WorldWideScience

Sample records for canal national historical

  1. 75 FR 17158 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Advisory Commission (the Commission) will be held at 9 a.m., on Friday, May 14, 2010, at the House of Sweden, 2900 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20007. DATES: Friday, May 14, 2010. ADDRESSES: House of Sweden... and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Headquarters, 1850 Dual Highway, Suite 100, Hagerstown...

  2. Geology of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park and Potomac River Corridor, District of Columbia, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Scott; Brezinski, David K.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Repetski, John E.; Denenny, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is 184.5 mi long and extends from Washington, D.C., to Cumberland, Md. The canal passes through three physiographic provinces including the Piedmont, Valley and Ridge, and the Blue Ridge; the map area also includes rocks of the Coastal Plain and Appalachian Plateaus provinces. Each province contains unique packages of rocks that influenced the character of the canal and towpath. The ages of the bedrock encountered along the length of the park range from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic and represent a variety of tectonic and depositional environments. The different rock types and surficial deposits dictated the various construction methods for the canal, which was excavated in Quaternary flood-plain deposits as well as through bedrock. The ancient course of the Potomac River and the deposits it left behind also influenced the location of the canal and towpath. The engineers made good use of the many rock types to construct the locks, dams, aqueducts, and culverts that guided water from the Potomac River into the canal and maintained the water level as canal boats traveled between higher elevations in western Maryland to sea level in Washington, D.C. The canal and towpath provide a unique transect across the central Appalachian region for examining the rich geologic diversity and history.

  3. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  4. Flood-hydrology data for the Potomac River and selected tributaries in the vicinity of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doheny, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents flood-hydrology data for the Potomac River and selected tributaries in the vicinity of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Park (C & O Canal NHP). Data were compiled for the floods of (1) March 17-19, 1936; (2) June 22-24, 1972; (3) November 4-7, 1985; (4) January 19-21, 1996; (5) September 6-8, 1996; and (6) the peak of record for 6 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations on the Potomac River and 10 streamflow-gaging stations on selected tributaries to the Potomac River. Peak discharge, peak gage height, the date and time of the peak, and approximate recurrence interval are presented for each flood event at these streamflow-gaging stations.Data compiled from selected high-flow discharge measurements on the six Potomac River streamflow- gaging stations are presented. The gage height, top width, cross-sectional area, mean velocity, maximum velocity, and discharge are presented for each selected discharge measurement. Any corresponding discharge on the C & O Canal that was measured or estimated for these dischrge measurements is presented. Ranges of Manning's roughness coefficient were computed for the range of selected discharge measurements, based on estimates of water-surface slope or the channel-bed slope. These data will be used for subsequent hydraulic studies by engineers for maintenance, protection, or restoration of the C & O Canal. An inventory of selected references, flood studies, and additional USGS data along the Potomac River and the C & O Canal NHP also are presented. Included are (1) a listing of selected flood studies and reports, and (2) a listing of USGS indirect flood-discharge measurements that have been made at the six Potomac River streamflow-gaging stations in the vicinity of the C & O Canal NHP. Information on historical streamflow-gaging station records and discharge measurements on the C & O Canal also is presented.

  5. Tsetsaut History: The Forgotten Tribe of Southern Southeast Alaska. Portland Canal Early History (Misty Fiord National Monument). Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History #147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangeli, Reginald H.

    Written by one of the tribe's few remaining members and based on oral history and legend, this study traces the history of the Tsetsaut tribe, ancient original inhabitants of the Portland Canal area of southeastern Alaska. Chapters recount the quest for the coast, legends of Portland Canal, exploration of the area, material culture, establishment…

  6. The Dorello canal: historical development, controversies in microsurgical anatomy, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshettry, Varun R; Lee, Joung H; Ammirati, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Interest in studying the anatomy of the abducent nerve arose from early clinical experience with abducent palsy seen in middle ear infection. Primo Dorello, an Italian anatomist working in Rome in the early 1900s, studied the anatomy of the petroclival region to formulate his own explanation of this pathological entity. His work led to his being credited with the discovery of the canal that bears his name, although this structure had been described 50 years previously by Wenzel Leopold Gruber. Renewed interest in the anatomy of this region arose due to advances in surgical approaches to tumors of the petroclival region and the need to explain the abducent palsies seen in trauma, intracranial hypotension, and aneurysms. The advent of the surgical microscope has allowed more detailed anatomical studies, and numerous articles have been published in the last 2 decades. The current article highlights the historical development of the study of the Dorello canal. A review of the anatomical studies of this structure is provided, followed by a brief overview of clinical considerations.

  7. The Ohio & Erie Canal: Catalyst of Economic Development for Ohio. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Deborah

    In the 19th century, canal boats pulled along by mules carried much cargo. The canal boat was the family business, their livelihood, and their home. In Ohio, these boats glided gracefully along the Ohio and Erie Canal, heavily laden with lumber on its way north to Lake Erie where it was transferred to a lake freighter and sent to Buffalo (New…

  8. Location of Historical Buildings (points) at Fort Davis National Historic Site, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a point shapefile showing where historic buildings were located at Fort Davis National Historic Site. The remnants or foundations of these buildings where...

  9. National Register of Historic Places - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) NPS National Register Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — A current, accurate spatial representation of all historic properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places is of interest to Federal agencies, the...

  10. 36 CFR 65.6 - Recognition of National Historic Landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Historic Landmark. The certificate and plaque remain the property of NPS. Should the National... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recognition of National Historic Landmarks. 65.6 Section 65.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  11. HISTORICAL PARALLELS OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC DOCTRINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil SILAGADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical experience shows that problems of economic development in certain countries are linked to the rational use of economic resources. It is not accidental that this issue was of high importance as early as in the 19th century in Georgia. An outstanding Georgian writer Ilia Tchavtchavadze (1951-1961 and other researchers (see References dedicated interesting works to studying this problem. Like German national economic doctrines, Ilia Tchavtchavadze was much concerned with the priorities of national economy. Based on the research results, the present work provides conclusions that Ilia Tchavtchavadze’s economic doctrine complies with German as well as classic economic doctrines with the only difference that development of Georgian economy should start with the development of agriculture; complies with free trade policy; gives great importance to building railway network and Batumi-Baku pipeline, development of oil industry, co-existence of private and community ownership and inadmissibility of forceful infringement of such ownership; lays foundation to building of an independent banking system in Georgia.

  12. Y-12 National Security Complex National Historic Preservation Act Historic Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) recognizes that the Y-12 National Security Complex is a vital and long-term component of DOE and NNSA. In addition to NNSA missions, the Office of Science and Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, and the Office of Environmental Management have properties located at Y-12 that must be taken into consideration. The HPP also recognizes that the challenge for cultural resource management is incorporating the requirements of NNSA, SC, NE, and EM missions while preserving and protecting its historic resources. The HPP seeks to find an effective way to meet the obligations at Y-12 for historic and archeological protection while at the same time facilitating effective completion of ongoing site mission activities, including removal of obsolete or contaminated facilities, adaptive reuse of existing facilities whenever feasible, and construction of new facilities in order to meet site mission needs. The Y-12 Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) defines the preservation strategy for the Y-12 National Security Complex and will direct efficient compliance with the NHPA and federal archaeological protection legislation at Y-12 as DOE and NNSA continues mission activities of the site.

  13. 75 FR 10814 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties Pursuant...., Lothian, 09001094, LISTED, 12/18/09 Scott, Lula G., Community Center, 6243 Shady Side Rd., Shady Side...

  14. 36 CFR 7.78 - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. 7.78 Section 7.78 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.78 Harpers Ferry National...

  15. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites, and similar preserves. 230.54 Section 230... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores...

  16. 36 CFR 65.5 - Designation of National Historic Landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as identified in “History and Prehistory in the National Park System,” 1982. (2) Theme studies in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of National Historic Landmarks. 65.5 Section 65.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  17. EAARL Bare Earth Topography-Colonial National Historical Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Colonial National Historical Park were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  18. EAARL Topography-Thomas Stone National Historic Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of Thomas Stone National Historic Site was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  19. EAARL Topography-Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of the Sagamore Hill National Historic Site were produced from remotely-sensed,...

  20. Spatial Vegetation Data for Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as...

  1. 78 FR 59368 - Notice of Joint Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... National Park Service Notice of Joint Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council and Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY: National Park... John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail and the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail will...

  2. Pollutants in environmental historical national accounts. A thermodynamic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, M. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    1996-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to introduce some ideas concerning environmentally integrated historical national accounts and to submit a method for handling pollutants in that framework. The paper starts with a background, discusses some difficulties concerning the handling of residuals in environmental accounting, and introduces a method which might be suitable for historical environmental accounting involving pollutants. As a final step the method is evaluated and the results are interpreted in relation to ordinary production data given by historical GDP series for Sweden. 29 refs, 3 figs

  3. Studying constructions of national identity across historical settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Øland, Trine

    2018-01-01

    , and national self-imagery. The first setting is the first decade after World War II and the second setting is the post-9/11 era. The empirical focus is based on sources pertaining to the way police officers and related professionals of the Danish welfare nation-state construct disturbing behavior and how...... identity, we clarify the theoretically guided questions that will be put to work in the analyses. Next, we describe the methodology and empirical material of the two historical settings, then follows the analyses of the two historical settings, and finally, we present an analytical discussion featuring...

  4. 78 FR 36570 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places, National Park...

  5. 75 FR 41235 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service,1201...

  6. 77 FR 29681 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ...-3200-665] National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions... Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places, National Park...

  7. 77 FR 56231 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  8. 77 FR 69498 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  9. 78 FR 50106 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  10. 77 FR 37066 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...-3200-665] National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions... Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places, National Park...

  11. 76 FR 71601 - Record of Decision, Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study/Abbreviated Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... National Park Service Record of Decision, Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study/Abbreviated... Environmental Impact Statement for the Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study. SUMMARY: Pursuant to... Statement for the Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, prepared by National Trails...

  12. 75 FR 2887 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1201 Eye St. NW., 8th floor...

  13. 77 FR 12878 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  14. 75 FR 41234 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  15. 75 FR 62851 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  16. 77 FR 515 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  17. 75 FR 25291 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  18. 76 FR 16638 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW.., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  19. 77 FR 55226 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  20. 76 FR 56795 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  1. 75 FR 4415 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1201 Eye St., NW., 8th...

  2. 76 FR 21005 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  3. 77 FR 71828 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  4. 76 FR 69761 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  5. 78 FR 64008 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  6. 77 FR 4582 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  7. 76 FR 27345 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  8. 77 FR 61783 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  9. 77 FR 25195 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  10. 76 FR 62442 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  11. 75 FR 60137 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  12. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places, National and State register of Historic Sites. Also maintained is a buffer of 500 feet from those historic sites. Data includes the site name, site address, and national or state registered., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia / Lyon County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places dataset current as of 2011. National and State register of Historic Sites. Also maintained is a buffer of 500...

  13. The Zimbabwean liberation war: contesting representations of nation and nationalism in historical fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Muwati

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the array of macro and micro historical factors that stirred historical agency in the 1970s war against colonial settlerism as depicted in selected liberation war fiction. This war eventually led to a negotiated independence in April 1980. Historical fiction in the early 1980s is characterised by an abundance of fictional images that give expression to the macrofactors, while historical fiction in the late 1980s onwards parades a plethora of images which prioritise the microhistorical factors. Against this background, the article problematises the discussion of these factors within the context of postindependence Zimbabwean politics. It argues that the contesting representations of macro- and microfactors in historical fiction on the war symbolise the protean and fluid discourse on nation and nationalism in the Zimbabwean polity. Definitions and interpretations of nation and nationalism are at the centre of Zimbabwean politics, because they are linked to the protracted liberation war against colonialism and the politics of hegemony in the state. Macrofactors express and endorse an official view of nationalism and nation. On the other hand, microfactors problematise and contest the narrow appropriation of nation and nationalism by advocating multiple perspectives on the subject in order to subvert and counter the elite hegemony.

  14. 76 FR 77249 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ..., National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. CALIFORNIA San Bernardino County... FLORIDA Orange County Lake Adair--Lake Concord Historic District, Roughly Golfview St., Edgewater Ct... Warren County Lake George Battlefield Park Historic District, 139 Beach Rd., Lake George, 11000971 NORTH...

  15. Assessment of Eligibility to National Register of Historic Places Building 431 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M A; Ullrich, R A

    2003-05-07

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to demolish the original sections of Building 431 at its main site in Livermore, California. As this action will constitute an undertaking within the regulatory constraints of the National Historic Preservation Act, LLNL arranged for an assessment of the building's historic significance. This report provides a brief history of the magnetic fusion energy research activities housed in Building 431 and a historic assessment of the building. The final recommendation of the report is that, although Building 431 housed some significant breakthroughs in accelerator technology and magnetic mirror plasma confinement, it lacks integrity for the periods of significance of those developments. It is, therefore, not eligible to the National Register of Historic Places.

  16. Historical Memory and the Representation of History: Forging Connections Between National Historic Sites and Gender History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittney Ann Bos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La relation entre les Lieux historiques nationaux et de l’histoire des femmes et du genre n’a jusqu’à présent que rarement été explorée. Il est possible de mieux comprendre le lien potentiel entre ces deux domaines en considérant la mémoire historique en tant que méthodologie clé tant pour les Lieux historiques nationaux et pour l’histoire des femmes et du genre. La mémoire historique peut être comprise à la fois comme un cadre théorique et comme une méthodologie qui repositionne les questions sur le passé et la façon dont on s’en souvient, individuellement et collectivement. La mémoire historique est une méthodologie importante utilisée dans l’histoire des femmes et du genre afin d’examiner les questions complexes entourant la formation des souvenirs et l’histoire plus généralement. Elle se fonde sur l’histoire orale, mais présente un ensemble plus complexe de questions qui examinent la construction de la mémoire elle-même. De même, la mémoire historique est une méthodologie clée utilisée dans la conservation du patrimoine car elle sert comme une source importante de documentation et elle est utile dans la « mise en scène » du passé aux Lieux historiques nationaux. La représentation publique de la mémoire n’est pas seulement une méthode utile pour faire participer le public au passé, mais elle a également le pouvoir de transformer la mémoire collective de la nation. Basée sur ce lien, la mémoire historique est une méthode utile pour comprendre les liens complexes et rarement explorés entre l’histoire des femmes et du genre et les Lieux historiques nationaux. Cet article examine le rôle de la mémoire historique en tant que cadre théorique et la méthodologie féministe dans l’établissement des liens entre ces deux domaines des représentations historiques.The relationship between National Historic Sites and gender history has, up to this point, rarely been explored. By

  17. Field Plot Points for Colonial National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Colonial National Historical Park.

  18. Accuracy Assessment Points for Friendship Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation classification and mapping of Friendship Hill National Historic Site.

  19. 75 FR 12254 - Official Trail Marker for the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Official Insignia, Designation. Authority: National Trails System Act.... SUMMARY: This notice issues the official trail marker insignia of the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail...

  20. 76 FR 28806 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United ] States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849... Places, National Park Service,1201 Eye St. NW., 8th floor, Washington DC 20005; or by fax, 202-371-6447...

  1. The historic and national aspects of medical ethics and deontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhoda Igor' Viktorovich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches of problems of medical ethics and deontology in activity of the medical worker presented. Historical and national aspects of the delivered problem are considered. They open diversity and complexity of realization of problems of formation of the person of the medical worker. The humanism in medicine makes its ethical basis and morals. The humanism serves moral development of the person of the medical worker. Without humanism the medicine loses the right on existence. Its scientific and professional principles conflict to its basic purpose - to serve the person.

  2. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic for Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS Imagine and MrSID images of the eastern portion of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site...

  3. Frequency, impact, and predictors of persistent pain after root canal treatment: a national dental PBRN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Donald R; Law, Alan S; Lindquist, Kimberly; Reams, Gregory J; Cole, Emery; Kanter, Keith; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Harris, D Robert

    2016-01-01

    Root canal treatment (RCT) is commonly performed surgery and persistent pain is known to occur, but little is known about how these patients are affected by this pain. Although biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be associated with the development of such pain, similar to persistent pain after surgery in other body sites, little is known about the baseline predictors for persistent pain. We assessed the frequency of persistent pain 6 months after RCT, measured the impact this pain had on patients, and determined predictive factors for persistent tooth pain in a multicenter prospective cohort study conducted within the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Of 708 patients enrolled, 651 (91.9%) provided follow-up data, with 65 (10.0%) meeting criteria for pain 6 months after RCT. On average, these patients reported their pain as mild to moderate in intensity, present for approximately 10 days in the preceding month, and minimally interfered with daily activities. After adjusting for the type of dental practitioner and patient age, gender, and household income, pain duration over the week before RCT significantly increased the risk of developing persistent pain (odds ratio = 1.19 per 1 day increase in pain duration, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.33), whereas optimism about the procedure reduced the risk (odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.67). Our data suggest that persistent pain 6 months after RCT is fairly common, but generally does not have a large impact on those experiencing it. Furthermore, patient age and gender did not predict persistent pain, whereas preoperative pain duration and the patient's expectation did.

  4. Frequency, Impact, and Predictors of Persistent Pain Following Root Canal Treatment: A National Dental PBRN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Donald R.; Law, Alan S.; Lindquist, Kimberly; Reams, Gregory J.; Cole, Emery; Kanter, Keith; Nguyen, Ruby H.N.; Harris, D. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Root canal treatment (RCT) is commonly performed surgery and persistent pain is known to occur, but little is known about how these patients are affected by this pain. While biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be associated with the development of such pain, similar to persistent pain following surgery in other body sites, little is known about the baseline predictors for persistent pain. We assessed the frequency of persistent pain 6 months following RCT, measured the impact this pain had on patients, and determined predictive factors for persistent tooth pain in a multi-center prospective cohort study conducted within the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Of 708 patients enrolled, 651 (91.9%) provided follow-up data, with 65 (10.0%) meeting criteria for pain 6 months following RCT. On average, these patients reported their pain as mild to moderate in intensity, present for about 10 days in the preceding month, and minimally interfered with daily activities. After adjusting for type of dental practitioner and patient age, gender and household income, pain duration over the week prior to RCT significantly increased the risk of developing persistent pain (odds ratio [OR]=1.19 per 1 day increase in pain duration, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.33), whereas optimism about the procedure reduced the risk (OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.22–0.67). Our data suggest that persistent pain following RCT is fairly common, but generally does not have a large impact on those experiencing it. Furthermore, patient age and gender did not predict persistent pain, while pre-operative pain duration and the patient’s expectation did. PMID:26335907

  5. Root Canal Therapy Reduces Multiple Dimensions of Pain: A National Dental PBRN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Alan S.; Nixdorf, Donald R.; Rabinowitz, Ira; Reams, Gregory J.; Smith, James A.; Torres, Anibal V.; Harris, D. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Initial orthograde root canal therapy (RCT) is used to treat dentoalveolar pathosis. The affect RCT has on pain intensity has been frequently reported, but the affect on other dimensions of pain has not. Also, the lack of large prospective studies involving diverse groups of patients and practitioners that are not involved in data collection suggest that there are multiple opportunities for bias to be introduced when this data is systematically aggregated. Method This prospective observational study assessed pain intensity, duration, and its interference with daily activities among RCT patients. Sixty-two practitioners (46 general dentists, 16 endodontists) in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network enrolled patients requiring RCT. Patient reported data were collected before, immediately following, and one week after treatment using the Graded Chronic Pain Scale. Results Enrollment of 708 patients was completed over 6 months with 655 patients (93%) providing one-week follow-up data. Prior to treatment, patients reported a mean (±standard deviation) worst pain intensity of 5.3±3.8 (0-10 scale), 50% had “severe” pain (≥7), and mean days in pain and days pain interfered with activities were 3.6±2.7 and 0.5±1.2, respectively. Following treatment, patients reported a mean worst pain intensity of 3.0±3.2, 19% had “severe” pain, and mean days in pain and days with pain interference were 2.1±2.4 and 0.4±1.1, respectively. All changes were statistically significant (ppain, significantly reducing pain intensity, duration, and related interference. Further research is needed to reduce the proportion of patients reporting “severe” post-operative pain. PMID:25190605

  6. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  7. Spatial Vegetation Data for Valley Forge National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation and landcover of Valley Forge National Historical Park (VAFO) were mapped to the association level of the National Vegetation Classification System...

  8. External ear canal exostosis and otitis media in temporal bones of prehistoric and historic chilean populations. A paleopathological and paleoepidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mario; Goycoolea, Marcos; Silva-Pinto, Verónica

    2017-04-01

    External ear canal exostosis is more prevalent in northern coastal groups than in the highlands, suggesting that ocean activities facilitate the appearance of exostosis. However, southern coastal groups exposed to colder ocean water have a lesser incidence of exostosis, possibly due to less duration of exposure. There was a high incidence of otitis media in all groups of native population in Chile. One coastal group had a higher incidence, presumably due to racial factors. This is a paleopathological and paleoepidemiological study in temporal bones which assesses external ear canal exostosis and otitis media in prehistoric and historic native populations in Chile. A total of 460 temporal bones were evaluated for exostosis (ex) and 542 temporal bones were evaluated for otitis media (om). The study involved four groups: (1) Prehistoric Coastal (400-1000 AD) populations in Northern Chile (Pisagua-Tiwanaku) (22 temporal bones ex; 28 om); (2) Prehistoric Highland (400-1000 AD) populations in Northern Chile (292 temporal bones ex; 334 om); (3) Pisagua-Regional Developments (coastal) in Northern Chile (1000-1450 AD) (66 temporal bones ex; 82 om); and (4) Historic (1500-1800 AD) coastal populations in Southern Chile (80 temporal bones ex: 18 Chonos, 62 Fuegians. 98 om: 22 Chonos, 76 Fuegians). Skulls were evaluated visually and with an operating microscope. In addition, the otitis media group was evaluated with Temporal bone radiology - -lateral XRays-Schuller view - to assess pneumatization as evidence of previous middle ear disease. Prehistoric northern coastal groups had an incidence of exostosis of 15.91%, the northern highlands group 1.37%, and the southern coastal group 1.25%. There were changes suggestive of otitis media in: Pisagua/Tiwanaku 53.57%; Pisagua/Regional Developments 70.73%; Northern Highlands population 47.90%; Chonos 63.64%; and Fuegian tribes 64.47%.

  9. 77 FR 12324 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... National Park Service Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY... Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an amendment..., Maryland, Delaware, and in the District of Columbia,'' tracing the 1607-1609 voyages of Captain John Smith...

  10. 77 FR 64352 - Notice of Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory... Advisory Committee on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting...-1609 voyages of Captain John Smith to chart the land and waterways of the Chesapeake Bay. This meeting...

  11. 77 FR 2317 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... National Park Service Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY... Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting via conference call. Designated... voyages of Captain John Smith to chart the land and waterways of the Chesapeake Bay. This meeting is...

  12. 76 FR 26767 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... National Park Service Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY... Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an amendment..., Maryland, Delaware, and in the District of Columbia,'' tracing the 1607-1609 voyages of Captain John Smith...

  13. 76 FR 52691 - Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... National Park Service Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY... Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an amendment..., Maryland, Delaware, and in the District of Columbia,'' tracing the 1607-1609 voyages of Captain John Smith...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1904 - Kennecott Mines National Historic Landmark (KNHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and other mine openings; (c) Camping in or on any historic structure; and (d) Camping within the mill... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennecott Mines National... National Park and Preserve § 13.1904 Kennecott Mines National Historic Landmark (KNHL). A map showing the...

  15. 77 FR 61428 - Notice of Meeting for Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Park Service Notice of Meeting for Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council... on the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail will hold a meeting. Designated through an... of the War of 1812 (including the British invasion of Washington, District of Columbia, and its...

  16. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places, National Register of Historic Places - NRHP is a list of properties identified by the Federal Government as significant in American history and culture. These properties include districts, buildings, sites and objects of significance to the nation, etc., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Department of Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places dataset current as of 2007. National Register of Historic Places - NRHP is a list of properties identified by...

  17. 75 FR 37463 - Official Trail Marker for the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... National Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail AGENCY: National Parks Service, Interior. ACTION: Official Insignia, Designation. Authority: National Trails System.... SUMMARY: This notice issues the official trail marker insignia of the Star-Spangled Banner National...

  18. Spatial Vegetation Data for Colonial National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of Colonial National Historical Park, Virginia. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation,...

  19. Accuracy Assessment Points for Colonial National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Colonial National Historical Park. It was...

  20. Accuracy Assessment Points for Appomattox Court House National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Appomottox Court House National Historical...

  1. Field Plot Points for Appomattox Court House National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Appomottox Court House National Historical Park

  2. Spatial Vegetation Data for Appomattox Court House National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Virginia. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and...

  3. Accuracy Assessment Points for Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes the accuracy assessment points used to assess the alliance-level vegetation map of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (HOFU) developed...

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for San Antonio Missions National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for San Antonio Missions National Historical Park (SAAN) and surrounding areas. This project is...

  5. Spatial Vegetation Data for Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — his metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Lydon B. Johnson National Historical Site and surrounding areas. This project is authorized...

  6. Field Plot Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic...

  7. Field Plot Points for Fort Larned National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Fort Larned National Historic Site.

  8. Spatial Vegetation Data for Fort Larned National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Fort Larned National Historic Site and surrounding areas. This project is authorized as...

  9. Accuracy Assessment Points for San Antonio Missions National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2006 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the sample points collected at San Antonio Missions National Historical Park.

  10. Accuracy Assessment Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2006 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the sample points collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic Site.

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site and surrounding areas. This project is...

  12. Field Plot Points for Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical...

  13. Historic District Cultural Landscape Boundary at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (histland)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of one polygon that represents the historic district cultural landscape at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona as surveyed...

  14. Accuracy Assessment Points for Valley Forge National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes the accuracy assessment points used to assess the association-level vegetation map of Valley Forge National Historic Park developed by the...

  15. Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - Spatial Vegetation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) , Island of Hawai'i and surrounding areas....

  16. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project - Spatial Vegetation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), Island of Hawai'i and surrounding areas....

  17. Wetlands at Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and Surrounding Areas, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon coverage of wetlands at and surronding Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site, Texas. Roughly 20% of the park can be classified as...

  18. EAARL Topography - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) and bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in Louisiana, acquired on September 22, 2006. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system

  19. 75 FR 21652 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ..., National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service,1201 Eye St., NW., 8th Floor, Washington, DC... County Cow Bayou Swing Bridge (Historic Bridges of Texas MPS), SH 73/87 1.13 mi NE of jct with FM 1442...

  20. A Dataset on Comparative Historical National Accounts, ca.1870-1950 : A Time-Series Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.-P.; Woltjer, P.; Ma, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper accompanies the Historical National Accounts datahub which presents an overview of the currently available studies on long-term economic growth across countries. Now that more and more detailed historical national accounts have become available, the Groningen Growth and Development Centre

  1. 77 FR 40376 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ...., Springfield, 12000435 St. Louis Independent City Central States Life Insurance Company Building, 3207... of 36 CFR Part 60, written comments are being accepted concerning the significance of the nominated..., National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. ARIZONA Maricopa County Sun City...

  2. National Theatre historical monument of Brasilia. Case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Silva, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of an International Cooperation Agreement for the conservation of historical monuments made of reinforced concrete in Brasilia. This research is based on a routine inspection of the National Theatre of Brasilia, a city recognized by UNESCO in 1987 as world cultural heritage. The structure, entirely made of reinforced concrete, was conceived by architect Oscar Niemeyer, and has a total of 48 m of height and 42,000 m2 of constructed area. After examining the available documentation, the existing damage was then identified and mapped. The concrete shows a good state of conservation, with the exception of some regions of the structure: the damages found were exposed armature, oxidation of armature, infiltration, mold and efflorescence.

    Este trabajo es parte de un Acuerdo de Cooperación Internacional para la conservación de monumentos históricos de hormigón armado en Brasilia. Esta investigación es el resultado de una inspección rutinaria en el Teatro Nacional de Brasilia, ciudad reconocida por la UNESCO, en 1987, como patrimonio cultural de la humanidad. La estructura, toda en hormigón armado, fue concebida por el arquitecto Osear Niemeyer, con un total de 48 m de altura y 42.000 m2 de área construida. Tras investigar la documentación disponible, se procedió a la identificación y al estudio de los daños existentes. El hormigón presenta un buen estado de conservación, salvo en algunas regiones de la estructura: estructura armada expuesta, oxidación de la estructura armada, infiltración, moho y eflorescencia son algunos de los daños que se encontraron.

  3. The National Eutrophication Survey: lake characteristics and historical nutrient concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelek, Joseph; Ford, Chanse; Kincaid, Dustin; King, Katelyn; Miller, Heather; Nagelkirk, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Historical ecological surveys serve as a baseline and provide context for contemporary research, yet many of these records are not preserved in a way that ensures their long-term usability. The National Eutrophication Survey (NES) database is currently only available as scans of the original reports (PDF files) with no embedded character information. This limits its searchability, machine readability, and the ability of current and future scientists to systematically evaluate its contents. The NES data were collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency between 1972 and 1975 as part of an effort to investigate eutrophication in freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Although several studies have manually transcribed small portions of the database in support of specific studies, there have been no systematic attempts to transcribe and preserve the database in its entirety. Here we use a combination of automated optical character recognition and manual quality assurance procedures to make these data available for analysis. The performance of the optical character recognition protocol was found to be linked to variation in the quality (clarity) of the original documents. For each of the four archival scanned reports, our quality assurance protocol found an error rate between 5.9 and 17 %. The goal of our approach was to strike a balance between efficiency and data quality by combining entry of data by hand with digital transcription technologies. The finished database contains information on the physical characteristics, hydrology, and water quality of about 800 lakes in the contiguous US (Stachelek et al.(2017), https://doi.org/10.5063/F1639MVD). Ultimately, this database could be combined with more recent studies to generate meta-analyses of water quality trends and spatial variation across the continental US.

  4. The revival and preservation of historical memory: national and regional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Svitlenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the urgency of the problems of revitalization and preservation of historical memory in the national and regional contexts at different stages of the past and in the present. It is shown that the historical memory of our region, like most other regions of the country, reflected the five main periods, in particular Russian, Cossack, Imperial, Soviet, modern Ukrainian. Noted that the heterogeneity of the historical memory caused rather substantial differences in the individual and collective media, despite the fact that the inhabitants of the region were a territorial community which were distinguishable features: social, ethnic, political, religious, linguistic, cultural, professional, age, sex, etc. are Focused on those key features, which caused quite stable signs of historical memory inherent in our region in different historical periods. Value is defined revival and preservation of historical memory in the development of modern national identity, the modern historical consciousness and thinking.

  5. 76 FR 35468 - Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... National Park Service Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY: National Park..., the National Park Service (NPS) is hereby giving notice that the Advisory Committee on the Star... Patapsco River, and Baltimore, Maryland, commemorating the Chesapeake Campaign of the War of 1812...

  6. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  7. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tumacacori National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Anning, Pamela; Docherty, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Tumacacori National Historical Park (NHP) in southern Arizona. These surveys were part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. From 2000 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tumacacori NHP to document presence of species within the administrative boundaries of the park's three units. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a long-term monitoring program. We recorded 591 species at Tumacacori NHP, significantly increasing the number of known species for the park (Table 1). Species of note in each taxonomic group include: * Plants: second record in Arizona of muster John Henry, a non-native species that is ranked a 'Class A noxious weed' in California; * Amphibian: Great Plains narrow-mouthed toad; * Reptiles: eastern fence lizard and Sonoran mud turtle; * Birds: yellow-billed cuckoo, green kingfisher, and one observation of the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher; * Fishes: four native species including an important population of the endangered Gila topminnow in the Tumacacori Channel; * Mammals: black bear and all four species of skunk known to occur in Arizona. We recorded 79 non-native species (Table E.S.1), many of which are of management concern, including: Bermudagrass, tamarisk, western mosquitofish, largemouth bass, bluegill, sunfish, American bullfrog, feral cats and dogs, and cattle. We also noted an abundance of crayfish (a non-native invertebrate). We review some of the important non-native species and make recommendations to remove them or to minimize their impacts on the native biota of the park. Based on the observed species richness, Tumacacori NHP possesses high biological diversity of plants, fish

  8. 75 FR 17766 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Twelve Oaks, 7210 AR 7 S, Harrison, 09001237, LISTED, 1/20/10 Carroll County Sanitarium Lake Bridges...) Logan County Liberty Schoolhouse, 12682 Spring Lake Rd., Corley vicinity, 09001252, LISTED, 1/21/10... MPS) CALIFORNIA Los Angeles County Pegfair Estates Historic District, 1525-1645 Pegfair Estates Dr...

  9. Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of historical iron slag, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine; Seal, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site in southeastern Pennsylvania, which features an Fe smelter that was operational in the 18th and 19th centuries, is dominated by three slag piles. Pile 1 slag, from the Hopewell Furnace, and pile 2 slag, likely from the nearby Cornwall Furnace, were both produced in cold-blast charcoal-fired smelters. In contrast, pile 3 slag was produced in an anthracite furnace. Ore samples from the nearby Jones and Hopewell mines that fed the smelter are mainly magnetite-rich with some sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite) and accessory silicates (quartz, garnet, feldspar, and clay minerals). Slag piles 1 and 2 are similar mineralogically containing predominantly skeletal and dendritic aluminian diopside and augite, skeletal forsteritic olivine, glass, rounded blebs of metallic Fe, and exotic quartz. Olivine is a major phase in all samples from pile 2, whereas it occurs in only a few samples from pile 1. Samples of the glass, euhedral spinel, metallic Fe, alabandite–oldhamite solid solution, as well as a sparse Ti carbonitride phase. The bulk chemistry of the slag is dominated by Al2O3 (8.5–16.2 wt.%), CaO (8.2–26.2 wt.%), MgO (4.2–24.7 wt.%), and SiO2 (36.4–59.8 wt.%), constituting between 81% and 97% of the mass of the samples. Piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar; pile 1 slag overall contains the highest Fe2O3, K2O and MnO, and the lowest MgO concentrations. Pile 3 slag is high in Al2O3, CaO and S, and low in Fe2O3, K2O and SiO2 compared to the other piles. In general, piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar to each other, whereas pile 3 is distinct – a conclusion that reflects their mineralogy. The similarities and differences among piles in terms of mineralogy and major element chemistry result from the different smelting conditions under which the slag formed and include the fuel source, the composition of the ore and flux, the type of blast (cold versus hot), which affects the furnace temperature, and other

  10. General Dentists’ Use of Isolation Techniques During Root Canal Treatment: from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Eleazer, Paul D.; Benjamin, Paul L.; Worley, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preliminary study done by a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network precursor observed that 44% of general dentists (GDs) reported always using a rubber dam (RD) during root canal treatment (RCT). This full-scale study quantified use of all isolation techniques, including RD use. Methods Network practitioners completed a questionnaire about isolation techniques used during RCT. Network Enrollment Questionnaire data provided practitioner characteristics. Results 1,490 of 1,716 eligible GDs participated (87%); 697 (47%) reported always using a RD. This percentage varied by tooth type. These GDs were more likely to always use a RD: do not own a private practice; perform less than 10 RCT/month; have postgraduate training. Conclusions Most GDs do not use a RD all the time. Ironically, RDs are used more frequently by GDs who do not perform molar RCT. RD use varies with tooth type and certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. PMID:26015159

  11. Historical Research and Nation-Building in Africa | Kingdom | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History as a distinct discipline deals with a systematic study of man's past for the sole purpose of societal development. Historical research adopts the interdisciplinary model which harnesses the potentials of oral tradition, written records, archaeology and other disciplines in analyzing the socio-economic currents of society.

  12. 77 FR 11584 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... County Nahant Life--Saving Station, 96 Nahant Rd., Nahant, 12000133 NEW YORK Seneca County Women's Rights... Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. ARIZONA Maricopa County Sacred Heart Church, 920 S... View Dr., Riverside, 12000125 San Bernardino County Ensign, Dr. Orville S., House, 304 S. Laurel Ave...

  13. 76 FR 46839 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. CALIFORNIA Placer County Chapel of the Transfiguration, 855 W. Lake Blvd., Tahoe City, 11000534 KENTUCKY Fayette County Mathews, Courtney, House, 547 Breckinridge St., Lexington, 11000535 Graves County Mayfield Electric and Water Systems, 301 E. Broadway...

  14. 77 FR 14420 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. CALIFORNIA Los Angeles County Fox Wilshire Theatre, 8440 Wilshire Blvd., Beverly Hills, 12000164 DELAWARE New Castle County Stockton--Montmorency... Blvd. W., Charleston, 12000181 WISCONSIN Oconto County Archibald Lake Mound Group, Address Restricted...

  15. Native Americans, the National Parks, and the Concept of Historical Inevitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about native Americans, the national parks and the concept of historical inevitability. The notion of historical inevitability, always a victor's argument, is as old as the stories of the ancient conquerors. It has permeated the history of Indian America, as told by white historians, and people are still today…

  16. 77 FR 32133 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. INDIANA La Porte County Garwood, John and... Harris County Mellinger, Marguerite Meachum & John S., House, 3452 Del Monte Dr., Houston, 12000351...: INDIANA Knox County Rose Hill Farmstead, Co. Rd. ce10s, 0.25 mi. N of jct. with Old Wheatland Rd...

  17. New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Ford's Theatre National Historical Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Boston National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Minute Man National Historical Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Women's Rights National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Saint Paul's Church National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Andrew Johnson National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Fort Davis National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. 77 FR 33239 - Prairie Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, San Juan Island National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Prairie Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, San Juan Island National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental... stewardship actions, and nature and extent of potential environmental consequences and appropriate mitigation...

  9. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) dataset for War in the Pacific National Historical Park (wapa_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within War in the Pacific National Historical...

  10. 76 FR 12992 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Historic Places, National Park Service, 1201 Eye St., NW., 8th floor, Washington DC 20005; or by fax, 202..., Missouri River, River Mi 129.4- 131.1 W side of river, Cow Island Vicinity, 11000093 NEBRASKA Cass County...

  11. EAARL Topography-Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface/bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in Louisiana was...

  12. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (kaho_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park...

  13. 78 FR 44149 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Division Ave., Poplar, Front, Ash & 4th Sts., Sterling, 13000592 ] INDIANA Porter County Good Fellow Club Youth Camp, 700 Howe Rd., Porter, 13000593 IOWA Cedar County Herbert Hoover National Historic Site...

  14. South Korean historical drama : gender, nation and the heritage industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Yun Mi

    2011-01-01

    Electronic version excludes material for which permission has not been granted by the rights holder From the dynamic landscape of contemporary South Korean cinema, one trend that stands out is the palpable revival of the historical drama (known as the ‘sageuk’ in Korean). Since the early 2000s, expensive, visually striking, and successful costumed pieces have been showcased to the audience. Now rivalling the other mainstream genres such as gangster action, romantic comedy, and the Korean b...

  15. Historic Context and Building Assessments for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Built Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R. A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sullivan, M. A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-09-14

    This document was prepared to support u.s. Department of Energy / National Nuclear Security Agency (DOE/NNSA) compliance with Sections 106 and 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a DOE/NNSA laboratory and is engaged in determining the historic status of its properties at both its main site in Livermore, California, and Site 300, its test site located eleven miles from the main site. LLNL contracted with the authors via Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to prepare a historic context statement for properties at both sites and to provide assessments of those properties of potential historic interest. The report contains an extensive historic context statement and the assessments of individual properties and groups of properties determined, via criteria established in the context statement, to be of potential interest. The historic context statement addresses the four contexts within which LLNL falls: Local History, World War II History (WWII), Cold War History, and Post-Cold War History. Appropriate historic preservation themes relevant to LLNL's history are delineated within each context. In addition, thresholds are identified for historic significance within each of the contexts based on the explication and understanding of the Secretary of the Interior's Guidelines for determining eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places. The report identifies specific research areas and events in LLNL's history that are of interest and the portions of the built environment in which they occurred. Based on that discussion, properties of potential interest are identified and assessments of them are provided. Twenty individual buildings and three areas of potential historic interest were assessed. The final recommendation is that, of these, LLNL has five individual historic buildings, two sets of historic objects, and two historic districts eligible for the National Register. All are

  16. Differential Diagnoses for Persistent Pain Following Root Canal Treatment: A Study in the National Dental PBRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Donald R.; Law, Alan S.; John, Mike T.; Sobieh, Radwa M.; Kohli, Richie; Nguyen, Ruby H.N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pain present 6 months following root canal treatment (RCT) may be either of odontogenic or nonodontogenic origin. This is importance because treatments and prognoses are different; therefore the aim of this study was to provide specific diagnoses of patients reporting pain 6 months after receiving initial orthograde RCT. Methods We enrolled patients from the Midwest region of an existing prospective observational study of pain after RCT. Pain at 6 months was defined as ≥1 day of pain and average pain intensity of at least 1/10 over the preceding month. An Endodontist and an Orofacial Pain practitioner independently performed clinical evaluations, which included periapical and cone-beam CT radiographs, to determine diagnoses. Results Thirty-eight out of the 354 eligible patients in the geographic area (11%) met the pain criteria, with 19 (50%) consenting to be clinically evaluated. As the sole reason for pain, 7 patients (37%) were given odontogenic diagnoses (4 involving the RCT tooth, 3 involving an adjacent tooth). Eight patients (42%) were given nonodontogenic pain diagnoses (7 from referred temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain, 1 from persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder (PDAP)). Two patients (11%) had both odontogenic and nonodontogenic diagnoses, while 2 (11%) no longer fit the pain criteria at the time of the clinical evaluation. Conclusion Patients reporting “tooth” pain 6 months following RCT had a nonodontogenic pain diagnosis accounting for some of this pain, with TMD being the most frequent nonodonotgenic diagnosis. Dentists should have the necessary knowledge to differentiate between these diagnoses to adequately manage their patients. PMID:25732400

  17. Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Historic Boundary Map, 1948?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — General boundary map for Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge generated March 1948. This map however may reflect actual ownership much later as there is indication in...

  18. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Residential Historical Claims

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) aims to reduce the impact of flooding—a burden not covered by homeowner’s insurance—by providing insurance to homeowners,...

  19. Two Ponds Canal realignments : National Wildlife Refuge Stormwater Routing; DAC Job No. 0130.003.00

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum conveying estimations concerning improving drainage to the Two Ponds National Wildlife Refuge Property from Deere & Ault Consultants, Inc. This memo...

  20. 75 FR 8398 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    .... ALASKA Dillingham Borough-Census Area Brooks Camp Boat House, (Tourism and Early Park Development Resources of Katmai National Park and Preserve) Shore of Naknek Lake, just N. of the Brooks River Mouth in Katmai National Park and Preserve, King Salmon, 10000071 Brooks River Historic Ranger Station, (Tourism...

  1. 75 FR 37462 - Official Trail Marker for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... National Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail... Trails System Act, 16 U.S.C. 124(a) and 1246(c) and Protection of Official Badges, insignia, etc. in 18 U.S.C. 701. SUMMARY: This notice issues the official trail marker insignias of the Captain John Smith...

  2. 78 FR 39769 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... Shoals Rd., Lula, 13000529 Clarke County Cobb, T.R.R., House, 175 Hill St., Athens, 13000530 Coweta...

  3. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmann, Robert; Belzen, Jacob A

    2009-08-01

    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian religion, whether understood as an institution, a worldview, or a form of personal spirituality. The articles in this issue focus on the intertwinements between institutional religion and national political structures and on their influence on developing forms of psychology in four different national contexts: Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Within these four settings, aspects of the ways in which varying forms of Christian religion coconstituted, facilitated, and shaped psychology, theoretically, practically, and institutionally, are examined. The formative power of the religions was not independent of the relationships between religion and political power, but rather mediated by these.

  4. Contingent and Continuing Employment: Comparative National and Historical Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marens, Richard; Tackney, Charles T.

    This symposium focuses on the comparative impact of social institutions and labor laws on both contingent and continuing employment. Presenters will apply a wide range of analytical concepts to the history and culture of five individual nations. These concepts include a diverse set of theoretical...... wide-ranging coverage of the organizational meaning of contingent or continued employment for both formal and informal employment across a diverse group of nations, a group that includes Peru, Colombia, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States. Following the presentations, the presenters...

  5. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.; Kugelmann, R.

    2009-01-01

    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian

  6. National tourism indicators : historical estimates, 1986-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1997 edition, new and revised benchmarks were introduced for 1992 and 1988. The indicators are used to monitor supply, demand and employment for tourism in Canada on a timely basis. The annual tables are derived using the National Income and E...

  7. 36 CFR 65.4 - National Historic Landmark criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... outstandingly commemorate or illustrate a way of life or culture; or (6) That have yielded or may be likely to... importantly with the lives of persons nationally significant in the history of the United States; or (3) That represent some great idea or ideal of the American people; or (4) That embody the distinguishing...

  8. The War in the Historical Memory of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj V. Pavlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the most important event of the 20th century was a joint victory of the united front of peoples and states over German fascism. For some that was the victory in the Second World War. For the Russians - the victory in the Great Patriotic War which cost the Soviet Union incredible efforts, enormous sacrifices and material losses. Now when we celebrate the 70thyear since that epoch-making date we turn our attention once more to the lessons of history because the memory of the war has been imprinted deeply on our gene level of Russians and Germans. This is because every family from both sides sustained heavy losses. This memory is alive in literature, in movies and plays, songs, in memorials, biographies and historical dates. The Russian and German descendants of those who fought against each other are doing an important work searching for the killed, looking after the burial places, compensating the damage to the victims of this inhuman massacre, trying to understand critically our common and controversial past. What was the 9th of May for the Germans and the Russians in the perception of Germans and Russians? Was it a victory, a defeat or liberation? This is what the author of the article reflects on, convinced that we are anyway dealing with the greatest event of the 20th century, at least because it prevented the end of civilization.

  9. A HISTORICAL MUSICOLOGICAL DISCUSSION IN SEARCH OF SYNTHESES: CONSTRUCTING NATIONAL MUSIC IN THE REPUBLICAN ERA

    OpenAIRE

    Işıktaş, Bilen

    2017-01-01

    To borrow from Eric Hobsbawm, “Age of Empires” is now replaced by the age of nation states, while tones between the past and the present are combined with a motive for rediscovery and re-adoption. As people emotionally identify themselves with their nations, the merge of moments reinforce their readiness for political action leads to the emergence of symbolic elements associated with constructions of nationalism. Myths, rituals and mementoes become a social reality through historicity. Langua...

  10. Bioethics and the Italian National Bioethics Committee: historical highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A A

    2016-01-01

    Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath. An institutional milestone in the Italian evolution of bioethical knowledge and competence was the foundation of the Italian National Bioethics Committee (NBC), established in 1990. The NBC, which answers to the Council of Ministers, provides methodological support to the Italian Government in the field of bioethical issues, elaborating legislative acts and also furnishing information and consultation for other bodies and associations and for the general public. The activity of the NBC is clearly discernible in its free and user-friendly website. Today, the Internet is often the first repository where individuals and patients look for bioethical information. Given that the quality of this information is extremely variable and not infrequently unreliable, initiatives such as that of the above mentioned NBC website are particularly useful and precious both for health care operators and the entire community.

  11. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  12. National Register of Historic Places multiple property documentation form -- Historic, archaeological, and traditional cultural properties of the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site encompasses an area of 560 square miles on the Columbia River in southeastern Washington. Since 1943, the Hanford Site has existed as a protected area for activities primarily related to the production of radioactive materials for national defense uses. For cultural resources on the Hanford Site, establishment of the nuclear reservation as a high security area, with public access restricted, has resulted in a well-protected status, although no deliberate resource protection measures were in effect to mitigate effects of facilities construction and associated activities. Thus, the Hanford Site contains an extensive record of aboriginal archaeological sites and Native American cultural properties, along with pre-Hanford Euro-American sites (primarily archaeological in nature with the removal of most pre-1943 structures), and a considerable number of Manhattan Project/Cold War era buildings and structures. The recent mission change from production to clean up and disposal of DOE lands created a critical need for development and implementation of new and different cultural resource management strategies. DOE-RL has undertaken a preservation planning effort for the Hanford Site. The intent of this Plan is to enable DOE-RL to organize data and develop goals, objectives, and priorities for the identification, evaluation, registration, protection, preservation, and enhancement of the Site`s historical and cultural properties. Decisions made about the identification, evaluation, registration and treatment of historic properties are most aptly made when relationships between individual properties and other similar properties are considered. The historic context and the multiple property documentation (NTD) process provides DOE-RL the organizational framework for these decisions. Once significant patterns are identified, contexts developed, and expected properties are defined, the NTD process provides the foundation for future

  13. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    Calcite and aragonite speleothems (stalactites and stalagmites) deposited in caves often display fluorescence. It may take the form of couplets of greater and lesser intensity that have been shown to be annual pairs in some carefully controlled instances such as deposits in 20th Century canal tunnels. The variations of intensity are related to seasonal variations in concentrations of fluorophores (chiefly fulvic acids) in the feed water to the speleothem. To test for the possibility and replicability of couplet formation two small stalagmites likely to be of historic age were collected in Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary, in 1992. This is a large cave in Triassic limestones and dolomites that have been intensely deformed by Carpathian tectonism to allow ready ground water penetration. As a consequence, it is profusely decorated with speleothems and has been a tourist attraction since the 18th Century. The samples were taken ten metres apart in an abandoned river passage at a depth of 40-60 m beneath the surface, which is mantled with terra rossas, rendzinas and luvisols mostly less than 50 cm in thickness. The vegetation cover is deciduous forest with small patches of grassland, spruce and pine. At a nearby meteorological station 30-year mean January and July temperatures are -3.5o C and 18.5o C respectively. Annual mean precipitation is 560 mm, with a summer maximum and actual evapotranspiration less than 400 mm. Samples AGG-1 and -2 were bright white calcite stalagmites 90 and 70 mm in length respectively and 40-50 mm in width. They were growing on the blackened stumps of larger stalagmites that had been taken as souvenirs. Blackening was caused by smoky torches used in the earliest days of tourism, and replaced by lanterns around 1820 CE. 2 mm thick slices were cut perpendicular to the growth axes of the samples, polished, excited by electronic flash gun and photographed at 1/60th second with Kodak TMAX ISO 3200 film, using multiple exposures to

  14. 77 FR 44268 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Actions Nominations for the following properties being considered for listing or related actions in the... nominated properties under the National Register criteria for evaluation. Comments may be forwarded by...., House, 11361 W. 44th Ave., Wheat Ridge, 12000495 FLORIDA Hillsborough County Palmetto Beach Historic...

  15. 75 FR 74079 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... House, 160 E Granada Blvd, Ormond Beach, 10001033 MAINE Androscoggin County Bates Mill Historic District... Michigan National Guard Armory, 330 Marshall St, Lansing, 10001025 Muskegon County Lewis, John C. and... by Court St, Stuart St, Wood St, an Garrison Ave, West Union, 10001029 WISCONSIN Ozaukee County...

  16. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar 629 -- Photographs, written historical and descriptive data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The report describes the history of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Hangar 629. The hangar was built to test the possibility of linking jet engine technology with nuclear power. The history of the project is described along with the development and eventual abandonment of the Flight Engine Test hangar. The report contains historical photographs and architectural drawings.

  17. Trace metals related to historical iron smelting at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). The ore used at Hopewell Furnace was obtained from iron mines within 5 miles of the furnace. The iron-ore deposits were formed about 200 million years ago and contain abundant magnetite, the primary iron mineral, and accessory minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, lead, and other metals. Hopewell Furnace, built by Mark Bird during 1770-71, was one of the last of the charcoal-burning, cold-blast iron furnaces operated in Pennsylvania. The most productive years for Hopewell Furnace were from 1830 to 1837. Castings were the most profitable product, especially the popular Hopewell Stove. More than 80,000 stoves were cast at Hopewell, which produced as many as 23 types and sizes of cooking and heating stoves. Beginning in the 1840s, the iron industry shifted to large-scale, steam-driven coke and anthracite furnaces. Independent rural enterprises like Hopewell could no longer compete when the iron and steel industries consolidated in urban manufacturing centers. The furnace ceased operation in 1883 (Kurjack, 1954). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, completed a study at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS) in Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, to determine the fate of toxic trace metals, such as arsenic, cobalt, and lead, released into the environment during historical iron-smelting operations. The results of the study, conducted during 2008-10, are presented in this fact sheet.

  18. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  19. Comprehensive work plan for Building 3001 storage canal at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This Comprehensive Work Plan describes the method of accomplishment to replace the shielding protection of the water in the canal with a controlled low strength material (CLSM) 4. The canal was used during the operation of the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor in the 1940s and 1950s to transport spent fuel slugs and irradiated test materials from the reactor, under water to the hot cell in Building 3019 for further processing, packaging, and handling. After the reactor was shut down, the canal was used until 1990 to store some irradiated materials until they could be transferred to a Solid Waste Storage Area. This task has the following objectives and components: (1) minimize potential future risk to human health and the environment; (2) reduce surveillance and maintenance cost of the canal; (3) perform site preparation activities; (4) replace the water in the canal with a solid CLSM; (5) pump the water to the Process Waste Treatment System (PWTS) for further processing at the same rate that the CLSM is pumped under the water; (6) remove the water using a process that will protect the workers and the public in the visitors area from contamination while the CLSM is being pumped underneath the water; (7) painting a protective coating material over the CLSM after the CLSM has cured.

  20. The Suitability of Adaptive Reuse Practices on Historic Residential Buildings to National Memorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syahila Ab Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the life of the old buildings in the country through building conservation practices, there is a tendency by the government to acquire and reuse Malaysian leadership figures’ residential buildings as memorials. However, it raises the question of whether there is any adaptive reuse guidelines to reuse historic residential buildings in Malaysia as national memorials in maintaining those buildings as an exhibition space on the history of their leadership. The absence of guidelines raises questions about how to implement the process accordingly. The objective of this research is to find the best formula for reusing historic residential buildings as national memorials based on that issue by reviewing and identify the principles of adaptive reuse practices of historic residential buildings as national memorials that implemented in Malaysia. The case studies were conducted on three samples of historic residential buildings that reused as national memorials and those buildings were selected based on a list of the study population, which are Rumah Kelahiran Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (The Birthplace of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Rumah Merdeka (Freedom House and Memorial Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba (The Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba Memorial. The sample may be determined by the sampling method and evaluated using the checklist provided. Based on the results of the case studies that were analyzed and discussed, it can be concluded that aspects of building code (local requirements as well as environmental and conservation requirements are not met in implementing adaptive reuse process on historic residential buildings to national memorials which needs suggestions for improvement.

  1. National Wetlands Inventory -- Cape Hatteras National Seashore, Fort Raleigh National Historic Site and Wright Brothers National Monument (Line Features)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and classification as developed by the U.S. Fish Vol. 19/2, pp. 5-12) entitled "NWI Maps: What They Tell Us"...

  2. National Wetlands Inventory -- Cape Hatteras National Seashore, Fort Raleigh National Historic Site and Wright Brothers National Monument (Polygon Features)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and classification as developed by the U.S. Fish Vol. 19/2, pp. 5-12) entitled "NWI Maps: What They Tell Us"...

  3. Digital Geologic Map of San Juan Island National Historical Park and vicinity, Washington (NPS, GRD, GRE, SAJH, SAJH digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of San Juan Island National Historical Park and vicinity, Washington is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR)...

  4. 2006 USGS/NPS/NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A first surface/bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in Louisiana was...

  5. Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas (NPS, GRD, GRE, PAAL, PAAL digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR)...

  6. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic Leaf-off for Appomattox Court House National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS IMAGINE image of Appomattox Courthouse National Historical Park and surrounding parcels. Produced from 42 color infrared photos...

  7. Utilities:Other:The Retaining Wall (non-historic) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:wall)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents the retaining wall (non-historic) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The wall was collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...

  8. State and National Identity: Historical Analysis and Perspectives for the 21st Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Alves Lopes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the need to review the concept of “national identity” in a context of deepening structural changes and crisis of the Modern State model. Beginning with an analysis of the State constitutive elements and a historical perspective of de formation of national identity concept – conceived as representation of an imagined community – we present an evaluation of its use as a tool for State’s legitimacy. Thus, this work aims to determinate the current importance of national identities in contemporary State Theory.

  9. Biological inventory of anchialine pools in the Pu'uhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park and Pu'ukoholā Heiau National Historical Site, Hawaii Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Lori K.; Foote, David; Magnacca, Karl N.; Foltz, Sarah J.; Cutler, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Inventories for major groups of invertebrates were completed at anchialine pool complexes in Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) and Pu‘ukoholā Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) on the island of Hawai‘i. Nine pools within two pool complexes were surveyed at PUHO, along with one extensive pool at the terminus of Makeāhua Gulch at PUHE. At both parks, inventories documented previously unreported diversity, with pool complexes at PUHO exhibiting greater species richness for most taxa than the pool at PUHE. Inventories at PUHO recorded five species of molluscs, four species of crustaceans (including the candidate endangered shrimp Metabetaeus lohena), two species of Orthoptera, four species of Odonata (including the candidate endangered damselfly Megalagrion xanthomelas), fourteen species of Diptera, nine taxa of plankton, and thirteen species of ants; inventories at the PUHE pool produced only one species of mollusc, two species of crustacean, at least one species of Orthoptera, four species of Odonata, thirty species of Diptera, five taxa of plankton, and four species of ants. Further survey work may be necessary to document the full diversity of pool fauna, especially in species-rich groups like the Diptera. Inventory data will be used to generate a network wide database of species presence and distribution, and will aid in developing management plans for anchialine pool resources.

  10. Trends and causes of historical wetland loss, Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2011-01-01

    Prior U.S. Geological Survey studies (Open-File Reports 2005-1216 and 2009-1158) examined historical land- and water-area changes and estimated magnitudes of land subsidence and erosion at 10 wetland sites in the Mississippi River delta plain. The present study extends that work by analyzing interior wetland loss and relative magnitudes of subsidence and erosion at five additional wetland sites in Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the western chenier plain. The study sites were selected because their geologic setting differed from that of the delta plain; also, although the refuge marshes had been managed partly to minimize wetland loss, interior wetland losses there were extensive. Historical aerial photography, datum-corrected marsh elevations and water depths, and sediment cores were integrated to evaluate historical land- and water-area changes at SNWR.

  11. National Assessment of Historical Shoreline Change: A Pilot Study of Historical Coastal Bluff Retreat in the Great Lakes, Erie, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Malone, Shamus; Kratzmann, Meredith G.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal bluff retreat is a chronic problem along many high-relief coastlines in the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regard-ing trends and rates of bluff retreat. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To address these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project, conducted a pilot study of bluff retreat along the Lake Erie, Pa., coastline to assess the feasibility of undertaking a larger, multi-state analysis in the Great Lakes region. This report provides an overview of the pilot-study location and bluff geomorphology, the data sources and methodology, results of the analysis, and a discussion of the feasibility of undertaking a similar analysis along eroding bluffs in other Great Lakes states. This pilot study is part of an ongoing effort by the USGS to provide a comprehensive analysis of historical shoreline change and cliff and bluff retreat along open-ocean coastlines of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of the work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing coastal change so that systematic and consistent periodic updates of coastal erosion can be made nationally. Bluff-retreat evaluations are conducted by comparing the location of a historical bluff edge digitized from aerial photographs with those of recent bluff edges interpreted from both aerial photographs and lidar topographic surveys. The historical bluff edge is from 1938, whereas the more recent bluff edges are from 1998 and 2006 lidar data. Long-term (68-year) rates of retreat are calculated using the available bluff-edge data. The rates of retreat presented in this report represent conditions from the 1930s to 1998/2006, and are not intended for

  12. Architectural/historical assessment of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Reservation, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carver, M.; Slater, M.

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, as amended, to identify any properties under its jurisdiction that are included in or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (National Register). In March 1993 Duvall & Associates, Inc., was engaged to survey the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a DOE facility located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee, and to prepare a determination of National Register eligibility for all ORNL properties. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of research into the historical context of ORNL and at to identify historic properties at ORNL that are included in present or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. The identification of archaeological properties at ORNL that are included and eligible for inclusion in the National Register Clinton is addressed in a separate report.

  13. Mammal Inventory of the Mojave Network Parks-Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Charles A.; Hart, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of a mammal inventory study of National Park Service units in the Mojave Desert Network, including Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve. Fieldwork for the inventory focused on small mammals, primarily rodents and bats. Fieldwork for terrestrial small mammals used trapping with Sherman and Tomahawk small- and medium-sized mammal traps, along with visual surveys for diurnal species. The majority of sampling for terrestrial small mammals was carried out in 2002 and 2003. Methods used in field surveys for bats included mist-netting at tanks and other water bodies, along with acoustic surveys using Anabat. Most of the bat survey work was conducted in 2003. Because of extremely dry conditions in the first two survey years (and associated low mammal numbers), we extended field sampling into 2004, following a relatively wet winter. In addition to field sampling, we also reviewed, evaluated, and summarized museum and literature records of mammal species for all of the Park units. We documented a total of 59 mammal species as present at Death Valley National Park, with an additional five species that we consider of probable occurrence. At Joshua Tree, we also documented 50 species, and an additional four 'probable' species. At Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 57 mammal species have been positively documented, with 10 additional probable species. Manzanar National Historic Site had not been previously surveyed. We documented 19 mammal species at Manzanar, with an additional 11 probable species. Mojave National Preserve had not had a comprehensive list previously, either. There are now a total of 50 mammal species documented at Mojave, with three additional probable species. Of these totals, 23 occurrences are new at individual park units (positively documented for the first time), with most of these being at Manzanar

  14. National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) Orthorectified Photomosaic for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  15. Open source technologies for delivering historical maps online - case studies at the National Library of Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fleet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last four years, the National Library of Scotland has saved money and improved user access to online historical maps through the implementation of new open source technologies. These new tools include a new Viewer for MrSID images using OpenLayers, a collaborative Georeferencer application, new Tile Map Services for delivering georeferenced historical maps online, and a new GeoServer and OpenLayers application for accessing 44,000 series maps as clickable indexes. All of these applications were developed by Petr Pridal / Klokan Technologies, in collaboration with the National Library of Scotland, and all of them are easily extendible to other map libraries. These open source tools also provide an excellent basis for collaboration with other map libraries, sharing technology, experience and advice.

  16. A simple method for routine monitoring of glyphosate and its main metabolite in surface waters using lyophilization and LC-FLD+MS/MS. Case study: canals with influence on Biscayne National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Cesar E; Bellmund, Sarah; Gardinali, Piero R

    2014-10-15

    A novel method was developed for the analysis of the herbicide glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) based on lyophilization. Sample preparation steps are limited to fortification with aspartic acid as internal standard and water removal by lyophilization (3-4 days for 72 samples), followed by suspension of dry residues in borate buffer (pH=9.0) and addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl) for pre-column derivatization. The obtained derivatization mixture was injected on a highly endcapped C18 column where a basic pH gradient separation of the anionic analytes from neutral derivatization byproducts was achieved, with simultaneous quantitation by fluorescence and compound confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry. Method detection limits (for 20 mL samples) were 0.058 μg/L and 0.108 μg/L for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively. The method had a high dynamic range (0.1-50.0 μg/L) which allowed quantitation at both background and high levels of the herbicide. As a case study, the methodology was successfully applied to detect the occurrence of these compounds in water canals managed by the South Florida Water Management District. These canals will be used as freshwater source to hydrate estuarine wetlands of Biscayne National Park under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project, in order to decrease ecosystem stress from hypersaline conditions caused by anthropogenic reduction of historical freshwater flow towards the Biscayne Bay. Method development, validation, advantages, limitations and measured environmental concentrations are discussed. This methodology has minimal requirements in terms of materials, instruments and analyst training, which could represent a desirable tool for laboratories interested in the monitoring of glyphosate in surface waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places - BRIDGES_HISTORIC_IDNR_IN: Historic Bridge Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains point locations of historic bridges in Indiana. It includes buildings, districts, sites, structures and objects...

  18. [Historical origins between National Medical Association of China and Boji Hospital in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pinming

    2015-09-01

    In 2015, National Medical Association of China, now being called the Chinese Medical Association, celebrates its centennial and Boji Hospital in Guangzhou ( also known as Canton Hospital, or the Canton Pok Tsai Hospital, and now Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University ) marks its 180th anniversary. Three major historical events establish the role of Boji Hospital in the founding and development of the National Medical Association of China during the last 100 years, viz.: ①hosting and participating in the establishment of the Medical Missionary Association of China and its official journal: the China Medical Missionary Journal; ②holding the 11th scientific sessions of the National Medical Association of China; ③nominating Dr. Wu Lien-teh as a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1935 by William Warder Cadbury, the president of Boji Hospital.

  19. An inventory of terrestrial mammals at national parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Annand, Elizabeth M.; Talancy, Neil W.; Sauer, John R.; Nichols, James D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  20. A Historical Evaluation of the U15 Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Holz, Barbara A. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Goldenberg, Nancy G. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U15 Complex on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Three underground nuclear tests and two underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were conducted at the complex. The nuclear tests were Hard Hat in 1962, Tiny Tot in 1965, and Pile Driver in 1966. The Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests involved different types of experiment sections in test drifts at various distances from the explosion in order to determine which sections could best survive in order to design underground command centers. The Tiny Tot nuclear test involved an underground cavity in which the nuclear test was executed. It also provided data in designing underground structures and facilities to withstand a nuclear attack. The underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were Heater Test 1 from 1977 to 1978 and Spent Fuel Test - Climax from 1978 to 1985. Heater Test 1 was used to design the later Spent Fuel Test - Climax experiment. The latter experiment was a model of a larger underground storage facility and primarily involved recording the conditions of the spent fuel and the surrounding granite medium. Fieldwork was performed intermittently in the summers of 2011 and 2013, totaling 17 days. Access to the underground tunnel complex is sealed and unavailable. Restricted to the surface, four buildings, four structures, and 92 features associated with nuclear testing and fuel storage experiment activities at the U15 Complex have been recorded. Most of these are along the west side of the complex and next to the primary access road and are characteristic of an industrial mining site, albeit one with scientific interests. The geomorphological fieldwork was conducted over three days in the

  1. A Historical Evaluation of the U15 Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Holz, Barbara A. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Goldenberg, Nancy G. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst., Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-01-09

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U15 Complex on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Three underground nuclear tests and two underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were conducted at the complex. The nuclear tests were Hard Hat in 1962, Tiny Tot in 1965, and Pile Driver in 1966. The Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests involved different types of experiment sections in test drifts at various distances from the explosion in order to determine which sections could best survive in order to design underground command centers. The Tiny Tot nuclear test involved an underground cavity in which the nuclear test was executed. It also provided data in designing underground structures and facilities to withstand a nuclear attack. The underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were Heater Test 1 from 1977 to 1978 and Spent Fuel Test - Climax from 1978 to 1985. Heater Test 1 was used to design the later Spent Fuel Test - Climax experiment. The latter experiment was a model of a larger underground storage facility and primarily involved recording the conditions of the spent fuel and the surrounding granite medium. Fieldwork was performed intermittently in the summers of 2011 and 2013, totaling 17 days. Access to the underground tunnel complex is sealed and unavailable. Restricted to the surface, four buildings, four structures, and 92 features associated with nuclear testing and fuel storage experiment activities at the U15 Complex have been recorded. Most of these are along the west side of the complex and next to the primary access road and are characteristic of an industrial mining site, albeit one with scientific interests. The geomorphological fieldwork was conducted over three days in the

  2. Influences of Nationalism and Historical Traumatic Events on the Will-to-Live of Elderly Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Sara; Granek, Leeat; Zamir, Alon

    2016-08-01

    Existing research suggests that will-to-live (WTL) is an indicator of subjective well-being (SWB), and that similar personal variables including physical and mental health, quality-of-life, and sociodemographic characteristics influence elderly people's WTL. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore additional factors which influence older persons' WTL. Twenty-five elderly Israelis across the country were interviewed about what weakens and strengthens their WTL. The grounded theory method guided the data collection and analysis. In addition to the previously reported aspects influencing WTL, analysis resulted in two new categories: nationalism and historical traumatic events. Negative influences of nationalism-related emotions on participants' WTL included themes of disappointment with the state, with children leaving the state, and with existential insecurity. Among the positive influences on WTL, participants mentioned pride in the state and in its development, personal security, and hope for a peaceful future. Under the category of historical traumatic events, participants reported posttraumatic stress and war anxieties, as well as satisfaction and revenge in continued existence, and appreciation for life in Israel compared with life before immigrating to Israel. Our findings indicate that nationalism and feelings of personal involvement in national developments play an important role in the lives of elderly Israelis to the degree that they contribute to their SWB and motivation to continue living. Practitioners and family members can intentionally arouse and strengthen positive nationalistic feelings in the elderly as a way to maintain and promote SWB and WTL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. 75 FR 71142 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ..., 1000097 Lincoln Parish Grambling State University Historic District, Founders Ave., at College Ave... County Depression Era Work Relief Construction Features at Menoken State Historic Site, (Federal Relief...

  4. Unintended Revelations in History Textbooks: The Precarious Authenticity and Historical Continuity of the Slovak Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Sulikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article proposes an analytical framework that helps to identify and challenge misconceptions of ethnocentrism found in pre-tertiary teaching resources for history and the social sciences in numerous countries. Design: Drawing on nationalism studies, the analytical framework employs ideas known under the umbrella terms of primordialism, constructivism and ethno-symbolism. In applying it, the conceptualisation of the Slovak nation, as presented in the history textbooks currently used in lower secondary schools in Slovakia, is examined as a case study. Findings: A conceptually inconsistent picture emerges from the findings, displaying prevailing patterns of primordialism and a degree of ethno-symbolism. Nevertheless, the article concludes that history textbooks lend, on a number of occasions, unintended support to constructivism. Hence, both this inconsistency in theoretical approach, and frequent use of problematic assumptions based on primordialism and ethno-symbolism show that the attempts of textbooks’ authors to demonstrate the authenticity and historical continuity of the Slovak nation remain precarious. Research implications: The analytical framework used in this article is well-suited for multi-country examinations of national narratives in curricula and textbooks of history and the social sciences. Practical implications: Teaching materials and pedagogic approaches drawing on constructivism could enhance critical engagement with ethnocentrism in Slovakia and beyond.

  5. The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

  6. Vegetation inventory, mapping, and classification report, Fort Bowie National Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studd, Sarah; Fallon, Elizabeth; Crumbacher, Laura; Drake, Sam; Villarreal, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    A vegetation mapping and characterization effort was conducted at Fort Bowie National Historic Site in 2008-10 by the Sonoran Desert Network office in collaboration with researchers from the Office of Arid lands studies, Remote Sensing Center at the University of Arizona. This vegetation mapping effort was completed under the National Park Service Vegetation Inventory program which aims to complete baseline mapping inventories at over 270 national park units. The vegetation map data was collected to provide park managers with a digital map product that met national standards of spatial and thematic accuracy, while also placing the vegetation into a regional and even national context. Work comprised of three major field phases 1) concurrent field-based classification data collection and mapping (map unit delineation), 2) development of vegetation community types at the National Vegetation Classification alliance or association level and 3) map accuracy assessment. Phase 1 was completed in late 2008 and early 2009. Community type descriptions were drafted to meet the then-current hierarchy (version 1) of the National Vegetation Classification System (NVCS) and these were applied to each of the mapped areas. This classification was developed from both plot level data and censused polygon data (map units) as this project was conducted as a concurrent mapping and classification effort. The third stage of accuracy assessment completed in the fall of 2010 consisted of a complete census of each map unit and was conducted almost entirely by park staff. Following accuracy assessment the map was amended where needed and final products were developed including this report, a digital map and full vegetation descriptions. Fort Bowie National Historic Site covers only 1000 acres yet has a relatively complex landscape, topography and geology. A total of 16 distinct communities were described and mapped at Fort Bowie NHS. These ranged from lush riparian woodlands lining the

  7. The National Commitment Towards Conserving the Heritage (documentation of Historical and Cultural Sites in Gcc Countries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSulaiti, F.

    2013-07-01

    The five Arab Gulf countries of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman possess many shared characteristics and historical ties across their common peninsula. The prime factor uniting them is the historical nature of their entwined involvement with peoples and nations beyond the region. That the Gulf has been an important water passageway since ancient times suggests that the inhabitants of its shores met early on with other civilizations. The knowledge of one's roots, history, and traditional arts supports awareness of inherited culture and can help contextualize and illuminate community reflection and identification. The intricacy of the recording and understanding processes of documentation requires skilled professionals, with knowledge and awareness for the associated tasks. Responsible of cultural heritage should provide the adequate documentations, recording and updating of the records. Collaboration of different individuals such as specialist heritage, archaeologists, surveyors, conservators, researchers, architectural historians, and many other expert personnel is the golden key of successful documentation. The purpose of this document is to show the authorities of Gulf Arab countries and their planning measures, management and sharing effect of recording the cultural heritage. This essay identifies key points in the approach to contextualizing and developing cultural identity in a way that respects organic qualities. Through highlighting a number of archeological ruins and outlining management plans, the essay explores frameworks that can be applied to promote and preserve integral identity of important sites and their greater surrounding communities.

  8. THE NATIONAL COMMITMENT TOWARDS CONSERVING THE HERITAGE (DOCUMENTATION OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL SITES IN GCC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. AlSulaiti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The five Arab Gulf countries of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman possess many shared characteristics and historical ties across their common peninsula. The prime factor uniting them is the historical nature of their entwined involvement with peoples and nations beyond the region. That the Gulf has been an important water passageway since ancient times suggests that the inhabitants of its shores met early on with other civilizations. The knowledge of one’s roots, history, and traditional arts supports awareness of inherited culture and can help contextualize and illuminate community reflection and identification. The intricacy of the recording and understanding processes of documentation requires skilled professionals, with knowledge and awareness for the associated tasks. Responsible of cultural heritage should provide the adequate documentations, recording and updating of the records. Collaboration of different individuals such as specialist heritage, archaeologists, surveyors, conservators, researchers, architectural historians, and many other expert personnel is the golden key of successful documentation. The purpose of this document is to show the authorities of Gulf Arab countries and their planning measures, management and sharing effect of recording the cultural heritage. This essay identifies key points in the approach to contextualizing and developing cultural identity in a way that respects organic qualities. Through highlighting a number of archeological ruins and outlining management plans, the essay explores frameworks that can be applied to promote and preserve integral identity of important sites and their greater surrounding communities.

  9. Microbiology of normal external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, D W; Roland, P S; Dohar, J; Burt, W

    2001-11-01

    To isolate and characterize bacteria and fungi from the healthy ear and to obtain susceptibility profiles on each bacterial isolate. Prospective. Specimens were collected from the external canals and cerumen of healthy subjects. Species-level identification was obtained by combining phenotypic and genotypic data. End-point minimal inhibitory concentration testing was performed using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards recommended methods. One hundred sixty-four subjects were cultured. Seventeen canal and 16 cerumen specimens showed no growth. One hundred forty-eight cerumen specimens yielded 314 organisms, including 23 fungi. One hundred forty-seven canal specimens yielded 310 organisms, including 7 fungi. Of 291 bacteria isolated from cerumen, 99% were Gram-positive. Of 302 bacteria isolated from the canal, 96% were Gram-positive. Staphylococci were 63% of both the cerumen bacteria and the canal bacteria. Coryneforms represented 22% of the bacteria in cerumen and 19% in the canal. Turicellaotitidis was the primary coryneform isolated from both the canal and the cerumen. Streptococci-like bacteria were 10% from the cerumen, 7% from the canal. In both cerumen and canal, Alloiococcusotitis was more than 95% of the streptococci-like bacteria. Fifteen gram-negative organisms were isolated from the canal and cerumen, including four Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The percentages of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates that had high-level resistance (> or =8 microg/mL) were as follows: to neomycin, 28% from cerumen and 11% from the canal; to oxacillin, 28% from cerumen and 25% from the canal; and to ofloxacin, 15% from cerumen and 19% from the canal. Turcellaotitidis and A. otitidis were present with a much higher frequency than previously described, lending evidence that they be considered normal otic flora. Corynebacterium auris, previously reported only in children, was isolated from normal adults.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range Fire Control Bunker (Building 09-51): Photographs and Written Historical and Descriptive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Archives and History Program

    2017-08-01

    The Fire Control Bunker (Building 09-51) is a contributing element to the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Historic District. The SNL TTR Historic District played a significant role in U.S. Cold War history in the areas of stockpile surveillance and non-nuclear field testing of nuclear weapons design. The district covers approximately 179,200 acres and illustrates Cold War development testing of nuclear weapons components and systems. This report includes historical information, architectural information, sources of information, project information, maps, blueprints, and photographs.

  11. National assessment of shoreline change: Historical shoreline change in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Charles H.; Romine, Bradley M.; Genz, Ayesha S.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Dyer, Matthew; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Lim, S. Chyn; Vitousek, Sean; Bochicchio, Christopher; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Sandy beaches of the United States are some of the most popular tourist and recreational destinations. Coastal property constitutes some of the most valuable real estate in the country. Beaches are an ephemeral environment between water and land with unique and fragile natural ecosystems that have evolved in equilibrium with the ever-changing winds, waves, and water levels. Beachfront lands are the site of intense residential and commercial development even though they are highly vulnerable to several natural hazards, including marine inundation, flooding and drainage problems, effects of storms, sea-level rise, and coastal erosion. Because the U.S. population continues to shift toward the coast where valuable coastal property is vulnerable to erosion, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a national assessment of coastal change. One aspect of this effort, the National Assessment of Shoreline Change, uses shoreline position as a proxy for coastal change because shoreline position is one of the most commonly monitored indicators of environmental change (for example, Fletcher, 1992; Dolan and others, 1991; Douglas and others, 1998; Galgano and others, 1998). Additionally, the National Research Council (1990) recommended the use of historical shoreline analysis in the absence of a widely accepted model of shoreline change.

  12. Modeling historical tuberculosis epidemics among Canadian First Nations: effects of malnutrition and genetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. Ackley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Late 19th century epidemics of tuberculosis (TB in Western Canadian First Nations resulted in peak TB mortality rates more than six times the highest rates recorded in Europe. Using a mathematical modeling approach and historical TB mortality time series, we investigate potential causes of high TB mortality and rapid epidemic decline in First Nations from 1885 to 1940. We explore two potential causes of dramatic epidemic dynamics observed in this setting: first, we explore effects of famine prior to 1900 on both TB and population dynamics. Malnutrition is recognized as an individual-level risk factor for TB progression and mortality; its population-level effects on TB epidemics have not been explored previously. Second, we explore effects of heterogeneity in susceptibility to TB in two ways: modeling heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection, and heterogeneity in risk of developing disease once infected. Our results indicate that models lacking famine-related changes in TB parameters or heterogeneity result in an implausibly poor fit to both the TB mortality time series and census data; the inclusion of these features allows for the characteristic decline and rise in population observed in First Nations during this time period and confers improved fits to TB mortality data.

  13. Historic American Landscapes Survey: Arco Naval Proving Ground (Idaho National Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Christina [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Holmer, Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gilbert, Hollie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Based on historical evaluations in 1993 and 1997, historians determined that the then-remaining Arco NPG structures were significant to the nation’s history through their association with World War II . Through ensuing discussions with the SHPO, it was further determined that the infrastructure and associated landscape were also significant. According to provisions of INL’s Cultural Resource Management Plan (CRMP) as legitimized through a 2004 Programmatic Agreement between DOE-ID, the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), and Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) historians identified the World War II structures as DOE “Signature Properties”. As defined by DOE-HQ, Signature Properties “denote its [DOE’s] most historically important properties across the complex…and/or those properties that are viewed as having tourism potential.” The INL is a secure site and the INL land and structures are not accessible to the public and, therefore have no “tourism potential”. Although DOE-ID actively sought other uses for the vacant, unused buildings, none were identified and the buildings present safety and health concerns. A condition assessment found lead based paint, asbestos, rodent infestation/droppings, small animal carcasses, mold, and, in CF-633, areas of radiological contamination. In early 2013, DOE-ID notified the Idaho SHPO, ACHP, and, as required by the INL CRMP and PA, DOE-Headquarters Federal Preservation Officer, of their intent to demolish the vacant buildings (CF-606, CF-607, CF-613, CF-632, and CF-633). The proposed “end-state” of the buildings will be either grass and/or gravel pads. Through the NHPA Section 106 consultation process, measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of demolition were determined and agreed to through a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between DOE-ID, SHPO, and ACHP. The measures include the development and installation of interpretive signs to be placed at a publicly accessible location

  14. 76 FR 55702 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Camp Chaffee Tank Destroyer Battalion Historic District, (World War II Home Front Efforts in Arkansas... Ouachita County Clifton and Greening Streets Historic District (Boundary Increase III), 140 California St...

  15. 75 FR 17638 - National Historical Publications and Records Commission; Proposal To Amend Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... customers recognize that they need institutional support to successfully complete such projects. The term... materials, and electronic files. Historical records repository means organizations whose mission is to...) The Commission provides grants to historical records repositories for locating, preserving and...

  16. 75 FR 3246 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Program. ARKANSAS Pulaski County Main Street Commercial Historic District, (Pulaski County MRA) 300 block... Historic District, Roughly bounded by Baxter St., Centre St., Cleveland Pl. and Lafayette St. to the W...

  17. 75 FR 1809 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ...., Hillsdale, 09001283. Delaware County Main Street Historic District, Main, N. & S. Center, John Sts...., American Fork, 09001294. Washington Whatcom County South Hill Historic District, Bounded by Knox, 11th...

  18. 78 FR 36570 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... bulk carrier) Shipwreck (Great Lakes Shipwreck Sites of Wisconsin MPS) 820 ft. SE. of Whitefish Dunes State Park, Sevastopol, 13000466 Kewaunee County AMERICA (canaller) Shipwreck (Great Lakes Shipwreck...) Shipwreck (Great Lakes Shipwreck Sites of Wisconsin MPS), 5 mi. E. of North Point, Milwaukee, 13000468...

  19. Landsat evaluation of trumpeter swan historical nesting sites in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Laura Elizabeth

    The trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) has historically nested in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Declines in habitat quality may be limiting the growth of the Tri-State Flock. The purpose of this study was to map historical nesting areas for trumpeter swans in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and evaluate Landsat images for changes to habitat. Historical nesting sites were evaluated through image classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and compared to field conditions. Swan nesting records were analyzed in comparison to drought index and human visitation rates to determine if these factors may contribute to the decline of trumpeter swans nesting in YNP. Vegetation type and water quality were evaluated at 36 wetlands identified as historical nesting locations. Potamogetonaceae was the largest family represented in plant samples and had the highest frequency of occurrence in samples. There was no significant difference in whether swans were present or absent in wetlands with regards to water quality parameters tested or physical parameters identified. There was an association between certain drought index values and the number of cygnets fledged and the number of territories occupied by swan pairs. I was unsuccessful in using image classification to define pixel characteristics common among historical nesting territories of swans in YNP based on 5 Landsat images from 1975, 1979, 1990, 1999, and 2005. I was also unable to distinguish aquatic plant species composition, emergent and submergent plants, open water versus aquatic vegetation, wetland classification, or swan preference using image classification. No relationship was found in a regression model of NDVI values and swan pair occupancy or number of swans fledged, with the exception of a weak, positive relationship between pair occupancy and positive NDVI values, and a strong, positive relationship between swan fledge rates and positive NDVI values

  20. Integration of Landscape Ecosystem Classification and Historic Land Records in the Francis Marion National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter U. Kennedy; Victor B. Shelburne

    2002-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and historical plats ranging from 1716 to 1894 in the Coastal Flatwoods Region of South Carolina were used to quantify changes on a temporal scale. Combining the historic plats and associated witness trees (trees marking the boundaries of historic plats) with an existing database of the soils and other attributes was the basis...

  1. Simulation of canal and control-pond operation at the Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, south-central Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Efficient water management of the Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, located in the Rattlesnake Creek Basin of south-central Kansas, is a complicated task. In a...

  2. 47 CFR Appendix C to Part 1 - Nationwide Programmatic Agreement Regarding the Section 106 National Historic Preservation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inclusion in the National Register and that might be affected by a federal undertaking (16 U.S.C. 470a(d)(6... any person to challenge any prior determination of what does or does not constitute an Undertaking... Nationwide Programmatic Agreement for Review of Effects on Historic Properties for Certain Undertakings...

  3. Workers on the Line: Teaching Industrial History at the Tsongas Industrial History Center and Lowell National Historical Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rick; O'Connell, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Profiles activities and exhibits at the Tsongas Industrial History Center and Lowell National Historical Park. Follows a group of students as they participate in a situation simulating 19th-century working conditions and subsequent union organizing. Includes two documents from a resource kit illustrating worker's lives. (MJP)

  4. Atrioventricular Canal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tract infections. Atrioventricular canal defect can cause recurrent bouts of lung infections. Heart failure. Untreated, atrioventricular canal ... Leaky heart valves Narrowing of the heart valves Abnormal heart rhythm Breathing difficulties associated with lung damage ...

  5. Coastal circulation and water column properties off Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Molokai, Hawaii, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, Katherine; Brown, Eric K.

    2011-01-01

    More than 2.2 million measurements of oceanographic forcing and the resulting water-column properties were made off U.S. National Park Service's Kalaupapa National Historical Park on the north shore of Molokai, Hawaii, between 2008 and 2010 to understand the role of oceanographic processes on the health and sustainability of the area's marine resources. The tides off the Kalaupapa Peninsula are mixed semidiurnal. The wave climate is dominated by two end-members: large northwest Pacific winter swell that directly impacts the study site, and smaller, shorter-period northeast trade-wind waves that have to refract around the peninsula, resulting in a more northerly direction before propagating over the study site. The currents primarily are alongshore and are faster at the surface than close to the seabed; large wave events, however, tend to drive flow in a more cross-shore orientation. The tidal currents flood to the north and ebb to the south. The waters off the peninsula appear to be a mix of cooler, more saline, deeper oceanic waters and shallow, warmer, lower-salinity nearshore waters, with intermittent injections of freshwater, generally during the winters. Overall, the turbidity levels were low, except during large wave events. The low overall turbidity levels and rapid return to pre-event background levels following the cessation of forcing suggest that there is little fine-grained material. Large wave events likely inhibit the settlement of fine-grained sediment at the site. A number of phenomena were observed that indicate the complexity of coastal circulation and water-column properties in the area and may help scientists and resource managers to better understand the implications of the processes on marine ecosystem health.

  6. Conservation Meets Militarisation in Kruger National Park: Historical Encounters and Complex Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lunstrum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on environmental history and political ecology, this paper contributes to growing debates concerning military-environment encounters and conservation militarisation/securitisation by investigating the complex histories and legacies of these relations. Grounding my insights in South Africa's iconic Kruger National Park, I chart how encounters between environment and military/security activity over the last century offer a repeatedly contradictory picture: military activity, skills, and weapons have harmed wildlife and hence reinforced the need for its protection, and they have simultaneously been deployed in the name of such protection. Furthermore, some of these historical engagements failed to materialise as planned and, as such, provide insight into military-environment frictions as well as nature's ability to thwart militarised interventions. Yet other engagements thrived and resulted in the multi-layered militarisation of Kruger, as both protected area and strategic borderland. Several of these encounters have lived on to shape Kruger's current intensive militarisation tied to rhino poaching, both the state response and poaching itself. Past military activity, in fact, provides an arsenal of enabling factors for current poaching- and conservation-related militarised violence that ultimately proves harmful to conservation efforts.

  7. Profiles in chemistry: a historical perspective on the national organic symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Edward E; Myers, Brian J

    2013-06-21

    This perspective delineates the history of the National Organic Chemistry Symposium (NOS) and, in doing so, traces the development of organic chemistry over the past 88 years. The NOS is the premier event sponsored by the ACS Division of Organic Chemistry (ORGN) and has been held in odd-numbered years since 1925, with the exceptions of 1943 and 1945. During the 42 symposia, 332 chemists have given 549 plenary lectures. The role the NOS played in the launch of The Journal of Organic Chemistry and Organic Reactions and the initiation of the Roger Adams Award are discussed. Representative examples highlighting the chemistry presented in each era are described, and the evolution of the field is examined by assigning each NOS talk to one of seven subdisciplines and analyzing how the number of talks in each subdiscipline has changed over time. Comparisons of the demographics of speakers, attendees, and ORGN members are made, and superlatives are noted. Personal interest stories of the speakers are discussed, along with the relationships among them, especially their academic lineage. Logistical aspects of the NOS and their historical trends are reviewed. Finally, the human side of science is examined, where over the past century, the NOS has been intertwined with some of the most heated debates in organic chemistry. Conflicts and controversies involving free radicals, reaction mechanisms, and nonclassical carbocations are discussed.

  8. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in

  9. 78 FR 9420 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...., Manhattan, 13000040 Orleans County Bacon--Harding Farm, (Cobblestone Architecture of New York State MPS..., 13000046 WYOMING Platte County Grant, Duncan, Ranch Rural Historic Landscape, (Ranches, Farms, and...

  10. Bathymetry 2M Grid of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  11. Elk Monitoring Protocol for Lewis and Clark National Historical Park, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Boetsch, John R.; Cole, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) herds that frequent Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (NHP) is central to the park’s purpose of preserving the historic, cultural, scenic, and natural resources. Elk were critical to sustaining the members of the Lewis and Clark expedition by providing food and clothing over the winter of 1805-1806. Today, elk viewing opportunities in the park and surrounding region generate broad appeal with the visiting public, which number over 250,000 per year at the Fort Clatsop visitor center. This protocol describes procedures for monitoring trends in the use of the Fort Clatsop area by Roosevelt elk. Specific objectives of elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark NHP are to measure the relative use and proportion of area used by elk during winter in the Fort Clatsop Unit of the park, and the rate at which elk are sighted from roads in and around the park. Relative use and the proportion of area used by elk are determined from elk fecal pellet surveys conducted every other year in the Fort Clatsop park unit. Pairs of observers visit a systematic array of permanent plots in the fall to clear them of elk fecal pellets, and return to the plots in late winter to count elk fecal pellets that have accumulated during winter. Half of the subplots are counted by two independent observers, which allows for the estimation of relative use and proportion of area occupied by elk with analyses of detection biases that account for unseen elk pellet groups. Standardized road surveys are conducted in and near the Fort Clatsop park unit three or four times monthly during alternate months. Data from road surveys are used to quantify the rate that park visitors would be expected to see elk, when driving the selected set of routes. The monitoring protocol is based on three field seasons of development and testing. The protocol narrative describes the background, rationale, sampling design, field methods, analytical methods, data management, reporting

  12. 77 FR 65405 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... 60.13 of 36 CFR part 60, written comments are being accepted concerning the significance of the...-55, & Riverside Dr., Jackson, 12000920 Forrest County Hub City Historic District (Boundary Increase... Historic District (Boundary Increase I), Roughly bounded by Poplar, Central, Alexander, & Delleseps Sts...

  13. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  14. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had

  15. Historical account of the national health insurance formulation in Kenya: experiences from the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Timothy; Maina, Thomas; Chuma, Jane

    2015-02-12

    Many Low-and-Middle-Income countries are considering reviewing their health financing systems to meet the principles of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). One financing mechanism, which has dominated UHC reforms, is the development of health insurance schemes. We trace the historical development of the National Health Insurance (NHI) policy, illuminate stakeholders' perceptions on the design to inform future development of health financing policies in Kenya. We conducted a retrospective policy analysis of the development of a NHI policy in Kenya using data from document reviews and seven in depth interviews with key stakeholders involved in the NHI design. Analysis was conducted using a thematic framework. The design of a NHI scheme was marked by complex interaction of the actor's understanding of the design, proposed implementation strategies and the covert opposition of the reform due to several reasons. First, actor's perception of the cost of the NHI design and its implication to the economy generated opposition. This was due to inadequate communication strategies to articulate the policy, leading to a vacuum of factual information flow to various players. Secondly, perceived fear of implications of the changes among private sector players threatened support and success gained. Thirdly, underlying mistrust associated with perceived lack of government's commitment towards transparency and good governance affected active engagement of all key players dampening the spirit of collective bargain breeding opposition. Finally, some international actors perceived a clash of their role and that of international programs based on vertical approaches that were inherent in the health system. The thrust towards UHC using NHI schemes should not only focus on the design of a viable NHI package but should also involve stakeholder engagements, devise ways of improving the health care system, enhance transparency and develop adequate governance structures to institutions mandated

  16. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical

  17. 76 FR 48180 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ..., Jct. of AL 14 & Webb Rd., Marion, 11000566 ARIZONA Maricopa County Silk Stocking Neighborhood Historic... Ave., Sea Cliff, 11000597 House at 52 Frost Mill Road, 52 Frost Mill Rd., Mill Neck, 11000598 Onondaga...

  18. 76 FR 37150 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Grand Boulevard Historic District, Grand Blvd., Corona, 11000432 Siskiyou County Forest House, 4204 CA 3... Royal Highlanders Building, 1235 M St., Aurora, 85002144 Kimball County Stone Building, 126 S. Chestnut...

  19. 78 FR 52784 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ..., 13000724 Monroe County Matthews Stone Company Historic District, 6293 N. Matthews Dr., 6445 W. Maple Grove...), Roughly bounded by PA 42, Borough boundary, Loyalsock State Forest & Eagles Mere Golf Club, Eagles Mere...

  20. 77 FR 59283 - National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) carry forward this proud legacy, and this week, we celebrate the profound impact these places of learning have made on the life of our country. For generations...

  1. 76 FR 52968 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Company Mill Historic District, 200 Allegan St., Plainwell, 11000636 ] Leelanau County Campbell--De Young.... and Anna B., Farm, (Agricultural Resources of Pennsylvania MPS) 880 Carbon Mine Rd. (Lawrence Township...

  2. 75 FR 77660 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Homestead--Herring Farm Rural Historic Landscape, 2405 N Overland Trail, LaPorte, 10001053 INDIANA Allen... Architecture Associated with NCSU School of Design Faculty MPS), 122 Cox Ave, Raleigh, 10001098 PENNSYLVANIA...

  3. 75 FR 77901 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ..., 11455 E Locke Rd, Lockeford, 10001103 INDIANA Hendricks County Danville Courthouse Square Historic...), 115 SE Lake St, Ilwaco, 10001106 Spokane County Rogers, John R., High School, 1622 E Wellesley Ave...

  4. 77 FR 50160 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ..., 12000593 NEW JERSEY Essex County Woman's Club of Upper Montclair, (Clubhouses of New Jersey Women's Clubs... Salem Independent city Roanoke Veterans Administration Hospital Historic District, (United States Second Generation Veterans Hospitals MPS), 1970 Roanoke Blvd., Salem (Independent City), 12000609 WISCONSIN...

  5. 77 FR 2756 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ..., Hounsfield, 11001091. OHIO Knox County Downtown Mount Vernon Historic District, S. Main, S. Mulberry, S. Gay.... John's Episcopal Church, 323 Wick Ave., Youngstown, 11001093. TEXAS McLennan County Waco Downtown...

  6. Benthic habitats and offshore geological resources of Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Logan, Joshua B.; Grossman, Eric E.

    2007-01-01

    Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) is one of three National Park lands located along the western coast of the Island of Hawai‘i and the only one to include submerged lands and marine resources within its official boundaries. The park was established in 1978 and is 1,160 acres in size, including 596 acres of marine area. The submerged lands are currently managed by the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources (DLNR-DAR).

  7. Analysis of XXI Century Disasters in the National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains a global historical event database of tsunamis, significant earthquakes, and significant volcanic eruptions. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Event date, time, location, magnitude of the phenomenon, and socio-economic information are included in the database. Analysis of the NGDC event database reveals that the 21st century began with earthquakes in Gujarat, India (magnitude 7.7, 2001) and Bam, Iran (magnitude 6.6, 2003) that killed over 20,000 and 31,000 people, respectively. These numbers were dwarfed by the numbers of earthquake deaths in Pakistan (magnitude 7.6, 2005-86,000 deaths), Wenchuan, China (magnitude 7.9, 2008-87,652 deaths), and Haiti (magnitude 7.0, 2010-222,000 deaths). The Haiti event also ranks among the top ten most fatal earthquakes. The 21st century has observed the most fatal tsunami in recorded history-the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami that caused over 227,000 deaths and 10 billion damage in 14 countries. Six years later, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami, although not the most fatal (15,000 deaths and 5,000 missing), could cost Japan's government in excess of 300 billion-the most expensive tsunami in history. Volcanic eruptions can cause disruptions and economic impact to the airline industry, but due to their remote locations, fatalities and direct economic effects are uncommon. Despite this fact, the second most expensive eruption in recorded history occurred in the 21st century-the 2010 Merapi, Indonesia volcanic eruption that resulted in 324 deaths, 427 injuries, and $600 million in damage. NGDC integrates all natural hazard event datasets into one search interface. Users can find fatal tsunamis generated by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The user can then link to information about the related runup

  8. Protecting resources: Assessing visitor harvesting of wild morel mushrooms in two national capital region parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth S. Barron; Marla R. Emery

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal reports have sparked concerns that morel mushroom populations may be declining at National Park sites in the greater Washington, D.C. area. The research reported here focuses on two of these parks, Catoctin Mountain Park (CATO) and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (CHOH). Oral histories conducted with 41 harvesters in 2005 and 2007 had...

  9. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  10. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Roberrt C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  11. 76 FR 72002 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Asheboro Hosiery Mills and Cranford Furniture Company Complex, 133 & 139 S. Church St., 230 W. Academy Sts., Asheboro, 11000891 Wake County Arndt, G. Dewey and Elma, House, 1428 Canterbury Rd., Raleigh, 11000892... OKLAHOMA Craig County Carselowey House, 403 N. Gunter, Vinita, 11000894 Tulsa County Blue Dome Historic...

  12. 77 FR 43354 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ..., 12000472 ] MISSOURI Jasper County Joplin Furniture Company Building, (Historic Resources of Joplin... Church of Jefferson, Creamery St. at Park Ave., Jefferson, 12000481 Tioga County Beecher, James C., House... Hughes County Pringle House, 102 N. Jefferson, Pierre, 12000485 Jones County Weigandt Barn, 27285 Silver...

  13. 78 FR 2689 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... MISSOURI Howard County New Franklin Commercial Historic District, 106-136 & 101-113 E. Broadway, New Franklin, 12001207 NEW YORK Steuben County New York State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home--Bath Veterans... Highway Marker, (UDC Commemorative Highway Markers along the Jefferson Davis Highway in Virginia MPS) US 1...

  14. 76 FR 67760 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ..., 11000845 Squires, Frederick, House, 1003 W. Church St., Champaign, 11000846 Cook County Building at 2440 N... Washington, Margaret Murray, School, (Public School Buildings of Washington, DC MPS) 27 O St., NW... Historic District, Portions of Morattico Rd., Riverside, & Saltwater Drs., Church, & Sea Shell Lns...

  15. 75 FR 30057 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... County Mountain Home Commercial Historic District, Roughly bounded on the N by E 5th St, E 9th St on the S, S St on the E, and Hickory St on the W, Mountain Home, 10000348 CALIFORNIA Santa Clara County... Earley, John J., Office and Studio, 2131 G St, NW, Washington, 10000367 Everglades, The, (Apartment...

  16. 78 FR 36569 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Brook Historic District, Cty. Rd. 523, Sand Brook-Headquarters & Britton Rds., Sand Brook, 13000497... County United States Courthouse and Custom House, 1716 Spielbusch Ave., Toledo, 13000501 TENNESSEE Shelby..., Duckabush Rd., Duckabush, 13000506 Pierce County Wilkeson Community House, 540 Church St., Wilkeson...

  17. 78 FR 68470 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    .... CALIFORNIA Los Angeles County House at 1111 North Los Robles Avenue, (Residential Architecture of Pasadena... North Los Robles Avenue, (Residential Architecture of Pasadena: Influence of the Arts and Crafts... Restricted, Snyder, 13000872 Phillips County Hargreaves Homestead Rural Historic Landscape, US 385 between...

  18. 77 FR 18259 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ..., 12000205 St. Louis Independent City Shaw's Garden Historic District, Roughly bounded by DeTonty, Tower Grove, Shaw, Alfred, Magnolia, Kingshighway, & Vandeventer Aves., St. Louis (Independent City), 12000207 NEW JERSEY Hunterdon County Kalmia Club, The, (Clubhouses of New Jersey Women's Clubs MPS) 39 York St...

  19. 78 FR 41078 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Arizona MPS) 4949 E. Glenn St., Tucson, 13000550 CALIFORNIA Los Angeles County Women's Twentieth Century.... Lloyd Cir., Monticello, 13000567 MISSOURI St. Louis Independent city Bevo Mill Historic District, 4648-5003 Gravois Ave., 4719-4767 Morgan Ford Rd., St. Louis (Independent City), 13000568 RHODE ISLAND...

  20. 78 FR 9419 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    .... Blvd., Savannah, 13000023 NEW JERSEY Somerset County Vermeule, Dr. John, House, 223 Rock Ave., North... ARKANSAS Pulaski County North Little Rock Veterans Administration Hospital Historic District, (United States Second Generation Veterans Hospitals MPS), 2200 Fort Roots Dr., North Little Rock, 13000021...

  1. Teaching and Learning Competent Historical Documentary Making: Lessons from National History Day Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehn, Bruce R.; Schul, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Today's students grow up in a technological milieu of hand-held computers with high storage capacities, internet access, and the ability to shoot high definition photographs and video. As such, they are empowered to construct representations of the past virtually "on the run." In this article, the authors investigated the historical "and"…

  2. 78 FR 77711 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Courthouse, 18th St. between 15th & 16th Aves., Central City, 89002211 BILLING CODE 4312-51-P ... 60.13 of 36 CFR Part 60, written comments are being accepted concerning the significance of the...., Michigan City, 13001013 Lake County Lincoln Street Historic District, Roughly bounded by Fillmore & Hayes...

  3. 77 FR 66865 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ....13 of 36 CFR part 60, written comments are being accepted concerning the significance of the.... IOWA Benton County Central Vinton Residential Historic District, Roughly bounded by 2nd & D Aves., W... Peacock Farm Rd., 4-17 Trotting Horse Dr., Lexington, 12000949 MISSOURI St. Louis Independent city Tillie...

  4. 78 FR 22291 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ....13 of 36 CFR part 60, written comments are being accepted concerning the significance of the...., Stanwix, 9th, French & 10th Sts., Pittsburgh, 13000250 ] Pittsburgh Central Downtown Historic District... Brother, Inc., 3737 Main St., Philadelphia, 13000258 VIRGINIA Richmond (Independent City) Cannon, Henry...

  5. 77 FR 3280 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... 36 CFR part 60, written comments are being accepted concerning the significance of the nominated..., 12000013 Monroe County Central Trust Bank Building, 44 Exchange Rd., Rochester, 12000014 SOUTH CAROLINA... Trail, Bland, 12000018 Lynchburg Independent city Fifth Street Historic District, 5th, 6th, Court, Clay...

  6. Elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark National Historical Park: 2008-2012 synthesis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Cole, Carla; Clatterbuck, Chris; Boetsch, John; Beirne, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) herds that frequent Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (NHP) is central to the park’s purpose of preserving the historic, cultural, scenic, and natural resources associated with the winter encampment of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Elk were critically important to the Lewis and Clark expedition in providing food and hides that sustained the expedition during the winter of 1805-06 and supplied them for their return east during 1806. Today, elk remain a key component of interpreting the Lewis and Clark story to over 200,000 park visitors each year at the Fort Clatsop visitor center. In 2008, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began collaborating with Lewis and Clark NHP and the NPS North Coast and Cascades Network to develop a protocol for monitoring long-term changes in the magnitude and spatial patterns of elk use within and adjacent to Lewis and Clark NHP (Griffin et al. 2011). Specific objectives of the monitoring program were to measure trends in (1) relative use of the Fort Clatsop unit by elk during winter; (2) the proportion of areas where elk sign is present in the Fort Clatsop unit in winter; and (3) the frequency of elk sightings from roads in and around the Fort Clatsop unit. This report synthesizes the results of the first four years of monitoring elk distribution and use in Lewis and Clark NHP from 2008-2012. We also present data from FY2012 (Appendix 1), in lieu of an annual report for that year. We used fecal pellet group surveys as the cornerstone for monitoring trends in both relative use of the Fort Clatsop Unit by elk and the proportion of areas where elk sign was present at the end of winter. We estimated pellet group density based on data collected from a network of fecal pellet plots distributed systematically throughout the unit. We developed a double observer sampling scheme that enabled us to estimate detection biases and improve the accuracy of pellet group density estimates. We computed

  7. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Overwinter Acoustic Survey, 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  8. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Echo-Integrated Trawl Surveys, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  9. Cedar Creek Belle Grove National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. A total of 800 acres (324 ha) were mapped. Thirteen map classes were used to describe the...

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. Multivariate ordination and clustering analyses were used to classify the vegetation. As a...

  12. Rosie the Riveter / World War II Home Front National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Mary McLeod Bethune Council House National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Pu`uohonua o Honaunau National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Eugene O'Neill National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Benthic and Landcover Characterization of Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  19. Spatial Vegetation Data for Fort Laramie National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The National Park Service (NPS), in conjunction with the Biological Resources Division (BRD) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), has implemented a program to...

  20. Ronald Regan Boyhood Home National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. 77 FR 16558 - General Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hampton National Historic Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... National Park Service General Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hampton National...: The National Park Service (NPS) announces the availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement.... Baltimore County Tourism Office and Towson Chamber of Commerce, 44 West Chesapeake Avenue, Towson, Maryland...

  2. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I

  3. NEPA and NHPA- successful decommissioning of historic Manhattan Project properties at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGehee, E.D.; Pendergrass, A.K.

    1997-05-21

    This paper describes experiences at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the process of planning and executing decommissioning and decontamination activities on a number of properties constructed as part of the Manhattan project. Many of these buildings had been abandoned for many years and were in deteriorating condition, in addition to being contaminated with asbestos, lead based paints and high explosive residues. Due to the age and use of the structures they were evaluated against criteria for the National Register of Historic Places. This process is briefly reviewed, along with the results, as well as actions implemented as a result of the condition and safety of the structures. A number of the structures have been decontaminated and demolished. Planning is still ongoing for the renovation of one structure, and the photographic and drawing records of the properties is near completion.

  4. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  5. Historical changes in caribou distribution and land cover in and around Prince Albert National Park: land management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Arlt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Saskatchewan, boreal woodland caribou population declines have been documented in the 1940s and again in the 1980s. Although both declines led to a ban in sport hunting, a recovery was only seen in the 1950s and was attributed to wolf control and hunting closure. Recent studies suggest that this time, the population may not be increasing. In order to contribute to the conservation efforts, historical changes in caribou distribution and land cover types in the Prince Albert Greater Ecosystem (PAGE, Saskatchewan, were documented for the period of 1960s to the present. To examine changes in caribou distribution, survey observations, incidental sightings and telemetry data were collated. To quantify landscape changes, land cover maps were created for 1966 and 2006 using current and historic forest resources inventories, fire, logging, and roads data. Results indicate that woodland caribou are still found throughout the study area although their distribution has changed and their use of the National Park is greatly limited. Results of transition prob¬abilities and landscape composition analyses on the 1966 and 2006 land cover maps revealed an aging landscape for both the National Park and provincial crown land portions of the PAGE. In addition, increased logging and the development of extensive road and trail networks on provincial crown land produced significant landscape fragmentation for woodland caribou and reduced functional attributes of habitat patches. Understanding historical landscape changes will assist with ongoing provincial and federal recovery efforts for boreal caribou, forest management planning activities, and landscape restoration efforts within and beyond the Park boundaries.

  6. The Hungarian Peculiarities of National Remembrance: Historical Figures with Symbolic Importance in Nineteenth-century Hungarian History Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to place nineteenth-century Hungarian art into international context, this article calls for the theoretical discourse of cultural memory, when a suppressed community turns to their past and insists on their antecedents’ traditions for the survival of their culture. When, in the 1850s and 1860s, the leaders of the Habsburg Austrian Empire retaliated against Hungary for its 1848-49 “Fight for Freedom”, Hungarian visual art of the era rediscovered long-honoured figures of the historical past as the essential components of Hungarian national identity. This article argues that the successful visualization and memorialization of outstanding historical characters with symbolic values for the Hungarian nation was due to history painting itself as medium. The Hungarian painters’ choice of characters vigorously reacted to the changing political relationship between the Austrians and the Hungarians from the failure of the 1849 Hungarian Fight for Freedom until the 1850s and the 1870s involving the 1867 Austro-Hungarian Compromise. Keeping it in mind, the display and the reception of four great paintings, Bertalan Székely’s The Discovery of the Body of King Louis II (1860, Viktor Madarász’s Péter Zrínyi and Ferenc Frangepán in Prison at Wiener-Neustadt (1864, Székely’s The Women of Eger (1867 and Gyula Benczúr’s The Baptism of Vajk (1875 are analysed.

  7. Historical Documentation of Warm-Season Grasses Management at Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The early accounts of an active grassland management program at Erie National Wildlife Refuge dates back to 1977. This report is an attempt to document the refuge’s...

  8. Thomas Stone National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  9. 3 CFR 8404 - Proclamation 8404 of August 30, 2009. National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the.... Pivotal in the Civil Rights Movement, HBCUs offer us a window into our Nation's past as well as a path...

  10. Accuracy Assessment Points for Fort Laramie National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in August and September, 1998 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the...

  11. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plots within the park were identified and sampled in the summer of 2005. In the summer of 2006, randomly selected...

  12. Eugene O'Neill National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  13. 77 FR 37710 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Company Home Office, 430 Oak Grove St., Minneapolis, 12000414 St. Louis County First National Bank of... Davidson County RCA Studio B, 1611 Roy Acuff Pl., Nashville, 12000420 WASHINGTON Clark County Kiggins...

  14. Orthorectified Photomosaic for Fort Larned National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set contains digital ortho-imagery developed to support planning and delivery of USDA programs. The USDA field service centers use digital ortho imagery as...

  15. Observation Points for Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The data collection for Hubbell Trading Post used an "Observation Point" form which is identical to the data collection protocols descibed by the USGS-NPS accuracy...

  16. Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - Orthorectified Photomosaic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Digital orthoimages combine the image characteristics of a digital image with the geometric qualities of a map. The primary dynamic digital orthophoto quarter...

  17. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project - Orthorectified Photomosaic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Digital orthoimages combine the image characteristics of a digital image with the geometric qualities of a map. The primary dynamic digital orthophoto quarter...

  18. Pu`uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project - Orthorectified Photomosaic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Digital orthoimages combine the image characteristics of a digital image with the geometric qualities of a map. The primary dynamic digital orthophoto quarter...

  19. Tree Transect Starting Locations (Points) at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A vector point dataset representing the starting location of tree transects at Sand Creek Massacre NHS as part of a University of Colorado research study.

  20. Heavy Equipment Use Areas at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon shapefile showing areas where heavy equipment use is permitted at Sand Creek Massacre NHS. The coordinates for this dataset were heads up...

  1. Cored Cottonwood Tree Sample Cluster Polygons at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A vector polygon dataset representing the location of sample clusters of cored trees at Sand Creek Massacre NHS as part of a University of Colorado research study.

  2. Mangrove Restoration Areas in Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Apart from two 100 m test plots, mangrove restoration activities were conducted between 1999 and 2001. Each year, thousands of red mangrove propagules were planted...

  3. Field Plot Points Modified for Valley Forge National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes the locations of vegetation classification sampling plots used to develop an association-level vegetation classification of Valley Forge...

  4. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plots, Observation and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2008 vegetation (classification) field plots (spatial database) and 2010 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the...

  5. 76 FR 66961 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... nominated properties under the National Register criteria for evaluation. Comments may be forwarded by... Carroll County Armour Creameries Poultry House, 218 5th Ave. S., Coon Rapids, 11000815 MAINE Androscoggin...

  6. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic for Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS Imagine image of Hopewell Furnace NHS. Produced from 37 color infrared photos taken April 4, 2002. Orthorectification...

  7. San Juan Island National Historical Park Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  8. John Muir National Historic Site Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  9. Valley Forge National Historical Park Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  10. War In The Pacific National Historical Park Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  11. National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Inventory Program: Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve Vegetation Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Kevin D.; Strassman, Andrew C.; Sattler, Stephanie; Pyne, Milo; Teague, Judy; White, Rickie; Ruhser, Janis; Hlavacek, Enrika; Dieck, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The National Park Service, Natural Resource Stewardship and Science office in Fort Collins, Colorado, publishes a range of reports that address natural resource topics. These reports are of interest and applicability to a broad audience in the National Park Service and others in natural resource management, including scientists, conservation and environmental constituencies, and the public. The Natural Resource Report Series is used to disseminate comprehensive information and analysis about natural resources and related topics concerning lands managed by the National Park Service. The series supports the advancement of science, informed decision-making, and the achievement of the National Park Service mission. The series also provides a forum for presenting lengthier results that may not be accepted by publications with page limitations. All manuscripts in the series receive the appropriate level of peer review to ensure that the information is scientifically credible, technically accurate, appropriately written for the intended audience, and designed and published in a professional manner. This report received formal peer review by subject-matter experts whose background and expertise put them on par technically and scientifically with the authors of the information. The peer review was led according to the Fundamental Science Practices of the U.S. Geological Survey. Views, statements, findings, conclusions, recommendations, and data in this report do not necessarily reflect views and policies of the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the U.S. Government. This report is available in digital format from the Gulf Coast Network website and the Natural Resource Publications Management website.

  12. Historical Development of Standards of the American Public Library : From National Standards to Local Planning

    OpenAIRE

    KAWASAKI, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    The national standards for public libraries were first published by the American Library Association in 1933 and were revised approximately once a decade in 1943, 1956, and 1966. The standards placed significant influences on the development of American public libraries. However, development of these national standards was ceased by the Public Library Association (division of the ALA) in 1966 due to the new trend from the beginning of 1970s to value the planning process of individual librarie...

  13. 77 FR 44670 - Information Collection Activities: National Historic Landmarks (NHL) Condition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... burden, we invite the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on...) Condition Survey in the subject line. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Barbara Wyatt, Historian, National... associated with this collection of information. Public Disclosure Statement: The PRA (44 U.S.C. 3501, et seq...

  14. Unintended Revelations in History Textbooks: The Precarious Authenticity and Historical Continuity of the Slovak Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulíková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes an analytical framework that helps to identify and challenge misconceptions of ethnocentrism found in pre-tertiary teaching resources for history and the social sciences in numerous countries. Design: Drawing on nationalism studies, the analytical framework employs ideas known under the umbrella terms of…

  15. 75 FR 39040 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... E Chapin St., Cadillac, 10000479 MINNESOTA Ramsey County Shubert, Sam S., Theatre and Shubert Building, 10 E Exchange St. and 488 N Wabasha St., Saint Paul, 10000475 MISSOURI Platte County Missouri... public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. J. Paul Loether, Chief, National...

  16. 75 FR 77897 - Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ..., National Trails Intermountain Region, New Mexico. Four alternatives and their respective environmental... experiences of the Mescalero Apache and Navajo tribes within the contextual history. An auto tour route would be established. Interpretation and education would emphasize the distinctive tribal and individual...

  17. Historical Chronology and Selected Bibliography Relating to the National Library of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    The chronological development of the National Library of Medicine is traced from 1836 through 1970. The years of major accomplishments are especially noted. For example: the first issue of "Index Medicus" was published in 1879; in 1913 Fielding H. Garrison published "An Introduction to the History of Medicine;" the first…

  18. Visitor perceptions of and support for management actions at an urban national historic site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie A. Strack; Craig A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    This study examined visitor use patterns, perceptions of crowding, and preferences for mixed-use management plans for the Kennesaw Mountain Road at Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park (KMNBP) outside Atlanta, GA. Survey data showed significant differences between first-time visitors to KMNBP and repeat visitors. Most felt that the road should have open access...

  19. 76 FR 30965 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Greenwood Gymnasium, (New Deal Recovery Efforts in Arkansas MPS) 300 E. Gary St., Greenwood, 11000357... Ingersoll, William, Estate, (Tourism and Recreational Properties in Voyageurs National Park 1880-1950 MPS) Ingersoll's Island, Crane Lake, 11000360 Levin, Adolph, Cottage, (Tourism and Recreational Properties in...

  20. 75 FR 38831 - Repair Kalaupapa Dock Structure: Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Hawaii; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ..., including minor to moderate effects on water quality, benthic resources, coral and essential fish habitats... remote area in development of treatments and care for persons with Hansen's disease. Repairs of Kalaupapa... well as further coordination with USFWS and National Marine Fisheries Service, the scope of work...

  1. The European physical and rehabilitation medicine journal network: historical notes on national journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S; Ilieva, E; Moslavac, S; Zampolini, M; Giustini, A

    2010-06-01

    In the last 40 years, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has made significant steps forward in Europe with the foundation of the European Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (EFPMR) (1963) which gave rise to the European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) (2004) the European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine (1970), the PRM Section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (1974), and the European Board of PRM (1991). Our journal, formerly Europa Medico-physica (1964), the official journal of the EFPMR, now European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) and official journal of the ESPRM since 2008, is distinct for its steadfast European vocation, long-standing Mediter-ranean interests and connections with various national scientific societies. Jointly with the ESPRM, efforts are under way to set up the European Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Journal Network (EPRMJN). The aim of this article is to present a profile of the national journals in the EPRMJN so as to give a better overview of how the scientific part of PRM in Europe has developed within a national perspective. A profile of the following national journals is presented: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (France), Fizikalna i rehabilitacijska medicina (Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine) (Croatia), Neurorehabilitation (Bulgaria), Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Portuguese Society Journal (Portugal), Physical Medicine, Rehabilitaton, Health (Bulgaria), Physikalische Medizin - Rehabilitationsmedizin - Kurort-medizin/Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (Germany and Austria) Prevention and Rehabilitation (Bulgaria), Rehabilitacija (Rehabilitation) (Slovenia), Rehabilitación (Madr) (Spain), Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Turkey). Some national journals in Europe have a very long history and tradition of research and education. Having a better knowledge of these realities, usually

  2. Nurses and national socialism--a moral dilemma: one historical example of a route to euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Sylvia Anne

    2005-01-01

    If euthanasia were to be made legal in other countries apart from The Netherlands and Belgium, nurses would be faced with ethical dilemmas that could impact on their professional accountability and their personal moral beliefs. As a part of history has demonstrated, the introduction of the practice of euthanasia could also significantly change the relationship between nurses and patients. In Germany between 1940 and 1945, in response to a government directive, nurses participated in the practice of euthanasia and as a result many innocent German people were killed by what were considered to be 'mercy deaths'. It is important to try and understand the moral thinking and examine the complex issues at this historical junction that led German nurses to participate in the killing of thousands of innocent people. Such reflection may help to stimulate an awareness of the moral issues that nurses in the twenty-first century could confront if euthanasia were to be made legal in their own country. This has implications for future nursing practice.

  3. Historical origins and characteristics of the formation of the national ideology ukrainian Transcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Oliinyk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article features of formation of ideological orientations ukrainian Transcarpathia. Affected by the comparison is considered in the context of archetypes in Ukraine. Comparative Philosophy leads to the conclusion that the local ideological features ukrainian­ruthenian, despite some nuances fit into the all­ethno­psychological portrait. It is necessary to distinguish humanistychnist (not militant, compassion, sincerity, hospitality, democracy (equality and a high degree of freedom traditionally high role of women in Ukrainian life, family matriarchy cordocentrism and idealism, which means the advantage of spiritual development, superficial understanding of reality, isolation from reality. These features are common to all ukrainian, but make generalizations regarding ethno­psychological characteristics rather difficult and problematic task. Local differences in regions nakladayut mark on the mentality of their inhabitants. Common features are evidence and result of ethnic and cultural unity of Ukrainian, while local differences caused by the peculiarities of the geographical position and historical conditions of Transcarpathian composed of foreign states. Overall, despite the different nuances researchers identify positive and negative aspects of ethnicity, which are common and typical for all ukrainian.

  4. The United Nations and Global Public Goods: Historical Contributions and Future Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Jenks

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter explores the thesis that the United Nations’ (UN most important contribution to the production of global public goods has been its role in creating the space and capacity to generate shared values. Starting with the UN Charter itself, the chapter traces the evolution of this contribution through different historical phases. It analyses the impact of globalisation on the role of the UN; in particular it identifies the quality of porousness as a product of globalisation which is critical to understanding the current challenges faced by the UN as well as central to the global public goods agenda. Through this lens the author briefly reviews the evolution of the UN’s role in the fields of peace and security, human rights and development cooperation. He concludes by identifying eight levers for change that will determine the UN’s ability to contribute significantly to the global public goods: the generation of norms and shared values, the quality of leadership, improved governance, innovative financing, institutional realignment, the further consolidation of legal instruments, focus, and the power of networks.

  5. [Psychiatry during National Socialism: historical knowledge, implications for present day ethical debates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelcke, V

    2010-11-01

    This contribution is a synthesis of the results of historical research on psychiatry during the Nazi period and some implications for present day debates in medical ethics. The focus is on three issues: the relationship between physicians and the state, the impact of eugenically and economically motivated health and social policies for psychiatry (e.g. forced sterilization, patient killing/euthanasia) and psychiatric research. Three myths are deconstructed: 1) that medical atrocities were imposed from above by Nazi politicians on apolitical physicians, 2) that mass sterilization and patient killing had nothing to do with contemporary state of the art of medical reasoning and practice and 3) that ethically unacceptable research on psychiatric patients had nothing to do with the contemporary state of the art of biomedical sciences. It is argued that the findings on these issues of Nazi medicine are not specific to Germany and the period between 1933 and 1945 but they were the extreme manifestations of some potential problems implicit in modern medicine in general.

  6. Moving beyond the historical quagmire of measuring infant mortality for the First Nations population in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Brenda

    2014-12-01

    Infant mortality is a metric influenced by societal, political and medical advances. The way vital events are collected and reported are not always uniform. A lack of uniformity has disadvantaged some groups in society. In Canada, a multi-jurisdictional vital statistics system has truncated our ability to produce infant mortality rates for the Indigenous population. To understand how this evolved, this paper outlines the history of infant mortality, generally and internationally, and then documents the efforts to harmonize the collection and reporting of vital statistics (births and deaths) in Canada. Following this analysis is a historical review of vital event reporting for Canada's Indigenous population. A major finding of this paper is that racism, reframing, and jurisdictional posturing has limited our ability to accurately estimate live births and infant deaths for the Indigenous population. To improve Indigenous infant mortality estimation, Canada's governments need to transcend multijurisdictional challenges and fulfill international reporting obligations to Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Museums, games, and historical imagination: Student responses to a games-based experience at the Australian national maritime museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Rowan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital games feature prominently in discussions concerning the ways museums might reimagine themselves—and best serve their audiences—in an increasingly digital age. Questions are increasingly asked about the opportunities various games might provide to foster historical imagination, and, in this process, contribute to the curation, construction and dissemination of knowledge: goals central to the work of modern museums. This paper reports on the experiences and perceptions of three groups of year 9 students (aged 14-15 as they engaged with one purpose built digital game—called The Voyage—at the Australian National Maritime Museum in 2015. The researchers sought students’ feedback on the strengths, weakness and possibilities associated with using games in museum contexts (rather than at home, or at school. In presenting students’ perspectives and their associated recommendations, the paper provides vital end-user input into considerations about how museums might maximize the potential of digital games, to enhance historical awareness and understanding, build links to formal curriculum, and strengthen partnerships between schools and museums.

  8. Fossil zooplankton and the historical status of westslope cutthroat trout in a headwater lake of Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, D.; Marnell, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Surviving pure-strain populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in headwater lakes of Glacier National Park could play an important role in the managed recovery of regional cutthroat trout fisheries. However, uncertainty exists about whether native trout could have naturally invaded several park lakes where they now occur. This study used paleolimnological techniques to address the question of whether the population of native trout in Avalanche Lake is indigenous or became established through an undocumented introduction. The validity of using fossil diapause eggs (ephippia) of the fish-sensitive cladocerans Daphnia spp. as indicators for the historical presence of zooplanktivorous fish was tested with a survey of live zooplankton and corresponding surface-sediment fossil assemblages in eight Glacier Park lakes with or without trout. Analysis of a sediment core from Avalanche Lake dated by lead radioisotopes, historical wildfires, and a flood allowed reconstruction of zooplankton dynamics from about 1700 A.D. to the present. Fossil Daphnia ephippia were rare or absent in Avalanche Lake sediments deposited before 1910, suggesting intense zooplanktivory due to sustained presence of an indigenous population of native cutthroat trout. Fossil evidence for larger Daphnia populations in the 1930s and early 1940s revealed a temporary disturbance of the lake's normal food web interactions during which zooplanktivory was significantly reduced. This disturbance may have resulted from a collapse of the native trout population caused indirectly by failed attempts between 1915 and 1943 to stock Avalanche Lake with Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarki bouvieri.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range Assembly Building 9B (Building 09-54): Photographs and Written Historical and Descriptive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Archives and History Program

    2017-08-01

    Assembly Building 9B (Building 09-54) is a contributing element to the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Historic District. The SNL TTR Historic District played a significant role in U.S. Cold War history in the areas of stockpile surveillance and non-nuclear field testing of nuclear weapons designs. The district covers approximately 179,200 acres and illustrates Cold War development testing of nuclear weapons components and systems. This report includes historical information, architectural information, sources of information, project information, maps, blueprints, and photographs.

  10. Is that Gun for the Bears? The National Park Service Ranger as a Historically Contradictory Figure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice B Kelly Pennaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Yellowstone Model” of exclusionary, or fortress conservation, has spread widely across the globe since 1872. While in many other countries there has been a concomitant ever-increasing militarisation of park guards, the history of the United States (US Park Ranger offers an alternative narrative. This paper traces the complex history of the US Park ranger through time to show how the Ranger as an outward embodiment of state power has been contradicted by administrative and practical logics directing rangers to educate, welcome, and guide park visitors. Rangers' work as territorial enforcers, and as strong-arms of the state has been tempered and defined by multiple disciplining forces over time. Using a political ecology approach, this paper examines how shifting political economic contexts, shifts in park use and park visitors, and a changing national law enforcement milieu influenced how and in what ways National Park Rangers have performed law enforcement in US parks over the past 100 years. The paper concludes by laying out why comparisons between US National Park Rangers and park guards in other parts of the world may be troubled by a number of socioeconomic and political factors.

  11. NATIONALISM INSIDE THE POEM OF “DIPONEGORO” BY CHAIRIL ANWAR A HISTORICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinayati Djojosuroto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the meaning of the elements of nationalism in the poem "Diponegoro" by Chairil Anwar and to reveal the relationship between the poetry of "Diponegoro" with the history of Diponegoro War (Java War in 1825 – 1830. The "Diponegoro" poem is one of the phenomenal works that, if the contents are reviewed, alive and exist in a fighting spirit, the spirit of nationalism. In this postmodern era, the poetry of ‘Prince Diponegoro’ by Chairil Anwar is still exist as poem which fights for its country. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with content analysis techniques. Conclusion: 1. Poetry "DIPONEGORO" is the poem with struggling spirit. In this case, it was the fight of Diponegoro against the Netherlands’ colonialism. His nationalism, his love and obedience, his loyalty for his country, had led Diponegoro onto resistance because he wanted to liberate his people, from the domination and the grip of foreign power, the Netherlands. 2. The poem of “Diponegoro” cannot be separated from the history of the past, the resistance of the people of Java against the Netherlands’ colonialism.

  12. A Historical Evaluation of the U12n Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Jones, Robert C [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12n Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12n Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. A total of 22 nuclear tests were conducted in the U12n Tunnel from 1967 to 1992. These tests include Midi Mist, Hudson Seal, Diana Mist, Misty North, Husky Ace, Ming Blade, Hybla Fair, Mighty Epic, Diablo Hawk, Miners Iron, Huron Landing, Diamond Ace, Mini Jade, Tomme/Midnight Zephyr, Misty Rain, Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Middle Note, Misty Echo, Mineral Quarry, Randsburg, and Hunters Trophy. DTRA sponsored all tests except Tomme and Randsburg which were sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Midnight Zephyr, sponsored by DTRA, was an add on experiment to the Tomme test. Eleven high explosive tests were also conducted in the tunnel and included a Stemming Plan Test, the Pre-Mill Yard test, the two seismic Non-Proliferation Experiment tests, and seven Dipole Hail tests. The U12n Tunnel complex is composed of the portal and mesa areas, encompassing a total area of approximately 600 acres (240 hectares). Major modifications to the landscape have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to testing, and construction of retention ponds. A total of 202 cultural features were recorded for the portal and mesa areas. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general everyday operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, ventilation

  13. Digitally-Assisted Stone Carving of a Relief Sculpture for the Parliament Buildings National Historic Site of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J.; Fai, S.; Kretz, S.; Ouimet, C.; White, P.

    2015-08-01

    The emerging field of digital fabrication is a process where three-dimensional datasets can be directly transferred to fabrication equipment to create models or even 1:1 building elements. In this paper, we will discuss the results of a collaboration between the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS), the Dominion Sculptor of Canada, and the Heritage Conservation Directorate (HCD) of Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC), that utilizes digital fabrication technologies in the development of a digitally-assisted stone carving process. The collaboration couples the distinguished skill of the Dominion Sculptor with the latest digital acquisition and digital fabrication technologies for the reconstruction of a deteriorated stone bas-relief on the façade of the East Block building of the Parliament Buildings National Historic Site of Canada. The intention of the research is to establish a workflow of hybrid digital/analogue methodologies from acquisition through rehabilitation and ultimately to the fabrication of stone elements.

  14. A Historical Evaluation of the U12n Tunnel, Nevada national Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Part 2 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Jones, Robert C [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12n Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12n Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. A total of 22 nuclear tests were conducted in the U12n Tunnel from 1967 to 1992. These tests include Midi Mist, Hudson Seal, Diana Mist, Misty North, Husky Ace, Ming Blade, Hybla Fair, Mighty Epic, Diablo Hawk, Miners Iron, Huron Landing, Diamond Ace, Mini Jade, Tomme/Midnight Zephyr, Misty Rain, Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Middle Note, Misty Echo, Mineral Quarry, Randsburg, and Hunters Trophy. DTRA sponsored all tests except Tomme and Randsburg which were sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Midnight Zephyr, sponsored by DTRA, was an add on experiment to the Tomme test. Eleven high explosive tests were also conducted in the tunnel and included a Stemming Plan Test, the Pre-Mill Yard test, the two seismic Non-Proliferation Experiment tests, and seven Dipole Hail tests. The U12n Tunnel complex is composed of the portal and mesa areas, encompassing a total area of approximately 600 acres (240 hectares). Major modifications to the landscape have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to testing, and construction of retention ponds. A total of 202 cultural features were recorded for the portal and mesa areas. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general everyday operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, ventilation

  15. Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Note: This data set is now on FTP so references to CD-ROM are historic and no longer applicable. The Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive is on FTP, and it contains...

  16. Exploring Historical Illiteracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, L. Allen

    1992-01-01

    Finds that powerlessness, social isolation, dogmatic nationalism, age, and gender significantly predict historical illiteracy (unfamiliarity with historical facts) and that a completed college history course reduced the effects of the predicting factors. (SR)

  17. Geophysical Constraints on the Evolution of an Ephemeral Channel at the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Nishank Mihir

    A geophysical survey was conducted on an ephemeral channel, Sand Creek, at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site to test three hypothesized migration and depositional models of ephemeral streams. A key motivation for the study is to identify the historical location of Sand Creek, which is critical to establishing the location of the 1864 Sand Creek Massacre. Hammer seismic refraction data were collected on 7 valley-wide lines oriented perpendicular to the channel, and ground penetrating radar data (200 MHz antenna) was collected on a grid overlying the channel and the channel banks. An additional GPR line (100 MHz) was collected on a line spanning the valley bottom. The refraction data show 4 layers: an eolian cap that is 1 - 3 m thick with a velocity of 0.3 km/s; a gradational alluvium layer consisting of ephemeral deposits which is 2 - 3 m thick with velocities ranging from 0.5 - 1 km/s; a gradational alluvium layer consisting of perennial fluvial deposits which is 2 - 7 m thick with velocities ranging from 1.2 - 2.9 km/s; and a homogeneous layer with a velocity of 2.4 km/s which is interpreted to be the Pierre Shale Formation. The radar data located buried channel boundaries and revealed a change in bedforms at 3 - 4 m deep. The change in bedforms is interpreted to indicate a flow regime change from an older perennial to a more recent ephemeral flow. The channel bedforms within the ephemeral flow regime deposits suggest that the channel has not migrated across the modern valley since the ephemeral flow regime was established, but punctuated changes in morphology within the channel have occurred in association with major floods. The results iii indicate that the channel has not changed position in historical times. This suggests that the modern stream is the proper geographic context for historical accounts that reference the location of Sand Creek when describing events that occurred during the 1864 massacre.

  18. Update of the U.S. States and Territories National Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Historical Record and Sources for Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Goldfinger, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA-National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated to conduct the first qualitative United States tsunami hazard assessment, published in 2008 by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Since that time, significant events such as the 2009 Samoa and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis have affected the U.S. and reinforced the importance of considering all of the evidence when conducting an assessment. In addition, there has been progress in tsunami research that reduces some of the earlier uncertainties. In 2011, the National Academies released their assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program recommending that NOAA and its NTHMP partners, in collaboration with researchers in social and physical sciences, should complete an initial national assessment of tsunami risk and should institute a periodic assessment of the sources of tsunamis that threaten the United States. Therefore, the NTHMP is updating the national tsunami hazard assessment. Although the second assessment will not be a national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, areas where there is progress in this methodology will be presented. As a result, a national tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment is not possible at this time, but examples of ongoing work will be presented. This paper looks at the data sources in the first report, including an examination of the NGDC historical tsunami database that resulted in a qualitative assessment based on the distribution of runup heights and the frequency of tsunami runups. Although tsunami deaths are a measure of risk rather than hazard, the known tsunami deaths were compared with the qualitative assessments based on frequency and amplitude. The 2009 American Samoa tsunami resulted in a change for the U.S. Pacific island territories qualitative tsunami hazard assessment from 'Moderate' to 'High'. The NGDC tsunami database contains reported tsunamis and is therefore limited to written records existing for an area

  19. The Nicaragua Canal:Security And Economic Boom Or Bust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    but is the property of the United States government. Abstract Since the 1800s nations and entrepreneurs have sought a maritime route across...across Central America to compete with the Panama Canal and thus secure his future with Nicaragua. Since the 1800s nations and entrepreneurs have...for the environmental effects that construction and operation of a canal could have on the regional ecosystem . As a result, environmentalists have

  20. Child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the UK National Health Service: an historical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, Elizabeth; Clark, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    This review developed from a discussion with the late Professor Richard Harrington about interventions in Child and Adolescent Mental Health services (CAMHS) that lacked an evidence base. Our aim is to investigate the literature for signs that child psychoanalysis is a declining paradigm within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the United Kingdom (UK). We present the literature chronologically since the inception of the UK National Health Service. This study shows that there have been a number of threats to child psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but no significant consistent decline. The profession is beginning to develop the social profile of a scientific discipline. We conclude that child psychoanalytic psychotherapy does not consistently demonstrate features of a declining scientific paradigm.

  1. Historical rock falls in Yosemite National Park, California (1857-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Greg M.; Collins, Brian D.; Santaniello, David J.; Zimmer, Valerie L.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Snyder, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Inventories of rock falls and other types of landslides are valuable tools for improving understanding of these events. For example, detailed information on rock falls is critical for identifying mechanisms that trigger rock falls, for quantifying the susceptibility of different cliffs to rock falls, and for developing magnitude-frequency relations. Further, inventories can assist in quantifying the relative hazard and risk posed by these events over both short and long time scales. This report describes and presents the accompanying rock fall inventory database for Yosemite National Park, California. The inventory database documents 925 events spanning the period 1857–2011. Rock falls, rock slides, and other forms of slope movement represent a serious natural hazard in Yosemite National Park. Rock-fall hazard and risk are particularly relevant in Yosemite Valley, where glacially steepened granitic cliffs approach 1 km in height and where the majority of the approximately 4 million yearly visitors to the park congregate. In addition to damaging roads, trails, and other facilities, rock falls and other slope movement events have killed 15 people and injured at least 85 people in the park since the first documented rock fall in 1857. The accompanying report describes each of the organizational categories in the database, including event location, type of slope movement, date, volume, relative size, probable trigger, impact to humans, narrative description, references, and environmental conditions. The inventory database itself is contained in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (Yosemite_rock_fall_database_1857-2011.xlsx). Narrative descriptions of events are contained in the database, but are also provided in a more readable Adobe portable document format (pdf) file (Yosemite_rock_fall_database_narratives_1857-2011.pdf) available for download separate from the database.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey: Surface-Water Historical Instantaneous Data for the Nation: Build Time Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The USGS historical data base contains historical surface water discharge volume data for all 16,658 surface water sites that have current conditions. This dataset...

  3. Unsupervised classification of lidar-based vegetation structure metrics at Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Christine J.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John; Woodman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Traditional vegetation maps capture the horizontal distribution of various vegetation properties, for example, type, species and age/senescence, across a landscape. Ecologists have long known, however, that many important forest properties, for example, interior microclimate, carbon capacity, biomass and habitat suitability, are also dependent on the vertical arrangement of branches and leaves within tree canopies. The objective of this study was to use a digital elevation model (DEM) along with tree canopy-structure metrics derived from a lidar survey conducted using the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) to capture a three-dimensional view of vegetation communities in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Louisiana. The EAARL instrument is a raster-scanning, full waveform-resolving, small-footprint, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar system designed to map coastal bathymetry, topography and vegetation structure simultaneously. An unsupervised clustering procedure was then applied to the 3-dimensional-based metrics and DEM to produce a vegetation map based on the vertical structure of the park's vegetation, which includes a flotant marsh, scrub-shrub wetland, bottomland hardwood forest, and baldcypress-tupelo swamp forest. This study was completed in collaboration with the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program's Gulf Coast Network. The methods presented herein are intended to be used as part of a cost-effective monitoring tool to capture change in park resources.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  5. Historical distribution of central nervous system tumors in the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Rangel-López, Edgar; Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz de la; Rodríguez-Pérez, Citlali Ekaterina; Ruano, Luis; Velásquez-Pérez, Leora; Martínez-Moreno, Mauricio; Garduño-Espinosa, Juan; Sotelo, Julio

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the first fifty years of the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico Manuel Velasco Suárez (Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía de México, INNN) from 1965 to 2014. A total of 16 116 institutional records of CNS tumors were analyzed. The frequency and distribution of CNS tumors were evaluated by tumor type, patient age and patient gender. The annual relationship between CNS tumors and surgical discharges (SD) over the last 20 years was estimated. The frequencies of most CNS tumors were consistent with those found worldwide, and the most common tumors were neuroepithelial tumors (33%), particularly astrocytic tumors (67%); meningeal tumors (26%); and pituitary tumors (20%). The incidence of pituitary tumors in these data was twice as high as that reported in other regions of the world, and the relationship between CNS tumors and SD was consistent over time (0.22-0.39). This study summarizes the largest sample of CNS tumor cases analyzed in Mexico and provides an important reference of the frequency of this tumor type in the country. This work will serve as a basis for conducting studies evaluating factors associated with the presence of CNS tumors and for identifying adequate public health interventions.

  6. NATIONAL-HISTORICAL MYTH AND THE WAYS OF ITS INTERPRETING IN THE STORY OF N.S. LESKOV "LEFTY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzel Mrtazovna Ibatullina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional interpretations of the story of N.S. Leskov "Lefty" accentuate primarily its etnophilosophical, psychosocial, spiritual and moral problematics, while the Leskov's concept of story remains a poorly studied aspect. The proposed article is devoted to the study of the ideas of writer’s historiosophical ideas, embodied in mythopoetic paradigms from the analyzed work; this approach due to the relevance and novelty of the work.Considering genre–motive and the plot structures of the story, explaining their symbolic and metaphorical functions, the author redesigns of the image- semantic contexts of the national historical myth recreated in the art system of "Lefty". This historiosofical concept is defined as an expression of the original the Leskov view to sustainable cultural opposition "Russia - Europe", "East - West". Writer’s fiction explication of the stable ideologems and mythologems opens up the possibility of a new, universal and philosophical understanding of the meaning of these oppositions. Historical fate of Russia and Europe and related with it contradictions and conflicts are explained through the paradigms of the solar- chthonic myth and central for it objective reality opposition "Chaos - Space". Symbolic representatives of this paradigm in the story become images-doubles, inherently ambivalent: steel flea and the official bureaucracy of St.Petersburg. Drama of the Lefty in the image of Leskov grows, so from socio- psychological and spiritual and moral to deeply existential, as it becomes a reflection of the inner ambivalence being and its fundamental principles.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-4-2

  7. Bilateral bifid mandibular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary.

  8. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Investigation of Contradictions in Open and Distance Higher Education among Alienated Adult Learners in Korea National Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon cultural-historical activity theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in a variety of educational activities among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU). Despite KNOU's quantitative development in student enrollment, the contradictions shed light on how the…

  9. Resistance among Alienated Adult Students in Korea National Open University: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis of Contradictions in Distance Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Kyoung Phil

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in the variety of educational activities and resistance among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU). Despite KNOU's quantitative development in student number, the students' resistance shed light on…

  10. [Historical background data of Spanish community nutrition: the works of the National School of Health between 1930-36].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu-Mestre, Josep; Esplugues Pellicer, Josep Xavier; Galiana Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the historical background data on Spanish community nutrition by means of the study of the first attempts toward institutionalization which took place in the Nutrition and Food Hygiene Division of the Spanish National Health School, restricting the search to the 1930-1936 period. In conjunction with the training of the public healthcare professional in the subjects related to nutrition and diet, a research program was carried out which took in three major areas of work. In order to be able to ascertain what the average regular diet of Spaniards and to serve as guidance for the preventive measures aimed at achieving a proper diet, consumption-related studies and surveys were conducted. A study was made of the chemical composition of Spanish foods for the purpose of determining the possible lacks. Lastly, the health problems entailed in a deficient diet in risk groups such as diabetics were analyzed. The results of the research revealed that the average diet of Spaniards, especially those of the working classes, was far from being able to be considered balanced from the nutritional point of view. The greatest problems lay in a deficit of animal proteins, as well as major lacks in mineral and vitamin intake. The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936 halted the institutionalization process being carried out. It was only in the 1960's, following the parenthesis of the first stage of the Franco era, that the health authorities once again took an interest in these diet-related problems.

  11. The Qatar National Historic Environment Record: a Platform for the Development of a Fully-Integrated Cultural Heritage Management Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, R. T. H.; Tonner, T. W. W.; Al-Naimi, F. A.; Dingwall, L. M.; Al-Hemaidi, N.

    2013-07-01

    The development of the Qatar National Historic Environment Record (QNHER) by the Qatar Museums Authority and the University of Birmingham in 2008 was based on a customised, bilingual Access database and ArcGIS. While both platforms are stable and well supported, neither was designed for the documentation and retrieval of cultural heritage data. As a result it was decided to develop a custom application using Open Source code. The core module of this application is now completed and is orientated towards the storage and retrieval of geospatial heritage data for the curation of heritage assets. Based on MIDAS Heritage data standards and regionally relevant thesauri, it is a truly bilingual system. Significant attention has been paid to the user interface, which is userfriendly and intuitive. Based on a suite of web services and accessed through a web browser, the system makes full use of internet resources such as Google Maps and Bing Maps. The application avoids long term vendor ''tie-ins'' and as a fully integrated data management system, is now an important tool for both cultural resource managers and heritage researchers in Qatar.

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  13. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEWS AND CASE STUDIES: The National Park Service Visual Resource Inventory: Capturing the Historic and Cultural Values of Scenic Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robert G.; Meyer, Mark E.

    2016-08-30

    Several United States (US) federal agencies have developed visual resource inventory (VRI) and management systems that reflect specific agency missions and visual resource management objectives. These programs have varied in the degree to which they incorporate historic and cultural elements and values into the scenic inventory process. The recent nationwide expansion of renewable energy and associated transmission development is causing an increase in visual impacts on both scenic and historic/cultural resources. This increase has highlighted the need for better integration of visual and historic/cultural resource assessment and management activities for land use planning purposes. The US Department of the Interior National Park Service (NPS), in response to concerns arising from potential scenic impacts from renewable energy, electric transmission, and other types of development on lands and waters near NPS units, has developed a VRI process for high-value views both within and outside NPS unit boundaries. The NPS VRI incorporates historic and cultural elements and values into the scenic resource inventory process and provides practical guidance and metrics for successfully integrating historic and cultural concerns into the NPS’s scenic resource conservation efforts. This article describes the NPS VRI process and compares it with the VRI processes of the US Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management and the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, with respect to the incorporation of historic and cultural values. The article discusses why a scenic inventory approach that more robustly integrates the historic and cultural values of the landscape is essential for NPS landscapes, and for fulfillment of NPS’s mission. Inventories are underway at many NPS units, and the results indicate that the VRI process can be used successfully to capture important historic and cultural resource information and incorporate that information into the assessment

  15. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  16. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  17. Geographic Information System (GIS) representation of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC), 1979 (NODC Accession 0000605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay 1979 from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC).

  18. A Cultural Resources Inventory and Historical Evaluation of the Smoky Atmospheric Nuclear Test, Areas 8, 9, and 10, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); King, Maureen L. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Beck, Colleen M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Falvey, Lauren W. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Menocal, Tatianna M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report presents the results of a National Historic Preservation Act Section 106 cultural resources inventory and historical evaluation of the 1957 Smoky atmospheric test location on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) was tasked to conduct a cultural resources study of the Smoky test area as a result of a proposed undertaking by the Department of Energy Environmental Management. This undertaking involves investigating Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 for potential contaminants of concern as delineated in a Corrective Action Investigation Plan. CAU 550 is an area that spatially overlaps portions of the Smoky test location. Smoky, T-2c, was a 44 kt atmospheric nuclear test detonated at 5:30 am on August 31, 1957, on top of a 213.4 m (700 ft) 200 ton tower (T-2c) in Area 8 of the NNSS. Smoky was a weapons related test of the Plumbbob series (number 19) and part of the Department of Defense Exercise Desert Rock VII and VIII. The cultural resources effort involved the development of a historic context based on archival documents and engineering records, the inventory of the cultural resources in the Smoky test area and an associated military trench location in Areas 9 and 10, and an evaluation of the National Register eligibility of the cultural resources. The inventory of the Smoky test area resulted in the identification of structures, features, and artifacts related to the physical development of the test location and the post-test remains. The Smoky test area was designated historic district D104 and coincides with a historic archaeological site recorded as 26NY14794 and the military trenches designed for troop observation, site 26NY14795. Sites 26NY14794 and 26NY14795 are spatially discrete with the trenches located 4.3 km (2.7 mi) southeast of the Smoky ground zero. As a result, historic district D104 is discontiguous and in total it covers 151.4 hectares (374 acres). The Smoky test location, recorded as historic

  19. Slope restoration for a 100-year old canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaggs, R.L.; Lewis, S.W. [Condor Earth Technologies, Inc., Sonora, CA (United States); Liebersbach, D.C. [Turlock Irrigation District, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) is located in the northern portion of the fertile San Joaquin Valley of California. TID`s primary water supply is conveyed from the 100-year-old LaGrange Diversion Dam via their historic Upper Main Canal. The original canal was constructed by excavating into slate bedrock for the uphill (cut) bank, and constructing unmortared rock walls and rock fill for the downhill (fill) embankment; the excavation was then lined with concrete. Soil fill raises of the downhill embankment over the last 30 years have reduced the slope stability to unacceptable levels in the steepest embankment areas. In March of 1994, two surficial slides prompted investigation of the long term embankment stability in the Warehouse Slide Area. Based on results of analysis for various stabilization scenarios, TID chose a stabilization method which included: (1) excavation of an access bench below the existing canal, (2) installation of steel pipe piles through the existing rock fill and into the bedrock, (3) construction of a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining wall and (4) construction of a soil-cement canal roadway pavement. The design was chosen by the owner because of cost competitiveness compared to other design alternatives and because the construction sequence allowed uninterrupted use of the canal. By using local river cobble for the MSE wall facing material, TID met the desired 50-year design life of the repair while maintaining the area`s historic visual features.

  20. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  1. Currencies, National Images and National Identities: Public Relations for and against Currencies – Historical Experiences from Germany, the Case of the Euro and the Role of Rating Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kunczik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available My thesis is that, in the “age of markets” in Europe the Euro is of central importance for creating (or destroying already established structures of European identity (at least in parts of Europe – with Great Britain taking a very remote position. I emphasize the theoretical aspects (Aftalion´s Psychological Theory of Exchange Rates; Simmel: Philosophie des Geldes to emphasize the importance of PR. I concentrate on historical cases – mainly German experiences – e.g. the campaign against the Rubel; the ideas of Ivy Lee; the PR-campaigns of the Nazi-government to fight inflation. The introduction of the German Mark (“die Deutsche Mark”, which became a central aspect of German national identity, and the campaign to give up this currency (“harte Währung” in order to introduce the “weak” Euro. In this context I discuss campaigns against the Euro (“only idiots want the Euro”. In the final remarks I refer to the role of rating agencies and trust in currencies and countries. It is my thesis that the analysts of the rating agencies live in a “world of literary images” and are acting in a completely irresponsible way (but even more incompetent are the politicians accepting the ratings without knowing anything about the problem of commensuration.

  2. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  3. Canal plane dynamic visual acuity in superior canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janky, Kristen L; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Ward, Bryan; Carey, John P; Schubert, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    1) To characterize normal, horizontal active dynamic visual acuity (DVA) and passive canal plane head thrust DVA (htDVA) across ages to establish appropriate control data and 2) to determine whether horizontal active DVA and passive canal plane htDVA are significantly different in individuals with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) before and after surgical repair in the acute (within 10 d) and nonacute stage (>6 wk). Prospective study. Tertiary referral center Patients diagnosed with SCDS (n = 32) and healthy control subjects (n = 51). Surgical canal plugging on a subset of patients. Static visual acuity (SVA), active horizontal DVA, and canal plane htDVA. Visual acuity (SVA, active DVA, and htDVA) declines with age. In SCDS, SVA and active DVA are not significantly affected in individuals after surgical canal plugging; however, htDVA in the plane of the affected canal is significantly worse after canal plugging. Age-based normative data are necessary for DVA testing. In SCDS, htDVA in the plane of the affected canal is normal before surgery but permanently reduced afterward.

  4. Distributed control at Love canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, G.; Rider, G.J.; Sadowski, B.; Moore, M.

    1994-09-01

    Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the minimization of maintenance is reducing maintenance costs and increasing operator safety.

  5. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  6. Organization and value of archival documents of the Spanish Institute of Entomology (historical archive of National Museum of Natural Sciences, Spanish National Research Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuna Arias, María Cruz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the work carried out for organizing the archival collection of the defunct Spanish Institute of Entomology, attached to the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC. This work has been used as a pilot project for implementing the standard classification scheme for CSIC’s historical archives. All the work was carried out in collaboration between researchers and documentation professionals, from the standpoint of the research project to which it belongs and with the intention of making the results available for the scientific community as required. The physical preservation of the documents was improved and their description was included in the automated catalog of the CSIC Libraries and Archives Network. This collection is part of the archives of the National Museum of Natural History (MNCN and can be consulted through the CSIC archive catalog.El presente artículo tiene el propósito de ofrecer una síntesis del trabajo de organización realizado sobre el fondo documental del extinto Instituto Español de Entomología (IEE del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC cuyo tratamiento ha constituido el proyecto piloto para la aplicación del cuadro de clasificación normalizado para los Archivos Históricos del CSIC. Toda la labor ha sido llevada a cabo por investigadores y profesionales de la documentación, desde la perspectiva del proyecto de investigación donde se enmarca y con la intención de ofrecer el resultado al servicio de la comunidad científica que lo requiera. El proyecto ha incluido la mejora de la conservación física de la documentación y la descripción en el catálogo automatizado de la Red de Bibliotecas y Archivos del CSIC. El fondo forma parte del Archivo del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN y su consulta puede realizarse a través del catálogo de Archivos del CSIC.

  7. Sugar industry influence on the scientific agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research's 1971 National Caries Program: a historical analysis of internal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E; Glantz, Stanton A; Schmidt, Laura A

    2015-03-01

    In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry's interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP. We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR's call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors. The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects itself from potentially damaging research, which

  8. Sugar industry influence on the scientific agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research's 1971 National Caries Program: a historical analysis of internal documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin E Kearns

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP. The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry's interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP.We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR's call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors.The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects itself from potentially damaging

  9. Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry’s interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP. Methods and Findings We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR’s call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors. Conclusions The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects

  10. Lumbar canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanec, D J; Drucker, Y; Segal, A M

    1997-04-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis is an increasingly recognized condition in patients more than 65 years of age. The clinical syndrome is dominated by neurogenic claudication. The natural history of the Condition is not yet well described. Long-term results of surgical therapy are frequently disappointing, and reoperation is required in more than 10% of patients. Nonoperative treatment options include physical therapy exercise programs, calcitonin, analgesics, and epidural steroid injections. A clinical pathway for management of symptomatic stenosis, emphasizing an initial nonoperative approach, is suggested.

  11. Landscape, historic memory and national identity in the beginnings of the policy nature conservation in Spain: from Covadonga to San Juan de la Peña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo García Álvarez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the concept of “national landscape” and on the importance of identity symbolic values in the beginning of landscape and nature conservation policy in Spain. The emblematic case of the Montaña de Covadonga (the first National Park created in Spain is examined in more detail. The paper is divided into three main sections. The first one raises some theoretical and general considerations on the role of identity symbolic values within the first steps of nature conservation policies in Spain and other national contexts. Secondly, the cultural-historic processes and discourses which converted the Montaña de Covadonga landscape into a Spanish national symbol and into a site of memory, leading to its declaration as a National Park in 1918, are reviewed. The third section examines the ideological identity disputes and controversies concerning the creation of that National Park, some of which led to the declaration of the Sitio Nacional del Monte de San Juan de la Peña in 1920. The article approaches the creation of the first Spanish Natural Parks as a part of the nationalization policies inspired by the concerns of the “Regeneracionismo”. More precisely, the beginning of natural conservation policy in Spain may be considered as part of the efforts carried out by certain intellectual and political leaders in order to institutionalize new spaces of collective identity grounded in landscape and nature (and, more particularly, in some natural landscapes endowed with a strong historic symbolic meaning as regards to the “birth of the nation”. According to the research conclusions, the ideological controversies raised around the first Spanish Natural Parks can be understood as a reflection of the plurality of competing national conceptions existing in Spain, as well as of the difficulties in reaching a consensus on the country’s national symbols.

  12. Water-chemistry data collected in and near Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawaii, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Oki, Delwyn S.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) on western Hawaiʻi was established in 1978 to preserve, interpret, and perpetuate traditional Native Hawaiian culture and activities, including the preservation of a variety of culturally and ecologically significant water resources that are vital to this mission. KAHO water bodies provide habitat for 1 threatened, 11 endangered, and 3 candidate threatened or endangered species. These habitats are sustained by, and in the case of ʻAimakapā Fishpond and the anchialine pools, entirely dependent on, groundwater from the Keauhou aquifer system. Development of inland impounded groundwater in the Keauhou aquifer system may affect the coastal freshwater-lens system on which KAHO depends, if the inland impounded-groundwater and coastal freshwater-lens systems are hydrologically connected. This report documents water-chemistry results from a U.S. Geological Survey study that collected and analyzed water samples from 2012 to 2014 from 25 sites in and near KAHO to investigate potential geochemical indicators in water that might indicate the presence or absence of a hydrologic connection between the inland impounded-groundwater and coastal freshwater-lens systems in the area. Samples were collected under high-tide and low-tide conditions for KAHO sites, and in dry-season and wet-season conditions for all sites. Samples were collected from two ocean sites, two fishponds, three anchialine pools, and three monitoring wells within KAHO. Two additional nearshore wells were sampled on property adjacent to and north of KAHO. Additional samples from the freshwater-lens system were collected from six inland wells located upslope from KAHO, including three production wells. Seven production wells in the inland impounded-groundwater system also were sampled. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, rare-earth elements, strontium-isotope ratio, and stable isotopes of water. Precipitation samples from five

  13. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  14. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  15. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville vicinity, Butte County, Idaho -- Photographs, written historical and descriptive data. Historical American engineering record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the history of the Old Waste Calcining Facility. It begins with introductory material on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the Materials Testing Reactor fuel cycle, and the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The report then describes management of the wastes from the processing plant in the following chapters: Converting liquid to solid wastes; Fluidized bed waste calcining process and the Waste Calcining Facility; Waste calcining campaigns; WCF gets a new source of heat; New Waste Calcining Facility; Last campaign; Deactivation and the RCRA cap; Significance/context of the old WCF. Appendices contain a photo key map for HAER photos, a vicinity map and neighborhood of the WCF, detailed description of the calcining process, and chronology of WCF campaigns.

  16. Schools of «agrarian taste» in the towns established by the National Institute for Colonization in the area of La Violada-Canal de Monegros I, Aragón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Alagón Laste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present text analyzes the ‘Primary Schools of Agricultural Orientation’ (Escuelas primarias de orientación agrícola in Spanish, projected between the decades of 1940’s and 1960’s in the towns established by the INC (National Institute of Colonization within the irrigated area of La Violada Monegros I: Ontinar del Salz (Zaragoza, El Temple (Huesca, Puilato (Zaragoza, Artasona del Llano (Huesca, San Jorge (Huesca y Valsalada (Huesca. In fact the school of Ontinar was one of the firsts to be built within the delegation of the Ebro river and it established a baseline for those built later. It is interesting to analyze, from the documentation and the visit of the buildings themselves, the architectural typology used in this territory and the educational system of these schools work as a whole refection of the agrarian ideology of Francoism. This study takes into account the regulations of the education system at the time and the school models developed by other administrations such as the Ministry of National Education. This way it is possible to get a global analysis and establish similarities with other typologies of constructions by the INC in Spain. How to reference this article Alagón Laste, J. M., & Vázquez Astorga, M. (2015. Escuelas de «sabor agrario» en los pueblos creados por el Instituto Nacional de Colonización en la zona de La Violada-Canal de Monegros I, Aragón. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(1, pp. 281-308. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.001.014

  17. Ancient Irrigation Canals Mapped from Corona Imageries and Their Implications in Juyan Oasis along the Silk Road

    OpenAIRE

    Ningke Hu; Xin Li; Lei Luo; Liwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Historical records and archaeological discoveries have shown that prosperous agricultural activities developed in the ancient Juyan Oasis of northwestern China, an important oasis that once flourished on the ancient Silk Road. However, how the irrigation canals were distributed in historical time was unknown. Here, we identified and mapped the spatial distribution of ancient abandoned irrigation canals that were built using CORONA photographs and field inspections. This work found that ancien...

  18. Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory was to document and evaluate the National : Register of Historic Places eligibility all on-system highway bridges and grade separation structures built in : Colorado between 1959 and 196...

  19. The Romanian Freemasonry. Historical facts and self image in some journals of the National Grande Lodge of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel TOLCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article's aim is to investigate how the reflection on the Freemasonry's role in Romanian history is being built: on the one hand, there is a scientific, historical approach, based on facts; on the other, there is a "mythological" reflection in which the document is replaced with a more or less imaginary hermeneutics.

  20. Political institutions and their historical dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Sandberg

    Full Text Available Traditionally, political scientists define political institutions deductively. This approach may prevent from discovery of existing institutions beyond the definitions. Here, a principal component analysis was used for an inductive extraction of dimensions in Polity IV data on the political institutions of all nations in the world the last two centuries. Three dimensions of institutions were revealed: core institutions of democracy, oligarchy, and despotism. We show that, historically and on a world scale, the dominance of the core institutions of despotism has first been replaced by a dominance of the core institutions of oligarchy, which in turn is now being followed by an increasing dominance by the core institutions of democracy. Nations do not take steps from despotic, to oligarchic and then to democratic institutions, however. Rather, nations hosting the core democracy institutions have succeeded in historically avoiding both the core institutions of despotism and those of oligarchy. On the other hand, some nations have not been influenced by any of these dimensions, while new institutional combinations are increasingly influencing others. We show that the extracted institutional dimensions do not correspond to the Polity scores for autocracy, "anocracy" and democracy, suggesting that changes in regime types occur at one level, while institutional dynamics work on another. Political regime types in that sense seem "canalized", i.e., underlying institutional architectures can and do vary, but to a considerable extent independently of regime types and their transitions. The inductive approach adds to the deductive regime type studies in that it produces results in line with modern studies of cultural evolution and memetic institutionalism in which institutions are the units of observation, not the nations that acts as host for them.

  1. Political institutions and their historical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Mikael; Lundberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, political scientists define political institutions deductively. This approach may prevent from discovery of existing institutions beyond the definitions. Here, a principal component analysis was used for an inductive extraction of dimensions in Polity IV data on the political institutions of all nations in the world the last two centuries. Three dimensions of institutions were revealed: core institutions of democracy, oligarchy, and despotism. We show that, historically and on a world scale, the dominance of the core institutions of despotism has first been replaced by a dominance of the core institutions of oligarchy, which in turn is now being followed by an increasing dominance by the core institutions of democracy. Nations do not take steps from despotic, to oligarchic and then to democratic institutions, however. Rather, nations hosting the core democracy institutions have succeeded in historically avoiding both the core institutions of despotism and those of oligarchy. On the other hand, some nations have not been influenced by any of these dimensions, while new institutional combinations are increasingly influencing others. We show that the extracted institutional dimensions do not correspond to the Polity scores for autocracy, "anocracy" and democracy, suggesting that changes in regime types occur at one level, while institutional dynamics work on another. Political regime types in that sense seem "canalized", i.e., underlying institutional architectures can and do vary, but to a considerable extent independently of regime types and their transitions. The inductive approach adds to the deductive regime type studies in that it produces results in line with modern studies of cultural evolution and memetic institutionalism in which institutions are the units of observation, not the nations that acts as host for them.

  2. 1992 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  3. 2000 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  4. 1988 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  5. 1970's Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  6. 2000 Benthic and Landcover Characterization of Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St Coix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  7. 2000 Mosaic of Aerial Photography of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographs taken by NOAA's National Geodetic Survey during 2000 were mosaicked and orthorectified by the Biogeography Program. The resulting image was used...

  8. 1970's Mosaic of Aerial Photography of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographs taken by NOAA's National Geodetic Survey during 1977 and 1971 were mosaicked and orthorectified by the Biogeography Branch resulting in a single...

  9. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  10. Historical and psychological characteristics of formation of the Polish population commitment to the socialist forms of social relations in the 20-30th years of the 20th century (on the example of the Marchlewski Polish National Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniszewski Mirosław

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines historical facts and psychological mechanisms that influenced the mentality and history of the Polish national community on the territory of Ukraine in 20-30th years of the 20th century. Historical facts exemplify considered methods of activists and leaders of the Soviet power, their psychological influence on the population of the Marchlewski Polish National Region with the center in the settlement of Dovbysh in Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

  11. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  12. Historical Survey Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To preserve NEFSC historical data, images of biological and oceanographic data sheets (1948-1975) were scanned to digital format and can be queried through a portal...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range Askania Tower (Building 02-00): Photographs and Written Historical and Descriptive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Rebecca A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Archives and History Program

    2017-08-01

    The Askania Tower (Building 02-00) was built in 1956 as part of the first wave of construction at the newly established Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Located at Station 2, near the primary target area at the range, the tower was one of the first four built to house Askania phototheodolites used in tracking test units dropped from aircraft. This report includes historical information, architectural information, sources of information, project information, maps, blueprints, and photographs.

  14. Comparison of Two Surface Contamination Sampling Techniques Conducted for the Characterization of Two Pajarito Site Manhattan Project National Historic Park Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Technical Area-18 (TA-18), also known as Pajarito Site, is located on Los Alamos National Laboratory property and has historic buildings that will be included in the Manhattan Project National Historic Park. Characterization studies of metal contamination were needed in two of the four buildings that are on the historic registry in this area, a “battleship” bunker building (TA-18-0002) and the Pond cabin (TA-18-0029). However, these two buildings have been exposed to the elements, are decades old, and have porous and rough surfaces (wood and concrete). Due to these conditions, it was questioned whether standard wipe sampling would be adequate to detect surface dust metal contamination in these buildings. Thus, micro-vacuum and surface wet wipe sampling techniques were performed side-by-side at both buildings and results were compared statistically. A two-tail paired t-test revealed that the micro-vacuum and wet wipe techniques were statistically different for both buildings. Further mathematical analysis revealed that the wet wipe technique picked up more metals from the surface than the microvacuum technique. Wet wipes revealed concentrations of beryllium and lead above internal housekeeping limits; however, using an yttrium normalization method with linear regression analysis between beryllium and yttrium revealed a correlation indicating that the beryllium levels were likely due to background and not operational contamination. PPE and administrative controls were implemented for National Park Service (NPS) and Department of Energy (DOE) tours as a result of this study. Overall, this study indicates that the micro-vacuum technique may not be an efficient technique to sample for metal dust contamination.

  15. Looking back at Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    In the first part of this series (ES and T, April 1987, pp. 328-31) it was pointed out that the methods and conclusions of EPA's Love Canal Study were the subject of some controversy in the environmental community. Others defended the agency's approaches and methods. Part 2 makes no attempt to resolve the controversy; its purpose is to present the results and conclusions of the Love Canal.

  16. 1997-2001 Mangrove Restoration Areas in Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Apart from two 100 m test plots, mangrove restoration activities were conducted between 1997 and 2001. Each year, thousands of red mangrove propagules were planted...

  17. Effects of historical and active nursery operations on the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents preliminary reconnaissance data on sediment and fish samples collected within the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GSNWR) Tract 141A - the...

  18. Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plots, Observation and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2008 vegetation (classification) field plots (spatial database) and 2010 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the...

  19. Digital seafloor character data of the Gulf of Alaska from historical National Ocean Service (NOS) smooth sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release provides seafloor-characteristics point data across the Gulf of Alaska, as digitized directly from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  20. Temporal and Spatial Variation of Chemical Water Quality in a Contour Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, L. A.; Lunn, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    Chemical water quality is a highly variable aspect of any water body. Historically numerous researchers have investigated the chemical variability of rivers, streams and wetlands, artificial water bodies such as canals have been largely neglected. Canals are typically hydraulically characterised by low flows and a lack of mixing processes. This can potentially lead to significant spatial variability in water chemistry, and as a result many canals in the UK regularly fail water quality targets at specific locations. Recent changes to UK legislation, following the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), have resulted in canals being subject to achieving `good ecological status'. In the case of canals, what constitutes `good ecological status' is largely unknown and little expertise is available since historically canal management has not been driven by chemical and ecological quality targets. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new research to determine the main factors influencing canal water quality and their ecological status. This research presents results from a study based on a UK contour canal, the Union Canal in central Scotland. The Union Canal typically demonstrates spatially and temporally variable levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) and orthophosphate (PO4-P): simultaneously, seasonal and diel fluctuations of DO and PO4-P are pronounced at a small number of locations. During 1995, minimum levels of DO along the canal length ranged from 9mgl-1 in Edinburgh to as low as 2mgl-1 approximately 20kms away, this then rose again to 8mgl-1 after a further distance of 2km. These acutely low levels of DO are coupled with events of excessive PO4-P up to 0.235mgl-1:10 times greater than those normally found in rivers, causing localised eutrophication and extensive fish kills. To determine the cause of the `hot spots' of poor water quality found on the Union Canal, simultaneous investigations of the hydraulic regime, spatial and temporal water quality

  1. Historical flows for Bridge Creek above East Canal, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bridge Creek originates along the northwestern slopes of Steens Mountain. It drains an area a fraction of the size of the Blitzen River watershed (approximately 30...

  2. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  3. Possible similarities between the folk medicine historically used by First Nations and American Indians in North America and the ethnoveterinary knowledge currently used in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2016-11-04

    This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organization and value of archival documents of the Spanish Institute of Entomology (historical archive of National Museum of Natural Sciences, Spanish National Research Council)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osuna Arias, María Cruz; Molina Nortes, Juana; Martín Albaladejo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the work carried out for organizing the archival collection of the defunct Spanish Institute of Entomology, attached to the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC...

  5. Schooling, Politics and the Construction of Identity in Hong Kong: The 2012 "Moral and National Education" Crisis in Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul; Vickers, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Since Hong Kong's retrocession, the government has endeavoured to strengthen local citizens' identification with the People's Republic of China--a project that acquired new impetus with the 2010 decision to introduce "Moral and National Education" (MNE) as a compulsory school subject. In the face of strong local opposition, this policy…

  6. Vegetation monitoring to detect and predict vegetation change: Connecting historical and future shrub/steppe data in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Chong; David Barnett; Benjamin Chemel; Roy Renkin; Pamela Sikkink

    2011-01-01

    A 2002 National Research Council (NRC) evaluation of ungulate management practices in Yellowstone specifically concluded that previous (1957 to present) vegetation monitoring efforts were insufficient to determine whether climate or ungulates were more influential on shrub/steppe dynamics on the northern ungulate winter range. The NRC further recommended that the...

  7. Spatial reconstructions and comparisons of historic snow avalanche frequency and extent using tree rings in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, B.A.; Pederson, G.T.; Caruso, C.J.; Fagre, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Natural snow avalanches have periodically damaged infrastructure and disrupted railroad and highway traffic at the southwestern corner of Glacier National Park, Montana. The 94-year history of these disruptions constitutes an uncommon record of natural avalanches spanning over nine decades and presents a unique opportunity to examine how natural avalanche frequency and minimum extent have varied over time due to climatic or biophysical changes. This study compared the historic record of natural avalanches in one avalanche path with tree-ring evidence of avalanches from 109 cross sections and increment cores collected in the same path. Results from combined historic and tree-ring records yielded 27 avalanche years in the 1910-2003 chronology, with the historic record alone underestimating avalanche years by half. Mean return period was 3.2 years. Interpolated maps allowed for more spatially precise estimates of return periods throughout the runout zone than previous studies. The maps show return periods increase rapidly downslope from 2.3 to 25 years. Avalanche years were associated with positive Snow Water Equivalent anomalies at a nearby snow course. Minimum avalanche extent was highly variable but not associated with snowpack anomalies. Most avalanche years coincided with years in which the mean January-February Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 3.4 indices were neutral. The findings suggest that changes in Pacific climate patterns that influence snowfall could also alter the frequency of natural snow avalanches and could thus change disturbance patterns in the montane forests of the canyon. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  8. Ab interno Schlemm's Canal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Brian A; Akil, Handan; Bert, Benjamin B

    2017-01-01

    In primary open-angle glaucoma, the site of greatest resistance to aqueous outflow is thought to be the trabecular meshwork (TM) and inner wall of Schlemm's canal. Augmentation of the conventional (trabecular) outflow pathway can facilitate physiologic outflow and subsequently lower intraocular pressure. The most recent approach to enhancing the conventional outflow pathway is via an internal approach to the TM and Schlemm's canal. Ab interno Schlemm's canal surgery includes 4 novel surgical approaches: (1) removal of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal by an internal approach (ab interno trabeculectomy), (2) implantation of a microstent to bypass the TM, (3) disruption of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno trabeculotomy), and (4) dilation of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno canaloplasty). The first category includes the Trabectome (Neomedix, Tustin, CA, USA), and Kahook Dual Blade (New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA). The second category includes the iStent (Glaukos, Laguna Hills, CA, USA), as well as the investigational Hydrus Microstent implant (Ivantis, Irvine, CA, USA). The third category includes gonioscopic-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (iSciences catheter; Ellex, Adelaide, Australia), and 360° suture trabeculotomy (TRAB360, Sight Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA). The fourth category includes ab interno canaloplasty or AbiC (Ellex), and Visco360 (Sight Sciences). In contrast to external filtration surgeries, such as trabeculectomy and aqueous tube shunt, these procedures are categorized as internal filtration surgeries and are performed from an internal approach via gonioscopic guidance. Published results suggest that these surgical procedures are both safe and efficacious for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Digitization, Integration and Preservation of Technical and Historical Information: The Case of INTA, the National Institute for Aerospace Technique of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merida Martín, F.; Paz Otero, S.

    2007-10-01

    During the last two years the INTA -- National Institute for Aerospace Technique -- library has been improving different areas related to the information management processes, such as those related to cataloguing, dissemination of technical information, centralization at the Library of all relevant documents and information applicable to scientific research within our organization, implementation of library web services, etc. As part of these processes of modernization of services that the INTA Library is carrying out, a project of digitization of both technical documentation and historical records of the Institute has been defined. The goal is to achieve the total digitization of technical documents and historical papers through the year 2006, and provide access for the resulting electronic collection to the Spanish aerospace community. For the development of the project a deep study of the state of the art in digitization and preservation matters has been conducted. That study covers the different aspects of such a project that could be experienced, such as the risk of data loss, the bandwidth needed to guarantee access to this huge quantity of electronic documentation, the fragility of the digital media, the rapid obsolescence of hardware and software, etc. Also the project is going to assume the new reality of documents that are not originating in paper format, but are digital-born, and how to integrate all the electronic documents in one system, fulfilling the same standards and using the same available technology.

  10. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Investigation of Contradictions in Open and Distance Higher Education among Alienated Adult Learners in Korea National Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Joo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon cultural-historical activity theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in a variety of educational activities among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU. Despite KNOU’s quantitative development in student enrollment, the contradictions shed light on how the institution’s top-down, bureaucratic pedagogical system collided with individual expectations and needs. In particular, the participants’ critical viewpoints demonstrate the incompatible social roles that the open and distance higher education institution plays in Korean society. For example, while KNOU contributes to extending higher education opportunities for those who have unmet educational needs, the value of the KNOU degree has not been socially acknowledged since there is little, if any, competition in the entrance process. This study also documents how these contradictions were culturally and historically embedded in the participants’ distance higher education activities. Given the persistent contradictions, the research findings illuminate that KNOU’s efficiency-oriented model has not effectively facilitated the students’ learning as its distance higher education system is inevitably based on a compromise between a competitive, quality curriculum and the efficient extension of audiences.

  11. Wilderness - between the promise of hell and paradise: A cultural-historical exploration of a Dutch National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen Arts; Anke Fischer; Rene van der Wal

    2011-01-01

    ‘Wilderness' is often seen as an ideal state in contemporary debates on ecological restoration. This paper asks what is left of ‘wilderness' in present-day Western Europe and explores this question by drawing on a case study of the Hoge Veluwe National Park in the Netherlands. An overview of intellectual histories of wilderness ideas is used as a backdrop to...

  12. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  13. National Assessment of Shoreline Change: Part 1, Historical Shoreline Changes and Associated Coastal Land Loss Along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Miller, Tara L.; Moore, Laura J.

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This report on states bordering the Gulf of Mexico (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) represents the first in a series that will eventually include the Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. The report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results, provides explanations regarding the historical and present trends and rates of change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. Shoreline change evaluations are based on comparing three historical shorelines with a recent shoreline derived from lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) topographic surveys. The historical shorelines generally represent the following periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s, whereas the lidar shoreline is 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated using all four shorelines (1800s to lidar shoreline), whereas short-term rates of change are calculated for the most recent period (1970s to lidar shoreline). The historical rates of change presented in this report represent past conditions and therefore are not

  14. National Assessment Of Shoreline Change: Part 2, Historical Shoreline Changes And Associated Coastal Land Loss Along The U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Miller, Tara L.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This report on states comprising the Southeast Atlantic Coast (east Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina) represents the second in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico and will eventually include the Northeast Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. The report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results, provides explanations regarding the historical and present trends and rates of change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. Shoreline change evaluations are based on comparing three historical shorelines with a recent shoreline derived from lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) topographic surveys. The historical shorelines generally represent the following periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s, whereas the lidar shoreline is 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated using four shorelines (1800s to lidar shoreline), whereas short-term rates of change are calculated for the most recent period (1970s to lidar shoreline). The historical rates of change presented in

  15. Erie Canal Technology: Stump Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many years ago I saw a picture of a huge set of wheels that was used to remove tree stumps during the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825) and was intrigued by its use of leverage, mechanical advantage, and torque. Figure 1 is a scale model of the device based on my memory of the (lost) picture and published accounts.

  16. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation

  17. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    ] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...

  18. Historical Patterns and Variation in Treatment of Injuries in NFL (National Football League) Players and NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Langner, Paula; Cook, Shane; Ellis, Byron; Godfrey, Jenna M

    We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians. Although patellar tendon autograft was the preferred graft choice for both groups of team physicians, the percentage of NCAA physicians who allowed return to football 6 months or less after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was significantly (P = .03) higher than that of NFL physicians. Prophylactic knee bracing, which may prevent medial collateral ligament injuries, was used at a significantly (P football players.

  19. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  20. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park ('Place of Refuge of Honaunau') is the southernmost of the three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. It is a relatively small park originally 73 ha (182 acres), and was expanded in 2006 with the acquisition

  1. National assessment of shoreline change: historical change along the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Beach erosion is a persistent problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. Along the Arctic coast of Alaska, coastal erosion is widespread, may be accelerating, and is threatening defense and energy-related infrastructure, coastal habitats, and Native communities. As coastal populations continue to expand and infrastructure and habitat are increasingly threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There also is a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline change with metrics that are consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline change so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally.

  2. Ancient Irrigation Canals Mapped from Corona Imageries and Their Implications in Juyan Oasis along the Silk Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningke Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical records and archaeological discoveries have shown that prosperous agricultural activities developed in the ancient Juyan Oasis of northwestern China, an important oasis that once flourished on the ancient Silk Road. However, how the irrigation canals were distributed in historical time was unknown. Here, we identified and mapped the spatial distribution of ancient abandoned irrigation canals that were built using CORONA photographs and field inspections. This work found that ancient irrigation canals are large-scale and distributed throughout the desertified environment, with three hierarchical organization of first-, second-, and third-order irrigation canals (the total length of the first- and second-order-irrigation canals is dramatically more than 392 km. This study further indicates that ancient irrigation methods and modern irrigation systems in arid regions of China share the same basic irrigation design. New visual and fine-scale evidence and spatial distribution of irrigation canals are provided to illustrate the development of the ancient irrigated agriculture that occurred in the Juyan Oasis. This work is useful for readers who are interested in the construction and organization approaches of irrigation canals used in ancient irrigated agriculture in arid regions. It also has implications for how ancient people balance the relationships between human needs and the eco-environment using reasonable water management methods, especially for decision-making in the efficient usage of limited water resources in the arid inland river basin.

  3. [The historical development of immunization in Germany. From compulsory smallpox vaccination to a National Action Plan on Immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S; Schöneberg, I; Krause, G

    2012-11-01

    In the German Reich, smallpox vaccinations were organized by the state. A mandatory vaccination throughout the empire was introduced in 1874, which was continued in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1982/1983. From 1935, health departments were responsible for vaccinations. In the GDR, immunization was tightly organized: The state made great efforts to achieve high vaccination rates. Responsibilities were clearly defined at all levels and for all ages. While vaccination was initially mandatory only at the regional level, the legally mandated immunization schedule later contained compulsory vaccinations, e.g., against measles. In the beginning there were mandatory vaccinations in the FRG at the Länder level. Since 1961, the Federal Epidemics Act has impeded obligatory vaccinations. Instead, voluntary vaccinations based on recommendations were stressed. Since the 1980s, vaccinations have been shifted from the public health service sector to office-based physicians. Today, public health authorities offer mainly supplementary vaccinations. In 2007, protective immunizations were introduced as compulsory benefits of the statutory health insurance (SHI). Recently, the German federal states developed a National Vaccination Plan to support immunization strategies.

  4. Hydraulic and Geomorphic Assessment of the Merced River and Historic Bridges in Eastern Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California: Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, J. Toby; Wright, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The Merced River in the popular and picturesque eastern-most part of Yosemite Valley in Yosemite National Park, California, USA, has been extensively altered since the park was first conceived in 1864. Historical human trampling of streambanks has been suggested as the cause of substantial increases in stream width, and the construction of undersized stone bridges in the 1920s has been suggested as the major factor leading to an increase in overbank flooding due to deposition of bars and islands between the bridges. In response, the National Park Service at Yosemite National Park (YNP) requested a study of the hydraulic and geomorphic conditions affecting the most-heavily influenced part of the river, a 2.4-km reach in eastern Yosemite Valley extending from above the Tenaya Creek and Merced River confluence to below Housekeeping Bridge. As part of the study, present-day conditions were compared to historical conditions and several possible planning scenarios were investigated, including the removal of an elevated road berm and the removal of three undersized historic stone bridges identified by YNP as potential problems: Sugar Pine, Ahwahnee and Stoneman Bridges. This Open-File Report will be superseded at a later date by a Scientific Investigations Report. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the USGS FaSTMECH (Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphological Evolution of Channels) model, within the USGS International River Interface Cooperative (iRIC) model framework, was used to compare the scenarios over a range of discharges with annual exceedance probabilities of 50-, 20-, 10-, and 5- percent. A variety of topographic and hydraulic data sources were used to create the input conditions to the hydrodynamic model, including aerial LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging), ground-based LiDAR, total station survey data, and grain size data from pebble counts. A digitized version of a historical topographic map created by the USGS in 1919, combined with estimates of

  5. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim... Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal Regulations. That...

  6. [Tomography of the pterygoid canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantsev, S V; Kalenov, V E; Russkikh, N A

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an X-ray scheme for calculating the depth of pterygoid canals required for accurate tomography. The scheme includes three lines: line A corresponds to the physiological horizontal line, line B is drawn, normally to line A through the tip of the nose, and line C is the perpendicular from line B to the upper third of the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa. The length of line B plus 1 cm (thickness of external nose soft tissues) is the value to be determined. Twenty-six patients underwent X-ray examinations by an EDK-750B unit (70 kV, 150 mA, 1.65 s). In all cases 1-3 images were sufficient to obtain good visualization of the pterygoid canals.

  7. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  8. Endometriosis en el canal inguinal

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós, José Luis; Corrales, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Endometriosis se define como la presencia de tejido glandular y estromal endometrial fuera de la cavidad uterina y este tejido ectópico es dependiente de la estimulación estrogénica. Usualmente se presenta en ovarios, fondos de saco, ligamento ancho, ligamento uterosacro, útero, trompas de Falopio, tracto gastrointestinal y geniturinario. Sin embargo, puede presentarse en otras localizaciones, como en el canal inguinal. Prevalece en 10% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva. Existen mu...

  9. Between China and Taiwan: the case of Nicaragua and the Grand Interoceanic Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Grau Vila

    2016-01-01

    The award of the concession of Nicaragua’s Grand Interoceanic Canal by the Sandinista Government to the Chinese company HKND seems less a response to a change in foreign policy in favour of continental China (at the expense of Taiwan), and more a step towards the achievement of a national Nicaraguan dream in which the investment company is from China. Nicaraguan history (linked for centuries to numerous canal projects), the diplomatic influence of Taiwan based on development cooperation, and ...

  10. "There is nothing more permanent than something temporary": historical retrospective of Siberian water infrastructure projects

    OpenAIRE

    Ageev Ilya; Zinovyev Vasiliy; Nikolaeva Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    The most famous historical project of transport infrastructure in Siberia is the Ob-Yenisei Canal. It was implemented at the end of the 19th century, however it was considered a failure and closed. A continuing interest in the Сanal’s construction and the circumstances of its origin demonstrates the special place of the Ob-Yenisei Canal in Russian historical memory. One of the causes of the construction’s failure was the decision to reduce the size of the Ob-Yenisei Canal in the final draft. ...

  11. International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature collection (formerly known as the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature from the IPYs (DAHLI)...

  12. The private library of S. P. Tomashevsky: historical and bibliologicalcharacteristics of the book collection (based on the holdings of the V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myaskova T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the paper is the personal library of S. P. Tomashevsky, a famous Ukrainian dermatologist, venereologist, doctor of medicine, professor and honorary member of societies of dermatology and syphilology of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Paris and Vienna. Brief historiography pointed out the major works of researchers devoted to the study of personal book collections that are deposited in the fonds of the Department of Librarian Gatherings and Historical Collections of V. Vernadsky National Libraryof Ukraine (VNLU. Biographical information makes it possible to trace in detail the origin of interest of S. P. Tomashevsky to scientific investigations. Analytical study of the book fonds of his personal library allows us to conclude that it almost fully reflected the professional interests of the owner and was the basis of his scientific activity. The scientific interest of S. P. Tomashevsky was mainly aimed at medical topics, especially pathological anatomy of syphilis. That is why in his personal library there were mainly foreign books and journals, monographs, proceedings of various conferences on medicine. After the death of S. P. Tomashevsky, his library was presented to the medical faculty of the St. Volodymyr University. In the time of Soviet Union, the integrity of the library was broken due to transfer of most of the books on medicine to reserve depositories or to artificially created VNLU fonds "Periodical publications before 1917". In the last decade, the personal library of S. P. Tomashevsky has actualy been reconstructed.

  13. Hospitals, finance, and health system reform in Britain and the United States, c. 1910-1950: historical revisionism and cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Comparative histories of health system development have been variously influenced by the theoretical approaches of historical institutionalism, political pluralism, and labor mobilization. Britain and the United States have figured significantly in this literature because of their very different trajectories. This article explores the implications of recent research on hospital history in the two countries for existing historiographies, particularly the coming of the National Health Service in Britain. It argues that the two hospital systems initially developed in broadly similar ways, despite the very different outcomes in the 1940s. Thus, applying the conceptual tools used to explain the U.S. trajectory can deepen appreciation of events in Britain. Attention focuses particularly on working-class hospital contributory schemes and their implications for finance, governance, and participation; these are then compared with Blue Cross and U.S. hospital prepayment. While acknowledging the importance of path dependence in shaping attitudes of British bureaucrats toward these schemes, analysis emphasizes their failure in pressure group politics, in contrast to the United States. In both countries labor was also crucial, in the United States sustaining employment-based prepayment and in Britain broadly supporting system reform.

  14. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, S

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks. Images PMID:2769282

  15. Potential Visual Impacts of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development within Solar Energy Zones on Selected Viewpoints in Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cantwell, Brian L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Beckman, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In connection with the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Solar PEIS), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has conducted an extended visual impact analysis for selected key observation points (KOPs) within three National Park Service (NPS) units located within the 25-mi (40-km) viewshed of four solar energy zones (SEZs) identified in the Solar PEIS. The analysis includes only those NPS units that the Solar PEIS identified as potentially subject to moderate or strong visual contrasts associated with solar development within the SEZs. The NPS units included in the analysis are Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail. The analysis showed that certain KOPs in each of these NPS units could potentially be subject to major visual contrast and impacts from solar development within the SEZs, but many of the KOPs would likely be subject to moderate, minor, or negligible contrasts and impacts, generally because they were relatively distant from the relevant SEZ, had views of the SEZ partially blocked by intervening terrain, and/or had very low vertical angles of view toward the SEZ. For all three NPS units, power tower facilities were found to be major contributors to potential visual contrasts, primarily because of the long-distance visibility of intensely bright reflection of light from the receivers on the central towers, but also because of the height and strong vertical line of the tower structures and the potential for night-sky impacts from FAA-mandated hazard navigation lighting.

  16. Development of the anterior chordal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Miklós; Moser, Gerhard; Patonay, Lajos; Oláh, Imre

    2006-01-01

    Resent advances have led to the reexamination of the intraosseous pathway of the chorda tympani a few years ago and they stated that the nerve never enters the mandibular fossa and its exit the skull base in the sphenopetrosal fissure. In our report, 58 temporal bones were investigated after maceration and formalin fixation in order to understand the development of the anterior chordal canal. Our study revealed that the chorda tympani leaves the tympanic cavity through the tympanosquamosal fissure before formation of the anterior chordal canal of Huguier. This canal is situated parallel to and in front of the musculotubal canal and formed by the processus inferior tegminis tympani and the sphenoid bone between the second and fifth years of age. Prior to the age of 2, only the exit of the bony canal exists which is gradually followed by the appearance of a groove in the growing processus inferior tegminis tympani. The borders of the groove elevate and develop to upper and lower plates which lengthen with similar plates of the sphenoid bone, completing the anterior chordal canal by the fifth postnatal year. The entrance of the canal develops above the petrotympanic fissure and similar to the canal itself, it is also completely formed in the fifth year. In case of an incomplete development the anterior chordal canal remains partially opened laterally which might allow the head of the mandibula to effect the chorda tympani mechanically causing Costen's syndrome.

  17. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar with four root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander Al-Abdulwahhab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the morphology of the root canal system of mandibular premolars has been demonstrated. This diverse morphology challenges for the clinician to clean, shape, and fill the entire root canal system. A case report of a mandibular second premolar with four root canals separated at the apical third and underwent endodontic treatment is presented.

  18. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative... employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency authority. This... Zone Merit System, which was in effect before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment...

  19. Historical and Documentary Data Sets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and environment from historical references and documentary evidence such as church records, harvest dates, and diaries. Parameter keywords...

  20. GDOT historic landscape mitigation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    Historic Landscapes are our nations finger prints of the past. They provide us a glimpse into the way people worked, lived, and admired : the land. As the earths population continues to grow, so does the need for infrastructure improvements suc...

  1. Are Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Use Consistent across Historical Time? National Data from the High School Classes of 1976 through 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony N.; Schulenberg, John; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether correlates of substance use changed across historical time. A high degree of consistency was found across historical time in predictors of past month cigarette or alcohol use and past year marijuana or cocaine use. Some predictors were consistently linked to substance use. Consistency of other predictors was contingent upon…

  2. The 'Amstel Canal' in Amsterdam Canal construction as part of the medieval reclamation and drainage system of the Western Netherlands wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Jaap-Evert; Kosian, Menne; Weerts, Henk

    2013-04-01

    Usually, Amsterdam is presented as a river city, with the river Amstel as the trade route towards its hinterland, the IJ sea-branch as the portal to the world and its Dam as a focal point of transshipment and trade. Geomorphological, sedimentological, historical and historical-geographical evidence however, points towards the straight part of the Amstel, now located in Amsterdam, as a drainage canal that was dug in the aftermath of the 'Great Reclamation' of the 11th and 12th centuries. During this period, large parts of the wilderness in Utrecht and Holland were cultivated and put to agricultural use. Prior to the 'Great Reclamations', large oligotrophic (Sphagnum) peat bogs drained by small rivers were characteristic of the entire region. All along the straight Amstel canal, Sphagnum peat is found, which is indicative of the area's former peat bog conditions. The 'Amstel Canal' connected two natural meandering watercourses, one at the north and one at the south of the canal. The soil along both watercourses exists of eutrophic peat, which is indicative of repeated natural flooding. This is a strong indication of the anthropogenous origin of the straight part of the Amstel. The reason for digging the Amstel canal was not to create better trade links; it was a local component of a solution for major regional drainage problems in the provinces of Utrecht and Holland. These problems arose from the silting up of the Rhine rivermouth around 1100AD. Because of this, the precipitation surplus of the entire region could not be drained to the North Sea by this route anymore. This led to increased flooding and subsequently to conflicts between the rulers of Holland and Utrecht. In 1165AD, these conflicts reached a point where the Holy Roman Emperor intervened. The ruling of Barbarossa eventually led to a compromise: Utrecht and Holland redirected the entire drainage system of the region from the North Sea to the Zuiderzee in a concerted effort. This operation consisted of

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during fiscal year 2008 (FY 2008). Throughout the year, 45 cultural resource localities were revisited including: two locations of heightened Shoshone-Bannock tribal sensitivity, four caves, one butte, twenty-eight prehistoric archaeological sites, three historic homesteads, two historic stage stations, one historic canal construction camp, three historic trails, and Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, which is a designated National Historic Landmark. Several INL project areas were also monitored in FY 2008 to assess project compliance with cultural resource recommendations, confirm the locations of previously recorded cultural resources in relation to project activities, to assess the damage caused by fire-fighting efforts, and to watch for cultural materials during ground disturbing activities. Although impacts were documented at a few locations, no significant adverse effects that would threaten the National Register eligibility of any resource were observed. Monitoring also demonstrated that INL projects generally remain in compliance with recommendations to protect cultural resources

  4. Historically Black

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black is a short documentary that looks at recruitment of non-black students at Texas Southern University, one of the nation’s largest Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). By chronicling Texas Southern’s efforts to diversify and its impact on the campus community, the film explores the changing role of HBCUs in post-segregated America and addresses what this might mean for the future of these deep-rooted institutions. 

  5. The End of the Television Archive as We Know It? The National Archive as an Agent of Historical Knowledge in the Convergence Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Hagedoorn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Professionals in the television industry are working towards a certain future—rather than end—for the medium based on multi-platform storytelling, as well as multiple screens, distribution channels and streaming platforms. They do so rooted in institutional frameworks where traditional conceptualizations of television still persist. In this context, we reflect on the role of the national television archive as an agent of historical knowledge in the convergence era. Contextualisation and infrastructure function as important preconditions for users of archives to find their way through the enormous amounts of audio-visual material. Specifically, we consider the case of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, taking a critical stance towards the archive’s practices of contextualisation and preservation of audio-visual footage in the convergence era. To do so, this article considers the impact of online circulation, contextualisation and preservation of audio-visual materials in relation to, first, how media policy complicates the re-use of material, and second, the archive’s use by television professionals and media researchers. This article reflects on the possibilities for and benefits of systematic archiving, developments in web archiving, and accessibility of production and contextual documentation of public broadcasters in the Netherlands. We do so based on an analysis of internal documentation, best practices of archive-based history programmes and their related cross-media practices, as well as media policy documentation. We consider how audio-visual archives should deal with the shift towards multi-platform productions, and argue for both a more systematic archiving of production and contextual documentation in the Netherlands, and for media researchers who draw upon archival resources to show a greater awareness of an archive’s history. In the digital age, even more people are part of the archive’s processes of

  6. Investigation of geochemical indicators to evaluate the connection between inland and coastal groundwater systems near Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Oki, Delwyn S.; Johnson, Adam G.; Barber, Larry B.; Beisner, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) is a coastal sanctuary on the western side of the Island of Hawai‘i that was established in 1978 to preserve, interpret, and perpetuate traditional Native Hawaiian culture and activities. KAHO contains a variety of culturally and ecologically significant water resources and water-related habitat for species that have been declared as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or are candidate threatened or endangered species. These habitats are dependent on coastal unconfined groundwater in a freshwater-lens system. The coastal unconfined-groundwater system is recharged by local infiltration of rainfall but also may receive recharge from an inland groundwater system containing groundwater impounded to high altitudes. The area inland of and near KAHO is being rapidly urbanized and increased groundwater withdrawals from the inland impounded-groundwater system may affect habitat and water quality in KAHO, depending on the extent of connection between the coastal unconfined groundwater and inland impounded-groundwater. An investigation of the geochemistry of surface-water and groundwater samples in and near KAHO was performed to evaluate the presence or absence of a connection between the inland impounded- and coastal unconfined-groundwater systems in the area. Analyses of major ions, selected trace elements, rare-earth elements, and strontium-isotope ratio results from ocean, fishpond, anchialine pool, and groundwater samples were consistent with a linear mixing process between the inland impounded and coastal unconfined-groundwater systems. Stable isotopes of water in many samples from the coastal unconfined-groundwater system require an aggregate recharge altitude that is substantially higher than the boundary between the coastal unconfined and inland impounded systems, a further indication of a hydrologic connection between the two systems. The stable isotope composition of the freshwater

  7. Does First Nations ancestry modify the association between gestational diabetes and subsequent diabetes: a historical prospective cohort study among women in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G X; Shafer, L A; Martens, P J; Sellers, E; Torshizi, A A; Ludwig, S; Phillips-Beck, W; Heaman, M; Prior, H J; McGavock, J; Morris, M; Dart, A B; Campbell, R; Dean, H J

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of diabetes has steadily increased among Canadians, and is particularly evident among First Nations (FN) women. The interplay between FN ancestry, gestational diabetes and the development of subsequent diabetes among mothers remains unclear. After excluding known pre-existing diabetes, we explored whether FN ancestry may modify the association between gestational diabetes and post-partum diabetes among women in Manitoba (1981-2011) via a historical prospective cohort database study. We analysed administrative data in the Population Health Research Data Repository using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 11 906 of 404 736 deliveries (2.9%), 6.7% of FN and 2.2% of non-FN pregnant women (P women than among non-FN women (P women with gestational diabetes within the follow-up period. The hazard ratio of gestational diabetes for post-partum diabetes was 10.6 among non-FN women and 5.4 among FN women. Other factors associated with a higher risk of diabetes included lower family income among FN and non-FN women and rural/remote residences among FN women. Among non-FN women, urban residence was associated with a higher risk of diabetes. Gestational diabetes increases post-partum diabetes in FN and non-FN women. FN women had substantially more gestational diabetes or post-partum diabetes than non-FN women, partially due to socio-economic and environmental barriers. Reductions in gestational diabetes and socio-economic inequalities are required to prevent diabetes in women, particularly in FN population. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  8. The rise of the community-based participatory research initiative at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences: an historical analysis using the policy streams model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Holly C

    2007-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to research that seeks equitable and collaborative involvement of community members and researchers in all aspects of the research process. It has moved slowly into the areas of health and public health research. In 1995, the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) launched the first research initiative at NIH specifying the use of the CBPR approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide the historical record and to identify factors and events that led to the development of the policy creating the CBPR initiative at NIEHS. The study used Kingdon's policy streams model as an analysis framework. The policy streams model explains that policies are developed when three "streams" (problem, policy and political) come together at a point called the policy window. Information collected from key informant interviews and document analyses were coded to the components of the policy streams model. The study documented factors and events in each of the three streams of the model. All these occurred about the same time to bring together the three streams, causing the opening of a policy window. This analysis demonstrates an importance of problem awareness and changes in leadership positions or ideology/mood to bring a policy option to the attention of policymakers, and the importance of a policy entrepreneur to advocate for a particular policy when the opportunity arises. Policy entrepreneurs should be alert for opportunities to take advantage of the open policy windows when they emerge, thereby achieving success in moving policy ideas forward.

  9. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  10. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the...

  11. The enigma of the lateral canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, F S

    1984-10-01

    It is difficult to summarize an article of this type, in which the author is certain that his case has been presented fairly, but is aware that other views that are contrary could be stated and endorsed by pertinent clinical cases. Bearing this fact in mind, I wish to reiterate the following: Lateral canals are demonstrated in endodontic cases with much less frequency than they exist. This variance rarely, if ever, causes an endodontic failure. Some demonstrated lateral canals may really be other conditions. Preoperative evaluation should include examination of radiographs for lateral, as well as periapical, lesions. Lateral canals may be demonstrated by a variety of filling techniques. Careful canal preparation may enhance the frequency of such demonstration. Cases with necrotic pulps probably yield more frequent demonstration than do cases with vital pulps. Lateral canals harboring inflamed and/or infected material may cause pain during endodontic treatment. They may simulate periodontal disease and may cause problems with treatment if present when a tooth is left open for drainage. Periodontal disease may cause pulp exposure via lateral canals located coronally. Improper use of post room may lead to lateral failure from breakdown of tissue in a lateral canal. The enigma of the lateral canal has been the object of description and discussion in many articles, but no one is truly certain of their exact significance in endodontic therapy for the long haul.

  12. Computed Tomography Findings of Mandibular Nutrient Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yusuke; Sekiya, Kotaro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Tsukioka, Tsuneyuki; Muramatsu, Teruaki; Kaneda, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of mandibular nutrient canals using CT images. We retrospectively analyzed the mandibular CT images of 194 consecutive patients. For image analysis such as canal prevalence, location, number, size, shape, and the CT value of nutrient foramina were determined using CT axial images of 0.5 and 3 mm slice thickness. We revealed that the nutrient canals were seen 94.3% in the mandible, mostly seen in the anterior region. By location, nutrient canals were particularly seen between the central and lateral incisors. The mean number of nutrient canals was 2.7. The mean diameter of the nutrient foramen between the central and lateral incisors was 1.0 mm. In about 80% of the cases, foramina between the central and lateral incisors were ovoid. The mean CT value for the nutrient foramina between the central and lateral incisors was 411 HU. Mandibular nutrient canals were ovoid shape, and the mean CT value was 411 HU. By preoperative knowledge of the position and anatomy of the mandibular nutrient canals, complications such as injury to the nutrient canals can be avoided.

  13. Baseline water-quality sampling to infer nutrient and contaminant sources at Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Island of Hawai‘i, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Baseline water-quality sampling was conducted for dissolved nutrients and for chemical and isotopic tracers at Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park on the Island of Hawai'i. Existing and future urbanization in the surrounding areas have the potential to affect water quality in the Park, and so the National Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey designed a water-sampling strategy to document baseline conditions against which future changes can be compared. Sites in and near the Park were sampled twice, in July and December 2009, and included four anchialine pools, two large fishponds, five monitoring wells, an upland production well, tap water, and a holding pond for golf-course irrigation water. Water samples within the coastal park were brackish, ranging in salinity from 15 to 67 percent seawater. Samples were analyzed for dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), stable isotopes (nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate; hydrogen and oxygen in the water molecule), pharmaceuticals, wastewater compounds, and volatile organic compounds. A case of acute, but temporary, fertilizer contamination was evident along the Park's north boundary during the turf grow-in period of a newly constructed golf course. A maximum nitrogen concentration 280 percent above background level was measured in monitoring well MW401 in July, later falling to 109 percent above background by December. Two nearby sites (MW400 and AP 144) had nitrogen concentrations that were elevated compared to remaining sites but less severely than at MW401. Aside from this localized fertilizer influence, other water samples had lower nutrient enrichments: 40 percent or less above background for nitrogen and 57 percent or less above background for phosphorus. Background was defined in this study by a graphical mixing line between saltwater from a deep well in the Park and freshwater at a reference well in the mountainous uplands (Honokōhau production well, at 1,675 ft altitude

  14. Historical Paper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Historical Paper: On Simple Gas Reactions by H Eyring and M Polanyi. Classics Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 103-128. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/01/0103-0128 ...

  15. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  16. Updated regime equations for alluvial Egyptian canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy Salah Abdelhaleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Real accuracy of several regime relationships for designing stable alluvial channels in Egypt was determined. Extensive field measurements had been carried out on 26 Egyptian stable canals, which cover various categories of irrigation canals starting from distributary, branch to carrier canals in Egypt. Analysis of 1484 velocity profiles for 371 cross sections was employed in order to formulate new regime equations characterizing Egyptian canals. The functional formulations to include the flow depth, cross section area, hydraulic radius and mean velocity were achieved. This research compared the deduced formulas from the measured data with the equations derived by other researchers for stable channel design. It was found that the derived formulas are reliable and could help in the design of Egyptian canals to convey a discharge ranging from 0.11 to 287.5 m3/s (0.0095–24.84 millions m3/day.

  17. Differentiation of root canal morphology – a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przesmycka Agata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphological diversity of the inner anatomy of root canals in human permanent teeth is an issue mainly described in endodontics research. In recent years, it is a relatively new point in anthropological studies because it varies by sex, geographic and ethnic circumstances. An unusual number of root canals or their specific systems can differentiate populations around the world. The multiplicity of available methods for detecting root canal systems helps to better understand their complexity; however, most cannot be applied to anthropology due to limitations that occur in the bioarcheological material. Thorough knowledge of the heterogeneity and internal anatomy of the root canals supplies numerous classification systems proposed and improved over the years by many authors. A limited number of studies in the anthropological literature and future research will shed light onto the internal tooth morphology in historical populations. The aim of this paper is to describe various classification systems of root canals applied in endodontics. However, due to the often poor state of preservation and damage of archaeological derived remains, it seems that the best method is the approach that is the simplest and least complicated.

  18. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  19. Looking back at Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    The comprehensive environmental study which describes the results of a monitoring program conducted by EPA at Love Canal is evaluated by EPA's former study director. Attention is focused on the episode's history and the agency's study methods. The aim of the program was to constitute a study team, design a monitoring study, reprogram and reallocate the financial resources needed to conduct the study, and identify and employ contractors who would collect and analyze environmental samples. The agency was directed to ensure the quality of the data acquired from various environmental media and analyzed by numerous laboratories; to integrate, interpret, and report the data; and to assess, from an environmental perspective, the habitability of the area.

  20. Wave Mechanics of the Vestibular Semicircular Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marta M; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2017-09-05

    The semicircular canals are biomechanical sensors responsible for detecting and encoding angular motion of the head in 3D space. Canal afferent neurons provide essential inputs to neural circuits responsible for representation of self-position/orientation in space, and to compensatory circuits including the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-collic reflex arcs. In this work we derive, to our knowledge, a new 1D mathematical model quantifying canal biomechanics based on the morphology, dynamics of the inner ear fluids, and membranous labyrinth deformability. The model takes the form of a dispersive wave equation and predicts canal responses to angular motion, sound, and mechanical stimulation. Numerical simulations were carried out for the morphology of the human lateral canal using known physical properties of the endolymph and perilymph in three diverse conditions: surgical plugging, rotation, and mechanical indentation. The model reproduces frequency-dependent attenuation and phase shift in cases of canal plugging. During rotation, duct deformability extends the frequency bandwidth and enhances the high frequency gain. Mechanical indentation of the membranous duct at high frequencies evokes traveling waves that move away from the location of indentation and at low frequencies compels endolymph displacement along the canal. These results demonstrate the importance of the conformal perilymph-filled bony labyrinth to pressure changes and to high frequency sound and vibration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  2. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  3. Dental hygienists' contributions to improving the nation's oral health through school-based initiatives from 1970 through 1999: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Gayle B; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Wilder, Rebecca S; Skaff, Karen O; Lappan Green, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to document the contributions dental hygienists have made over the past 3 decades to improve the nation's oral health. This historical review encompasses selected literature that acknowledged dental Hygienists' direct involvement in U.S. school-based or school-linked oral health programs from 1970-1999. Five researchers independently searched MEDLINE, PubMed, and other electronic databases to identify relevant literature for the years 1970-1999. The search aimed to locate articles authored by or that documented dental Hygienists' involvement as "service provider" in U.S. school-based oral health programs. For the purpose of this review, service provider was defined as educator, administrator, clinician, examiner, or any other unspecified service performed by a dental hygienist. Fifty-seven articles were retrieved, of which 36 (63%) directly linked dental hygienists to U.S. school-based activities. Twenty-seven articles specifically identified dental hygienists as service providers. Dental hygienists were listed as either primary or contributing author on 19 of these articles. The decade of the 1970s revealed very little literature documenting dental Hygienists' involvement in U.S. school-based oral health programs. The 1970s, however, were instrumental in laying the foundation for service in the years that followed. As public health initiatives expanded in the 1980s, dental hygienists were identified in the largest number of papers as key personnel in the areas of education, management, service provider, and author. The decade of the 1990s yielded less literature than the 1980s, yet recognized dental Hygienists' involvement in all aspects of oral health care delivery, program development and management, and authorship. The authors of this review theorize that dental hygienists were engaged in more school-based programs than reported and were involved in the authorship process more frequently than documented. Due to lack of

  4. Mandibular Canal Enlargement: Clinical and Radiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jun Ai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mandibular canal is a rare radiological finding. Clinically, it may or may not be associated with sensory deficits. We report four cases of widening of the mandibular canal observed with various methods of imaging with different clinical characteristics. We describe this unique radiological finding and elaborate the importance of quality assessment of the imaging that is vital for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Clinicians should be mindful when assessing the imaging whenever the size of the mandibular canal is implicated. The case ranged from a benign tumor to malignancy, radiological errors, and artifacts. A more superior imaging or treatment modality was necessary to ascertain the diagnosis.

  5. Coastal Circulation and Sediment Dynamics in War-in-the-Pacific National Historical Park, Guam; measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, June 2007-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    , and their impact on reef health and ecology are essential for effective reef management. Two of the main anthropogenic activities along west-central Guam's coastline that may impact the region's coral reef ecosystems include pollution and coastal land use/development, as discussed in the review by Porter and others (2005). The pollution threats include point-sources, such as municipal wastewater (Northern District, Hagatna, Naval Station Guam, and Agat-Santa Rita Waster Water Treatment Plants), cooling water (Tanguisson Steam and Cabras Power Plants), and numerous storm water, ballast water, and tank bottom draw outfalls; nonpoint sources include septic systems, urban runoff, illegal dumping, and groundwater discharges. Poor land-use practices include development without the use of runoff management measures, increased areal extent of impervious surfaces and decreased extent of vegetative barriers, and recreational off-road vehicle use. Furthermore, feral ungulates and illegal wildfires remove protective vegetative cover and generally result in increased soil erosion. While anthropogenic point-sources have been reduced in many areas due to better management practices, nonpoint sources have either stayed constant or increased. Between 1975 and 1999, it is estimated that Guam lost more than a quarter of its tree cover, and more than 750 wildfires each year have resulted in a greater proportion of badlands and other erosion-prone land surfaces with high erosion rates (Forestry and Soil Resources Division, 1999). Approximately 1.8 square kilometers (km2) of Asan Bay, west-central Guam, lies within the National Park Service's (NPS) War-in-the-Pacific National Historical Park's (WAPA) Asan Unit; the bay is the sink for material coming out of the Asan watershed. Anthropogenic modifications of the watersheds adjacent to Asan Bay, which include intentionally-set wildfires, construction, and agriculture (Minton, 2005), are believed to have increased over the past 25

  6. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  7. Incidence of accessory canals in Japanese anterior maxillary teeth following root canal filling ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution and the incidence of accessory canals in Japanese maxillary anterior teeth following root filling. The study included maxillary teeth; 69 central incisors, 61 lateral incisors and 31 canines. After the canal systems had been dyed and root canal instrumentation had been carried out, all prepared canals were filled with gutta-percha without using sealer. Transparent specimens were then obtained and examined with a digital microscope for horizontal and vertical distributions of accessory canals. The incidence of teeth with accessory canals in the apical 3 mm was 46%, 29% and 38% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively. The horizontal distribution was mainly buccal for central incisors, palatal for lateral incisors and distal and palatal for canines. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the apical 3 mm and the rest of the root (16%, 20% and 19% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively) in terms of the presence of accessory canals. A high percentage of accessory canals can be found in apical 3 mm of the root. The horizontal distribution of accessory canals differed amongst the tooth types studied.

  8. Canal and isthmus debridement efficacy using a sonic irrigation technique in a closed-canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Meenal; Sidow, Stephanie J; Looney, Stephen W; Lindsey, Kimberly; Niu, Li-na; Tay, Franklin R

    2012-09-01

    This in vitro study compared debridement efficacies of a sonic irrigation technique (Vibringe; Cavex Holland BV, Haarlem, The Netherlands) with side-vented needle irrigation (SNI) in the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. Twenty roots with narrow isthmuses (≤ 1/4 canal diameter) were selected using micro-computed tomography scanning. Collagen solution was injected into canals/isthmuses and reconstituted with NH(4)OH to simulate canal debris. Each root was sealed apically and embedded in polyvinyl siloxane simulating a closed-canal system. Canals were instrumented to size 40/.04 taper 1 mm short of the anatomic apex. The final irrigation was performed with the Vibringe or SNI. Roots were demineralized, sectioned at 6 levels (1.2-3.2 mm) from the anatomic apex, and stained using Masson trichrome stain. The areas occupied by canals and isthmus and the debris-containing areas were statistically analyzed with repeated-measures analyses using "irrigation technique" as the between factor and "canal level" as the within factor (α = 0.05). Canals had significantly more debris at 1.2 and 1.6 mm (P .05). Considerably more debris remained at 1.2 and 2.0 mm for the Vibringe (P < .05). A significant difference was observed between the canal and the isthmus (P < .001). There is no difference between the Vibringe and SNI in their overall debridement efficacy in apical one third of the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Semicircular canal modeling in human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Mohamed, Shady; Lim, Chee Peng; Nahavandi, Saeid; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2017-07-26

    The human vestibular system is a sensory and equilibrium system that manages and controls the human sense of balance and movement. It is the main sensor humans use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Determining an accurate mathematical model of the human vestibular system is significant for research pertaining to motion perception, as the quality and effectiveness of the motion cueing algorithm (MCA) directly depends on the mathematical model used in its design. This paper describes the history and analyses the development process of mathematical semicircular canal models. The aim of this review is to determine the most consistent and reliable mathematical semicircular canal models that agree with experimental results and theoretical analyses, and offer reliable approximations for the semicircular canal functions based on the existing studies. Selecting and formulating accurate mathematical models of semicircular canals are essential for implementation into the MCA and for ensuring effective human motion perception modeling.

  10. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Historical information about tritium released routinely and accidentally from all Livermore Site Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Tritium Research Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) between 1953 through 2005 has been compiled and summarized in this report. Facility-specific data (annual release rates and dilution factors) have been derived from the historical information. These facility-specific data are needed to calculate annual doses to a hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual from routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) to the atmosphere. Doses can also be calculated from observed air tritium concentrations, and mean annual values for one air tritium sampling location are presented. Other historical data relevant to a dose reconstruction (e.g., meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall) are also presented. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Uncertainty distributions have been estimated for all parameter values. Confidence in data post-1974 is high.

  11. Housewife data: Citizen science and the case of Love Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Nolan M.

    Citizen science is defined as members of the public acting to produce science outside of their normal working lives in order to enhance or preserve their health, environment, knowledge, or capital. It is a science by the people. Over the last several decades, it has emerged as a powerful force for the democratization of science. In response to this growing trend in citizen science, this thesis addresses the question: What is citizen science? Citizen science is discussed through the development of a definition, its historical and political context, the benefits of its use, and some frameworks for understanding. Later, the thesis explores a case study of citizen science, the Love Canal environmental crisis, and offers commentary on its methods and findings.

  12. Provenance marks in the books of historical and cultural fond "Vilna Medical and Surgical Academy" of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine as a source for study of formation history of the academy’s scientifi c library fond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaskova T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research of provenance marks in the books of a historical and cultural fond “Vilna Medical and Surgical Academy”. This fond containing 7953 single physical units now is deposited in the Department of librarian gatherings and historical collections of the Institute of Book Studies of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine. All provenance marks (ex-librises (bookplates, superexlibrises, stamps, autographs, dedicatory inscriptions in the books of the fond have been ordered according to the stages of development of the academy, starting from the foundation of Jesuit College. The author accentuates the necessity of including the data about provenance marks into electronic catalogs for signifi cant acceleration of the search and attribution of the books from various collections and gatherings of the libraries in Ukraine and abroad

  13. Fish and Aquatic Invertebrate Communities in Waterways, and Contaminants in Fish, at the Barataria Preserve of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Louisiana, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Mize, Scott V.; Thompson, Bruce A.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Fish and aquatic invertebrate communities in waterways of the Barataria Preserve of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Louisiana, were surveyed from 1999 to 2000. An inventory of fish in the Barataria Preserve was established, and concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements; iron; and manganese in fish tissue for selected species were determined. The fish and aquatic invertebrate sampling completed for this study indicated that abundant and diverse communities are present in the Barataria Preserve. Thirty-two species of fish were identified in the Barataria Preserve during this survey. The total number of species identified in a single sampling ranged from 20 to 26. Most of the fish sampled are designated as intermediate in their tolerance to poor water quality. Three species of fish designated as tolerant (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas; and yellow bullhead, Ameiurus natalis), and one as intolerant (lake chubsucker, Erymizon sucetta), were identified. In November 1999, the average total weight of all fish collected by boat-mounted electroshocker from a single site was about 35,000 grams; in May and July 1999, the average total weight was between 9,000 and 10,000 grams. The contribution of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) to the total weight of the fish averaged between 38 and 41 percent among the three sample periods. Members of the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) contributed between 18 and 28 percent of the total weight. For each sampling period, 60 to 83 percent of the total weight from the sunfish family was contributed by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at three sites. Most aquatic invertebrates identified were freshwater species, but some were brackish-water and marine species. About 234,000 organisms were identified and enumerated from the richest-targeted habitat (RTH

  14. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-09-05

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an

  15. Bactericidal efficacy of photodynamic therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in infected root canals: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Shoaib Haider; Awan, Kamran Habib; Javed, Fawad

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to review the bactericidal efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in infected root canals. To address the focused question "Does PDT exhibit bactericidal effects against E. faecalis in infected root canals?" PubMed/Medline and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1985 up to August 2013 using various combinations of the following key words: "antibacterial; "bactericidal; "endodontic; "root canal" and "photodynamic therapy". Original studies, experimental studies and articles published only in English language were included. Letters to the editor, historic reviews and unpublished data were excluded. The pattern of the present review was customized to primarily summarize the pertinent information. Seventeen studies (16 ex vivo and one in vivo) were included. In these studies, numbers of teeth used ranged between 30 and 220 teeth. In these studies, wavelengths of diode laser used, diameter of fiber and power output ranged between 625 and 805 nm, 200 μm and 0.4 cm, and 40 mW and 5 W respectively. Twelve studies reported PDT to be effective in eliminating E. faecalis from infected root canals. Four studies reported conventional irrigation and instrumentation to be more efficient in killing E. faecalis than PDT. One study reported PDT and conventional endodontic regimes to be equally effective in eliminating E. faecalis from infected root canals. In most studies, toluidine blue and/or methylene blue were used as photosensitizers. Efficacy of PDT in eliminating E. faecalis from infected root canals remains questionable. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. National Health Expenditure Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Health Expenditure Accounts are comprised of the following, National Health Expenditures - Historical and Projected, Age Estimates, State Health...

  17. National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill S. Baron; Craig D. Allen; Erica Fleishman; Lance Gunderson; Don McKenzie; Laura Meyerson; Jill Oropeza; Nate Stephenson

    2008-01-01

    Covering about 4% of the United States, the 338,000 km2 of protected areas in the National Park System contain representative landscapes of all of the nation's biomes and ecosystems. The U.S. National Park Service Organic Act established the National Park System in 1916 "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and...

  18. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  19. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  20. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S R

    2005-03-07

    It is planned to use the tritium dose model, DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium), to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Sandia National (SNL) Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years. DCART has been described in Part 1 of ''Historical Doses From Tritiated Water And Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released To The Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'' (UCRL-TR-205083). This report (Part 2) summarizes information about annual routine releases of tritium from LLNL (and SNL) since 1953. Historical records were used to derive facility-specific annual data (e.g., source terms, dilution factors, ambient air concentrations, meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall, etc.) and their associated uncertainty distributions. These data will be used as input to DCART to calculate annual dose for each year of LLNL operations. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Confidence on all data post-1974 is quite high. Prior to that, further adjustment to the estimated uncertainty may have to be made if more information comes to light.

  1. Assessment of characteristics and remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage : case study at Staple Bend Tunnel unit of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes field, laboratory, and computational methods that could be used to assess remedial strategies for abandoned mine drainage (AMD). During April-June, 2004, the assessment process was applied to AMD from bituminous coal deposits at a test site in the Staple Bend Tunnel Unit of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site (ALPO-SBTU) in Cambria County, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was (1) to characterize the AMD quantity and quality within the ALPO-SBTU test site; (2) to evaluate the efficacy of limestone or steel slag for neutralization of the AMD on the basis of reaction-rate measurements; and (3) to identify possible alternatives for passive or active treatment of the AMD. The data from this case study ultimately will be used by the National Park Service (NPS) to develop a site remediation plan. The approach used in this study could be applicable at other sites subject to drainage from abandoned coal or metal mines.During April 2004, AMD from 9 sources (sites1, 1Fe, Fe, 2, 3, 3B, 5, 6, and 7) at the ALPO-SBTU test site had a combined flow rate of 1,420 gallons per minute (gal/min) and flow-weighted averages for pH of 3.3, net acidity of 55 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved sulfate, aluminum, iron, and manganese of 694 mg/L, 4.4 mg/L, 0.74 mg/L, and 1.2 mg/L, respectively. These pH, net acidity, sulfate, and aluminum values exceed effluent criteria for active mines in Pennsylvania.During April-June 2004, limestone and steel slag that were locally available were tested in the laboratory for their composition, approximate surface area, and potential to neutralize samples of the AMD. Although the substrates had a similar particle-size distribution and identical calcium content (43 percent as calcium oxide), the limestone was composed of crystalline carbonates and the slag was composed of silicate glass and minerals. After a minimum of 8 hours contact between the AMD and limestone or steel slag in

  2. Characterization of mandibular molar root and canal morphology using cone beam computed tomography and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Andres; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Lambrechts, Paul [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Brizuela, Claudia; Cabrera, Carolina; Concha, Guillermo; Pedemonte, Maria Eugenia [Universidad de los Andes, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-15

    This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to characterize mandibular molar root and canal morphology and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples. We analyzed the CBCT images of 515 mandibular molars (257 from Belgium and 258 from Chile). Molars meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine (1) the number of roots; (2) the root canal configuration; (3) the presence of a curved canal in the cross-sectional image of the distal root in the mandibular first molar and (4) the presence of a C-shaped canal in the second mandibular molar. A descriptive analysis was performed. The association between national origin and the presence of a curved or C-shaped canal was evaluated using the chi-squared test. The most common configurations in the mesial root of both molars were type V and type III. In the distal root, type I canal configuration was the most common. Curvature in the cross-sectional image was found in 25% of the distal canals of the mandibular first molars in the Belgian population, compared to 11% in the Chilean population. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 10% or less in both populations. In cases of unclear or complex root and canal morphology in the mandibular molars, CBCT imaging might assist endodontic specialists in making an accurate diagnosis and in treatment planning.

  3. Management of C-shaped canals: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Suryakant Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A C-shaped canal with varying configuration is commonly observed in single-rooted mandibular second molars. Cooke and Cox (1979 first documented the C-shaped canal in endodontic literature. The presence of high incidence of transverse anastomoses, lateral canals, and apical deltas makes it difficult to clean and seal the root canal system in these teeth. The main reason for failure in endodontic treatment of mandibular second molars is the inability to detect the presence of C-shaped canals prior to an endodontic therapy. This case report presents successful management of two rare cases of C-shaped canal configurations.

  4. Retrieving Historical Electrorefining Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Meagan Daniella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Pyrochemical Operations began at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during 1962 (1). Electrorefining (ER) has been implemented as a routine process since the 1980’s. The process data that went through the ER operation was recorded but had never been logged in an online database. Without a database new staff members are hindered in their work by the lack of information. To combat the issue a database in Access was created to collect the historical data. The years from 2000 onward were entered and queries were created to analyze trends. These trends will aid engineering and operations staff to reach optimal performance for the startup of the new lines.

  5. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. External auditory canal and middle ear cholesteatoma and osteonecrosis in bisphosphonate-treated osteoporosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, A-L; Vestergaard, P; Eiken, P

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Long-term treatment with bisphosphonates against osteoporosis may cause atypical femur fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Eight cases of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal area are published. Based on Danish national registers, we report a time......- and dose-dependent increased risk of cholesteatoma in osteoporosis patients treated with bisphosphonates. INTRODUCTION: In the recent years, there has been a focus on possible rare side effects of bisphosphonates (BPs). Eight cases of BP-associated osteonecrosis of the external auditory canal have been...... reported in the world literature. Our aim was to describe the incidence of external auditory canal and middle ear diseases in Danish patients exposed to BPs in the treatment of osteoporosis. METHODS: This register-based nationwide cohort study was conducted on the Danish population of approximately 5...

  7. Study of root canal accessibility in human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Farahani, Ramin M Z; Gajan, Esrafil B

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a general scheme for pulpectomy of primary molars that may be useful for decision-making about negotiation of root canals and selection of appropriate instruments. A total of 160 vital primary molars in 85 patients (40 males, 45 females) aged 4-6 years were selected. After taking primary radiographs, local anesthesia was induced, and the teeth were isolated using a rubber dam. Canal accessibility index (CAI) and tooth accessibility index (TAI) were calculated according to initial file size. Mandibular first molars had either three canals (79.2%) or four canals (20.8%), and all second molars had four canals. Maxillary first molars had three canals and second molars had either three canals (70.9%) or four canals (29.1%). Lower accessibility of the mandibular first molar distobuccal root accounted for the lower accessibility of these teeth in comparison with mandibular second molars. While three-canal maxillary second molars were more accessible due to the lower accessibility of the distobuccal canal of the maxillary first molar, poor accessibility of the distal canal in four-canal second molars was responsible for the difficult accessibility of these teeth. In conclusion, it seems that the accessibility of a single canal in each tooth determines the difficulty of accessibility for any given tooth. Moreover, while primary second molars are more accessible than first molars, all of them are negotiable.

  8. Historical somersaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R

    1993-01-01

    The author and his youngest sister attended a mass at the Mission San Diego in California where the Monsignor discussed the life of Father Serra who founded the Mission in 1769. A letter to Father Serra from another priest showed the priest's distress over an abortion done to an Indian woman living at the Mission. Recollecting this historical letter was used to express the Monsignor's views on abortion today. He then reminded the congregation of the upcoming presidential election. He claimed that either Indians or people claiming to be Indians are trying to prevent the canonization of Father Serra without explaining why these people objected. He argued that the secular world cannot judge this man by contemporary standards. Yet, he had earlier implored the congregants to make secular political choices based on the absolute standards of the church. The objections to Father Serra by various secular people where he had been a member of the Spanish Inquisition and the missions he established served as forced confinement for the Indians. Supposedly, Father Serra and other priests kept Indian women in the missions to protect them from the brutality of Spanish soldiers. In fact, the pregnant Indian mentioned in the Monsignor's sermon was most likely raped by a Spaniard. Women in the missions were forced to stay in the missions while men could at least go to the fields. Unsanitary conditions were very unhealthy for the women, leading to considerable mortality. The child mortality rate was higher than 20%. Women who tried to control their fertility were harshly punished. The Catholic Church would do better if it canonized Father de las Casas who defended the autonomy and intellectual credibility of Indian culture. The author concludes that it is indeed unfair to judge Father Serra by contemporary standards, just as it is unfair and unreasonable to force Catholic standards on others.

  9. Root canal debridement: an online study guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present root canal debridement including subdivisions on canal access, canal debridement, orifice enlargement and preflaring, crown-down technique, balanced force, nickel titanium and other shape memory alloys, rotary engine-driven techniques, endodontic instruments, irrigation, electronic apex locators, sonics/ultrasonics, smear layer, and intracanal medicaments.

  10. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Maram E

    2017-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic.

  11. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377125202; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy.

  12. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-02-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

  13. Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renato V; Brandão, Fabiano H; Aquino, José E P; Carvalho, Maria R M S; Giancoli, Suzana M; Younes, Eduado A P

    2005-01-01

    Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  14. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  15. Report from the Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project assists the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) in assessing the potential impacts of the Panama Canal expansion on Texas ports and the landside transportation system. TxDOT formed a Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group (PCSWG) ...

  16. Evaluation of contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota at Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge from historical phosphate mining and agricultural return flows

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) sits at the north end of a large lake called Bear Lake, and is located in southeast Idaho, seven miles southwest of the...

  17. Fort Bliss Standards for the Treatment of Historic Buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stone, Sunny; Smith, Adam; Murphy, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This report satisfies Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966 as amended and will help the Fort Bliss Cultural Resources Office and Directorate of Public Works in managing their historic building...

  18. ISLSCP II Historical Croplands Cover, 1700-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Historical Croplands Cover data set was developed to understand the consequences of historical changes in land use and land cover for ecosystem goods and...

  19. ISLSCP II Historical Croplands Cover, 1700-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Historical Croplands Cover data set was developed to understand the consequences of historical changes in land use and land cover for ecosystem goods...

  20. International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature collection (formerly known as the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature from the IPYs (DAHLI)...

  1. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  2. Habitat quantity of Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae in its former historic landscape near the Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Thapa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified pine-forested habitat suitable for Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis in the former historic range of the species to assess the potential for possible re-colonization.  We used a remotely-sensed image and geographic information systems (GIS to create a land-use/land (LU/LC binary cover map, from which we calculated the habitat suitability index (HSI based on an estimated home range of 50ha.  A sensitivity analysis revealed the necessity for more data to make an accurate estimate, but our analysis of landscape metrics indicates more than 930ha of suitable habitat patches.  These patches are heavily fragmented and mostly located on private lands.  They can be assessed for understory and herbaceous vegetation and can be restored for possible re-establishment of approximately 18 groups/colonies of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. 

  3. 75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...), Harvey Canal, and Algiers Canal during severe hurricane conditions. Vessels will not be permitted to stay... communities within the IHNC, Harvey, and Algiers Canals from potential hazards associated with vessels being...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  5. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, an employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal...

  6. Maxillary First Premolar with Three Root Canals: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the tooth is needed to ensure a proper endodontic treatment. This article reports a rare finding of three canals in a maxillary first premolar with non well defined root outline radiographically during an elective root canal treatment. Keywords: Maxillary First Premolar, Endodontic Treatment, Elective, Root Canal Morphology ...

  7. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  8. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  9. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000. M...

  10. Infrared typmanic tempature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the

  11. The Panama Canal and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Margaret D., Ed.

    The booklet, designed to explore the issues of international justice in the context of the Gospel, reviews relations between the United States and Panama. It includes background materials and a study guide for parish leaders and other educators. The central question pertaining to the Panama Canal concerns the rights of the United States according…

  12. Residuos de antimicrobianos en canales de vacas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GESCHE, E; EMILFORK, C

    1998-01-01

    Con la finalidad de conocer la presencia de residuos de antibióticos y sulfamidas en animales de abasto, se analizaron las canales de 300 vacas faenadas en una Planta Faenadora de Carnes de la X Región de Chile...

  13. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  14. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dandan; Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, RuYong; Sun, Huibin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Methods Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically...

  15. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  16. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  17. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Aaron F; Carr, Carrie M; Shah, Vinil; Hesselink, John R; Haughton, Victor M

    2016-08-01

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7.

  18. Diversion Canal to Decrease Flooding (Case Study : Kebon Jati-Kalibata Segment, Ciliwung River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Dian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The flood in Jakarta has become a national concern in Indonesia. It is a haunting disaster, with a high probability to happen when heavy rainfalls in Jakarta and/or its upstream area. Based on data that was provided by Public Work Agency of DKI Jakarta, there are 78 vulnerable points of inundation in which, most of them are located in Ciliwung river basin, commonly in the meandering segments. One of the worst flooding occurs in Pancoran, at Kebonjati to Kalibata segment in particular. The river discharge in this segment is much higher as compared to the carrying capacity. In addition, this area has a high density of population and thus, difficult to increase the *river capacity* by enlarging the river dimension. In this research, a closed diversion canal is proposed as a solution. The effectiveness of the solution is evaluated using a numerical model, HEC-RAS 4.1. The diversion canal is designed as two culverts, with 2.0 m in diameter. Nevertheless, hydraulic jump may occur at the outlet of the canal due to the relatively steep slope. Therefore, the canal outlet should be designed accordingly. A Hydraulic structure such as a stilling basin can be employed to reduce the energy. The results show that the diversion canal has a good performance in decreasing water level and flood discharge in the study area. The canal has the capacity of 17,72 m3/sec and succesfully decreases the water level by 4.71 – 5.66 m from flood level for 2 – 100 years returned period.

  19. A historical context and archaeological research design for agricultural properties in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires that federal agencies take : into account the effects of their undertakings upon historic properties. Caltrans, in cooperation : with the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) ...

  20. 77 FR 71447 - Notice of Fee Schedule for Reviewing Historic Preservation Certification Applications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Fee Schedule for Reviewing Historic Preservation Certification Applications... for reviewing Historic Preservation Certification Applications in accordance with the schedule... applications received by State Historic Preservation Offices after the effective date of this fee schedule...