸福感及其影响因素.方法 采用总体幸福感量表(GWB)、家庭功能评定量表及工作倦怠问卷对在空军杭州航空医学鉴定训练中心进行体检和疗养的空军飞行员342名进行主观总体幸福感和倦怠状态的评估,并分析其相关性.结果 342名空军飞行员家庭功能中的情感介入因子分和总的功能因子分是总体幸福感的保护因素(t=2.96,3.24;P <0.01),工作倦怠中的情绪衰竭因子、玩世不恭因子和成就感低落因子是总体幸福感的危险因素(t=-6.42,-2.16,-2.96;P<0.01).结论 提升空军飞行员家庭功能水平,降低其工作倦怠水平有助于提升我军飞行员总体幸福感水平.

  8. 空军飞行人员膳食结构与血脂异常相关营养调查%Food intake pattern and dyslipidemia in air force pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹏; 杨昌林; 罗丽华; 王若永; 穆慧玲; 李彤; 张可; 张清俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解空军飞行人员膳食营养与血脂异常现状,为指导空军飞行人员营养健康管理提供依据.方法 采用生活作业观察法估算劳动强度,称重法进行膳食调查,按照军标进行身体测量,双试剂酶法检测血脂.与1997年、1982年营养调查结果进行比较,计量资料用t检验做组间比较,计数资料用x2检验做组间比较.结果 飞行人员能量代谢失衡,能量摄人高于支出,饮食模式旱高蛋白、高脂肪、低碳水化合物,脂肪供能比平均高达47.3%,而碳水化合物平均仅为37.9%;超重与肥胖人数占总调查人数的20.8%,高三酰甘油血症达47.9%,高胆固醇血症达17.7%.结论 飞行人员膳食结构不合理,能量代谢失衡,与血脂异常的发生密切相关,应注意加强飞行人员的营养健康教育和引导.%Objective To investigate current dietary and dyslipidemia status of air force pilots.Methods Energy expenditure was calculated by using daily-activity-recording method.Dietary survey was performed through weighing method.Body measurements were carried out according to military criteria.Double agent enzymic method was used to detect blood lipid profiles.The results were compared in 1997 and 1982.t or x2 test was used for data analysis.Results Excessive energy consumption and highprotein and fat or low-carbohydrate intake was found in the participants.Energy from fat or carbohydrate accounted for 47.3% and 37.9%,respectively.Obesity and overweight was found in 20.8% air force pilots,and hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia occurred in 47.9% and 17.7%,respectively.Conclusion Dietary pattern and energy metabolism are inappropriate in air force pilots as a result of dyslipidemia.

  9. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  10. The use of telecommunications satellites by the air, sea, and land military forces and by civil defense - Project SICRAL AM/136/80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, A.

    1983-03-01

    The projected uses and design concept of SICRAL, an Italian satellite program being developed for classified and emergency communications, are discussed. It is shown that a dedicated satellite, as a complement to terrestrial systems, is ideally suited to serve the needs of the armed forces, in cooperation with NATO, and of the civil defense organizations. SICRAL should provide normal and secure telephone, telegraph and teletype, facsimile, and data-transmission services to a variable mix of fixed and mobile stations, using the SHF, UHF, and EHF bands. Present plans call for two 1400-kg triaxially stabilized multiple-payload-type geostationary satellites, one operational and one in reserve, with a third satellite ready for launch as soon as the reserve satellite becomes operational. SICRAL could be launched by Ariane IV or Shuttle for preoperational testing within five years and full operational status in six or seven years, including time for ground-facility construction.

  11. Preoperative Application of Forced-Air Warming in the Prevention of Perioperative Hypothermia%使用充气升温毯预暖预防患者围手术期低体温的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏桂枝; 柯剑娟

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察麻醉诱导之前使用充气升温毯预暖对围手术期患者体温的影响.方法:ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ级在全身麻醉下行择期常规腹部手术的患者60例,随机分为A、B、C两组,每组20例.A组患者入室后采用棉被覆盖法进行保温处理,B和C组患者入室后采用充气升温毯进行预热处理,到达预热时间后再行麻醉诱导,B组预热时间15min,C组预热时间45 min,入室后监测鼻咽温度,记录入室时麻醉诱导时、切皮时,开腹时及开腹后60,90及120min的鼻咽温度.术后第1天使用视觉模拟评分法对患者进行温度舒适度的评估并记录.结果:B组和C组患者在麻醉诱导时及以后的各时间点鼻咽温度显著高于A组(P<0.05),C组患者在开腹后120 min时的鼻咽温度显著高于A组和B组,B组和C组患者温度舒适度评分显著高于A组(P<0.05),C组患者显著高于B组(P<0.05).结论:在麻醉实施前期使用充气升温毯预暖是维持正常体温的有效保暖方法;充气升温毯预暖的时间越长越有利于患者的体温的维持和提高舒适感.%Objective; To observe the effects of the preoperative warming using forced-air warming devices on preventing the perioperative hypothermia. Methods; Sixty patients undergoing abdominal surgery operation under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into three groups: group A adopted traditional warmed cotton blanket; group B adopted forced-air warming devices for 15 min, and group C adopted forced-air warming devices for 45 min before operation. Nasopharynge-al temperature was measured and recorded perioperation and the patients' thermal comfort was measured with using a visual analogue scale (VAS) one day after operation. Results: Nasopha-ryngeal core temperature both in groups B and C had been higher than in group A since the time of anesthesia induction. Patients felt more comfortable in temperature as showed by mean VAS scores in groups C and B than in group A. Conclusion

  12. 空军某部官兵焦虑、抑郁障碍的抽样调查报告%Sampling survey of anxiety and depression of a certain air forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红字; 周国华; 陈叶青; 颜君; 冷明芳; 王为; 王丽姣; 刘树旗

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查空军某部基层官兵焦虑、抑郁症的发生率及影响因素.方法 随机分层抽样调查162人,采用汉密尔顿焦虑、抑郁量表评分,对有焦虑、抑郁障碍的官兵发病相关因素进行调查.结果 焦虑、抑郁的发生率飞行人员多于地勤人员,军官低于战士,战士低于士官,士官焦虑、抑郁发病率最高;文化程度越高,焦虑、抑郁障碍发生率越低.结论 焦虑、抑郁障碍的发生与兵种、职务、文化程度有明显相关性.%Objective To investigate the incidence and influencing factor of anxiety and depression of a certain air force. Methods 162 soldiers from the air forces were investigated with stratified random sampling, the correlated pathogenic factors were researched through Hamilton anxiety scale and Hamilton depression scale. Results The incidence of anxiety and depression: the pilot was higher than ground crew;the officers were lower than soldier,and soldier were lower than sergeancy;the higher cultural level, the lower incidence of anxiety and depression. Conclusion Anxiety and depression of soldiers has a significant correlation with kinds of armed services, soldiers' rank and education level.

  13. Construction of technological architecture of exam system security for Air Force military vocational education%空军军事职业教育考试系统安全技术体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫疆; 陈莉; 张铁毅; 姚磊

    2014-01-01

    构建计算机化考试系统安全技术体系是开展空军军事职业教育考试的核心任务之一。针对空军军事职业教育考试系统的特点,提出了构建其考试系统安全技术体系的因素及内容,并简述其功能与特征,探讨了该安全技术体系在考试系统中的作用及应用模式。采用本文描述的考试系统安全技术体系构建空军军事职业教育考试系统,将考试信息防御与信息审计融入考试的全过程,表明了该体系的有效性和普适性。%Construction of technological architecture of computerized exam system security is a core mission for developing Air Force military vocational education exam. According to the characteristics of this exam system, this paper puts forward the factors and contents of constructing the technological architecture for its security, summarizes its function and characteristics, and discusses the role and application mode of security technological architecture in the exam system. By employing the exam system with the security technological architecture described to construct of Air Force military vocational education exam system, and allowing the test information defense and information audit to integrate with the whole process of exam, it shows that this proposed system architecture is of effectiveness and availability.

  14. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  15. Surface Forces in Foam Films

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liguang

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental studies of surface forces in foam films are carried out to explain the stability of foams and froths in froth flotation. The thin film pressure balance (TFPB) technique was used to study the surface forces between air bubbles in water from equilibrium film thickness and dynamic film thinning measurements. The results were compared with the disjoining pressure predicted from the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The contribution from the non-DLVO force was estimated b...

  16. Strategic forces briefing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.; Chrzanowski, P.; May, M.; Nordyke, M.

    1989-04-06

    The Strategic Forces Briefing'' is our attempt, accomplished over the past several months, to outline and highlight the more significant strategic force issues that must be addressed in the near future. Some issues are recurrent: the need for an effective modernized Triad and a constant concern for force survivability. Some issues derive from arms control: the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (SALT) are sufficiently advanced to set broad numerical limits on forces, but not so constraining as to preclude choices among weapon systems and deployment modes. Finally, a new administration faced with serious budgetary problems must strive for the most effective strategic forces limited dollars can buy and support. A review of strategic forces logically begins with consideration of the missions the forces are charged with. We begin the briefing with a short review of targeting policy and implementation within the constraints of available unclassified information. We then review each element of the Triad with sections on SLBMs, ICBMs, and Air-Breathing (bomber and cruise missile) systems. A short section at the end deals with the potential impact of strategic defense on offensive force planning. We consider ABM, ASAT, and air defense; but we do not attempt to address the technical issues of strategic defense per se. The final section gives a brief overview of the tritium supply problem. We conclude with a summary of recommendations that emerge from our review. The results of calculation on the effectiveness of various weapon systems as a function of cost that are presented in the briefing are by Paul Chrzanowski.

  17. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU FENG'AN

    2011-01-01

    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  18. 空军飞行员近10年眼科停飞疾病回顾性分析%Analysis of disqualified Air Force pilots with ophthalmic diseases in last 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩普; 刘勇; 茹海霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析近10年间因眼科疾病停飞的空军飞行员的患病情况,为进一步提高空军飞行员的航空卫生保障提供依据. 方法 回顾性分析近10年间在空军总医院住院诊疗期间因眼科疾病停飞的空军飞行员病例资料,对其基本情况、主要停飞疾病谱、飞行时间及飞行机种进行统计分析. 结果 近10年间总计有35例空军飞行员因眼科疾病停飞,均为男性,年龄(35.3±6.7)岁,飞行时间(1947.3±1252.8)h.其中歼(强)击机飞行员20例,轰炸机、运输机12例,直升机3例.导致停飞的前4位疾病是:屈光不正(11例)、视网膜疾病(8例)、视神经疾病(8例)、开角型青光眼(3例).主要眼科停飞疾病的年龄、机种、飞行时间分布,以及前5年与后5年主要停飞疾病分布均差异无统计学意义.11例屈光不正中6例为近视及近视散光,2例为混合散光,2例为老视,1例为远视;11例中仅1例屈光度在3.00 D以上. 结论 中青年空军飞行员是近10年间眼科疾病停飞的主要人群.屈光不正是最主要的眼科停飞疾病,其中低度数近视及近视散光比例最大.应尽快开展有关研究、采取有效措施,以维护空军飞行员合格的屈光状态,保障部队战斗力.%Objective To investigate the distribution of disqualified military pilots in last 10 years by reviewing the case reports from the Department of Ophthalmology of Air Force General Hospital for improving aeromedical support.Methods The clinical data of 35 disqualified Air Force pilots were collected from the Department of Ophthalmology of Air Force General Hospital.The age distribution,disease spectrum,flying hours and aircraft type were statistically analyzed.Results There were 35 male disqualified Air Force pilots due to opthalmic disease in the last 10 ten years.The mean age was (35.3±6.7) years and the mean flying hours were (1947.3±1252.8) h.There were 20 fighter (attack) pilots,12 transporter and bomber pilots and 3

  19. Analysis on characters of serf-consistency and congruence of air force pilots and its influential factors%飞行员自我和谐的特征及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卉栋; 娄振山

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析空军飞行员自我和谐的特征及其影响因素,为开展飞行员心理咨询和治疗提供依据.方法 采用自我和谐量表、生活事件量表、领悟社会支持量表、社交回避和苦恼量表、特质应对方式问卷、艾森克个性问卷和症状自评量表对428名飞行员进行评定.结果 飞行员自我与经验不和谐及自我的刻板性均较陆军野战部队与一般部队低(-13.10≤t≤-2.45,P<0.05);而自我灵活性较陆军部队高(5.11≤t≤11.98,P<0.01);飞行员自我与经验不和谐与症状自评量表各因子存在较高的相关性(0.330≤r≤0.446,P<0.01);与艾森克人格问卷中的神经质维度存在较高的相关性(r=0.498,P<0.01)且不同气质飞行员的自我与经验不和谐存在差异(F=1.540,P=0.025);而飞行员自我灵活性因子与领悟社会支持量表的各因子具有相对较大的相关系数(0.212≤r≤0.377,P<0.01);飞行员自我与经验不和谐因子与家庭负性生活事件相关最为突出(r=0.445,P<0.01);自我的刻板性因子与消极应对因子存在较高的相关性(r=0.595,0.434,P<0.01);其与社交苦恼因子的相关性较高且具有统计学显著意义(r=0.456,P<0.01);多因素分析显示:影响飞行员自我与经验不和谐的因素中消极应对的作用最大(β=0.264),影响飞行员自我的灵活性的因素中朋友支持的作用最大(β=0.336),影响飞行员自我的刻板性的因素中消极应对的作用最大(β=0.295).结论 影响飞行员自我和谐的因素众多,而关注消极应对与朋友支持则是维持和谐的最重要因素.%AIM Analyze on characters of self-consistency and congruence of air force pilots and its in-fluential factors,so as to provide a background for counseling and psychotherapy.Methords Altogether 428 air force pilots were evaluated in our sanatorium using Self Consistency and Congruence Scale,Life Events Scale,Per-ceived Social Support Scale,Social Avoidance and Distress Scale

  20. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Zhang

    2008-09-01

    strongly influenced by fresh emissions into a shallow nocturnal boundary layer. In spite of high photochemical activity during daytime, we found no evidence for strong local production of secondary aerosol mass.

    The average mass scattering efficiencies with respect to PM10 and PM1 concentrations derived from particle size distribution measurements were 2.8 m2 g−1 and 4.1 m2 g−1, respectively. The Ångström exponent exhibited a wavelength dependence (curvature that was related to the ratio of fine and coarse particle mass (PM1/PM10 as well as the surface mode diameter of the fine particle fraction. The results demonstrate consistency between in situ measurements and a remote sensing formalism with regard to the fine particle fraction and volume mode diameter, but there are also systematic deviations for the larger mode diameters. Thus we suggest that more data sets from in situ measurements of aerosol optical parameters and particle size distributions should be used to evaluate formalisms applied in aerosol remote sensing. Moreover, we observed a negative correlation between single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction, and we found that it affects the impact that these parameters have on aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and should be considered in model studies of the PRD and similarly polluted mega-city regions.

  1. Force sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David

    2007-01-01

    A young child can explore and learn and compensate for unknown dynamics by prodding, pushing, touching, grasping and feeling. Force sensing and software research could soon allow artificial mechanisms to do the same. Force sensing has its roots in strain gauges, piezoelectrics, Wheatstone bridges, automation, robotics, grippers and virtual reality. That force sensing research has now become commonplace and has expanded from those roots to include so much more: video games, athletic equipment,...

  2. Distribution and mass loss of volatile organic compounds in the surficial aquifer at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, November 2000-February 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Neupane, Pradumna P.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water and surface-water sampling was conducted in the natural attenuation study area in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware to determine the distributions of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of four sites?Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Receiver Station Landfill, and the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill. This work was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, as part of an ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites. The specific objectives of the study were to (1) determine the areal and vertical extent of the contaminant plumes and source areas, (2) measure volatile organic compound concentrations in ground-water discharge areas and in surface water under base-flow conditions, (3) evaluate the potential for off-site migration of the mapped plumes, and (4) estimate the amount of mass loss downgradient of the Liquid Waste Disposal and Receiver Station Landfills. A direct-push drill rig and previously installed multi-level piezometers were used to determine the three-dimensional distributions of volatile organic compounds in the 30?60-foot-thick surficial aquifer underlying the natural attenuation study area. A hand -driven mini-piezometer was used to collect ground-water samples in ground-water discharge areas. A total of 319 ground-water and 4 surface-water samples were collected from November 2000 to February 2001 and analyzed for chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons. The contaminant plumes migrating from Fire Training Area Three and the Rubble Area Landfill are approximately 500 feet and 800 feet, respectively, in length. These plumes consist predominantly of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, a daughter product, indicating that extensive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene has occurred at these sites. With an approximate length of 2,200 feet, the plume migrating from the Receiver Station and Liquid Waste Disposal

  3. Study on the evaluation and assessment system for the construction of medical selection system of Air Force flying cadets%空军飞行学员医学选拔体系评估指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新伟; 焦志刚; 罗永昌

    2016-01-01

    目的 构建飞行学员医学选拔体系评估指标,为完善我国空军飞行学员医学选拔理论和提高勤务组织工作效能提供科学依据. 方法 采用文献调查法、实地调研法和系统分析法,筛选评估指标要素,构建评估指标体系框架.在兼顾专家单位构成、专业构成和其对空军飞行学员医学选拔领域熟悉的基础上,遴选22名咨询专家,包括高级职称19名和机关人员3名.采用德尔菲(Delphi)专家问卷咨询法和层次分析法.按照德尔菲专家咨询要求,开展3轮专家咨询,每轮咨询过程持续25~35 d.根据专家意见和评分结果,对空军飞行学员医学选拔体系评估指标体系框架进行修改完善,确立评估指标体系和各级指标权重. 结果 ①发放调查问卷139份,问卷回收率90.65%,回收问卷有效率89.68%.20世纪80年代中后期以来,我国空军飞行学员医学选拔体系发展迅速,但仍存在组织管理效率低、规章制度不完善、专家队伍建设不合理和装备设备建设滞后等问题.②3轮德尔菲专家咨询问卷回收率分别为90.9%、95.0%和94.7%,协调系数分别为0.543、0.706、0.799,专家意见协调的可信度高(χ2=39.08、50.82、57.53,P<0.01).③确立了空军飞行学员医学选拔体系评估指标,下设5个一级指标、13个二级指标和35个三级指标.一级指标(组织建设、制度建设、队伍建设、装备建设、业务建设)权重分别为0.162、0.172、0.400、0.184、0.082,最终指标权重通过一致性检验(CR<0.1). 结论 本研究构建的一套飞行学员医学选拔体系评估指标,可为我国空军飞行学员医学选拔体系的评估、建设提供理论依据与参考.%Objective To establish the evaluation and assessment system for the construction of medical selection system of Air Force flying cadets and to provide references for improving the theory of Air Force cadets selection system and the work efficiency of

  4. Strong Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?

  5. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  6. Measuring Air Force Contracting customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This research gathers background information to identify which customer satisfaction elements should be included in a standardized tool that measures the level of customer satisfaction for AF Contracting’s external and internal customers. This research conducts a comprehensive literature review of the prominent customer satisfaction trends, while exploring the idiosyncrasies of customer satisfaction that are unique to AF Contracting. F...

  7. Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crystalline bedrock setting and to support remedial activities at AFP6, numerous wells have been constructed that include long open-hole intervals in the crystalline bedrock. These wells can include several discontinuities that produce water, which may contain contaminants. Because of the complexity of ground-water flow and contaminant movement in the crystalline bedrock, it is important to characterize the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics of discrete intervals in these wells. The straddle packer facilitates ground-water sampling and hydraulic testing of discrete intervals, and delivery of fluids including tracer suites and remedial agents into these discontinuities. The straddle packer consists of two inflatable packers, a dual-pump system, a pressure-sensing system, and an aqueous injection system. Tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of the pressure-sensing systems, and water samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations. Pressure-transducer readings matched computed water-column height, with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.99. The straddle packer incorporates both an air-driven piston pump and a variable-frequency, electronic, submersible pump. Only slight differences were observed between VOC concentrations in samples collected using the two different types of sampling pumps during two sampling events in July and August 2005. A test conducted to assess the effect of stagnation on VOC concentrations in water trapped in the system's pump-tubing reel showed that concentrations were not affected. A comparison was conducted

  8. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  9. Analysis on oral health status of 55 military persons in an air force command post of Xi'an%西安空军某指挥所55名官兵的口腔健康状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 吕波涛; 艾玉; 齐志远; 安源; 郭静; 李刚; 李广文; 赵增强; 张燕; 李卉; 王娟; 王宇欣; 李翠霞; 王东平

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解解放军人员中的口腔健康状况,为军队开展军人口腔疾病医疗保健提供依据.方法 采用世界卫生组织1987年版口腔健康调查基本方法和标准器材,并根据我军实际情况需要设定了军人口腔健康调查项目,对西安空军某指挥所官兵进行口腔健康调查.获得数据利用FoxPr0 6.0软件建立数据库,SPSS 11.5软件进行统计分析.结果 共调查55人,结果表明该所现役人员龋均为0.75 ±1.03,患龋率为21.8%.牙结石发生率为78.2%,牙周病发病率为1.8%.结论 该部官兵龋病患病率比较平稳,龋病大部分处于早期阶段.牙结石发生率较大,需要开展大量的口腔洁牙治疗.而牙周病比较平稳,大多数为早期牙周病,通过洁牙可以有效预防和治疗.口腔健康保健、定期口腔检查和早期口腔疾病治疗对预防官兵口腔疾病极其重要.%[Objective]To survey the oral health status of PLA military personnel, provide a basis for carrying out the prevention and treatment of oral diseases in military persons. [ Methods] Based on the WHO methodology of oral health survey (1987), the i-teras of oral health survey of military persons were designed according to the actual situation of PLA, and military persons in an air force command post of Xi'an were collected for oral health survey. The data were analyzed with FoxPro 6. 0 and SPSS 11. 5. [Results] A total of 55 military persons were investigated. The average caries was0.75 ?1.03, caries prevalence was 21.8% , the incidence rate of dental calculus was 78. 2% , and the incidence rate of periodontal diseases was 1.8%. [ Conchuioil] The caries prevalence of military persons in an air force command post is stable, and caries in most military persons are in the early stage. The incidence rate of dental calculus is high, which indicates that the dental cleaning is necessary. The incidence rate of periodontal diseases is stable, most are in the early stage, and can be

  10. Occurrence of select perfluoroalkyl substances at U.S. Air Force aqueous film-forming foam release sites other than fire-training areas: Field-validation of critical fate and transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R Hunter; Long, G Cornell; Porter, Ronald C; Anderson, Janet K

    2016-05-01

    The use of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) to extinguish hydrocarbon-based fires is recognized as a significant source of environmental poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Although the occurrence of select PFASs in soil and groundwater at former fire-training areas (FTAs) at military installations operable since 1970 has been consistently confirmed, studies reporting the occurrence of PFASs at other AFFF-impacted sites (e.g. emergency response locations, AFFF lagoons, hangar-related AFFF storage tanks and pipelines, and fire station testing and maintenance areas) are largely missing from the literature. Further, studies have mostly focused on a single site (i.e., FTAs at military installations) and, thus, lack a comparison of sites with diverse AFFF release history. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate select PFAS occurrence at non-FTA sites on active U.S. Air Force installations with historic AFFF use of varying magnitude. Concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), an important PFOS precursor, were measured from several hundred samples among multiple media (i.e., surface soil, subsurface soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater) collected from forty AFFF-impacted sites across ten installations between March and September 2014, representing one of the most comprehensive datasets on environmental PFAS occurrence to date. Differences in detection frequencies and observed concentrations due to AFFF release volume are presented along with rigorous data analyses that quantitatively demonstrate phase-dependent (i.e., solid-phase vs aqueous-phase) differences in the chemical signature as a function of carbon chain-length and in situ PFOS (and to a slightly lesser extent PFHxS) formation, presumably due to precursor biotransformation.

  11. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk from Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water at Beale Air Force Base in California:Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2001-05-24

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability within a systematic probabilistic framework to integrate the joint effects on risk of distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such a framework was used to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub G}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA{sub c} based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and 10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and 10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely to occur due to any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The systematic probabilistic framework illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  12. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1999-09-29

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub g}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and <10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and >10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Velocity Effect on Adhesion Forces with an Atomic Force Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏征; 赵亚溥

    2004-01-01

    Capillary forces are significantly dominant in adhesive forces measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM)in ambient air, which are always thought to be dependent on water film thickness, relative humidity, and the free energy of water film. We study the nature of the pull-off force on a variety of surfaces as a function of tip velocity.It is found that the capillary forces are of relatively strong dependence on tip velocity. The present experiment is expected to provide a better understanding of the work mechanism of AFM in ambient air.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

  15. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  16. 海军某部航空兵情境特质应对方式与心理承受力的关系%Relationships between Coping Style and Psycholoical Resilience in Naval Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张其军; 钱颖士; 张学军; 孔令明; 张梁; 张理义

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore relationships between coping style and psycholoical resilience in naval air force .Methods A total of 210 military personnel from naval air force were chosen by random cluster sampling ,and tested by Chinese Military Personnel Scene-trait Coping Style Scale and Military Personnel Resilience Scale .The acquired data were analyzed by t -test,correlation analysis and re-gression analysis .Results ①The total score and factor scores of psychological resilience in one-child group were higher than that in the non-only-child group(t=3.55,4.51,3.39,3.29,3.12,3.87,P<0.01);Soldiers'problem solving from the city was significantly high-er(t=-2.50,P<0.01);Unmarried men's score in the strength of volition was significantly higher (t=2.57,P<0.01).Married menin negative coping scores was higher than that of unmarried men (t=-4.21,P<0.01),positive coping scores was lower than that of unmar-ried men(t=2.93,P<0.01).②Correlation analysis showed that the naval aviation psychological endurance and each factor (problem-solving,interpersonal interaction,volition,optimism,family support)were positively correlated with positive coping and negatively correla-ted with negative coping and the factors (r=-0.15~0.51,P<0.01).③Regression analysis showed that positive emotions ,negative,mil-itary mission,only child and military task actively entered the regression equation of officers and soldiers psychological endurance score , and predicted 33.4%of the variance(F=102.93,P<0.05.)Conclusion Coping style is a key influence factor on psycholoical resili-ence.%目的:探讨海军某部航空兵心理承受力与情景特质应对方式的现况及关系。方法随机整群抽样法选取海军某部210名航空兵,采用《军人心理承受力量表》《中国军人情境应对量表》对其进行调查,数据分别使用描述性统计分析、独立样本t检验、方差分析及多元逐步回归等方法处理。结果①心理承受力中独生子女组在总

  17. Theoretical Models for Surface Forces and Adhesion and Their Measurement Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo N. Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS, it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of afs, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution.

  18. Metal-air electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarbacher, R. I.; Fechter, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    An electrochemical cell for which fuel is prepared and introduced under artificial gravity forces. The active metal is deposited through the action of the field on an anode current collecting member, effecting good compaction and reduced cell internal impedance. A microprocessor provides control of the induced gravity, flow rates, temperature, and other variables-enabling the active metal to be controlled in its thickness as well as providing a predetermined separation from the cathode. Abrasion of the cathode and the possibility of shorting are avoided by the presence of outwardly directed radial forces. These forces are induced by rotation of the electrolyte, air cathode, anode collector and the active metal. The forces promote also the passage of moisture laden air through the air cathode elements. Reaction products produced within the cell volume are circulated to an outside container for separation and possible reuse.

  19. UN ECE-Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematic cost-benefit analysis of mitigation measures for agricultural ammonia emissions, supporting national costing analysis; UN ECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematische Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse von Minderungsmassnahmen fuer Ammoniakemissionen in der Landwirtschaft fuer nationale Kostenabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Roessler, Regina; Vandre, Robert; Wulf, Sebastian [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this project, the methods for the determination of the expenses for the reduction of agricultural ammonia emissions were updated, and the costs of selected, representative mitigation measures suitable for Germany's agriculture were newly calculated. The reduction costs are determined based on the ratio of the extra costs for the reduction measure and the emission reduction in comparison with a reference system. Protein-adapted feeding in pig fattening generally leads to lower expenses for feedstuff, which provides negative reduction costs (- Euro 3.5 to - Euro 13.5 per kg of NH{sub 3} depending on the reference system). Pig fattening in naturally ventilated housing causes reduction costs of Euro 9.2 per kg of NH{sub 3} as compared with forced-ventilated animal houses. However, this amount cannot always be exclusively attributed to ammonia emission reduction (allocation) because naturally ventilated houses are generally built for the improvement of animal welfare and animal health. Single and multiple-stage air purification techniques in forced-ventilated pig fattening houses are a technically efficient, though costintensive reduction measure (Euro 4,6 - Euro 8,6 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Solid covers for pig slurry stores (concrete ceiling, tent) are characterized by high investment expenses and a long service life causes moderate reduction costs (Euro 1.1 - Euro 2.5 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Floating covers (plastic sheet, granules) are almost cost-neutral given reduction costs of Euro 0.3 to Euro 0.9 per kg of NH{sub 3} (pig slurry) if the fertilizer value of the conserved nitrogen is included in the calculation. Cattle slurry requires significantly higher extra costs for the covering of slurry stores because the natural floating cover itself reduces emissions (Euro 1.3 to Euro 12 per kg of NH{sub 3}). If annual spreading performances are low (1,000 to 3,000 m{sup 3}/a), only promptly incorporation of cattle and pig slurry is cost-effective. If spreading

  20. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    supported the Mariana Gallinule (Gallinula chloropus guami), the Mariana Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti), Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), White-throated Ground Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura xanthonura), Mariana Crow (Corvus kubaryi), and the Nightingale Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), all endemic to the Mariana Islands. Other regionally endemic endangered species include the Micronesian Megapode (Megapodius laperouse), and the Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi), now reduced to a small population on Guam. Likewise, the flora of Guam is unique, with 21percent of its native vascular plants endemic to the Mariana Islands. In limestone forests of Northern Guam, a number of tall forest tree species such as joga, Elaeocarpus joga (Elaeocarpaceae); pengua or Macaranga thompsonii (Euphorbiaceae); ifit or Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae); seeded breadfruit or Artocarpus marianensis (Moraceae); and umumu or Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae) may be in decline as a result of herbivory by mammals. All show reduced regeneration and age distributions highly skewed towards older individuals. These species provided important habitat for some of Guam's endangered forest birds that remain in captivity such as the Mariana Crow, Guam Kingfisher, and Guam Rail. The recent high frequency of intense tropical storms and herbivory caused by large populations of feral pigs and Philippine sambar deer (Cervus mariannus), as well as invasive alien vines that may suppress tree regeneration, could be permanently altering the structure of regenerating forests and composition of important canopy species on secondary limestone substrates that were cleared and compacted during airfield construction from 1944 through the 1970s. Guam National Wildlife Refuge (GNWR) was established at Ritidian Point, after it was determined to be excess property by the U.S. Navy. Most of the refuge, about 9,087 hectares, is an 'overlay refuge' on lands administered by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy

  1. ESTUDO TEÓRICO DO RESFRIAMENTO COM AR FORÇADO DE FRUTAS DE GEOMETRIAS DIFERENTES THEORETICAL STUDY OF FRUITS COOLING WITH DIFFERENT FORMS GEOMETRICAL IN THE FORCED-AIR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara TERUEL

    2001-08-01

    positions along the bed and conditioned in package with 40% of effective opening area. The fruits were pre-cooled in a forced-air system (1.933m³/h, at 1°C and 7°C, RH= 88,4 ± 2,0% and air velocity around 1m/s. A two-dimensional mathematical model was applied, assuming prolate spheroid coordinate, to characterize the transient heat transfer process inside the fruits considering convective profile conditions at the surface of the body. The generated equations were numerically solved by finite-volume method. The convective heat transfer coefficients were obtained using the least square method by comparison between experimental and numerical data. The comparative analysis of the theoretical and experimental curves presented a satisfactory agreement, with error between 5% and 7%. It was noted that the convective heat transfer coefficient changes with the fruits position in the bed and cooling time present a variation of approximately 38% among the different points. The spatial distributions of temperature inside the fruits, for three times, demonstrate the existence of a temperature differential between the center and the surface of 30%, approximately. The model predicts that the cooling rate is in the extremes of the banana. The Bi and Fo numbers obtained represent very well the heat transfer process in the fruits under different relationships of volume/area.

  2. The Effective Mass of a Ball in the Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, J.; Pantaleone, J.

    2010-01-01

    The air surrounding a projectile affects the projectile's motion in three very different ways: the drag force, the buoyant force, and the added mass. The added mass is an increase in the projectile's inertia from the motion of the air around it. Here we experimentally measure the added mass of a spherical projectile in air. The results agree well…

  3. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  4. Precipitation response to regional radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation shifts can have large impacts on human society and ecosystems. Many aspects of how inhomogeneous radiative forcings influence precipitation remain unclear, however. Here we investigate regional precipitation responses to various forcings imposed in different latitude bands in a climate model. We find that several regions show strong, significant responses to most forcings, but the magnitude and even the sign depends upon the forcing location and type. Aerosol and ozone forcings typically induce larger responses than equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2 forcing, and the influence of remote forcings often outweighs that of local forcings. Consistent with this, ozone and especially aerosols contribute greatly to precipitation changes over the Sahel and South and East Asia in historical simulations, and inclusion of aerosols greatly increases the agreement with observed trends in these areas, which cannot be attributed to either greenhouse gases or natural forcings. Estimates of precipitation responses derived from multiplying our Regional Precipitation Potential (RPP; the response per unit forcing relationships by historical forcings typically capture the actual response in full transient climate simulations fairly well, suggesting that these relationships may provide useful metrics. The strong sensitivity to aerosol and ozone forcing suggests that although some air quality improvements may unmask greenhouse gas-induced changes in temperature, they have large benefits for reducing regional disruption of the hydrologic cycle.

  5. Precipitation response to regional radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation shifts can have large impacts on human society and ecosystems. Many aspects of how inhomogeneous radiative forcings influence precipitation remain unclear, however. Here we investigate regional precipitation responses to various forcings imposed in different latitude bands in a climate model. We find that several regions show strong, significant responses to most forcings, but that the magnitude and even the sign depends upon the forcing location and type. Aerosol and ozone forcings typically induce larger responses than equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2 forcing, and the influence of remote forcings often outweighs that of local forcings. Consistent with this, ozone and especially aerosols contribute greatly to precipitation changes over the Sahel and South and East Asia in historical simulations, and inclusion of aerosols greatly increases the agreement with observed trends in these areas, which cannot be attributed to either greenhouse gases or natural forcings. Estimates of precipitation responses derived from multiplying our Regional Precipitation Potentials (RPP; the response per unit forcing relationships by historical forcings typically capture the actual response in full transient climate simulations fairly well, suggesting that these relationships may provide useful metrics. The strong sensitivity to aerosol and ozone forcing suggests that although some air quality improvements may unmask greenhouse gas-induced warming, they have large benefits for reducing regional disruption of the hydrologic cycle.

  6. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    supported the Mariana Gallinule (Gallinula chloropus guami), the Mariana Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti), Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), White-throated Ground Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura xanthonura), Mariana Crow (Corvus kubaryi), and the Nightingale Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), all endemic to the Mariana Islands. Other regionally endemic endangered species include the Micronesian Megapode (Megapodius laperouse), and the Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi), now reduced to a small population on Guam. Likewise, the flora of Guam is unique, with 21percent of its native vascular plants endemic to the Mariana Islands. In limestone forests of Northern Guam, a number of tall forest tree species such as joga, Elaeocarpus joga (Elaeocarpaceae); pengua or Macaranga thompsonii (Euphorbiaceae); ifit or Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae); seeded breadfruit or Artocarpus marianensis (Moraceae); and umumu or Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae) may be in decline as a result of herbivory by mammals. All show reduced regeneration and age distributions highly skewed towards older individuals. These species provided important habitat for some of Guam's endangered forest birds that remain in captivity such as the Mariana Crow, Guam Kingfisher, and Guam Rail. The recent high frequency of intense tropical storms and herbivory caused by large populations of feral pigs and Philippine sambar deer (Cervus mariannus), as well as invasive alien vines that may suppress tree regeneration, could be permanently altering the structure of regenerating forests and composition of important canopy species on secondary limestone substrates that were cleared and compacted during airfield construction from 1944 through the 1970s. Guam National Wildlife Refuge (GNWR) was established at Ritidian Point, after it was determined to be excess property by the U.S. Navy. Most of the refuge, about 9,087 hectares, is an 'overlay refuge' on lands administered by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy

  7. 中国城市空气质量变化的时空特征及其经济社会因素解析%Spatio-temporal Differences and Driving Forces of Air Quality in Chinese Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岱; 刘毅

    2016-01-01

    Deterioration of city air quality is the serious problem in the process of rapid urbanization and economic development in China. Taking 74 cities that have implemented the new Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB3095- 2012) since 2013 as examples, using statistical and ArcGIS spatial analysis method, the multi-scale temporal and spatial variations characteristics and the impact of social and economic factors on urban air quality variations, are analyzed in this paper. The main research conclusions are as folows:(1) Air quality in Chinese cities shows very significant seasonal variations, with higher air quality in summer and autumn, and lower air quality in spring and winter; (2) Seen from a daily polution perspective, air polution is very serious and wil tend to be more serious in the future; (3) Seen from an hourly variation perspective, urban air quality is time coupled with social production and urban living; (4) The overal spatial pattern of urban air quality is high in the east and north and low in the west and south, but with an obvious trend towards regional integration. (5) Cities in different regions have different factors that cause air quality variations. In general, urbanization level and energy consumption per GDP are the common factors.%城市空气质量恶化是我国在快速城市化和工业化进程中亟待解决的难题。本文以第一阶段实施新空气质量标准的74个城市为例,通过比较2013年各区域城市每日和每时的空气质量指数变化,总结空气质量变化的时空特征,并借助SPSS18.0软件,采用相关分析中的二次曲线拟合法探讨工业化和城市化对空气质量的影响趋势。结论认为中国城市空气质量季节性变化特征显著,空气质量春冬差,夏秋好;从污染天数看,城市空气污染形势严峻且有加重态势;从小时变化看,城市空气质量与社会生产生活活动表现出一定的时间耦合性;城市空气质量总体空间格

  8. Interface homem-máquina para controle de processos de resfriamento com ar forçado visando à economia de energia Man-machine interface for the control of cooling processes with forced-air aimed at energy savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Teruel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o desenvolvimento de um equipamento microprocessado, com saída de corrente, para controle da velocidade de rotação do motor do ventilador de sistemas de ar forçado, usando inversor de freqüência. Através de programação (software IHM.EXE, o usuário pode definir a massa a ser resfriada em quilogramas de produto. O equipamento calcula, através de um polinômio previamente estabelecido e programável, a freqüência de operação do inversor, que corresponde a uma vazão de ar específica, dentro dos limites estabelecidos no projeto. O equipamento foi instalado num sistema de resfriamento com ar forçado, estimando-se, pelo cálculo da variação da potência útil mecânica, uma economia de energia da ordem de 82%, com uma rotação equivalente a 56% da nominal do ventilador, proporcionando, desta forma, uma economia significativa no custo de operação do sistema.The development of micro processed equipment is presented, with current exit for control of the speed of rotation of the fan motor of the system of forced air, using investing of the frequency. Through programming (software IHM.EXE, the user can define the mass to be cooled, in kilograms of the product. The equipment calculates through a programmable polynomial previously defined, the frequency of operation of the investor which corresponds to air specific flux, within the limits of the project. The equipment was installed in a forced-air cooling system, being considered by the calculation in useful mechanical power, the energy savings is estimated at around 82% with a rotation equivalent to 56% of the fan nominal, thus providing significant savings in system operating costs.

  9. NASA GLENN RESEARCH CENTER'S AIR POWER 2003 TEAM POSE WITH ORVILLE AND WILBUR WRIGHT NEAR THEIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    NASA GLENN RESEARCH CENTER'S AIR POWER 2003 TEAM POSE WITH ORVILLE AND WILBUR WRIGHT NEAR THEIR WONDERFUL FLYING MACHINES AT WRIGHT PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE OPEN HOUSE - AIR POWER 2003, MAY 10-11, 2003

  10. Malaysia and forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysi...

  11. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  12. The Information Age and Hot Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Paul N

    2015-08-01

    Forced-air warmers have been used for over twenty years to help prevent and treat inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. One result of hypothermia can be an increased risk of surgical site infection. Paradoxically, the question has been raised about the role of forced-air warmers in causing surgical site infections. A manufacturer of a competing device has been sending information directly to clinicians with warnings about using forced-air warmers with patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Three reviews have been published and none of these condemned the use of forced-air warmers in the operating room including with patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Clinicians must continue to seek information about this problem from peer-reviewed journals and not rely on interpretation by others such as manufacturers. PMID:26390738

  13. SA FORCES IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SADF Archives SADF Archives

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available UNION DEFENCE FORCE: LAND FORCES Organisation of Union Defence Force (a Pre-War. At the outbreak of war in September, 1939, the armed forces of the Union consisted of a Permanent Force of 352 Officers and 5033 men, and an Active Citizen Force of 918 Officers and 12 572 men. Of the Permanent Force, 173 Officers and 1664 men formed the South African Air Force, 47 Officers and 562 men were members of the South African Artillery and 17 Officers and 1 705 men formed the Special Service Battalion, a unit consisting of men who served on a short-service basis for a minimum of one year. The rest were concerned principally in the supply services and in administering the Active Citizen Force. The latter was roughly parallel to the Territorial Army in Britain, since membership, although nominally compulsory, was in effect restricted to volunteers from among the various age groups called up annually for compulsory registration. Members of the Active Citizen Force were enrolled in units, some of which could show a history dating back to the middle of the last century, and were required to perform 1½ to 4 hours of non-continuous training per week, and 15 days of continuous training, in camp, each year. 

  14. Nanonet Force Microscopy for Measuring Cell Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Kevin; Wang, Ji; Zhao, Wei; Kapania, Rakesh; Nain, Amrinder S

    2016-07-12

    The influence of physical forces exerted by or felt by cells on cell shape, migration, and cytoskeleton arrangement is now widely acknowledged and hypothesized to occur due to modulation of cellular inside-out forces in response to changes in the external fibrous environment (outside-in). Our previous work using the non-electrospinning Spinneret-based Tunable Engineered Parameters' suspended fibers has revealed that cells are able to sense and respond to changes in fiber curvature and structural stiffness as evidenced by alterations to focal adhesion cluster lengths. Here, we present the development and application of a suspended nanonet platform for measuring C2C12 mouse myoblast forces attached to fibers of three diameters (250, 400, and 800 nm) representing a wide range of structural stiffness (3-50 nN/μm). The nanonet force microscopy platform measures cell adhesion forces in response to symmetric and asymmetric external perturbation in single and cyclic modes. We find that contractility-based, inside-out forces are evenly distributed at the edges of the cell, and that forces are dependent on fiber structural stiffness. Additionally, external perturbation in symmetric and asymmetric modes biases cell-fiber failure location without affecting the outside-in forces of cell-fiber adhesion. We then extend the platform to measure forces of (1) cell-cell junctions, (2) single cells undergoing cyclic perturbation in the presence of drugs, and (3) cancerous single-cells transitioning from a blebbing to a pseudopodial morphology. PMID:27410747

  15. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Have you ever driven by a sewage-treatment plant and noticed a rotten-eggstink? Air-quality requirements force these plants touse devices called chemical scrubbers to eliminate malodorous hydrogen sulfide from the gases createdby bacteria in sewageslurry. The process works,but it's expensive and depends on filtering gasthrough toxic chemicalssuch as lye and bleach.

  16. The effectiveness of a heated air curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daria

    2014-11-01

    Air curtains are high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in the doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The air curtain effectiveness E is defined as the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. In the present study, we investigate the effects of an opposing buoyancy force on the air curtain effectiveness. Such an opposing buoyancy force arises for example if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. We conducted small-scale experiments using water as the working fluid with density differences created by salt and sugar. The effectiveness of a downwards blowing air curtain was measured for situations in which the initial density of the air curtain was less than both the indoor and the outdoor fluid density, which corresponds to the case of a heated air curtain. We compare the effectiveness of the heated air curtain to the case of the neutrally buoyant air curtain. It is found that the effectiveness starts to decrease if the air curtain is heated beyond a critical temperature. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model to describe the dynamics of the buoyant air curtain. Numerical results obtained from solving this model corroborate our experimental findings.

  17. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  18. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  19. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  20. An Analysis on the Air Exciting-vibration Force of Short Vane of Steam Turbine in Non-uniform Airflow Field%非均匀气流场中的汽轮机短叶片间隙气流激振力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀明; 柴山; 马浩; 曲庆文; 赵又群; 姚福生

    2001-01-01

    Because the outlet side of fixed blade has a certain thickness, the airflow field of steam turbine is a non-uniform airflow field. Based on the hydrodynamics, the clearance air exciting-vibration force acting on the blades of steam turbine in the non-uniform airflow field is studied by using the momentum theorem in this paper. The velocity of airflow was developed into Fourier series firstly, and then the computational formulas for the short blades in straight stages and twist stages of steam turbine in the non-uniform airflow field was derived. The presented formulas only include the structural parameters and airflow parameters of steam turbine and can overcome the difficulty of selecting efficiency factor in Alford formula, so they can be used to calculate the air exciting-vibration force of steam turbine with non-uniform airflow field easily.%从流体动力学出发,应用动量定理研究了定叶片出气边具有一定厚度的非均匀气流场中汽轮机的间隙气流激振力,将气流速度展开成Fourier级数,并综合考虑了叶片的各项设计参数,并应用理论分析的方法导出了在非均匀气流场中汽轮机直叶片级、扭叶片级短叶片的间隙气流激振力计算公式。

  1. Air Damping Analysis in Comb Microaccelerometer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Zhou; Yu Chen; Bei Peng; Hui Yang; Huijun Yu; Heng Liu; Xiaoping He

    2014-01-01

    Air damping significantly influences the dynamical characteristics of MEMS accelerometers. Its effects at micro-scale level sharply depend on the structure layouts and size of MEMS devices. The damping phenomenon of comb microaccelerometers is investigated. The air between fixed plate electrodes and movable plate electrodes cannot flow freely and is compressed. The air damping, therefore, exhibits both viscous effects and stiffness effects. The former generates a drag force like that in macro...

  2. Non-Kyoto radiative forcing in long-run greenhouse gas emissions and climate change scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, S.K.; Kriegler, E.; Bibas, R.; Calvin, K.; Popp, A.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Weyant, J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate policies must consider radiative forcing from Kyoto greenhouse gases, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone that result from air pollutants. Non-Kyoto forcing constituents contribute negative, as well as positive forcing, and overall increases in tota

  3. Research on the Electronic Warfare System of Upgraded Taiwan Air Force F-16A/B(Block 20)%台军F-16A/B(Block 20)升级后的电子战系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶; 毛毅; 吴微露

    2012-01-01

    近年来,台湾强调以“非对称”、“资电优势”的思想推动建军,投入巨资进行作战飞机的升级改造,以加强空中作战力量和电子战建设。通过对2012年7月美台签订的台军F-16A/B战斗机升级案的背景、进展以及升级前后机载电子战系统的对比研究,进而分析升级后台军F-16A/B战斗机在电子战系统的性能。%In recent years, Taiwan develops military based on the dissymmetric and advantage information viewpoint, and upgrades bat- tle-planes putting into a large amount of money to enhance the air attack strength and the electronic warfare. The paper explains the perform- ance of the electronic warfare system of upgraded Taiwan' s F-16A/B by analyzing the background and proceeding of Taiwan air force F-16A/ B modernization plan signed on July 2012 and contrasting the electronic warfare system of F-16A/B and upgraded F-16A/B.

  4. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  5. Force propagation and force generation in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Oliver; Duschl, Claus

    2010-09-01

    Determining how forces are produced by and propagated through the cytoskeleton (CSK) of the cell is of great interest as dynamic processes of the CSK are intimately correlated with many molecular signaling pathways. We are presenting a novel approach for integrating measurements on cell elasticity, transcellular force propagation, and cellular force generation to obtain a comprehensive description of dynamic and mechanical properties of the CSK under force loading. This approach uses a combination of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We apply well-defined loading schemes onto the apical cell membrane of fibroblasts using the SFM and simultaneously use TIRF microscopy to image the topography of the basal cell membrane. The locally distinct changes of shape and depth of the cytoskeletal imprints onto the basal membrane are interpreted as results of force propagation through the cytoplasm. This observation provides evidence for the tensegrity model and demonstrates the usefulness of our approach that does not depend on potentially disturbing marker compounds. We confirm that the actin network greatly determines cell stiffness and represents the substrate that mediates force transduction through the cytoplasm of the cell. The latter is an essential feature of tensegrity. Most importantly, our new finding that, both intact actin and microtubule networks are required for enabling the cell to produce work, can only be understood within the framework of the tensegrity model. We also provide, for the first time, a direct measurement of the cell's mechanical power output under compression at two femtowatts. PMID:20607861

  6. EVALUATION OF ACOUSTIC FORCES ON A PARTICLE IN AEROSOL MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    The acoustic force exerted on a solid particle was evaluated to develop a fundamental understanding of the critical physical parameters or constraints affecting particle motion and capture in a collecting device. The application of an acoustic force to the collection of a range of submicron-to-micron particles in a highly turbulent airflow stream laden with solid particles was evaluated in the presence of other assisting and competing forces. This scoping estimate was based on the primary acoustic force acting directly on particles in a dilute aerosol system, neglecting secondary interparticle effects such as agglomeration of the sub-micron particles. A simplified analysis assuming a stable acoustic equilibrium with an infinite sound speed in the solid shows that for a solid-laden air flow in the presence of a standing wave, particles will move toward the nearest node. The results also show that the turbulent drag force on a 1-{micro}m particle resulting from eddy motion is dominant when compared with the electrostatic force or the ultrasonic acoustic force. At least 180 dB acoustic pressure level at 1 MHz is required for the acoustic force to be comparable to the electrostatic or turbulent drag forces in a high-speed air stream. It is noted that particle size and pressure amplitude are dominant parameters for the acoustic force. When acoustic pressure level becomes very large, the acoustic energy will heat up the surrounding air medium, which may cause air to expand. With an acoustic power of about 600 watts applied to a 2000-lpm air flow, the air temperature can increase by as much as 15 C at the exit of the collector.

  7. 77 FR 14006 - Record of Decision for the Military Housing Privatization Initiative Hurlburt Field and Eglin Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Department of the Air Force Record of Decision for the Military Housing Privatization Initiative Hurlburt Field and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, Final Environmental Impact Statement ACTION: Notice of... (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.) and the Air Force's Environmental Impact Analysis Process (EIAP) (32...

  8. Repulsive Casimir Force using metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappakrishnan, Venkatesh K.; Mundru, Pattabhiraju C.; Genov, Dentcho A.

    We investigate conditions for Casimir Force (CF) reversal between two parallel half-space metamaterial plates separated by air or vacuum at ambient temperatures. Practically, the Casimir effect can lead to stiction in nanoscale devices, degradation and decreased performance. While material realizations of repulsive CF has been proposed for high dielectric host materials, so far the CF reversal with air/vacuum as intermediate medium remain challenging. Here, we propose a two plate design based on artificial electromagnetic materials known as metamaterials. This configuration allows a simple analytical treatment that accurately describes the large and short distance asymptotics of CF and allows extraction of important parameters such as lower and upper cutoff gap distances that define the repulsive force window. A parametric study has been performed in terms of the plate's dielectric and magnetic plasma frequencies, plate separation distance and temperature. The parametric domain for achieving CF reversal is identified. If successfully implemented the proposed design could potentially result in frictionless bio-fluid transport devices, quantum levitation and coating for ultra-clean room environment.

  9. Malaysia and forced migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzura Idris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  10. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  11. Air entrainment in hairy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasto, Alice; Regli, Marianne; Brun, P.-T.; Alvarado, José; Clanet, Christophe; Hosoi, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by diving semiaquatic mammals, we investigate the mechanism of dynamic air entrainment in hairy surfaces submerged in liquid. Hairy surfaces are cast out of polydimethylsiloxane elastomer and plunged into a fluid bath at different velocities. Experimentally, we find that the amount of air entrained is greater than what is expected for smooth surfaces. Theoretically, we show that the hairy surface can be considered as a porous medium and we describe the air entrainment via a competition between the hydrostatic forcing and the viscous resistance in the pores. A phase diagram that includes data from our experiments and biological data from diving semiaquatic mammals is included to place the model system in a biological context and predict the regime for which the animal is protected by a plastron of air.

  12. Debunking Coriolis Force Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written and debated about the Coriolis force. Unfortunately, this has done little to demystify the paradoxes surrounding this fictitious force invoked by an observer in a rotating frame of reference. It is the purpose of this article to make another valiant attempt to slay the dragon of the Coriolis force! This will be done without…

  13. Crossflow force transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A force transducer for measuring lift and drag coefficients for a circular cylinder in turbulent water flow is presented. In addition to describing the actual design and construction of the strain-gauged force- ring based transducer, requirements for obtained valid fluid force test data are discussed, and pertinent flow test experience is related

  14. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  15. Guided standoff weapons a threat to expeditionary air power

    OpenAIRE

    Vish, Jeffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The Air Base has long been a potential target of attack for enemy planners. An effective way to attack the United States Air Force (USAF) is to avoid its usual dominance in the air and use an asymmetrical approach, attacking air bases with ground forces inserted into the Joint Rear Area. The history of airbase ground attacks from 1942 to 1994, documented in the book Snakes in the Eagles' Nest, shows that the dominant strategy employed by air base attackers has been the standoff attack. Rou...

  16. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  17. 75 FR 8049 - Air University Board of Visitors Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Department of the Air Force Air University Board of Visitors Meeting ACTION: Notice of Meeting of the Air... least five calendar days prior to the meeting which is the subject of this notice. Written statements... attend this meeting should contact either person listed below at least five calendar days prior to...

  18. 76 FR 57979 - Air University Board of Visitors Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Department of the Air Force Air University Board of Visitors Meeting ACTION: Notice of Meeting of the Air... Officer at the address listed below at least five calendar days prior to the meeting which is the subject... at least five calendar days prior to the meeting for information on base entry passes. FOR...

  19. Efficacy of climate forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2005-09-01

    We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such

  20. Interaction force microscopy based on quartz tuning fork force sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yexian

    The ability to sense small changes in the interaction force between a scanning probe microscope (SPM) tip and a substrate requires cantilevers with a sharp mechanical resonance. A typical commercially available cantilever in air is characterized by a resonance with a Q factor of 100 ˜ 300. The low Q factor can be attributed to imperfections in the cantilever itself as well as damping effects of the surrounding air. To substantially increase the Q factor, novel concepts are required. For this reason, we have performed a systematic study of quartz tuning fork resonators for possible use with SPMs. We find that tuning fork resonators operating in air are characterized by Q factors in the order of 104, thereby greatly improving the SPM's ability to measure small shifts in the interaction force. By carefully attaching commercially available SPM tips to the tuning fork, it is possible to obtain SPM images using non-contact imaging techniques and analyze the tip-sample interactions. The assembly of uniform molecular monolayers on atomically flat substrates for molecular electronics applications has received widespread attention during the past ten years. Scanning probe techniques are often used to assess substrate topography, molecular ordering and electronic properties, yet little is known about the fundamental tip-molecule interaction. To address this issue we have built an Interaction Force Microscope using a quartz tuning fork to probe tip-molecular monolayer interactions using scanning probe microscopy. The high quality factor and stable resonant frequency of a quartz tuning fork allows accurate measurement of small shifts in the resonant frequency as the tip interacts with the substrate. To permit an accurate measure of surface interaction forces, the electrical and piezomechanical properties of a tuning fork have been calibrated using a fiber optical interferometer. In prior work [1], we have studied molecular layers formed from either 4-Trifluoro

  1. Forces in molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Fang, De-Chai; Bader, Richard F W

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry is determined by the electrostatic forces acting within a collection of nuclei and electrons. The attraction of the nuclei for the electrons is the only attractive force in a molecule and is the force responsible for the bonding between atoms. This is the attractive force acting on the electrons in the Ehrenfest force and on the nuclei in the Feynman force, one that is countered by the repulsion between the electrons in the former and by the repulsion between the nuclei in the latter. The virial theorem relates these forces to the energy changes resulting from interactions between atoms. All bonding, as signified by the presence of a bond path, has a common origin in terms of the mechanics determined by the Ehrenfest, Feynman and virial theorems. This paper is concerned in particular with the mechanics of interaction encountered in what are classically described as 'nonbonded interactions'--are atoms that 'touch' bonded or repelling one another? PMID:17328425

  2. Forces in molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Fang, De-Chai; Bader, Richard F W

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry is determined by the electrostatic forces acting within a collection of nuclei and electrons. The attraction of the nuclei for the electrons is the only attractive force in a molecule and is the force responsible for the bonding between atoms. This is the attractive force acting on the electrons in the Ehrenfest force and on the nuclei in the Feynman force, one that is countered by the repulsion between the electrons in the former and by the repulsion between the nuclei in the latter. The virial theorem relates these forces to the energy changes resulting from interactions between atoms. All bonding, as signified by the presence of a bond path, has a common origin in terms of the mechanics determined by the Ehrenfest, Feynman and virial theorems. This paper is concerned in particular with the mechanics of interaction encountered in what are classically described as 'nonbonded interactions'--are atoms that 'touch' bonded or repelling one another?

  3. Quantum fictitious forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Abt. fuer Quantenphysik, Univ. Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Cirone, M.A.; Straub, F.; Schleich, W.P. [Abt. fuer Quantenphysik, Univ. Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Dahl, J.P. [Abt. fuer Quantenphysik, Univ. Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Chemical Physics, Dept. of Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Seligman, T.H. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: ''Force without force''. (orig.)

  4. Interaction of light filaments in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Ting-Ting; Lu Xin; Hao Zuo-Qiang; Me Yuan-yuan; Zhang Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper analytically investigates the interaction of light filaments generated by a femtosecond laser beam in air. It obtains the Hamiltonian of a total laser field and interaction force between two filaments with different phase shifts and crcssing angles. The property of the interaction force, which leads the attraction or repulsion of filaments, is basically dependent on the phase shift between filaments. The crossing angle between two filaments can only determine the magnitude of the interaction force, but does not change the property of the force.

  5. Solar and atmospheric forcing on mountain lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Tomi P; Nevalainen, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the influence of long-term external forcing on aquatic communities in Alpine lakes. Fossil microcrustacean (Cladocera) and macrobenthos (Chironomidae) community variability in four Austrian high-altitude lakes, determined as ultra-sensitive to climate change, were compared against records of air temperature, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and solar forcing over the past ~400years. Summer temperature variability affected both aquatic invertebrate groups in all study sites. The influence of NAO and solar forcing on aquatic invertebrates was also significant in the lakes except in the less transparent lake known to have remained uniformly cold during the past centuries due to summertime snowmelt input. The results suggest that external forcing plays an important role in these pristine ecosystems through their impacts on limnology of the lakes. Not only does the air temperature variability influence the communities but also larger-scale external factors related to atmospheric circulation patterns and solar activity cause long-term changes in high-altitude aquatic ecosystems, through their connections to hydroclimatic conditions and light environment. These findings are important in the assessment of climate change impacts on aquatic ecosystems and in greater understanding of the consequences of external forcing on lake ontogeny. PMID:27220094

  6. Piezoresistive cantilever force-clamp system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Petzold, Bryan C.; Pruitt, Beth L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodman, Miriam B. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We present a microelectromechanical device-based tool, namely, a force-clamp system that sets or ''clamps'' the scaled force and can apply designed loading profiles (e.g., constant, sinusoidal) of a desired magnitude. The system implements a piezoresistive cantilever as a force sensor and the built-in capacitive sensor of a piezoelectric actuator as a displacement sensor, such that sample indentation depth can be directly calculated from the force and displacement signals. A programmable real-time controller operating at 100 kHz feedback calculates the driving voltage of the actuator. The system has two distinct modes: a force-clamp mode that controls the force applied to a sample and a displacement-clamp mode that controls the moving distance of the actuator. We demonstrate that the system has a large dynamic range (sub-nN up to tens of {mu}N force and nm up to tens of {mu}m displacement) in both air and water, and excellent dynamic response (fast response time, <2 ms and large bandwidth, 1 Hz up to 1 kHz). In addition, the system has been specifically designed to be integrated with other instruments such as a microscope with patch-clamp electronics. We demonstrate the capabilities of the system by using it to calibrate the stiffness and sensitivity of an electrostatic actuator and to measure the mechanics of a living, freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans nematode.

  7. Avaliação da composição química de milho seco e armazenado em silo tipo alambrado com ar natural forçado Evaluation of chemical composition of corn dried and stored with forced natural air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito da umidade de colheita e do tempo de armazenamento em grãos de milho secos e armazenados em silos com ar natural forçado. Grãos de milho colhidos com 17,8; 18,9 e 20,5% de água foram acondicionados em silos tipo alambrado com fundo falso perfurado e com ventiladores ligados ininterruptamente até a secagem. Amostras de milho foram coletadas nos tempos zero, 4, 8, 22 e 112 dias, em seis alturas de camada de cada silo (10, 60, 110, 160, 210 e 260 cm. A composição química foi determinada pelo uso de Espectrofotômetro do Infravermelho Proximal (NIR e os resultados expressos em porcentagem e em base seca. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente (Anova e nas interações significativas, elaborados os gráficos de regressão. Nas determinações de proteínas, lipídios, matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro as interações foram significativas ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro, enquanto que em cinzas, umidade e carboidratos não foram verificadas diferenças significativas. A aeração natural forçada é capaz de reduzir a umidade do milho para 13%, sendo tecnicamente viável em propriedades familiares.The aim of this work was to study the effects of moisture at harvest and time of storage upon grains of corn dried and stored in bins with forced natural air. Grains of corn harvested with 17.8; 18.9, and 20.5% of water were stored in drying bins with false floor with fans working full-time until drying. Samples of corn were collected at zero, 4, 8, 22, and 112 days from six different heights in each bin (10, 60, 110, 160, 210 and 260 cm. The chemical composition was determined through Near-Infrared Spectrophotometer (NIR and the results were expressed in percentage at dry basis. The data were statistically analyzed (Anova and for the significant interactions graphics of regression were provided. In the process of determination of protein, fat, dry matter, and neutral detergent fiber the

  8. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  9. Nonlinear Dynamic Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Björnham, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information of the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear regime. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are examples of structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found th...

  10. EZVI Injection Field Test Leads to Pilot-Scale Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testing and monitoring of emulsified zero-valent ironTM (EZVI) injections was conducted at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station’s Launch Complex 34, FL, in 2002 to 2005 to evaluate the technology’s efficacy in enhancing in situ dehalogenation of dense nonaqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL) ...

  11. KSC Weather and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Launa; Huddleston, Lisa; Smith, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This briefing outlines the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Weather organization, past research sponsored or performed, current organization, responsibilities, and activities, the evolution of weather support, future technologies, and an update on the status of the buoys located offshore of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and KSC.

  12. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  13. The Effects of Forced Exhalation and Inhalation, Grunting, and Valsalva Maneuver on Forehand Force in Collegiate Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼConnell, Dennis G; Brewer, Jacob F; Man, Timothy H; Weldon, John S; Hinman, Martha R

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effects of forced expiration (FE), forced inspiration (FI), grunting (GR), and valsalva maneuver (VM), on air volume, maximum force production, and muscle recruitment during a simulated forehand stroke in collegiate tennis players. Superficial electrodes were placed over the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, rectus abdominis, lumbar and thoracic erector spinae, and external and internal obliques. Subjects stood in a simulated forehand stroke stance with their dominant hand positioned on a force plate. Subjects performed 3 repetitions of maximal 2- to 3-second isometric forehands with randomly assigned breathing conditions (FE, FI, VM, and GR) and 30-seconds rest between contractions. Air volumes were also collected during each trial. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance compared normalized peak electromyographic activity across the 7 muscle groups. Separate repeated measures ANOVAs compared the effect of breathing conditions on peak force production and air volume. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all analyses. Overall muscle activity differed significantly by breathing condition (p = 0.031) with greater anterior deltoid activity was seen in FE and GR vs. VM. Internal oblique activity was significantly greater in GR than FI or VM, and thoracic erector spinae activity was significantly greater during FE and VM than FI. Force production did not differ significantly among breathing conditions (p = 0.74); however, GR forces were greater than FI and VM forces (p ≤ 0.05). Forced expiration air volume was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than FI, GR, or VM. These findings suggest that either GR or a more quiescent FE can be used to enhance force production. Forced expiration is a potentially safer alternative to VM and more aurally pleasing than GR. PMID:26270695

  14. Theory of intermolecular forces

    CERN Document Server

    Margenau, H; Ter Haar, D

    1971-01-01

    Theory of Intermolecular Forces deals with the exposition of the principles and techniques of the theory of intermolecular forces. The text focuses on the basic theory and surveys other aspects, with particular attention to relevant experiments. The initial chapters introduce the reader to the history of intermolecular forces. Succeeding chapters present topics on short, intermediate, and long range atomic interactions; properties of Coulomb interactions; shape-dependent forces between molecules; and physical adsorption. The book will be of good use to experts and students of quantum mechanics

  15. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  16. No fifth force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Hopes that geophysicists might be able to document a fifth force of nature have diminished, as new measurements and analyses of earlier geodetic experiments have yielded no solid evidence of a non-Newtonian component of gravity.Modern physics recognizes four fundamental forces with distinct spheres of influence: The strong and weak nuclear forces operate over the range of one atom, while gravity and electromagnetism have an infinite range. Gravity measurements over a few centimeters in laboratories and over millions of kilometers in space continue to buttress Issac Newton's conclusion that the gravitational force between two objects decreases as the square of the distance between them.

  17. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  18. Jet Exit Rig Six Component Force Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Wolter, John; Woike, Mark; Booth, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A new six axis air balance was delivered to the NASA Glenn Research Center. This air balance has an axial force capability of 800 pounds, primary airflow of 10 pounds per second, and a secondary airflow of 3 pounds per second. Its primary use was for the NASA Glenn Jet Exit Rig, a wind tunnel model used to test both low-speed, and high-speed nozzle concepts in a wind tunnel. This report outlines the installation of the balance in the Jet Exit Rig, and the results from an ASME calibration nozzle with an exit area of 8 square-inches. The results demonstrated the stability of the force balance for axial measurements and the repeatability of measurements better than 0.20 percent.

  19. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  20. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.